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Sample records for incubated marine mucilages

  1. Climate Change and the Potential Spreading of Marine Mucilage and Microbial Pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Danovaro, Roberto; Fonda Umani, Serena; Pusceddu, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background Marine snow (small amorphous aggregates with colloidal properties) is present in all oceans of the world. Surface water warming and the consequent increase of water column stability can favour the coalescence of marine snow into marine mucilage, large marine aggregates representing an ephemeral and extreme habitat. Marine mucilage characterize aquatic systems with altered environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated, by means of molecular techniques, viruses and prokaryotes within the mucilage and in surrounding seawater to examine the potential of mucilage to host new microbial diversity and/or spread marine diseases. We found that marine mucilage contained a large and unexpectedly exclusive microbial biodiversity and hosted pathogenic species that were absent in surrounding seawater. We also investigated the relationship between climate change and the frequency of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea over the last 200 years and found that the number of mucilage outbreaks increased almost exponentially in the last 20 years. The increasing frequency of mucilage outbreaks is closely associated with the temperature anomalies. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the spreading of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea is linked to climate-driven sea surface warming. The mucilage can act as a controlling factor of microbial diversity across wide oceanic regions and could have the potential to act as a carrier of specific microorganisms, thereby increasing the spread of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:19759910

  2. Mucilage microcosms.

    PubMed

    Del Negro, Paola; Crevatin, Erica; Larato, Chiara; Ferrari, Carla; Totti, Cecilia; Pompei, Marinella; Giani, Michele; Berto, Daniela; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2005-12-15

    In the summers of 2000, 2001 and 2002, large amounts of sticky mucilaginous material aggregated to form masses of impressive dimensions over large areas of the Adriatic Sea, particularly in its northern part. Aggregates differing in size were sampled by SCUBA divers and submitted to chemical (nutrient and organic matter concentrations) and biological analysis (virus, bacteria and phytoplankton abundances and bacterial metabolism). Suspended and sinking mucilaginous aggregates were biota-rich environments where the abundance of planktonic organisms and the concentration of nutrients were orders of magnitude higher than in the surrounding seawater. The embedded phytoplankton was mostly composed of diatoms, but the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax fragilis, previously reported in association with the aggregates, was also present. A variety of processes occurred within the mucilaginous aggregates which resulted in the transformation of the organic matter composition and lability and contributed to a partial degradation of mucilage. For an efficient degradation of mucilage, several conditions are necessary: high bacterial abundance and activity and an efficient recycling of nutrients within the aggregates. Most of these conditions, appear to change depending on the type and age of the aggregate. During the first phase of aggregation (cobwebs and ribbons), bacterial activities addressed the degradation of organic matter, particularly that of the nitrogen fraction. The degradation products were rapidly taken up by bacteria, supporting an increase in their abundance and production. In aged mucilage (clouds), the degradation processes decreased and the bacterial metabolism suggested the presence of new organic labile compounds probably due to phytoplankton production. On the basis of our results, stringers, generally considered the first step of the aggregation process, seemed to be the result of a mechanical disruption of other types of aggregates.

  3. Dynamics of particulate organic matter in a coastal system characterized by the occurrence of marine mucilage - A stable isotope study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liénart, Camilla; Susperregui, Nicolas; Rouaud, Vanessa; Cavalheiro, Joana; David, Valérie; Del Amo, Yolanda; Duran, Robert; Lauga, Béatrice; Monperrus, Mathilde; Pigot, Thierry; Bichon, Sabrina; Charlier, Karine; Savoye, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    In coastal systems, particulate organic matter (POM) originates from various autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter sources. Also, some coastal systems are characterized by the occurrence of large amounts of mucilaginous material of biologic origin (i.e. phytoplankton, bacteria), which aggregates and potentially traps other organisms and particles present in the water column. This study focuses on POM origin and spatio-temporal dynamics in the South-East coast of the Bay of Biscay, an area subject to mucilage occurrence. In order to investigate POM quantitative and qualitative (C and N elemental and isotopic ratios) characteristics, sampling was performed over an annual cycle at two sites experiencing different mucilage occurrence and river influence. Contribution of phytoplankton, terrestrial POM and anthropogenic POM to coastal-POM composition was calculated using a three-sources mixing model. Overall, phytoplankton dominated the coastal-POM composition at all seasons, sites and most of the depths (71.6 ± 24.2%). Terrestrial-POM contribution was moderate (22.7 ± 21.8%) and anthropogenic-POM contribution was usually negligible (5.7 ± 7.4%). Both sites mainly exhibited similar vertical and temporal variations in terms of POM origin and dynamics: terrestrial-POM contribution increased with depth and was higher in winter at all depths and in autumn in bottom waters, compared to other seasons. The main differences between both sites were related to the vertical dynamics of the terrestrial contribution to the coastal POM. Horizontal, vertical and temporal variation of POM composition was linked to processes driving the sedimentary hydrodynamics: the river flow, the direction of the river plume and events of sediment resuspension/deposition. During the study period, the mucilage occurred only as flocs (small aggregates). The mucilage was of autochthonous origin and did not trap detectable amount of allochthonous material.

  4. Human health implications associated with mucilage in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Funari, E; Ade, P

    1999-01-01

    Mucilage in the northern Adriatic Sea is well known for its negative impact not only on the ecology of the affected area and on fishing activities but on tourism as well. The microhabitat mucilage creates in the sea can provide favourable conditions for the growth and/or survival of some environmental microorganisms that include human opportunistic pathogens. It also seems to favour the selective development of some marine toxic algae. Finally, mucilage can concentrate chemical contaminants from surrounding waters, hence increasing their bioaccumulation in seafoods. This paper examines the possible direct and indirect effects on human health of mucilage and other forms of marine aggregates.

  5. Thermophilic nitrate-reducing microorganisms prevent sulfate reduction in cold marine sediments incubated at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepomnyashchaya, Yana; Rezende, Julia; Hubert, Casey

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen sulphide produced during metabolism of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) is toxic, corrosive and causes detrimental oil reservoir souring. During secondary oil recovery, injecting oil reservoirs with seawater that is rich in sulphate and that also cools high temperature formations provides favourable growth conditions for SRM. Nitrate addition can prevent metabolism of SRM by stimulating nitrate-reducing microorganisms (NRM). The investigations of thermophilic NRM are needed to develop mechanisms to control the metabolism of SRM in high temperature oil field ecosystems. We therefore established a model system consisting of enrichment cultures of cold surface marine sediments from the Baltic Sea (Aarhus Bay) that were incubated at 60°C. Enrichments contained 25 mM nitrate and 40 mM sulphate as potential electron acceptors, and a mixture of the organic substrates acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate (5 mM each) and yeast extract (0.01%) as potential carbon sources and electron donors. Slurries were incubated at 60°C both with and without initial pasteurization at 80°C for 2 hours. In the enrichments containing both nitrate and sulphate, the concentration of nitrate decreased indicating metabolic activity of NRM. After a four-hour lag phase the rate of nitrate reduction increased and the concentration of nitrate dropped to zero after 10 hours of incubation. The concentration of nitrite increased as the reduction of nitrate progressed and reached 16.3 mM after 12 hours, before being consumed and falling to 4.4 mM after 19-day of incubation. No evidence for sulphate reduction was observed in these cultures during the 19-day incubation period. In contrast, the concentration of sulphate decreased up to 50% after one week incubation in controls containing only sulphate but no nitrate. Similar sulfate reduction rates were seen in the pasteurized controls suggesting the presence of heat resistant SRM, whereas nitrate reduction rates were lower in the

  6. Rewetting Rate of Dry Rhizosphere Limited by Mucilage Viscosity and Mucilage Hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, S.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Ahmed, M. A.; Carminati, A.; Kostka, S.

    2014-12-01

    During root water uptake from dry soils, the highly nonlinear relation between hydraulic conductivity and water content as well as the radial root geometry result in steep water potential gradients close to the root surface. The hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere - the interface between root and soil - are one of the most important and least understood components in controlling root water uptake. Previous research using young lupine plants revealed that after irrigation it took 1-2 days for the water content of the dry rhizosphere to increase. How can this delay be explained? Our hypotheses: a) mucilage - a polymeric plant exudate - alters rhizosphere hydraulic properties, b) its hydrophobic moieties make the rhizosphere water repellent when dry, c) mucilage is a highly viscous, gelatinous material, the dryer it gets the more viscous it becomes, d) mucilage viscosity reduces rhizosphere hydraulic conductivity. To test our hypotheses we used mucilage extracted from chia seed as an analogue for root mucilage. We measured: 1) the contact angle between water and pure dry and wet mucilage, dry soil treated with various concentrations of mucilage, 2) mucilage viscosity as function of concentration and shear rate, 3) saturated hydraulic conductivity as function of mucilage concentration, 4) swelling of dry mucilage in water. Finally, to mimic flow of water across the rhizosphere, we measured the capillary rise in soils treated with different mucilage concentrations. The results showed that: 1) dry mucilage has a contact angle >90° while it loses its water repellency when it gets wet, 2) viscosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity can change several orders of magnitude with a small change in mucilage concentration, 3) 1g of dry mucilage absorbs 300g water in its fully swollen state, 4) the swelling rate of mucilage showed an exponential behavior with half time of 5 hours. Capillary rise became slower in soils with higher mucilage concentration, while the final

  7. Rewetting Rate of Dry Rhizosphere Limited by Mucilage Viscosity and Mucilage Hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, Stacey; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Carminati, Andrea; Kostka, Stanley

    2015-04-01

    During root water uptake from dry soils, the highly nonlinear relation between hydraulic conductivity and water content as well as the radial root geometry result in steep water potential gradients close to the root surface. The hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere - the interface between root and soil - are one of the most important and least understood components in controlling root water uptake. Previous research using young lupine plants revealed that after irrigation it took 1-2 days for the water content of the dry rhizosphere to increase. How can this delay be explained? Our hypotheses are that: a) mucilage - a polymeric plant exudate - alters rhizosphere hydraulic properties, b) its hydrophobic moieties make the rhizosphere water repellent when dry, c) mucilage is a highly viscous, gelatinous material, the dryer it gets the more viscous it becomes, d) mucilage viscosity reduces rhizosphere hydraulic conductivity. To test our hypotheses we used mucilage extracted from chia seed as an analogue for root mucilage. We measured: 1) the contact angle between water and pure dry and wet mucilage, dry soil treated with various concentrations of mucilage, 2) mucilage viscosity as function of concentration and shear rate, 3) saturated hydraulic conductivity as function of mucilage concentration, 4) swelling of dry mucilage in water. Finally, to mimic flow of water across the rhizosphere, we measured the capillary rise in soils treated with different mucilage concentrations. The results showed that: 1) dry mucilage has a contact angle > 90° while it loses its water repellency when it gets wet, 2) viscosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity can change several orders of magnitude with a small change in mucilage concentration, 3) 1g of dry mucilage absorbs 300g water in its fully swollen state, 4) the swelling rate of mucilage showed an exponential behavior with half time of 5 hours. Capillary rise became slower in soils with higher mucilage concentration, while the

  8. Evaluation of binding properties of Plantago psyllium seed mucilage.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Ansoroudi, Farshad; Fallah, Saeed; Amin, Gholamreza

    2010-09-01

    Mucilage extracted from Plantago psyllium seeds was evaluated for inertness and safety parameters. The suitability of psyllium mucilage for a pharmaceutical binder was assessed in paracetamol tablets. Properties of the granules prepared using different concentrations of psyllium mucilage was compared with PVP and tragacanth. Psyllium mucilage at 5 % (m/m) was found to be comparable with 3 % (m/m) of PVP. Investigated paracetamol tablets indicated that psyllium mucilage can retard the drug release. PMID:21134867

  9. Molecular investigations of flaxseed mucilage polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Roulard, Romain; Petit, Emmanuel; Mesnard, François; Rhazi, Larbi

    2016-05-01

    The molecular properties of flaxseed mucilage were determined using a multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector coupled on-line to size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). Water and salt solution were tested as mobile phases. The SEC-MALLS method gave partial information and enabled molecular characterization of disaggregated mucilage molecules. Regardless of the eluent used, the observed Mw ranged from about 1.6 × 10(6) to more than 10 × 10(6) g/mol for mucilage polysaccharides. The AF4-MALLS system enabled a complete analysis of mucilage carbohydrate aggregates in water, in which two populations were satisfactorily separated. The molecular weight distribution (MWD) of molecules ranged from 1.5 × 10(6) to more than 4 × 10(8) g/mol. Experiments showed that the conformational structure of mucilage molecules was strongly influenced by ionic strength. Mucilage carbohydrates exhibited a spherical and compact structure in NaCl solution while they displayed a random-coil conformation in water. PMID:26851358

  10. Molecular investigations of flaxseed mucilage polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Roulard, Romain; Petit, Emmanuel; Mesnard, François; Rhazi, Larbi

    2016-05-01

    The molecular properties of flaxseed mucilage were determined using a multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector coupled on-line to size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). Water and salt solution were tested as mobile phases. The SEC-MALLS method gave partial information and enabled molecular characterization of disaggregated mucilage molecules. Regardless of the eluent used, the observed Mw ranged from about 1.6 × 10(6) to more than 10 × 10(6) g/mol for mucilage polysaccharides. The AF4-MALLS system enabled a complete analysis of mucilage carbohydrate aggregates in water, in which two populations were satisfactorily separated. The molecular weight distribution (MWD) of molecules ranged from 1.5 × 10(6) to more than 4 × 10(8) g/mol. Experiments showed that the conformational structure of mucilage molecules was strongly influenced by ionic strength. Mucilage carbohydrates exhibited a spherical and compact structure in NaCl solution while they displayed a random-coil conformation in water.

  11. Organic matter recycling during a mucilage event and its influence on the surrounding environment (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misic, Cristina; Schiaparelli, Stefano; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi

    2011-04-01

    The development of benthic mucilage in the Marine Protected Area of Portofino (Ligurian Sea) during the summer of 2009 was studied to verify the influence of this event on the surrounding environment (seawater and soft-bottom). The calm meteorological and sea conditions at the beginning of the time frame under consideration caused the thermal stratification of the water column. This stratification was one of the driving factors influencing the development of the mucilage, which developed on a large boulder surface above the pycnocline. Mucilage was progressively detached from the boulder surface by hydrodynamism, together with macroalgae, and sank onto the sediment below the thermocline. Increased surface-water movements, caused by meteorological forcing during the study period, influenced the aggregation-disaggregation of mucilage flocks above the thermocline, leading to increased dissolved oxygen concentrations and enhanced production and turnover of the organic matter (OM). Mixing with the adjacent seawater led to the fertilisation of the surrounding environment with potentially labile OM and inorganic phosphorus, which caused increases in the hydrolytic enzymatic activity. Conversely, below the thermocline, the sunken mucilage and algae aggregates supported a heterotrophic consumption system. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were lower than those recorded in the mucilage lying above the thermocline, making more carbohydrates than proteins and labile phosphorus available. Despite the slow oxygenation of this mucilage, it contributed to the food supply for the soft-bottom macrofauna, which showed an increase in density, diversity and biomass during the study. These results suggest that the development and fate of the mucilage, as well as its interactions with the surrounding environment, were principally regulated by physical features. In the oligotrophic coastal area of the Ligurian Sea, certain compartments of the ecosystem were able to promptly respond and take

  12. Ultraviolet radiation affects emission of ozone-depleting substances by marine macroalgae: results from a laboratory incubation study.

    PubMed

    Laturnus, Frank; Svensson, Teresia; Wiencke, Christian; Oberg, Gunilla

    2004-12-15

    The depletion of stratospheric ozone due to the effects of ozone-depleting substances, such as volatile organohalogens, emitted into the atmosphere from industrial and natural sources has increased the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface. Especially in the subpolar and polar regions, where stratospheric ozone destruction is the highest, individual organisms and whole ecosystems can be affected. In a laboratory study, several species of marine macroalgae occurring in the polar and northern temperate regions were exposed to elevated levels of ultraviolet radiation. Most of the macroalgae released significantly more chloroform, bromoform, dibromomethane, and methyl iodide-all volatile organohalogens. Calculating on the basis of the release of total chlorine, bromine, and iodine revealed that, except for two macroalgae emitting chlorine and one alga emitting iodine, exposure to ultraviolet radiation caused macroalgae to emit significantly more total chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Increasing levels of ultraviolet radiation due to possible further destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer as a result of ongoing global atmospheric warming may thus increase the future importance of marine macroalgae as a source for the global occurrence of reactive halogen-containing compounds.

  13. MUCILAGE-RELATED10 Produces Galactoglucomannan That Maintains Pectin and Cellulose Architecture in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage.

    PubMed

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Berger, Adeline; Yang, Bo; Ebert, Berit; Scheller, Henrik V; North, Helen M; Usadel, Björn; Günl, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Plants invest a lot of their resources into the production of an extracellular matrix built of polysaccharides. While the composition of the cell wall is relatively well characterized, the functions of the individual polymers and the enzymes that catalyze their biosynthesis remain poorly understood. We exploited the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat epidermis (SCE) to study cell wall synthesis. SCE cells produce mucilage, a specialized secondary wall that is rich in pectin, at a precise stage of development. A coexpression search for MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes identified MUCI10 as a key determinant of mucilage properties. MUCI10 is closely related to a fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) enzyme that has in vitro galactomannan α-1,6-galactosyltransferase activity. Our detailed analysis of the muci10 mutants demonstrates that mucilage contains highly branched galactoglucomannan (GGM) rather than unbranched glucomannan. MUCI10 likely decorates glucomannan, synthesized by CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2, with galactose residues in vivo. The degree of galactosylation is essential for the synthesis of the GGM backbone, the structure of cellulose, mucilage density, as well as the adherence of pectin. We propose that GGM scaffolds control mucilage architecture along with cellulosic rays and show that Arabidopsis SCE cells represent an excellent model in which to study the synthesis and function of GGM. Arabidopsis natural varieties with defects similar to muci10 mutants may reveal additional genes involved in GGM synthesis. Since GGM is the most abundant hemicellulose in the secondary walls of gymnosperms, understanding its biosynthesis may facilitate improvements in the production of valuable commodities from softwoods. PMID:26220953

  14. Microbe-mediated transformations of marine dissolved organic matter during 2,100 years of natural incubation in the cold, oxic crust of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah Walter, S. R.; Jaekel, U.; Huber, J. A.; Dittmar, T.; Girguis, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    On the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, oxic seawater from the deep ocean is downwelled into the basaltic crust, supplying the crustal aquifer with an initial inoculum of organic matter and electron acceptors. Studies have shown that fluids circulating within the crust are minimally altered from original seawater, making this subsurface environment a unique natural experiment in which the fate of marine organic matter and the limitations of microbial adaptability in the context of reduced carbon supply can be examined. To make the subsurface crustal aquifer accessible, two CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories have been installed at North Pond, a sediment-filled depression beneath the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea. Radiocarbon analysis of dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) in samples recovered from these observatories show uncoupled aging between DOC and DIC with Δ14C values of DOC as low as -933‰ despite isolation from the open ocean for, at most, 2,100 years. This extreme value is part of a general trend of decreasing DOC δ13C and Δ14C values with increasing incubation time within the aquifer. Combined with reduced concentrations of DOC, our results argue for selective microbial oxidation of the youngest, most 13C-enriched components of downwelled DOC, possibly identifying these as characteristics of the more bioavailable fractions of deep-ocean dissolved organic matter. They also suggest that microbial oxidation during low-temperature hydrothermal circulation could be an important sink for aged marine dissolved organic matter.

  15. Dietary mucilage promotes regression of atheromatous lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Boban, Puthenpura T; Nambisan, Bala; Sudhakaran, Perumana R

    2009-05-01

    The antihypercholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effect of the mucilage galactomannan isolated from fenugreek seeds was studied in experimental rabbits maintained on a high cholesterol diet for 3 months. Changes in the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum and tissues and aortic fatty lesions were analysed in animals receiving mucilage (40 mg/kg body weight) daily and compared with the control. A significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and cholesterol and triglycerides in liver and aorta and a decrease in Sudan IV staining of aorta indicated antihypercholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effects of the mucilage. Regression studies showed that administration of mucilage for 3 months caused a significant decrease in serum total and LDL cholesterol and aortic cholesterol. Mucilage accelerated the regression of atheromatous lesions in the aorta as evidenced by significantly low sudanophilic staining. Recovery from inflammation in hypercholesterolemic animals receiving mucilage was evidenced by a faster decrease in C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum to basal levels. The lipid lowering and antiatherogenic effects of mucilage from fenugreek which is used as a food flavoring spice highlights the importance of dietary intervention in the regression of atherosclerosis. PMID:19107734

  16. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation.

  17. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation. PMID:24556117

  18. Preparation and characterization of mucilage polysaccharide for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Archana, G; Sabina, K; Babuskin, S; Radhakrishnan, K; Fayidh, Mohammed A; Babu, P Azhagu Saravana; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2013-10-15

    In the present investigation, the polysaccharide/mucilage from waste of Abelmoscus esculentus by modification in hot extraction using two different solvents (Acetone, Methanol) were extracted, characterized and further compared with seaweed polysaccharide for their potential applications. The percentage yield, emulsifying capacity and swelling index of this mucilage were determined. The macro algae and okra waste, gave high % yield (22.2% and 8.6% respectively) and good emulsifying capacity (EC%=52.38% and 54.76% respectively) with acetone, compared to methanol (11.3% and 0.28%; EC%=50%) (PH=7) while swelling index was greater with methanol than acetone extracts respectively. The infrared (I.R.) spectrum of the samples was recorded to investigate the chemical structure of mucilage. Thermal analysis of the mucilage was done with TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) which showed both okra and algal polysaccharide were thermostable hydrogels. PMID:23987320

  19. Characterisation of mucilages extracted from seven Italian cultivars of flax.

    PubMed

    Kaewmanee, Thammarat; Bagnasco, Lucia; Benjakul, Soottawat; Lanteri, Silvia; Morelli, Carlo F; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosulich, M Elisabetta

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition, physicochemical, functional and sensory properties of mucilages, extracted from seven Italian flax cultivars, were evaluated. All samples were composed of neutral and acidic sugars, with a low protein content. From the NMR data, a rhamnogalacturonan backbone could be inferred as a common structural feature for all the mucilages, with some variations depending on the cultivar. All the suspensions showed a poor stability, which was consistent with a low zeta potential absolute value. The viscosity seemed to be positively correlated with the neutral sugars and negatively with the amount of proteins. Functional properties were dependent on the cultivar. The sensory analysis showed that most mucilages are tasteless. All these outcomes could support the use of flaxseed mucilages for industrial applications. In particular, Solal and Festival cultivars could be useful as thickeners, due to their high viscosity, while Natural, Valoal and Kaolin as emulsifiers for their good surface-active properties.

  20. Mechanism of biological liquid superlubricity of Brasenia schreberi mucilage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengxiao; Liu, Yuhong; Yang, Ye; Chen, Zhe; Li, Jinjin; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, an excellent biological lubricant extracted from an aquatic plant called Brasenia schreberi (B.s) is reported. With a rotary cylinder-on-ring tribometer, the lubrication properties of the B.s mucilage between quartz glass surfaces have been investigated under different rotation velocity, and an ultralow friction coefficient between 0.004 and 0.006 is obtained. It is observed that the ultralow friction coefficient is independent of the rotation speed, when it is less than 0.1 m/s. SEM images indicate that the mucilage surrounding B.s is composed of polysaccharide gels with a layered structure, which are called nanosheets in the following work. Moreover, it can be deduced that the liquid superlubricity is closely related to the B.s mucilage layer absorbed on the quartz glass surface by hydrogen bonds and the superlubricity behavior only occurs when the adsorption layer stably forms between the quartz glass surface and the B.s mucilage. It is also found that superlubricity is closely dependent upon the sheet structure of the B.s mucilage and water molecules in the mucilage. According to these results, a layered nanosheets lubrication mechanism has been revealed, i.e., the ultralow friction coefficient is due to the adsorption layer of polysaccharide on the quartz glass surface and the hydration layers of water molecules bonded on the polysaccharide nanosheets between the sliding surfaces.

  1. Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Liu, Guangzheng; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-01-01

    The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand burial. In a greenhouse experiment, two types of Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes (intact and demucilaged) were exposed to different combinations of burial depth (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mm) and irrigation regimes (low, medium and high, which simulated the precipitation amount and frequency in May, June and July in the natural habitat, respectively). Seedling emergence increased with increasing irrigation. It was highest at 5 mm sand burial depth and ceased at burial depths greater than 20 mm in all irrigation regimes. Mucilage significantly enhanced seedling emergence at 0, 5 and 10 mm burial depths in low irrigation, at 0 and 5 mm burial depths in medium irrigation and at 0 and 10 mm burial depths in high irrigation. Seed mucilage also reduced seedling mortality at the shallow sand burial depths. Moreover, mucilage significantly affected seedling emergence time and quiescence and dormancy percentages. Our findings suggest that seed mucilage plays an ecologically important role in successful seedling establishment of A. sphaerocephala by improving seedling emergence and reducing seedling mortality in stressful habitats of the sandy desert environment. PMID:22511952

  2. Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future. PMID:27516674

  3. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. PMID:26141877

  4. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils.

  5. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    PubMed

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process.

  6. MUCILAGE-RELATED10 Produces Galactoglucomannan That Maintains Pectin and Cellulose Architecture in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Berger, Adeline; Yang, Bo; Ebert, Berit; Scheller, Henrik V.; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn; Günl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Plants invest a lot of their resources into the production of an extracellular matrix built of polysaccharides. While the composition of the cell wall is relatively well characterized, the functions of the individual polymers and the enzymes that catalyze their biosynthesis remain poorly understood. We exploited the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat epidermis (SCE) to study cell wall synthesis. SCE cells produce mucilage, a specialized secondary wall that is rich in pectin, at a precise stage of development. A coexpression search for MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes identified MUCI10 as a key determinant of mucilage properties. MUCI10 is closely related to a fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) enzyme that has in vitro galactomannan α-1,6-galactosyltransferase activity. Our detailed analysis of the muci10 mutants demonstrates that mucilage contains highly branched galactoglucomannan (GGM) rather than unbranched glucomannan. MUCI10 likely decorates glucomannan, synthesized by CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2, with galactose residues in vivo. The degree of galactosylation is essential for the synthesis of the GGM backbone, the structure of cellulose, mucilage density, as well as the adherence of pectin. We propose that GGM scaffolds control mucilage architecture along with cellulosic rays and show that Arabidopsis SCE cells represent an excellent model in which to study the synthesis and function of GGM. Arabidopsis natural varieties with defects similar to muci10 mutants may reveal additional genes involved in GGM synthesis. Since GGM is the most abundant hemicellulose in the secondary walls of gymnosperms, understanding its biosynthesis may facilitate improvements in the production of valuable commodities from softwoods. PMID:26220953

  7. Mucilage: The hydraulic bridge between roots and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, Andrea; Zarabanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez A. A.

    2014-05-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the soil near the roots, the so called rhizosphere. Ultimately, as the soil hydraulic conductivity drops and the soil cannot sustain the transpiration demand, roots shrink and lose contact to the soil. Both, water depletion in the rhizosphere and formation of air-filled gaps at the root-soil interface potentially limit the availability of water to plants. How can plants overcome these potential hydraulic barriers at the root-soil interface? One strategy consists in the exudation of mucilage from the root tips. Mucilage is a polymeric gel that is capable of holding large volumes of water. When exuded into the soil, mucilage remains in the vicinity of roots thanks to its relatively high viscosity and reduced surface tension. As mucilage is mainly made of water, its slow penetration into the soil results in higher water content and hydraulic conductivity of the rhizosphere compared to the adjacent bulk soil. Recent measurements with a root pressure probe technique demonstrated that mucilage exudation facilitates the water flow in dry soils. Additionally, mucilage increases the adhesion of soil particles to the roots, reducing the formation of gaps at the root-soil interface. Based on these observations, it is very tempting to conclude that mucilage acts as an optimal hydraulic bridge across the root-soil interface. However, as mucilage dries and ages, it turns hydrophobic. Consequently, the rhizosphere becomes water repellent and its rewetting time increases. Our former experiments showed that after irrigation subsequent to a drying cycle, the rhizosphere of lupines remained markedly dry for 2 days. Recently, we demonstrated that the rhizosphere water repellency is concomitant with a decrease in local water uptake of 4-8 times. We conclude that after drying and rewetting, the rhzisophere temporarily limits root water uptake. In summary, the hydraulic properties of the root

  8. Extensive Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage Structure

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Zimmermann, Eva; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Günl, Markus; Fu, Lanbao; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Hydrated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds are coated by a gelatinous layer called mucilage, which is mainly composed of cell wall polysaccharides. Since mucilage is rich in pectin, its architecture can be visualized with the ruthenium red (RR) dye. We screened the seeds of around 280 Arabidopsis natural accessions for variation in mucilage structure, and identified a large number of novel variants that differed from the Col-0 wild-type. Most of the accessions released smaller RR-stained capsules compared to the Col-0 reference. By biochemically characterizing the phenotypes of 25 of these accessions in greater detail, we discovered that distinct changes in polysaccharide structure resulted in gelatinous coatings with a deceptively similar appearance. Monosaccharide composition analysis of total mucilage extracts revealed a remarkable variation (from 50 to 200% of Col-0 levels) in the content of galactose and mannose, which are important subunits of heteromannan. In addition, most of the natural variants had altered Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4B staining of cellulose and significantly reduced birefringence of crystalline structures. This indicates that the production or organization of cellulose may be affected by the presence of different amounts of hemicellulose. Although, the accessions described in this study were primarily collected from Western Europe, they form five different phenotypic classes based on the combined results of our experiments. This suggests that polymorphisms at multiple loci are likely responsible for the observed mucilage structure. The transcription of MUCILAGE-RELATED10 (MUCI10), which encodes a key enzyme for galactoglucomannan synthesis, was severely reduced in multiple variants that phenocopied the muci10-1 insertion mutant. Although, we could not pinpoint any causal polymorphisms in this gene, constitutive expression of fluorescently-tagged MUCI10 proteins complemented the mucilage defects of a muci10-like accession. This leads us to

  9. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  10. A mathematical model of mucilage expansion in myxospermous seeds of Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wenni; Jeng, Dong-Sheng; Toorop, Peter E.; Squire, Geoffrey R.; Iannetta, Pietro P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Myxospermy is a term which describes the ability of a seed to produce mucilage upon hydration. The mucilage is mainly comprised of plant cell-wall polysaccharides which are deposited during development of those cells that comprise the seed coat (testa). Myxospermy is more prevalent among those plant species adapted to surviving on arid sandy soils, though its significance in determining the ecological fitness of plants is unclear. In this study, the first mathematical model of myxospermous seed mucilage expansion is presented based on seeds of the model plant species Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse). Methods The structures underpinning the expansion process were described using light, electron and time-lapse confocal micrographs. The data and experimental observations were used to create a mathematical model of myxospermous seed mucilage expansion based on diffusion equations. Key Results The mucilage expansion was rapid, taking 5 s, during which the cell mucilage volume increased 75-fold. At the level of the seed, this represented a 6-fold increase in seed volume and a 2·5-fold increase in seed surface area. These increases were shown to be a function of water uptake (16 g water g−1 mucilage dry weight), and relaxation of the polymers which comprised the mucilage. In addition, the osmotic pressure of the seed mucilage, estimated by assessing the mucilage expansion of seeds hydrated in solutions of varying osmotic pressure, was –0·54 MPa (equivalent to 0·11 m or 6·6 g L−1 NaCl). Conclusions The results showed that the mucilage may be characterized as hydrogel and seed-mucilage expansion may be modelled using the diffusion equation described. The potential of myxospermous seeds to affect the ecological services provided by soil is discussed briefly. PMID:22112439

  11. Comparative studies of mucilage cells in different organs in some species of Malva, Althaea and Alcea.

    PubMed

    Pakravan, M; Abedinzadeh, H; Safaeepur, J

    2007-08-01

    Distribution of Mucilage Cells (MC) in leaves and petals of two species of Malva L. : Malva neglecta Wallr and M. nicaeensis All, one species of Altheae L.: A. officinalis L. and one species of Alcea L: A. angulata (Freyn and Sint.) Freyn and Sint. ex Iljin, have studied. Except ofA. angulata that mucilage cells observed both in epidermis and mesophyll of leaves, in the others mucilage cells confined to epidermis cells. All of species have mucilage cells in the petals. The area of the mucilaginous elements in the leaves and petals of species determined planimetrically on definite cross-sections was studied as a comparative element to the mucilage content determined by extracting the raw mucilage by Hot Extraction Method (HEM) and then by comparing the dry weight, comparison between species was done. A correlation between the greater area of the mucilaginous elements and the mucilage content measured by methods mentioned was shown, basing on different microscopic examination of cross-sections of the organs fixed and stained with ruthenium red. The results were shown that mucilage content in the leaves of Malva neglecta was more than the others and mucilage content in petals of Malva neglecta was more than the others.

  12. Differentiation of Mucilage Secretory Cells of the Arabidopsis Seed Coat1

    PubMed Central

    Western, Tamara L.; Skinner, Debra J.; Haughn, George W.

    2000-01-01

    In some plant species, including Arabidopsis, fertilization induces the epidermal cells of the outer ovule integument to differentiate into a specialized seed coat cell type with a unique morphology and containing large quantities of polysaccharide mucilage (pectin). Such seed coat mucilage cells are necessary for neither viability nor germination under normal laboratory conditions. Thus, the Arabidopsis seed coat offers a unique system with which to use genetics to identify genes controlling cell morphogenesis and complex polysaccharide biosynthesis and secretion. As a first step in the application of this system, we have used microscopy to investigate the structure and differentiation of Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage cells, including cell morphogenesis and the synthesis, secretion, and extrusion of mucilage. During seed coat development in Arabidopsis, the epidermal cells of the outer ovule integument grow and differentiate into cells that produce large quantities of mucilage between the primary cell wall and plasma membrane. Concurrent with mucilage production, the cytoplasm is shaped into a column in the center of the cell. Following mucilage secretion the cytoplasmic column is surrounded by a secondary cell wall to form a structure known as the columella. Thus, differentiation of the seed coat mucilage cells involves a highly regulated series of events including growth, morphogenesis, mucilage biosynthesis and secretion, and secondary cell wall synthesis. PMID:10677428

  13. Optimization of taro mucilage and fat levels in sliced breads.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Carina Lumie Pereira; Andrade, Luan Alberto; Pereira, Joelma

    2015-09-01

    Bread is one of the most commonly consumed foods, and much ongoing research is aimed at meeting the demand for higher quality bread products in terms of greater volume and softness with characteristic flavor, aroma and color. The goal of the present study was to optimize the amounts of lyophilized taro mucilage and hydrogenated vegetable fat added to sliced bread formulations to improve the physical characteristics of the bread while reducing lipid levels and maintaining good sensorial quality. For the analysis, a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used for the two factors, resulting in 11 total experiments. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses were performed. Breads containing taro mucilage were soft and exhibited good sensorial quality. Optimal amounts of the two factors studied were determined using response surface methodology to produce breads with greater specific volume, higher bread-making quality, and lower fat levels than current formulations. The optimal levels of lyophilized taro mucilage and hydrogenated vegetable fat in the sliced bread formulation were 0.73 g 100 g(-1) and 1.58 g 100 g(-1), respectively.

  14. Optimization of taro mucilage and fat levels in sliced breads.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Carina Lumie Pereira; Andrade, Luan Alberto; Pereira, Joelma

    2015-09-01

    Bread is one of the most commonly consumed foods, and much ongoing research is aimed at meeting the demand for higher quality bread products in terms of greater volume and softness with characteristic flavor, aroma and color. The goal of the present study was to optimize the amounts of lyophilized taro mucilage and hydrogenated vegetable fat added to sliced bread formulations to improve the physical characteristics of the bread while reducing lipid levels and maintaining good sensorial quality. For the analysis, a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used for the two factors, resulting in 11 total experiments. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses were performed. Breads containing taro mucilage were soft and exhibited good sensorial quality. Optimal amounts of the two factors studied were determined using response surface methodology to produce breads with greater specific volume, higher bread-making quality, and lower fat levels than current formulations. The optimal levels of lyophilized taro mucilage and hydrogenated vegetable fat in the sliced bread formulation were 0.73 g 100 g(-1) and 1.58 g 100 g(-1), respectively. PMID:26345005

  15. A laboratory-incubated redox oscillation experiment to investigate Hg fluxes from highly contaminated coastal marine sediments (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Emili, A; Carrasco, L; Acquavita, A; Covelli, S

    2014-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) mobility at the sediment-water interface was investigated during a laboratory incubation experiment conducted with highly contaminated sediments (13 μg g(-1)) of the Gulf of Trieste. Undisturbed sediment was collected in front of the Isonzo River mouth, which inflows Hg-rich suspended material originating from the Idrija (NW Slovenia) mining district. Since hypoxic and anoxic conditions at the bottom are frequently observed and can influence the Hg biogeochemical behavior, a redox oscillation was simulated in the laboratory, at in situ temperature, using a dark flux chamber. Temporal variations of several parameters were monitored simultaneously: dissolved Hg (DHg) and methylmercury (MeHg), O2, NH4 (+), NO3 (-) + NO2 (-), PO4 (3-), H2S, dissolved Mn(2+), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC). Under anoxic conditions, both Hg (665 ng m(2) day(-1)) and MeHg (550 ng m(2) day(-1)) fluxed from sediments into the water column, whereas re-oxygenation caused concentrations of MeHg and Hg to rapidly drop, probably due to re-adsorption onto Fe/Mn-oxyhydroxides and enhanced demethylation processes. Hence, during anoxic events, sediments of the Gulf of Trieste may be considered as an important source of DHg species for the water column. On the contrary, re-oxygenation of the bottom compartment mitigates Hg and MeHg release from the sediment, thus acting as a natural "defence" from possible interaction between the metal and the aquatic organisms.

  16. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable.

  17. Mucilage processing and secretion in the green alga closterium. I. Cytology and biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Domozych, C.R.; Plante, K.; Blais, P.; Paliulis, L.; Domozych, D.S. )

    1993-10-01

    Placoderm desmids (Conjugales, Chlorophyta) such as Closterium exhibit a gliding locomotory behavior. This results from the forceful extrusion of an acidic polysaccharide from one pole of the cell causing the cell to glide in the opposite direction. A biochemical and cytological analysis of gliding behavior was performed. The mucilage is a high molecular weight polysaccharide rich in glucuronic acid and fucose. Under normal growth conditions, 3 [mu]g of mucilage is produced per cell in 30 days. Mucilage production increased 3-4 fold in cells challenged with low phosphate or nitrate conditions. A polyclonal antibody was raised against the mucilage and used in immunofluorescence studies. These results show that upon contact with another object Closterium aligns itself parallel to that object by a [open quotes]jack-knife[close quotes] motion. Subsequently, large amounts of mucilage are released to form elongate tubes enmeshing the cell with that object. In post-cytokinetic phases of the cell cycle, mucilage is extruded only through the pole of the developing semi-cell. Chlorotetracyclene-labeling of mucilage-secreting cells show a correlation between calcium-rich loci on the cell surface and sites of mucilage release. 20 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable. PMID:24803696

  19. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  20. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  1. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated.

  2. The Transcriptional Regulator LEUNIG_HOMOLOG Regulates Mucilage Release from the Arabidopsis Testa1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Murray; Tehseen, Muhammad; Doblin, Monika S.; Pettolino, Filomena A.; Wilson, Sarah M.; Bacic, Antony; Golz, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of the mature Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed to water results in the rapid release of pectinaceous mucilage from the outer cells of the testa. Once released, mucilage completely envelops the seed in a gel-like capsule. The physical force required to rupture the outer cell wall of the testa comes from the swelling of the mucilage as it expands rapidly following hydration. In this study, we show that mutations in the transcriptional regulator LEUNIG_HOMOLOG (LUH) cause a mucilage extrusion defect due to altered mucilage swelling. Based on sugar linkage and immunomicroscopic analyses, we show that the structure of luh mucilage is altered, having both an increase in substituted rhamnogalacturonan I and in methyl-esterified homogalacturonan. Also correlated with the structural modification of luh mucilage is a significant decrease in MUCILAGE MODIFIED2 (MUM2; a β-galactosidase) expression in the luh seed coat, raising the possibility that reduced activity of this glycosidase is directly responsible for the luh mucilage defects. Consistent with this is the structural similarity between mum2 and luh mucilage as well as the observation that elevating MUM2 expression in luh mutants completely suppresses the mucilage extrusion defect. Suppression of the luh mutant phenotype was also observed when LEUNIG, a transcriptional corepressor closely related to LUH, was introduced in luh mutants under the control of the LUH promoter. Based on these data, we propose a new model for the regulation of pectin biosynthesis during plant growth and development. PMID:21402796

  3. Rural Incubator Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.

    This profile summarizes the responses of 20 managers of rural business incubators, reporting on their operations, entry and exit policies, facility promotion, service arrangements and economic development outcomes. Incubators assist small businesses in the early stages of growth by providing them with rental space, shared services, management and…

  4. Roots at the percolation threshold - how mucilage affects water flow in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, Eva; Benard, Pascal; Ahmed, Mutez; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Vontobel, Peter; Carminati, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Much of the carbon assimilated by plants during photosynthesis is lost to the soil via rhizodeposition. One component of rhizodeposition is mucilage, a hydrogel that dramatically alters the soil physical properties. Mucilage can hold large volumes of water, but it becomes hydrophobic after drying. Drying/swelling dynamics of mucilage lead to a dynamic relation between water content and water potential, resulting in a non-equilibrium water retention curve of the rhizosphere. Here we present experimental evidence of this non-equilibrium during rewetting. Additionally we propose a model of water flow across the rhizosphere. The model is based on the Richards' equation and accounts for 1) the reduced mobility of water in mucilage filled pores, 2) the increased water holding capacity of the rhizosphere under equilibrium conditions and 3) the non-equilibrium dynamics induced by swelling and shrinking dynamics of mucilage. We expect this non-equilibrium behavior to be more important during rewetting: the dryer the mucilage the longer it takes for the rhizosphere to go to equilibrium. By choosing a relaxation time that depends on water content this idea is included in our model. Our model predicts that under certain rewetting conditions water flows across a dry rhizosphere without rewetting it significantly during the first hours. To justify this concept, we developed a pore network model in which mucilage is randomly distributed through the pore domain. The pores covered with mucilage are assumed to be hydrophobic and are not rewetted upon irrigation. The pore network model predicts that there is a critical mucilage concentration at which the fraction of mucilage covered pores is high enough to prevent the water flow through the rhizosphere. This critical mucilage concentration corresponds to the percolation threshold. Near the percolation threshold water can cross the region, without rewetting it significantly. Using the pore network model we derive an analytic relation

  5. Highly Branched Xylan Made by IRREGULAR XYLEM14 and MUCILAGE-RELATED21 Links Mucilage to Arabidopsis Seeds1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Günl, Markus; Usadel, Björn

    2015-01-01

    All cells of terrestrial plants are fortified by walls composed of crystalline cellulose microfibrils and a variety of matrix polymers. Xylans are the second most abundant type of polysaccharides on Earth. Previous studies of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) irregular xylem (irx) mutants, with collapsed xylem vessels and dwarfed stature, highlighted the importance of this cell wall component and revealed multiple players required for its synthesis. Nevertheless, xylan elongation and substitution are complex processes that remain poorly understood. Recently, seed coat epidermal cells were shown to provide an excellent system for deciphering hemicellulose production. Using a coexpression and sequence-based strategy, we predicted several MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes that encode glycosyltransferases (GTs) involved in the production of xylan. We now show that MUCI21, a member of an uncharacterized clade of the GT61 family, and IRX14 (GT43 protein) are essential for the synthesis of highly branched xylan in seed coat epidermal cells. Our results reveal that xylan is the most abundant xylose-rich component in Arabidopsis seed mucilage and is required to maintain its architecture. Characterization of muci21 and irx14 single and double mutants indicates that MUCI21 is a Golgi-localized protein that likely facilitates the addition of xylose residues directly to the xylan backbone. These unique branches seem to be necessary for pectin attachment to the seed surface, while the xylan backbone maintains cellulose distribution. Evaluation of muci21 and irx14 alongside mutants that disrupt other wall components suggests that mucilage adherence is maintained by complex interactions between several polymers: cellulose, xylans, pectins, and glycoproteins. PMID:26482889

  6. PME58 plays a role in pectin distribution during seed coat mucilage extrusion through homogalacturonan modification

    PubMed Central

    Turbant, Amélie; Fournet, Françoise; Lequart, Michelle; Zabijak, Luciane; Pageau, Karine; Bouton, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Pectins are major components of plant primary cell walls. They include homogalacturonans (HGs), which are the most abundant pectin and can be the target of apoplastic enzymes like pectin methylesterases (PMEs) that control their methylesterification level. Several PMEs are expressed in the seed coat of Arabidopsis thaliana, particularly in mucilage secretory cells (MSCs). On the basis of public transcriptomic data, seven PME genes were selected and checked for their seed-specific expression by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Of these, PME58 presented the highest level of expression and was specifically expressed in MSCs at the early stages of seed development. pme58 mutants presented two discrete phenotypes: (i) their adherent mucilage was less stained by ruthenium red when compared to wild-type seeds, but only in the presence of EDTA, a Ca2+ chelator; and (ii) the MSC surface area was decreased. These phenotypes are the consequence of an increase in the degree of HG methylesterification connected to a decrease in PME activity. Analysis of the sugar composition of soluble and adherent mucilage showed that, in the presence of EDTA, sugars of adherent mucilage were more readily extracted in pme58 mutants. Immunolabelling with LM19, an antibody that preferentially recognizes unesterified HGs, also showed that molecular interactions with HGs were modified in the adherent mucilage of pme58 mutants, suggesting a role of PME58 in mucilage structure and organization. In conclusion, PME58 is the first PME identified to play a direct role in seed mucilage structure. PMID:26895630

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Mutants Defective in Seed Coat Mucilage Secretory Cell Development in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Western, Tamara L.; Burn, Joanne; Tan, Wei Ling; Skinner, Debra J.; Martin-McCaffrey, Luke; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Haughn, George W.

    2001-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, fertilization induces the epidermal cells of the outer ovule integument to differentiate into a specialized seed coat cell type producing extracellular pectinaceous mucilage and a volcano-shaped secondary cell wall. Differentiation involves a regulated series of cytological events including growth, cytoplasmic rearrangement, mucilage synthesis, and secondary cell wall production. We have tested the potential of Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells as a model system for the genetic analysis of these processes. A screen for mutants defective in seed mucilage identified five novel genes (MUCILAGE-MODIFIED [MUM]1–5). The seed coat development of these mutants, and that of three previously identified ones (TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1, GLABRA2, and APETALA2) were characterized. Our results show that the genes identified define several events in seed coat differentiation. Although APETALA2 is needed for differentiation of both outer layers of the seed coat, TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1, GLABRA2, and MUM4 are required for complete mucilage synthesis and cytoplasmic rearrangement. MUM3 and MUM5 may be involved in the regulation of mucilage composition, whereas MUM1 and MUM2 appear to play novel roles in post-synthesis cell wall modifications necessary for mucilage extrusion. PMID:11706181

  8. Formulation and Characterization of Oral Mucoadhesive Chlorhexidine Tablets Using Cordia myxa Mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Aghel, Nasrin; Adelpour, Akram

    2012-01-01

    Background The dilution and rapid elimination of topically applied drugs due to the flushing action of saliva is a major difficulty in the effort to eradicate infections of oral cavity. Utilization a proper delivery system for incorporation of drugs has a major impact on drug delivery and such a system should be formulated for prolonged drug retention in oral cavity. Objectives The aim of the present study was the use of mucilage of Cordia myxa as a mucoadhesive material in production of chlorhexidine buccal tablets and its substitution for synthetic polymers such as HPMC. Materials and Methods The influence of mucilage concentration on the physicochemical responses (hardness, friability, disintegration time, dissolution, swelling, and muco-adhesiveness strength) was studied and swelling of mucilage and HPMC were compared. The evaluated responses included pharmacopoeial characteristics of tablets, the force needed to separate tablets from mucosa, and the amount of water absorbed by tablets. Results In comparison to HPMC, the rise of mucilage concentration in the formulations increased disintegration time, drug dissolution rate, and reduced MDT. Also, compared to 30% HPMC, muco-adhesiveness strength of buccal tablets containing 20% mucilage was significantly higher. Conclusions It can be concluded that the presence of Cordia myxa powdered mucilage may significantly affect the tablet characteristics, and increasing in muco-adhesiveness may be achieved by using 20% w/w mucilage. PMID:24624170

  9. PME58 plays a role in pectin distribution during seed coat mucilage extrusion through homogalacturonan modification.

    PubMed

    Turbant, Amélie; Fournet, Françoise; Lequart, Michelle; Zabijak, Luciane; Pageau, Karine; Bouton, Sophie; Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Pectins are major components of plant primary cell walls. They include homogalacturonans (HGs), which are the most abundant pectin and can be the target of apoplastic enzymes like pectin methylesterases (PMEs) that control their methylesterification level. Several PMEs are expressed in the seed coat of Arabidopsis thaliana, particularly in mucilage secretory cells (MSCs). On the basis of public transcriptomic data, seven PME genes were selected and checked for their seed-specific expression by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Of these, PME58 presented the highest level of expression and was specifically expressed in MSCs at the early stages of seed development. pme58 mutants presented two discrete phenotypes: (i) their adherent mucilage was less stained by ruthenium red when compared to wild-type seeds, but only in the presence of EDTA, a Ca(2+)chelator; and (ii) the MSC surface area was decreased. These phenotypes are the consequence of an increase in the degree of HG methylesterification connected to a decrease in PME activity. Analysis of the sugar composition of soluble and adherent mucilage showed that, in the presence of EDTA, sugars of adherent mucilage were more readily extracted in pme58 mutants. Immunolabelling with LM19, an antibody that preferentially recognizes unesterified HGs, also showed that molecular interactions with HGs were modified in the adherent mucilage of pme58 mutants, suggesting a role of PME58 in mucilage structure and organization. In conclusion, PME58 is the first PME identified to play a direct role in seed mucilage structure.

  10. SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE5 Mediates Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Adherence and Organization through Pectins.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Jonathan S; Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun; Xue, Hui; Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Sola, Krešimir; Seifert, Georg J; Mansfield, Shawn D; Haughn, George W

    2014-05-01

    Interactions between cell wall polymers are critical for establishing cell wall integrity and cell-cell adhesion. Here, we exploit the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat mucilage system to examine cell wall polymer interactions. On hydration, seeds release an adherent mucilage layer strongly attached to the seed in addition to a nonadherent layer that can be removed by gentle agitation. Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) is the primary component of adherent mucilage, with homogalacturonan, cellulose, and xyloglucan constituting minor components. Adherent mucilage contains rays composed of cellulose and pectin that extend above the center of each epidermal cell. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) and the arabinogalactan protein SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE5 (SOS5) are required for mucilage adherence through unknown mechanisms. SOS5 has been suggested to mediate adherence by influencing cellulose biosynthesis. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between SOS5 and CESA5. cesa5-1 seeds show reduced cellulose, RG I, and ray size in adherent mucilage. In contrast, sos5-2 seeds have wild-type levels of cellulose but completely lack adherent RG I and rays. Thus, relative to each other, cesa5-1 has a greater effect on cellulose, whereas sos5-2 mainly affects pectin. The double mutant cesa5-1 sos5-2 has a much more severe loss of mucilage adherence, suggesting that SOS5 and CESA5 function independently. Double-mutant analyses with mutations in MUCILAGE MODIFIED2 and FLYING SAUCER1 that reduce mucilage release through pectin modification suggest that only SOS5 influences pectin-mediated adherence. Together, these findings suggest that SOS5 mediates adherence through pectins and does so independently of but in concert with cellulose synthesized by CESA5.

  11. Distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere: combining 14C imaging with neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Maire; Carminati, Andrea; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Water and nutrients will be the major factors limiting food production in future. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to limited soil resources. Low molecular weight organic substances released by roots into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability by interactions with microorganisms, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. Though composition and quality of these substances have intensively been investigated, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging depending on drought stress. Plants were grown in rhizotrons well suited for neutron radiography and 14C imaging. Plants were exposed to various soil water contents experiencing different levels of drought stress. The water content in the rhizosphere was imaged during several drying/wetting cycles by neutron radiography. The radiographs taken a few hours after irrigation showed a wet region around the root tips showing the allocation and distribution of mucilage. The increased water content in the rhizosphere of the young root segments was related to mucilage concentrations by parameterization described in Kroener et al. (2014). In parallel 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) showed distribution of rhizodeposits including mucilage. Three days after setting the water content, plants were labeled in 14CO2 atmosphere. Two days later 14C distribution in soil was imaged by placing a phosphor-imaging plate on the rhizobox. To quantify rhizodeposition, 14C activity on the image was related to the absolute 14C activity in the soil and root after destructive sampling. By comparing the amounts of mucilage (neutron radiography) with the amount of total root derived C (14C imaging), we were able to differentiate between mucilage and root

  12. Evaluation of Plantago major L. seed mucilage as a rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Sagheb-Doust, Mehdi

    2013-03-01

    Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Plantago major L. (family Plantaginaceae) was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. HPMC K4M and tragacanth were used as standards for comparison. The hardness, tensile strength, and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased, indicating good compactibility of mucilage powders. The rate of release of propranolol hydrochloride from P. major mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug/mucilage ratio. Formulations containing P. major mucilage were found to exhibit a release rate comparable to HPMC containing matrices at a lower drug/polymer ratio (drug/HPMC 2:1). These results demonstrated that P. major mucilage is a better release retardant compared to tragacanth at an equivalent content. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in F3 (containing 1:2 drug/mucilage) the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets. The DSC and FT-IR studies showed that no formation of complex between the drug and mucilage or changes in crystallinity of the drug had occurred. PMID:23482316

  13. Evaluation of Plantago major L. seed mucilage as a rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Sagheb-Doust, Mehdi

    2013-03-01

    Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Plantago major L. (family Plantaginaceae) was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. HPMC K4M and tragacanth were used as standards for comparison. The hardness, tensile strength, and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased, indicating good compactibility of mucilage powders. The rate of release of propranolol hydrochloride from P. major mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug/mucilage ratio. Formulations containing P. major mucilage were found to exhibit a release rate comparable to HPMC containing matrices at a lower drug/polymer ratio (drug/HPMC 2:1). These results demonstrated that P. major mucilage is a better release retardant compared to tragacanth at an equivalent content. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in F3 (containing 1:2 drug/mucilage) the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets. The DSC and FT-IR studies showed that no formation of complex between the drug and mucilage or changes in crystallinity of the drug had occurred.

  14. Evolution of Incubation Models: Evidence from the Italian Incubation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandi, Alessandro; Grimaldi, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of incubators in supporting new venture creation. A mapping of four different types of incubator is proposed: corporate private incubators (CPIs), independent private incubators (IPIs), business innovation centres (BICs) and university business incubators (UBIs). This mapping is exemplified through case studies of one…

  15. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite. PMID:22247868

  16. Rheological and physical properties of spray-dried mucilage obtained from Hylocereus undatus cladodes.

    PubMed

    García-Cruz, E E; Rodríguez-Ramírez, J; Méndez Lagunas, L L; Medina-Torres, L

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the rheological behavior of reconstituted spray-dried mucilage isolated from the cladodes of pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus), the effects of concentration and its relationship with physical properties were analyzed in reconstituted solutions. Drying process optimization was carried out through the surface response method, utilizing a factorial 2(3) design with three central points, in order to evaluate yield and rheological properties. The reconstituted mucilage exhibited non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior, which adequately fit the Cross model (R(2)>0.95). This dynamic response suggests a random coil configuration. The steady-shear viscosity and dynamic response are suitably correlated through the Cox-Merz rule, confirming the mucilage's stability of flow. Analysis of the physical properties of the mucilage (Tg, DTP, and particle morphology) explains the shear-thinning behavior.

  17. Rheological and physical properties of spray-dried mucilage obtained from Hylocereus undatus cladodes.

    PubMed

    García-Cruz, E E; Rodríguez-Ramírez, J; Méndez Lagunas, L L; Medina-Torres, L

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the rheological behavior of reconstituted spray-dried mucilage isolated from the cladodes of pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus), the effects of concentration and its relationship with physical properties were analyzed in reconstituted solutions. Drying process optimization was carried out through the surface response method, utilizing a factorial 2(3) design with three central points, in order to evaluate yield and rheological properties. The reconstituted mucilage exhibited non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior, which adequately fit the Cross model (R(2)>0.95). This dynamic response suggests a random coil configuration. The steady-shear viscosity and dynamic response are suitably correlated through the Cox-Merz rule, confirming the mucilage's stability of flow. Analysis of the physical properties of the mucilage (Tg, DTP, and particle morphology) explains the shear-thinning behavior. PMID:23044149

  18. The involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells, we have cytochemically localized the enzyme in columella and peripheral cells of root caps of Zea mays. Glucose-6-phosphatase is associated with the plasmalemma and cell wall of columella cells. As columella cells differentiate into peripheral cells and begin to produce and secrete mucilage, glucose-6-phosphatase staining intensifies and becomes associated with the mucilage and, to a lesser extent, the cell wall. Cells being sloughed from the cap are characterized by glucose-6-phosphatase staining being associated with the vacuole and plasmalemma. These changes in enzyme localization during cellular differentiation in root caps suggest that glucose-6-phosphatase is involved in the production and/or secretion of mucilage by peripheral cells of Z. mays.

  19. Dissecting Seed Mucilage Adherence Mediated by FEI2 and SOS5.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Jonathan S; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Seifert, Georg J; North, Helen M

    2016-01-01

    The plant cell wall is held together by the interactions between four major components: cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and proteins. Mucilage is a powerful model system to study the interactions between these components as it is formed of polysaccharides that are deposited in the apoplast of seed coat epidermal cells during seed development. When seeds are hydrated, these polysaccharides expand rapidly out of the apoplastic pocket, and form an adherent halo of mucilage around the seed. In Arabidopsis, mutations in multiple genes have similar loss of mucilage adherence phenotypes including CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 5 (CESA5)/MUCILAGE-MODIFIED 3 (MUM3), MUM5/MUCI21, SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE 5 (SOS5), and FEI2. Here, we examine the interactions between these factors to better understand how they participate to control mucilage adherence. Double mutant phenotypes indicated that MUM5 and CESA5 function in a common mechanism that adheres pectin to the seed through the biosynthesis of cellulose and xylan, whereas SOS5 and FEI2, encoding a fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein or a receptor-like kinase, respectively, function through an independent pathway. Cytological analyses of mucilage indicates that heteromannans are associated with cellulose, and not in the pathway involving SOS5 or FEI2. A SOS5 fluorescent protein fusion (SOS5-mCITRINE) was localized throughout the mucilage pocket, consistent with a structural role in pectin adhesion. The relationship between SOS5 and FEI2 mediated mucilage adherence was examined in more detail and while sos5 and fei2 mutants show similar phenotypes, key differences in the macromolecular characteristics and amounts of mucilage polymers were observed. FEI2 thus appears to have additional, as well as overlapping functions, with SOS5. Given that FEI2 is required for SOS5 function, we propose that FEI2 serves to localize SOS5 at the plasma membrane where it establishes interactions with mucilage polysaccharides, notably pectins, required for

  20. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  1. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  2. Dissecting Seed Mucilage Adherence Mediated by FEI2 and SOS5

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Jonathan S.; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Seifert, Georg J.; North, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    The plant cell wall is held together by the interactions between four major components: cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and proteins. Mucilage is a powerful model system to study the interactions between these components as it is formed of polysaccharides that are deposited in the apoplast of seed coat epidermal cells during seed development. When seeds are hydrated, these polysaccharides expand rapidly out of the apoplastic pocket, and form an adherent halo of mucilage around the seed. In Arabidopsis, mutations in multiple genes have similar loss of mucilage adherence phenotypes including CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 5 (CESA5)/MUCILAGE-MODIFIED 3 (MUM3), MUM5/MUCI21, SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE 5 (SOS5), and FEI2. Here, we examine the interactions between these factors to better understand how they participate to control mucilage adherence. Double mutant phenotypes indicated that MUM5 and CESA5 function in a common mechanism that adheres pectin to the seed through the biosynthesis of cellulose and xylan, whereas SOS5 and FEI2, encoding a fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein or a receptor-like kinase, respectively, function through an independent pathway. Cytological analyses of mucilage indicates that heteromannans are associated with cellulose, and not in the pathway involving SOS5 or FEI2. A SOS5 fluorescent protein fusion (SOS5-mCITRINE) was localized throughout the mucilage pocket, consistent with a structural role in pectin adhesion. The relationship between SOS5 and FEI2 mediated mucilage adherence was examined in more detail and while sos5 and fei2 mutants show similar phenotypes, key differences in the macromolecular characteristics and amounts of mucilage polymers were observed. FEI2 thus appears to have additional, as well as overlapping functions, with SOS5. Given that FEI2 is required for SOS5 function, we propose that FEI2 serves to localize SOS5 at the plasma membrane where it establishes interactions with mucilage polysaccharides, notably pectins, required for

  3. Humidification of incubators.

    PubMed

    Harpin, V A; Rutter, N

    1985-03-01

    The effect of increasing the humidity in incubators was examined in 62 infants of less than 30 weeks' gestation. Thirty three infants nursed in high humidity for two weeks were compared retrospectively with 29 infants from an earlier study who were nursed under plastic bubble blankets or with topical paraffin but without raised humidity. Humidification reduced skin water loss and improved maintenance of body temperature from birth, but did not delay the normal postnatal maturation of the skin. Infants nursed without humidity frequently became hypothermic in spite of a high incubator air temperature. These advantages must be weighed against the finding that overheating was more common and Pseudomonas was more commonly isolated from the infants. It is recommended that incubator humidity is raised for babies under 30 weeks' gestation in the first days of life but meticulous attention should be paid to fluid balance, avoiding overheating, and cleansing of the humidifier reservoir.

  4. Water dynamics in the rhizosphere - a new model of coupled water uptake and mucilage exudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Ahmed, Mutez; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Bittelli, Marco; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is affected by the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the so-called rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is influenced by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by roots that alters the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere. Here we present a model that accounts for: (a) an increase in equilibrium water retention curve caused by the water holding capacity of mucilage, (b) a reduction of hydraulic conductivity at a given water content due to the higher viscosity of mucilage and (c) the swelling and shrinking dynamics by decoupling water content and water potential and introducing a non-equilibrium water retention curve. The model has been tested for mixtures of soil and mucilage and we applied it to simulate observations of previous experiments with real plants growing in soil that show evidences of altered hydraulic dynamics in the rhizosphere. Furthermore we present results about how the parameters of the model depend on soil texture and root age. Finally we couple our hydraulic model to a diffusion model of mucilage into the soil. Opposed to classical solute transport models here the water flow in the rhizosphere is affected by the concentration distribution of mucilage.

  5. Water dynamics in the rhizosphere - a new model of coupled water uptake and mucilage exudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, E.

    2015-12-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is affected by the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the so called rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is influenced by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by roots that alters the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere. Here we present a model that accounts for: (a) an increase in equilibrium water retention curve caused by the water holding capacity of mucilage, (b) a reduction of hydraulic conductivity at same water content due to the higher viscosity of mucilage and (c) the swelling and shrinking dynamics by decoupling water content and water potential and introducing a non-equilibrium water retention curve. The model has been tested for mixtures of soil and mucilage and we applied it to simulate observations of previous experiments with real plants growing in soil that show evidences of altered hydraulic dynamics in the rhizosphere. Furthermore we presen results about how the parameters of the model depend on soil texture and root age. Finally we couple our hydraulic model to a diffusion model of mucilage into the soil. Opposed to classical solute transport experiments the water flow in the rhizosphere is affected by the concentration distribution of mucilage.

  6. Combining Ferric Salt and Cactus Mucilage for Arsenic Removal from Water.

    PubMed

    Fox, Dawn I; Stebbins, Daniela M; Alcantar, Norma A

    2016-03-01

    New methods to remediate arsenic-contaminated water continue to be studied, particularly to fill the need for accessible methods that can significantly impact developing communities. A combination of cactus mucilage and ferric (Fe(III)) salt was investigated as a flocculation-coagulation system to remove arsenic (As) from water. As(V) solutions, ferric nitrate, and mucilage suspensions were mixed and left to stand for various periods of time. Visual and SEM observations confirmed the flocculation action of the mucilage as visible flocs formed and settled to the bottom of the tubes within 3 min. The colloidal suspensions without mucilage were stable for up to 1 week. Sample aliquots were tested for dissolved and total arsenic by ICP-MS and HGAFS. Mucilage treatment improved As removal (over Fe(III)-only treatment); the system removed 75-96% As in 30 min. At neutral pH, removal was dependent on Fe(III) and mucilage concentration and the age of the Fe(III) solution. The process is fast, achieving maximum removal in 30 min, with the majority of As removed in 10-15 min. Standard jar tests with 1000 μg/L As(III) showed that arsenic removal and settling rates were pH-dependent; As removal was between 52% (high pH) and 66% (low pH). PMID:26824141

  7. Relevance of the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax fragilis in mucilage formations of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Cangini, Monica; Totti, Cecilia; Urbani, Ranieri; Guerrini, Franca; Romagnoli, Tiziana; Sist, Paola; Palamidesi, Simona; Boni, Laurita; Pompei, Marinella

    2005-12-15

    Oceanographic cruises were carried out monthly from June 1999 to July 2002 to follow the mucilage formation process in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Results show that in correspondence with these events the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax fragilis (Schütt) Kofoid was observed both in the water column and within mucilage aggregates. In the water column, increasing abundances were observed from May until July, with values never exceeding 8500 cells l(-1). Much higher densities were observed within superficial gelatinous aggregates (22800-3400000 cells l(-1)). In mucilage samples, a large number of decomposing cells were present, together with abundant alive cells, enveloped in exudates. G. fragilis isolated from mucilage samples was cultured in three different culture media; it was characterized by a low growth rate but it produced a high amount of polysaccharides. The highest yield both in terms of cell number and carbohydrate production was observed in the medium having the highest nitrogen and phosphorus content and the lowest N/P ratio. The monomeric composition of G. fragilis carbohydrates, compared with that of mucilage samples, showed that in both natural and cultured samples galactose was the most abundant sugar; in addition, an overall good correlation, especially between the monomeric carbohydrate composition of G. fragilis grown in f/2 medium and that of a mucilage sample in which this species was present in high density, was observed. PMID:16289296

  8. Xylan synthesized by Irregular Xylem 14 (IRX14) maintains the structure of seed coat mucilage in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ruibo; Li, Junling; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xun; Yang, Xuanwen; Tang, Qi; He, Guo; Zhou, Gongke; Kong, Yingzhen

    2016-01-01

    During differentiation, the Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells synthesize and secrete large quantities of pectinaceous mucilage into the apoplast, which is then released to encapsulate the seed upon imbibition. In this study, we showed that mutation in Irregular Xylem 14 (IRX14) led to a mucilage cohesiveness defect due to a reduced xylan content. Expression of IRX14 was detected specifically in the seed coat epidermal cells, reaching peak expression at 13 days post-anthesis (DPA) when the accumulation of mucilage polysaccharides has ceased. Sectioning of the irx14-1 seed coat revealed no visible structural change in mucilage secretory cell morphology. Although the total amount of mucilage was comparable with the wild type (WT), the partition between water-soluble and adherent layers was significantly altered in irx14-1, with redistribution from the adherent layer to the water-soluble layer. The monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that xylose content was significantly reduced in irx14-1 water-soluble and adherent mucilage compared with the WT. The macromolecular characteristics of the water-soluble mucilage were modified in irx14-1 with a loss of the larger polymeric components. In accordance, glycome profiling and dot immunoblotting of seed mucilage using antibodies specific for rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) and xylan confirmed the ultra-structural alterations in the irx14-1 mucilage. Meanwhile, the crystalline cellulose content was reduced in the irx14-1 mucilage. These results demonstrated that IRX14 was required for the biosynthesis of seed mucilage xylan, which plays an essential role in maintaining mucilage architecture potentially through altering the crystallization and organization of cellulose. PMID:26834178

  9. Training Programmes as Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erikson, Truls; Gjellan, Are

    2003-01-01

    A European technological university conducts quarterly incubator programs in which teams develop ideas into viable business plans. Analysis indicates that 57 of 102 ideas resulted in successful technology-based businesses and more than 400 students received hands-on experience in business start-up. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  10. CESA5 Is Required for the Synthesis of Cellulose with a Role in Structuring the Adherent Mucilage of Arabidopsis Seeds1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Stuart; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Diatloff, Eugene; Bischoff, Volker; Gonneau, Martine; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M.

    2011-01-01

    Imbibed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds are encapsulated by mucilage that is formed of hydrated polysaccharides released from seed coat epidermal cells. The mucilage is structured with water-soluble and adherent layers, with cellulose present uniquely in an inner domain of the latter. Using a reverse-genetic approach to identify the cellulose synthases (CESAs) that produce mucilage cellulose, cesa5 mutants were shown to be required for the correct formation of these layers. Expression of CESA5 in the seed coat was specific to epidermal cells and coincided with the accumulation of mucilage polysaccharides in their apoplast. Analysis of sugar composition showed that although total sugar composition or amounts were unchanged, their partition between layers was different in the mutant, with redistribution from adherent to water-soluble mucilage. The macromolecular characteristics of the water-soluble mucilage were also modified. In accordance with a role for CESA5 in mucilage cellulose synthesis, crystalline cellulose contents were reduced in mutant seeds and birefringent microfibrils were absent from adherent mucilage. Although the mucilage-modified5 mutant showed similar defects to cesa5 in the distribution of sugar components between water-soluble and adherent mucilage, labeling of residual adherent mucilage indicated that cesa5 contained less cellulose and less pectin methyl esterification. Together, the results demonstrate that CESA5 plays a major and essential role in cellulose production in seed mucilage, which is critical for the establishment of mucilage structured in layers and domains. PMID:21705653

  11. Application of mucilage from Dicerocaryum eriocarpum plant as biosorption medium in the removal of selected heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bassey O; John, Odiyo O; Luke, Chimuka; Ochieng, Aoyi; Bassey, Bridget J

    2016-07-15

    The ability of mucilage from Dicerocaryum eriocarpum (DE) plant to act as biosorption medium in the removal of metals ions from aqueous solution was investigated. Functional groups present in the mucilage were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Mucilage was modified with sodium and potassium chlorides. This was aimed at assessing the biosorption efficiency of modified mucilage: potassium mucilage (PCE) and sodium mucilage (SCE) and comparing it with non-modified deionised water mucilage (DCE) in the uptake of metal ions. FTIR results showed that the functional groups providing the active sites in PCE and SCE and DCE include: carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. The chloride used in the modification of the mucilage did not introduce new functional groups but increased the intensity of the already existing functional groups in the mucilage. Results from biosorption experiment showed that DE mucilage displays good binding affinity with metals ions [Zn(II), Cd(II) Ni(II), Cr(III) and Fe(II)] in the aqueous solution. Increase in the aqueous solution pH, metal ions initial concentration and mucilage concentration increased the biosorption efficiency of DE mucilage. The maximum contact time varied with each species of metal ions. Optimum pH for [Zn(II), Cd(II) Ni(II) and Fe(II)] occurred at pH 4 and pH 6 for Cr(III). Kinetic models result fitted well to pseudo-second-order with a coefficient values of R(2) = 1 for Cd(II), Ni(II), Cr(III), Fe(II) and R(2) = 0.9974 for Zn(II). Biosorption isotherms conforms best with Freundlich model for all the metal ions with correlation factors of 0.9994, 0.9987, 0.9554, 0.9621 and 0.937 for Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Cr(III) and Cd(II), respectively. Biosorption capacity of DE mucilage was 0.010, 2.387, 4.902, 0688 and 0.125 for Zn(II), Cr(III), Fe(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) respectively. The modified mucilage was found to be highly efficient in the removal of metal ions than the unmodified mucilage.

  12. Application of mucilage from Dicerocaryum eriocarpum plant as biosorption medium in the removal of selected heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bassey O; John, Odiyo O; Luke, Chimuka; Ochieng, Aoyi; Bassey, Bridget J

    2016-07-15

    The ability of mucilage from Dicerocaryum eriocarpum (DE) plant to act as biosorption medium in the removal of metals ions from aqueous solution was investigated. Functional groups present in the mucilage were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Mucilage was modified with sodium and potassium chlorides. This was aimed at assessing the biosorption efficiency of modified mucilage: potassium mucilage (PCE) and sodium mucilage (SCE) and comparing it with non-modified deionised water mucilage (DCE) in the uptake of metal ions. FTIR results showed that the functional groups providing the active sites in PCE and SCE and DCE include: carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. The chloride used in the modification of the mucilage did not introduce new functional groups but increased the intensity of the already existing functional groups in the mucilage. Results from biosorption experiment showed that DE mucilage displays good binding affinity with metals ions [Zn(II), Cd(II) Ni(II), Cr(III) and Fe(II)] in the aqueous solution. Increase in the aqueous solution pH, metal ions initial concentration and mucilage concentration increased the biosorption efficiency of DE mucilage. The maximum contact time varied with each species of metal ions. Optimum pH for [Zn(II), Cd(II) Ni(II) and Fe(II)] occurred at pH 4 and pH 6 for Cr(III). Kinetic models result fitted well to pseudo-second-order with a coefficient values of R(2) = 1 for Cd(II), Ni(II), Cr(III), Fe(II) and R(2) = 0.9974 for Zn(II). Biosorption isotherms conforms best with Freundlich model for all the metal ions with correlation factors of 0.9994, 0.9987, 0.9554, 0.9621 and 0.937 for Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Cr(III) and Cd(II), respectively. Biosorption capacity of DE mucilage was 0.010, 2.387, 4.902, 0688 and 0.125 for Zn(II), Cr(III), Fe(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) respectively. The modified mucilage was found to be highly efficient in the removal of metal ions than the unmodified mucilage. PMID

  13. Isolation and characterization of jackfruit mucilage and its comparative evaluation as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vidya; Patel, Vandana; Paranjape, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present research work was to extract jackfruit mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent, and to develop extended release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Materials and Methods: The mucilage was isolated from the jackfruit pulp by the aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. Three batches of tablets were prepared (wet granulation method) and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components: Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P, and isolated jackfruit mucilage using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug and changing the proportion of the mucoadhesive component (1:2:3), resulting in nine different formulations. Results: The results of the study indicate that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics, granules and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications, and in vitro release studies showed the sustained action of drug with increasing concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that changing the mucoadhesive component, permeability behavior was not statistically different (P > 0.05). FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and jackfruit mucilage. Conclusion: The developed mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing natural mucilage (MF3) have a potential for the sustained action of drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release were successfully developed using natural jackfruit mucilage. PMID:23119234

  14. Variability of seed traits and properties of soluble mucilages in lines of the flax genetic collection of Vavilov Institute.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, A; Paynel, F; Rihouey, C; Porokhovinova, E; Brutch, N; Morvan, C

    2014-07-01

    Upon hydration, flax seeds secrete mucilages whose content and physico-chemical properties vary according to the genotype and environment. The aim of the work was to investigate the complex genetic relationships between the vegetative period, colour, size and production of seed, the composition (polysaccharides and proteins) and physico-chemical properties of soluble mucilages collected at 28 °C from seeds of 18 lines grown in St Petersburg area. The vegetative period duration was found to impact the size and production of seeds, the yield of mucilages, including the polysaccharides, and the galactosidase enzymes, as well as their composition (mainly the rhamnogalacturonan I moieties) and some of their properties (mainly viscosity). Data allowed to significantly distinguish 6 fibre lines with mucilages enriched in rhamnogalacturonan I, 6 lines with mucilages enriched in arabinoxylan including 5 linseeds and 1 mutated fibre-line, and 5 lines with mucilages enriched in homogalacturonan-like polymer including 4 fibre lines and 1 brown linseed. Seven fibre lines had mucilages particularly rich in galactose. High to very high variability was found for 14 traits. Relatively independent characters (form/shape, protein and galactosidase) were identified and could be combined by breeding, with a focus on mucilage yield, composition and properties. Main-component analyses of line characters showed a large diversity in linseeds mainly due to their different origin but small variation in Russian fibre lines with brown seeds.

  15. Influence of electrical fields and asymmetric application of mucilage on curvature of primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcum, H.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent growing in an electric field curve towards the anode. Roots treated with EDTA and growing in electric field do not curve. When root cap mucilage is applied asymmetrically to tips of vertically-oriented roots, the roots curve toward the mucilage. Roots treated with EDTA curve toward the side receiving mucilage and toward blocks containing 10 mM CaCl2, but not toward "empty" agar blocks or the cut surfaces of severed root tips. These results suggest that 1) free calcium (Ca) is necessary for root electrotropism, 2) mucilage contains effector(s) that induce gravitropiclike curvature, and 3) mucilage can replace gravitropic effectors chelated by EDTA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the downward movement of gravitropic effectors to the lower sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots occurs at least partially in the apoplast.

  16. Bacteria Responsible for Mucilage-Layer Decomposition in Kona Coffee Cherries1

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Hilmer A.; Lum, Norma A.; Cruz, Amy S. Dela

    1965-01-01

    The predominant microbial flora present during decomposition of the mucilage layer of Kona coffee cherries were gram-negative bacteria which fermented lactose rapidly. Cultures isolated from coffee cherries under-going fermentation included species of Erwinia, Paracolobactrum, and Escherichia. Unblemished cherry surfaces and coffee plantation soil also had a microflora containing a high proportion of bacteria belonging to these three genera. Of 168 isolates tested, the 44 strains capable of demucilaging depulped coffee cherries were all members of Erwinia dissolvens. Supernatant growth medium liquids, after removal of E. dissolvens cells, actively decomposed the mucilage layer of depulped cherries. PMID:14325879

  17. Little Shop of Horrors: Rheology of the Mucilage of Drosera sp., a Carnivorous Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erni, Philipp; Varagnat, Matthieu; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2008-07-01

    Drosera sp. (`sundew') are carnivorous plants; they capture insects using tiny drops of mucilage secreted by stalked glands on their leaf laminae. Prey gets trapped by the sticky viscoelastic liquid, initiating a metabolic cascade on the leaf that eventually results in the insect being digested by the plant. The mucilage droplets typically are in the size range of tens of micrometers; at these extremely small sample sizes, complex fluids are usually not amenable to traditional rheometry. We discuss how microrheometric techniques, in particular capillary breakup extensional rheometry ("μ-caber"), can be used to test the nonlinear rheological properties of nanoliter volumes of such small-volume biopolymer samples.

  18. Characterization of the mucilage extracted from jaracatiá (Carica quercifolia (A. St. Hil.) Hieron).

    PubMed

    Faccio, Carina; Machado, Ricardo A F; de Souza, Lauro M; Zoldan, Sérgio R; Quadri, Mara G N

    2015-10-20

    The mucilage of the jaracatiá fruit (Carica quercifolia (A. St. Hil.) Hieron) was extracted and for physicochemical characterization. The monosaccharide composition showed the presence of Rha, Ara, Xyl, Gal, Glc and GalA, being confirmed by GC-MS, FTIR and NMR. The mucilage was obtained in crude form by lyophilization of the extract and by precipitation, a process that resulted in a partial purification. Although not remarkable, it showed an antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. The thermogravimetric analysis indicated an easy handling at temperatures below 250°C. The natural reactivity of the material indicates for uses such as adsorbent or raw material for membranes. PMID:26256196

  19. Unidirectional Movement of Cellulose Synthase Complexes in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Epidermal Cells Deposit Cellulose Involved in Mucilage Extrusion, Adherence, and Ray Formation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Patricia; Young, Robin; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) synthesizes cellulose necessary for seed mucilage adherence to seed coat epidermal cells of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The involvement of additional CESA proteins in this process and details concerning the manner in which cellulose is deposited in the mucilage pocket are unknown. Here, we show that both CESA3 and CESA10 are highly expressed in this cell type at the time of mucilage synthesis and localize to the plasma membrane adjacent to the mucilage pocket. The isoxaben resistant1-1 and isoxaben resistant1-2 mutants affecting CESA3 show defects consistent with altered mucilage cellulose biosynthesis. CESA3 can interact with CESA5 in vitro, and green fluorescent protein-tagged CESA5, CESA3, and CESA10 proteins move in a linear, unidirectional fashion around the cytoplasmic column of the cell, parallel with the surface of the seed, in a pattern similar to that of cortical microtubules. Consistent with this movement, cytological evidence suggests that the mucilage is coiled around the columella and unwinds during mucilage extrusion to form a linear ray. Mutations in CESA5 and CESA3 affect the speed of mucilage extrusion and mucilage adherence. These findings imply that cellulose fibrils are synthesized in an ordered helical array around the columella, providing a distinct structure to the mucilage that is important for both mucilage extrusion and adherence. PMID:25926481

  20. Immobilization of aluminum with mucilage secreted by root cap and root border cells is related to aluminum resistance in Glycine max L.

    PubMed

    Cai, Miaozhen; Wang, Ning; Xing, Chenghua; Wang, Fangmei; Wu, Kun; Du, Xing

    2013-12-01

    The root cap and root border cells (RBCs) of most plant species produced pectinaceous mucilage, which can bind metal cations. In order to evaluate the potential role of root mucilage on aluminum (Al) resistance, two soybean cultivars differing in Al resistance were aeroponic cultured, the effects of Al on root mucilage secretion, root growth, contents of mucilage-bound Al and root tip Al, and the capability of mucilage to bind Al were investigated. Increasing Al concentration and exposure time significantly enhanced mucilage excretion from both root caps and RBCs, decreased RBCs viability and relative root elongation except roots exposed to 400 μM Al for 48 h in Al-resistant cultivar. Removal of root mucilage from root tips resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation. Of the total Al accumulated in root, mucilage accounted 48-72 and 12-27 %, while root tip accounted 22-52 and 73-88 % in Al-resistant and Al-sensitive cultivars, respectively. A (27)Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the Al-adsorbed mucilage showed Al tightly bound to mucilage. Higher capacity to exclude Al in Al-resistant soybean cultivar is related to the immobilization and detoxification of Al by the mucilage secreted from root cap and RBCs.

  1. Nanoporous microscale microbial incubators.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhifei; Girguis, Peter R; Buie, Cullen R

    2016-02-01

    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals abundant microbial diversity that has not been cultured in the laboratory. Many attribute this so-called 'great plate count anomaly' to traditional microbial cultivation techniques, which largely facilitate the growth of a single species. Yet, it is widely recognized that bacteria in nature exist in complex communities. One technique to increase the pool of cultivated bacterial species is to co-culture multiple species in a simulated natural environment. Here, we present nanoporous microscale microbial incubators (NMMI) that enable high-throughput screening and real-time observation of multi-species co-culture. The key innovation in NMMI is that they facilitate inter-species communication while maintaining physical isolation between species, which is ideal for genomic analysis. Co-culture of a quorum sensing pair demonstrates that the NMMI can be used to culture multiple species in chemical communication while monitoring the growth dynamics of individual species. PMID:26584739

  2. SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE5 Mediates Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Adherence and Organization through Pectins1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Jonathan S.; Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun; Xue, Hui; Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Šola, Krešimir; Seifert, Georg J.; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Haughn, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between cell wall polymers are critical for establishing cell wall integrity and cell-cell adhesion. Here, we exploit the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat mucilage system to examine cell wall polymer interactions. On hydration, seeds release an adherent mucilage layer strongly attached to the seed in addition to a nonadherent layer that can be removed by gentle agitation. Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) is the primary component of adherent mucilage, with homogalacturonan, cellulose, and xyloglucan constituting minor components. Adherent mucilage contains rays composed of cellulose and pectin that extend above the center of each epidermal cell. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) and the arabinogalactan protein SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE5 (SOS5) are required for mucilage adherence through unknown mechanisms. SOS5 has been suggested to mediate adherence by influencing cellulose biosynthesis. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between SOS5 and CESA5. cesa5-1 seeds show reduced cellulose, RG I, and ray size in adherent mucilage. In contrast, sos5-2 seeds have wild-type levels of cellulose but completely lack adherent RG I and rays. Thus, relative to each other, cesa5-1 has a greater effect on cellulose, whereas sos5-2 mainly affects pectin. The double mutant cesa5-1 sos5-2 has a much more severe loss of mucilage adherence, suggesting that SOS5 and CESA5 function independently. Double-mutant analyses with mutations in MUCILAGE MODIFIED2 and FLYING SAUCER1 that reduce mucilage release through pectin modification suggest that only SOS5 influences pectin-mediated adherence. Together, these findings suggest that SOS5 mediates adherence through pectins and does so independently of but in concert with cellulose synthesized by CESA5. PMID:24808103

  3. Incubation length of dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Prince, H.H.; Arnold, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    We collected unincubated eggs from wild Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Gadwall (A. strepera), Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), and Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata) nests and artificially incubated them at 37.5??C. Average incubation lengths of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs did not differ from their wild-nesting counterparts, but artificially incubated Blue-winged Teal eggs required an additional 1.7 days to hatch, suggesting that wild-nesting teal incubated more effectively. A small sample of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs artificially incubated at 38.3??C hatched 1 day sooner, indicating that incubation temperature affected incubation length. Mean incubation length of Blue-winged Teal declined by 1 day for each 11-day delay in nesting, but we found no such seasonal decline among Mallards, Gadwalls, or Northern Shovelers. There is no obvious explanation for the seasonal reduction in incubation length for Blue-winged Teal eggs incubated in a constant environment, and the phenomenon deserves further study. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.

  4. Designing and characterizing of tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches prepared with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and povidone.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Ishaq, Beludari Mohammed; Shaik, Muneer; Bandagisa, Faheem

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare matrix type transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl using various ratios of Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using Tramadol HCl with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The interactions between Tramadol HCl with F. carica fruit mucilage and Povidone were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared patches were examined for physicochemical characterization and in vitro drug permeation studies (using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin), skin irritation studies and accelerated stability studies. The drug was found to be free from negligible interactions with the polymers used. The formulated patches possessed satisfactory physicochemical properties, in vitro drug permeation and devoid of serious skin irritation. The selected formulation (F-5) was retains the characteristics even after the accelerated environmental conditions. The study concludes that F. carica fruit mucilage with Povidone is a good combination for preparing transdermal patches. PMID:27166538

  5. Removing heavy metals in water: the interaction of cactus mucilage and arsenate (As (V)).

    PubMed

    Fox, Dawn I; Pichler, Thomas; Yeh, Daniel H; Alcantar, Norma A

    2012-04-17

    High concentrations of arsenic in groundwater continue to present health threats to millions of consumers worldwide. Particularly, affected communities in the developing world need accessible technologies for arsenic removal from drinking water. We explore the application of cactus mucilage, pectic polysaccharide extracts from Opuntia ficus-indica for arsenic removal. Synthetic arsenate (As (V)) solutions were treated with two extracts, a gelling extract (GE) and a nongelling extract (NE) in batch trials. The arsenic concentration at the air-water interface was measured after equilibration. The GE and NE treated solutions showed on average 14% and 9% increases in arsenic concentration at the air-water interface respectively indicating that the mucilage bonded and transported the arsenic to the air-water interface. FTIR studies showed that the -CO groups (carboxyl and carbonyl groups) and -OH (hydroxyl) functional groups of the mucilage were involved in the interaction with the arsenate. Mucilage activity was greater in weakly basic (pH 9) and weakly acidic (pH 5.5) pH. This interaction can be optimized and harnessed for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. This work breaks the ground for the application of natural pectic materials to the removal of anionic metallic species from water. PMID:22401577

  6. A comparative study of mucilage and pulp polysaccharides from tamarillo fruit (Solanum betaceum Cav.).

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Georgia Erdmann; Iacomini, Marcello; Cordeiro, Lucimara M C

    2016-07-01

    A comparative study of mucilage (locular tissue) and pulp polysaccharides from ripe tamarillo fruits (Solanum betaceum Cav.) was carried out. After aqueous and alkaline extractions and various purification steps (freeze-thaw and α-amylase - EC 3.2.1.1 treatments, Fehling precipitation and ultrafiltration through 50 kDa cut-off membrane), the obtained fractions from mucilage were analyzed by sugar composition, HPSEC, and NMR spectroscopy analyses. The results showed that the mucilage of tamarillo contains a highly methoxylated homogalacturonans mixed with type I arabinogalactans, a linear (1 → 5)-linked α-L-arabinan, and a linear (1 → 4)-β-D-xylan. A comparison with polysaccharides extracted from the pulp revealed that differences were observed in the yield and in the ratio of extracted polysaccharides. Moreover, structural differences between pulp and mucilage polysaccharides were also observed, such as in the length of side chains of the pectins, and in the degree of branching of the xylans. PMID:27163609

  7. Application of Isfarzeh seed (Plantago ovate L.) mucilage as a fat mimetic in mayonnaise.

    PubMed

    Amiri Aghdaei, S S; Aalami, M; Babaei Geefan, Saeed; Ranjbar, A

    2014-10-01

    In present study, application of Isfarzeh seed (Plantago ovate L.) mucilage as fat replacer was studied in mayonnaise formulation. Fat was partially substituted by mucilage gels (2 and 3 % suspensions) at levels of 30, 40 and 50 % which were referred to as FM2-30 % (2 % gel and 30 % substitution level), FM2-40 %, FM2-50 %, FM3-30 %, FM3-40 %, and FM3-50 % formulations, respectively and the full fat (Ff) mayonnaise with 78 % oil was used as control. Physicochemical, texture and sensory analysis of Ff and Low fat (Lf) treatments were evaluated. Results indicated that Lf samples had considerably lower energy content compared with control, but higher water content than their Ff counterpart. In view of texture, FM3-30 % showed similar textural characteristics as those of control. Both Ff and Lf samples exhibited thixotropic and shear thinning behavior through rheological studies and all samples followed the power law model except FM3-40 % and FM3-50 %. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that all of mayonnaise samples, containing 3 % mucilage, were more acceptable. It was concluded that Isfarzeh seed mucilage can be used as a suitable fat replacer in mayonnaise formulation. PMID:25328221

  8. Designing and characterizing of tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches prepared with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and povidone.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Ishaq, Beludari Mohammed; Shaik, Muneer; Bandagisa, Faheem

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare matrix type transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl using various ratios of Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using Tramadol HCl with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The interactions between Tramadol HCl with F. carica fruit mucilage and Povidone were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared patches were examined for physicochemical characterization and in vitro drug permeation studies (using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin), skin irritation studies and accelerated stability studies. The drug was found to be free from negligible interactions with the polymers used. The formulated patches possessed satisfactory physicochemical properties, in vitro drug permeation and devoid of serious skin irritation. The selected formulation (F-5) was retains the characteristics even after the accelerated environmental conditions. The study concludes that F. carica fruit mucilage with Povidone is a good combination for preparing transdermal patches.

  9. An algorithm for the detection of the white-tide ('mucilage') phenomenon in the Adriatic Sea using AVHRR data

    SciTech Connect

    Tassan, S. )

    1993-06-01

    An algorithm using AVHRR data has been set up for the detection of a white tide consisting of algae secretion ('mucilage'), an event occurring in the Adriatic Sea under particular meteorological conditions. The algorithm, which includes an ad hoc procedure for cloud masking, has been tested with reference to the mucilage map obtained from the analysis of contemporary Thematic Mapper data, as well as by comparing consecutive AVHRR scenes. The main features of the exceptional mucilage phenomenon that took place in the northern basin of the Adriatic Sea in summer 1989 are shown by a time series of maps.

  10. Incubating Next -Gen.Edu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2008-01-01

    Given a blank slate, what should the 21st century college classroom look like, and how should it be operated? Answering those questions is the idea behind setting up "incubator classrooms," spaces dedicated to trying out new technologies and new ways of teaching and learning. By incubating new ideas, faculty members and IT staff discover which…

  11. Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Wayne P.; King, Joseph B.; Jankura, Richard E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done to operate the Lewis Incubator for Technology for the period October 2000 through September 2004. The Lewis Incubator helped the startup and growth of technology based businesses with the potential to incorporate technology from the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  12. Effect of soil water content on spatial distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water and nutrients are expected to become the major factors limiting food production. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to these limited soil resources. Low molecular root exudates released into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. However, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was therefore to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging at different levels of water stress. Maize plants were grown in rhizotrons filled with a silty soil and were exposed to varying soil conditions, from optimal to dry. Mucilage distribution around the roots was estimated from the profiles of water content in the rhizosphere - note that mucilage increases the soil water content. The profiles of water content around different root types and root ages were measured with neutron radiography. Rhizosphere extension was approx. 0.7 mm and did not differ between wet and dry treatments. However, water content (i.e. mucilage concentration) in the rhizosphere of plants grown in dry soils was higher than for plants grown under optimal conditions. This effect was particularly pronounced near the tips of lateral roots. The higher water contents near the root are explained as the water retained by mucilage. 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) was used to estimate the distribution of all rhizodeposits. Two days after labelling, 14C distribution was measured using phosphor-imaging. To quantify 14C in the rhizosphere a calibration was carried out by adding given amounts of 14C-glucose to soil. Plants grown in wet soil transported a higher percentage of 14C to the roots (14Croot/14Cshoot), compared to plants grown under dry conditions (46 vs. 36 %). However, the percentage of 14C allocated from roots to

  13. Accumulation of Al in Root Mucilage of an Al-Resistant and an Al-Sensitive Cultivar of Wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, D. J.; Zhang, G.; Taylor, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    To estimate rates of Al accumulation within the symplasm, all apoplastic pools of Al need to be eliminated or accounted for. We have developed a revised kinetic protocol that allows us to estimate the contribution of mucilage-bound Al to total, nonexchangeable Al, and to eliminate the mucilage as an apoplastic pool of Al. By comparing the Al content of excised root tips (2 cm) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with and without the removal of the mucilage (using a 10-min wash in 1 M NH4Cl), we found that Al bound to the mucilage accounted for approximately 25 to 35% of Al remaining after desorption in citric acid. The kinetics of Al uptake into mucilage were biphasic, with a rapid phase occurring in the first 30 min of uptake, followed by a linear phase occurring in the remainder of the experimental period (180 min). By adopting a step for removal of mucilage into our existing kinetic protocol, we have been able to isolate a linear phase of uptake with only a slight deviation from linearity in the first 5 min. Although we cannot unambiguously identify this phase of uptake as uptake into the symplasm, we believe this new protocol provides us with the most accurate quantitative estimate of symplastic Al yet available. PMID:12226458

  14. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna

    PubMed Central

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I.; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L. Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-01-01

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic–biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night. PMID:27680661

  15. Cellulose synthesis via the FEI2 RLK/SOS5 pathway and cellulose synthase 5 is required for the structure of seed coat mucilage in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Harpaz-Saad, Smadar; McFarlane, Heather E; Xu, Shouling; Divi, Uday K; Forward, Bronwen; Western, Tamara L; Kieber, Joseph J

    2011-12-01

    The seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and many other plants are surrounded by a pectinaceous mucilage that aids in seed hydration and germination. Mucilage is synthesized during seed development within maternally derived seed coat mucilage secretory cells (MSCs), and is released to surround the seed upon imbibition. The FEI1/FEI2 receptor-like kinases and the SOS5 extracellular GPI-anchored protein were shown previously to act on a pathway that regulates the synthesis of cellulose in Arabidopsis roots. Here, we demonstrate that both FEI2 and SOS5 also play a role in the synthesis of seed mucilage. Disruption of FEI2 or SOS5 leads to a reduction in the rays of cellulose observed across the seed mucilage inner layer, which alters the structure of the mucilage in response to hydration. Mutations in CESA5, which disrupts an isoform of cellulose synthase involved in primary cell wall synthesis, result in a similar seed mucilage phenotype. The data indicate that CESA5-derived cellulose plays an important role in the synthesis and structure of seed coat mucilage and that the FEI2/SOS5 pathway plays a role in the regulation of cellulose synthesis in MSCs. Moreover, these results establish a novel structural role for cellulose in anchoring the pectic component of seed coat mucilage to the seed surface. PMID:21883548

  16. The Arabidopsis MUM2 Gene Encodes a β-Galactosidase Required for the Production of Seed Coat Mucilage with Correct Hydration Properties[W

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Gillian H.; Zheng, Huanquan; Tewari, Jagdish; Huang, Jun; Young, Diana S.; Hwang, Yeen Ting; Western, Tamara L.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; McCann, Maureen C.; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Haughn, George W.

    2007-01-01

    Seed coat development in Arabidopsis thaliana involves a complex pathway where cells of the outer integument differentiate into a highly specialized cell type after fertilization. One aspect of this developmental process involves the secretion of a large amount of pectinaceous mucilage into the apoplast. When the mature seed coat is exposed to water, this mucilage expands to break the primary cell wall and encapsulate the seed. The mucilage-modified2 (mum2) mutant is characterized by a failure to extrude mucilage on hydration, although mucilage is produced as normal during development. The defect in mum2 appears to reside in the mucilage itself, as mucilage fails to expand even when the barrier of the primary cell wall is removed. We have cloned the MUM2 gene and expressed recombinant MUM2 protein, which has β-galactosidase activity. Biochemical analysis of the mum2 mucilage reveals alterations in pectins that are consistent with a defect in β-galactosidase activity, and we have demonstrated that MUM2 is localized to the cell wall. We propose that MUM2 is involved in modifying mucilage to allow it to expand upon hydration, establishing a link between the galactosyl side-chain structure of pectin and its physical properties. PMID:18165329

  17. Relationship between the chemical components of taro rhizome mucilage and its emulsifying property.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luan Alberto; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pereira, Joelma

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of taro mucilage (TM) and explain its emulsification properties using different commercial emulsifiers and gums as benchmarks. The following analyses were performed: moisture, ether extract, protein, fiber, ash, sugar fraction, starch content, infrared spectroscopy and determination of monosaccharides and amino acids using HPLC. The analyses showed that TM has a high carbohydrate content and small protein fraction, similar to commercial gums. Commercial emulsifiers have a high content of lipids compared to TM. Therefore, it can be concluded that the emulsifying power of the studied mucilage is primarily caused by the protein content along with weakly polar amino acids, which occur in gums. The methyl group (CH3), which was observed in the infrared spectrum, and the lipid content may also contribute to the emulsifying activity by providing a hydrophobic moiety.

  18. A gradient of endogenous calcium forms in mucilage of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Agar blocks that contacted the upper sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots of Zea mays contain significantly less calcium (Ca) than blocks that contacted the lower sides of such roots. This gravity-induced gradient of Ca forms prior to the onset of gravicurvature, and does not form across tips of vertically-oriented roots or roots of agravitropic mutants. These results indicate that (1) Ca can be collected from mucilage of graviresponding roots, (2) gravity induces a downward movement of endogenous Ca in mucilage overlying the root tip, (3) this gravity-induced gradient of Ca does not form across tips of agravitropic roots, and (4) formation of a Ca gradient is not a consequence of gravicurvature. These results are consistent with gravity-induced movement of Ca being a trigger for subsequent redistribution of growth effectors (e.g. auxin) that induce differential growth and gravicurvature.

  19. Relationship between the chemical components of taro rhizome mucilage and its emulsifying property.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luan Alberto; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pereira, Joelma

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of taro mucilage (TM) and explain its emulsification properties using different commercial emulsifiers and gums as benchmarks. The following analyses were performed: moisture, ether extract, protein, fiber, ash, sugar fraction, starch content, infrared spectroscopy and determination of monosaccharides and amino acids using HPLC. The analyses showed that TM has a high carbohydrate content and small protein fraction, similar to commercial gums. Commercial emulsifiers have a high content of lipids compared to TM. Therefore, it can be concluded that the emulsifying power of the studied mucilage is primarily caused by the protein content along with weakly polar amino acids, which occur in gums. The methyl group (CH3), which was observed in the infrared spectrum, and the lipid content may also contribute to the emulsifying activity by providing a hydrophobic moiety. PMID:25704720

  20. The degradation, antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of the mucilage polysaccharide from Dioscorea opposita.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Liu, Chongbin; Li, Jingfen

    2016-10-01

    The mucilage polysaccharide was extracted from Dioscorea opposita in cold water and then degraded in two reagents hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid. Three low-molecular-weight-samples were prepared, and their antioxidant and antimutagenic activity were investigated. Chemical composition analysis indicated that the degradation action was in a concentration dependent manner. Total sugars content of three degraded samples were significantly higher than raw sample. The uronic acid content in the degraded sample LP3 was significantly higher than other samples. LP3 processed the higher scavenging effect on hydroxyl and superoxide radicals than other two degraded samples because of its lower molecular weight and more uronic acid. LP3 processed the excellent antimutagenic activity and higher anti-lipid peroxidation in garlic roots. There maybe a certain relationship between the two activities. The present results indicated this mucilage could be a potential candidate of the natural antimutagen. PMID:27312633

  1. Microscale characterization of dissolved organic matter production and uptake in marine microbial mat communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerl, H. W.; Bebout, B. M.; Joye, S. B.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Intertidal marine microbial mats exhibited biologically mediated uptake of low molecular weight dissolved organic matter (DOM), including D-glucose, acetate, and an L-amino acid mixture at trace concentrations. Uptake of all compounds occurred in darkness, but was frequently enhanced under natural illumination. The photosystem 2 inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU) generally failed to inhibit light-stimulated DOM uptake. Occasionally, light plus DCMU-amended treatments led to uptake rates higher than light-incubated samples, possibly due to phototrophic bacteria present in subsurface anoxic layers. Uptake was similar with either 3H- or 14C-labeled substrates, indicating that recycling of labeled CO2 via photosynthetic fixation was not interfering with measurements of light-stimulated DOM uptake. Microautoradiographs showed a variety of pigmented and nonpigmented bacteria and, to a lesser extent, cyanobacteria and eucaryotic microalgae involved in light-mediated DOM uptake. Light-stimulated DOM uptake was often observed in bacteria associated with sheaths and mucilage surrounding filamentous cyanobacteria, revealing a close association of organisms taking up DOM with photoautotrophic members of the mat community. The capacity for dark- and light-mediated heterotrophy, coupled to efficient retention of fixed carbon in the mat community, may help optimize net production and accretion of mats, even in oligotrophic waters.

  2. Microscale characterization of dissolved organic matter production and uptake in marine microbial mat communities.

    PubMed

    Paerl, H W; Bebout, B M; Joye, S B; Des Marais, D J

    1993-01-01

    Intertidal marine microbial mats exhibited biologically mediated uptake of low molecular weight dissolved organic matter (DOM), including D-glucose, acetate, and an L-amino acid mixture at trace concentrations. Uptake of all compounds occurred in darkness, but was frequently enhanced under natural illumination. The photosystem 2 inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU) generally failed to inhibit light-stimulated DOM uptake. Occasionally, light plus DCMU-amended treatments led to uptake rates higher than light-incubated samples, possibly due to phototrophic bacteria present in subsurface anoxic layers. Uptake was similar with either 3H- or 14C-labeled substrates, indicating that recycling of labeled CO2 via photosynthetic fixation was not interfering with measurements of light-stimulated DOM uptake. Microautoradiographs showed a variety of pigmented and nonpigmented bacteria and, to a lesser extent, cyanobacteria and eucaryotic microalgae involved in light-mediated DOM uptake. Light-stimulated DOM uptake was often observed in bacteria associated with sheaths and mucilage surrounding filamentous cyanobacteria, revealing a close association of organisms taking up DOM with photoautotrophic members of the mat community. The capacity for dark- and light-mediated heterotrophy, coupled to efficient retention of fixed carbon in the mat community, may help optimize net production and accretion of mats, even in oligotrophic waters.

  3. Mucilage chemical profile and antioxidant properties of giant swamp taro tubers.

    PubMed

    Nguimbou, Richard Marcel; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Himeda, Makhlouf; Scher, Joël; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-12-01

    The yellow (YP) and white (WP) sections of giant swamp taro (GST) contain 40.0 g/kg and 51.5 g/kg (dry wt) respectively of pure mucilage made up of D-glucose (44.95-78.85 %), D-galactose (8.70-25.35 %), D-mannose (3.20-10.45 %), D-arabinose (2.45-5.20 %) and small amounts of glucuronic acid and rhamnose. Arabinogalactan-proteins (5.30-8.83 g/kg) contain mainly arabinose and galactose (in a 1:1 proportion) and also significant amounts of rhamnose, xylose, glucuronic acid and mannose. Antioxidant activity of YP was higher than those of WP while chelating ability and reducing power increased with mucilages content. Generally YP and WP showed better reducing power (1.06 ± 0.35 at 5 mg/mL) than ascorbic acid (0.89 ± 0.22). WP and YP chelated ferrous ions by 20.0-76.0 % and 16.4-71.0 % respectively. Effective concentrations (EC50) of mucilages (WP 1.28 ± 0.05 mg/mL; YP 1.42 ± 0.04 mg/mL) were lower than those of citric acid (1.58 ± 0.04 mg/mL). Generally mucilage from the WP and YP sections are excellent sources of chelating agents.

  4. The flocculation performance of Tamarindus mucilage in relation to removal of vat and direct dyes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anuradha; Bajpai, Malvika

    2006-05-01

    A food grade natural mucilage, extracted from the seeds of Tamarindus indica pods, is used as a flocculant for removal of solubilised vat (golden yellow) and direct dye (direct fast scarlet) in aqueous solutions. The maximum removal obtained was 60% for golden yellow after 2 h and was 25% for direct fast scarlet after 1 h. The optimum mucilage dose was 10 mg/l and 15 mg/l for golden yellow and direct fast scarlet, respectively. The pH values also seem to affect the percent removal of both the dyes significantly. In case of vat dye, the pH value of the test samples affected the percent removal significantly. The change was highly significant between neutral and alkaline pH. In case of direct dye, there was no significant change in percent removal at pH 7 and pH 4 whereas a significant change in percent removal was observed between pH 7 and pH 9.2. The plausible mucilage-dye interaction and flocculation mechanism has been discussed. This new flocculant works better in the case of vat dye removal compared with the direct dye.

  5. Infant incubators and radiant warmers.

    PubMed

    Bell, E F

    1983-10-01

    Incubators and radiant warmers are used to maintain the body temperature of newborn infants. This is best done so that the energy expended for metabolic heat production is minimized. The heat output of these devices is usually regulated by servocontrol to keep the skin temperature constant at a site on the abdomen where a thermistor probe is attached. In incubators, air temperature can also be controlled as an alternative to skin temperature servocontrol. Increased ambient humidity, heat shields and clothing have been used to decrease the evaporative or nonevaporative heat loss of infants in incubators under certain conditions. Double-walled incubators, by adding a second inner layer of Plexiglas, reduce radiant heat loss. They may also reduce total heat loss, but only if air temperature is controlled rather than skin temperature. The minimal oxygen consumption under a radiant warmer is the same or perhaps slightly higher than it is for the same infant in an incubator. Compared with incubators, the partition of body heat loss is quite different under radiant warmers. Radiant warmers increase convective and evaporative heat loss and insensible water loss but eliminate radiant heat loss or change it to net gain. A heat shield of thin polyethylene film can be used with a radiant warmer to reduce heat loss by convection and evaporation. The major advantage of the radiant warmer is the easy access it provides to critically-ill infants without disturbing the thermal environment. Its major disadvantage is the increase in insensible water loss produced by the radiant warmer. Most infants can be safely and adequately cared for in either incubator or radiant warmer bed.

  6. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2, a Glucomannan Synthase, Is Involved in Maintaining Adherent Mucilage Structure in Arabidopsis Seed1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li; Shi, Dachuan; Li, Junling; Kong, Yingzhen; Yu, Yanchong; Chai, Guohua; Hu, Ruibo; Wang, Juan; Hahn, Michael G.; Zhou, Gongke

    2014-01-01

    Mannans are hemicellulosic polysaccharides that are considered to have both structural and storage functions in the plant cell wall. However, it is not yet known how mannans function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed mucilage. In this study, CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2 (CSLA2; At5g22740) expression was observed in several seed tissues, including the epidermal cells of developing seed coats. Disruption of CSLA2 resulted in thinner adherent mucilage halos, although the total amount of the adherent mucilage did not change compared with the wild type. This suggested that the adherent mucilage in the mutant was more compact compared with that of the wild type. In accordance with the role of CSLA2 in glucomannan synthesis, csla2-1 mucilage contained 30% less mannosyl and glucosyl content than did the wild type. No appreciable changes in the composition, structure, or macromolecular properties were observed for nonmannan polysaccharides in mutant mucilage. Biochemical analysis revealed that cellulose crystallinity was substantially reduced in csla2-1 mucilage; this was supported by the removal of most mucilage cellulose through treatment of csla2-1 seeds with endo-β-glucanase. Mutation in CSLA2 also resulted in altered spatial distribution of cellulose and an absence of birefringent cellulose microfibrils within the adherent mucilage. As with the observed changes in crystalline cellulose, the spatial distribution of pectin was also modified in csla2-1 mucilage. Taken together, our results demonstrate that glucomannans synthesized by CSLA2 are involved in modulating the structure of adherent mucilage, potentially through altering cellulose organization and crystallization. PMID:24569843

  7. Small Technology Business Incubation Needs

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    This report contains a summary of typical business incubation needs of small technology companies. This document will serve as a guide in the design and implementation of services offered by the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), an incubator program being designed and developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the methodology used to perform the needs assessment and services proposed to meet the needs of client companies. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland.

  8. Abrupt Changes in the Marmara Pelagic Ecosystem during the recent jellyfish Liriope tetraphylla invasion and mucilage events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan Kideys, Ahmet; Yüksek, Ahsen; Sur, Halil Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    In this study, meteorological and hydrographical conditions as well as chemical and biological parameters have been examined for the period 2005-2009 to determine the impact and cause of the massive mucilage phenomenon observed in the Sea of Marmara in October 2007. Results showed that there is a decrease pattern in chl concentration as well as both phytoplankton and zooplankton abundances from August till October in 2007 whilst the jellyfish Liriope tetraphylla had bloom levels. This period coincided with the maximum intensity of pelagic fishing throughout the years. Nitrogen/phosphate ratio increased prior to the mucilage formation. Invasive Liriope tetraphylla abundance increased exponentially in August and died in masses as a result of starvation and meteorological / oceanographic conditions. In October, following the mucilage matter production another new species for the region Gonyaulax fragilis was observed in high abundance through the basin. It is worthy to note that during basin wide samplings conducted in the Sea of Marmara in both 2005 and 2006, high abundances of Liriope tetraphylla have been detected particularly at the northern parts where no mucilage event was observed. We suggest that overfishing in the Sea of Marmara provided a ground for the establishment of the invasive jellyfish and accompanying mucilage event was due to by synergic combinations of several factors.

  9. In vitro assessment of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage and its impact on the human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni; Alonso, José Luis; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-02-01

    Aloe vera mucilage is reported to be rich in acemannan that is a polysaccharide with a backbone of β-(1→4)-D-mannose residues acetylated at the C-2 and C-3 positions and contains some side chains of galactose and arabinose attached to the C-6 carbon. The evaluation of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage was carried out by in vitro fermentation using intestinal microbiota from six healthy donors as the inoculum. The prebiotic activity was assessed through the quantification of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and the evaluation of dynamic bacterial population in mixed faecal cultures by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our findings support the possible incorporation of the Aloe vera mucilage in the development of a variety of food products known as prebiotics aimed at improving gastrointestinal health. PMID:25504136

  10. In vitro assessment of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage and its impact on the human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni; Alonso, José Luis; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-02-01

    Aloe vera mucilage is reported to be rich in acemannan that is a polysaccharide with a backbone of β-(1→4)-D-mannose residues acetylated at the C-2 and C-3 positions and contains some side chains of galactose and arabinose attached to the C-6 carbon. The evaluation of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage was carried out by in vitro fermentation using intestinal microbiota from six healthy donors as the inoculum. The prebiotic activity was assessed through the quantification of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and the evaluation of dynamic bacterial population in mixed faecal cultures by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our findings support the possible incorporation of the Aloe vera mucilage in the development of a variety of food products known as prebiotics aimed at improving gastrointestinal health.

  11. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  12. Simultaneous decay of contact-angle and surface-tension during the rehydration of air-dried root mucilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arye, Gilboa; Chen, Fengxian

    2016-04-01

    Plants can extract or exude water and solutes at their root surface. Among the root exudates, the mucilage exhibits a surfactant like properties - depressing the surface-tension (ST, mN/m) at the water-air interface. The amphipathic nature of some of the mucilage molecules (e.g. lipids) is thought to be the reason for its surfactant like behavior. As the rhizosphere dries out, re-orientation and/or re-configuration of amphipathic molecules at the solid-air interface, may impart hydrophobic nature to the rhizosphere. Our current knowledge on the ST of natural and/or model root mucilage is based on measurements of the equilibrium ST. However, adsorption of amphipathic molecules at the water-air interface is not reached instantaneously. The hydrophobic nature of the rhizosphere was deduced from the initial advancing CA, commonly calculated from the first few milliseconds up to few seconds (depending on the method employed). We hypothesized that during the rehydration of the root mucilage; both quantities are dynamic. Processes such as water absorbance and dissolution, may vary the interfacial tensions as a function of time. Consequently, simultaneous reduction of both CA and ST as a function of time can be expected. The main objective of this study was to characterize and quantify the extent, persistency and dynamic of the CA and ST during rehydration of air-dried root mucilage. The study was involved with measurements of dynamic and equilibrium ST using the pedant drop or Wilhelmy plate method, respectively. Glass slides were coated with naturally occurring or model root mucilage and the CA of a sessile drop was measured optically, as a function of time. The results were analyzed based on the Young-Dupré and Young-Laplace equations, from which the simultaneous decay of CA and ST was deduced. The implication for the wettability and water flow in the rhizosphere will be discussed.

  13. Effect of lipid/polysaccharide ratio on surface activity of model root mucilage in its solid and liquid states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fengxian; Arye, Gilboa

    2016-04-01

    The rhizosphere can be defined as the volume of soil around living roots, which is influenced by root activity. The biological, chemical and physical conditions that prevail in the rhizosphere are significantly different from those of the bulk soil. Plant roots can release diverse organic materials in the rhizosphere which may have different effects on its bio-chemo-physical activity. Among these exudates is the root mucilage which can play a role on the maintenance of root-soil contact, lubrication of the root tip, protection of roots from desiccation and disease, stabilization of soil micro-aggregates and the selective absorption and storage of ions. The surface activity of the root mucilage at the liquid-air interface deduced from its surface tension depression relative to water, implying on its amphiphilic nature. Consequently as the rhizosphere dry out, hydrophobic functional groups may exhibit orientation at the solid-air interface and thus, the wettability of the rhizosphere may temporarily decrease. The major fraction of the root mucilage comprise of polysaccharides and to a much lesser extent, amino acids, organic acids, and phospholipids. The most frequent polysaccharide and phospholipids detected in root mucilage are polygalacturonic acid (PGA) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC), respectively. The latter, is thought to be main cause for the surface active nature of root mucilage. Nevertheless, the role and function of root mucilage in the rhizosphere is commonly studied based on model root mucilage that comprise of only one component, where the most frequent ones are PGA or PC (or lecithin). The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of concentration and PGA/PC ratios on the wettability of a model rhizosphere soil and the surface tension of the model root mucilage at the liquid-air interface. The PGA/PC mixtures were measured for their equilibrium and dynamic surface tension using the Wilhelmy-Plate method. Quartz sand or glass slides were

  14. COBRA-LIKE2, a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE family, plays a role in cellulose deposition in arabidopsis seed coat mucilage secretory cells.

    PubMed

    Ben-Tov, Daniela; Abraham, Yael; Stav, Shira; Thompson, Kevin; Loraine, Ann; Elbaum, Rivka; de Souza, Amancio; Pauly, Markus; Kieber, Joseph J; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2015-03-01

    Differentiation of the maternally derived seed coat epidermal cells into mucilage secretory cells is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Recent studies identified cellulose as an important component of seed mucilage in various species. Cellulose is deposited as a set of rays that radiate from the seed upon mucilage extrusion, serving to anchor the pectic component of seed mucilage to the seed surface. Using transcriptome data encompassing the course of seed development, we identified COBRA-LIKE2 (COBL2), a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), as coexpressed with other genes involved in cellulose deposition in mucilage secretory cells. Disruption of the COBL2 gene results in substantial reduction in the rays of cellulose present in seed mucilage, along with an increased solubility of the pectic component of the mucilage. Light birefringence demonstrates a substantial decrease in crystalline cellulose deposition into the cellulosic rays of the cobl2 mutants. Moreover, crystalline cellulose deposition into the radial cell walls and the columella appears substantially compromised, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and in situ quantification of light birefringence. Overall, the cobl2 mutants display about 40% reduction in whole-seed crystalline cellulose content compared with the wild type. These data establish that COBL2 plays a role in the deposition of crystalline cellulose into various secondary cell wall structures during seed coat epidermal cell differentiation. PMID:25583925

  15. Contribution of Root Cap Mucilage and Presence of an Intact Root Cap in Maize (Zea mays) to the Reduction of Soil Mechanical Impedance

    PubMed Central

    IIJIMA, MORIO; HIGUCHI, TOSHIFUMI; BARLOW, PETER W.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The impedance to root growth imposed by soil can be decreased by both mucilage secretion and the sloughing of border cells from the root cap. The aim of this study is to quantify the contribution of these two factors for maize root growth in compact soil. • Methods These effects were evaluated by assessing growth after removing both mucilage (treatment I – intact) and the root cap (treatment D – decapped) from the root tip, and then by adding back 2 µL of mucilage to both intact (treatment IM – intact plus mucilage) and decapped (treatment DM – decapped plus mucilage) roots. Roots were grown in either loose (0·9 Mg m−3) or compact (1·5 Mg m−3) loamy sand soils. Also examined were the effects of decapping on root penetration resistance at three soil bulk densities (1·3, 1·4 and 1·5 Mg m−3). • Key Results In treatment I, mucilage was visible 12 h after transplanting to the compact soil. The decapping and mucilage treatments affected neither the root elongation nor the root widening rates when the plants were grown in loose soil for 12 h. Root growth pressures of seminal axes in D, DM, I and IM treatments were 0·328, 0·288, 0·272 and 0·222 MPa, respectively, when the roots were grown in compact soil (1·5 Mg m−3 density; 1·59 MPa penetrometer resistance). • Conclusions The contributions of mucilage and presence of the intact root cap without mucilage to the lubricating effect of root cap (percentage decrease in root penetration resistance caused by decapping) were 43 % and 58 %, respectively. The lubricating effect of the root cap was about 30 % and unaffected by the degree of soil compaction (for penetrometer resistances of 0·52, 1·20 and 1·59 MPa). PMID:15277251

  16. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel of midazolam prepared with Ficus carica mucilage.

    PubMed

    Basu, Shyamoshree; Bandyopadhyay, Amal Kumar

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare mucoadhesive in situ nasal gels with mucilage isolated from fig fruits (Ficus carica, family: Moraceae) containing midazolam hydrochloride. Nasal gels of midazolam were prepared using three different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% w/v) of F. carica mucilage (FCM) and synthetic polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and Carbopol 934). Evaluation of FCM showed that it was as safe as the synthetic polymers for nasal administration. In situ gels were prepared with mixture Pluronic F127 and mucoadhesive agents. Evaluation of the prepared gels was carried out, including determination of viscosity, texture profile analysis and mucoadhesive strength. In vitro drug permeation study was conducted with the gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (0.5% w/v sodium taurocholate) using excised goat nasal mucosa. In vitro permeation profiles were evaluated, and histological study of nasal mucosae before and after permeation study was also conducted to determine histological change, if any. In vivo experiments conducted in rabbits further confirmed that in situ nasal gels provided better bioavailability of midazolam than the gels prepared from synthetic mucoadhesive polymers. It was observed that the nasal gel containing 0.5% FCM and 0.5% sodium taurocholate exhibited appropriate rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties and showed better drug release profiles. Moreover, this formulation produced no damage to the nasal mucosa that was used for the permeation study, and absolute bioavailability was also higher compared to gels prepared from synthetic polymers.

  17. Investigation of the effect of nanoclay on the properties of quince seed mucilage edible films

    PubMed Central

    Shekarabi, Azadeh Sadat; Oromiehie, Abdul Rasoul; Vaziri, Ali; Ardjmand, Mahdi; Safekordi, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Some physical properties like Gas barrier, thermal stability, and mechanical properties and brittleness of pure biopolymers film are inadequate for food packaging. The functional properties of quince seed mucilage-based films were enhanced by addition of nanoclay (NC) (Cloisite 30B). Edible films were cast from heated aqueous solutions of quince seed (10% w/w) and NC (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% w/w of quince seed). The effect of NC was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability, and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the nano composite films. In films containing NC, ultimate tensile strength enhanced to 22 MPa, and elongation increased from 2.48% to 6.5%. The addition of NC also improved gas barrier properties of the films. In films containing 2% NC, WVP decreased from 6.69 × 10−7 g·m−1·h−1·Pa−1 to 1.10 × 10−7 g·m−1·h−1·Pa−1 and oxygen permeability declined to 13.68 mL·day·m−2. NC also influences glass transition temperature significantly. The study demonstrated that the properties of quince seed mucilage edible films can be significantly improved using NC as reinforcement. PMID:25493201

  18. Supercritical CO2 generation of nanometric structure from Ocimum basilicum mucilage prepared for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Iman; Ghoreishi, Seyyed M; Habibi, Neda

    2015-04-01

    Plant-derived polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their emollient, lack of toxicity, and irritating nature and low cost. In this work, basil seed mucilage was dried using supercritical carbon dioxide phase inversion technique to form a nanometric structure. The obtained polymeric structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and compared with the oven-derived sample group. It was demonstrated that the product morphology could be controlled by altering the composition of methanol which functioned as the co-solvent in the nonsolvent stream. The most homogeneous product (60-nm mean pore size diameter, 78 m(2)/g BET surface area with no agglomeration) was obtained with 2.5% methanol. The FTIR data showed that the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups suggested the bioadhesive property of basil seed mucilage was good and many active pharmaceutical compounds might be loaded to the resultant nanometric structure to enhance drug release. Furthermore, the FTIR analyses indicated that the nature of the final product did not change during the supercritical drying procedure.

  19. Investigation of the effect of nanoclay on the properties of quince seed mucilage edible films.

    PubMed

    Shekarabi, Azadeh Sadat; Oromiehie, Abdul Rasoul; Vaziri, Ali; Ardjmand, Mahdi; Safekordi, Ali Akbar

    2014-11-01

    Some physical properties like Gas barrier, thermal stability, and mechanical properties and brittleness of pure biopolymers film are inadequate for food packaging. The functional properties of quince seed mucilage-based films were enhanced by addition of nanoclay (NC) (Cloisite 30B). Edible films were cast from heated aqueous solutions of quince seed (10% w/w) and NC (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% w/w of quince seed). The effect of NC was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability, and glass transition temperature (T g) of the nano composite films. In films containing NC, ultimate tensile strength enhanced to 22 MPa, and elongation increased from 2.48% to 6.5%. The addition of NC also improved gas barrier properties of the films. In films containing 2% NC, WVP decreased from 6.69 × 10(-7) g·m(-1)·h(-1)·Pa(-1) to 1.10 × 10(-7) g·m(-1)·h(-1)·Pa(-1) and oxygen permeability declined to 13.68 mL·day·m-(2). NC also influences glass transition temperature significantly. The study demonstrated that the properties of quince seed mucilage edible films can be significantly improved using NC as reinforcement. PMID:25493201

  20. Novel Rhamnogalacturonan I and Arabinoxylan Polysaccharides of Flax Seed Mucilage1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Naran, Radnaa; Chen, Guibing; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2008-01-01

    The viscous seed mucilage of flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a mixture of rhamnogalacturonan I and arabinoxylan with novel side group substitutions. The rhamnogalacturonan I has numerous single nonreducing terminal residues of the rare sugar l-galactose attached at the O-3 position of the rhamnosyl residues instead of the typical O-4 position. The arabinoxylan is highly branched, primarily with double branches of nonreducing terminal l-arabinosyl units at the O-2 and O-3 positions along the xylan backbone. While a portion of each polysaccharide can be purified by anion-exchange chromatography, the side group structures of both polysaccharides are modified further in about one-third of the mucilage to form composites with enhanced viscosity. Our finding of the unusual side group structures for two well-known cell wall polysaccharides supports a hypothesis that plants make a selected few ubiquitous backbone polymers onto which a broad spectrum of side group substitutions are added to engender many possible functions. To this end, modification of one polymer may be accompanied by complementary modifications of others to impart functions to heterocomposites not present in either polymer alone. PMID:18667723

  1. Sorption isotherms, thermodynamic properties and glass transition temperature of mucilage extracted from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Gutiérrez, Sandra Karina; Figueira, Ana Cristina; Rodríguez-Huezo, María Eva; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Carrillo-Navas, Hector; Pérez-Alonso, César

    2015-05-01

    Freeze-dried chia mucilage adsorption isotherms were determined at 25, 35 and 40°C and fitted with the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The integral thermodynamic properties (enthalpy and entropy) were estimated with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Pore radius of the mucilage, calculated with the Kelvin equation, varied from 0.87 to 6.44 nm in the temperature range studied. The point of maximum stability (minimum integral entropy) ranged between 7.56 and 7.63kg H2O per 100 kg of dry solids (d.s.) (water activity of 0.34-0.53). Enthalpy-entropy compensation for the mucilage showed two isokinetic temperatures: (i) one occurring at low moisture contents (0-7.56 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s.), controlled by changes in water entropy; and (ii) another happening in the moisture interval of 7.56-24 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s. and was enthalpy driven. The glass transition temperature Tg of the mucilage fluctuated between 42.93 and 57.93°C.

  2. Sorption isotherms, thermodynamic properties and glass transition temperature of mucilage extracted from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Gutiérrez, Sandra Karina; Figueira, Ana Cristina; Rodríguez-Huezo, María Eva; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Carrillo-Navas, Hector; Pérez-Alonso, César

    2015-05-01

    Freeze-dried chia mucilage adsorption isotherms were determined at 25, 35 and 40°C and fitted with the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The integral thermodynamic properties (enthalpy and entropy) were estimated with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Pore radius of the mucilage, calculated with the Kelvin equation, varied from 0.87 to 6.44 nm in the temperature range studied. The point of maximum stability (minimum integral entropy) ranged between 7.56 and 7.63kg H2O per 100 kg of dry solids (d.s.) (water activity of 0.34-0.53). Enthalpy-entropy compensation for the mucilage showed two isokinetic temperatures: (i) one occurring at low moisture contents (0-7.56 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s.), controlled by changes in water entropy; and (ii) another happening in the moisture interval of 7.56-24 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s. and was enthalpy driven. The glass transition temperature Tg of the mucilage fluctuated between 42.93 and 57.93°C. PMID:25659716

  3. Hydrated mucilage reduces post-dispersal seed removal of a sand desert shrub by ants in a semiarid ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Gao, Ruiru; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lingling; Li, Leilei; He, Hongju; Huang, Zhenying

    2013-12-01

    Post-dispersal seed removal by animals can lead to extensive seed loss and thus is an important factor in structuring plant communities. However, we know much less about post-dispersal seed predation than about other forms of herbivory. Mucilage plays many ecological roles in adaptation of plants to diverse environments; nevertheless, until now the role of mucilage in ant-mediated seed movement remains largely hypothetical. We studied the role of mucilage in seed removal of Artemisia sphaerocephala by ants in Mu Us Sandland in Inner Mongolia, China. Messor aciculatus was the most active seed predator of Artemisia sphaerocephala. Time to first ant collecting (T 1st) of wet intact seeds was longest and significantly different from that for dry intact seeds, wet demucilaged seeds, and dry demucilaged seeds; number of seeds removed to ant nests was lowest for wet intact seeds. After they were collected by ants, 5 % of wet intact seeds were dropped during transport. Our results indicate that seed mucilage of Artemisia sphaerocephala may play a significant role in post-dispersal seed removal by (1) making seeds less attractive to ants, thus resulting in a delay of collection time; (2) forming a strong bond to soil particles, making it difficult for ants to remove seeds; and (3) making seeds more likely to be dropped during transport, thereby allowing them to escape from predation even after collection by ants. This study demonstrates the importance of mucilage in reducing seed removal by ants and thus in anchoring seeds of desert plants in the vicinity of mother plants.

  4. 21 CFR 880.5400 - Neonatal incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal incubator. 880.5400 Section 880.5400 Food... § 880.5400 Neonatal incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal incubator is a device consisting of a... humidity, a control valve through which oxygen may be added, and access ports for nursing care....

  5. Collection of gravitropic effectors from mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fondren, W. M.; Moore, R.

    1987-01-01

    We placed agar blocks adjacent to tips of electrotropically stimulated primary roots of Zea mays. Blocks placed adjacent to the anode-side of the roots for 3 h induced significant curvature when subsequently placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Curvature was always toward the side of the root unto which the agar block was placed. Agar blocks not contacting roots and blocks placed adjacent to the cathode-side of electrotropically stimulated roots did not induce significant curvature when placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry indicated that blocks adjacent to the anode-side of electrotropically-stimulated roots contained significantly more calcium than (1) blocks not contacting roots, and (2) blocks contacting the cathode-side of roots. These results demonstrate the presence of a gradient of endogenous Ca in mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots (i.e. roots undergoing gravitropic-like curvature).

  6. Recently Investigated Natural Gums and Mucilages as Pharmaceutical Excipients: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Pritam Dinesh; Pawar, Harshal Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Due to advances in drug delivery technology, currently, excipients are included in novel dosage forms to fulfil specific functions and in some cases they directly or indirectly influence the extent and/or rate of drug release and drug absorption. Recent trends towards use of plant based and natural products demand the replacement of synthetic additives with natural ones. Today, the whole world is increasingly interested in natural drugs and excipients. These natural materials have many advantages over synthetic ones as they are chemically inert, nontoxic, less expensive, biodegradable, and widely available. This review discusses majority of the plant-derived polymeric compounds (gums and mucilage's), their sources, chemical constituents, uses, and some recent investigations as excipients in novel drug delivery systems. PMID:26556189

  7. Growth under visible light increases conidia and mucilage production and tolerance to UV-B radiation in the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Henrique D; Massola, Nelson S; Flint, Stephan D; Silva, Geraldo J; Bachmann, Luciano; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto U L

    2015-01-01

    Light conditions can influence fungal development. Some spectral wavebands can induce conidial production, whereas others can kill the conidia, reducing the population size and limiting dispersal. The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose in several crops. During the asexual stage on the host plant, Colletototrichum produces acervuli with abundant mucilage-embedded conidia. These conidia are responsible for fungal dispersal and host infection. This study examined the effect of visible light during C. acutatum growth on the production of conidia and mucilage and also on the UV tolerance of these conidia. Conidial tolerance to an environmentally realistic UV irradiance was determined both in conidia surrounded by mucilage on sporulating colonies and in conidial suspension. Exposures to visible light during fungal growth increased production of conidia and mucilage as well as conidial tolerance to UV. Colonies exposed to light produced 1.7 times more conidia than colonies grown in continuous darkness. The UV tolerances of conidia produced under light were at least two times higher than conidia produced in the dark. Conidia embedded in the mucilage on sporulating colonies were more tolerant of UV than conidia in suspension that were washed free of mucilage. Conidial tolerance to UV radiation varied among five selected isolates.

  8. The impact of mucilage exudate on root water uptake - Numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, N.; Carminati, A.; Javaux, M.

    2015-12-01

    For many years, the rhizosphere, which is the zone of soil in the vicinity of the roots and which is influenced by the roots, is known as a unique soil environment with different physical, biological and chemical properties than those of the bulk soil. Indeed, in recent studies it has been shown that root exudates and especially mucilage alter the hydraulic properties of the soil, and that drying and wetting cycles of mucilage result in non-equilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere. While there are experimental evidences and simplified 1D model for those concepts, an integrated model that considers rhizosphere processes with a detailed model for water and roots flow is absent. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop a 3D physical model of water flow in the soil-plant continuum that take in consideration root architecture and rhizosphere specific properties. We simulate wetting and drying cycles and examine the impact of various rhizosphere processes on water content distribution and root water uptake (RWU). For wetting, the model predict that after infiltration the rate of change in the rhizosphere water content is lower than in the bulk soil (due to non-equilibrium), but over time water infiltrated into the rhizosphere and eventually the water content in the rhizosphere became higher than in the bulk soil. For drying, the high water holding capacity of the rhizosphere, and the non-equilibrium between water content and water potential delay the onset of stress. Furthermore, when continues drying-wetting setup is examined, rhizosphere properties results in a lower fluctuation of the water content around the root. Overall, the model presented here is the first attempt to include rhizosphere specific processes within a detailed soil-plant water flow model. The model provides a tool to examine the impact of different rhizosphere processes on water dynamics and RWU under different irrigation practices.

  9. Structural studies on the major component of Gladiolus style mucilage, an arabinogalactan-protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, P A; Clarke, A E

    1979-01-01

    The major component of the Gladiolus style mucilage was shown to be an arabinogalactan-protein. The arabinogalactan-protein was isolated from the style extract by affinity chromatography with tridacnin (the galactose-binding lectin from the clam Tridacna maxima) coupled to Sepharose 4B. The isolated arabinogalactan-protein represents 40% of the soluble style extract; it contains 90% (w/w) carbohydrate and 3% protein. The major monosaccharides of the carbohydrate component are galactose and arabinose, in the proportions 6:1. A component with a similar composition was also isolated from the crude extract by precipitation with the beta-glucosyl artifical carbohydrate antigen. The protein moiety of the arabinogalactan-protein remained associated with the carbohydrate after chromatography in urea, and has high contents of serine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine and alanine. The arabinogalactan-protein is apparently chemically homogeneous; it eluted as a single symmetrical peak from Sepharose 4B, and three fractions collected across the peak were structurally similar. Ultracentrifugal studies showed it to be polydisperse in the mol.wt. range 150 000--400 000. The information obtained from methylation analyses, oxalic acid and enzymic hydrolyses is consistent with a model having a beta 1 leads to 3 galactan backbone, branched through C(O)6 to beta 1 leads to 6 galactan side chains. The arabinose is exclusively present as terminal alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl residues. Enzymic removal of the arabinose residues resulted in a marked decrease in solubility of the molecule. The localization of the arabinogalactan-protein in the mucilage of the style canal was demonstrated cytochemically. The possible roles of the arabinogalactan-protein in relation to recognition of compatible pollen and pollen-tube growth are discussed. Images PLATE 1 PMID:518543

  10. Edible film production from chia seed mucilage: Effect of glycerol concentration on its physicochemical and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Dick, Melina; Costa, Tania Maria Haas; Gomaa, Ahmed; Subirade, Muriel; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Flôres, Simone Hickmann

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and mechanical properties of a novel edible film based on chia mucilage (CM) hydrocolloid. CM (1% w/v) films were prepared by incorporation of three concentrations of glycerol (25%, 50%, and 75% w/w, based on CM weight). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), elongation at break (EB), and water solubility of CM films increased while their tensile strength (TS), and Young's modulus (YM) decreased significantly (p<0.05). CM films containing a high concentration of glycerol were slightly reddish and yellowish in color but still had a transparent appearance. CM films exhibited excellent absorption of ultraviolet light, and good thermal stability. The scanning electron micrographs showed that all CM films had a uniform appearance. This study demonstrated that the chia mucilage hydrocolloid has important properties and potential as an edible film, or coating.

  11. Incubation and Intuition in Creative Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation. PMID:27499745

  12. Incubation and Intuition in Creative Problem Solving.

    PubMed

    Gilhooly, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation. PMID:27499745

  13. Analyses and localization of pectin-like carbohydrates in cell wall and mucilage of the green alga Netrium digitus

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    The unicellular, simply shaped desmid Netrium digitus inhabiting acid bog ponds grows in two phases. Prior to division, the cell elongates at its central zone, whereas in a second phase, polar tip growth occurs. Electron microscopy demonstrates that Netrium is surrounded by a morphologically homogeneous cell wall, which lacks pores. Immunocytochemical and biochemical analyses give insight into physical wall properties and, thus, into adaptation to the extreme environment. The monoclonal antibodies JIM5 and JIM7 directed against pectic epitopes with different degrees of esterification label preferentially growing wall zones in Netrium. In contrast, 2F4 marks the cell wall only after experimental de-esterification. Electron energy loss spectroscopy reveals Ca-binding capacities of pectins and gives indirect evidence for the degree of their esterification. An antibody raised against Netrium mucilage is not only specific to mucilage but also recognizes wall components in transmission electron microscopy and dot blots. These results indicate a smooth transition between mucilage and the cell wall in Netrium. PMID:19340523

  14. Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.

    2003-12-01

    Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the R¡o Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5§ S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of

  15. National Security Technology Incubator Evaluation Process

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the process by which the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) will be evaluated. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the components, steps, and measures of the proposed evaluation process. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. An effective evaluation process of the NSTI is an important step as it can provide qualitative and quantitative information on incubator performance over a given period. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The mission of the NSTI is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. To achieve success for both incubator businesses and the NSTI program, an evaluation process is essential to effectively measure results and implement corrective processes in the incubation design if needed. The evaluation process design will collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through performance evaluation system.

  16. Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark

    One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

  17. Theoretical Modeling of Prion Disease Incubation

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, R. V.; Slepoy, A.; Singh, R. R. P.; Cox, D. L.; Pázmándi, F.

    2003-01-01

    We apply a theoretical aggregation model to laboratory and epidemiological prion disease incubation time data. In our model, slow growth of misfolded protein aggregates from small initial seeds controls the latent or lag phase; aggregate fissioning and subsequent spreading leads to an exponential growth phase. Our model accounts for the striking reproducibility of incubation times for high dose inoculation of lab animals. In particular, low dose yields broad incubation time distributions, and increasing dose narrows distributions and yields sharply defined onset times. We also explore how incubation time statistics depend upon aggregate morphology. We apply our model to fit the experimental dose-incubation curves for distinct strains of scrapie, and explain logarithmic variation at high dose and deviations from logarithmic behavior at low dose. We use this to make testable predictions for infectivity time-course experiments. PMID:12885622

  18. [Formaldehyde sediment in incubators following disinfection].

    PubMed

    Wartner, R; Kegel, M; Meyer, H D; Schlüter, G; Wegner, J; Werner, E

    1983-12-01

    Measurements in incubators revealed the presence of formaldehyde concentrations involving a health risk for premature and normal newborns kept and cared for in incubators. Prior to measurements, the incubators had been disinfected by means of formaldehyde vapours in an "Aseptor" disinfecting cabinet (Drägerwerk AG, Lübeck) and then ventilated in strict adherence to operating instructions. The elevated formaldehyde concentrations found had been due to residues of paraformaldehyde and urotropin on the surfaces of the disinfected apparatus, liberating formaldehyde by hydrolysis depending on temperature and relative humidity. There should be a basic reconsideration of the present practice of incubator disinfection. From experiments with activated-carbon filters in incubators it would seem that there is a chance of reducing such formaldehyde concentrations.

  19. Seeds' physicochemical traits and mucilage protection against aluminum effect during germination and root elongation as important factors in a biofuel seed crop (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Silva, Giovanni Eustáquio Alves; Ramos, Flávia Toledo; de Faria, Ana Paula; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-10-01

    We determined the length, volume, dry biomass, and density in seeds of five castor bean cultivars and verified notable physicochemical trait differences. Seeds were then subjected to different toxic aluminum (Al) concentrations to evaluate germination, relative root elongation, and the role of root apices' rhizosphere mucilage layer. Seeds' physicochemical traits were associated with Al toxicity responses, and the absence of Al in cotyledons near to the embryo was revealed by Al-hematoxylin staining, indicating that Al did not induce significant germination reduction rates between cultivars. However, in the more sensitive cultivar, Al was found around the embryo, contributing to subsequent growth inhibition. After this, to investigate the role of mucilage in Al tolerance, an assay was conducted using NH4Cl to remove root mucilage before or after exposure to different Al concentrations. Sequentially, the roots were stained with hematoxylin and a quantitative analysis of staining intensity was obtained. These results revealed the significant contribution of the mucilage layer to Al toxicity responses in castor bean seedlings. Root growth elongation under Al toxicity confirmed the role of the mucilage layer, which jointly indicated the differential Al tolerance between cultivars and an efficient Al-exclusion mechanism in the tolerant cultivar.

  20. Networked incubators. Hothouses of the new economy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M T; Chesbrough, H W; Nohria, N; Sull, D N

    2000-01-01

    Business incubators such as Hotbank, CMGI, and Idealab! are a booming industry. Offering office space, funding, and basic services to start-ups, these organizations have become the hottest way to nurture and grow fledgling businesses. But are incubators a fleeting phenomenon born of an overheated stock market, or are they an important and lasting way of creating value and wealth in the new economy? The authors argue that one type of incubator, called a networked incubator, represents a fundamentally new and enduring organizational model uniquely suited to growing businesses in the Internet economy. It shares certain features with other incubators--mainly, it fosters a spirit of entrepreneurship and offers economies of scale. But its key distinguishing feature is its ability to give start-ups preferential access to a network of potential partners. Such incubators institutionalize their networking--they have systems in place to encourage networking, helping start-ups, for example, to meet with potential business allies. That doesn't mean incubatees get preferential treatment; it means only that they have built-in access to partnerships that might not have existed without the incubator. Even with this advantage, however, networked incubators can easily follow the road to ruin. To avoid failure, they must create a portfolio of companies and advisers that their incubatees can leverage. That can be done by strategically investing in portfolio firms and by enlisting a large set of business allies. It can also be done by establishing connections and relationships that are anchored more to the incubator than to particular individuals.

  1. Ispaghula mucilage-gellan mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl: development by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-07-17

    Response surface methodology based on 3(2) factorial design was used to develop ispaghula (Plantago ovata F.) husk mucilage (IHM)-gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through Ca(2+)-ion cross-linked ionotropic-gelation technique for the use in oral drug delivery. GG to IHM ratio and cross-linker (CaCl2) concentration were investigated as independent variables. Drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release after 10h (R10h, %) were analyzed as dependent variables. The optimized mucoadhesive beads (F-O) showed DEE of 94.24 ± 4.18%, R10h of 59.13 ± 2.27%. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR analyses. The in vitro drug release from these beads showed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism over 10h. The optimized beads showed pH-dependent swelling and good mucoadhesivity with the goat intestinal mucosa. The optimized IHM-GG mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl exhibited significant antidiabetic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over 10h. PMID:24702916

  2. Characterization of antioxidant-antibacterial quince seed mucilage films containing thyme essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In this study thyme essential oil (TEO) concentrations ranging from 0% to 2.0%, incorporated in quince seed mucilage (QSM) film were used. Antibacterial activity, physical, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties of QSM films were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of the QSM films incorporated with thyme essential oil was screened against 11 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. Films containing 1% of thyme essential oil were effective against all test microorganisms and exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Shewanella putrefaciens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. QSM films exhibited some antioxidant activity, which was significantly improved by the addition of the essential oil. A reduction of the glass transition temperature, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), was caused by addition of thyme essential oil into the QSM films. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to explain structure-property relationships. Incorporating thyme essential oil into edible QSM films provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. PMID:24274540

  3. Characterization of antioxidant-antibacterial quince seed mucilage films containing thyme essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In this study thyme essential oil (TEO) concentrations ranging from 0% to 2.0%, incorporated in quince seed mucilage (QSM) film were used. Antibacterial activity, physical, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties of QSM films were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of the QSM films incorporated with thyme essential oil was screened against 11 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. Films containing 1% of thyme essential oil were effective against all test microorganisms and exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Shewanella putrefaciens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. QSM films exhibited some antioxidant activity, which was significantly improved by the addition of the essential oil. A reduction of the glass transition temperature, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), was caused by addition of thyme essential oil into the QSM films. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to explain structure-property relationships. Incorporating thyme essential oil into edible QSM films provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods.

  4. The impact of mucilage on root water uptake—A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, N.; Carminati, A.; Javaux, M.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of water between soil and plants follows the gradient in water potential and depends on the hydraulic properties of the soil and the root. In models for root water uptake (RWU), it is usually assumed that the hydraulic properties near the plant root (i.e., in the rhizosphere) and in the bulk soil are identical. Yet a growing body of evidence has shown that the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere are affected by root exudates (specifically, mucilage) and markedly differ from those of the bulk soil. In this work, we couple a 3-D detailed description of RWU with a model that accounts for the rhizosphere-specific properties (i.e., rhizosphere hydraulic properties and a nonequilibrium relation between water content and matric head). We show that as the soil dries out (due to water uptake), the higher water holding capacity of the rhizosphere results in a delay of the stress onset. During rewetting, nonequilibrium results in a slower increase of the rhizosphere water content. Furthermore, the inverse relation between water content and relaxation time implies that the drier is the rhizosphere the longer it takes to rewet. Another outcome of nonequilibrium is the small fluctuation of the rhizosphere water content compared to the bulk soil. Overall, our numerical results are in agreement with recent experimental data and provide a tool to further examine the impact of various rhizosphere processes on RWU and water dynamics.

  5. Incubation periods of Yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Michael A; Arana-Vizcarrondo, Neysarí; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Staples, J Erin

    2010-07-01

    Yellow fever virus is a global health threat due to its endemicity in parts of Africa and South America where human infections occur in residents and travelers. To understand yellow fever dynamics, it is critical to characterize the incubation periods of the virus in vector mosquitoes and humans. Here, we compare four statistical models of the yellow fever incubation periods fitted with historical data. The extrinsic incubation period in the urban vector Aedes aegypti was best characterized with a temperature-dependent Weibull model with a median of 10 days at 25 degrees C (middle 95% = 2.0-37 days). The intrinsic incubation period, fitted with a log-normal model, had a median of 4.3 days (middle 95% = 2.3-8.6 days). These estimates and their associated statistical models provide a quantitative basis to assist in exposure assessments, model potential outbreaks, and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions.

  6. National Security Technology Incubation Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-01

    This strategic plan contains information on the vision, mission, business and technology environment, goals, objectives, and incubation process of the National Security Technology Incubation Program (NSTI) at Arrowhead Center. The development of the NSTI is a key goal of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP). Objectives to achieve this goal include developing incubator plans (strategic, business, action, and operations), creating an incubator environment, creating a support and mentor network for companies in the incubator program, attracting security technology businesses to the region, encouraging existing business to expand, initiating business start-ups, evaluating products and processes of the incubator program, and achieving sustainability of the incubator program. With the events of 9/11, the global community faces ever increasing and emerging threats from hostile groups determined to rule by terror. According to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Plan, the United States must be able to quickly respond and adapt to unanticipated situations as they relate to protection of our homeland and national security. Technology plays a key role in a strong national security position, and the private business community, along with the national laboratories, academia, defense and homeland security organizations, provide this technology. Fostering innovative ideas, translated into relevant technologies answering the needs of NNSA, is the purpose of the NSTI. Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To develop the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet the planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability activities for the program and identify and incubate new technologies to assist the NNSA in meeting its mission and goals. Technology alone does not give a competitive advantage to the country, but the creativity and speed with which it is employed does. For a company to

  7. Gastroprotective effect of aqueous extract and mucilage from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhishek L.; Bhot, Meeta A.; Chandra, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bryophyllum pinnatum is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Tropical America and China for treatment of various diseases. B. pinnatum contains different groups of phytoconstituents viz., flavonoid, terpenoids, alkaloid, phenolic compounds. Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. pinnatum whole plant aqueous extract, and mucilage (MUC) isolated from the whole plant against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract at dose level of 500 and 750 mg/kg b.w., MUC at 500 mg/kg dose level and standard drug Rabeprazole at dose level of 20 mg/kg b.w. where given for 7 days. Results: The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg p.o. and MUC at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. markedly decrease the incidence of ulcers in ethanol induced ulcer rats. In ethanol induced ulcer rats, there was a decrease in the gastric volume, free and total acidity and ulcerative index as compared to the control group. Total carbohydrate content was found to be an increase as compare to control the group. The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in the above parameters which was comparable to the standard drug rabeprazole (20 mg/kg). B. pinnatum extract and MUC showed protection index 72.69 and 69.65% respectively, whereas standard drug rabeprazole showed protection index 75.49%. Conclusions: Whole plant extracts of B. pinnatum and MUC has potent gastroprotective effect which can be further clinically studied for new drug development. PMID:25593406

  8. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  9. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator

    PubMed Central

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. Methods The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Results Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. Conclusion The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost. PMID:22167517

  10. National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

  11. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  12. [Audit "Toys and incubators in neonatology"].

    PubMed

    Raginel, T; Bigoin-Dupont, M; Aguelon, V; Fines-Guyon, M; Guillemin, M G

    2009-08-01

    Owing to an increase in nosocomial septicaemias in the Neonatalogy department, we've judged it necessary to consider the role of items not linked to the nursing procedures, and nevertheless present in the incubators, as well as the hygiene techniques applied to them. In November 2007, we've made a longitudinal prospective study consisting in an observation audit during 3 successive days, observing every single incubator with a newborn baby. In each incubator, we've checked whether there were or not items that weren't required by the nursing activities, along with their characteristics and the hygiene procedures applied to them. We've inquired as well whether the parents and the nursing staff knew and applied the required hygiene procedures. In 13 among the 17 incubators under survey, at least one item not strictly required by the nursing procedures could be found. The number of toys in each incubator varied from seven to one. Among the 33 toys surveyed, 24 (73%) of them showed a score of maximum fluffiness (4 out of 4), and only 10 wore labels giving cleansing advice from the manufacturers. Without any record about the cleaning/disinfecting of the toys brought in hospital, we have observed that the parents were given varied advice about how to clean the toys at home before putting them in the incubators (only four parents had washed the toys in their washing machines at more than 30 degrees C). From the six samples under scrutiny, all the culture results were tested positive. In particular two of the soft toys sampled were found infected by a Pseudomonas oryzihabitans. These particular toys belonged to a baby who had been diagnosed with a septicaemia characterized by hemocultures positive to a P. oryzihabitans of a different strain. Our audit has been an efficient reminder that any item put in an incubator is a potential vector and reservoir of pathogen organisms. After a general feedback towards the department staff, the medical staff then prescribed to

  13. [Audit "Toys and incubators in neonatology"].

    PubMed

    Raginel, T; Bigoin-Dupont, M; Aguelon, V; Fines-Guyon, M; Guillemin, M G

    2009-08-01

    Owing to an increase in nosocomial septicaemias in the Neonatalogy department, we've judged it necessary to consider the role of items not linked to the nursing procedures, and nevertheless present in the incubators, as well as the hygiene techniques applied to them. In November 2007, we've made a longitudinal prospective study consisting in an observation audit during 3 successive days, observing every single incubator with a newborn baby. In each incubator, we've checked whether there were or not items that weren't required by the nursing activities, along with their characteristics and the hygiene procedures applied to them. We've inquired as well whether the parents and the nursing staff knew and applied the required hygiene procedures. In 13 among the 17 incubators under survey, at least one item not strictly required by the nursing procedures could be found. The number of toys in each incubator varied from seven to one. Among the 33 toys surveyed, 24 (73%) of them showed a score of maximum fluffiness (4 out of 4), and only 10 wore labels giving cleansing advice from the manufacturers. Without any record about the cleaning/disinfecting of the toys brought in hospital, we have observed that the parents were given varied advice about how to clean the toys at home before putting them in the incubators (only four parents had washed the toys in their washing machines at more than 30 degrees C). From the six samples under scrutiny, all the culture results were tested positive. In particular two of the soft toys sampled were found infected by a Pseudomonas oryzihabitans. These particular toys belonged to a baby who had been diagnosed with a septicaemia characterized by hemocultures positive to a P. oryzihabitans of a different strain. Our audit has been an efficient reminder that any item put in an incubator is a potential vector and reservoir of pathogen organisms. After a general feedback towards the department staff, the medical staff then prescribed to

  14. Isolated root caps, border cells, and mucilage from host roots stimulate hyphal branching of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Gigaspora gigantea.

    PubMed

    Nagahashi, Gerald; Douds, David D

    2004-09-01

    Unlike previous reports that have shown that water soluble and volatile compounds from roots or root exudates play an important role in precolonization events during arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus-host root interactions (Bécard & Piché 1989, Giovannetti et al. 1993), the results shown here deal with particulate and viscous fractions isolated from host roots. Root caps and a slow sedimenting particulate fraction (SSPF) were rapidly isolated and separated from Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots (D. carota) grown in liquid culture. In addition, border cells (BC) and mucilage were isolated from aseptically grown corn seedlings (Zea mays). Root caps, SSPF (composed mainly of small root cap fragments and some BCs), BCs, and mucilage all had an associated AM fungus hyphal branching stimulator. Root caps stored for 5 d at 4 degrees C appeared to either synthesize or slowly release the branching stimulator. Also, isolated root caps from roots grown in the absence of P contained more branch stimulating activity than those isolated from roots grown in the presence of P. Although the branching stimulation activity in particulate fractions was low compared to that of the exudate, the particulate fractions can stick to the root surface at considerable distances from the root tip. This may be significant during the infection and colonization of host roots at sites far removed from the primary location of exudation.

  15. Use of coffee mucilage as a new substrate for hydrogen production in anaerobic co-digestion with swine manure.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mario Andrés; Rodríguez Susa, Manuel; Andres, Yves

    2014-09-01

    Coffee mucilage (CM), a novel substrate produced as waste from agricultural activity in Colombia, the largest fourth coffee producer in the world, was used for hydrogen production. The study evaluated three ratios (C1-3) for co-digestion of CM and swine manure (SM), and an increase in organic load to improve hydrogen production (C4). The hydrogen production was improved by a C/N ratio of 53.4 used in C2 and C4. The average hydrogen production rate in C4 was 7.6 NL H2/LCMd, which indicates a high hydrogen potential compare to substrates such as POME and wheat starch. In this condition, the biogas composition was 0.1%, 50.6% and 39.0% of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, respectively. The butyric and acetic fermentation pathways were the main routes identified during hydrogen production which kept a Bu/Ac ratio at around 1.0. A direct relationship between coffee mucilage, biogas and cumulative hydrogen volume was established. PMID:24656548

  16. The Achene Mucilage Hydrated in Desert Dew Assists Seed Cells in Maintaining DNA Integrity: Adaptive Strategy of Desert Plant Artemisia sphaerocephala

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wenhao; Dong, Ming; Boubriak, Ivan; Huang, Zhenying

    2011-01-01

    Despite proposed ecological importance of mucilage in seed dispersal, germination and seedling establishment, little is known about the role of mucilage in seed pre-germination processes. Here we investigated the role of mucilage in assisting achene cells to repair DNA damage during dew deposition in the desert. Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes were first treated γ-irradiation to induce DNA damage, and then they were repaired in situ in the desert dew. Dew deposition duration can be as long as 421 min in early mornings. Intact achenes absorbed more water than demucilaged achenes during dew deposition and also carried water for longer time following sunrise. After 4-d dew treatment, DNA damage of irradiated intact and demucilaged achenes was reduced to 24.38% and 46.84%, respectively. The irradiated intact achenes exhibited much higher DNA repair ratio than irradiated demucilaged achenes. Irradiated intact achenes showed an improved germination and decreased nonviable achenes after dew treatment, and significant differences in viability between the two types of achenes were detected after 1020 min of dew treatment. Achene mucilage presumably plays an ecologically important role in the life cycle of A. sphaerocephala by aiding DNA repair of achene cells in genomic-stressful habitats. PMID:21912689

  17. Pavlovian Incubation of US Signal Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Murray J.

    2013-01-01

    Four experiments with rats examined Pavlovian incubation, in which responding increases when Pavlovian conditioning is followed by a testing delay. In a within-subjects design, Experiment 1 first showed that when a single food pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) signaled the delivery of three additional pellets, responding after the single US was…

  18. Development of an Educational Innovation Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Odin; Kerr, Shantia

    2010-01-01

    The Educational Innovation Incubator is an electronic classroom designed to evolve at the University of Central Missouri. This newly enacted endeavor is a place for faculty and students to combine the scholarship of teaching and learning into their courses by experimenting with the latest technologies in education. This paper describes the process…

  19. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540...

  20. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540...

  1. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540...

  2. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540...

  3. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540...

  4. Incubational domain characterization in lightly doped ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhipeng; Mori, Toshiyuki; John Auchterlonie, Graeme; Zou Jin; Drennan, John

    2012-08-15

    Microstructures of both Gd- and Y-doped ceria with different doping level (i.e., 10 at% and 25 at%) have been comprehensively characterized by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Coherent nano-sized domains can be widely observed in heavily doped ceria. Nevertheless, it was found that a large amount of dislocations actually exist in lightly doped ceria instead of heavily doped ones. Furthermore, incubational domains can be detected in lightly doped ceria, with dislocations located at the interfaces. The interactions between such linear dislocations and dopant defects have been simulated accordingly. As a consequence, the formation mechanism of incubational domains is rationalized in terms of the interaction between intrinsic dislocations of doped ceria and dopant defects. This study offers the insights into the initial state and related mechanism of the formation of nano-sized domains, which have been widely observed in heavily rare-earth-doped ceria in recent years. - Graphical abstract: Interactions between dislocations and dopants lead to incubational domain formation in lightly doped ceria. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures were characterized in both heavily and light Gd-/Y-doped ceria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocations are existed in lightly doped ceria rather than heavily doped one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interactions between dislocations and dopant defects were simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of dislocation associated incubational domain is rationalized.

  5. Dynamics of the oceanographic properties during mucilage appearance in the Northern Adriatic Sea: analysis of the 1997 event in comparison to earlier events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzi, Stefano; Ivančić, Ingrid; Catalano, Giulio; Djakovac, Tamara; Degobbis, Danilo

    2004-10-01

    The dynamics of the oceanographic properties in Northern Adriatic Sea during the 1997 mucilage event is reported. These observations, compared to a longer time series (1985-1998), indicate that processes on short temporal scales and abrupt changes of the physical and biogeochemical conditions in the basin have a great effect on mucilage events. The seawater warming during the years with the mucilage was delayed in May and June compared to those without aggregate. Since the same typical summer values were afterward reached in both cases, a more abrupt warming is supposed in the period preceding mucilage events. During 1997, the Po River regime had an abrupt change from very low flow rates in April-May (526-985 m 3 s -1) to a strong freshet in July (4870 m 3 s -1). This river pulse, coupled to the scarce intrusion of the high salinity Middle Adriatic Deep Water (MAdDW), determined the large retention of low salinity waters in the Northern Adriatic Sea from July to September. In 1997, as well as during the events in 1989, 1991, the freshwater content in the basin was two times higher (4-5%) with respect to the years without aggregates from 1992 to 1998 (<2%). The biological response to these physical forcings was an intense phytoplankton bloom in the western low salinity waters in July 1997 (O 2sat. up to 206%, Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) up to 7.64 μg dm -3), a common feature in all years with mucilage. It determined a strong increase of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON, +100%) and phosphorus (DOP, +39%) in the most productive western waters of the basin, which constitute available material for mucilage formation. Nutrient content in the upper waters shifted in concomitance to mucilage appearance, from a PO 4-scarce condition in spring (Si/N/P=225:105:1), to a rather severe dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and SiO 4-depletion in summer (Si/N/P=21:13:1). This drastic change can stimulate exudate hyperproduction and/or modify bacteria degradation capacity of organic matter

  6. The e-Incubator: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Compatible Mini Incubator

    PubMed Central

    Wartella, Karin; Khalilzad Sharghi, Vahid; Xu, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    The tissue engineering community has been vocal regarding the need for noninvasive instruments to assess the development of tissue-engineered constructs. Medical imaging has helped fulfill this role. However, specimens allocated to a test tube for imaging cannot be tested for a prolonged period or returned to the incubator. Therefore, samples are essentially wasted due to potential contamination and transfer in a less than optimal growth environment. In turn, we present a standalone, miniature, magnetic resonance imaging-compatible incubator, termed the e-incubator. This incubator uses a microcontroller unit to automatically sense and regulate physiological conditions for tissue culture, thus allowing for concurrent tissue culture and evaluation. The e-incubator also offers an innovative scheme to study underlying mechanisms related to the structural and functional evolution of tissues. Importantly, it offers a key step toward enabling real-time testing of engineered tissues before human transplantation. For validation purposes, we cultured tissue-engineered bone constructs for 4 weeks to test the e-incubator. Importantly, this technology allows for visualizing the evolution of temporal and spatial morphogenesis. In turn, the e-incubator can filter deficient constructs, thereby increasing the success rate of implantation of tissue-engineered constructs, especially as construct design grows in levels of complexity to match the geometry and function of patients' unique needs. PMID:25190214

  7. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  8. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  9. An Introduction to Developing an Urban Business Incubator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James; And Others

    Designed to provide a brief overview of the considerations involved in establishing a small business incubator, this guide presents information on incubator classification, funding methods, incubator operation techniques, and two-year college involvement in the formation of a working business incubator. Part 1 describes a small business incubator…

  10. Incubation temperature, morphology and performance in loggerhead (Caretta caretta) turtle hatchlings from Mon Repos, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Elizabeth L.; Booth, David T.; Limpus, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    Marine turtles are vulnerable to climate change because their life history and reproduction are tied to environmental temperatures. The egg incubation stage is arguably the most vulnerable stage, because marine turtle eggs require a narrow range of temperatures for successful incubation. Additionally, incubation temperature affects sex, emergence success, morphology and locomotor performance of hatchlings. Hatchlings often experience high rates of predation in the first few hours of their life, and increased size or locomotor ability may improve their chances of survival. Between 2010 and 2013 we monitored the temperature of loggerhead (Caretta caretta; Linnaeus 1758) turtle nests at Mon Repos Rookery, and used these data to calculate a mean three day maximum temperature (T3dm) for each nest. We calculated the hatching and emergence success for each nest, then measured the mass, size and locomotor performance of hatchlings that emerged from those nests. Nests with a T3dm greater than 34°C experienced a lower emergence success and produced smaller hatchlings than nests with a T3dm lower than 34°C. Hatchlings from nests with a T3dm below 34°C performed better in crawling and swimming trials than hatchlings from nests with a T3dm above 34°C. Thus even non-lethal increases in global temperatures have the potential to detrimentally affect fitness and survival of marine turtle hatchlings. PMID:26002933

  11. Study of the Effect of Dillenia indica Fruit Mucilage on the Properties of Metformin Hydrochloride Loaded Spray Dried Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hemanta Kumar; Nath, Lila Kanta

    2014-01-01

    Natural materials are preferred over synthetic counterparts because of their biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The present work was proposed to utilize mucilage from natural source for the development of controlled release formulation of metformin hydrochloride. Natural mucilaginous substance extracted from Dillenia indica L. (DI) fruit was used in fabricating controlled release microspheres. The microspheres were prepared by spray drying method under different formulation parameters. The prepared microspheres were studied for particle size, drug excipient compatibility, particle shape and surface morphologies, drug entrapment efficiency, mucoadhesivity, and in vitro drug release properties. The prepared microspheres exhibited mucoadhesive properties and demonstrated controlled release of metformin hydrochloride. The study reveals that the natural materials can be used for formulation of controlled release microspheres and would provide ample opportunities for further study. PMID:27379337

  12. Quince seed mucilage magnetic nanocomposites as novel bioadsorbents for efficient removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Mohammadi, Sina

    2015-12-10

    This study investigated the potential use of quince seed mucilage (QSM) as alternative bioadsorbents for methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. This novel magnetic nanocomposite adsorbent (MNCA) based on QSM was synthesized by in situ formation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles into QSM solution. The MNCAs were characterized using FTIR, SEM, TEM, XRD, and VSM. Removal of MB was investigated by batch adsorption technique. The thermodynamic parameters suggest that the dye adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Moreover, the adsorbents showed high selectivity for the adsorption of cationic dyes with regenerated properties. The pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models also provide the best correlation of the experimental data for MB adsorption. The results indicate that the MNCAs can be employed as efficient low cost adsorbents with excellent dye adsorption performance in wastewater treatment process. PMID:26428118

  13. Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

  14. Physics Incubator at Kansas State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Bret; Chakrabarti, Amitabha

    Funded by a major private endowment, the physics department at Kansas State University has recently started a physics incubator program that provides support to research projects with a high probability of commercial application. Some examples of these projects will be discussed in this talk. In a parallel effort, undergraduate physics majors and graduate students are being encouraged to work with our business school to earn an Entrepreneurship minor and a certification in Entrepreneurship. We will discuss how these efforts are promoting a ``culture change'' in the department. We will also discuss the advantages and the difficulties in running such a program in a Midwest college town.

  15. Factors related to the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.; Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Kondrad, Shannon R.

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to artificially incubate the eggs of wild birds have failed in many respects in duplicating the success of natural incubation. As part of a larger study we had the opportunity to artificially incubate the eggs of 22 species of birds (three domestic and 19 wild species). We report the successes and failures associated with artificial incubation of these eggs. Moisture loss varied widely, not only for Orders of birds but for similar species within an Order. Overall hatching success and success through to 90% of incubation varied for different Orders and for similar species. Humidity and temperature are critical elements in the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs and must be closely monitored throughout incubation to ensure the best possible chance of hatching. Even when these elements are addressed, artificial incubation still can not duplicate the success of incubation by the parent.

  16. Expression of PRX36, PMEI6 and SBT1.7 is controlled by complex transcription factor regulatory networks for proper seed coat mucilage extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Ranocha, Philippe; Francoz, Edith; Burlat, Vincent; Dunand, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage secretory cells (MSC) form an intriguing cell layer important for seed germination. In Arabidopsis thaliana, several master transcription factors (TFs) and “actor” proteins have already been identified as key players for seed coat differentiation including epidermal cell formation, mucilage production and extrusion. The regulation of the genes coding for MSC cell wall “actor” proteins by TFs needs to be better established. Here, the expression and the regulation of 3 known actors (PRX36, PMEI6, SBT1.7) and 2 additional putative actors (PRX56, DIR12) have been analyzed in T-DNA mutants affected in master TFs (ap2, egl3/gl3, gl2, myb5, tt8, ttg1, ttg2 and luh1/mum1). Genes with somehow similar function are differentially regulated and conversely, genes with different functions are regulated in similar manner. PMID:25531128

  17. Functional properties of autolysate and enzymatic hydrolysates from yam tsukuneimo (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) tuber mucilage tororo: antioxidative activity and antihypertensive activity.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takeshi; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Kai, Norihisa; Tanoue, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    Yam tsukuneimo tuber mucilage tororo hydrolysates were prepared by autolysis and three different peptic enzymes. Except for pepsin hydrolysate, tororo was perfectly digested. Each hydrolysate for 100 mg/ml significantly prolonged the induction period of auto-oxidation of linoleic acid, which was similar to 5 mM ascorbic acid. These hydrolysates also possessed high scavenging activities such as superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and DPPH radicals. Moreover, high antihypertensive activities were detected in these hydrolysates except for autolysate, which were similar to various fermented foods such as miso, natto, sake, cheese, and so on. Present findings suggest that yam tsukuneimo tuber mucilage tororo may be useful for preventing diseases associated with reactive oxygen species and blood pressure in the body system and it can fully absorb the useful components from it to digest using the gastrointestinal enzymes.

  18. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in waterbird nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ± 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ± 1.6 days and 1.9 ± 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ± 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ± 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates.

  19. Sleep Regulates Incubation of Cocaine Craving.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Zheng; Dong, Yan; Huang, Yanhua H

    2015-09-30

    After withdrawal from cocaine, chronic cocaine users often experience persistent reduction in total sleep time, which is accompanied by increased sleep fragmentation resembling chronic insomnia. This and other sleep abnormalities have long been speculated to foster relapse and further drug addiction, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we report that after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited persistent reduction in nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, as well as increased sleep fragmentation. In an attempt to improve sleep after cocaine withdrawal, we applied chronic sleep restriction to the rats during their active (dark) phase of the day, which selectively decreased the fragmentation of REM sleep during their inactive (light) phase without changing NREM or the total amount of daily sleep. Animals with improved REM sleep exhibited decreased incubation of cocaine craving, a phenomenon depicting the progressive intensification of cocaine seeking after withdrawal. In contrast, experimentally increasing sleep fragmentation after cocaine self-administration expedited the development of incubation of cocaine craving. Incubation of cocaine craving is partially mediated by progressive accumulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After withdrawal from cocaine, animals with improved REM sleep exhibited reduced accumulation of CP-AMPARs in the NAc, whereas increasing sleep fragmentation accelerated NAc CP-AMPAR accumulation. These results reveal a potential molecular substrate that can be engaged by sleep to regulate cocaine craving and relapse, and demonstrate sleep-based therapeutic opportunities for cocaine addiction. Significance statement: Sleep abnormalities are common symptoms in chronic drug users long after drug withdrawal. These withdrawal-associated sleep symptoms, particularly reduction in total sleep time and deteriorating sleep quality, have been

  20. Fermentative utilization of coffee mucilage using Bacillus coagulans and investigation of down-stream processing of fermentation broth for optically pure l(+)-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Neu, Anna-Katrin; Pleissner, Daniel; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    In this study, mucilage, a residue from coffee production, was investigated as substrate in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production. Mucilage was provided as liquid suspension consisting glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and sucrose as free sugars (up to 60gL(-1)), and used directly as medium in Bacillus coagulans batch fermentations carried out at 2 and 50L scales. Using mucilage and 5gL(-1) yeast extract as additional nitrogen source, more than 40gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained. Productivity and yield were 4-5gL(-1)h(-1) and 0.70-0.77g lactic acid per g of free sugars, respectively, irrespective the scale. Similar yield was found when no yeast extract was supplied, the productivity, however, was 1.5gL(-1)h(-1). Down-stream processing of culture broth, including filtration, electrodialysis, ion exchange chromatography and distillation, resulted in a pure lactic acid formulation containing 930gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid. Optical purity was 99.8%. PMID:27035470

  1. Fermentative utilization of coffee mucilage using Bacillus coagulans and investigation of down-stream processing of fermentation broth for optically pure l(+)-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Neu, Anna-Katrin; Pleissner, Daniel; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    In this study, mucilage, a residue from coffee production, was investigated as substrate in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production. Mucilage was provided as liquid suspension consisting glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and sucrose as free sugars (up to 60gL(-1)), and used directly as medium in Bacillus coagulans batch fermentations carried out at 2 and 50L scales. Using mucilage and 5gL(-1) yeast extract as additional nitrogen source, more than 40gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained. Productivity and yield were 4-5gL(-1)h(-1) and 0.70-0.77g lactic acid per g of free sugars, respectively, irrespective the scale. Similar yield was found when no yeast extract was supplied, the productivity, however, was 1.5gL(-1)h(-1). Down-stream processing of culture broth, including filtration, electrodialysis, ion exchange chromatography and distillation, resulted in a pure lactic acid formulation containing 930gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid. Optical purity was 99.8%.

  2. Input from Key Stakeholders in the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-31

    This report documents the input from key stakeholders of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) in developing a new technology incubator and related programs for southern New Mexico. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes identification of key stakeholders as well as a description and analysis of their input for the development of an incubator.

  3. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  4. Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

  5. 21 CFR 880.5410 - Neonatal transport incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neonatal transport incubator. 880.5410 Section 880... Devices § 880.5410 Neonatal transport incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal transport incubator is a... kept in a controlled environment while being transported for medical care. The device may...

  6. 21 CFR 880.5410 - Neonatal transport incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neonatal transport incubator. 880.5410 Section 880... Devices § 880.5410 Neonatal transport incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal transport incubator is a... kept in a controlled environment while being transported for medical care. The device may...

  7. 21 CFR 880.5410 - Neonatal transport incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neonatal transport incubator. 880.5410 Section 880... Devices § 880.5410 Neonatal transport incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal transport incubator is a... kept in a controlled environment while being transported for medical care. The device may...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5410 - Neonatal transport incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neonatal transport incubator. 880.5410 Section 880... Devices § 880.5410 Neonatal transport incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal transport incubator is a... kept in a controlled environment while being transported for medical care. The device may...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5410 - Neonatal transport incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal transport incubator. 880.5410 Section 880... Devices § 880.5410 Neonatal transport incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal transport incubator is a... the warmed air, a container for water to add humidity, and provision for a portable oxygen bottle....

  10. Stellar 'Incubators' Seen Cooking up Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

    This image composite compares visible-light and infrared views from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of the glowing Trifid Nebula, a giant star-forming cloud of gas and dust located 5,400 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius.

    Visible-light images of the Trifid taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Baltimore, Md. (inside left, figure 1) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., (outside left, figure 1) show a murky cloud lined with dark trails of dust. Data of this same region from the Institute for Radioastronomy millimeter telescope in Spain revealed four dense knots, or cores, of dust (outlined by yellow circles), which are 'incubators' for embryonic stars. Astronomers thought these cores were not yet ripe for stars, until Spitzer spotted the warmth of rapidly growing massive embryos tucked inside.

    These embryos are indicated with arrows in the false-color Spitzer picture (right, figure 1), taken by the telescope's infrared array camera. The same embryos cannot be seen in the visible-light pictures (left, figure 1). Spitzer found clusters of embryos in two of the cores and only single embryos in the other two. This is one of the first times that multiple embryos have been observed in individual cores at this early stage of stellar development.

  11. Humidity control tool for neonatal incubator.

    PubMed

    Abdiche, M; Farges, G; Delanaud, S; Bach, V; Villon, P; Libert, J P

    1998-03-01

    In the first days of life, the daily evaporative loss from premature neonates can reach up to 20% of body mass. Such loss can be reduced by increasing the air humidity inside the incubator. Neither passive humidification nor open loop systems allow high humidity rates to be maintained or easily controlled: at 34 degrees C, the maximum levels vary with the system from 40% to 77% of relative humidity. The skin evaporative exchanges between the neonate and the environment are directly proportional to the water vapour partial pressure difference between the neonate's skin and the air. An active closed loop system has been designed, which permits reliable and accurate control of humidity according to the water vapour partial pressure set, between 1 and 6 kPa, in an air temperature range of 28-39 degrees C. It is characterised by variations of about 0.05 kPa around the set value and a maximum humidification speed of 0.25 kPa min-1. The algorithm is based on optimal control and the dynamic programming principles. Test results place this active system above usual systems for its power, precision and adaptability. It is an exploitable tool in fundamental and clinical research, to precisely study the humidity effects on neonatal comfort and thermo-regulation evolution.

  12. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  13. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  14. Unveiling Trophic Functions of Uncultured Protist Taxa by Incubation Experiments in the Brackish Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Felix; del Campo, Javier; Wylezich, Claudia; Massana, Ramon; Jürgens, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Our knowledge of the phylogeny and diversity of aquatic protists is rapidly increasing due to molecular surveys and next-generation sequencing approaches. This has led to a considerable discrepancy between the taxa known from cultures and those known from environmental 18S rRNA gene sequences. Hence, it is generally difficult to assign ecological functions to new taxa detected by culture-independent molecular approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings A combination of unamended dark incubations and 18S rRNA sequencing was chosen to link molecular diversity data of uncultured protists with heterotrophic, presumably bacterivorous, growth. The incubations, conducted with Baltic Sea brackish water, resulted in a consistent shift from a protistan community dominated by phototrophs to one in which heterotrophs predominated. This was determined on the basis of cell abundance and 18S rRNA sequences derived from fingerprint analysis and clone libraries. The bulk of enriched phylotypes after incubation were related to hitherto uncultured marine taxa within chrysophytes, ochrophytes, choanoflagellates, cercozoans, and picobiliphytes, mostly represented in recently established or here defined environmental clades. Their growth in the dark, together with coinciding results from studies with a similar objective, provides evidence that these uncultured taxa represent heterotrophic or mixotrophic species. Conclusions/Significance These findings shed some light into the trophic role of diverse uncultured protists especially within functionally heterogeneous groups (e.g., chrysophytes, ochrophytes) and groups that appear to be puzzling with regard to their nutrition (picobiliphytes). Additionally, our results indicate that the heterotrophic flagellate community in the southwestern Baltic Sea is dominated by species of marine origin. The combination of unamended incubations with molecular diversity analysis is thus confirmed as a promising approach to explore the

  15. 8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION TANKS. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. Incubator Display Software Cost Reduction Toolset Software Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Susanne; Jeffords, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Incubator Display Software Requirements Specification was initially developed by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) under subcontract to Lockheed Martin, Contract Number NAS2-02090, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC) Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP). The Incubator Display is a User Payload Application (UPA) used to control an Incubator subrack payload for the SSBRP. The Incubator Display functions on-orbit as part of the subrack payload laptop, on the ground as part of the Communication and Data System (CDS) ground control system, and also as part of the crew training environment.

  17. Depolymerization of dendritic microtubules following incubation of cortical slices.

    PubMed

    Burgoyne, R D; Gray, E G; Sullivan, K; Barron, J

    1982-07-20

    Electron microscopical examination indicated that incubation of slices of rat cerebral cortex in Krebs buffer at room temperature of 37 degrees C led to a rapid and more or less complete depolymerization of dendritic microtubules. The loss of dendritic microtubules did not appear to be a consequence of anoxia. Myelinated axons showed only a partial loss of microtubules and the microtubules of preterminal axons were unaffected by incubation. These results indicate differential labilities of axonal and dendritic microtubules under these conditions of incubation. Such an effect of the incubation of slices in Krebs buffer indicates a need for caution in the interpretation of experiments on slice preparations.

  18. Incubation Provides Relief from Artificial Fixation in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penaloza, Alan A.; Calvillo, Dustin P.

    2012-01-01

    An incubation effect occurs when taking a break from a problem helps solvers arrive at the correct solution more often than working on it continuously. The forgetting-fixation account, a popular explanation of how incubation works, posits that a break from a problem allows the solver to forget the incorrect path to the solution and finally access…

  19. Enhancing Verbal Creativity via Brief Interventions during an Incubation Interval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Grabner, Roland H.; Fink, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies revealed inconsistent findings about the effects of cognitively low or high demanding interpolated tasks during incubation period on post-incubation creative performance. To explain this contradiction, two intervention tasks were administered (Reflecting on the generated ideas [RF] and the Word puzzle task [WP]), which are…

  20. Guidelines for Determining the Feasibility of a Small Business Incubator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Eric L., Ed.

    An increasingly popular economic development tool to improve the success rate of new firms is the small business incubator. These are buildings in which a number of new or growing businesses can locate and operate at a much lower overhead cost than in conventional space where market rates prevail. Incubator facilities are characterized by access…

  1. Identification of Methanogens and Controls on Methane Production in Incubations of Natural Methane Seep Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevorkian, R.; Lloyd, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Methane, the most abundant hydrocarbon in Earth's atmosphere, is produced in large quantities in sediments underlying the world's oceans. Very little of this methane makes it to surface sediments as it is consumed by Anaerobic Methanotrophs (ANME's) in consortia with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB). Less is known about which organisms are responsible for methane production in marine sediments, and whether that production is under thermodynamic control based on hydrogen concentrations. Although ANMEs have been found to be active in methanogenic sediments and incubations, it is currently unknown whether they are able to grow in methanogenic conditions. We demonstrated with bottle incubations of methane seep sediment taken from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, that hydrogen controls methane production. While sulfate was present the hydrogen concentration was maintained at below 2 nM. Only after the depletion of sulfate allowed hydrogen concentrations to rise above 5 nM did we see production of methane. The same sediments when spiked with methane gas demonstrated its complete removal while sulfate reduction occurred. Quantitative PCR shows that ANME-2 and ANME-1 increase in 16S copy number as methane increases. Total direct cell counts demonstrate a decline in cells with the decrease of sulfate until a recovery corresponding with production of methane. Our results strongly suggest that hydrogen concentrations influence what metabolic processes can occur in marine sediments, and that ANME-1 and ANME-2 are able to grow on the energy provided from methane production.

  2. Oxygen and sulfur isotope fractionation during methane dependent sulfate reduction in high pressure continuous incubation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deusner, C.; Brunner, B.; Holler, T.; Widdel, F.; Ferdelman, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction in marine sediments is an important sink in the global methane budget. However, many aspects of methane dependent sulfate reduction are not fully understood. We developed a novel high pressure biotechnical system to simulate marine conditions with high concentrations of dissolved gases, e.g. at gas seeps and gas hydrate systems. The system allows for batch, fed-batch and continuous gas-phase free incubation. We employ this system to study the kinetics and isotope fractionation during AOM at varying methane partial pressures up to 10 MPa. We present the results of long-term continuous and fed-batch incubations with highly active naturally enriched biomass from microbial mats from the Black Sea. During these experiments the methane partial pressure was increased stepwise from 0.1 to 10 MPa. The methane dependent sulfate reduction rate increased from 0.1 mmol/l/d to 3.5 mmol/l/d resulting from the increase in methane concentration and microbial growth. Sulfate reduction was negligible in the absence of methane. The sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction was strongly influenced by the concentration of dissolved methane. Sulfur isotope fractionation was highest at low methane concentrations, and lowest at high methane concentrations. Relative to sulfate reduction rates, oxygen isotope exchange between sulfate and water was highest at low methane concentrations, and lowest at high methane concentrations.

  3. Edible crabs "go west": migrations and incubation cycle of Cancer pagurus revealed by electronic tags.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ewan; Eaton, Derek; Stewart, Christie; Lawler, Andrew; Smith, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Crustaceans are key components of marine ecosystems which, like other exploited marine taxa, show seasonable patterns of distribution and activity, with consequences for their availability to capture by targeted fisheries. Despite concerns over the sustainability of crab fisheries worldwide, difficulties in observing crabs' behaviour over their annual cycles, and the timings and durations of reproduction, remain poorly understood. From the release of 128 mature female edible crabs tagged with electronic data storage tags (DSTs), we demonstrate predominantly westward migration in the English Channel. Eastern Channel crabs migrated further than western Channel crabs, while crabs released outside the Channel showed little or no migration. Individual migrations were punctuated by a 7-month hiatus, when crabs remained stationary, coincident with the main period of crab spawning and egg incubation. Incubation commenced earlier in the west, from late October onwards, and brooding locations, determined using tidal geolocation, occurred throughout the species range. With an overall return rate of 34%, our results demonstrate that previous reluctance to tag crabs with relatively high-cost DSTs for fear of loss following moulting is unfounded, and that DSTs can generate precise information with regards life-history metrics that would be unachievable using other conventional means.

  4. The Pre-Incubator: A Longitudinal Study of 10 Years of University Pre-Incubation in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisey, Pamela; Jones, Paul; Thomas, Brychan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal study of over 10 years of university pre-incubation in Wales, using case studies of incubated businesses to track their performance since 2001. Surviving "graduated" businesses were investigated and quantitative and qualitative data were gathered to profile the current status of these businesses and…

  5. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  6. Creativity—the unconscious foundations of the incubation period

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Simone M.; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is one of the most important assets we have to navigate through the fast changing world of the 21st century. Anecdotal accounts of creative individuals suggest that oftentimes, creative discoveries result from a process whereby initial conscious thought is followed by a period during which one refrains from task-related conscious thought. For example, one may spend an embarrassing amount of time thinking about a problem when the solution suddenly pops into consciousness while taking a shower. Not only creative individuals but also traditional theories of creativity have put a lot of emphasis on this incubation stage in creative thinking. The aim of the present article is twofold. First, an overview of the domain of incubation and creativity is provided by reviewing and discussing studies on incubation, mind-wandering, and sleep. Second, the causes of incubation effects are discussed. Previously, little attention has been paid to the causes of incubation effects and most findings do not really speak to whether the effects should be explained by unconscious processes or merely by consequences of a period of distraction. In the latter case, there is no need to assume active unconscious processes. The findings discussed in the current article support the idea that it is not merely the absence of conscious thought that drives incubation effects, but that during an incubation period unconscious processes contribute to creative thinking. Finally, practical implications and directions for future research will be discussed. PMID:24782742

  7. A portable freshwater closed-system fish egg incubation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutherland, Jenny L.; Manny, Bruce A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Allen, Jeffrey D.; Black, M. Glen

    2014-01-01

    To identify fish eggs collected in the field to species, a portable closed-system fish egg incubation system was designed and used to incubate and hatch the eggs in the laboratory. The system is portable, small in scale (2.54 × 1.52 × 2.03 m), and affordable, with the approximate cost of the system being US$8,300 (2012). The main tank is 678 L and holds a battery of up to 21 (egg) incubation jars. The system includes three independent water pumping systems to (1) provide aerated water to hatching jars, (2) filter and sterilize incubation water, and (3) provide temperature-controlled water in the main tank bath and the incubation jars. The system was successfully used to incubate freshwater fish eggs to raise resulting larvae to the post-yolk-sac stage for three seasons (spring 2012, spring 2013, and fall 2013) over two consecutive years, at two different locations, enabling us to identify fish eggs to species by providing identifiable fish larvae from incubated fish eggs.

  8. Pre-incubation and low temperatures in quantitative radioreceptor assays

    SciTech Connect

    Ensing, K.; de Zeeuw, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The detection limits of drugs in quantitative RRA are primarily determined by their affinities towards the receptor. Yet, the concentration of radiolabeled ligand, necessary for quantification of receptor-bound drug, increases the theoretical detection limit. Therefore the influences of low temperatures and pre-incubation on the detection limit was studied. Analysis of experimental data suggests that when a well-defined incubation procedure is used, pre-incubation and low temperatures will increase sensitivity without loss of accuracy and precision. 6 references, 2 figures.

  9. Using candlers to determine the incubation stage of passerine eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.; Koford, Rolf R.

    1996-01-01

    Determining the incubation stage of bird eggs can provide important information to investigators conducting nesting studies. We describe the use of candlers in the field to determine the incubation stage in eggs of Lark Buntings (Calamospiza melanocorys) and other small birds with an incubation period of 11-13 d. Candling was accomplished easily using simple tools and did not involve the destruction of eggs or lengthy disturbance of nests. Candling is often preferable to other methods that rely on egg mass, mass-growth curves, or immersion of eggs in water.

  10. Eggshell breakage by incubating black ducks fed DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Samson, F.B.

    1973-01-01

    Black duck (Anas rubripes) hens fed 10 ppm dry weight (approximately 3 ppm wet weight) of p,p'-DDE in the diet laid eggs with shells 22 percent thinner at the equator, 30 percent thinner at the cap, and 33 percent thinner at the apex than those of controls. Natural incubation increased shell cracking more than fourfold as compared with mechanical incubation. Hens removed cracked eggs from nests, and one hen terminated incubation. Hens fed DDE produced one-fifth as many ducklings as controls. DDE in eggs of dosed hens averaged 64.9 ppm wet weight.

  11. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  12. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  13. Stochastic Modeling Approach to the Incubation Time of Prionic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, A. S.; da Silva, M. A.; Cressoni, J. C.

    2003-05-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are neurodegenerative diseases for which prions are the attributed pathogenic agents. A widely accepted theory assumes that prion replication is due to a direct interaction between the pathologic (PrPSc) form and the host-encoded (PrPC) conformation, in a kind of autocatalytic process. Here we show that the overall features of the incubation time of prion diseases are readily obtained if the prion reaction is described by a simple mean-field model. An analytical expression for the incubation time distribution then follows by associating the rate constant to a stochastic variable log normally distributed. The incubation time distribution is then also shown to be log normal and fits the observed BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) data very well. Computer simulation results also yield the correct BSE incubation time distribution at low PrPC densities.

  14. Hardware of the flight experiment "Quail-SK" transport incubator.

    PubMed

    Sabo, V; Zongor, J; Majek, S; Bod'a, K; Guryeva, T S; Pakhomov, A I; Bella, I

    2001-07-01

    The transportation of quail eggs in various stages of incubation was used in an experiment at the orbital station MIR by the Slovak astronaut, Bella in February 1999. Device description, diagrams, and experimental results are presented in this paper.

  15. Low-temperature incubation using a water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.; Quimby, M.C.

    1967-01-01

    Cell and tissue culture has been concerned primarily with homiothermic vertebrate cells which require incubation at about 37 C, and there is a great variety of incubators designed to maintain temperatures which are usually above ambient. The culture of poikilothermic vertebrate cells--and invertebrate, plant, and some microbial cells--can often be carried out at ambient temperatures, but for some work cooler conditions must be provided. Variety among the so-called low-temperature incubators is somewhat restricted; there are no small units, and all require a power source to maintain temperatures below ambient. We have used a gravity-fed water supply for 5 years to provide trouble-free, constant, low-temperature incubation of stock cultures of fish and amphibian cells. Though it is but a small part of our low-temperature incubator capacity, it has no power requirements and it provides maximal protection against temperature rises which could be lethal to some of the cell lines. Though the system has limitations, there is a considerable likelihood that the domestic water supply in other laboratories can also be used to provide low-temperature incubation.

  16. Incubation temperature causes skewed sex ratios in a precocial bird.

    PubMed

    DuRant, Sarah E; Hopkins, William A; Carter, Amanda W; Kirkpatrick, Laila T; Navara, Kristin J; Hawley, Dana M

    2016-07-01

    Many animals with genetic sex determination are nonetheless capable of manipulating sex ratios via behavioral and physiological means, which can sometimes result in fitness benefits to the parent. Sex ratio manipulation in birds is not widely documented, and revealing the mechanisms for altered sex ratios in vertebrates remains a compelling area of research. Incubation temperature is a key component of the developmental environment for birds, but despite its well-documented effects on offspring phenotype it has rarely been considered as a factor in avian sex ratios. Using ecologically relevant manipulations of incubation temperature within the range 35.0-37.0°C, we found greater mortality of female embryos during incubation than males regardless of incubation temperature, and evidence that more female than male embryos die at the lowest incubation temperature (35.0°C). Our findings in conjunction with previous work in brush turkeys suggest incubation temperature is an important determinant of avian secondary sex ratios that requires additional study, and should be considered when estimating the impact of climate change on avian populations. PMID:27143750

  17. The Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) nest as an incubation chamber.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Felipe L S; Braga, Talita V; Roper, James J

    2015-01-01

    Foraging and incubation are mutually exclusive activities for parent birds. A trade-off is generated when a combination of food availability and temperature regulation force birds to choose one and neglect the other, at least temporarily. The Rufous Hornero builds large, oven-like, mud nests, the evolutionary cause of which remains unknown. We tested that temperature variation inside the nest is that which is expected if one function of the nest were for temperate regulation. If so, this would suggest that the nest works as an incubation chamber (but which now may serve more than one function). We divided nests into two natural treatments: nests that received more continuous direct sunshine (sun), and those that received less direct sunshine, due to shade from trees or buildings (shade). Thermometer data loggers were placed in the nest cavity and outside, in the shade of the nest, and temperature was measured every 10min. We predicted that temperatures would consistently be higher and less variable in nests than outside nests. Also, at higher ambient temperatures the nest would function better as an incubation chamber as a consequence of having evolved in a hotter climate. Thus, in Curitiba, where temperatures are lower than where the species (and nest) evolved, nests in greater sunshine should have thermal characteristics that support the incubation chamber hypothesis. Predictions were supported: with Repeated Measures ANOVA and t-tests, we found that temperatures were more constant and higher in nests, especially when in the sun, and as the season progressed (hotter ambient temperatures). We conclude that the large mud nest of the Rufous Hornero works as an incubation chamber that likely evolved to help resolve the incubation-foraging trade-off in the very seasonal and hot regions where the bird evolved. Thus, as an incubation chamber, the nest allows the bird to forage rather than incubate thereby resolving the foraging-incubation trade-off and potentially

  18. The Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) nest as an incubation chamber.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Felipe L S; Braga, Talita V; Roper, James J

    2015-01-01

    Foraging and incubation are mutually exclusive activities for parent birds. A trade-off is generated when a combination of food availability and temperature regulation force birds to choose one and neglect the other, at least temporarily. The Rufous Hornero builds large, oven-like, mud nests, the evolutionary cause of which remains unknown. We tested that temperature variation inside the nest is that which is expected if one function of the nest were for temperate regulation. If so, this would suggest that the nest works as an incubation chamber (but which now may serve more than one function). We divided nests into two natural treatments: nests that received more continuous direct sunshine (sun), and those that received less direct sunshine, due to shade from trees or buildings (shade). Thermometer data loggers were placed in the nest cavity and outside, in the shade of the nest, and temperature was measured every 10min. We predicted that temperatures would consistently be higher and less variable in nests than outside nests. Also, at higher ambient temperatures the nest would function better as an incubation chamber as a consequence of having evolved in a hotter climate. Thus, in Curitiba, where temperatures are lower than where the species (and nest) evolved, nests in greater sunshine should have thermal characteristics that support the incubation chamber hypothesis. Predictions were supported: with Repeated Measures ANOVA and t-tests, we found that temperatures were more constant and higher in nests, especially when in the sun, and as the season progressed (hotter ambient temperatures). We conclude that the large mud nest of the Rufous Hornero works as an incubation chamber that likely evolved to help resolve the incubation-foraging trade-off in the very seasonal and hot regions where the bird evolved. Thus, as an incubation chamber, the nest allows the bird to forage rather than incubate thereby resolving the foraging-incubation trade-off and potentially

  19. Thermoregulation: incubators, radiant warmers, artificial skins, and body hoods.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, M H

    1991-09-01

    Keeping babies warm whether using incubator or radiant warmers is important in optimizing their chances of survival. Many design changes have occurred in devices for keeping babies warm, while few controlled studies using clinically important end points have been conducted to assess these changes. Radiant warmers produce larger evaporative heat and water losses and slightly higher basal metabolic rate than incubators. The clinical significance of the higher metabolic rate is uncertain. The water losses create an additional problem in managing infants under radiant warmers. The use of hoods made of thin plastic films to raise local humidity and reduce evaporative water loss helps control this problem. In incubators, humidity may be necessary to provide a warm enough environment for the most immature infants. Artificial skins as yet have not supplanted body hoods for this purpose. Both incubators and radiant warmers produce temperature instability when used as skin servocontrolled devices. There are, however, no data currently available to say how much thermal instability can be well tolerated by a baby. Too much thermal instability produces apnea and increased mortality. Air servocontrolling an incubator reduces environmental temperature instability.

  20. An Investigative Study into Perspectives and Experiences of Incubates at the Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre at the Kenyatta University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munyanyiwa, Takaruza; Mutsau, Morgen; Rudhumbu, Norman; Svotwa, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The study presents results from an investigative study undertaken at the Kenyatta University (KU) Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre. A total of 10 incubates representing 10 projects were engaged in face to face interviews. The incubates were appreciative of the value that incubation centre such as the one at KU contributed to…

  1. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    PubMed

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry. PMID:25977013

  2. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    PubMed

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry.

  3. Temperature induced decoupling of enzymatic hydrolysis and carbon remineralization in long-term incubations of Arctic and temperate sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robador, Alberto; Brüchert, Volker; Steen, Andrew D.; Arnosti, Carol

    2010-04-01

    Extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of high-molecular weight organic matter is the initial step in sedimentary organic carbon degradation and is often regarded as the rate-limiting step. Temperature effects on enzyme activities may therefore exert an indirect control on carbon mineralization. We explored the temperature sensitivity of enzymatic hydrolysis and its connection to subsequent steps in anoxic organic carbon degradation in long-term incubations of sediments from the Arctic and the North Sea. These sediments were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 24 months at temperatures of 0, 10, and 20 °C. The short-term temperature response of the active microbial community was tested in temperature gradient block incubations. The temperature optimum of extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, as measured with a polysaccharide (chondroitin sulfate), differed between Arctic and temperate habitats by about 8-13 °C in fresh sediments and in sediments incubated for 24 months. In both Arctic and temperate sediments, the temperature response of chondroitin sulfate hydrolysis was initially similar to that of sulfate reduction. After 24 months, however, hydrolysis outpaced sulfate reduction rates, as demonstrated by increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved carbohydrates. This effect was stronger at higher incubation temperatures, particularly in the Arctic sediments. In all experiments, concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were low, indicating tight coupling between VFA production and consumption. Together, these data indicate that long-term incubation at elevated temperatures led to increased decoupling of hydrolytic DOC production relative to fermentation. Temperature increases in marine sedimentary environments may thus significantly affect the downstream carbon mineralization and lead to the increased formation of refractory DOC.

  4. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  5. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott A

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis. PMID:27627330

  6. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott A

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  7. High incubation temperatures enhance mitochondrial energy metabolism in reptile embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bao-Jun; Li, Teng; Gao, Jing; Ma, Liang; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Developmental rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature in ectothermic animals, but the biochemical basis underlying this thermal dependence is largely unexplored. We measured mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities of turtle embryos (Pelodiscus sinensis) incubated at different temperatures to identify the metabolic basis of the rapid development occurring at high temperatures in reptile embryos. Developmental rate increased with increasing incubation temperatures in the embryos of P. sinensis. Correspondingly, in addition to the thermal dependence of mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities, high-temperature incubation further enhanced mitochondrial respiration and COX activities in the embryos. This suggests that embryos may adjust mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities in response to developmental temperature to achieve high developmental rates at high temperatures. Our study highlights the importance of biochemical investigations in understanding the proximate mechanisms by which temperature affects embryonic development. PMID:25749301

  8. Effect of precursor solution dark incubation on gold nanorods morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrasoul, Gaser N.; Scotto, Marco; Cingolani, Roberto; Diaspro, Alberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Pignatelli, Francesca

    2012-12-01

    Gold nanorods were synthesized in an aqueous solution of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide via a combination of chemical reduction and UV photoirradiation. Gold ligand complexes, present in the stock solution, are initially reduced, by ascorbic acid as mild reducing agent. The gold ions nucleation and colloid growth proceeds then by subsequent UV irradiation of the so-obtained precursor solution. We present a systematic study of the effect of incubation of the precursor solution on the dispersion state and aspect ratio of the produced nanorods. Incubation of the precursor solution allows the synthesis of higher aspect ratio nanorods with narrower size distribution compared to those obtained without incubation. We propose a mechanism for the gold nanorods formation including two stages, a nucleation and a diffusive growth. This allows us to explain the synthesis improvement as a consequence of the increase in the size of the gold ligand complexes aggregates, leading to a decrease of the nanorods growth rate.

  9. Summary of Research Report Lewis Incubator for Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Wayne P.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done to establish and operate the Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) for the period July 1996 through September 2000. The Lewis Incubator helps the startup and growth of technology-based businesses with the potential to incorporate technology from the NASA Glenn Research Center. During the grant period, LIFT began operation, met or exceeded all key performance measures, and continues its operation through a new cooperative agreement with NASA Glenn and also through continued funding from the State of Ohio.

  10. Persistent colonization of carbon dioxide incubators with Candida parapsilosis.

    PubMed

    Schär, G; Grehn, M; von Graevenitz, A

    1990-10-01

    Recurrent contamination of bacteriological specimens with Candida parapsilosis led to epidemiological investigations which indicated persistent colonization of carbon dioxide incubators as the most likely source. Changes in the technical arrangements and institution of a meticulous cleansing protocol eliminated contamination of specimens but not colonization of the incubators. Tests for tolerance of 17% NaCl and survival at 50 degrees C, and SDS-PAGE analysis of crude cell extracts allowed discrimination between epidemic and non-epidemic isolates, while enzyme profile analysis and susceptibility studies failed as typing methods.

  11. A comparison of artificial incubation and natural incubation hatching success of gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) eggs in southern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noel, Krista M.; Qualls, Carl P.; Ennen, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have found that Gopher Tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, populations in southern Mississippi exhibit low recruitment, due in part to very low hatching success of their eggs. We sought to determine if the cause(s) of this low hatching success was related to egg quality (intrinsic factors), unsuitability of the nest environment (extrinsic factors), or a combination of the two. In 2003, hatching success was monitored simultaneously for eggs from the same clutches that were incubated in the laboratory and left to incubate in nests. A subset of randomly chosen eggs from each clutch was incubated in the laboratory under physical conditions that were known to be conducive to successful hatching to estimate the proportion of eggs that were capable of hatching in a controlled setting. Hatching success in the laboratory was compared with that of eggs incubated in natural nests to estimate the proportion of eggs that failed to hatch presumably from extrinsic factors. Laboratory hatching success was 58.8%, suggesting that roughly 40% of the eggs were intrinsically incapable of hatching even when incubated under controlled conditions. Hatching success in natural nests, 16.7%, was significantly lower than hatching success in the laboratory, suggesting that approximately 42.1% of eggs were capable of hatching but failed to hatch due to some extrinsic aspect(s) of the nest environment. Thus, the low hatching success of Gopher Tortoise eggs in southern Mississippi appears to be attributable to a combination of intrinsic (egg quality) and extrinsic (nest environment) factors.

  12. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in water bird nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ?? 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ?? 1.6 days and 1.9 ?? 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ?? 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ?? 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  13. Comparative clinical evaluation of a prototype non-electric transport incubator and an electrical infant incubator in a neonatal unit.

    PubMed

    Khodadadeh, Y; Nili, F; Nayeri, F; Wickramasinghe, Y

    2001-09-01

    A new non-electric transport incubator has been developed for transferring babies between health facilities in developing countries. The temperature performance of this prototype was compared with a commercial electric incubator. The warm-up time for the prototype was 51.8 min, compared with 48.1 min for the electric incubator. Forty-five non-distressed premature babies, aged 24-72 h, with a gestational age of less than 37 weeks, were continuously evaluated for a 2 h period. Twenty-five babies, with a mean weight of 2073 g (range 1500-2500 g), were studied in the prototype, and 20 babies, with a mean weight of 2076g (range 1550-2500 g), were studied in the electrical incubator. The rectal and abdominal skin temperature, heart rate, oxygen saturation and respiratory rate of the babies were recorded. The temperature, oxygen and humidity level of the canopy and the room temperature were also measured. The SaO2, heart rate and respiratory rate were within the normal range (in the prototype: 96.5%, 130.5 beats min(-1) and 43 breaths min(-1), respectively; and, in the electric incubator: 96.5%, 128.5 beats min(-1) and 40 breaths min(-1), respectively). No evidence of carbon dioxide narcosis, hypoxia, acidosis or adverse thermoregulatory behaviour were observed in the two groups. The mean rectal temperature for both groups was within the range 36.5 degrees C-37.5 degrees C. There was no significant difference between the measurements of the two groups. The level of oxygen inside the canopy was 21%, and no decrease was observed. The new nonelectric transport incubator confirmed its safety and efficiency in providing a warm environment for non-distressed premature babies over a 2 h period.

  14. Incubation of food craving is independent of macronutrient composition

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Rebecca A.; Dingess, Paige M.; Schlidt, Kevin C.; Smith, Erin M.; Brown, Travis E.

    2016-01-01

    Cues previously paired with rewarding stimuli induce a time-dependent increase in the motivational craving state (incubation of craving). Whether there is an increase in craving for high-fat (HF) food over time, which may contribute to overeating and obesity, has not been determined. We hypothesized that cues paired with HF pellets would elicit a greater incubation of craving effect than those paired with standard chow (SC) pellets. Rats exposed to cues associated with either HF or SC pellets demonstrated equivalent levels of craving over an abstinence period of 30 days. Diet preference tests between SC pellets and LabDiet revealed that SC pellets were preferred over LabDiet. Rats reared on SC pellets exclusively, did not display incubation of craving for SC pellets, suggesting that prior history with the food plays an important role in cue-induced seeking behavior. Results identified cues previously associated with food undergo a comparable magnitude of incubation of craving. When ingestive behavior was measured after 30 days of abstinence, rats significantly increased their consumption of HF pellets. Our results indicate that food cues gain importance over time, trigger increased approach behaviors, and increased consumption of HF food following abstinence. This may contribute to overeating and the development of obesity. PMID:27485660

  15. Assessment of predation risk through referential communication in incubating birds

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.

    2015-01-01

    Parents of many bird species produce alarm calls when they approach and deter a nest predator in order to defend their offspring. Alarm calls have been shown to warn nestlings about predatory threats, but parents also face a similar risk of predation when incubating eggs in their nests. Here, I show that incubating female Japanese great tits, Parus minor, assess predation risk by conspecific alarm calls given outside the nest cavity. Tits produce acoustically discrete alarm calls for different nest predators: “jar” calls for snakes and “chicka” calls for other predators such as crows and martens. Playback experiments revealed that incubating females responded to “jar” calls by leaving their nest, whereas they responded to “chicka” calls by looking out of the nest entrance. Since snakes invade the nest cavity, escaping from the nest helps females avoid snake predation. In contrast, “chicka” calls are used for a variety of predator types, and therefore, looking out of the nest entrance helps females gather information about the type and location of approaching predators. These results show that incubating females derive information about predator type from different types of alarm calls, providing a novel example of functionally referential communication. PMID:25985093

  16. Incubator Baby Shows: A Medical and Social Frontier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Hannah

    2001-01-01

    America's first hospitals for premature infants were built at the turn of the twentieth century at fairs, amusement parks, and expositions. These hospitals represented both a medical and a social frontier. They had a great impact on American medicine because they demonstrated the success of caring for premature infants using incubators. The…

  17. Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubation Environments: A Framework of Key Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dajani, Haya; Dedoussis, Evangelos; Watson, Erika; Tzokas, Nikalaos

    2014-01-01

    The benchmarking framework developed in this study is specifically designed for higher education institutions to consider when developing environments to encourage entrepreneurship among their students, graduates and staff. The objective of the study was to identify key success factors of Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubator Environments (GEIEs)…

  18. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  19. Assessment of predation risk through referential communication in incubating birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.

    2015-05-01

    Parents of many bird species produce alarm calls when they approach and deter a nest predator in order to defend their offspring. Alarm calls have been shown to warn nestlings about predatory threats, but parents also face a similar risk of predation when incubating eggs in their nests. Here, I show that incubating female Japanese great tits, Parus minor, assess predation risk by conspecific alarm calls given outside the nest cavity. Tits produce acoustically discrete alarm calls for different nest predators: “jar” calls for snakes and “chicka” calls for other predators such as crows and martens. Playback experiments revealed that incubating females responded to “jar” calls by leaving their nest, whereas they responded to “chicka” calls by looking out of the nest entrance. Since snakes invade the nest cavity, escaping from the nest helps females avoid snake predation. In contrast, “chicka” calls are used for a variety of predator types, and therefore, looking out of the nest entrance helps females gather information about the type and location of approaching predators. These results show that incubating females derive information about predator type from different types of alarm calls, providing a novel example of functionally referential communication.

  20. Incubation periods of viral gastroenteritis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate knowledge of incubation period is important to investigate and to control infectious diseases and their transmission, however statements of incubation period in the literature are often uncited, inconsistent, and/or not evidence based. Methods In a systematic review of the literature on five enteric viruses of public health importance, we found 256 articles with incubation period estimates, including 33 with data for pooled analysis. Results We fit a log-normal distribution to pooled data and found the median incubation period to be 4.5 days (95% CI 3.9-5.2 days) for astrovirus, 1.2 days (95% CI 1.1-1.2 days) for norovirus genogroups I and II, 1.7 days (95% CI 1.5-1.8 days) for sapovirus, and 2.0 days (95% CI 1.4-2.4 days) for rotavirus. Conclusions Our estimates combine published data and provide sufficient quantitative detail to allow for these estimates to be used in a wide range of clinical and modeling applications. This can translate into improved prevention and control efforts in settings with transmission or the risk of transmission. PMID:24066865

  1. The degradation of guar gum by a faecal incubation system.

    PubMed

    Tomlin, J; Read, N W; Edwards, C A; Duerden, B I

    1986-05-01

    1. Homogenized and diluted faeces (50 g/l) from one human source were incubated with the complex plant polysaccharide, guar gum, to investigate the degradation of viscous polysaccharides by intestinal bacteria. 2. Incubation of the faecal homogenate with guar gum produced a rapid decrease in viscosity and in pH, accompanied by the release of hydrogen. 3. No changes in viscosity or pH were observed and there was no production of H2 gas when guar gum was incubated with autoclaved faecal homogenate (20 min, 1.03 x 10(5) Pa). 4. A bacteria-free filtrate of faeces was prepared by centrifuging the faecal homogenate (2400 g for 100 min) followed by filtration through a Seitz filter and then a millipore filter (size 0.45 micron). Incubating this with guar gum produced a slow decrease in viscosity, but no significant change in pH and no generation of H2. 5. Our results show that guar gum can be fermented by human colonic bacteria and suggest the possibility of predigestion by extracellular free enzymes.

  2. Growth of Campylobacter Incubated Aerobically in Media Supplemented with Peptones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of Campylobacter cultures incubated aerobically in media supplemented with peptones was studied, and additional experiments were conducted to compare growth of the bacteria in media supplemented with peptones to growth in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate-minerals-vitamins (FPMV). A b...

  3. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  4. Effects of environmental enrichment on the incubation of cocaine craving.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Claudia; Goldberg, Steven R; Jaber, Mohamed; Solinas, Marcello

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) during withdrawal periods reduces the risks of relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In this study, we investigated whether EE could prevent the development of time-dependent increases in cocaine-seeking behavior (incubation of craving). In addition, we investigated whether EE could eliminate already developed incubation and whether the effects of EE would last when enrichment is discontinued. For this, we allowed rats to self-administer cocaine for 10 daily 6 h sessions and measured cocaine-seeking 1, 30 and 60 days after the last self-administration session. In between these tests, rats were kept in forced abstinence and housed either in EE or standard environments (SE). Between day 30 and 60 of withdrawal, half of the rats in each group were maintained in their original environmental condition and the other half was switched to the other environmental condition. We found that exposure to EE prevents development of incubation of cocaine craving and eliminates already developed incubation. In addition, contrary to our expectations, when EE was discontinued, its positive effects on incubation of craving disappeared. These results indicate that EE can reduce cocaine seeking but only temporarily and questions the hypothesis that EE can permanently eliminate the neural consequences of exposure to drugs of abuse. Therefore, stimulating environments could have positive effects on the treatment of cocaine addiction only if they are maintained for long periods of abstinence that encompass the time-frame during which addicts are most vulnerable to relapse.

  5. Marine energy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David

    2007-04-15

    Marine energy is renewable and carbon free and has the potential to make a significant contribution to energy supplies in the future. In the UK, tidal power barrages and wave energy could make the largest contribution, and tidal stream energy could make a smaller but still a useful contribution. This paper provides an overview of the current status and prospects for electrical generation from marine energy. It concludes that a realistic potential contribution to UK electricity supplies is approximately 80 TWh per year but that many years of development and investment will be required if this potential is to be realized. PMID:17272244

  6. Incubating Innovation: A standard model for nurturing new businesses, the incubator gains prominence in the world of biotech.

    PubMed

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Incubators, accelerators, innovation centers, launch pads. Everyone defines the idea a bit differently, but, generally, these infrastructures refer to a subsidized space where fledgling companies get support?a combination of mentorship, funding, low rent, networking opportunities, and other training?with the goal of propelling early businesses to success. PMID:26583888

  7. Incubating Innovation: A standard model for nurturing new businesses, the incubator gains prominence in the world of biotech.

    PubMed

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Incubators, accelerators, innovation centers, launch pads. Everyone defines the idea a bit differently, but, generally, these infrastructures refer to a subsidized space where fledgling companies get support?a combination of mentorship, funding, low rent, networking opportunities, and other training?with the goal of propelling early businesses to success.

  8. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  9. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  10. Marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures. PMID:24275176

  11. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  12. [Mechanical stress of newborn infants caused by incubator transport].

    PubMed

    Boenisch, H; Gaden, W; Mau, G; Gohrbandt, U; Teuteberg, H O; Braun, H; Beermann, H J

    1985-07-01

    Newborn babies transported in an incubator are obviously exposed to considerable mechanical vibrations. We measured these vibrations with the aim to improve these conditions. The vibrations measured on transportation by R.T.W. ambulance (Daimler-Benz 508 with an "anti-vibration platform") are almost tolerable; however on the K.T.W. ambulance (Volkswagen Type 2) the registered vertical accelerations were much greater and gave an unacceptable level of gravitational forces. Small constructive corrections to the stretcher and the connection between stretcher and incubator lead to a marked decrease in peak acceleration and the value of effective acceleration. We also found that it is of great importance to drive smoothly and that the vibrations are more pronounced with hasty driving. The influence of these vibrations as a possible co-factor in the pathogenesis of intracranial haemorrhage is discussed. PMID:4047059

  13. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  14. A Common Loon incubates rocks as surrogates for eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Destefano, Stephen; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; Pereira, Jillian W.

    2013-01-01

    A nesting Gavia immer (Common Loon) was discovered incubating 2 rocks on a floating nest platform on the Quabbin reservoir in central Massachusetts for 43 days, well beyond the typical period of 28 days, before we moved in to investigate. The rocks were likely unearthed in the soil and vegetation used on the platform to create a more natural substrate for the nest. We suggest sifting through soil and vegetation to remove rocks before placing material on nest platforms.

  15. Extinction instead of incubation following classical aversive conditioning in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, H D; Kearns, W D; Anderson, D E

    1992-01-01

    Two dogs received a single paired classical conditioning trial, with tone CS and 12 mA shock US. Both dogs then showed a conditioned blood pressure increase in response to the nonreinforced CS, which extinguished with additional nonreinforced presentations. The CR showed spontaneous recovery four days later, but reextinguished with additional nonreinforced presentations. The results were interpreted as not supporting Eysenck's theory of "incubation" following one-trial aversive conditioning.

  16. A baby incubator designed for conditions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Riggs, R J

    1977-01-01

    The prototype is described of a baby incubator, designed to be manufactured and used in Ghana, but of high enough quality to complete directly with imported models. A novel design is used, in which the usual all-round hood, with a sealed control unit underneath it, is replaced by a one-sided configuration, with the control system built into the back. It is much easier to manufacture, but still allows good access and temperature control.

  17. Estimation of HIV infection and incubation via state space models.

    PubMed

    Tan, W Y; Ye, Z

    2000-09-01

    By using the state space model (Kalman filter model) of the HIV epidemic, in this paper we have developed a general Bayesian procedure to estimate simultaneously the HIV infection distribution, the HIV incubation distribution, the numbers of susceptible people, infective people and AIDS cases. The basic approach is to use the Gibbs sampling method combined with the weighted bootstrap method. We have applied this method to the San Francisco AIDS incidence data from January 1981 to December 1992. The results show clearly that both the probability density function of the HIV infection and the probability density function of the HIV incubation are curves with two peaks. The results of the HIV infection distribution are clearly consistent with the finding by Tan et al. [W.Y. Tan, S.C. Tang, S.R. Lee, Estimation of HIV seroconversion and effects of age in San Francisco homosexual populations, J. Appl. Stat. 25 (1998) 85]. The results of HIV incubation distribution seem to confirm the staged model used by Satten and Longini [G. Satten, I. Longini, Markov chain with measurement error: estimating the 'true' course of marker of the progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease, Appl. Stat. 45 (1996) 275]. PMID:10942785

  18. Effect of hypo-osmotic incubation on membrane recycling.

    PubMed

    Novak, J M; Ward, D M; Buys, S S; Kaplan, J

    1988-11-01

    Incubation of alveolar macrophages in hypo-osmotic media causes a time-and temperature-dependent increase in the number of surface receptors for three different ligands. Exposure of cells to solutions of 210 mOsM or less, at 37 degrees C but not at 0 degree C, resulted in an increase in the number of surface receptors for diferric transferrin, alpha-macroglobulin-protease complexes, and mannose-terminated glycoproteins. Upon media dilution at 37 degrees C, surface receptor number reached a maximum within 5 min and returned to near-normal values by 30 min. The increase in surface receptor number was the result of a decrease in the rate of internalization of receptors, either occupied or unoccupied. The rate of receptor exteriorization was unaltered by hypo-osmotic incubation of cells. The rate of fluid-phase pinocytosis was also inhibited upon incubation in hypo-osmotic solution. In experiments in which both receptor-mediated endocytosis and fluid phase pinocytosis were measured on the same samples, inhibition of both processes occurred with the same kinetics and to a similar extent. The rate of receptor-mediated endocytosis recovered to normal rates after 60 min in hypo-osmotic solutions, whereas the rate of fluid phase pinocytosis did not recover to the same extent. PMID:2848041

  19. Delayed-Incubation Membrane-Filter Test for Fecal Coliforms

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Raymond H.; Bordner, Robert H.; Scarpino, Pasquale V.

    1973-01-01

    A delayed-incubation membrane-filter technique for fecal coliforms was developed and compared with the immediate fecal coliform test described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (13th ed., 1971). Laboratory and field evaluations demonstrated that the delayed-incubation test, with the use of the proposed vitamin-free Casitone holding medium, produces fecal coliform counts which very closely approximate those from the immediate test, regardless of the source or type of fresh-water sample. Limited testing indicated that the method is not as effective when used with saline waters. The delayed-incubation membrane-filter test will be especially useful in survey monitoring or emergency situations when the standard immediate fecal coliform test cannot be performed at or near the sample site or when time and temperature limitations for water sample storage cannot be met. The procedure can also be used for analyzing the bacterial quality of water or waste discharges by a standardized procedure in a central examining laboratory remote from the sample source. PMID:4572892

  20. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  1. Marine Education: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Wildman, Terry M.

    1980-01-01

    Examined are the scope and status of precollege marine education, including history of marine education, present interdisciplinary marine education, informal approaches to marine education, marine awareness studies, and some implications of marine education. (Author/DS)

  2. Edible Crabs “Go West”: Migrations and Incubation Cycle of Cancer pagurus Revealed by Electronic Tags

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Ewan; Eaton, Derek; Stewart, Christie; Lawler, Andrew; Smith, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Crustaceans are key components of marine ecosystems which, like other exploited marine taxa, show seasonable patterns of distribution and activity, with consequences for their availability to capture by targeted fisheries. Despite concerns over the sustainability of crab fisheries worldwide, difficulties in observing crabs’ behaviour over their annual cycles, and the timings and durations of reproduction, remain poorly understood. From the release of 128 mature female edible crabs tagged with electronic data storage tags (DSTs), we demonstrate predominantly westward migration in the English Channel. Eastern Channel crabs migrated further than western Channel crabs, while crabs released outside the Channel showed little or no migration. Individual migrations were punctuated by a 7-month hiatus, when crabs remained stationary, coincident with the main period of crab spawning and egg incubation. Incubation commenced earlier in the west, from late October onwards, and brooding locations, determined using tidal geolocation, occurred throughout the species range. With an overall return rate of 34%, our results demonstrate that previous reluctance to tag crabs with relatively high-cost DSTs for fear of loss following moulting is unfounded, and that DSTs can generate precise information with regards life-history metrics that would be unachievable using other conventional means. PMID:23734180

  3. Use of hydrogen peroxide during incubation of landlocked fall Chinook salmon eggs in vertical-flow incubators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, M.E.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Six different hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes were evaluated in a series of three trials with landlocked fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha eggs incubated in vertical-flow incubators. Six daily 15-min hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes (1,000 mg/L; 1,000 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation; 2,000 mg/L; 2,000 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation; 2,500 mg/L; and 2,500 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation) were compared with daily 15-min treatments of 1,667 mg/L of formalin. Mortality at egg eye-up and fry hatch and from eye-up to hatch was significantly greater in eggs receiving the 2,500-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatments throughout incubation and in those receiving 2,500 mg/L hydrogen peroxide with a decrease to 500 mg/L during blastopore formation than in either of the 1,000-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes or the formalin-treated eggs in the first trial. No significant differences in mortality were observed among any of the treatments in the subsequent two trials with maximum hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 2,000 mg/L. Fungal infestations were observed primarily in the incubation trays treated at either of the 1,000-mg/L hydrogen peroxide regimens, as well as in those trays whose treatment concentrations were dropped to 500 mg/L during blastopore formation. Infestations were not observed in any of the formalin-treated trays. If minor fungal infestation is acceptable, then daily hydrogen peroxide treatments of 1,000 mg/L for 15 min would probably provide adequate fungal control compared with formalin usage.

  4. The bright incubate at night: sexual dichromatism and adaptive incubation division in an open-nesting shorebird.

    PubMed

    Ekanayake, Kasun B; Weston, Michael A; Nimmo, Dale G; Maguire, Grainne S; Endler, John A; Küpper, Clemens

    2015-05-01

    Ornamentation of parents poses a high risk for offspring because it reduces cryptic nest defence. Over a century ago, Wallace proposed that sexual dichromatism enhances crypsis of open-nesting females although subsequent studies found that dichromatism per se is not necessarily adaptive. We tested whether reduced female ornamentation in a sexually dichromatic species reduces the risk of clutch depredation and leads to adaptive parental roles in the red-capped plover Charadrius ruficapillus, a species with biparental incubation. Males had significantly brighter and redder head coloration than females. During daytime, when visually foraging predators are active, colour-matched model males incurred a higher risk of clutch depredation than females, whereas at night there was no difference in depredation risk between sexes. In turn, red-capped plovers maintained a strongly diurnal/nocturnal division of parental care during incubation, with males attending the nest largely at night when visual predators were inactive and females incubating during the day. We found support for Wallace's conclusion that reduced female ornamentation provides a selective advantage when reproductive success is threatened by visually foraging predators. We conclude that predators may alter their prey's parental care patterns and therefore may affect parental cooperation during care.

  5. The bright incubate at night: sexual dichromatism and adaptive incubation division in an open-nesting shorebird

    PubMed Central

    Ekanayake, Kasun B.; Weston, Michael A.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Maguire, Grainne S.; Endler, John A.; Küpper, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Ornamentation of parents poses a high risk for offspring because it reduces cryptic nest defence. Over a century ago, Wallace proposed that sexual dichromatism enhances crypsis of open-nesting females although subsequent studies found that dichromatism per se is not necessarily adaptive. We tested whether reduced female ornamentation in a sexually dichromatic species reduces the risk of clutch depredation and leads to adaptive parental roles in the red-capped plover Charadrius ruficapillus, a species with biparental incubation. Males had significantly brighter and redder head coloration than females. During daytime, when visually foraging predators are active, colour-matched model males incurred a higher risk of clutch depredation than females, whereas at night there was no difference in depredation risk between sexes. In turn, red-capped plovers maintained a strongly diurnal/nocturnal division of parental care during incubation, with males attending the nest largely at night when visual predators were inactive and females incubating during the day. We found support for Wallace's conclusion that reduced female ornamentation provides a selective advantage when reproductive success is threatened by visually foraging predators. We conclude that predators may alter their prey's parental care patterns and therefore may affect parental cooperation during care. PMID:25854884

  6. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  7. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative. PMID:22049659

  8. Ecophysiological Changes in Microbial Mats Incubated in a Greenhouse Collaboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad; DesMarais, David J.; GarciaPichel, Ferran; Hogan, Mary; Jahnke, Linda; Keller, Richard M.; Miller, Scott R.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial mats are modern examples of the earliest microbial communities known. Among the best studied are microbial mats growing in hypersaline ponds managed for the production of salt by Exportadora de Sal, S.A. de C.V., Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. In May, 2001, we collected mats from Ponds 4 and 5 in this system and returned them to Ames Research Center, where they have been maintained for a period of over nine months. We report here on both the ecophysiological changes occurring in the mats over that period of time as well as the facility in which they were incubated. Mats (approximately 1 sq. meter total area) were incubated in a greenhouse facility modified to provide the mats with natural levels of visible and ultraviolet radiation as well as constantly flowing, temperature-controlled water. Two replicated treatments were maintained, a 'high salinity' treatment (about 120 ppt) and a 'low salinity' treatment (about 90 ppt). Rates of net biological activity (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, trace gas production) in the mats were relatively constant over the several months, and were similar to rates of activity measured in the field. However, over the course of the incubation, mats in both treatments changed in physical appearance. The most obvious change was that mats in the higher salinity treatments developed a higher proportion of carotenoid pigments (relative to chlorophyll), resulting in a noticeably orange color in the high salinity mats. This trend is also seen in the natural salinity gradient present at the field site. Changes in the community composition of the mats, as assayed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), as well as biomarker compounds produced in the mats were also monitored. The degree to which the mats kept in the greenhouse changed from the originally collected mats, as well as differences between high and low salinity mats will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended

  9. Plantago ovata F. Mucilage-Alginate Mucoadhesive Beads for Controlled Release of Glibenclamide: Development, Optimization, and In Vitro-In Vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2013-01-01

    The current study deals with the development and optimization of ispaghula (Plantago ovata F.) husk mucilage- (IHM-) alginate mucoadhesive beads containing glibenclamide by ionotropic gelation technique. The effects of sodium alginate (SA) to IHM and cross-linker (CaCl2) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), as well as cumulative drug release after 10 hours (R10 h, %), were optimized using 3(2) factorial design based on response surface methodology. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The optimized mucoadhesive beads exhibited 94.43 ± 4.80% w/w of DEE and good mucoadhesivity with the biological membrane in wash-off test and sustained drug release profile over 10 hours. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR analyses. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed by controlled release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The optimized glibenclamide-loaded IHM-alginate mucoadhesive beads showed significant antidiabetic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. PMID:26555967

  10. Effective Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium infantis encapsulation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) and flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) mucilage and soluble protein by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mariela; Oomah, B Dave; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina

    2017-02-01

    Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7.5:0.6:7.5%, w/w/w), respectively. These ternary blends protected the probiotics and enhanced their resistance to simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Probiotics encapsulated with the ternary blends incorporated in instant juice powder exhibited high viability (>9Log10CFU/g) after 45days refrigerated storage. Encapsulation with the ternary blends reduced particle size of the probiotic powders thereby offering additional functional benefits. Our results reveal that chia seed and flaxseed are excellent sources of probiotic encapsulating agents.

  11. Effective Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium infantis encapsulation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) and flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) mucilage and soluble protein by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mariela; Oomah, B Dave; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina

    2017-02-01

    Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7.5:0.6:7.5%, w/w/w), respectively. These ternary blends protected the probiotics and enhanced their resistance to simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Probiotics encapsulated with the ternary blends incorporated in instant juice powder exhibited high viability (>9Log10CFU/g) after 45days refrigerated storage. Encapsulation with the ternary blends reduced particle size of the probiotic powders thereby offering additional functional benefits. Our results reveal that chia seed and flaxseed are excellent sources of probiotic encapsulating agents. PMID:27596397

  12. Cellular Automata with network incubation in information technology diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseo, Renato; Guidolin, Mariangela

    2010-06-01

    Innovation diffusion of network goods determines direct network externalities that depress sales for long periods and delay full benefits. We model this effect through a multiplicative dynamic market potential driven by a latent individual threshold embedded in a special Cellular Automata representation. The corresponding mean field approximation of its aggregate version is a Riccati equation with a closed form solution. This allows the detection of a change-point time separating an incubation period from a subsequent take-off due to a collective threshold (critical mass). Weighted nonlinear least squares are the main inferential methodology. An application is analysed with reference to USA fax machine diffusion.

  13. Diel rhythms of tick parasitism on incubating African penguins.

    PubMed

    Duffy, D C; Daturi, A

    1987-01-01

    1. Ticks (Ornithodoros capensis Neumann) were most abundant on incubating host African penguins (Spheniscus demersus Linnaeus) at 24.00 hours and least abundant during 09.00-12.00 hours during 4 day periods in May and October at 3 h intervals. 2. Ticks were three times as abundant in May, the start of the breeding season, as in October, at its end. 3. Air temperature and humidity appear less important than light levels in determining tick activity. 4. The degree of tick parasitism of breeding seabirds is best studied at night.

  14. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the identification and assessment of external service providers to the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant to Arrowhead Center, New Mexico State University. This report contains 1) a summary of the services to be provided by NSTI; 2) organizational descriptions of external service providers; and 3) a comparison of NSTI services and services offered by external providers.

  15. Phylogenetic and Epidemiologic Evidence of Multiyear Incubation in Human Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Torrey A.; McGuone, Declan; Jindal, Jenelle; Rocha, Marcelo; Cumming, Melissa; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Barbosa, Taciana Fernandes Souza; de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Chu, Catherine J.; Cole, Andrew J.; Kotait, Ivanete; Kuzmina, Natalia A.; Yager, Pamela A.; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Brown, Catherine M.; Rosenthal, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Eight years after emigrating from Brazil, an otherwise healthy man developed rabies. An exposure prior to immigration was reported. Genetic analysis revealed a canine rabies virus variant found only in the patient’s home country, and the patient had not traveled internationally since immigrating to the United States. We describe how epidemiological, phylogenetic, and viral sequencing data provided confirmation that rabies encephalomyelitis may present after a long, multiyear incubation period, a consideration that previously has been hypothesized without the ability to exclude a more recent exposure. Accordingly, rabies should be considered in the diagnosis of any acute encephalitis, myelitis, or encephalomyelitis. PMID:24038455

  16. Low-power hybrid wireless network for monitoring infant incubators.

    PubMed

    Shin, D I; Shin, K H; Kim, I K; Park, K S; Lee, T S; Kim, S I; Lim, K S; Huh, S J

    2005-10-01

    We have created a pilot wireless network for the convenient monitoring of temperature and humidity of infant incubators. This system combines infrared and radio frequency (RF) communication in order to minimize the power consumption of slave devices, and we therefore call it a hybrid wireless network. The slave module installed in the infant incubator receives the calling signal from the host with an infrared receiver, and sends temperature and humidity data to the host with an RF transmitter. The power consumption of the host system is not critical, and hence it uses the maximum power of infrared transmission and continuously operating RF receiver. In our test implementation, we included four slave devices. The PC calls each slave device every second and then waits for 6 s, resulting in a total scan period of 10 s. Slave devices receive the calling signals and transmit three data values (temperature, moisture, and skin temperature); their power demand is 1 mW, and can run for about 1000 h on four AA-size nickel-hydride batteries.

  17. Dynamic programming approach for newborn's incubator humidity control.

    PubMed

    Bouattoura, D; Villon, P; Farges, G

    1998-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the human skin have been studied for a long time. A special interest has been shown in the water permeability of the premature infant's skin, which is known to be an important factor in the maintenance of a controlled water and heat balance. The rate of evaporative heat exchange between the skin surface of a very premature infant and the surrounding incubator air may be so high that evaporative heat loss alone may exceed the infant's total metabolic heat production. However, it has been demonstrated in several investigations published in recent years that basal evaporative water loss can be consistently reduced by increasing the ambient humidity. Nevertheless, the passive humidification system (water reservoir) used in most incubators cannot achieve high and steady humidity levels. In this paper, we propose an active humidification system. The algorithm is based on a combination of optimal control theory and dynamic programming approach. The relative-humidity (R.H.) regulation is performed in range of 35-90% at 33 degrees C with small oscillations (+/- 0.5% R.H.) around the reference value (i.e., prescribed R.H.).

  18. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  19. Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Degradation Modeled Through Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as is in the atmosphere, provides the main link between terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs, and fuels the microbial food web. The fate and removal of DOM is a result of several complex conditions and processes, including photodegradation, sorption/desorption, dominant vascular plant sources, and microbial abundance. In order to better constrain factors affecting microbial degradation, laboratory incubations were performed using Sacramento River water for microbial inoculums and vascular plant leachates. Four vascular plant sources were chosen based on their dominance in the Sacramento River Valley: gymnosperm needles from Pinus sabiniana (foothill pine), angiosperm dicot leaves from Quercus douglassi (blue oak), angiosperm monocot mixed annual grasses, and angiosperm monocot mixed Schoenoplectus acutus (tule) and Typha spp. (cattails). Three concentrations of microbial inoculum were used for each plant material, ranging from 0.2% to 10%. Degradation was monitored as a function of time using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-Vis absorbance, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and was compared across vascular plant type and inoculum concentration.

  20. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  1. Biparental incubation-scheduling: no experimental evidence for major energetic constraints

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Will; Rutten, Anne L.; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is energetically demanding, but it is debated whether these demands constrain incubation-scheduling (i.e., the length, constancy, and timing of incubation bouts) in cases where both parents incubate. Using 2 methods, we experimentally reduced the energetic demands of incubation in the semipalmated sandpiper, a biparental shorebird breeding in the harsh conditions of the high Arctic. First, we decreased the demands of incubation for 1 parent only by exchanging 1 of the 4 eggs for an artificial egg that heated up when the focal bird incubated. Second, we reanalyzed the data from the only published experimental study that has explicitly tested energetic constraints on incubation-scheduling in a biparentally incubating species (Cresswell et al. 2003). In this experiment, the energetic demands of incubation were decreased for both parents by insulating the nest cup. We expected that the treated birds, in both experiments, would change the length of their incubation bouts, if biparental incubation-scheduling is energetically constrained. However, we found no evidence that heating or insulation of the nest affected the length of incubation bouts: the combined effect of both experiments was an increase in bout length of 3.6min (95% CI: −33 to 40), which is equivalent to a 0.5% increase in the length of the average incubation bout. These results demonstrate that the observed biparental incubation-scheduling in semipalmated sandpipers is not primarily driven by energetic constraints and therefore by the state of the incubating bird, implying that we still do not understand the factors driving biparental incubation-scheduling. PMID:25713473

  2. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    PubMed

    Lacroux, Caroline; Simon, Stéphanie; Benestad, Sylvie L; Maillet, Séverine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Cassard, Hervé; Costes, Pierrette; Bergonier, Dominique; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Moldal, Torffin; Simmons, Hugh; Lantier, Frederic; Feraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc) accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species. PMID:19079578

  3. Prions in Milk from Ewes Incubating Natural Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Lacroux, Caroline; Simon, Stéphanie; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Maillet, Séverine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Cassard, Hervé; Costes, Pierrette; Bergonier, Dominique; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Moldal, Torffin; Simmons, Hugh; Lantier, Frederic; Feraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrPSc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 µg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species. PMID:19079578

  4. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  5. [Incubate of learning in nursing: an innovation in teaching the care].

    PubMed

    Cecagno, Diana; Siqueira, Hedi Crecencia Heckler de; Calvetti, Adriane; Castro, Queli Lisiane; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2009-01-01

    This study had as objective to reflect about incubate of learning in the nursing as an innovation in the teaching of the care. The incubate can be considered a strategy to create conditions for the incubation, the development of innovative ideas and the wakening of new enterprising ideas for the growth up of people, businesses and institutions. When using the critical, reflective thought associated when making in nursing, propitious environment, the incubate points with respect to methodological innovation at learning of the care.

  6. Effect of quince seed mucilage edible films incorporated with oregano or thyme essential oil on shelf life extension of refrigerated rainbow trout fillets.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash; Khazaei, Naimeh

    2014-03-17

    The effects of quince seed mucilage film (QSMF) containing oregano (O) or thyme (T) essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during refrigerated storage (4°C) were evaluated over a period of 18days. Films were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. The control and the wrapped fillet samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (aerobic and psychrotrophic count, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae), chemical (TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N), and sensory characteristics. Bacteria grew most quickly in trout fillets stored in air, followed by those wrapped with QSMF and the lowest counts were in wrapped samples with QSMF+2%T. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and LAB counts were significantly lower in samples wrapped with QSMF+2%T. The lowest TBA value was obtained in fillets wrapped QSMF containing 2% oregano essential oil. The strong antioxidant activity of QSMF+2%O was related to the composition of oregano essential oil. The GC analysis of essential oil components revealed that carvacrol (81.85%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. TBA value varied for all treatments and remained lower than 2mg MDA/kg throughout storage. The formation of TVB-N, TMA-N increased with time of storage. TVB-N and TMA-N correlated well with the microbiological data, indicating that along with TVB-N, TMA-N may serve as a useful index for fillets spoilage. QSMF extended the microbial shelf life of rainbow trout fillets by 2days, whereas the QSMF+1%O, QSMF+1.5%O, QSMF+2%O, QSMF+1%T, QSMF+1.5%T and QSMF+2%T resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the trout fillets by 3, 5, 9, 6, 10 and 11days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. PMID:24463155

  7. Effect of quince seed mucilage edible films incorporated with oregano or thyme essential oil on shelf life extension of refrigerated rainbow trout fillets.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash; Khazaei, Naimeh

    2014-03-17

    The effects of quince seed mucilage film (QSMF) containing oregano (O) or thyme (T) essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during refrigerated storage (4°C) were evaluated over a period of 18days. Films were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. The control and the wrapped fillet samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (aerobic and psychrotrophic count, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae), chemical (TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N), and sensory characteristics. Bacteria grew most quickly in trout fillets stored in air, followed by those wrapped with QSMF and the lowest counts were in wrapped samples with QSMF+2%T. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and LAB counts were significantly lower in samples wrapped with QSMF+2%T. The lowest TBA value was obtained in fillets wrapped QSMF containing 2% oregano essential oil. The strong antioxidant activity of QSMF+2%O was related to the composition of oregano essential oil. The GC analysis of essential oil components revealed that carvacrol (81.85%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. TBA value varied for all treatments and remained lower than 2mg MDA/kg throughout storage. The formation of TVB-N, TMA-N increased with time of storage. TVB-N and TMA-N correlated well with the microbiological data, indicating that along with TVB-N, TMA-N may serve as a useful index for fillets spoilage. QSMF extended the microbial shelf life of rainbow trout fillets by 2days, whereas the QSMF+1%O, QSMF+1.5%O, QSMF+2%O, QSMF+1%T, QSMF+1.5%T and QSMF+2%T resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the trout fillets by 3, 5, 9, 6, 10 and 11days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  8. Soil respiration is not limited by reductions in microbial biomass during long-term soil incubations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining rates of soil respiration are reliably observed during long-term laboratory incubations, but the cause is uncertain. We explored different controls on soil respiration during long-term soil incubations. Following a 707 day incubation (30 C) of soils from cultivated and forested plots at Ke...

  9. The see-saw a vertical-lift incubator designed for channel catfish egg masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended in water that is agitated with rotating or oscillating paddles. We designed and tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Preliminary research in commercial hatcheries...

  10. A study of knowledge supernetworks and network robustness in different business incubators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing; Zhao, Liming

    2016-04-01

    As the most important intangible resource of the new generation of business incubators, knowledge has been studied extensively, particularly with respect to how it spreads among incubating firms through knowledge networks. However, these homogeneous networks do not adequately describe the heterogeneity of incubating firms in different types of business incubators. To solve the problem of heterogeneity, the notion of a knowledge supernetwork has been used both to construct a knowledge interaction model among incubating firms and to distinguish social network relationships from knowledge network relationships. The process of knowledge interaction and network evolution can then be simulated with a few rules for incubating firms regarding knowledge innovation/absorption, social network connection, and entry and exit, among other aspects. Knowledge and networks have been used as performance indicators to evaluate the evolution of knowledge supernetworks. Moreover, we study the robustness of incubating firms' social networks by employing four types of attack strategies. Based on our simulation results, we conclude that there have been significant knowledge interaction and network evolution among incubating firms on a periodic basis and that both specialized and diversified business incubators have every advantage necessary in terms of both knowledge and networks to cultivate start-up companies. As far as network robustness is concerned, there is no obvious difference between the two types of business incubators with respect to the stability of their network structures, but specialized business incubators have stronger network communication abilities than diversified business incubators.

  11. Instability and apparent lack of metabolism of phomopsin A during incubation with ovine rumen fluid.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P

    1988-06-01

    To investigate the stability and possible metabolism of phomopsin A in rumen fluid, phomopsin A was incubated in ovine rumen fluid - buffer mixtures for 24 h. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of extracted incubation mixtures demonstrated that although phomopsin A was degraded, metabolism by rumen microorganisms appears not to be important during 24 h incubation.

  12. Marine antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment. PMID:12807313

  13. Excitation Emission Matrix Spectra (EEMS) of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Produced during Microbial Incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, N.; Nelson, N. B.; Parsons, R.

    2013-12-01

    The chromophoric or light-absorbing fraction of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is present ubiquitously in natural waters and has a significant impact on ocean biogeochemistry, affecting photosynthesis and primary production as well direct and indirect photochemical reactions (Siegel et al., 2002; Nelson et al., 2007). It has been largely researched in the past few decades, however the exact chemical composition remains unknown. Instrumental methods of analysis including simultaneous excitation-emission fluorescence spectra have allowed for further insight into source and chemical composition. While certain excitation-emission peaks have been associated with ';marine' sources, they have not been exclusively linked to bacterial production of CDOM (Coble, 1996; Zepp et al., 2004). In this study, ';grazer diluted' seawater samples (70% 0.2μm filtered water; 30% whole water) were collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea (31° 41' N; 64° 10' W) and incubated with an amendment of labile dissolved organic carbon (10μM C6H12O6), ammonium (1μM NH4Cl) and phosphate (0.1μM K2HPO4) to facilitate bacterial production. These substrates and concentrations have been previously shown to facilitate optimum bacterial and CDOM production (Nelson et al., 2004). Sample depths were chosen at 1m and 200m as water at these depths has been exposed to UV light (the Subtropical Mode Water at 200m has been subducted from the surface) and therefore has low initial concentrations of CDOM. After the samples were amended, they were incubated at in-situ temperatures in the dark for 72 hours, with bacteria counts, UV-Vis absorption and EEMS measurements taken at 6-8 hour intervals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were collected daily. For the surface water experiment specific bacteria populations were investigated using Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results showed a clear production of bacteria and production of CDOM, which

  14. Metatranscriptomic insights into polyphosphate metabolism in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel S; Flood, Beverly E; Bailey, Jake V

    2016-04-01

    Microorganisms can influence inorganic phosphate (Pi) in pore waters, and thus the saturation state of phosphatic minerals, by accumulating and hydrolyzing intracellular polyphosphate (poly-P). Here we used comparative metatranscriptomics to explore microbial poly-P utilization in marine sediments. Sulfidic marine sediments from methane seeps near Barbados and from the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) oxygen minimum zone were incubated under oxic and anoxic sulfidic conditions. Pi was sequestered under oxic conditions and liberated under anoxic conditions. Transcripts homologous to poly-P kinase type 2 (ppk2) were 6-22 × more abundant in metatranscriptomes from the anoxic incubations, suggesting that reversible poly-P degradation by Ppk2 may be an important metabolic response to anoxia by marine microorganisms. Overall, diverse taxa differentially expressed homologues of genes for poly-P degradation (ppk2 and exopolyphosphatase) under different incubation conditions. Sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms appeared to preferentially express genes for poly-P degradation under anoxic conditions, which may impact phosphorus cycling in a wide range of oxygen-depleted marine settings.

  15. Determination of pentachlorophenol in wastewater irrigated soils and incubated earthworms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wen, Bei; Shan, Xiao-quan

    2006-07-15

    The analyses of low pentachlorophenol (PCP) in soils and earthworms require a sensitive and reliable analytical method. In this paper, several derivatization methods and extraction solvents were compared systematically. The derivatization reagents included acetic anhydride, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr) and diazomethane. Hexane, acetone, hexane-acetone (1:1), dichloromethane and methanol were used as the extraction solvents. PFBBr derivatization showed the highest sensitivity. The derivatization parameters of PFBBr including the amount of PFBBr, the power and irradiation time of microwave were optimized. As a result, 200 microl of PFBBr (10%) at 150W of microwave oven for 30 min achieved the best result. The PFBBr derivatization method had the detection limit of 0.07 microg l(-1) of PCP. Extraction by a mixture of hexane and acetone (1:1) showed the best recoveries. The recommended method was used to determine the low PCP in soils irrigated by wastewater and earthworms incubated in the corresponding soils. The concentrations of PCP in soils were in the range of 1.38-179 ng g(-1), while those in earthworms were 11.2-262 ng g(-1). The recoveries of the surrogate standard (trichlorophenol) ranged from 81.1% to 107%, demonstrating the merit of the method. PMID:18970711

  16. Decisions for the IVF laboratory: comparative analysis of embryo culture incubators.

    PubMed

    Swain, Jason E

    2014-05-01

    Incubators in the IVF laboratory play a pivotal role in providing a stable and appropriate culture environment required for optimizing embryo development and clinical outcomes. With technological advances, several types of incubators are now available and careful consideration is required for selection. Examination of variables, such as recovery/stabilization of temperature, gas atmosphere and humidity, as well as understanding various approaches utilized by each device to regulate these variables, is critical. Additionally, a comprehensive examination of clinical studies that compare various incubators may provide insight into their efficacy. Other factors, both technical and practical, must also be considered when selecting an incubator. Importantly, proper management, including patient volume and workflow, is paramount in optimizing function of any incubator, regardless of the technology incorporated. This review highlights incubator function and reviews key environmental variables controlled and the technology utilized in various units. Additionally, existing comparative studies focused on incubator recovery and clinical outcomes are critically analysed. Finally, strategies employed for incubator management, as well as future potential incubator improvements are discussed. While existing reports indicate that smaller benchtop/topload incubators provide faster recovery of environmental variables, there is no clear advantage of any particular incubator based on clinical outcomes. PMID:24656561

  17. Decisions for the IVF laboratory: comparative analysis of embryo culture incubators.

    PubMed

    Swain, Jason E

    2014-05-01

    Incubators in the IVF laboratory play a pivotal role in providing a stable and appropriate culture environment required for optimizing embryo development and clinical outcomes. With technological advances, several types of incubators are now available and careful consideration is required for selection. Examination of variables, such as recovery/stabilization of temperature, gas atmosphere and humidity, as well as understanding various approaches utilized by each device to regulate these variables, is critical. Additionally, a comprehensive examination of clinical studies that compare various incubators may provide insight into their efficacy. Other factors, both technical and practical, must also be considered when selecting an incubator. Importantly, proper management, including patient volume and workflow, is paramount in optimizing function of any incubator, regardless of the technology incorporated. This review highlights incubator function and reviews key environmental variables controlled and the technology utilized in various units. Additionally, existing comparative studies focused on incubator recovery and clinical outcomes are critically analysed. Finally, strategies employed for incubator management, as well as future potential incubator improvements are discussed. While existing reports indicate that smaller benchtop/topload incubators provide faster recovery of environmental variables, there is no clear advantage of any particular incubator based on clinical outcomes.

  18. Comparison and recovery of Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms in water with a chromogenic medium incubated at 41 and 44.5 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J L; Soriano, A; Carbajo, O; Amoros, I; Garelick, H

    1999-08-01

    This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5 degrees C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5 degrees C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41 degrees C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41 degrees C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters.

  19. Comparison and Recovery of Escherichia coli and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Water with a Chromogenic Medium Incubated at 41 and 44.5°C

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Jose L.; Soriano, Adela; Carbajo, Oscar; Amoros, Inmaculada; Garelick, Hemda

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5°C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5°C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41°C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41°C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters. PMID:10427079

  20. Biparental incubation patterns in a high-Arctic breeding shorebird: how do pairs divide their duties?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In biparental species, parents may be in conflict over how much they invest into their offspring. To understand this conflict, parental care needs to be accurately measured, something rarely done. Here, we quantitatively describe the outcome of parental conflict in terms of quality, amount, and timing of incubation throughout the 21-day incubation period in a population of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) breeding under continuous daylight in the high Arctic. Incubation quality, measured by egg temperature and incubation constancy, showed no marked difference between the sexes. The amount of incubation, measured as length of incubation bouts, was on average 51min longer per bout for females (11.5h) than for males (10.7h), at first glance suggesting that females invested more than males. However, this difference may have been offset by sex differences in the timing of incubation; females were more often off nest during the warmer period of the day, when foraging conditions were presumably better. Overall, the daily timing of incubation shifted over the incubation period (e.g., for female incubation from evening–night to night–morning) and over the season, but varied considerably among pairs. At one extreme, pairs shared the amount of incubation equally, but one parent always incubated during the colder part of the day; at the other extreme, pairs shifted the start of incubation bouts between days so that each parent experienced similar conditions across the incubation period. Our results highlight how the simultaneous consideration of different aspects of care across time allows sex-specific investment to be more accurately quantified. PMID:24347997

  1. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    PubMed

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators.

  2. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3−) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3− addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3− and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  3. The Incubation Period of Buruli Ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection)

    PubMed Central

    Trubiano, Jason A.; Lavender, Caroline J.; Fyfe, Janet A. M.; Bittmann, Simone; Johnson, Paul D. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Buruli Ulcer (BU) is caused by the environmental microbe Mycobacterium ulcerans. Despite unclear transmission, contact with a BU endemic region is the key known risk factor. In Victoria, Australia, where endemic areas have been carefully mapped, we aimed to estimate the Incubation Period (IP) of BU by interviewing patients who reported defined periods of contact with an endemic area prior to BU diagnosis. Method A retrospective review was undertaken of 408 notifications of BU in Victoria from 2002 to 2012. Telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire and review of notification records were performed. Patients with a single visit exposure to a defined endemic area were included and the period from exposure to disease onset determined (IP). Results We identified 111 of 408 notified patients (27%) who had a residential address outside a known endemic area, of whom 23 (6%) reported a single visit exposure within the previous 24 months. The median age of included patients was 30 years (range: 6 to 73) and 65% were male. 61% had visited the Bellarine Peninsula, currently the most active endemic area. The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 71 days (range: 34–204 days). The midpoint of the reported IP range was utilized to calculate a point estimate of the IP for each case. Subsequently, the mean IP for the cohort was calculated at 135 days (IQR: 109–160; CI 95%: 113.9–156), corresponding to 4.5 months or 19.2 weeks. The shortest IP recorded was 32 days and longest 264 days (Figure 1 & 2). IP did not vary for variables investigated. Conclusions The estimated mean IP of BU in Victoria is 135 days (IQR: 109–160 days), 4.5 months. The shortest recorded was IP 34 days and longest 264 days. A greater understanding of BU IP will aid clinical risk assessment and future research. PMID:24098820

  4. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3 (-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3 (-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3 (-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  5. Occurrence of aspartyl proteases in brine after herring marinating.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz; Lepczyński, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Herrings are marinated in a brine consisting of salt and acetic acid. During marinating, various nitrogen fractions diffuse from fish flesh to the brine, causing significant nutritional quality losses of the raw material. In this study, it has been demonstrated for the first time that proteases diffuse from the fish to the marinating brine. Using ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography on pepstatin-A agarose bed the aspartyl proteases were purified and concentrated over 2600-fold from a marinating brine. Pepstatin-A completely inhibited the activity of the purified preparation. The preparation was active against fluorogenic substrates specific for cathepsin D and E and inactive against substrates specific for cysteine cathepsins. Depending on incubation time, the preparation showed pH-optimum at 2.0 or 4.5. The 2D SDS-PAGE separation demonstrated the presence of a few proteins with molecular weights and pI values typical of cathepsin D, E and pepsin.

  6. Incubation Temperature Effects on Hatchling Performance in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Leah R.; Godfrey, Matthew H.; Owens, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Incubation temperature has significant developmental effects on oviparous animals, including affecting sexual differentiation for several species. Incubation temperature also affects traits that can influence survival, a theory that is verified in this study for the Northwest Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). We conducted controlled laboratory incubations and experiments to test for an effect of incubation temperature on performance of loggerhead hatchlings. Sixty-eight hatchlings were tested in 2011, and 31 in 2012, produced from eggs incubated at 11 different constant temperatures ranging from 27°C to 33°C. Following their emergence from the eggs, we tested righting response, crawling speed, and conducted a 24-hour long swim test. The results support previous studies on sea turtle hatchlings, with an effect of incubation temperature seen on survivorship, righting response time, crawling speed, change in crawl speed, and overall swim activity, and with hatchlings incubated at 27°C showing decreased locomotor abilities. No hatchlings survived to be tested in both years when incubated at 32°C and above. Differences in survivorship of hatchlings incubated at high temperatures are important in light of projected higher sand temperatures due to climate change, and could indicate increased mortality from incubation temperature effects. PMID:25517114

  7. Characterizing the nutritional strategy of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Williams, T.D.; Kitaysky, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    We measured plasma concentrations of variables associated with lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, glycerol, triglyceride, and ??- hydroxybutyrate), protein metabolism (uric acid), and baseline corticosterone to characterize the nutritional state of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis and relate this to incubation constancy at two sites, Kuparuk and Teshekpuk, in northern Alaska. King eiders at both sites appeared to employ a partial-income incubation strategy, relying on both endogenous and exogenous energy resources. Females maintained high invariant levels of free fatty acids, ??-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol throughout incubation, indicating that fat reserves were a major energy source, and not completely depleted during incubation. Similarly, uric acid did not increase, suggesting effective protein sparing or protein ingestion and adequate lipid reserves throughout incubation. Baseline corticosterone and triglyceride levels increased during incubation, indicative of an increase in foraging during late stages of incubation. Incubating females at Kuparuk had higher triglyceride concentrations but also had higher ??-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than females at Teshekpuk. This dichotomy may reflect a short-term signal of feeding overlaying the longer-term signal of reliance on endogenous lipid reserves due to higher food intake yet higher metabolic costs at Kuparuk because of its colder environment. Incubation constancy was not correlated with plasma concentrations of lipid or protein metabolites. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  8. Incubation temperature influences locomotor performance in young wood ducks (Aix sponsa).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Brittney Cole; Durant, Sarah Elizabeth; Hepp, Gary Richard; Hopkins, William Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Incubation temperature is an important maternal effect in birds that can influence numerous offspring traits. For example, ducklings from eggs incubated at lower temperatures have lower growth rates, protein content, and are in poorer body condition than ducklings from eggs incubated at higher temperatures. Based on these observations, we predicted that incubation temperature would indirectly influence performance through its direct effects on body size. Wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs were incubated at three ecologically relevant temperatures (35, 35.9, 37°C). After hatching, all ducklings were housed under identical conditions and were subjected to aquatic and terrestrial racing trials at 15 and 20 days posthatch (dph). Contrary to our prediction, incubation temperature did not influence most duckling body size parameters at 15 or 20 dph. However, incubation temperature did have a strong influence on locomotor performance independent of body size and body condition. Ducklings hatched from eggs incubated at the lowest temperature had significantly reduced maximum aquatic swim velocity than ducklings from higher temperatures. Maximum terrestrial sprint velocity followed a similar pattern, but did not differ statistically among incubation treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that slight changes in incubation temperature can directly affect locomotor performance in avian offspring and thus provide a significant source of phenotypic variation in natural wood duck populations.

  9. Continuous measurements of Nitrous Oxide isotopomers during incubation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmann Winther, Malte; Blunier, Thomas; Balslev-Harder, David; Elberling, Bo; Priemé, Anders; Christensen, Søren

    2016-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important and strong trace greenhouse gas in the atmosphere; it is part of a feed-back loop with climate. N2O is produced by microbes during nitrification and denitrification in the terrestrial and oceanic realm where today 1/3 of the production is estimated to stem from oceanic sources. The position of the isotope 15N in the linear N=N=O molecule can be distinguished between the central or terminal position (the isotopomers of N2O). It has been demonstrated that nitrification and denitrification have a relative preference for the terminal and central position, respectively. Therefore it is claimed that measuring the site preference in N2O allows to determine the responsible production process i.e. nitrification or denitrification. Our recent instrument development in collaboration with Picarro Inc. allows for continuous position dependent δ15N measurements. We present continuous results from incubation experiments with denitrifying bacteria, Pseudomonas Fluorescens and Pseudomonas Chlororaphis. We find bulk isotope effects of -11.3‰ to -8.3‰ for P. Chlororaphis. For P. Fluorescens the isotope effect during production of N2O is in the range -47.7‰ to -35.4‰ and between 1.9‰ and 12.6‰ during N2O reduction. The values for P. Fluorescens is in line with earlier findings, whereas the values for P. Chlororaphis is larger than previously published δ15Nbulk measurements from production. The calculations of the site preference (SP) isotope effect from the measurements of P. Chlororaphis results in values between 8.6‰ and 1.6‰. For P. Fluorescens the calculations results in SP values between -11.6‰ and -0.8‰ during production of N2O and between -8.1‰ and 5.0‰ during reduction of N2O. All measured values of SP are in the range of previously published results for denitrifying bacteria.

  10. Viability of marine phytoplankton in zooplankton fecal pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, S. W.; Fisher, N. S.

    1983-09-01

    Zooplankton fecal pellets collected from sediment traps or freshly excreted by euphausiids grazing in situ at natural phytoplankton levels in the pelagic Mediterranean were incubated under laboratory conditions and always contained viable marine phytoplankton, usually diatoms. Fecal pellets excreted by euphausiids grazing in the laboratory on unialgal diets also contained living cells, indicating viable gut passage of some species. The rapid sinking of fecal pellets appears to be an effective mechanism for transporting living algae to depth and possibly in seeding marine waters and sediments with such cells.

  11. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  12. Evaluating propagation method performance over time with Bayesian updating: an application to incubator testing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, J. N.; Olsen, G.H.; Shafer, C. C.; Hartup, Barry K.; Urbanek, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In captive-rearing programs, small sample sizes can limit the quality of information on performance of propagation methods. Bayesian updating can be used to increase information on method performance over time. We demonstrate an application to incubator testing at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. A new type of incubator was purchased for use in the whooping crane (Grus americana) propagation program, which produces birds for release. We tested the new incubator for reliability, using sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) eggs as surrogates. We determined that the new incubator should result in hatching rates no more than 5% lower than the available incubators, with 95% confidence, before it would be used to incubate whooping crane eggs. In 2007, 5 healthy chicks hatched from 12 eggs in the new incubator, and 2 hatched from 5 in an available incubator, for a median posterior difference of <1%, but with a large 95% credible interval (-41%, 43%). In 2008, we implemented a double-blind evaluation method, where a veterinarian determined whether eggs produced chicks that, at hatching, had no apparent health problems that would impede future release. We used the 2007 estimates as priors in the 2008 analysis. In 2008, 7 normal chicks hatched from 15 eggs in the new incubator, and 11 hatched from 15 in an available incubator, for a median posterior difference of 19%, with 95% credible interval (-8%, 44%). The increased sample size has increased our understanding of incubator performance. While additional data will be collected, at this time the new incubator does not appear adequate for use with whooping crane eggs.

  13. Mind the wind: microclimate effects on incubation effort of an arctic seabird.

    PubMed

    Høyvik Hilde, Christoffer; Pélabon, Christophe; Guéry, Loreleï; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Descamps, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    The energetic costs of reproduction in birds strongly depend on the climate experienced during incubation. Climate change and increasing frequency of extreme weather events may severely affect these costs, especially for species incubating in extreme environments. In this 3-year study, we used an experimental approach to investigate the effects of microclimate and nest shelter on the incubation effort of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in a wild Arctic population. We added artificial shelters to a random selection of nesting females, and compared incubation effort, measured as body mass loss during incubation, between females with and without shelter. Nonsheltered females had a higher incubation effort than females with artificial shelters. In nonsheltered females, higher wind speeds increased the incubation effort, while artificially sheltered females experienced no effect of wind. Although increasing ambient temperatures tended to decrease incubation effort, this effect was negligible in the absence of wind. Humidity had no marked effect on incubation effort. This study clearly displays the direct effect of a climatic variable on an important aspect of avian life-history. By showing that increasing wind speed counteracts the energetic benefits of a rising ambient temperature, we were able to demonstrate that a climatic variable other than temperature may also affect wild populations and need to be taken into account when predicting the effects of climate change. PMID:27099703

  14. Recent updates on incubation of drug craving: a mini-review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Caprioli, Daniele; Marchant, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Cue-induced drug craving progressively increases after prolonged withdrawal from drug self-administration in laboratory animals, a behavioral phenomenon termed “incubation of drug craving.” Studies over the years have revealed several important neural mechanisms contributing to incubation of drug craving. In this mini-review, we first discuss three excellent Addiction Biology publications on incubation of drug craving in both human and laboratory animals. We then review several key publications from the past year on behavioral and mechanistic findings related to incubation of drug craving. PMID:25440081

  15. Incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup Aythya marila on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup Aythya marila on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. The goals of the study were to describe the incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup in terms of incubation constancy, recess frequency and recess length. The use of endogenous reserves by Greater Scaup was examined by determining weight loss over the incubation period. Further, intraspecific variation in incubation constancy was considered in terms of hypotheses regarding timing of reproduction. Constancy (% time on nest) averaged 59% during egg laying and increased to 83% during incubation. Patterns of daily incubation constancy varied among females, with no overall trend. Females took an average of 4.3 recesses per day, with an average length of 57 minutes. Body mass declined by 6.4 g day-1 and females initiating nests later tended to be lighter. These data suggest that while Greater Scaup utilise some stored reserves during incubation, they probably meet most of their energetic demands by foraging during incubation recesses. These data are not consistent with the hypothesis that females are initiating nests before adequate forage is available in the spring to meet the demands of egg production and maintenance. Thus, the observed delay in the onset of nesting by Greater Scaup, relative to other sympatric nesting species, does not appear to be related to inadequate forage to meet nutritional requirements.

  16. Recent updates on incubation of drug craving: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Caprioli, Daniele; Marchant, Nathan J

    2015-09-01

    Cue-induced drug craving progressively increases after prolonged withdrawal from drug self-administration in laboratory animals, a behavioral phenomenon termed 'incubation of drug craving.' Studies over the years have revealed several important neural mechanisms contributing to incubation of drug craving. In this mini-review, we first discuss three excellent Addiction Biology publications on incubation of drug craving in both human and laboratory animals. We then review several key publications from the past year on behavioral and mechanistic findings related to incubation of drug craving.

  17. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  18. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  19. Marine Education for Inlanders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Amy

    1981-01-01

    Under a U.S. Department of Commerce Sea Grant, Texas teachers have developed a three-book series designed to expose elementary and secondary students to the marine world. Book titles include "Marine Organisms in Science Teaching,""Children's Literature--Passage to the Sea," and "Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources." (LRA)

  20. Marine vehicle ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornstein, R. J.; Shultz, W. M.; Stair, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of marine vehicle design on passenger exposure to vibration and discomfort are discussed. The ride quality of advanced marine vehicles is examined. as a basis for marine vehicle selection in modern water transport systems. The physiological effects of rough water on passengers are identified as requiring investigation in order to determine the acceptable limits.

  1. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  2. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities. PMID:26611003

  3. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  4. A meta-analysis of experiments linking incubation conditions with subsequent leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Groves, Peter J; Muir, Wendy I

    2014-01-01

    A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line) observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie). Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4-6 and 13-15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16-18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, P<0.05). A model described 66% of the variation Latency-To-Lie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1-15) and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16-18) will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C) for maximum hatchability and chick growth.

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Experiments Linking Incubation Conditions with Subsequent Leg Weakness in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Peter J.; Muir, Wendy I.

    2014-01-01

    A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line) observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie). Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4–6 and 13–15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16–18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, P<0.05). A model described 66% of the variation Latency-To-Lie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1–15) and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16–18) will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C) for maximum hatchability and chick growth. PMID:25054636

  6. [Effects of incubation temperature and substrate humidity on embryonic development of Mauremys mutica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Hong; Zhu, Xin-Ping; Zhao, Wei-Hua; Wei, Cheng-Qing; Chen, Yong-Le

    2010-01-01

    Yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica) eggs were incubated in vermiculite under nine combinations of temperature and humidity, i. e., 25 degrees C and -12 kPa, 29 degrees C and -12 kPa, 33 degrees C and -12 kPa, 25 degrees C and -150 kPa, 29 degrees C and -150 kPa, 33 degrees C and -150 kPa, 25 degrees C and -300 kPa, 29 degrees C and -300 kPa, and 33 degrees C and -300 kPa, aimed to study the effects of incubation temperature and its interaction with substrate humidity on the embryonic development of M. mutica. The initial egg mass, incubation temperature, substrate humidity, and the interaction of incubation temperature and substrate humidity had significant effects on the mass increment of egg in the course of hatching. At the same temperature, eggs incubated in wetter substrates (-12 kPa) gained more mass than those incubated in drier substrates (-150 kPa and -300 kPa). Incubation temperature affected hatching period significantly, while substrate humidity and its interaction with temperature did not. Both incubation temperature and substrate humidity affected hatching success and shell crack rate significantly. Abnormal hatchlings were found when incubated at 25 degrees C and 33 degrees C, but not at 29 degrees C. Incubation temperature had significant effects on the hatchling mass, carapace length and width, plastron length and width, body height, and tail length; while substrate humidity only affected hatchlings plastron length. The interaction of incubation temperature and substrate humidity did not affect the morphology of hatchlings.

  7. Automatic Incubator-type Temperature Control System for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    An automatic air-cooling incubator is proposed to replace the manual water-cooling blanket to control the brain tissue temperature for brain hypothermia treatment. Its feasibility is theoretically discussed as follows: First, an adult patient with the cooling incubator is modeled as a linear dynamical patient-incubator biothermal system. The patient is represented by an 18-compartment structure and described by its state equations. The air-cooling incubator provides almost same cooling effect as the water-cooling blanket, if a light breeze of speed around 3 m/s is circulated in the incubator. Then, in order to control the brain temperature automatically, an adaptive-optimal control algorithm is adopted, while the patient-blanket therapeutic system is considered as a reference model. Finally, the brain temperature of the patient-incubator biothermal system is controlled to follow up the given reference temperature course, in which an adaptive algorithm is confirmed useful for unknown environmental change and/or metabolic rate change of the patient in the incubating system. Thus, the present work ensures the development of the automatic air-cooling incubator for a better temperature regulation of the brain hypothermia treatment in ICU.

  8. Experimental evidence that keeping eggs dry is a mechanism for the antimicrobial effects of avian incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alba, Liliana; Oborn, Allison; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2010-12-01

    Avian incubation dramatically reduces the abundance and diversity of microbial assemblages on eggshells, and this effect has been hypothesized as an adaptive explanation for partial incubation, the bouts of incubation that some birds perform during the egg-laying period. However, the mechanisms for these antimicrobial effects are largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that microbial inhibition is partly achieved through removal of liquid water, which generally enhances microbial growth, from eggshells, and experimentally tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, we placed the first- and second-laid eggs of tree swallow ( Tachycineta bicolor) clutches in unincubated holding nests with either ambient or increased water on eggshells. Second, we added water to eggshells in naturally partially incubated nests. We compared microbial growth on shells during a 5-day experimental period and found that, as predicted, both unincubated groups had higher microbial growth than naturally partially incubated controls, and that only in the absence of incubation did wetted eggs have higher microbial growth than unwetted eggs. Thus, we have shown that water increases microbial growth on eggshells and that incubation nullifies these effects, suggesting that removal of water from egg surfaces is one proximate mechanism for the antimicrobial effects of incubation.

  9. A Conceptual Development Framework for Management and Leadership Learning in the UK Incubator Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D. Hannon, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses attention upon a recent phenomenon promoted by public sector policy and government funding and adopted within the private sector as a vehicle for wealth creation, where wealth can mean the development of different forms of capital such as financial, intellectual and social. Incubators and incubation programmes have established themselves…

  10. A rapid and cost effective method for soil carbon mineralization under static incubations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil incubations with subsequent measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) evolved are common soil assays to estimate C mineralization rates and active organic C. Two common methods used to detect CO2 in laboratory incubations are gas chromatography (GC) and alkali absorption followed by titration (NaOH)...

  11. A Study of Business Incubators: Models, Best Practices, and Recommendations for NASA and Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide NASA-Kennedy Space Center with information and recommendations to support establishing one or more technology-based business incubators In Florida. The study involved assembling information about incubators: why they succeed, why they fail, how they are organized, and what services they provide. Consequently, this study focuses on widely-recognized "best practices," needed to establish successful technology- based business incubators. The findings are used to optimize the design and implementation of one or more technology-based business incubators to be established in Florida. Recommendations reflect both the essential characteristics of successful incubators and the optimal business demographics in Florida. Appendix A provides a fuller description of the objectives of the study. Technology-based business incubators are an increasing catalyst of new business development across the USi Incubators focus on providing entrepreneurs and small start-up firms with a wide array of support services necessary to bring forth new products and processes based on technologies developed in the nation's federal and private laboratories and universities. Appendix B provides extensive discussion of findings relative to technology- based business incubators.

  12. The Contribution of University Business Incubators to New Knowledge-based Ventures: Evidence from Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Rosa; Grandi, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    University business incubators give businesses access to labs and equipment, scientific-technical knowledge, networks, and reputation. A study of incubators in Italy shows they do not resolve inadequate funding or lack of management and financial skills. However, the networking capacity can offset these problems. (Contains 25 notes/references.)…

  13. Accelerating Success: A Design Guide for Starting a New School Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robin; Rainey, Lydia

    2004-01-01

    Incubators are organizations that aim to decrease the learning curve for new schools and increase the likelihood that promising school plans will succeed. Incubators offer communities an innovative new way to support locally-initiated school designs. This design guide is intended to help people who are interested in starting a school incubator…

  14. Effect of Increased Egg Stocking Density in Existing and Experimental Catfish Incubators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in stationary wire mesh baskets suspended across metal troughs with flow-through water that is agitated and circulated between the baskets and around the eggs with rotating paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish e...

  15. Effects of incubation temperatures on embryonic and larval survival in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incubation temperature is commonly used by hatcheries to manipulate hatch date in salmonids including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Target dates for hatching often change during the incubation period and require a sudden adjustment in temperature. Although there are many studies charac...

  16. Survival and growth of American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) hatchlings after artificial incubation and repatriation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Temsiripong, Y.; Woodward, A.R.; Ross, J.P.; Kubilis, P.S.; Percival, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Hatchling American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) produced from artificially incubated wild eggs were returned to their natal areas (repatriated). We compared artificially incubated and repatriated hatchlings released within and outside the maternal alligator's home range with naturally incubated hatchlings captured and released within the maternal alligator's home range on Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Orange Lake in Florida. We used probability of recapture and total length at approximately nine months after hatching as indices of survival and growth rates. Artificially incubated hatchlings released outside of the maternal alligator's home range had lower recapture probabilities than either naturally incubated hatchlings or artificially incubated hatchlings released near the original nest site. Recapture probabilities of other treatments did not differ significantly. Artificially incubated hatchlings were approximately 6% shorter than naturally incubated hatchlings at approximately nine months after hatching. We concluded that repatriation of hatchlings probably would not have long-term effects on populations because of the resiliency of alligator populations to alterations of early age-class survival and growth rates of the magnitude that we observed. Repatriation of hatchlings may be an economical alternative to repatriation of older juveniles for population restoration. However, the location of release may affect subsequent survival and growth. Copyright 2006 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  17. Assessment and Certification of Neonatal Incubator Sensors through an Inferential Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Júnior, José Medeiros; de Menezes Júnior, José Maria Pires; de Albuquerque, Alberto Alexandre Moura; Almeida, Otacílio da Mota; de Araújo, Fábio Meneghetti Ugulino

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using sensors systems. This paper proposes a new procedure based on an inferential neural network to evaluate and calibrate a neonatal incubator. The proposal presents significant advantages over the standard calibration process, i.e., the number of sensors is drastically reduced, and it runs with the incubator under operation. Since the sensors used in the new calibration process are already installed in the commercial incubator, no additional hardware is necessary; and the calibration necessity can be diagnosed in real time without the presence of technical professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Experimental tests involving the aforementioned calibration system are carried out in a commercial incubator in order to validate the proposal. PMID:24248278

  18. Comparison of medium, temperature, and length of incubation for detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang D Hua; Evans, Kaye D; Goh, Rosalinda A; Tan, Grace L; Peterson, Ellena M

    2012-07-01

    Campylobacter (Campy; BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD), Spectra VRE (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and bile-esculin-azide-vancomycin (BEAV; Remel) agars were compared for their ability to detect vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in 750 stool specimens. The media were compared at 24 h and 48 h of incubation at 35°C and 42°C. When incubated for 24 h at 35°C, Campy was the most sensitive (97.8%) and specific (99.9%) but was comparable to Spectra, which has a sensitivity of 95.6% and a specificity of 99.1%, whereas BEAV was significantly less sensitive (90%) and specific (96.1%). Incubation at 42°C or extended incubation at 35°C for 48 h yielded no advantage over incubation at 35°C for 24 h.

  19. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  20. Si nanowire growth on sapphire: Classical incubation, reverse reaction, and steady state supersaturation

    SciTech Connect

    Shakthivel, Dhayalan; Rathkanthiwar, Shashwat; Raghavan, Srinivasan

    2015-04-28

    Si nanowire growth on sapphire substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method using Au catalyst particles has been studied. Sapphire was chosen as the substrate to ensure that the vapor phase is the only source of Si. Three hitherto unreported observations are described. First, an incubation period of 120–480 s, which is shown to be the incubation period as defined in classical nucleation theory, is reported. This incubation period permits the determination of a desolvation energy of Si from Au-Si alloys of 15 kT. Two, transmission electron microscopy studies of incubation, point to Si loss by reverse reaction as an important part of the mechanism of Si nanowire growth by VLS. Three, calculations using these physico-chemical parameters determined from incubation and measured steady state growth rates of Si nanowires show that wire growth happens from a supersaturated catalyst droplet.

  1. Incubation Periods of Mosquito-Borne Viral Infections: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Kara E.; Lessler, Justin; Moloney, Rachael M.; Kmush, Brittany; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are a major public health threat, but their incubation periods are typically uncited, non-specific, and not based on data. We systematically review the published literature on six mosquito-borne viruses selected for their public health importance: chikungunya, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. For each, we identify the literature's consensus on the incubation period, evaluate the evidence for this consensus, and provide detailed estimates of the incubation period and distribution based on published experimental and observational data. We abstract original data as doubly interval-censored observations. Assuming a log-normal distribution, we estimate the median incubation period, dispersion, 25th and 75th percentiles by maximum likelihood. We include bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals for each estimate. For West Nile and yellow fever viruses, we also estimate the 5th and 95th percentiles of their incubation periods. PMID:24639305

  2. Incubation periods of mosquito-borne viral infections: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Kara E; Lessler, Justin; Moloney, Rachael M; Kmush, Brittany; Cummings, Derek A T

    2014-05-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are a major public health threat, but their incubation periods are typically uncited, non-specific, and not based on data. We systematically review the published literature on six mosquito-borne viruses selected for their public health importance: chikungunya, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. For each, we identify the literature's consensus on the incubation period, evaluate the evidence for this consensus, and provide detailed estimates of the incubation period and distribution based on published experimental and observational data. We abstract original data as doubly interval-censored observations. Assuming a log-normal distribution, we estimate the median incubation period, dispersion, 25th and 75th percentiles by maximum likelihood. We include bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals for each estimate. For West Nile and yellow fever viruses, we also estimate the 5th and 95th percentiles of their incubation periods.

  3. Are thyroid hormones mediators of incubation temperature-induced phenotypes in birds?

    PubMed Central

    DuRant, S. E.; Carter, A. W.; Denver, R. J.; Hepp, G. R.; Hopkins, W. A.

    2014-01-01

    Incubation temperature influences a suite of traits in avian offspring. However, the mechanisms underlying expression of these phenotypes are unknown. Given the importance of thyroid hormones in orchestrating developmental processes, we hypothesized that they may act as an upstream mechanism mediating the effects of temperature on hatchling phenotypic traits such as growth and thermoregulation. We found that plasma T3, but not T4 concentrations, differed among newly hatched wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from different embryonic incubation temperatures. T4 at hatching correlated with time spent hatching, and T3 correlated with hatchling body condition, tarsus length, time spent hatching and incubation period. In addition, the T3 : T4 ratio differed among incubation temperatures at hatch. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that incubation temperature modulates plasma thyroid hormones which in turn influences multiple aspects of duckling phenotype. PMID:24402717

  4. Gas exchange and hatchability of chicken eggs incubated at simulated high altitude.

    PubMed

    Visschedijk, A H

    1985-02-01

    Chicken eggs laid at sea level were incubated at sea level (control conditions), at a simulated altitude of 5.5 km without any further measures (natural conditions), and at a simulated altitude of 5.7 km at optimal incubator gas composition (optimal conditions). Under optimal conditions the incubator relative humidity was 70% throughout incubation, the gas mixture supplied to the incubator contained 45% O2-55% N2, and the ventilation rate was reduced to 6% of control in order to maintain the normal air-space gas tensions and to compensate for the increased eggshell conductance at altitude. The embryos that developed under control conditions showed a normal CO2 production with 94% hatchability of fertile eggs. Under natural conditions at altitude all embryos died within a few days. Optimal conditions resulted in an almost normal gas exchange and in an improvement of hatchability from 0 to 81% of fertile eggs.

  5. The effects of heterospecifics and climatic conditions on incubation behavior within a mixed-species colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Hothem, Roger L.; Howe, Kristy H.; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with different life history breeding strategies. Although research has identified nest survival advantages of mixing colonies, behavioral mechanisms that might explain these effects is largely lacking. We examined parental incubation behavior using video-monitoring techniques on Alcatraz Island, California, of black-crowned night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax(hereinafter, night-heron) in a mixed-species colony with California gulls Larus californicus and western gulls L. occidentalis. We first quantified general nesting behaviors (i.e. incubation constancy, and nest attendance), and a suite of specific nesting behaviors (i.e. inactivity, vigilance, preening, and nest maintenance) with respect to six different daily time periods. We employed linear mixed effects models to investigate environmental and temporal factors as sources of variation in incubation constancy and nest attendance using 211 nest days across three nesting seasons (2010–2012). We found incubation constancy (percent of time on the eggs) and nest attendance (percent of time at the nest) were lower for nests that were located < 3 m from one or more gull nest, which indirectly supports the predator protection hypothesis, whereby heterospecifics provide protection allowing more time for foraging and other self-maintenance activities. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evidence of the influence of one nesting species on the incubation behavior of another. We also identified distinct differences between incubation constancy and nest attentiveness, indicating that these biparental incubating species do not share similar energetic constraints as those that are observed for uniparental species. Additionally, we found that variation in incubation behavior was a function of temperature and precipitation, where the strength of these effects

  6. Biotechnology of marine fungi.

    PubMed

    Damare, Samir; Singh, Purnima; Raghukumar, Seshagiri

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still relatively unexplored group in biotechnology. Taxonomic and habitat diversity form the basis for exploration of marine fungal biotechnology. This review covers what is known of the potential applications of obligate and marine-derived fungi obtained from coastal to the oceanic and shallow water to the deep-sea habitats. Recent studies indicate that marine fungi are potential candidates for novel enzymes, bioremediation, biosurfactants, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites. Future studies that focus on culturing rare and novel marine fungi, combined with knowledge of their physiology and biochemistry will provide a firm basis for marine mycotechnology. PMID:22222837

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of organic matter of a soil and vinasse mixture during aerobic or anaerobic incubation

    SciTech Connect

    Doelsch, Emmanuel Masion, Armand; Cazevieille, Patrick

    2009-06-15

    Mineralization potentials are often used to classify organic wastes. These methods involve measuring CO{sub 2} production during batch experiments, so variations in chemical compounds are not addressed. Moreover, the physicochemical conditions are not monitored during the reactions. The present study was designed to address these deficiencies. Incubations of a mixture of soil and waste (vinasse at 20% dry matter from a fermentation industry) were conducted in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and liquid samples obtained by centrifugation were collected at 2 h, 1 d and 28 d. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) patterns highlighted that: there was a 'soil effect' which increased organic matter (OM) degradation in all conditions compared to vinasse incubated alone; and OM degradation was faster under aerobic conditions since 500 mg kg{sup -1} of C remained after aerobic incubation, as compared to 4000 mg kg{sup -1} at the end of the anaerobic incubation period. No changes were detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) between 2 h and 1 d incubation. At 28 days incubation, the FTIR signal of the aerobic samples was deeply modified, thus confirming the high OM degradation. Under anaerobic conditions, the main polysaccharide contributions ({nu}(C-O)) disappeared at 1000 and 1200 cm{sup -1}, as also confirmed by the {sup 13}C NMR findings. Under aerobic incubation, a 50% decrease in the polysaccharide proportion was observed. Under anaerobic conditions, significant chemical modifications of the organic fraction were detected, namely formation of low molecular weight organic acids.

  8. Applicability of soil column incubation experiments to measure CO2 efflux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Linlin; Nishimura, Taku; Imoto, Hiromi; Sun, Zhigang

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of CO2 efflux from soils are essential to understand dynamic changes in soil carbon storage. Column incubation experiments are commonly used to study soil water and solute transport; however, the use of column incubation experiments to study soil CO2 efflux has seldom been reported. In this study, a 150-day greenhouse experiment with two treatments (no-tillage and tillage soils) was conducted to evaluate the applicability of soil column incubation experiments to study CO2 efflux. Both the chamber measurement and the gradient method were used, and results from the two methods were consistent: tillage increased soil cumulative CO2 efflux during the incubation period. Compared with fieldwork, incubation experiments can create or precisely control experimental conditions and thus have advantages for investigating the influence of climate factors or human activities on CO2 efflux. They are superior to bottle incubation because soil column experiments maintain a soil structure that is almost the same as that in the field, and thus can facilitate analyses on CO2 behaviour in the soil profile and more accurate evaluations of CO2 efflux. Although some improvements are still required for column incubation experiments, wider application of this method to study soil CO2 behaviour is expected.

  9. Factors affecting incubation patterns and sex roles of black oystercatchers in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiegel, Caleb S.; Haig, Susan M.; Goldstein, Michael I.; Huso, Manuela M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of human disturbance on avian parental behavior and reproductive success are fundamental to bird conservation. However, many such studies fail to also consider the influence of natural threats, a variable environment, and parental roles. Our work examines interactive relationships of cyclical (time of day, tide, temperature, seasonality) and stochastic (natural/human disturbance) processes with incubation patterns (attendance, bout lengths, recess rates) of the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), a shorebird of conservation concern. We used 24-hour-per-day video monitoring of 13 molecularly-sexed breeding pairs to systematically examine incubation, revealing previously undocumented information that may inform conservation practices for the genus. Seven of 22 video-monitored nests failed, primarily from egg depredation by nocturnally-active mammals. Analyses of 3177 hrs of video footage indicated a near doubling of incubation bout lengths at night, corresponding to the increased risk of nighttime egg predation. Females had higher overall nest attendance (54% vs. 42%) and longer mean incubation bout lengths than males (88 min vs. 73 min). Uninterrupted incubation bouts were over twice as long as bouts interrupted by disturbance. Incubating males departed nests substantially more frequently due to nest-area disturbances than females in one, but not both, years of our study. Our findings suggest that sexes exhibit different, but complimentary, incubation patterns, facilitating efficient egg care in a dynamic environment with several nest threats. We emphasize the importance of considering natural influences when evaluating human threats to shorebird reproductive behavior and success.

  10. Predator-Specific Effects on Incubation Behaviour and Offspring Growth in Great Tits

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Alessandra; Richner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    In birds, different types of predators may target adults or offspring differentially and at different times of the reproductive cycle. Hence they may also differentially influence incubation behaviour and thus embryonic development and offspring phenotype. This is poorly understood, and we therefore performed a study to assess the effects of the presence of either a nest predator or a predator targeting adults and offspring after fledging on female incubation behaviour in great tits (Parus major), and the subsequent effects on offspring morphological traits. We manipulated perceived predation risk during incubation using taxidermic models of two predators: the short-tailed weasel posing a risk to incubating females and nestlings, and the sparrowhawk posing a risk to adults and offspring after fledging. To disentangle treatment effects induced during incubation from potential carry-over effects of parental behaviour after hatching, we cross-fostered whole broods from manipulated nests with broods from unmanipulated nests. Both predator treatments lead to a reduced on- and off-bout frequency, to a slower decline in on-bout temperature as incubation advanced and showed a negative effect on nestling body mass gain. At the current state of knowledge on predator-induced variation in incubation patterns alternative hypotheses are feasible, and the findings of this study will be useful for guiding future research. PMID:25830223

  11. Equipment-free incubation of recombinase polymerase amplification reactions using body heat.

    PubMed

    Crannell, Zachary Austin; Rohrman, Brittany; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The development of isothermal amplification platforms for nucleic acid detection has the potential to increase access to molecular diagnostics in low resource settings; however, simple, low-cost methods for heating samples are required to perform reactions. In this study, we demonstrated that human body heat may be harnessed to incubate recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reactions for isothermal amplification of HIV-1 DNA. After measuring the temperature of mock reactions at 4 body locations, the axilla was chosen as the ideal site for comfortable, convenient incubation. Using commonly available materials, 3 methods for securing RPA reactions to the body were characterized. Finally, RPA reactions were incubated using body heat while control RPA reactions were incubated in a heat block. At room temperature, all reactions with 10 copies of HIV-1 DNA and 90% of reactions with 100 copies of HIV-1 DNA tested positive when incubated with body heat. In a cold room with an ambient temperature of 10 degrees Celsius, all reactions containing 10 copies or 100 copies of HIV-1 DNA tested positive when incubated with body heat. These results suggest that human body heat may provide an extremely low-cost solution for incubating RPA reactions in low resource settings.

  12. The infant incubator in the neonatal intensive care unit: unresolved issues and future developments.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Roberto; Porcella, Annalisa; Fanos, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Since the 19th century, devices termed incubators were developed to maintain thermal stability in low birth weight (LBW) and sick newborns, thus improving their chances of survival. Remarkable progress has been made in the production of infant incubators, which are currently highly technological devices. However, they still need to be improved in many aspects. Regarding the temperature and humidity control, future incubators should minimize heat loss from the neonate and eddies around him/her. An unresolved issue is exposure to high noise levels in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Strategies aimed at modifying the behavior of NICU personnel, along with structural improvements in incubator design, are required to reduce noise exposure. Light environment should be taken into consideration in designing new models of incubators. In fact, ambient NICU illumination may cause visual pathway sequelae or possibly retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), while premature exposure to continuous lighting may adversely affect the rest-activity patterns of the newborn. Accordingly, both the use of incubator covers and circadian lighting in the NICU might attenuate these effects. The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on infant health is still unclear. However, future incubators should be designed to minimize the EMF exposure of the newborn.

  13. A study of the effect of humidification on temperature of incubators in the nursery in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, T; Hsieh, E; Hwang, B

    1989-07-01

    To test whether it is necessary to humidify incubators in Taiwan, over a one-year-period, 180 sets of simultaneous recordings including room temperature, room humidity, incubator temperature and incubator humidity were collected. Water was randomly added to half of the incubators. Cultures from those and swab cultures from the other half, or the dry humidifiers were presented simultaneously for examination. Results showed that incubator humidities were unaffected by seasonal changes, while room humidities did change with the seasons. Adding water to incubators could raise the humidity to a significantly higher level (mean +/- SD: 60.70 +/- 7.86%) than in those without water (mean +/- SD: 50.30 +/- 6.45% P less than 0.01). Bacterial growth rate of incubators with water was significantly higher (89.09%) than those without water (37.93%, p less than 0.01), but the organisms cultured could not be related to babids' illnesses on clinical and/or laboratory grounds.

  14. The infant incubator in the neonatal intensive care unit: unresolved issues and future developments.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Roberto; Porcella, Annalisa; Fanos, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Since the 19th century, devices termed incubators were developed to maintain thermal stability in low birth weight (LBW) and sick newborns, thus improving their chances of survival. Remarkable progress has been made in the production of infant incubators, which are currently highly technological devices. However, they still need to be improved in many aspects. Regarding the temperature and humidity control, future incubators should minimize heat loss from the neonate and eddies around him/her. An unresolved issue is exposure to high noise levels in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Strategies aimed at modifying the behavior of NICU personnel, along with structural improvements in incubator design, are required to reduce noise exposure. Light environment should be taken into consideration in designing new models of incubators. In fact, ambient NICU illumination may cause visual pathway sequelae or possibly retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), while premature exposure to continuous lighting may adversely affect the rest-activity patterns of the newborn. Accordingly, both the use of incubator covers and circadian lighting in the NICU might attenuate these effects. The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on infant health is still unclear. However, future incubators should be designed to minimize the EMF exposure of the newborn. PMID:19591569

  15. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  16. Geographic variation in avian incubation periods and parental influences on embryonic temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.; Auer, S.K.; Bassar, R.D.; Niklison, Alina M.; Lloyd, P.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts shorter embryonic periods in species with greater embryo mortality risk and smaller body size. Field studies of 80 passerine species on three continents yielded data that largely conflicted with theory; incubation (embryonic) periods were longer rather than shorter in smaller species, and egg (embryo) mortality risk explained some variation within regions, but did not explain larger differences in incubation periods among geographic regions. Incubation behavior of parents seems to explain these discrepancies. Bird embryos are effectively ectothermic and depend on warmth provided by parents sitting on the eggs to attain proper temperatures for development. Parents of smaller species, plus tropical and southern hemisphere species, commonly exhibited lower nest attentiveness (percent of time spent on the nest incubating) than larger and northern hemisphere species. Lower nest attentiveness produced cooler minimum and average embryonic temperatures that were correlated with longer incubation periods independent of nest predation risk or body size. We experimentally tested this correlation by swapping eggs of species with cool incubation temperatures with eggs of species with warm incubation temperatures and similar egg mass. Incubation periods changed (shortened or lengthened) as expected and verified the importance of egg temperature on development rate. Slower development resulting from cooler temperatures may simply be a cost imposed on embryos by parents and may not enhance offspring quality. At the same time, incubation periods of transferred eggs did not match host species and reflect intrinsic differences among species that may result from nest predation and other selection pressures. Thus, geographic variation in embryonic development may reflect more complex interactions than previously recognized. ?? 2007 The Author(s).

  17. The Central Amygdala Nucleus is Critical for Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-01-01

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this ‘incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4–5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that ‘incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on ‘incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving. PMID:25475163

  18. Effects of human recreation on the incubation behavior of American Oystercatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, C.P.; Simons, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    Human recreational disturbance and its effects on wildlife demographics and behavior is an increasingly important area of research. We monitored the nesting success of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) in coastal North Carolina in 2002 and 2003. We also used video monitoring at nests to measure the response of incubating birds to human recreation. We counted the number of trips per hour made by adult birds to and from the nest, and we calculated the percent time that adults spent incubating. We asked whether human recreational activities (truck, all-terrain vehicle [ATV], and pedestrian traffic) were correlated with parental behavioral patterns. Eleven a priori models of nest survival and behavioral covariates were evaluated using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to see whether incubation behavior influenced nest survival. Factors associated with birds leaving their nests (n = 548) included ATV traffic (25%), truck traffic (17%), pedestrian traffic (4%), aggression with neighboring oystercatchers or paired birds exchanging incubation duties (26%), airplane traffic (1%) and unknown factors (29%). ATV traffic was positively associated with the rate of trips to and away from the nest (??1 = 0.749, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with percent time spent incubating (??1 = -0.037, P = 0.025). Other forms of human recreation apparently had little effect on incubation behaviors. Nest survival models incorporating the frequency of trips by adults to and from the nest, and the percentage of time adults spent incubating, were somewhat supported in the AIC analyses. A low frequency of trips to and from the nest and, counter to expectations, low percent time spent incubating were associated with higher daily nest survival rates. These data suggest that changes in incubation behavior might be one mechanism by which human recreation affects the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers.

  19. The central amygdala nucleus is critical for incubation of methamphetamine craving.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-04-01

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4-5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on 'incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving.

  20. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats. PMID:26610968

  1. Parasites and marine invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  2. Methylation of inorganic mercury in polar marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnherr, Igor; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Hintelmann, Holger; Kirk, Jane L.

    2011-05-01

    Monomethylmercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in marine organisms, with serious implications for human health. The toxin is of particular concern to northern Inuit peoples, for example, whose traditional diets are composed primarily of marine mammals and fish. The ultimate source of monomethylmercury to marine organisms has remained uncertain, although various potential sources have been proposed, including export from coastal and deep-sea sediments and major river systems, atmospheric deposition and water-column production. Here, we report results from incubation experiments in which we added isotopically labelled inorganic mercury and monomethylmercury to seawater samples collected from a range of sites in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Monomethylmercury formed from the methylation of inorganic mercury in all samples. Demethylation of monomethylmercury was also observed in water from all sites. We determined steady-state concentrations of monomethylmercury in marine waters by incorporating the rate constants for monomethylmercury formation and degradation derived from these experiments into a numerical model. We estimate that the conversion of inorganic mercury to monomethylmercury in the water column accounts for around 47% (+/-62%, standard deviation) of the monomethylmercury present in polar marine waters, with site-to-site differences in inorganic mercury and monomethylmercury levels accounting for most of the variability. We suggest that water-column methylation of inorganic mercury is a significant source of monomethylmercury in pelagic marine food webs in the Arctic, and possibly in the world's oceans in general.

  3. Metabolic cost of incubation in the Laysan albatross and Bonin petrel.

    PubMed

    Grant, G S; Whittow, G C

    1983-01-01

    1. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured in resting and incubating Laysan albatrosses and Bonin petrels on Midway Atoll in the north central Pacific Ocean. 2. Incubation metabolism within the thermal neutral zone is less than or equal to resting metabolism in the albatross and petrel. 3. The respiratory quotients (0.64-0.72) during the long fasts indicate fat metabolism. 4. The estimated fractional water content of the albatross and petrel do not change during incubation fasts because water loss is balanced by metabolic water production. PMID:6130887

  4. Metabolic cost of incubation in the Laysan albatross and Bonin petrel.

    PubMed

    Grant, G S; Whittow, G C

    1983-01-01

    1. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured in resting and incubating Laysan albatrosses and Bonin petrels on Midway Atoll in the north central Pacific Ocean. 2. Incubation metabolism within the thermal neutral zone is less than or equal to resting metabolism in the albatross and petrel. 3. The respiratory quotients (0.64-0.72) during the long fasts indicate fat metabolism. 4. The estimated fractional water content of the albatross and petrel do not change during incubation fasts because water loss is balanced by metabolic water production.

  5. Improving turkey poult quality by correcting incubator humidity to match eggshell conductance.

    PubMed

    Meir, M; Ar, A

    1987-06-01

    One of the most important factors determining hatchability of avian eggs is their proper water budget during incubation. We show here that water budget changes of turkey eggs effect not only hatchability but also poult quality. In addition to an increase in hatchability of 3.3%, poult quality was increased by 7.3%. This was achieved by sorting eggs into low (less than 18.5), medium (18.5 to 22.0) and high (greater than 22.0) eggshell mass-specific water vapour, conductance categories and incubating them in matching incubation humidities of 21.8, 26.6 and 31.4 Torr, corresponding to relative humidities of 45, 55 and 65% at 37.5 degrees C, respectively. A total diffusive water loss of 11.5% (range 10 to 14%) of the initial egg mass in 25 d of incubation yielded maximal hatchability and poult quality.

  6. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ neutral detergent fiber incubation.

    PubMed

    Krämer, M; Nørgaard, P; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-07-01

    Particle size alterations during neutral detergent fiber (NDF) determination and in situ rumen incubation were analyzed by dry sieving and image analysis to evaluate the in situ procedure for estimation of NDF degradation parameters and indigestible NDF concentration in terms of particle size. Early-cut and late-cut grass silages, corn silage, alfalfa silage, rapeseed meal, and dried distillers grains were examined. Treatments were (1) drying and grinding of forage samples and grinding of concentrates; (2) neutral detergent-soluble (NDS) extraction; (3) machine washing and NDS extraction; (4) 24-h rumen incubation, machine washing, and NDS extraction; and (5) 288-h rumen incubation, machine washing, and NDS extraction. Degradation profiles for potentially degradable NDF were determined and image analysis was used to estimate particle size profiles and thereby the risk for particle loss. Particle dimensions changed during NDF determination and in situ rumen incubation and variations depended on feedstuff and treatment. Corn silage and late-cut grass silage varied most in particle area among feedstuffs, with an increase of 139% between 0 and 24h and a decrease of 77% between 24 and 288 h for corn silage and a decrease of 74% for late-cut grass silage between 24- and 288-h in situ rumen incubation. Especially for late-cut grass silage residues after 288 h in situ rumen incubation, a high mass proportion in the critical zone for escape was found. Particle area decreased linearly with increasing incubation time. Particle loss during in situ rumen incubation cannot be excluded and is likely to vary among feedstuffs.

  7. Avian embryo monitoring during incubation using multi-channel diffuse speckle contrast analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Chaebeom; Park, Hyun-Cheol; Lee, Kijoon; Song, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Determining the survival rate of avian embryos during incubation is essential for cost-saving in the poultry industry. A multi-channel diffuse speckle contrast analysis (DSCA) system, comprising four optical fiber channels, is proposed to achieve noninvasive in vivo measurements of deep tissue flow. The system was able to monitor chick embryo vital signs over the entire incubation period. Moreover, it proved useful in distinguishing between chick embryos in healthy and weakened conditions. PMID:26819820

  8. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator: Formalization of Relationships

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the formalization of relationships with external service providers in the development of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report summarizes the process in developing and formalizing relationships with those service providers and includes a sample letter of cooperation executed with each provider.

  9. Avian embryo monitoring during incubation using multi-channel diffuse speckle contrast analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Chaebeom; Park, Hyun-cheol; Lee, Kijoon; Song, Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Determining the survival rate of avian embryos during incubation is essential for cost-saving in the poultry industry. A multi-channel diffuse speckle contrast analysis (DSCA) system, comprising four optical fiber channels, is proposed to achieve noninvasive in vivo measurements of deep tissue flow. The system was able to monitor chick embryo vital signs over the entire incubation period. Moreover, it proved useful in distinguishing between chick embryos in healthy and weakened conditions. PMID:26819820

  10. Incubation behavior of king eiders on the coastal plain of Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Phillips, Laura M.; Suydam, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Incubating birds balance their energetic demands during incubation with the needs of the developing embryos. Incubation behavior is correlated with body size; larger birds can accumulate more endogenous reserves and maintain higher incubation constancy. King eiders (Somateria spectabilis) contend with variable and cold spring weather, little nesting cover, and low food availability, and thus are likely to rely heavily on endogenous reserves to maintain high incubation constancy. We examined the patterns of nest attendance of king eiders at Teshekpuk and Kuparuk, Alaska (2002-2005) in relation to clutch size, daily temperature, and endogenous reserves to explore factors controlling incubation behavior. Females at Kuparuk had higher constancy (98.5 ?? 0.2%, n = 30) than at Teshekpuk (96.9 ?? 0.8%, n = 26), largely due to length of recesses. Mean recess length ranged from 21.5 to 23.7 min at Kuparuk, and from 28.5 to 51.2 min at Teshekpuk. Mean body mass on arrival at breeding grounds (range; Teshekpuk 1,541-1,805, Kuparuk 1,616-1,760), and at the end of incubation (Teshekpuk 1,113-1,174, Kuparuk 1,173-1,183), did not vary between sites or among years (F < 1.1, P > 0.3). Daily constancy increased 1% with every 5??C increase in minimum daily temperature (??min = 0.005, 95% CI 0.002, 0.009). Higher constancy combined with similar mass loss at Kuparuk implies that females there met foraging requirements with shorter recesses. Additionally, females took more recesses at low temperatures, suggesting increased maintenance needs which were potentially ameliorated by feeding during these recesses, indicating that metabolic costs and local foraging conditions drove incubation behavior. ?? 2010 US Government.

  11. Novel materials enable a low-cost temperature-light gradient incubator for microbial studies.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Gordon V; Reeder, William H H; Ervin, Bryan

    2014-02-01

    We describe the construction of temperature-light gradient incubator with a novel material: a thermally-conductive graphite foam that is lightweight, chemically resistant, economically competitive with metal, and much cheaper to fabricate. We combined this material with a variable-intensity LED light array to construct a low-cost light-temperature gradient incubator, and demonstrate its use for studies of microbial growth, enrichment, and isolation.

  12. "Marinating" Our Urban Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Describes marine education programs at the elementary and secondary levels in the New York City area. The city's extensive coastline and numerous learning centers comprise one of the richest educational resources in the country for studying the marine environment. (Author/WB)

  13. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  14. Monitoring Marine Microbial Fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques developed for studying marine fouling. Methods originally developed to study fouling of materials used in Space Shuttle solid fuel booster rockets. Methods used to determine both relative fouling rates and efficacy of cleaning methods to remove fouling on various surfaces including paints, metals, and sealants intended for marine use.

  15. Adrenocortical suppression in highland chick embryos is restored during incubation at sea level.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos E; Villena, Mercedes; Blanco, Carlos E; Giussani, Dino A

    2011-01-01

    By combining the chick embryo model with incubation at high altitude, this study tested the hypothesis that development at high altitude is related to a fetal origin of adrenocortical but not adrenomedullary suppression and that hypoxia is the mechanism underlying the relationship. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at altitude with oxygen supplementation. At day 20 of incubation, embryonic blood was taken for measurement of plasma corticotropin, corticosterone, and Po(2). Following biometry, the adrenal glands were collected and frozen for measurement of catecholamine content. Development of chick embryos at high altitude led to pronounced adrenocortical blunting, but an increase in adrenal catecholamine content. These effects were similar whether the fertilized eggs were laid by sea-level or high altitude hens. The effects of high altitude on the stress axes were completely prevented by incubation at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. When chick embryos from high altitude hens were incubated at sea level, plasma hormones and adrenal catecholamine content were partially restored toward levels measured in sea-level chick embryos. There was a significant correlation between adrenocortical blunting and elevated adrenal catecholamine content with both asymmetric growth restriction and fetal hypoxia. The data support the hypothesis tested and provide evidence to isolate the direct contribution of developmental hypoxia to alterations in the stress system.

  16. Incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. However, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. We incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. When exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 24 °C had lower cumulative mortalities (55%, therefore, higher immunocompetence) than those from 28 °C (85%) or 32 °C (100%). Consistent with higher immunocompetence, hatchlings from low incubation temperature had higher IgM, IgD, and CD3γ expressions than their counterparts from the other two higher incubation temperatures. Conversely, the activity of immunity-related enzymes did not match the among-temperature difference in immune function. Specifically, enzyme activity was higher at intermediate temperatures (alkaline phosphatase) or was not affected by incubation temperature (acid phosphatase, lysozyme). Our study is the first to provide unequivocal evidence (at the molecular and organismal level) about the significant effect of incubation temperature on offspring immunity in reptiles. Our results also indicate that the reduced immunity induced by high developmental temperatures might increase the vulnerability of reptiles to the outbreak of diseases under global warming scenarios. PMID:26028216

  17. Incubating rainbow trout in soft water increased their later sensitivity to cadmium and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Hennessy, Daniel P.; Dillon, Frank S.

    2010-01-01

    Water hardness is well known to affect the toxicity of some metals; however, reports on the influence of hardness during incubation or acclimation on later toxicity to metals have been conflicting. We incubated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) near the confluence of two streams, one with soft water and one with very-soft water (average incubation hardnesses of about 21 and 11 mg/L as CaCO3, respectively). After developing to the swim-up stage, the fish were exposed for 96-h to a mixture of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in water with a hardness of 27 mg/L as CaCO3. The fish incubated in the higher hardness water were about two times more resistant than the fish incubated in the extremely soft water. This difference was similar or greater than the difference that would have been predicted by criteria hardness equations had the fish been tested in the different acclimation waters. We think it is plausible that the energy demands for fish to maintain homeostasis in the lower hardness water make the fish more sensitive to metals that inhibit ionoregulation such as Cd and Zn. We suggest that if important decisions were to be based upon test results, assumptions of adequate hardness acclimation should be carefully considered and short acclimation periods avoided. If practical, incubating rainbow trout in the control waters to be tested may reduce uncertainties in the possible influences of differing rearing water hardness on the test results.

  18. Foot-mediated incubation: Nazca booby (Sula granti) feet as surrogate brood patches.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Stephanie M; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Anderson, David J

    2003-01-01

    Incubation in most avian species involves transferring heat from parent to egg through a highly vascularized brood patch. Some birds, however, do not develop a brood patch. Unusual among birds, these species hold their eggs under the webs of their feet, but the role of the feet in heat transfer is uncertain. Often the webs are positioned between the feathered abdomen and the egg during incubation, suggesting that either the abdomen, the feet, or both could transfer heat to the egg. We studied heat transfer from foot webs to eggs during incubation in Nazca boobies by spatially separating the feet from the abdomen using an oversized egg. We found that feet transfer heat to eggs independently of any heat that may be transferred from the abdomen. In addition, we found that incubating boobies had significantly greater vascularization in their foot webs, measured as a percentage of web area covered by vessels, than nonincubating boobies. We also found that males, whether incubating or nonincubating, had significantly less web vascularization than females. We concluded that vascularized Nazca booby feet function in the same way during incubation that vascularized brood patches do, acting as surrogate brood patches.

  19. Composition and location of simulated lake-shore redds influence incubation success in kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fincel, M.J.; Chipps, S.R.; Bennett, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for improving spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), were explored by quantifying incubation success of embryos exposed to three substrate treatments in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, USA. Substrate treatments included no modification that used existing gravels in the lake (EXISTING), a cleaned substrate treatment where existing gravels were sifted in the water column to remove silt (CLEANED) and the addition of new, silt-free gravel (ADDED). Incubation success was evaluated using Whitlock-Vibert incubation boxes buried within each substrate treatment that contained recently fertilised embryos. Upon retrieval, live and dead sac fry and eyed eggs were enumerated to determine incubation success (sac fry and eyed eggs ?? 100/number of fertilised embryos). Incubation success varied significantly among locations and redd treatments. In general, incubation success among ADDED redds (0.0-13.0%) was significantly lower than that for EXISTING (1.4-61.0%) and CLEANED (0.4-62.5%) redds. Adding new gravel to spawning areas changed the morphometry of the gravel-water interface and probably exposed embryos to disturbance from wave action and reduced embryo survival. Moreover, efforts to improve spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee should consider water depth and location (e.g. protected shorelines) as important variables. Adding clean gravel to existing spawning areas may provide little benefit if water depth or lake-bottom morphometry are altered. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. [THE EFFECT OF HORMONAL STIMULATION OF STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS L.) ON STEROID LEVELS IN TISSUE INCUBATES].

    PubMed

    Bayunova, L V

    2016-01-01

    Sex steroids and corticol levels in Leibovitz's L-15 media samples after incubation of intact female and male sterlet (Acipenser rhutenus L.) tissue fragments and those if fishes treated with a superactive analogue of mammalian luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH-A) were compared. 17,20β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20βS) levels were significantly higher in the media samples after incubation of ovarian follicles taken from females 5 h after treatment with LH-RH-A in comparison with 20βS levels in intact female samples. 20βS levels also increased after 1 μM progesterone (P4) adding to the media before incubation of ovarian follicles. Cortisol and testosterone levels in the media samples demonstrated the same tendency. Significant elevation of cortisol levels was observed in the blood serum samples of females 5 h after LH-RH-A treatment. The androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) levels after incubation of testicular and liver fragments were high in the media samples in males who had high serum levels of these androgens before hormonal stimulation. Sex steroids and cortisol production was stimulated by P4 adding to the media before incubation of gonad fragments. 20βS media levels increased after P4 adding before incubation of liver fragments. PMID:27220236

  1. Incubation temperature affects growth and energy metabolism in blue tit nestlings.

    PubMed

    Nord, Andreas; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2011-11-01

    Because the maintenance of proper developmental temperatures during avian incubation is costly to parents, embryos of many species experience pronounced variation in incubation temperature. However, the effects of such temperature variation on nestling development remain relatively unexplored. To investigate this, we artificially incubated wild blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus L.) clutches at 35.0°, 36.5°, or 38.0°C for two-thirds of the incubation period. We returned clutches to their original nests before hatching and subsequently recorded nestling growth and resting metabolic rate. The length of the incubation period decreased with temperature, whereas hatching success increased. Nestlings from the lowest incubation temperature group had shorter tarsus lengths at 2 weeks of age, but body mass and wing length were not affected by temperature. In addition, nestlings from the lowest temperature group had a significantly higher resting metabolic rate compared with mid- and high-temperature nestlings, which may partly explain observed size differences between the groups. These findings suggest that nest microclimate can influence nestling phenotype, but whether observed differences carry over to later life-history stages remains unknown.

  2. Foot-mediated incubation: Nazca booby (Sula granti) feet as surrogate brood patches.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Stephanie M; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Anderson, David J

    2003-01-01

    Incubation in most avian species involves transferring heat from parent to egg through a highly vascularized brood patch. Some birds, however, do not develop a brood patch. Unusual among birds, these species hold their eggs under the webs of their feet, but the role of the feet in heat transfer is uncertain. Often the webs are positioned between the feathered abdomen and the egg during incubation, suggesting that either the abdomen, the feet, or both could transfer heat to the egg. We studied heat transfer from foot webs to eggs during incubation in Nazca boobies by spatially separating the feet from the abdomen using an oversized egg. We found that feet transfer heat to eggs independently of any heat that may be transferred from the abdomen. In addition, we found that incubating boobies had significantly greater vascularization in their foot webs, measured as a percentage of web area covered by vessels, than nonincubating boobies. We also found that males, whether incubating or nonincubating, had significantly less web vascularization than females. We concluded that vascularized Nazca booby feet function in the same way during incubation that vascularized brood patches do, acting as surrogate brood patches. PMID:12905122

  3. Remote monitoring of parental incubation conditions in the greater sandhill crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Hatfield, J.; Howey, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    To monitor incubation conditions in nests of greater sandhill cranes, a radiotransmitting egg was built using six temperature sensors, a position sensor, and a light sensor. Sensor readings were received, along with time of observations, and stored in a computer. The egg was used to monitor incubation in nests of six pairs of cranes during 1987 and 1988. Ambient temperature was also measured. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to relate highest egg temperature, core egg temperature, and lowest egg temperature to ambient temperature, time since the egg was last turned, and time since the beginning of incubation. Ambient temperature had the greatest effect on egg temperature (P 0.0001), followed by the time since the beginning of incubation and time since the egg was last turned. Pair effect, the class variable in the ANCOVA. was also very significant (P < 0.0001). A nine-term Fourier series was used to estimate the average core egg temperature versus time of day and was found to fit the data well (r2 = 0.94). The Fourier series will be used to run a mechanical incubator to simulate natural incubation conditions for cranes.

  4. Influence of temperature of incubation and type of growth medium on pigmentation in Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Williams, R P; Gott, C L; Qadri, S M; Scott, R H

    1971-05-01

    Maximal amounts of prodigiosin were synthesized in either minimal or complete medium after incubation of cultures at 27 C for 7 days. Biosynthesis of prodigiosin began earlier and the range of temperature for formation was greater in complete medium. No prodigiosin was formed in either medium when cultures were incubated at 38 C; however, after a shift to 27 C, pigmentation ensued, provided the period of incubation at 38 C was not longer than 36 hr for minimal medium or 48 hr for complete medium. Washed, nonpigmented cells grown in either medium at 38 C for 72 hr could synthesize prodigiosin when suspended in saline at 27 C when casein hydrolysate was added. These suspensions produced less prodigiosin at a slower rate than did cultures growing in casein hydrolysate at 27 C without prior incubation at 38 C. Optimal concentration of casein hydrolysate for pigment formation by suspensions was 0.4%; optimal temperature was 27 C. Anaerobic incubation, shift back to 38 C, killing cells by heating, or chloramphenicol (25 mug/ml) inhibited pigmentation. Suspensions of washed cells forming pigment reached pH 8.0 to 8.3 rapidly and maintained this pH throughout incubation for 7 days. Measurements of viable count and of protein, plus other data, indicated that cellular multiplication did not occur in suspensions of washed cells during pigment formation. By this procedure utilizing a shift down in temperature, biosynthesis of prodigiosin by washed cells could be separated from multiplication of bacteria.

  5. Influence of incubation conditions on hydrolysis efficiency and iodine enrichment in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Dolińska, Barbara; Zieliński, Michał; Dobrzański, Zbigniew; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Opaliński, Sebastian; Ryszka, Florian

    2012-06-01

    The influence of incubation conditions, enzyme type, hydrolysis time, and potassium iodide concentration on hydrolysis and iodine enrichment were studied in supernatant and pellets of Saccharomyces cervisiae hydrolysates. The type of enzyme used and incubation time significantly influence hydrolysis efficiency and protein concentration in supernatant and pellet. The highest protein hydrolysis efficiency was obtained by 24-h incubation with papain. Significantly lower values were observed for pepsin and autolysis. The potassium iodide concentration influences the iodine content of supernatant and pellet, but not hydrolysis. Iodide enrichment of supernatant and pellet depends on the concentration of iodide using during incubation. High concentration of iodide and long incubation times were the conditions for optimal iodide enrichment and high-protein hydrolysates. The optimal hydrolysis efficiency and iodine enrichment were obtained during 24-h incubation with papain in a 4.5-mM potassium iodide medium. The efficiency reached 98.22% with iodine concentrations of 2,664.91 and 9,200.67 μg/g iodine in pellet and supernatant, respectively. PMID:22237422

  6. Incubation period for campylobacteriosis and its importance in the estimation of incidence related to travel.

    PubMed

    Horn, B J; Lake, R J

    2013-10-03

    Differentiation between travel-related and domestic cases of infectious disease is important in managing risk. Incubation periods of cases from several outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada, Europe, and the United States with defined exposure time of less than 24 hours were collated to provide information on the incubation period distribution. This distribution was consistent across the varied outbreaks considered, with 84% (702/832) of cases having an incubation period of four days or less and 1% having an incubation period of eight days or more. The incubation period distribution was incorporated into a model for the number of travel-related cases presenting with symptom onset at given dates after return to their country of residence. Using New Zealand notification data between 2006 and 2010 for cases who had undertaken foreign travel within 10 days prior to symptom onset, we found that 29.6% (67/227 cases; 95% confidence interval (CI): 28.3–30.8%) of these cases were likely to have been domestic cases. When cases with symptom onset prior to arrival were included, the probable domestic cases represented 11.8% (67/571; 95% CI: 11.2–12.3%). Consideration of incubation time distributions and consistent collection of travel start/end dates with symptom onset dates would assist attribution of cases to foreign travel.

  7. Incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-06-01

    Identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. However, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. We incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. When exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 24 °C had lower cumulative mortalities (55%, therefore, higher immunocompetence) than those from 28 °C (85%) or 32 °C (100%). Consistent with higher immunocompetence, hatchlings from low incubation temperature had higher IgM, IgD, and CD3γ expressions than their counterparts from the other two higher incubation temperatures. Conversely, the activity of immunity-related enzymes did not match the among-temperature difference in immune function. Specifically, enzyme activity was higher at intermediate temperatures (alkaline phosphatase) or was not affected by incubation temperature (acid phosphatase, lysozyme). Our study is the first to provide unequivocal evidence (at the molecular and organismal level) about the significant effect of incubation temperature on offspring immunity in reptiles. Our results also indicate that the reduced immunity induced by high developmental temperatures might increase the vulnerability of reptiles to the outbreak of diseases under global warming scenarios.

  8. Marin Tsunami (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  9. Neurotoxic marine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2005-04-01

    Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals that contain toxic substances and causes substantial illness in coastal regions. Three main clinical syndromes of marine poisoning have important neurological symptoms-ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning and is characterised by moderate to severe gastrointestinal effects (vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal cramps) and neurological effects (myalgia, paraesthesia, cold allodynia, and ataxia), but is rarely lethal. Tetrodotoxin poisoning and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Mild gastrointestinal effects and a descending paralysis are characteristic of these types of poisoning. In severe poisoning, paralysis rapidly progresses to respiratory failure. Diagnosis of all types of marine poisoning is made from the circumstances of ingestion (type of fish and location) and the clinical effects. Because there are no antidotes, supportive care, including mechanical ventilation in patients with severe paralysis, is the mainstay of treatment.

  10. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  11. Atmospheric Dust Impacts on Marine Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.; Mackey, K. R.; Chen, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Doney, S.; Post, A.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric dust deposition is an important source of nutrients and trace metals to the ocean. It likely enhances ocean productivity and carbon sequestration, thus influencing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. We used well-characterized aerosol samples in incubation experiments to examine the effect of aerosol on phytoplankton growth and species distribution. Not all dust stimulates growth. The response of phytoplankton to aerosol additions depends on specific aerosol chemistry. Moreover, different species within the phytoplankton community respond differently to dust additions. The variability in the response to dust deposition may account for change in predicted distribution of oceanic primary production. To more accurately predict the impacts of expected future changes in dust deposition on climate global climate models must include these variable and complex interactions between aerosols and marine phytoplankton.

  12. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface.

  13. Effect of leaf incubation temperature profiles on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; McDonald, Karen A; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression is known to be highly dependent on incubation temperature. Compared with early studies that were conducted at constant temperature, we examined the effect of variable leaf incubation temperature on transient expression. As a model system, synthetic endoglucanase (E1) and endoxylanase (Xyn10A) genes were transiently expressed in detached whole sunflower leaves via vacuum infiltration for biofuel applications. We found that the kinetics of transient expression strongly depended on timing of the temperature change as well as leaf incubation temperature. Surprisingly, we found that high incubation temperature (27-30 °C) which is suboptimal for T-DNA transfer, significantly enhanced transient expression if the high temperature was applied during the late phase (Day 3-6) of leaf incubation whereas incubation temperature in a range of 20-25 °C for an early phase (Day 0-2) resulted in higher production. On the basis of these results, we propose that transient expression is governed by both T-DNA transfer and protein synthesis in plant cells that have different temperature dependent kinetics. Because the phases were separated in time and had different optimal temperatures, we were then able to develop a novel two phase optimization strategy for leaf incubation temperature. Applying the time-varying temperature profile, we were able to increase the protein accumulation by fivefold compared with the control at a constant temperature of 20 °C. From our knowledge, this is the first report illustrating the effect of variable temperature profiling for improved transient expression.

  14. Effects of incubation on solubility and mobility of trace metals in two contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lena Q; Dong, Yan

    2004-08-01

    Much research has focused on changes in solubility and mobility of trace metals in soils under incubation. In this experiment, changes in solubility and mobility of trace metals (Pb, Cu and As) and Fe in two contaminated soils from Tampa, Florida and Montreal, Canada were examined. Soils of 30 g were packed in columns and were incubated for 3-80 days under water-flooding incubation. Following incubation, metal concentrations in pore water (water soluble) and in 0.01 M CaCl2 leachates (exchangeable+water soluble) were determined. While both soils were contaminated with Pb (1600-2500 mg kg(-1)), Tampa soil was also contaminated with As (230 mg kg(-1)). Contrast to the low pH (3.8) of Tampa soil, Montreal soil had an alkaline pH of 7.7 and high Ca of 1.6%. Concentrations of Fe(II) increased with incubation time in the Tampa soil mainly due to reductive Fe dissolution, but decreased in the Montreal soil possibly due to formation of FeCO3. The inverse relationship between concentrations of Pb and Fe(II) in pore water coupled with the fact that Fe(II) concentrations were much greater than those of Pb in pore water may suggest the importance of Fe(II) in controlling Pb solubility in soils. However, changes in concentrations of Fe(II), Pb, Cu and As in pore water with incubation time were similar to those in leachate, i.e. water soluble metals were positively related to exchangeable metals in the two contaminated soils. This research suggests the importance of Fe in controlling metal solubility and mobility in soils under water-flooded incubation. PMID:15182963

  15. Effects of eggshell cuticle removal and incubation humidity on embryonic development and hatchability of broilers.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Brake, J; Gildersleeve, R P

    1987-05-01

    The effects of eggshell cuticle removal and two levels of incubation humidity 28.3 C [50% relative humidity (RH)] and 30.0 C (55% RH) wetbulb temperature (WB) on embryonic mortality and hatchability were determined from broiler hatching eggs laid during 38, 42, 48, and 54 weeks of age. Variables measured were: egg weight loss during the first 17 days of incubation, hatch at Days 19.5 and 20.5 of incubation, hatch of fertile eggs, stage of embryonic mortality, and chick weight at 21.5 days of incubation. Day 0 to 17 percentage egg weight loss was increased when the incubation humidity was lowered and the loss was greater than that observed after cuticle removal. A greater percentage of chicks hatched on Day 19.5 at 28.3 C than at 30.0 C WB. The percentage hatch of 38-week fertile eggs was improved at the higher humidity; the higher humidity also decreased late dead and increased pipped embryonic mortalities. Cuticle removal decreased early dead and increased late dead mortality. At Week 38 cuticle removal and lower humidity resulted in a decrease in chick weight at 21.5 days of incubation. For Weeks 42, 48, and 54 combined, pipped mortality was increased by higher humidity and late dead mortality was increased by cuticle removal. Water loss from the egg was increased by cuticle removal or by lowering incubation humidity from 30.0 C to 28.3 C WB, or by both, but lowering humidity was more effective. Changes in humidity and cuticle removal may affect vital gas exchange to different degrees.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Neutral temperature range in incubators: performance of equipment in current use and new developments.

    PubMed

    Libert, J P; Bach, V; Farges, G

    1997-01-01

    Low-birth-weight neonates should be nursed at thermoneutrality inside incubators. Thermoneutrality control is essential to enhance body growth and to reduce neonatal illnesses and mortality. Guidelines have been published to provide the thermoneutral range, but the recommendations did not always take into account all ambient and physiological parameters influencing thermoneutrality. In most marketed incubators, the heat supply is controlled through convective air flow (closed incubators) or through radiant power density (radiant warmer beds). The heating unit (on/off cycling or adjustable proportional control) is activated by an error signal calculated from the difference between a controlled temperature and a reference value preset by the clinician. The controlled variable can be either the incubator air or the skin temperature of the anterior abdominal region of the neonate. The neonate's size, thermal properties of the mattress and of incubator walls, air temperature and humidity, air velocity, incubator wall temperatures all influence the heat exchanges between the neonate and the surroundings, and, consequently, modify the obtention of thermoneutrality. Moreover, studies of the physiological mechanisms by which the neonate regulates body heat storage suggest that metabolic rate, behavior, vigilance level, nursing care, and heater control processes should also be taken into account. Little attention has been paid to these factors, and incubator performances are often disappointing. This article reviews the different factors that modify thermoneutral condition. An attempt is made to suggest new ways to design equipment incorporating these factors in algorithms controlling heater processes in order to reach the optimal thermal environment in which the neonate should be nursed.

  17. Channel catfish hatchery production efficiency using a vertical-lift incubator the see-saw at various egg loading densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish spawns are typically incubated in ¼-in mesh baskets suspended in water that is agitated with paddles positioned between baskets. We tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish spawns. Previous research demonstrated that when loaded with spawns at...

  18. Developing a Model for a "Ladder of Incubation" Linked to Higher and Further Education Institutions in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisey, Pam; Gornall, Lynne; Jones, Paul; Thomas, Brychan

    2005-01-01

    Business incubators play a critical role in economic regeneration through the development and support of new and sustainable enterprises. Many UK incubator projects are funded by the European Commission through the higher education sector. This study compares and contrasts six business incubation case studies and identifies significant criteria…

  19. Production of a healthy calf by somatic cell nuclear transfer without micromanipulators and carbon dioxide incubators using the Handmade Cloning (HMC) and the Submarine Incubation System (SIS).

    PubMed

    Vajta, Gábor; Bartels, Paul; Joubert, Jennifer; de la Rey, Morné; Treadwell, Robert; Callesen, Henrik

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the minimum technical requirements for production of live offspring with somatic cell nuclear transfer. The experiment was performed in a field type laboratory without micromanipulators and carbon dioxide incubators. All long-term incubations were performed in the Submarine Incubation System (SIS) using various gas mixtures. The somatic cell culture was established from ear biopsy of a 9-year-old Holstein cow. Nuclear transfer was performed using the Handmade Cloning (HMC) technique. Zona-free oocytes were randomly bisected by hand with a disposable blade and a stereomicroscope. Cytoplast were selected using Hoechst staining and a fluorescent microscope. After a two-step fusion embryos were activated with calcium ionophore and dimethylaminopurine. Embryos were cultured in microwells (WOWs) in SOFaaci medium supplemented with 5% cattle serum. In two consecutive experiments, six blastocysts were produced from 52 reconstructed embryos. On Day 7, five blastocysts were transferred into synchronized recipients. All three recipients became pregnant but two pregnancies aborted at 6 and 7 months, respectively. A heifer calf weighing 27 kg was delivered at term by Caesarean section from the third pregnancy. The healthy 6-month-old heifer, the first cloned animal of Africa, is living evidence that nuclear transfer technology may be successfully used under basic laboratory conditions.

  20. Effects of inorganic carbon on CO2 efflux from calcareous soil during the closed- jar incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Dong, Y.; Cai, M.; Liang, B.

    2011-12-01

    The estimation of CO2 evolved during the incubation of soil in a closed system is widely used to quantifying microbial activities in soil, and the decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the stabilization of organic carbon in soil. However, there are two carbon pools in calcareous soil, i.e., organic pool and inorganic pool. The measurement of CO2 efflux from calcareous soil using closed-jar incubation can be influenced significantly by the abiotic CO2 production in calcareous soil (Alef, 1995; Stvenson and Verburg, 2006). The amount of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) is ten times greater than that of soil organic C (SOC) in arid and semiarid regions. And the arid and semiarid regions occupied 30% of the earth's area. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the contribution of SIC on the CO2 production with the closed-jar system. In this study, we conducted the different incubation experiments with a calcareous soil. Its SOC content was 5.81g/kg, the SIC content was 0.74 g/kg, and pH was 7.67. We added the different rates of inorganic carbonates (as CaCO3 or MgCO3) into soil, and incubated the soil with the closed-jar method. And the CO2 trapped in the NaOH solutions at the different time intervals during the incubation was determined by BaCl2 titration method. The three incubation experiments indicated that adding either CaCO3 or MgCO3 increased the emission of CO2 during the incubation. The increasing extent of CO2 production in the 100-day incubation ranged from 12.0% (adding CaCO3) to 460.1 % (adding MgCO3) in the soils with additional carbonates. After adding CaCO3 and MgCO3, their effects on the CO2 productions during the incubation were different. The amounts of CO2 produced increased as the amounts of CaCO3 increased, while the amounts of CO2 produced decreased as the amounts of MgCO3 increased. When the same content of inorganic carbon was added, the CO2 productions were significantly higher in the MgCO3 treatments than in CaCO3 treatments at the

  1. Effect of incubation humidity and flock age on hatchability traits and posthatch growth in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    El-Hanoun, A M; Rizk, R E; Shahein, E H A; Hassan, N S; Brake, J

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of incubation relative humidity (RH) from 14 to 24 d of incubation during 3 parental ages on hatchability and posthatching growth of Pekin ducklings. Egg production was divided into 3 age groups (25-35, 36-55, and 56-65 wk). A total of 21,600 hatching eggs was subjected to 55, 60, 65, and 70% RH from 14 to 24 d, whereas standard conditions were used from 0 to 14 d and 24 to 28 d of incubation. All eggs were individually weighed before setting in the incubator and again at 14 and 24 d of incubation to determine egg weight loss. A sample of 20 eggs from unhatched and hatched eggs from each group were randomly taken on the hatching day and used to determine eggshell thickness and pore number. Duckling weight at hatching was recorded and BW gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, and viability were then recorded to 21 d of age. Egg weight increased with hen age but did not differ by incubation treatment. Increasing RH from 55% to 60, 65, and 70% decreased percentage egg weight loss in a stepwise manner irrespective of parental age. Shell thickness was less for hatched eggs compared with nonhatched eggs within each parental age. Shell thickness decreased while pore density increased with increased parental age for both nonhatched and hatched eggs. The lowest embryonic mortality among the incubation periods (14-24 and 0-24 d) and best hatchability of fertile eggs was recorded with 60% RH during the first parental age (25-35 wk), 65% RH during 36-55 wk of age, and 70% RH during 56-65 wk of age. The best incubation results were directly associated with the greatest duckling BW at hatching and at 21 d of age, BW gain, feed conversion, and viability during each parental age period. It was concluded that duck eggs produced within a specific parental age period require a specific incubation RH to attain the best hatchability and posthatching duckling performance.

  2. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was identifying entrepreneurs

  3. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Register (75 FR 39915) that a request for a permit to conduct research on gray whales (Eschrictius robustus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine...

  4. Effects of incubation substrates on hatch timing and success of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act in 1994 because several decades of failed spawning had put the population at risk of extinction. Natural spawning is known to occur at several locations in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but there is little natural recruitment. Microhabitat where embryo incubation occurs is known to be an important factor in white sturgeon reproductive success. This study was conducted to address questions regarding the suitability of different substrates as egg attachment and incubation sites for these fish. A comparative laboratory study using six types of incubation substrates—clean river rocks, periphyton- and algae-covered rocks, waterlogged wood, sand, riparian vegetation, and clean glass plates—tested the hypothesis that survival to hatch of white sturgeon eggs differs among incubation substrates. The results showed that sand was unsuitable as an incubation substrate, as the adhesive embryos were easily dislodged. Periphyton- and algae-covered rocks had the lowest hatch success, and all other substrates had similar hatch success.

  5. Swimming performance of hatchling green turtles is affected by incubation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Booth, David T.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2006-08-01

    In an experiment repeated for two separate years, incubation temperature was found to affect the body size and swimming performance of hatchling green turtles ( Chelonia mydas). In the first year, hatchlings from eggs incubated at 26°C were larger in size than hatchlings from 28 and 30°C, whilst in the second year hatchlings from 25.5°C were similar in size to hatchings from 30°C. Clutch of origin influenced the size of hatchlings at all incubation temperatures even when differences in egg size were taken into account. In laboratory measurements of swimming performance, in seawater at 28°C, hatchlings from eggs incubated at 25.5 and 26°C had a lower stroke rate frequency and lower force output than hatchlings from 28 and 30°C. These differences appeared to be caused by the muscles of hatchlings from cooler temperatures fatiguing at a faster rate. Clutch of origin did not influence swimming performance. This finding that hatchling males incubated at lower temperature had reduced swimming ability may affect their survival whilst running the gauntlet of predators in shallow near-shore waters, prior to reaching the relative safety of the open sea.

  6. Experimental cooling during incubation leads to reduced innate immunity and body condition in nestling tree swallows.

    PubMed

    Ardia, Daniel R; Pérez, Jonathan H; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2010-06-22

    Nest microclimate can have strong effects that can carry over to later life-history stages. We experimentally cooled the nests of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Females incubating in cooled nests reduced incubation time and allowed egg temperatures to drop, leading to extended incubation periods. We partially cross-fostered nestlings to test carry-over effects of cooling during incubation on nestling innate constitutive immunity, assessed through bacteria killing ability (BKA) of blood. Nestlings that had been cooled as eggs showed a lower ability to kill bacteria than control nestlings, regardless of the treatment of their foster mother. However, there was no effect of treatment of rearing females on nestling BKA in control nestlings, even though cooled females made significantly fewer feeding visits than did control females. This suggests that the effect of cooling occurred during incubation and was not due to carry-over effects on nestling condition. Nestlings that were exposed to experimental cooling as embryos had lower residual body mass and absolute body mass at all four ages measured. Our results indicate that environmental conditions and trade-offs experienced during one stage of development can have important carry-over effects on later life-history stages.

  7. Design and Fabrication of an MRI-Compatible, Autonomous Incubation System.

    PubMed

    Khalilzad-Sharghi, Vahid; Xu, Huihui

    2015-10-01

    Tissue engineers have long sought access to an autonomous, imaging-compatible tissue incubation system that, with minimum operator handling, can provide real-time visualization and quantification of cells, tissue constructs, and organs. This type of screening system, capable of operating noninvasively to validate tissue, can overcome current limitations like temperature shock, unsustainable cellular environments, sample contamination, and handling/stress. However, this type of system has been a major challenge, until now. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of an innovative, autonomous incubation system that is compatible with a 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Termed the e-incubator (patent pending; application number: 13/953,984), this microcontroller-based system is integrated into an MRI scanner and noninvasively screens cells and tissue cultures in an environment where temperature, pH, and media/gas handling are regulated. The 4-week study discussed herein details the continuous operation of the e-incubator for a tissue-engineered osteogenic construct, validated by LIVE/DEAD(®) cell assays and histology. The evolving MR quantitative parameters of the osteogenic construct were used as biomarkers for bone tissue engineering and to further validate the quality of the product noninvasively before harvesting. Importantly, the e-incubator reliably facilitates culturing cells and tissue constructs to create engineered tissues and/or investigate disease therapies.

  8. Female but not male zebra finches adjust heat output in response to increased incubation demand.

    PubMed

    Hill, Davina L; Lindström, Jan; McCafferty, Dominic J; Nager, Ruedi G

    2014-04-15

    In many incubating birds, heat transfer from parent to egg is facilitated by the brood patch, an area of ventral abdominal skin that becomes highly vascularised, swells and loses its down feathers around the time of laying. Only the female develops a brood patch in most passerine species, but males of some species can incubate and maintain the eggs at similar temperatures to females even without a brood patch. Here we used a novel application of infrared thermography to examine sex differences in parental care from a physiological perspective. Using incubating male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which the male lacks a brood patch, we measured the surface temperature of the ventral plumage overlying the abdomen and a reference area that does not contact the eggs (thorax) twice per pair. In half of the pairs, clutch size was experimentally enlarged between the two sets of measurements to increase incubation demand. We found that the temperature differential between abdomen and thorax plumage was greater in females than in males, and that abdomen plumage was warmer after clutch enlargement than before in females but not in males. These findings are consistent with morphological sex differences in brood patch development and suggest that male and female zebra finches differ in the way they regulate abdomen versus general body surface temperature in response to variation in incubation demand.

  9. Metabolic and embryonic responses to terrestrial incubation of Fundulus grandis embryos across a temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Brown, C A; Green, C C

    2014-03-01

    This study simulated terrestrial incubation and measured rates of embryogenesis, nitrogen elimination, heart rate, lactate production, maximum length of time a hatch could be delayed and developmental responses of terrestrially incubated Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis embryos at temperatures ranging from 20 to 30° C. Temperature had a positive relationship with rate of embryogenesis, but a negative relationship with extent of extended incubation. The 30° C treatment reached embryonic maturity 6 days before the 20° C treatment. Embryos hatched between intervals of 240 and 336, 144 and 288, 96 and 240 and 96 and 192 h after reaching developmental maturity for the 20, 23, 26 and 30° C treatments. Significantly higher concentrations of total nitrogen, in the form of ammonia and urea, were recorded in the 20 and 30° C treatments. While temperature significantly influenced lactate and ATP concentrations, no significant influence of time of incubation was detected. Terrestrial embryos displayed an ability to develop quickly during embryogenesis and prolong incubation for an extended period of time after reaching embryonic maturity. This adaptation may be a life-history trait used to minimize asynchronous hatching, cannibalism and cohort size heterogeneity. PMID:24588641

  10. Sitting in the sun: Nest microhabitat affects incubation temperatures in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lorinda A; Downs, Colleen T; Brown, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During incubation parent birds are committed to a nest site and endure a range of ambient conditions while regulating egg temperatures. Using artificial eggs containing temperature loggers alongside ambient temperature (Ta) controls, incubation profiles were determined for four tropical seabird species at different nest site locations. Camera traps were used for ad-hoc behavioural incubation observations. Eggs experienced a range of temperatures during incubation and varied significantly between species and in some cases between different microhabitats within a species. Such variation has important consequences in the phenotypic expression of both physical and physiological traits of chicks, and ultimately species fitness. Exposed nest sites were more strongly correlated to Tas. Camera traps highlighted different incubation strategies employed by these species that could be related to trade-offs in predator defence, feeding habits, and temperature regulation of eggs. This study provides evidence that species with similar breeding habits could be affected by environmental stressors in similar ways and that the differences shown in nest site selection could negate some of these effects. We propose that habitats providing suitable nest microclimates will become increasingly important for the successful breeding of seabird species, particularly under predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:27503727

  11. Effects of subcutaneous transmitters on reproduction, incubation behavior, and annual return rates of female wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.; Folk, T.H.; Hartke, K.M.

    2002-01-01

    Radiotransmitters attached externally to breeding waterfowl can have a variety of negative effects. Implanted transmitters can reduce potential deleterious effects; abdominal implants are used most commonly in waterfowl. Methods also have been developed to implant transmitters subcutaneously, but effects of subcutaneous implants on adult ducks have not been evaluated. In this study, we subcutaneously implanted radiotransmitters in pre-laying female wood ducks (Aix sponsa, n = 62) and compared nest initiation date, incubation behavior, body mass, and annual return rates of radiomarked females to a group of females that were not radiomarked. Ninety-six percent (50 of 52) of radiomarked females that were monitored for the entire breeding season initiated nests. Nesting date of radiomarked adult females did not differ from that of adult females without radios, but radiomarked yearling females nested earlier than yearlings not receiving transmitters. We found no differences in early- and late-incubation body mass, incubation constancy, recess frequency, and incubation period between radiomarked females and those without radios. Annual return rates of females that initiated nests did not differ between radiomarked females and those not receiving radios. Data suggest that implanting radiotransmitters subcutaneously in pre-laying female wood ducks did not negatively impact subsequent reproduction, incubation behavior, and survival.

  12. Incubation of ethanol reinstatement depends on test conditions and how ethanol consumption is reduced.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Lamb, R J

    2015-04-01

    In reinstatement studies (a common preclinical procedure for studying relapse), incubation occurs (longer abstinence periods result in more responding). This finding is discordant with the clinical literature. Identifying determinants of incubation could aid in interpreting reinstatement and identifying processes involved in relapse. Reinstated responding was examined in rats trained to respond for ethanol and food under a multiple concurrent schedule (Component 1: ethanol FR5, food FR150; Component 2: ethanol FR5, food FR5-alternating across the 30-min session). Ethanol consumption was then reduced for 1 or 16 sessions either by suspending training (rats remained in home cage) or by providing alternative reinforcement (only Component 2 stimuli and contingencies were presented throughout the session). In the next session, stimuli associated with Component 1 were presented and responses recorded but ethanol and food were never delivered. Two test conditions were studied: fixed-ratio completion either produced ethanol- or food-associated stimuli (signaled) or had no programmed consequence (unsignaled). Incubation of ethanol responding was observed only after suspended training during signaled test sessions. Incubation of food responding was also observed after suspended training. These results are most consistent with incubation resulting from a degradation of feedback functions limiting extinction responding, rather than from increased motivation. PMID:25595114

  13. Increasing hatchability of turkey eggs by matching incubator humidity to shell conductance of individual eggs.

    PubMed

    Meir, M; Nir, A; Ar, A

    1984-08-01

    One of the most important factors determining hatchability of avian eggs is the proper water balance of the eggs during incubation. In turkey eggs, a total diffusive water loss (F) of 12 +/- 1% SD initial egg mass in 28 days, yielded maximal hatchability irrespective of the combination of eggshell water vapor conductance (G) and incubator humidity (PI), which brought about this water loss. A good correlation was found between G as obtained at the beginning of incubation and the final F in a given PI. The G in a random sample of 1256 fresh turkey eggs was normally distributed around the mean of 18.70 +/- 2.87 SD milligrams (100 g X day X torr)-1 (Coefficient of variation = 15.3%). The distribution of G in eggs with dead in the shell embryos had, in addition, two more peaks of G values [around 22.5 and 13.0 mg (100 g X day X torr)-1]. When eggs were sorted into low (less than 17), medium (17 to 20), and high (greater than 20) G categories, and incubated at low (19.4), medium (26.6), and high (33.9) torr PI, respectively, hatchability increased by a factor of 1.08. Poor hatchabilities were obtained in mismatching humidities and conductances. It seems that hatchability success may be experimentally improved if a correct rate of water loss is fitted to sorted eggs during incubation.

  14. Web-based remote monitoring of infant incubators in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Shin, D I; Huh, S J; Lee, T S; Kim, I Y

    2003-09-01

    A web-based real-time operating, management, and monitoring system for checking temperature and humidity within infant incubators using the Intranet has been developed and installed in the infant Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We have created a pilot system which has a temperature and humidity sensor and a measuring module in each incubator, which is connected to a web-server board via an RS485 port. The system transmits signals using standard web-based TCP/IP so that users can access the system from any Internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using this method, the system gathers temperature and humidity data transmitted from the measuring modules via the RS485 port on the web-server board and creates a web document containing these data. The system manager can maintain centralized supervisory monitoring of the situations in all incubators while sitting within the infant ICU at a work space equipped with a personal computer. The system can be set to monitor unusual circumstances and to emit an alarm signal expressed as a sound or a light on a measuring module connected to the related incubator. If the system is configured with a large number of incubators connected to a centralized supervisory monitoring station, it will improve convenience and assure meaningful improvement in response to incidents that require intervention.

  15. Cold spots in neonatal incubators are hot spots for microbial contamination.

    PubMed

    de Goffau, Marcus C; Bergman, Klasien A; de Vries, Hendrik J; Meessen, Nico E L; Degener, John E; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2011-12-01

    Thermal stability is essential for the survival and well-being of preterm neonates. This is achieved in neonatal incubators by raising the ambient temperature and humidity to sufficiently high levels. However, potentially pathogenic microorganisms also can thrive in such warm and humid environments. We therefore investigated whether the level of microbial contamination (i.e., the bacterial load) inside neonatal incubators can be predicted on the basis of their average temperature and relative humidity settings, paying special attention to local temperature differences. Swab samples were taken from the warmest and coldest spots found within Caleo incubators, and these were plated to determine the number of microbial CFU per location. In incubators with high average temperature (≥ 34°C) and relative humidity (≥ 60%) values, the level of microbial contamination was significantly higher at cold spots than at hot spots. This relates to the fact that the local equilibrium relative humidity at cold spots is sufficiently high to sustain microbial growth. The abundance of staphylococci, which are the main causative agents of late-onset sepsis in preterm neonates, was found to be elevated significantly in cold areas. These findings can be used to improve basic incubator hygiene.

  16. Cold Spots in Neonatal Incubators Are Hot Spots for Microbial Contamination▿

    PubMed Central

    de Goffau, Marcus C.; Bergman, Klasien A.; de Vries, Hendrik J.; Meessen, Nico E. L.; Degener, John E.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal stability is essential for the survival and well-being of preterm neonates. This is achieved in neonatal incubators by raising the ambient temperature and humidity to sufficiently high levels. However, potentially pathogenic microorganisms also can thrive in such warm and humid environments. We therefore investigated whether the level of microbial contamination (i.e., the bacterial load) inside neonatal incubators can be predicted on the basis of their average temperature and relative humidity settings, paying special attention to local temperature differences. Swab samples were taken from the warmest and coldest spots found within Caleo incubators, and these were plated to determine the number of microbial CFU per location. In incubators with high average temperature (≥34°C) and relative humidity (≥60%) values, the level of microbial contamination was significantly higher at cold spots than at hot spots. This relates to the fact that the local equilibrium relative humidity at cold spots is sufficiently high to sustain microbial growth. The abundance of staphylococci, which are the main causative agents of late-onset sepsis in preterm neonates, was found to be elevated significantly in cold areas. These findings can be used to improve basic incubator hygiene. PMID:22003021

  17. Nitrogen mineralization and transformation from composts and biosolids during field incubation in a sandy soil

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.L.; Alva, A.K.; Yan, P.; Li, Y.C.; Calvert, D.V.; Stoffella, P.J.; Banks, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Field evaluation of nutrient release from composts is important to estimate nutrient contribution to crops, potential leaching of nutrients, and, ultimately, to determine optimum application rates, timing, and placement of composts. Field incubation and laboratory analyses were conducted to evaluate the mineralization rate and transformation of N in biosolids (BSD), yard waste (YW), and West Palm Beach co-compost (WPCC). Each of the composts or biosolids was packed into PVC columns and inserted vertically into the upper layer of an Oldsmar fine sand of raised citrus beds. The top end of the PVC column was capped to prevent excessive leaching of nutrients from the columns. The moisture equilibrium between the incubated sample and the soil in the field was attained through the bottom and four side holes of each column, which were separated from the contacting soil by 400-mesh nylon screen. A set of the incubated columns was removed at monthly intervals, and the soil underlying each column was sampled to analyze for KCl-extractable NH{sub 4}-N and NO{sub 3}-N. Total C and N of the incubated samples were determined at the end of the 1-year incubation.

  18. Mariner-Venus 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

  19. Marine Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

  20. Marine medicinal glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

  1. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  2. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    LiVecchi, Al; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2010-06-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power

  3. Marine biodiversity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boeuf, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity. PMID:21640952

  4. Mathematical modelling of thermoregulation processes for premature infants in closed convectively heated incubators.

    PubMed

    Fraguela, Andrés; Matlalcuatzi, Francisca D; Ramos, Ángel M

    2015-02-01

    The low-weight newborns and especially the premature infants have difficulty in maintaining their temperature in the range considered to be normal. Several studies revealed the importance of thermal environment and moisture to increase the survival rate of newborns. This work models the process of heat exchange and energy balance in premature newborns during the first hours of life in a closed incubator. In addition, a control problem was proposed and solved in order to maintain thermal stability of premature newborns to increase their rate of survival and weight. For this purpose, we propose an algorithm to control the temperature inside the incubator. It takes into account the measurements of the body temperature of a premature newborn which are recorded continuously. We show that using this model the temperature of a premature newborn inside the incubator can be kept in a thermal stability range.

  5. Mathematical modelling of thermoregulation processes for premature infants in closed convectively heated incubators.

    PubMed

    Fraguela, Andrés; Matlalcuatzi, Francisca D; Ramos, Ángel M

    2015-02-01

    The low-weight newborns and especially the premature infants have difficulty in maintaining their temperature in the range considered to be normal. Several studies revealed the importance of thermal environment and moisture to increase the survival rate of newborns. This work models the process of heat exchange and energy balance in premature newborns during the first hours of life in a closed incubator. In addition, a control problem was proposed and solved in order to maintain thermal stability of premature newborns to increase their rate of survival and weight. For this purpose, we propose an algorithm to control the temperature inside the incubator. It takes into account the measurements of the body temperature of a premature newborn which are recorded continuously. We show that using this model the temperature of a premature newborn inside the incubator can be kept in a thermal stability range. PMID:25557201

  6. Resistance to extinction of conditioned electrodermal responses: a study of the incubation fear hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sandin, Bonifacio; Chorot, Paloma

    2002-08-01

    In the present study we examined Eysenck's incubation hypothesis of fear. Probability of skin conductance response (SCR) was analyzed for a sample of 79 undergraduate women, ranging in age from 18 to 25 years. Different groups of participants were conditioned to two levels of unconditioned stimuli (UCS) intensity and presented to three levels of unreinforced conditioned stimuli (CS) exposures (extinction phase) in a delay differential conditioning paradigm. The CSs were fear-relevant slides (snakes and spiders) and the UCSs were aversive tones. Analysis did not show a clear incubation effect; instead an increased resistance to extinction of SCR probability in association to the high-UCS and the short unreinforced CS presentation was evident. Findings support partially Eysenck's incubation theory of fear/anxiety.

  7. Male songbirds provide indirect parental care by guarding females during incubation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, B.C.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Across many taxa, guarding of fertile mates is a widespread tactic that enhances paternity assurance. However, guarding of mates can also occur during the nonfertile period, and the fitness benefits of this behavior are unclear. Male songbirds, for example, sometimes guard nonfertile females during foraging recesses from incubation. We hypothesized that guarding postreproductive mates may have important, but unrecognized, benefits by enhancing female foraging efficiency, thereby increasing time spent incubating eggs. We tested the hypothesis in 2 songbird species by examining female behavior during natural and experimentally induced absences of males. Male absence caused increased vigilance in foraging females that decreased their efficiency and resulted in less time spent incubating eggs. Male guarding of nonfertile females can thus provide a previously unrecognized form of indirect parental care.

  8. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus detected by separation and incubation of cells from salmonid cavity fluid.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Batts, W.N.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus is usually detected by inoculating susceptible cell cultures with cavity ("ovarian") fluid (CF) from spawning females. We identified additional adult carriers of virus in spawning populations of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) by collecting nonerythrocytic cells from CF samples by low-speed centrifugation, culturing the cells for at least 7 d at 15 °C, and then testing the culture medium for virus. Virus appeared in the cultured cells from some samples of CF that remained negative during incubation. In additional samples of CF from these species, the virus titer increased in cultured cells compared with the titer in the original CF sample. With chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha), no negative samples converted to positive during incubation, but the virus titer was retained in incubated CF cells, but not in cell-free CF.

  9. Effect of embryonic development on the chicken egg yolk plasma proteome after 12 days of incubation.

    PubMed

    Réhault-Godbert, Sophie; Mann, Karlheinz; Bourin, Marie; Brionne, Aurélien; Nys, Yves

    2014-03-26

    To better appreciate the dynamics of yolk proteins during embryonic development, we analyzed the protein quantitative changes occurring in the yolk plasma at the day of lay and after 12 days of incubation, by comparing unfertilized and fertilized chicken eggs. Of the 127 identified proteins, 69 showed relative abundance differences among conditions. Alpha-fetoprotein and two uncharacterized proteins (F1NHB8 and F1NMM2) were identified for the first time in the egg. After 12 days of incubation, five proteins (vitronectin, α-fetoprotein, similar to thrombin, apolipoprotein B, and apovitellenin-1) showed a major increase in relative abundance, whereas 15 proteins showed a significant decrease in the yolks of fertilized eggs. In unfertilized/table eggs, we observed an accumulation of proteins likely to originate from other egg compartments during incubation. This study provides basic knowledge on the utilization of egg yolk proteins by the embryo and gives some insight into how storage can affect egg quality.

  10. The effects of incubation temperature on the sex of Japanese quail chicks.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, A; Tepeli, C; Garip, M; Caglayan, T

    2011-10-01

    The effects of incubation temperature on the sex of Japanese quail chicks were investigated in this study. The study was conducted on Japanese quail. In all, 4500 eggs obtained from 2 generations were used. At the beginning of the study, a new flock was formed from available hatching eggs. Hatching eggs were gathered at 3 different ages (8 to 10 weeks, 16 to 18 weeks and 22 to 24 weeks of age) from the laying period in this flock. These eggs were exposed to 5 different incubation temperatures (36.7, 37.2, 37.7, 38.2, and 38.7°C). The hatching results were evaluated for each group. Chicks obtained from these temperature groups were reared separately to obtain quail for breeding. Eggs for incubation were gathered from these breeding quail when they were between 15 and 18 weeks of age. These eggs were placed in an incubator at a standard (37.7°C) temperature, separated by F(1)-generation temperature groups. The chicks in all groups were reared separately, and the sex of the chicks was determined at maturity. Statistical differences (P < 0.05) were found for the sex of the chicks in the third group (22 to 24 weeks) of the F(1) generation, compared with other groups. This result confirmed the hypothesis that different incubation temperatures for the first generation (at the embryo stage) might influence the sex of the next generation of chicks. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of incubation temperature on chicks from different perspectives.

  11. Dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities associated with eggshells during incubation

    PubMed Central

    Grizard, Stéphanie; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Tieleman, B Irene; Salles, Joana F

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are closely associated with eggs and may play a determinant role in embryo survival. Yet, the majority of studies focusing on this association relied on culture-based methodology, eventually leading to a skewed assessment of microbial communities. By targeting the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, we, respectively, described bacterial and fungal communities on eggshells of the homing pigeon Columba livia. We explored their structure, abundance, and composition. Firstly, we showed that sampling technique affected the outcome of the results. While broadly used, the egg swabbing procedure led to a lower DNA extraction efficiency and provided different profiles of bacterial communities than those based on crushed eggshell pieces. Secondly, we observed shifts in bacterial and fungal communities during incubation. At late incubation, bacterial communities showed a reduction in diversity, while their abundance increased, possibly due to the competitive advantage of some species. When compared to their bacterial counterparts, fungal communities also decreased in diversity at late incubation. In that case, however, the decline was associated with a diminution of their overall abundance. Conclusively, our results showed that although incubation might inhibit microbial growth when compared to unincubated eggs, we observed the selective growth of specific bacterial species during incubation. Moreover, we showed that fungi are a substantial component of the microbial communities associated with eggshells and require further investigations in avian ecology. Identifying the functional roles of these microorganisms is likely to provide news insights into the evolutionary strategies that control embryo survival. We aimed to describe the dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities on homing pigeon eggshell surfaces. We investigated these communities at early and late incubation stages. PMID:24772289

  12. Oxidative damage increases intracellular free calcium [Ca2+]i concentration in human erythrocytes incubated with lead.

    PubMed

    Quintanar-Escorza, M A; González-Martínez, M T; del Pilar, Intriago-Ortega Ma; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2010-08-01

    One important effect of lead toxicity in erythrocytes consists of increasing [Ca(2+)](i) which in turn may cause alterations in cell shape and volume and it is associated with cellular rigidity, hemolysis, senescence and apoptosis. In this work, we proposed the use of erythrocytes incubated with Pb(2+) to assess association of the mechanisms of lead erythrocyte oxidative damage and calcium homeostasis. Lead incubation produced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) dose- and time-dependent, which mainly involved Ca(2+) entry mechanism. Additionally, in this in vitro model alterations similar to erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers were produced: Increase in Ca(2+) influx, decrease in (Ca(2+)-Mg(2+))-ATPase activity and GSH/GSGG ratio; increase in lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation and osmotic fragility accompanied of dramatic morphological changes. Co-incubation with trolox, a soluble vitamin-E analog is able to prevent these alterations indicating that lead damage mechanism is strongly associated with oxidative damage with an intermediate toxic effect via [Ca(2+)](i) increase. Furthermore, erythrocytes oxidation induced with a free radical generator (APPH) showed effects in [Ca(2+)](i) and oxidative damage similar to those found in erythrocytes incubated with lead. Co-incubation with trolox prevents the oxidative effects induced by AAPH in erythrocytes. These results suggest that increase of [Ca(2+)](i) depends on the oxidative status of the erythrocytes incubated with lead. We consider that this model contributes in the understanding of the relation between oxidative damage induced by lead exposure and Ca(2+) homeostasis, the consequences related to these phenomena and the molecular basis of lead toxicity in no excitable cells.

  13. Impact of changing wind conditions on foraging and incubation success in male and female wandering albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Cornioley, Tina; Börger, Luca; Ozgul, Arpat; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-09-01

    Wind is an important climatic factor for flying animals as by affecting their locomotion, it can deeply impact their life-history characteristics. In the context of globally changing wind patterns, we investigated the mechanisms underlying recently reported increase in body mass of a population of wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) with increasing wind speed over time. We built a foraging model detailing the effects of wind on movement statistics and ultimately on mass gained by the forager and mass lost by the incubating partner. We then simulated the body mass of incubating pairs under varying wind scenarios. We tracked the frequency at which critical mass leading to nest abandonment was reached to assess incubation success. We found that wandering albatrosses behave as time minimizers during incubation as mass gain was independent of any movement statistics but decreased with increasing mass at departure. Individuals forage until their energy requirements, which are determined by their body conditions, are fulfilled. This can come at the cost of their partner's condition as mass loss of the incubating partner depended on trip duration. This behaviour is consistent with strategies of long-lived species which favoured their own survival over their current reproductive attempt. In addition, wind speed increased ground speed which in turn reduced trip duration and males foraged further away than females at high ground speed. Contrasted against an independent data set, the simulation performed satisfactorily for males but less so for females under current wind conditions. The simulation predicted an increase in male body mass growth rate with increasing wind speed, whereas females' rate decreased. This trend may provide an explanation for the observed increase in mass of males but not of females. Conversely, the simulation predicted very few nest abandonments, which is in line with the high breeding success of this species and is contrary to the hypothesis that

  14. Eggs under pressure: components of water potential of chameleon eggs during incubation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Geoffrey K; Andrews, Robin M; Noble, Lydia M

    2010-01-01

    Water exchange of squamate eggs is driven by the difference between the water potentials of eggs and of their nest environment. While osmotic potential is generally assumed to dominate the net water potential of eggs, resistance of the eggshell to stretching also affects egg water potential. We therefore determined osmotic potentials and pressure potentials (mechanical pressure) of eggs of the veiled chameleon Chamaeleo calyptratus over the course of incubation. Because embryos are diapausing gastrulae when eggs are laid and diapause persists several months, the water potential of eggs can be evaluated before it is influenced by the developing embryo. Water uptake during the first 2 wk of incubation was rapid as a result of the large difference between the total water potential of the egg (-848 kPa) and that of its incubation substrate. After about 2 wk, water potential of the egg stabilized at -460 kPa. By day 80 of incubation, the developing embryo and allantois affected water exchange of the egg. The allantoic fluid was initially very dilute, but its osmotic potential decreased to about -200 kPa by the end of incubation. Pressure potential of the egg averaged 25 kPa, with no systematic trend during incubation. The pressure potential exerted by the eggshell reduced the difference between the water potential of the egg and the water potential of the environment, that is, the ability of eggs to take up water. At the time of oviposition, this effect was relatively small, producing a 4%-6% reduction in water potential difference. Once the yolk osmotic potential stabilized, however, the reduction was 12% or more. This observation means that the dynamics of water uptake by squamate eggs cannot be fully understood without consideration of the pressure that is exerted on the contents of eggs by their shells.

  15. Quantification and control of the spatiotemporal gradients of air speed and air temperature in an incubator.

    PubMed

    Van Brecht, A; Aerts, J M; Degraeve, P; Berckmans, D

    2003-11-01

    Around the optimal incubator air temperature only small spatiotemporal deviations are allowed. However, air speed and air temperature are not uniformly distributed in the total volume of the incubator due to obstruction of the eggs and egg trays. The objectives of this research were (1) to quantify the spatiotemporal gradients in temperature and velocity and (2) to develop and validate a control algorithm to increase the uniformity in temperature during the entire incubation process. To improve the uniformity of air temperature, the airflow pattern and the air quality need to be controlled more optimally. These data show that the air temperature between the eggs at a certain position in a large incubator is the result of (1) the mean air temperature of the incubator; (2) the exchange of heat between the egg and its micro-environment, which is affected by the air speed at that certain position; (3) the time-variable heat production of the embryo; and (4) the heat influx or efflux as a result from the movement of hot or cold air in the incubator toward that position, which is affected by the airflow pattern. This implies that the airflow pattern needs to be controlled in a more optimal way. To maximize the uniformity of air temperature, an active and adaptive control of the three-dimensional (3-D) airflow pattern has been developed and tested. It was found to improve the spatiotemporal temperature distribution. The chance of having a temperature reading in the interval from 37.5 to 38.1 degrees C increased by 3% compared to normal operating conditions.

  16. Impact of changing wind conditions on foraging and incubation success in male and female wandering albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Cornioley, Tina; Börger, Luca; Ozgul, Arpat; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-09-01

    Wind is an important climatic factor for flying animals as by affecting their locomotion, it can deeply impact their life-history characteristics. In the context of globally changing wind patterns, we investigated the mechanisms underlying recently reported increase in body mass of a population of wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) with increasing wind speed over time. We built a foraging model detailing the effects of wind on movement statistics and ultimately on mass gained by the forager and mass lost by the incubating partner. We then simulated the body mass of incubating pairs under varying wind scenarios. We tracked the frequency at which critical mass leading to nest abandonment was reached to assess incubation success. We found that wandering albatrosses behave as time minimizers during incubation as mass gain was independent of any movement statistics but decreased with increasing mass at departure. Individuals forage until their energy requirements, which are determined by their body conditions, are fulfilled. This can come at the cost of their partner's condition as mass loss of the incubating partner depended on trip duration. This behaviour is consistent with strategies of long-lived species which favoured their own survival over their current reproductive attempt. In addition, wind speed increased ground speed which in turn reduced trip duration and males foraged further away than females at high ground speed. Contrasted against an independent data set, the simulation performed satisfactorily for males but less so for females under current wind conditions. The simulation predicted an increase in male body mass growth rate with increasing wind speed, whereas females' rate decreased. This trend may provide an explanation for the observed increase in mass of males but not of females. Conversely, the simulation predicted very few nest abandonments, which is in line with the high breeding success of this species and is contrary to the hypothesis that

  17. Aflatoxin production on high moisture corn and sorghum with a limited incubation.

    PubMed

    Winn, R T; Lane, G T

    1978-06-01

    Samples of ground, cracked, or whole kernels of sorghum or corn were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus no. 15546. The samples were incubated at 25 or 30 C and 90% relative humidity for 48 or 72 h. In all treatments, the 72-h samples contained more aflatoxins B1 and B2 than the 48-h samples. Cracked sorghum at 30 C for 72 h and whole sorghum at 25 C for 72 h contained more aflatoxins than any other treatment. Even in these short incubation periods, enough aflatoxin could be produced to be harmful to livestock. PMID:99461

  18. Incubation Temperature during Fetal Development Influences Morphophysiological Characteristics and Preferred Ambient Temperature of Chicken Hatchlings

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Viviane de Souza; de Almeida, Vitor Rosa; Matos, João Batista; Vicentini, Tamiris Iara; van den Brand, Henry; Boleli, Isabel Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin and feather characteristics, which play a critical role in body temperature maintenance, can be affected by incubation circumstances, such as incubation temperature. However, no study to date has assessed the influence of incubation temperature during the fetal stage on morphometric characteristics and vascular development of the skin, feather characteristics, and their relationship to hormone levels and preferred temperature in later life in chickens. Broiler breeder eggs were exposed to low (36°C), control (37.5°C), or high (39°C) temperatures (treatments LT, CK, and HT, respectively) from day 13 of incubation onward, because it is known that the endocrine axes are already established at this time. During this period, eggshell temperature of HT eggs (38.8±0.33°C) was higher than of LT (37.4±0.08°C) and CK eggs (37.8 ±0.15°C). The difference between eggshell and incubator air temperature diminished with the increasing incubation temperature, and was approximately zero for HT. HT hatchlings had higher surface temperature on the head, neck, and back, and thinner and more vascularized skin than did CK and LT hatchlings. No differences were found among treatments for body weight, total feather weight, number and length of barbs, barbule length, and plasma T4 concentration. LT hatchlings showed lower plasma T3 and GH, as well as lower T3/T4 ratio and decreased vascularity in the neck, back, and thigh skin compared to CK hatchlings. On the other hand, HT hatchlings had decreased skin thickness and increased vascularity, and preferred a higher ambient temperature compared to CK and HT hatchlings. In addition, for all treatments, surface temperature on the head was higher than of the other body regions. We conclude that changes in skin thickness and vascularity, as well as changes in thyroid and growth hormone levels, are the result of embryonic strategies to cope with higher or lower than normal incubation temperatures. Additionally exposure to increased

  19. Organic Matter Development and Turnover depending on Mineral Composition in an Artificial Soil Incubation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronk, G. J.; Heister, K.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research indicates that minerals play an important role in the formation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM). However, it is difficult to determine the effect of mineral composition on SOM development in natural soils where mineral composition is usually not well defined and initial conditions are generally unknown. Therefore, we performed an incubation experiment with so-called "artificial soils" composed of mixtures of clean and well-defined model materials where the development of organic matter could be followed from known initial conditions. The artificial soils were composed of 8 different mixtures of quartz, illite, montmorillonite, ferrihydrite, boehmite and charcoal, manure as carbon substrate and a microbial inoculum extracted from a natural arable soil. These mixtures were incubated in the dark and sampled 4 times over a total incubation time of 18 months. The organic matter (OM) turnover during incubation was followed by measuring CO2 respiration and C and N contents and distribution over particle size fractions with time. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and acid hydrolysis were used to determine the development of OM composition. The artificial soil mixtures developed quickly into complex, aggregated, soil-like materials. CO2 respiration was the same for all artificial soil compositions, indicating that microbial degradation was probably limited by nutrient or substrate availability. With increasing incubation time, nitrogen-rich, proteinaceous material, became enriched in the smallest particle size fraction, indicating the accumulation of microbial debris. There was some difference in the distribution of hydrolysable and non-hydrolysable N and organic carbon after 3 months of incubation depending on the type of clay mineral and charcoal presence. However, the artificial soils developed towards more similar systems with increasing incubation time. The artificial soil incubation experiment provided a

  20. Effects of low humidity on small premature infants in servocontrol incubators. I. Decrease in rectal temperature.

    PubMed

    Belgaumkar, T K; Scott, K

    1975-01-01

    19 small premature infants in servocontrol incubators, whose abdominal skin temperature was 36.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C, were subjected to alternate high- and low-humidity environments. With low humidity, rectal temperature dropped significantly below abdominal skin temperature. Skin was the predominant site of evaporative heat loss. The temperature was lower on naked skin than on an area covered by adhesive tape. Thus, servocontrol with low humidity increases evaporative heat loss and engenders a cycle of events that results in paradoxical body temperature decrease as the incubator temperature increases.

  1. An outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections with an unusually long incubation period.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John T; Matyas, Bela T; Fontana, John; DeGroot, Mary Ann; Beuchat, Larry R; Hoekstra, Michael; Friedman, Cindy R

    2012-03-01

    A 1998 investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections among children tasting unpasteurized milk during tours of a dairy farm demonstrated a distribution of unusually long incubation periods (median, 8 days; interquartile range [IQR], 6-14 days). Bacterial isolates were highly acid tolerant and contained genes associated with protection against destructive phagocytic reactive oxygen intermediates. We hypothesize that exposure to low-dose oral inoculum of a pathogen with these properties could have contributed to cases of non-typhoidal salmonellosis with the longest incubation period reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  2. Glycosylation of a Fasciclin-Like Arabinogalactan-Protein (SOS5) Mediates Root Growth and Seed Mucilage Adherence via a Cell Wall Receptor-Like Kinase (FEI1/FEI2) Pathway in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debarati; Tian, Lu; Debrosse, Tayler; Poirier, Emily; Emch, Kirk; Herock, Hayley; Travers, Andrew; Showalter, Allan M

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental processes that underpin plant growth and development depend crucially on the action and assembly of the cell wall, a dynamic structure that changes in response to both developmental and environmental cues. While much is known about cell wall structure and biosynthesis, much less is known about the functions of the individual wall components, particularly with respect to their potential roles in cellular signaling. Loss-of-function mutants of two arabinogalactan-protein (AGP)-specific galactosyltransferases namely, GALT2 and GALT5, confer pleiotropic growth and development phenotypes indicating the important contributions of carbohydrate moieties towards AGP function. Notably, galt2galt5 double mutants displayed impaired root growth and root tip swelling in response to salt, likely as a result of decreased cellulose synthesis. These mutants phenocopy a salt-overly sensitive mutant called sos5, which lacks a fasciclin-like AGP (SOS5/FLA4) as well as a fei1fei2 double mutant, which lacks two cell wall-associated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases. Additionally, galt2gal5 as well as sos5 and fei2 showed reduced seed mucilage adherence. Quintuple galt2galt5sos5fei1fei2 mutants were produced and provided evidence that these genes act in a single, linear genetic pathway. Further genetic and biochemical analysis of the quintuple mutant demonstrated involvement of these genes with the interplay between cellulose biosynthesis and two plant growth regulators, ethylene and ABA, in modulating root cell wall integrity. PMID:26731606

  3. Glycosylation of a Fasciclin-Like Arabinogalactan-Protein (SOS5) Mediates Root Growth and Seed Mucilage Adherence via a Cell Wall Receptor-Like Kinase (FEI1/FEI2) Pathway in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debarati; Tian, Lu; Debrosse, Tayler; Poirier, Emily; Emch, Kirk; Herock, Hayley; Travers, Andrew; Showalter, Allan M.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental processes that underpin plant growth and development depend crucially on the action and assembly of the cell wall, a dynamic structure that changes in response to both developmental and environmental cues. While much is known about cell wall structure and biosynthesis, much less is known about the functions of the individual wall components, particularly with respect to their potential roles in cellular signaling. Loss-of-function mutants of two arabinogalactan-protein (AGP)-specific galactosyltransferases namely, GALT2 and GALT5, confer pleiotropic growth and development phenotypes indicating the important contributions of carbohydrate moieties towards AGP function. Notably, galt2galt5 double mutants displayed impaired root growth and root tip swelling in response to salt, likely as a result of decreased cellulose synthesis. These mutants phenocopy a salt-overly sensitive mutant called sos5, which lacks a fasciclin-like AGP (SOS5/FLA4) as well as a fei1fei2 double mutant, which lacks two cell wall-associated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases. Additionally, galt2gal5 as well as sos5 and fei2 showed reduced seed mucilage adherence. Quintuple galt2galt5sos5fei1fei2 mutants were produced and provided evidence that these genes act in a single, linear genetic pathway. Further genetic and biochemical analysis of the quintuple mutant demonstrated involvement of these genes with the interplay between cellulose biosynthesis and two plant growth regulators, ethylene and ABA, in modulating root cell wall integrity. PMID:26731606

  4. The importance of having a partner: male help releases females from time limitation during incubation in birds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Male contribution to parental care varies widely among avian species. Yet the reasons for this variation, as well as its consequences, are still unclear. Because the amount of care provided by one sex is ultimately constrained by the time available for energy acquisition, contribution by the other sex should increase when overall parental workload is high. We tested this prediction by analyzing male contribution to incubation in 528 populations of 320 species of passerines, where females usually devote more time to incubation than males. Our worldwide sample included species with female-only parental care (the male is not present), incubation feeding (the male feeds the incubating female), and shared incubation (both sexes incubate the eggs). Results Overall nest attentiveness was greatest in species with shared incubation followed by species with incubation feeding and lowest in species with female-only care. Nest attentiveness and the degree of male contribution to incubation in species with shared incubation were very strongly correlated, whereas this correlation was absent in females. Interestingly, female contribution decreased towards the equator while male contribution did not change significantly with latitude. Hence, relative male incubation effort increased towards the equator, whereas that of female decreased. In species with incubation feeding, female nest attentiveness increased with the frequency of male feeding. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that male help is indispensable for increasing nest attentiveness in birds, either in the form of incubation feeding (supply of energy) or direct incubation of eggs. We conclude that energy acquisition constraints might be a potent force driving sex-specific contribution to parental care. PMID:24607032

  5. Particle size interconversion of human low density lipoproteins during incubation of plasma with phosphatidylcholine vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrokh, Z.; Nichols, A.V.

    1982-09-30

    Incubation of plasma (37/sup 0/C, 6hr) in the presence of increasing amounts of phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles, above a threshold concentration, results in an increase in particle diameter of LDL relative to that from nonincubated plasma. With further PC addition, the major peak of LDL in the gradient gel electrophoretic pattern is transformed, first, into a bimodal and, subsequently, into a single peak distribution. PC-induced interconversion of LDL requires factor(s) in the d > 1.20 g/ml fraction and, at PC concentrations below approximately 2 mg/ml, is not inhibited by p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid. Plasma incubation with increasing PC levels also leads to characteristic particle size transformations in HDL/sub 3/ species, with the transformation products ultimately converging to form a single peak pattern within the HDL/sub 2a/ size interval. In certain subjects, incubation of plasma, in the absence of added PC, shifts the particle size distribution of LDL towards smaller species; this can be prevented by addition of PC. We propose that incubation-induced shifts of LDL towards larger or smaller species result from changes in phospholipid (PL) content of LDL.

  6. Progress of the Photovoltaic Technology Incubator Project Towards an Enhanced U.S. Manufacturing Base: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.; Mitchell, R.; Keyes, B.; VanSant, K.; von Roedern, B.; Symko-Davies, M.; Kane, V.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the major accomplishments of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) Photovoltaic (PV) Technology Incubator project. The Incubator project facilitates a company's transition from developing a solar cell or PV module prototype to pilot- and large-scale U.S. manufacturing. The project targets small businesses that have demonstrated proof-of-concept devices or processes in the laboratory. Their success supports U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu's SunShot Initiative, which seeks to achieve PV technologies that are cost-competitive without subsidies at large scale with fossil-based energy sources by the end of this decade. The Incubator Project has enhanced U.S. PV manufacturing capacity and created more than 1200 clean energy jobs, resulting in an increase in American economic competitiveness. The investment raised to date by these PV Incubator companies as a result of DOE's $ 59 million investment totals nearly $ 1.3 billion.

  7. Small Business Incubator Educational Development Program Education & Training Center. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green River Community Coll., Auburn, WA.

    The establishment of Green River Community College's Education and Training Center as a permanent anchor tenant in the Kent Business Incubator required the college to develop a comprehensive business plan and needs assessment survey. College and community leaders identified the role and services of the educational tenant, leading to the…

  8. Multi-layer thermoelectric-temperature-mapping microbial incubator designed for geo-biochemistry applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Gen; Liu, Man-Chi; Tsai, Ming-Fei; Yu, Wei-Shun; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Cheng, I-Chun; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate a novel, vertical temperature-mapping incubator utilizing eight layers of thermoelectric (TE) modules mounted around a test tube. The temperature at each layer of the TE module is individually controlled to simulate the vertical temperature profile of geo-temperature variations with depth. Owing to the constraint of non-intrusion to the filled geo-samples, the temperature on the tube wall is adopted for measurement feedback. The design considerations for the incubator include spatial arrangement of the energy transfer mechanism, heating capacity of the TE modules, minimum required sample amount for follow-up instrumental or chemical analysis, and the constraint of non-intrusion to the geo-samples during incubation. The performance of the incubator is experimentally evaluated with two tube conditions and under four preset temperature profiles. Test tubes are either empty or filled with quartz sand, which has comparable thermal properties to the materials in the geo-environment. The applied temperature profiles include uniform, constant temperature gradient, monotonic-increasing parabolic, and parabolic. The temperature on the tube wall can be controlled between 20 °C and 90 °C with an averaged root mean squared error of 1 °C.

  9. Technology Entrepreneurship Promoted by Universities' Incubation Centers in Taiwan: Its Successes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2005-01-01

    Since 1996, the Small and Medium Enterprise Administration (SMEA) in Taiwan has supported various institutions to establish incubation centers (ICs) for facilitating start-ups and innovation. At present, there are 79 ICs in total and 65 (or 83%) of them are established in universities/colleges. Most ICs in the universities/colleges offering…

  10. Rapid production of Candida albicans chlamydospores in liquid media under various incubation conditions.

    PubMed

    Alicia, Zavalza-Stiker; Blanca, Ortiz-Saldivar; Mariana, García-Hernández; Magdalena, Castillo-Casanova; Alexandro, Bonifaz

    2006-01-01

    The production of chlamydospores is a diagnostic tool used to identify Candida albicans; these structures also represent a model for morphogenetic research. The time required to produce them with standard methods is 48-72 hours in rice meal agar and tensoactive agents. This time can be shorted using liquid media such as cornmeal broth (CMB) and dairy supplements. Five media were tested: CMB plus 1% Tween-80, CMB plus 5% milk, CMB plus 5% milk serum, milk serum, and milk serum plus 1% Tween-80, under different incubation conditions: at 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C in a metabolic bath stirring at 150 rpm, and at 28 degrees C in a culture stove. The reading time points were established at 8 and 16 hours. The best results were obtained at 16 hours with CMB plus 5% milk under incubation at 28 degrees C and stirring at 150 rpm. The next most efficient methods were CMB plus 5% milk serum and CMB plus 1% Tween-80, under the same incubation conditions. The other media were ineffective in producing chlamydospores. The absence of stirring at 28 degrees C prevented the formation of chlamydospores within the set time points, and incubation at 37 degrees C decreased their production. This paper reports that the time to form C. albicans chlamydospores can be reduced.

  11. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY...

  12. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY...

  13. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY...

  14. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY...

  15. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY...

  16. A Vertical-Lift Incubator (The "Seesaw") Designed for Channel Catfish Egg Masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish spawns have been incubated the same way for nearly a century. Spawns are placed in baskets and agitated with rotating paddles. While this system is widely used, it has been recently determined that dissolved oxygen in the center of a spawn may be as much as 5 ppm less than air-saturated wate...

  17. Aerobically incubated medium for decarboxylase testing of Enterobacteriaceae by replica-plating methods.

    PubMed

    Maccani, J E

    1979-12-01

    An aerobically incubated, agar-based medium was developed for amino acid decarboxylase testing of Enterobacteriaceae family members by replica-plating methods. Results with the new medium agreed 97 to 99% with the reference broth method of Moeller, and no false-positive reactions were encountered.

  18. Elk with a long incubation prion disease phenotype have a unique PrP-d profile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of deer and elk in North America. All diseases in this family are characterized by long preclinical incubation periods following by a relatively short clinical course. Endpoint disease is characterized by extensive deposits of a...

  19. Developing Vocational Practice in the Jewellery Sector through the Incubation of a New "Project-Object"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guile, David; Okumoto, Kaori

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a work placement scheme established to create the conditions to: (i) incubate new designs in the jewellery sector in Birmingham; (ii) support a jewellery company compete more effectively in the global market; (iii) assist a newly qualified graduate jeweller to enter the jewellery sector. It introduces a new theoretical…

  20. Graphene Oxide Enhances Cellular Delivery of Hydrophilic Small Molecules by Co-incubation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of bioactive molecules into cells has broad applications in biology and medicine. Polymer-modified graphene oxide (GO) has recently emerged as a de facto noncovalent vehicle for hydrophobic drugs. Here, we investigate a different approach using native GO to deliver hydrophilic molecules by co-incubation in culture. GO adsorption and delivery were systematically studied with a library of 15 molecules synthesized with Gd(III) labels to enable quantitation. Amines were revealed to be a key chemical group for adsorption, while delivery was shown to be quantitatively predictable by molecular adsorption, GO sedimentation, and GO size. GO co-incubation was shown to enhance delivery by up to 13-fold and allowed for a 100-fold increase in molecular incubation concentration compared to the alternative of nanoconjugation. When tested in the application of Gd(III) cellular MRI, these advantages led to a nearly 10-fold improvement in sensitivity over the state-of-the-art. GO co-incubation is an effective method of cellular delivery that is easily adoptable by researchers across all fields. PMID:25226566

  1. Oxygen consumption and temperature control of premature infants in a double-wall incubator.

    PubMed

    Marks, K H; Lee, C A; Bolan, C D; Maisels, M J

    1981-07-01

    The effects of a double wall in a forced convection-heated incubator were studied on ten naked, nondistressed, premature infants by measuring their mean skin temperature, esophageal temperature, and oxygen consumption when they were in thermal steady state, with, and without, the double wall in place. The incubator air temperature was maintained within the recommended thermoneutral zone during the consecutive paired experiments. Ambient room temperature and relative humidity were constant and the infant's activity (quiet sleep) and postprandial state were the same in both conditions. Together with a significant rise in operative temperature (P less than .05) induced by the double wall (accounted for by a 0.9 C mean increased in incubator wall temperature nearest the baby), their mean skin temperature and esophageal temperatures increased (P less than .025), while a decrease in oxygen consumption occurred in nine of the ten infants (P less than .05). These findings suggest that the double wall reduced radiant and total heat loss from the baby by diminishing the temperature gradient between the skin and incubator surfaces and that metabolic heat production (oxygen consumption) was reduced when the double wall was in place.

  2. The heat balance of small babies nursed in incubators and under radiant warmers.

    PubMed

    Wheldon, A E; Rutter, N

    1982-04-01

    The heat balance of 12 healthy preterm babies (mean birth weight 1.58 kg, gestation 32 weeks, age 7 days) was studied first in an incubator and then under a radiant warmer during normal nursing. Heat production and heat loss by radiation, convection and evaporation were measured in presumed thermoneutral conditions. Although rectal and mean skin temperatures were normal and the same in both environments, there were important differences. Radiation was the major source of heat loss in the incubator and convective losses were low. Under the radiant warmer convection was the major source of heat loss and heat was gained by radiation. A small rise in metabolic heat production occurred under the radiant warmer. Respiratory water loss was low in both environments. Skin water loss was significantly higher under the radiant warmer. The most immature baby (gestation 28 weeks) could not be kept warm in the incubator despite high air temperature, because the evaporative heat loss from her skin was very high. Her body temperatures were normal under the radiant warmer. It is concluded that both devices provide acceptable thermal environments for most preterm babies but that incubators without humidification may be inadequate for immature babies with a high skin water loss.

  3. Effects of low humidity on small premature infants in servocontrol incubators. II. Increased severity of apnea.

    PubMed

    Belgaumkar, T K; Scott, K E

    1975-01-01

    Apneic spells were recorded in 8 of 19 premature infants nursed in high and low humidity alternately in servocontrol incubators. A significantly greater proportion of severe apnea occurred in low than in high humidity. It is postulated that this frequency and severity was due to the increased (as well as widely fluctuating) ambient temperature during low humidity.

  4. Progress of the PV Technology Incubator Project Towards an Enhanced U.S. Manufacturing Base

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.; Mitchell, R.; Keyes, B.; VanSant, K.; Von Roedern, B.; Symko-Davies, M.; Kane, V.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the major accomplishments of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) Photovoltaic (PV) Technology Incubator project. The Incubator project facilitates a company's transition from developing a solar cell or PV module prototype to pilot- and large-scale U.S. manufacturing. The project targets small businesses that have demonstrated proof-of-concept devices or processes in the laboratory. Their success supports U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu's SunShot Initiative, which seeks to achieve PV technologies that are cost-competitive without subsidies at large scale with fossil-based energy sources by the end of this decade. The Incubator Project has enhanced U.S. PV manufacturing capacity and created more than 1200 clean energy jobs, resulting in an increase in American economic competitiveness. The investment raised to date by these PV Incubator companies as a result of DOE's $ 59 million investment total nearly $ 1.3 billion.

  5. Dangerous marine animals.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C

    1976-04-01

    Tales of dangerous marine animals have flourished, entwining history, legend and imagination. Man is now demonstrating his remarkable adaptability in returning to the aquatic environment, from which he had his origins, and factual knowledge of marine creatures is surplanting mystery, folklore and fear. There is still cause to fear certain aspects of the underwater world, and the one aspect that still holds sway over public interest is that of dangerous marine animals. There is little justification for this top priority. The kelp beds of San Diego will claim more diving victims than all the marine animals around the United States of America. The cold seas off the English coastline, the tidal currents of Hawaii and the multitude of drowning accidents in water caves of Florida and Australia belittle the relatively few fatalities caused by marine animals. Nevertheless, the latter do cause injury and death, especially in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The Indo-Pacific area seems particularly well endowed with a variety of potentially lethal species, and some of these will be dealt with in this paper.

  6. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    PubMed

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  7. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    PubMed Central

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  8. Marine Multichannel Seismology Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detrick, Bob

    1984-04-01

    The multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection technique, developed by the oil industry for petroleum exploration in sedimentary basins, has proven to be a powerful tool for imaging subsurface geology in a wide variety of tectonic settings at a scale suitable for detailed investigations of geological structures and processes. In the ocean basins, MCS studies have provided new insight into the tectonic history of rifted and convergent continental margins, the structure of the oceanic crust and midocean ridges, and the sedimentation history and paleoceanography of deep ocean basins. MCS techniques have thus developed into an important tool for marine geological and geophysical research.The National Science Foundation recently sponsored a Workshop on the Future of Academic Marine Multichannel Seismology in the United States, held in Boulder, Colo., on March 19-20, 1984, to review the current state of marine academic MCS in the United States and to make recommendations on the facilities and funding required to meet future scientific needs. The workshop, which was convened by Brian T.R. Lewis of the University of Washington, included 19 scientists representing the major U.S. oceanographic institutions with interests in marine seismic work. This article summarizes the major recommendations developed at this workshop, which have been included in a more comprehensive report entitled ‘A National Plan for Marine Multichannel Seismology,’ which has been submitted to the National Science Foundation for future publication.

  9. Movements of foraging king penguins through marine mesoscale eddies

    PubMed Central

    Cotté, Cédric; Park, Young-Hyang; Guinet, Christophe; Bost, Charles-André

    2007-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that marine predators associate with mesoscale eddies, how these marine features influence foraging movements is still unclear. This study investigates the relationship of at-sea movements of king penguins to mesoscale eddies using oceanographic remote sensing and movement data from 43 individual trips over 4 years. Simultaneous satellite measurements provided information on gradients of sea surface temperature and currents associated with eddies determined from altimetry. Penguins tended to swim rapidly with currents as they travelled towards foraging zones. Swimming speed indicative of foraging occurred within mesoscale fronts and strong currents associated with eddies at the Polar Front. These results demonstrate the importance of mesoscale eddies in directing foraging efforts to allow predators to rapidly get to rich areas where high concentrations of prey are likely to be encountered. When returning to the colony to relieve the incubating partner or to feed the chick, the birds followed a direct and rapid path, seemingly ignoring currents. PMID:17669726

  10. Effects of soil moisture on the temperature sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration: a laboratory incubation study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiping; Hui, Dafeng; Shen, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity--WHC) and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C). Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC) than at higher moisture level (80% WHC) during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming's impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration. PMID:24647610

  11. Effects of soil moisture on the temperature sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration: a laboratory incubation study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiping; Hui, Dafeng; Shen, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity--WHC) and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C). Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC) than at higher moisture level (80% WHC) during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming's impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration.

  12. Pyruvate Incubation Enhances Glycogen Stores and Sustains Neuronal Function during Subsequent Glucose Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of energy substrates, such as lactate and pyruvate, has been shown to improve synaptic function when administered during glucose deprivation. In the present study, we investigatedwhether prolonged incubation with monocarboxylate (pyruvate or lactate) prior rather than duringglucose deprivation can also sustainsynaptic and metabolic function.Pyruvate pre-incubation(3-4 hr) significantly prolonged (>25 min) the tolerance of rat hippocampal slices to delayed glucose deprivation compared to control and lactate pre-incubated slices, as revealed by field excitatory post synaptic potentials (fEPSPs); pre-incubation with pyruvate alsoreduced the marked decrease in NAD(P)H fluorescence resulting from glucose deprivation. Moreover, pyruvate exposure led to enhancement of glycogen stores with time, compared to glucose alone(12 μmol/g tissue at 4 hr vs. 3.5 μmol/g tissue). Prolonged resistance to glucose deprivation following exogenous pyruvate incubation was prevented by glycogenolysis inhibitors, suggesting that enhanced glycogen mediates the delay in synaptic activity failure.The application of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist enhanced glycogen utilization and prolonged the time to synaptic failure, further confirming this hypothesis of the importance of glycogen.Moreover, tissue levels of ATP werealso significantly maintained duringglucose deprivation in pyruvate pre-treated slices compared to control and lactate. In summary, these experiments indicate that pyruvate exposure prior to glucose deprivation significantly increased the energy buffering capacity of hippocampal slices, particularly by enhancing internal glycogen stores, delaying synaptic failure during glucose deprivation by maintaining ATP levels, and minimizing the decreasein the levels of NAD(P)H. PMID:21854850

  13. Pyruvate incubation enhances glycogen stores and sustains neuronal function during subsequent glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Pavan K; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A

    2012-01-01

    The use of energy substrates, such as lactate and pyruvate, has been shown to improve synaptic function when administered during glucose deprivation. In the present study, we investigated whether prolonged incubation with monocarboxylate (pyruvate or lactate) prior rather than during glucose deprivation can also sustain synaptic and metabolic function. Pyruvate pre-incubation(3-4h) significantly prolonged (>25 min) the tolerance of rat hippocampal slices to delayed glucose deprivation compared to control and lactate pre-incubated slices, as revealed by field excitatory post synaptic potentials (fEPSPs); pre-incubation with pyruvate also reduced the marked decrease in NAD(P)H fluorescence resulting from glucose deprivation. Moreover, pyruvate exposure led to the enhancement of glycogen stores with time, compared to glucose alone (12 μmol/g tissue at 4h vs. 3.5 μmol/g tissue). Prolonged resistance to glucose deprivation following exogenous pyruvate incubation was prevented by glycogenolysis inhibitors, suggesting that enhanced glycogen mediates the delay in synaptic activity failure. The application of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist enhanced glycogen utilization and prolonged the time to synaptic failure, further confirming this hypothesis of the importance of glycogen. Moreover, tissue levels of ATP were also significantly maintained during glucose deprivation in pyruvate pretreated slices compared to control and lactate. In summary, these experiments indicate that pyruvate exposure prior to glucose deprivation significantly increased the energy buffering capacity of hippocampal slices, particularly by enhancing internal glycogen stores, delaying synaptic failure during glucose deprivation by maintaining ATP levels, and minimizing the decrease in the levels of NAD(P)H.

  14. Effects of Soil Moisture on the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Heterotrophic Respiration: A Laboratory Incubation Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weiping; Hui, Dafeng; Shen, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity - WHC) and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C). Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC) than at higher moisture level (80% WHC) during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming’s impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration. PMID:24647610

  15. Effect of incubation on freezability of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin treated buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Lone, S. A.; Prasad, J. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Das, G. K.; Balamurugan, B.; Katiyar, R.; Verma, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incubation on freezability of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) treated buffalo spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: Semen samples with mass motility of 3+ and greater, collected from Murrah buffalo bulls were utilized. Immediately after collection, four equal groups of semen sample were made. Group I was kept as control and diluted with Tris upto concentration of 60×106 sperm/ml, where as Groups II, III, and IV were treated with CLC at 3 mg/120× 106 spermatozoa, incubated at 37°C for action of CLC for 10, 15 and 20 min, respectively, and diluted with tris upto concentration of 60×106 sperm/ml. All groups were subjected to equilibration and freezing. The evaluation of semen samples from all groups was carried out at fresh, pre-freeze and post-thaw stage for progressive motility, viability and hypo-osmotic swelling response (HOS response). Results: At the pre-freeze stage, significantly (p<0.05) higher percentage of progressive motility and viability was observed in treatment groups as compared to control with no significant difference among treatment groups. HOS response was significantly (p<0.05) higher in treatment groups as compared to control at pre-freeze stage. At post-thaw stage, significantly (p<0.05) higher percentage of progressive motility, viability and HOS response was recorded in Group II as compared to control and other treatment groups (III and IV). Group II retained significant post-thaw motility and viability at various post-thaw incubation periods. Conclusion: Incubation period of 10 min for CLC treated buffalo spermatozoa yielded significantly higher results in terms of freezability as compared to incubation for 15 and 20 min. PMID:27051205

  16. Mycobacterium and Aerobic Actinomycete Culture: Are Two Medium Types and Extended Incubation Times Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Simner, Patricia J.; Doerr, Kelly A.; Steinmetz, Lory K.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterial cultures are historically performed using a liquid medium and a solid agar medium with an incubation period of up to 60 days. We performed a retrospective analysis of 21,494 mycobacterial and aerobic actinomycetes cultures performed over 10 months to determine whether two medium types remain necessary and to investigate whether culture incubation length can be shortened. Specimens were cultured using Bactec MGIT liquid medium and Middlebrook 7H11/S7H11 solid medium with incubation periods of 42 and 60 days, respectively. Time-to-positivity and the identity of isolates recovered from each medium were evaluated. A total of 1,205/21,494 cultures (6%) were positive on at least one medium. Of the 1,353 isolates recovered, 1,110 (82%) were nontuberculous mycobacteria, 145 (11%) were aerobic actinomycetes, and 98 (7%) were Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Assessing medium types, 1,121 isolates were recovered from solid medium cultures, 922 isolates were recovered from liquid medium cultures, and 690 isolates were recovered on both media. Liquid cultures were positive an average of 10 days before solid cultures when the two medium types were positive (P < 0.0001). Isolates detected on solid medium after 6 weeks of incubation included 65 (5%) nontuberculous mycobacteria, 4 (0.3%) aerobic actinomycetes, and 2 (0.2%) isolates from the M. tuberculosis complex. Medical chart review suggested that most of these later-growing isolates were insignificant, as the diagnosis was already known, or they were considered colonizers/contaminants. This study reaffirms the need for both liquid medium and solid medium for mycobacterial and aerobic actinomycetes culture and demonstrates that solid medium incubation times may be reduced to 6 weeks without significantly impacting sensitivity. PMID:26865689

  17. Marine biosurfaces research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  18. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargraves, Paul E.

    Until recently, anyone who needed to accurately identify marine phytoplankton had one of four choices: use the outdated Englishlanguage volumes by E. E. Cupp and N. I. Hendey plus the more recent book by J. Dodge, acquire a working knowledge of German and use the old volumes by Schiller and Hustedt, spend huge amounts of time in an exceedingly well-equipped marine science library trying in vain to keep up with the rapidly evolving field of phytoplankton systematics and taxonomy, or track down one of the rarest of endangered species—a phytoplankton taxonomist—and beg for help.To these unfortunate choices is added one considerably more hopeful: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. This volume, which has seven contributing authors, contains most of the taxonomic groups that make up the planktonic autotrophs and some heterotrophs of the seas, coasts, and estuaries of the world (missing are cyanobacteria and some of the picoplankton groups).

  19. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  20. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  1. Marine Science Building Dedicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Officials cut the ribbon during dedication ceremonies of the George A. Knauer Marine Science Building on Oct. 17 at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC). The $2.75 million facility, the first building at the test site funded by the state of Mississippi, houses six science labs, classrooms and office space for 40 faculty and staff. Pictured are, from left, Rear Adm. Thomas Donaldson, commander of the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command; SSC Assistant Director David Throckmorton; Dr. George A. Knauer, founder of the Center of Marine Science at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM); Lt. Gov. Amy Tuck; and USM President Dr. Shelby Thames.

  2. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2014-01-17

    This review covers the literature published in 2012 for marine natural products, with 1035 citations (673 for the period January to December 2012) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1241 for 2012), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:24389707

  3. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:25620233

  4. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:26837534

  5. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  6. Mariner 9 navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

  7. Mariner 9 star photography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, T. E.

    1973-01-01

    Mariner 9 achieved successful photography of the stars, the purpose of the experiment being to measure camera parameters associated with point source photometry, and to examine the feasibility of using stars as invariant calibration sources and a reference for optical navigation. The Mariner 9 camera-B photography demonstrated photometric response consistency over a limited sample of data to better than 15%. Camera performance verified the ability to model vidicon response characteristics as well as demonstrated an imaging capability sufficient to permit the use of stars for photometric calibration.

  8. Pressure-induced alteration in effects of high CO2 on marine bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, N.; Tsukasaki, A.; Tsurushima, N.; Suzumura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key mitigation technology to reduce the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Current CCS research is dominated by improvements of the efficiency of the capturing, transport or storage of CO2. Also, it is important to estimate potential impacts on marine environments related to potential CO2 leakage. It has been demonstrated that seawater acidification effects on marine community structure and food chains. Bacteria are the basis of marine microbial food web and responsible for a significant part of marine biogeochemical cycles in both water column and bottom sediments. We used a high pressure incubation system which is composed of an HPLC pump and stainless-steel pressure vessels. The system could maintain stably the pressure up to 30 MPa. Using the system, we investigated the effects of high CO2 concentration on a deep-sea bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp., isolated from the western North Pacific Ocean. The isolate was incubated in acidified seawaters at various CO2 concentrations under simulated pressure conditions between 0.1 MPa and 30 MPa. We determined bacterial growth rate and live/dead cell viability. It was found that both CO2 concentration and pressure influenced substantially the growth rate of the isolate. In order to assess potential effects of leaked CO2 on microbial assemblages in marine environments, it was suggested that hydraulic pressure is one essential variable to be considered.

  9. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  10. LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Study of Marine Bacterial Secondary Metabolite and Antibiotic Production in Salinispora arenicola

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Utpal; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Ng, Yi Kai; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Fuerst, John A.; Hodson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    An LC-MS-based metabolomics approach was used to characterise the variation in secondary metabolite production due to changes in the salt content of the growth media as well as across different growth periods (incubation times). We used metabolomics as a tool to investigate the production of rifamycins (antibiotics) and other secondary metabolites in the obligate marine actinobacterial species Salinispora arenicola, isolated from Great Barrier Reef (GBR) sponges, at two defined salt concentrations and over three different incubation periods. The results indicated that a 14 day incubation period is optimal for the maximum production of rifamycin B, whereas rifamycin S and W achieve their maximum concentration at 29 days. A “chemical profile” link between the days of incubation and the salt concentration of the growth medium was shown to exist and reliably represents a critical point for selection of growth medium and harvest time. PMID:25574739

  11. Transient and permanent effects of suboptimal incubation temperatures on growth, metabolic rate, immune function and adrenocortical responses in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Wada, Haruka; Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Allen, Natalie; Schmidt, Kimberly L; Soma, Kiran K; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    In birds, incubation temperature can vary by several degrees Celsius among nests of a given species. Parents may alter incubation temperature to cope with environmental conditions and/or to manipulate embryonic development, and such changes in incubation behavior could have long-lasting effects on offspring phenotype. To investigate short- and long-term effects of suboptimal incubation temperatures on survival and physiological functions in zebra finches, eggs were incubated at 36.2, 37.4 or 38.4 °C for the entire incubation period. The post-hatch environment was identical among the treatment groups. We found that hatching success was lowest in the 38.4 °C group, while post-hatch survival was lowest in the 36.2 °C group. Incubation temperature had sex-specific effects on offspring phenotype: incubation temperatures affected body mass (Mb) but not physiological parameters of males and conversely, the physiological parameters but not Mb of females. Specifically, males from the 38.4 °C group weighed significantly less than males from the 36.2 °C group from the nestling period to adulthood, whereas females from different incubation temperature groups did not differ in Mb. In contrast, females incubated at 36.2 °C had transient but significantly elevated basal metabolic rate and adrenocortical responses during the nestling and fledgling periods, whereas no treatment effect was observed in males. Innate immunity was not affected by incubation temperature in either sex. These results suggest that a 1 °C deviation from what is considered an optimal incubation temperature can lower offspring performance and offspring survival.

  12. Effect of atmosphere and duration of incubation on primary isolation of group A streptococci from throat cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, B A; Reller, L B; Mirrett, S

    1983-01-01

    The optimal incubation conditions for isolation of group A streptococci from throat cultures are controversial. Therefore, we compared the effects of aerobic and anaerobic incubations after 24 and 48 h on the recovery of group A streptococci. Throat swabs submitted to the clinical laboratory were inoculated onto duplicate 5% sheep blood agar plates, incubated aerobically or anaerobically (GasPak jar) at 35 degrees C, and examined semiquantitatively after 24 and 48 h. Group A streptococci were identified by the fluorescent-antibody technique. Of 1,040 specimens, 506 (48.6%) grew beta-hemolytic streptococci, including 200 (19.2%) group A streptococci. Group A streptococci were recovered significantly more often with anaerobic incubation than with aerobic incubation after 24 h (182 versus 138; P less than 0.001) and after 48 h (193 versus 174; P less than 0.05). Non-group A beta-hemolytic streptococci also were recovered significantly more often with anaerobic incubation after 24 and 48 h (P less than 0.001). Colony counts were not affected by the incubation atmosphere. We conclude that incubation of throat cultures in an anaerobic atmosphere is superior to incubation in air for detection of group A streptococci. The greater sensitivity of anaerobic incubation, however, may not justify the extra laboratory effort and cost required to differentiate group A streptococci from the non-group A streptococci detected as a result of anaerobic incubation. Throat cultures should be examined after 24 and 48 h, especially if plates are incubated aerobically. PMID:6339551

  13. High bacterial biodiversity increases degradation performance of hydrocarbons during bioremediation of contaminated harbor marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Dell'Anno, Antonio; Beolchini, Francesca; Rocchetti, Laura; Luna, Gian Marco; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    We investigated changes of bacterial abundance and biodiversity during bioremediation experiments carried out on oxic and anoxic marine harbor sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Oxic sediments, supplied with inorganic nutrients, were incubated in aerobic conditions at 20 °C and 35 °C for 30 days, whereas anoxic sediments, amended with organic substrates, were incubated in anaerobic conditions at the same temperatures for 60 days. Results reported here indicate that temperature exerted the main effect on bacterial abundance, diversity and assemblage composition. At higher temperature bacterial diversity and evenness increased significantly in aerobic conditions, whilst decreased in anaerobic conditions. In both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, biodegradation efficiencies of hydrocarbons were significantly and positively related with bacterial richness and evenness. Overall results presented here suggest that bioremediation strategies, which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity rather than the selection of specific taxa, may significantly increase the efficiency of hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated marine sediments.

  14. Enhancement of recombinant erythropoietin production in CHO cells in an incubator without CO(2) addition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, S K; Ahn, Y H; Han, K

    2001-10-01

    The effect of low levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the gas phase on the production of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO)in CHO cells was explored. A T-flask culture in an incubator without CO(2) addition showed a slow cell growth initially followed by the cessation of growth, while other cultures incubated under 0.5-5% CO(2) concentrations grew normally at the same rate during the entire period of cultivation. Interestingly, the production of EPO in the culture incubated under no CO(2) supply was highest among the tested cultures. The cell specific secretion rate of EPO (q(EPO)) of the culture under no CO(2) supply was about 3 times higher than that of the culture under 5% CO(2) supply. Western blot analysis and in vivo bioassay of EPO showed no apparent changes in EPO quality between the two cases of different CO(2) environments (air vs. 5% CO(2)), suggesting robust glycosylation of EPO by CHO cells even under very reduced CO(2) environment. Various combinations of the two extreme cases, with 5% CO(2) supply (suitable for cell growth) and no CO(2) addition (better for EPO production), were made in order to maximize the volumetric productivity of EPO secretion (P(V)) in CHO cells. The P(V) of the cultures programmed with initial incubation under 5% CO(2) followed by no CO(2) supply was about 2 times superior to that of the culture incubated only under no CO(2) supply. The P(V) of the culture under no CO(2) supply was slightly lower than that of culture grown under 5% CO(2). However, the q(EPO) of the no CO(2) supply case was more than 5 times higher than that of the culture under 5% CO(2) supply. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that a simple programming of CO(2) supply to an incubator can enhance the production of EPO in CHO cells remarkably, without any apparent change of the EPO quality. PMID:19002908

  15. Disentangling controls on mineral-stabilized soil organic matter using a slurry incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, J. M.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Paul, E. A.; Conant, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral-stabilized organic matter (OM) is the largest and oldest pool of soil carbon and nitrogen. Mineral stabilization limits OM availability to soil microbes, preventing its decomposition and prolonging its turnover. Thus, understanding controls on the decomposition of mineral-stabilized OM is key to understanding soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. The very slow turnover of mineral-stabilized OM makes it challenging to study in a typical incubation, and as a result, many potential controls (temperature, OM chemistry, and mineralogy) on its turnover remain unclear. We aimed to better understand controls on decomposition of mineral-stabilized OM by employing a slurry incubation technique, which speeds up microbial processing of OM by maximizing OM accessibility to microbes. In a slurry incubation, we expect that any OM that is not stabilized on mineral surfaces will be available for decomposition and will be converted to CO2. Using this technique, we studied the interactive effects of incubation temperature, plant material type (aboveground vs. belowground), and soil fraction (silt vs. clay) on CO2 efflux and OM stabilization. We separated silt-sized and clay-sized fractions from an agricultural soil, added aboveground or belowground plant material to each, and incubated them at 15°C, 25°C and 35°C. The added plant material was isotopically labeled (13C and 15N), which allowed us to trace it through the system and distinguish between the responses of the new (derived from the plant material) and old (derived from what was already present in the silt and clay) OM to warming. We measured CO2 efflux and 13CO2 efflux throughout the incubation. We performed one short-term harvest at day 6 and one final harvest at day 60. Initial results show higher cumulative CO2 efflux at warmer temperatures regardless of plant material type or soil fraction. A larger fraction of that CO2 came from OM that was initially present in the silt and clay, rather than from the plant

  16. First Experience with Neonatal Examinations with the Use of MR-Compatible Incubator

    PubMed Central

    Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika; Szkudlińska-Pawlak, Sylwia; Romaniuk-Doroszewska, Anna; Duczkowski, Marek; Iwanowska, Beata; Duczkowska, Agnieszka; Mądzik, Jarosław; Brągoszewska, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Since 2003, very few publications have described brain examinations using neonatal MR-compatible incubator (INC). The authors present their first experience in these examinations, not limited to brain scans, with the use of an incubator equipped not only with head coil, but also with a coil designed for examinations of the spinal canal and spinal cord as well as the whole body, at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw. Material/Methods Examinations were performed in 27 newborns (12 girls, 15 boys). Most of the neonates were prematurely born: 19 (70.4%) were born at gestational age of 23–37 weeks, mean of 30 weeks. They were examined at the corrected age of 26 weeks–1 month, mean of 36 weeks. Body weight of the newborns on the day of the study was 600–4,300 g, mean of 2,654 g. The study was performed with a GE Signa HDxT 1.5 T system with the use of a Nomag IC 1.5 incubator by Lammers Medical Technology Co., equipped with three coils: an eight-channel, phased-array head coil and a twelve-channel phased-array coil for the whole body, consisting of an eight-channel coil integrated in the incubator and a separate four-channel surface coil. Results Of the 27 children, 25 (92.6%) required a brain scan. Two children (7.4%) were referred to MRI for assessment of the spinal canal and the abdomen. We compared the results of transfontanelle ultrasound and MRI scans in 21 children. MRI provided significantly more diagnostic information in 18 cases (85.7%); in 3 cases (14.3%), no additional knowledge about the pathology was provided by the exam. Conclusions The MR-compatible incubator increases the availability of MRI to newborns, especially premature newborns and those with low and extremely low body weight, for whom MR examinations are necessary to determine the extent of changes, not limited to the central nervous system, as well as to establish prognosis. Dedicated neonatal coils integrated with the incubator permit more accurate diagnosis

  17. Incubation conditions are more important in determining early thermoregulatory ability than posthatch resource conditions in a precocial bird.

    PubMed

    DuRant, S E; Hopkins, W A; Carter, A W; Stachowiak, C M; Hepp, G R

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in birds suggests that investing in incubation is one mechanism by which parents can enhance the phenotype of their offspring. Posthatch environmental conditions can also shape an individual's phenotype, and it is thus possible for pre- and posthatch conditions to have interactive effects on an individual's phenotype. In this study, we examined the individual and interactive effects of prehatch incubation temperature and posthatch food availability on growth, food consumption, and thermoregulatory ability in wood duck (Aix sponsa) ducklings. Eggs were incubated at one of three temperatures (35.0°, 35.9°, or 37.0°C), and then ducklings were reared on an either ad lib. or time-restricted diet for 12 d after hatching. We found that food availability influenced duckling growth, with the slowest growth occurring in ducklings fed the restricted diet. Incubation temperature also interacted with food conditions to influence duckling growth: ducklings fed ad lib. from the lowest incubation temperature grew slower than ducklings fed ad lib. from the higher incubation temperatures. Most importantly, we found that the improvement in a duckling's ability to maintain body temperature in the face of a thermal challenge was influenced by embryonic incubation temperature but not feeding conditions. Ducklings from the highest incubation temperature experienced the greatest improvement in thermoregulatory performance with age. Our findings suggest that the prehatch environment is more important than posthatch resource conditions in determining some physiological functions and underscores the important role that incubation temperature plays in determining offspring phenotype in birds.

  18. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14334, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  19. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  20. Marine Fisheries: A Biological Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haefner, Paul A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine science course offered to high school biology teachers. The course objectives were designed to introduce teachers to a marine science subject that could be used in the secondary science classroom and laboratory and to create an awareness of the issues surrounding the marine sciences. (DS)