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Sample records for incubated marine mucilages

  1. Characterization of mucilage aggregates in Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea: structure similarities between mucilage samples and the insoluble fractions of marine humic substance.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, M; Acquistucci, R; Di Noto, V; Pietrantonio, E; Amici, M; Cardarilli, D

    2001-08-01

    The appearance of gelatinous aggregates called mucilages causes serious damages to tourism and fishery industries of the Adriatic Sea. So, many studies have been planned and some of them are still in progress to clarify the origin and causes of the phenomenon. The scientific research has showed that mucilages are produced by several marine organisms when peculiar climatic and trophic conditions occur. Moreover, as far as the mucilage composition is concerned, although it is well known that polysaccharides give a high contribution, knowledge of the structural characteristics of mucilages and their relationship with the natural organic matter of the marine environment has not been clarified yet. In this paper a study on the characterization of the marine mucilage samples collected in the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas is described. The study was performed by spectroscopic (infrared and colorimetric) techniques, and elemental analysis. The results showed that mucilage samples have chemical and structural similarities with the insoluble fraction of the marine humic substance (humin). According to experimental evidences it is possible to establish the relationship between mucilages and the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the marine environment in order to identify the most likely pathways of mucilage formation.

  2. Spectroscopic evidence of the marine origin of mucilages in the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Berto, Daniela; Giani, Michele; Taddei, Paola; Bottura, Giorgio

    2005-12-15

    Vibrational Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectroscopies coupled to thermogravimetry were used to characterise the gelatinous aggregates as well as the humin and humic fractions extracted from the aggregates. Spectroscopic analysis made it possible to identify the main classes of compounds present in the samples. The FTIR spectra of the aggregates showed the presence of carbohydrates, saturated aliphatic compounds, aminic, esteric, amidic (proteins) and ketonic compounds, organic and inorganic phosphates, silica and, in some cases, carbonates. The FTIR spectra of humin and humic acids showed functional groups similar to those found in the spectra of the aggregates. The high aliphatic character and the absence of aromatic compounds observed in many aggregates sampled far from estuarine areas suggest the marine origin of mucilages. These results were also confirmed by the 270/407 nm (A2/A4) and 465/665 nm (E4/E6) absorbance ratio in humic acids.

  3. Dynamics of particulate organic matter in a coastal system characterized by the occurrence of marine mucilage - A stable isotope study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liénart, Camilla; Susperregui, Nicolas; Rouaud, Vanessa; Cavalheiro, Joana; David, Valérie; Del Amo, Yolanda; Duran, Robert; Lauga, Béatrice; Monperrus, Mathilde; Pigot, Thierry; Bichon, Sabrina; Charlier, Karine; Savoye, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    In coastal systems, particulate organic matter (POM) originates from various autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter sources. Also, some coastal systems are characterized by the occurrence of large amounts of mucilaginous material of biologic origin (i.e. phytoplankton, bacteria), which aggregates and potentially traps other organisms and particles present in the water column. This study focuses on POM origin and spatio-temporal dynamics in the South-East coast of the Bay of Biscay, an area subject to mucilage occurrence. In order to investigate POM quantitative and qualitative (C and N elemental and isotopic ratios) characteristics, sampling was performed over an annual cycle at two sites experiencing different mucilage occurrence and river influence. Contribution of phytoplankton, terrestrial POM and anthropogenic POM to coastal-POM composition was calculated using a three-sources mixing model. Overall, phytoplankton dominated the coastal-POM composition at all seasons, sites and most of the depths (71.6 ± 24.2%). Terrestrial-POM contribution was moderate (22.7 ± 21.8%) and anthropogenic-POM contribution was usually negligible (5.7 ± 7.4%). Both sites mainly exhibited similar vertical and temporal variations in terms of POM origin and dynamics: terrestrial-POM contribution increased with depth and was higher in winter at all depths and in autumn in bottom waters, compared to other seasons. The main differences between both sites were related to the vertical dynamics of the terrestrial contribution to the coastal POM. Horizontal, vertical and temporal variation of POM composition was linked to processes driving the sedimentary hydrodynamics: the river flow, the direction of the river plume and events of sediment resuspension/deposition. During the study period, the mucilage occurred only as flocs (small aggregates). The mucilage was of autochthonous origin and did not trap detectable amount of allochthonous material.

  4. Thermophilic nitrate-reducing microorganisms prevent sulfate reduction in cold marine sediments incubated at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepomnyashchaya, Yana; Rezende, Julia; Hubert, Casey

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen sulphide produced during metabolism of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) is toxic, corrosive and causes detrimental oil reservoir souring. During secondary oil recovery, injecting oil reservoirs with seawater that is rich in sulphate and that also cools high temperature formations provides favourable growth conditions for SRM. Nitrate addition can prevent metabolism of SRM by stimulating nitrate-reducing microorganisms (NRM). The investigations of thermophilic NRM are needed to develop mechanisms to control the metabolism of SRM in high temperature oil field ecosystems. We therefore established a model system consisting of enrichment cultures of cold surface marine sediments from the Baltic Sea (Aarhus Bay) that were incubated at 60°C. Enrichments contained 25 mM nitrate and 40 mM sulphate as potential electron acceptors, and a mixture of the organic substrates acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate (5 mM each) and yeast extract (0.01%) as potential carbon sources and electron donors. Slurries were incubated at 60°C both with and without initial pasteurization at 80°C for 2 hours. In the enrichments containing both nitrate and sulphate, the concentration of nitrate decreased indicating metabolic activity of NRM. After a four-hour lag phase the rate of nitrate reduction increased and the concentration of nitrate dropped to zero after 10 hours of incubation. The concentration of nitrite increased as the reduction of nitrate progressed and reached 16.3 mM after 12 hours, before being consumed and falling to 4.4 mM after 19-day of incubation. No evidence for sulphate reduction was observed in these cultures during the 19-day incubation period. In contrast, the concentration of sulphate decreased up to 50% after one week incubation in controls containing only sulphate but no nitrate. Similar sulfate reduction rates were seen in the pasteurized controls suggesting the presence of heat resistant SRM, whereas nitrate reduction rates were lower in the

  5. Arsenoriboside degradation in marine systems: the use of bacteria culture incubation experiments as model systems.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Elliott G; Maher, William A; Foster, Simon D; Mikac, Katarina M; Krikowa, Frank; Florance, Anthea

    2014-01-01

    Arsenoribosides (as glycerol; phosphate; sulfate and sulfonate) persisted in all bacteria-inoculated cultures irrespective of the source of bacteria (seawater, macro-algae surface) or the culture media used (DIFCO Marine Broth 2216 or novel blended Hormosira banksii tissue-based). This is unlike observations from traditional macro-algae tissue decomposition studies or in nature. In addition known arsenoriboside degradation products such as dimethylarsenoethanol (DMAE), dimethylarsenate (DMA), methylarsenate (MA) and arsenate - As(V) were not detected in any cultures. Consequently, the use of bacterial culture incubation experiments to explain the fate of arsenoribosides in marine systems appears limited as the processes governing arsenoriboside degradation in these experiments appear to be different to those in macro-algae tissue decomposition studies or in nature.

  6. Culturing bias in marine heterotrophic flagellates analyzed through seawater enrichment incubations.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Javier; Balagué, Vanessa; Forn, Irene; Lekunberri, Itziar; Massana, Ramon

    2013-10-01

    The diversity of heterotrophic flagellates is generally based on cultivated strains, on which ultrastructural, physiological, and molecular studies have been performed. However, the relevance of these cultured strains as models of the dominant heterotrophic flagellates in the marine planktonic environment is unclear. In fact, molecular surveys typically recover novel eukaryotic lineages that have refused cultivation so far. This study was designed to directly address the culturing bias in planktonic marine heterotrophic flagellates. Several microcosms were established adding increasing amounts and sources of organic matter to a confined natural microbial community pre-filtered by 3 μm. Growth dynamics were followed by epifluorescence microscopy and showed the expected higher yield of bacteria and heterotrophic flagellates at increased organic matter additions. Moreover, protist diversity analyzed by molecular tools showed a clear substitution in the community, which differed more and more from the initial sample as the organic matter increased. Within this gradient, there was also an increase of sequences related to cultured organisms as well as a decrease in diversity. Culturing bias is partly explained by the use of organic matter in the isolation process, which drives a shift in the community to conditions closer to laboratory cultures. An intensive culturing effort using alternative isolation methods is necessary to allow the access to the missing heterotrophic flagellates that constitute the abundant and active taxa in marine systems.

  7. Calcification response of Pleurochrysis carterae to iron concentrations in batch incubations: implication for the marine biogeochemical cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiang; Sun, Shiyong; Lin, Sen; Shen, Kexuan; Dong, Faqin; Tan, Daoyong; Nie, Xiaoqin; Liu, Mingxue; Wei, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Calcified coccolithophores, a diverse and widely distributed group of marine microalgae, produce biogenic calcite in the form of coccoliths located on the cell surface. Using batch incubations of the coccolithophorid Pleurochrysis carterae, we investigated the responses of this calcification process to iron concentrations by changing the iron supply in the initial culture media from a normal concentration to 1 ppm (parts per million), 5 ppm, and 10 ppm. Time-dependent measurements of cell population, production of inorganic carbon (coccoliths), and organic carbon (organic cellular components) showed that elevated iron supply in the growth medium of P. carterae stimulates carbon sequestration by increasing growth along enhanced photosynthetic activity and calcification. In addition, the acquired time-dependent UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra revealed that iron fertilization-enhanced coccolith calcification is accompanied by a crystalline phase transition from calcite to aragonite or amorphous phase. Our results suggest that iron concentration has a significant influence on the marine carbon cycle of coccolithophores.

  8. Effective extraction of Arabidopsis adherent seed mucilage by ultrasonic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xianhai; Qiao, Lijun; Wu, Ai-Min

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis seed coat is composed of two layers of mucilage, a water-soluble non-adherent outer layer and an adherent inner layer. The non-adherent mucilage can easily be extracted by gentle shaking. However, adherent mucilage is extremely difficult to dissociate from the seed coat. Despite various treatments to extract the adherent mucilage, including EDTA, ammonium oxalate, dilute alkali or acid washes, most of it remains on the seed coat. Here, we show for the first time the extraction of almost all of the adherent mucilage from the Arabidopsis seed coat. Our results demonstrate that ultrasonic treatment was able to extract the adherent mucilage effectively within 20 seconds. Adherent mucilage, like non-adherent mucilage, is mainly composed of rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I). The crystalline cellulose content in adherent mucilage was measured as 3.7 mg g−1 of dry seed. Compared with non-adherent mucilage, the adherent mucilage exhibits relatively stable levels of sugar under various environmental conditions. In all cases, adherent mucilage showed higher levels of sugar than non-adherent mucilage. The cell wall remnant could associate with the adherent mucilage, which could prevent the extraction of the adherent mucilage. Our results show that ultrasonic treatment is an effective method for the quick extraction of Arabidopsis adherent mucilage with little effort. PMID:28091592

  9. Variable effects of maize mucilage on rhizosphere rewetting - a new method to collect mucilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent experiments suggested that the mucilaginous fraction of root exudates may cause water repellency of the rhizosphere. Our objectives were to: 1) investigate whether maize rhizosphere turns hydrophobic; 2) measure the contact angle of mucilage collected from plants growing in wet and dry soils; and 3) find a quantitative relation between rhizosphere rewetting, particle size, soil matric potential and mucilage concentration. Maize plants were grown in sandy soil for five weeks. The soil was then allowed to dry and it was irrigated. The soil water content during irrigation was imaged using neutron radiography. In a parallel experiment, mucilage was collected from brace roots. The contact angle was measured for varying mucilage concentration. Additionally, capillary rise experiments were performed in soils of different particle size and mucilage concentration. We then used a pore-network model in which mucilage was randomly distributed in a cubic lattice. The general idea was that the rewetting of a pore is impeded when the concentration of mucilage on the pore surface [g cm-2] is higher than a given threshold value. The threshold value depended on soil matric potential, pore radius and contact angle. Then, we randomly distributed mucilage in the pore network and we calculated the percolation of water across a cubic lattice for varying soil particle size, mucilage concentration and matric potential. Our results showed that: 1) the rhizosphere stayed temporarily dry after irrigation; 2) in both plants growing in wet and dry soils, mucilage became hydrophobic after drying. Mucilage contact angle increased with mucilage concentration. Interestingly, the contact angle of mucilage from plants growing in dry soil was higher than the one from plants growing in wet soils; 3) water could easily cross the rhizosphere when the mucilage concentration was below a given threshold. In contrast, above a critical mucilage concentration water could not flow through the rhizosphere

  10. Rewetting Rate of Dry Rhizosphere Limited by Mucilage Viscosity and Mucilage Hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, S.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Ahmed, M. A.; Carminati, A.; Kostka, S.

    2014-12-01

    During root water uptake from dry soils, the highly nonlinear relation between hydraulic conductivity and water content as well as the radial root geometry result in steep water potential gradients close to the root surface. The hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere - the interface between root and soil - are one of the most important and least understood components in controlling root water uptake. Previous research using young lupine plants revealed that after irrigation it took 1-2 days for the water content of the dry rhizosphere to increase. How can this delay be explained? Our hypotheses: a) mucilage - a polymeric plant exudate - alters rhizosphere hydraulic properties, b) its hydrophobic moieties make the rhizosphere water repellent when dry, c) mucilage is a highly viscous, gelatinous material, the dryer it gets the more viscous it becomes, d) mucilage viscosity reduces rhizosphere hydraulic conductivity. To test our hypotheses we used mucilage extracted from chia seed as an analogue for root mucilage. We measured: 1) the contact angle between water and pure dry and wet mucilage, dry soil treated with various concentrations of mucilage, 2) mucilage viscosity as function of concentration and shear rate, 3) saturated hydraulic conductivity as function of mucilage concentration, 4) swelling of dry mucilage in water. Finally, to mimic flow of water across the rhizosphere, we measured the capillary rise in soils treated with different mucilage concentrations. The results showed that: 1) dry mucilage has a contact angle >90° while it loses its water repellency when it gets wet, 2) viscosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity can change several orders of magnitude with a small change in mucilage concentration, 3) 1g of dry mucilage absorbs 300g water in its fully swollen state, 4) the swelling rate of mucilage showed an exponential behavior with half time of 5 hours. Capillary rise became slower in soils with higher mucilage concentration, while the final

  11. Rewetting Rate of Dry Rhizosphere Limited by Mucilage Viscosity and Mucilage Hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, Stacey; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Carminati, Andrea; Kostka, Stanley

    2015-04-01

    During root water uptake from dry soils, the highly nonlinear relation between hydraulic conductivity and water content as well as the radial root geometry result in steep water potential gradients close to the root surface. The hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere - the interface between root and soil - are one of the most important and least understood components in controlling root water uptake. Previous research using young lupine plants revealed that after irrigation it took 1-2 days for the water content of the dry rhizosphere to increase. How can this delay be explained? Our hypotheses are that: a) mucilage - a polymeric plant exudate - alters rhizosphere hydraulic properties, b) its hydrophobic moieties make the rhizosphere water repellent when dry, c) mucilage is a highly viscous, gelatinous material, the dryer it gets the more viscous it becomes, d) mucilage viscosity reduces rhizosphere hydraulic conductivity. To test our hypotheses we used mucilage extracted from chia seed as an analogue for root mucilage. We measured: 1) the contact angle between water and pure dry and wet mucilage, dry soil treated with various concentrations of mucilage, 2) mucilage viscosity as function of concentration and shear rate, 3) saturated hydraulic conductivity as function of mucilage concentration, 4) swelling of dry mucilage in water. Finally, to mimic flow of water across the rhizosphere, we measured the capillary rise in soils treated with different mucilage concentrations. The results showed that: 1) dry mucilage has a contact angle > 90° while it loses its water repellency when it gets wet, 2) viscosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity can change several orders of magnitude with a small change in mucilage concentration, 3) 1g of dry mucilage absorbs 300g water in its fully swollen state, 4) the swelling rate of mucilage showed an exponential behavior with half time of 5 hours. Capillary rise became slower in soils with higher mucilage concentration, while the

  12. Organic matter recycling during a mucilage event and its influence on the surrounding environment (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misic, Cristina; Schiaparelli, Stefano; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi

    2011-04-01

    The development of benthic mucilage in the Marine Protected Area of Portofino (Ligurian Sea) during the summer of 2009 was studied to verify the influence of this event on the surrounding environment (seawater and soft-bottom). The calm meteorological and sea conditions at the beginning of the time frame under consideration caused the thermal stratification of the water column. This stratification was one of the driving factors influencing the development of the mucilage, which developed on a large boulder surface above the pycnocline. Mucilage was progressively detached from the boulder surface by hydrodynamism, together with macroalgae, and sank onto the sediment below the thermocline. Increased surface-water movements, caused by meteorological forcing during the study period, influenced the aggregation-disaggregation of mucilage flocks above the thermocline, leading to increased dissolved oxygen concentrations and enhanced production and turnover of the organic matter (OM). Mixing with the adjacent seawater led to the fertilisation of the surrounding environment with potentially labile OM and inorganic phosphorus, which caused increases in the hydrolytic enzymatic activity. Conversely, below the thermocline, the sunken mucilage and algae aggregates supported a heterotrophic consumption system. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were lower than those recorded in the mucilage lying above the thermocline, making more carbohydrates than proteins and labile phosphorus available. Despite the slow oxygenation of this mucilage, it contributed to the food supply for the soft-bottom macrofauna, which showed an increase in density, diversity and biomass during the study. These results suggest that the development and fate of the mucilage, as well as its interactions with the surrounding environment, were principally regulated by physical features. In the oligotrophic coastal area of the Ligurian Sea, certain compartments of the ecosystem were able to promptly respond and take

  13. Ultraviolet radiation affects emission of ozone-depleting substances by marine macroalgae: results from a laboratory incubation study.

    PubMed

    Laturnus, Frank; Svensson, Teresia; Wiencke, Christian; Oberg, Gunilla

    2004-12-15

    The depletion of stratospheric ozone due to the effects of ozone-depleting substances, such as volatile organohalogens, emitted into the atmosphere from industrial and natural sources has increased the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface. Especially in the subpolar and polar regions, where stratospheric ozone destruction is the highest, individual organisms and whole ecosystems can be affected. In a laboratory study, several species of marine macroalgae occurring in the polar and northern temperate regions were exposed to elevated levels of ultraviolet radiation. Most of the macroalgae released significantly more chloroform, bromoform, dibromomethane, and methyl iodide-all volatile organohalogens. Calculating on the basis of the release of total chlorine, bromine, and iodine revealed that, except for two macroalgae emitting chlorine and one alga emitting iodine, exposure to ultraviolet radiation caused macroalgae to emit significantly more total chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Increasing levels of ultraviolet radiation due to possible further destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer as a result of ongoing global atmospheric warming may thus increase the future importance of marine macroalgae as a source for the global occurrence of reactive halogen-containing compounds.

  14. Microbe-mediated transformations of marine dissolved organic matter during 2,100 years of natural incubation in the cold, oxic crust of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah Walter, S. R.; Jaekel, U.; Huber, J. A.; Dittmar, T.; Girguis, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    On the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, oxic seawater from the deep ocean is downwelled into the basaltic crust, supplying the crustal aquifer with an initial inoculum of organic matter and electron acceptors. Studies have shown that fluids circulating within the crust are minimally altered from original seawater, making this subsurface environment a unique natural experiment in which the fate of marine organic matter and the limitations of microbial adaptability in the context of reduced carbon supply can be examined. To make the subsurface crustal aquifer accessible, two CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories have been installed at North Pond, a sediment-filled depression beneath the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea. Radiocarbon analysis of dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) in samples recovered from these observatories show uncoupled aging between DOC and DIC with Δ14C values of DOC as low as -933‰ despite isolation from the open ocean for, at most, 2,100 years. This extreme value is part of a general trend of decreasing DOC δ13C and Δ14C values with increasing incubation time within the aquifer. Combined with reduced concentrations of DOC, our results argue for selective microbial oxidation of the youngest, most 13C-enriched components of downwelled DOC, possibly identifying these as characteristics of the more bioavailable fractions of deep-ocean dissolved organic matter. They also suggest that microbial oxidation during low-temperature hydrothermal circulation could be an important sink for aged marine dissolved organic matter.

  15. Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. On the other hand, after irrigation the rhizosphere remained markedly dry and it rewetted only after one-two days. We hypothesize that: 1) drying/wetting rates of the rhizosphere are controlled by mucilage exuded by roots; 2) mucilage alters the soil hydraulic conductivity: in particular, wet mucilage increases the soil hydraulic conductivity and dry mucilage makes the soil water repellent; 3) mucilage exudation favors root water uptake in dry soil; and 4) dry mucilage limits water loss from roots to dry soils. We used a root pressure probe to measure the hydraulic conductance of artificial roots sitting in soils. As an artificial root we employed a suction cup with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 45 mm. The root pressure probe gave the hydraulic conductance of the soil-root continuum during pulse experiments in which water was injected into or sucked from the soil. First, we performed experiments with roots in a relatively dry soil with a volumetric water content of 0.03. Then, we repeated the experiment with artificial roots covered with mucilage and then placed into the soil. As a model for mucilage, we collected mucilage from Chia seeds. The water contents (including that of mucilage) in the experiments with and without mucilage were equal. The pressure curves were fitted with a model of root water that includes rhizosphere dynamics. We found that the artificial roots covered with wet mucilage took up water more easily. In a second experimental set-up we measured the outflow of water from the artificial roots into dry soils. We compared two soils: 1) a sandy soil and 2) the same soil wetted with mucilage from Chia seeds and then let dry. The latter soil became water repellent. Due to the water repellency, the outflow of water from

  16. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation.

  17. Preparation and characterization of mucilage polysaccharide for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Archana, G; Sabina, K; Babuskin, S; Radhakrishnan, K; Fayidh, Mohammed A; Babu, P Azhagu Saravana; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2013-10-15

    In the present investigation, the polysaccharide/mucilage from waste of Abelmoscus esculentus by modification in hot extraction using two different solvents (Acetone, Methanol) were extracted, characterized and further compared with seaweed polysaccharide for their potential applications. The percentage yield, emulsifying capacity and swelling index of this mucilage were determined. The macro algae and okra waste, gave high % yield (22.2% and 8.6% respectively) and good emulsifying capacity (EC%=52.38% and 54.76% respectively) with acetone, compared to methanol (11.3% and 0.28%; EC%=50%) (PH=7) while swelling index was greater with methanol than acetone extracts respectively. The infrared (I.R.) spectrum of the samples was recorded to investigate the chemical structure of mucilage. Thermal analysis of the mucilage was done with TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) which showed both okra and algal polysaccharide were thermostable hydrogels.

  18. Use of Natural Gums and Mucilages as Pharmaceutical Excipients.

    PubMed

    Hamman, Hannlie; Steenekamp, Jan; Hamman, Josias

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide rich gums and mucilages are produced by different natural sources such as plants, animals and microbial organisms to fulfil structural and physiological functions. Their diverse structural compositions with a broad range of physicochemical properties make them useful for inclusion in dosage forms for different purposes such as to improve manufacturing processes and/or to facilitate drug delivery. A number of natural gums and mucilages have been investigated for inclusion in pharmaceutical formulations for a variety of reasons. The search for new excipients continues to be an active topic in dosage form design and drug delivery research. The aim of this review article is to give an overview of the chemical nature of natural gums and mucilages and to discuss their applications in the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Special emphasis will be placed on the use of gums and mucilages in novel drug delivery systems, such as modified release dosage forms and delivery systems that target specific sites of delivery.

  19. Natural polymers, gums and mucilages as excipients in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shobhit; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Use of natural polymers, gums and mucilages in drug delivery systems has been weighed down by the synthetic materials. Natural based excipients offered advantages such as non-toxicity, less cost and abundantly availablity. Aqueous solubility of natural excipients plays an important role in their selection for designing immediate, controlled or sustained release formulations. This review article provide an overview of natural gum, polymers and mucilages as excipients in dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.

  20. Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Carminati, A.; Kroener, E.; Holz, M.; Zarebanadkouki, M.

    2014-12-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. We hypothesise that the increased water content in the rhizosphere was caused by mucilage exuded by roots. It is probably that the higher water content in the rhizosphere results in higher hydraulic conductivity of the root-soil interface. In this case, mucilage exudation would favour the uptake of water in dry soils. To test this hypothesis, we covered a suction cup, referred to as an artificial root, with mucilage. We placed it in soil with a water content of 0.03 cm3 cm-3, and used the root pressure probe technique to measure the hydraulic conductivity of the root-soil continuum. The results were compared with measurements with roots not covered with mucilage. The root pressure relaxation curves were fitted with a model of root water uptake including rhizosphere dynamics. The results demonstrated that when mucilage is added to the root surface, it keeps the soil near the roots wet and hydraulically well conductive, facilitating the water flow from dry soils towards the root surface. Mucilage exudation seems to be an optimal plant trait that favours the capture of water when water is scarce.

  1. Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Liu, Guangzheng; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-01-01

    The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand burial. In a greenhouse experiment, two types of Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes (intact and demucilaged) were exposed to different combinations of burial depth (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mm) and irrigation regimes (low, medium and high, which simulated the precipitation amount and frequency in May, June and July in the natural habitat, respectively). Seedling emergence increased with increasing irrigation. It was highest at 5 mm sand burial depth and ceased at burial depths greater than 20 mm in all irrigation regimes. Mucilage significantly enhanced seedling emergence at 0, 5 and 10 mm burial depths in low irrigation, at 0 and 5 mm burial depths in medium irrigation and at 0 and 10 mm burial depths in high irrigation. Seed mucilage also reduced seedling mortality at the shallow sand burial depths. Moreover, mucilage significantly affected seedling emergence time and quiescence and dormancy percentages. Our findings suggest that seed mucilage plays an ecologically important role in successful seedling establishment of A. sphaerocephala by improving seedling emergence and reducing seedling mortality in stressful habitats of the sandy desert environment. PMID:22511952

  2. Mechanism of biological liquid superlubricity of Brasenia schreberi mucilage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengxiao; Liu, Yuhong; Yang, Ye; Chen, Zhe; Li, Jinjin; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-04-08

    In the present work, an excellent biological lubricant extracted from an aquatic plant called Brasenia schreberi (B.s) is reported. With a rotary cylinder-on-ring tribometer, the lubrication properties of the B.s mucilage between quartz glass surfaces have been investigated under different rotation velocity, and an ultralow friction coefficient between 0.004 and 0.006 is obtained. It is observed that the ultralow friction coefficient is independent of the rotation speed, when it is less than 0.1 m/s. SEM images indicate that the mucilage surrounding B.s is composed of polysaccharide gels with a layered structure, which are called nanosheets in the following work. Moreover, it can be deduced that the liquid superlubricity is closely related to the B.s mucilage layer absorbed on the quartz glass surface by hydrogen bonds and the superlubricity behavior only occurs when the adsorption layer stably forms between the quartz glass surface and the B.s mucilage. It is also found that superlubricity is closely dependent upon the sheet structure of the B.s mucilage and water molecules in the mucilage. According to these results, a layered nanosheets lubrication mechanism has been revealed, i.e., the ultralow friction coefficient is due to the adsorption layer of polysaccharide on the quartz glass surface and the hydration layers of water molecules bonded on the polysaccharide nanosheets between the sliding surfaces.

  3. “Sticky invasion” – the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata L. seed mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-01-01

    The mucilage envelope of seeds has various functions including the provision of different ways for the dispersal of diaspores. Chemical composition and water content of the mucilage yield particular adhesive and frictional properties in the envelope that also influence the dispersal of seeds. To determine the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata seed mucilage we studied (1) composition, (2) desiccation, (3) adhesion, and (4) friction properties of the mucilage under different hydration conditions. We revealed the presence of cellulose fibrils in the mucilage, which are responsible for a continuous and even distribution of the mucilaginous layer on the seed surface. The measured values of adhesive and frictional properties differed significantly in comparison to the previously studied pectic mucilage of Linum usitatissimum. Also, the water loss from the cellulose mucilage was more rapid. The obtained different values can result from the presence of cellulose fibrils and their interaction with pectins in the mucilage. Because of this feature the mucilage of P. lanceolata may represent a more regularly ordered and stabile system than the pectic mucilage of flax, which lacks cellulose. In spite of the fact that P. lanceolata mucilage revealed different adhesive and frictional properties than the pectic mucilage, it still demonstrates an effective system promoting zoochoric seed dispersal. Cellulose may additionally prevent the mucilage against loss from the seed surface. PMID:28144540

  4. Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future. PMID:27840507

  5. Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future. PMID:27516674

  6. High-pressure systems for gas-phase free continuous incubation of enriched marine microbial communities performing anaerobic oxidation of methane.

    PubMed

    Deusner, Christian; Meyer, Volker; Ferdelman, Timothy G

    2010-02-15

    Novel high-pressure biotechnical systems that were developed and applied for the study of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) are described. The systems, referred to as high-pressure continuous incubation system (HP-CI system) and high-pressure manifold-incubation system (HP-MI system), allow for batch, fed-batch, and continuous gas-phase free incubation at high concentrations of dissolved methane and were designed to meet specific demands for studying environmental regulation and kinetics as well as for enriching microbial biomass in long-term incubation. Anoxic medium is saturated with methane in the first technical stage, and the saturated medium is supplied for biomass incubation in the second stage. Methane can be provided in continuous operation up to 20 MPa and the incubation systems can be operated during constant supply of gas-enriched medium at a hydrostatic pressure up to 45 MPa. To validate the suitability of the high-pressure systems, we present data from continuous and fed-batch incubation of highly active samples prepared from microbial mats from the Black Sea collected at a water depth of 213 m. In continuous operation in the HP-CI system initial methane-dependent sulfide production was enhanced 10- to 15-fold after increasing the methane partial pressure from near ambient pressure of 0.2 to 10.0 MPa at a hydrostatic pressure of 16.0 MPa in the incubation stage. With a hydraulic retention time of 14 h a stable effluent sulfide concentration was reached within less than 3 days and a continuing increase of the volumetric AOM rate from 1.2 to 1.7 mmol L(-1) day(-1) was observed over 14 days. In fed-batch incubation the AOM rate increased from 1.5 to 2.7 and 3.6 mmol L(-1) day(-1) when the concentration of aqueous methane was stepwise increased from 5 to 15 mmol L(-1) and 45 mmol L(-1). A methane partial pressure of 6 MPa and a hydrostatic pressure of 12 MPa in manifold fed-batch incubation in the HP-MI system yielded a sixfold increase in the

  7. Mucilage impact on gorgonians in the Tyrrhenian sea.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, S; Virno Lamberti, C; Sonni, C; Pellegrini, D

    2005-12-15

    The mucilage phenomenon has affected the Tuscan Archipelago since its first appearance (1991) in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean Sea) [Innamorati M, Raddi E, Buzzichelli A, Melley S, Demoulin M. Le mucillaggini nel Mar Tirreno. Biol Mar Suppl Notiz 1992;1:23-26; Sartoni G, Sonni C. Tribonema marinum J. Feldmann e Acinetospora crinita (Carmichael) Sauvageau nelle formazioni mucillaginose bentoniche osservate sulle coste toscane nell'estate 1991. Inf Bot Ital 1991;23:23-30; Sartoni G, Cinelli F, Boddi S. Ruolo di Tribonema marinum J. Feldmann ed Acinetospora crinita (Carmichael) Sauvageau negli aggregati mucillaginosi bentonici delle coste toscane. Biol Mar Suppl Notiz 1993;1:31-34]. Seasonally, these mucous aggregates become very common in the benthic domain. The gorgonians are the most exposed organisms because they provide the best support for mucilage growth; indeed, their long branches positioned in orthogonally with respect to the current so as to capture plankton, also trap the filamentous mucilage present in the water. A 3-year monitoring programme at Capo Calvo (Island of Elba) was carried out in order to study the appearance of the mucilage phenomenon and its impact on three species of gorgonians (Eunicella cavolinii, Eunicella singularis, and Paramuricea clavata). The composition of mucilage and the gorgonian recovery capacity, when damaged, were investigated. During the first year of study (1999), no relevant interactions between gorgonians and mucilages were recorded. Instead, massive presence of mucilages causing different types of damage to the different gorgonian species investigated was recorded during the second (2000) and third year (2001). The type and the extent of the impact of mucilages also depend on the season. Three species of algae (Nematochrysopsis marina, Chrysonephos lewisii and Acinetospora crinita) constitute the principal components of the mucilaginous aggregates. In general, the first two species occur during the spring season

  8. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils.

  9. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    PubMed

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process.

  10. Studies on Ocimum gratissimum seed mucilage: evaluation of binding properties.

    PubMed

    Anroop, B; Ghosh, B; Parcha, V; Vasanti, S

    2006-11-15

    Mucilage extracted from Ocimum gratissimum seeds, inertness and safety parameters established by a previous study was subjected to preformulation trial to assess its suitability as a pharmaceutical binder. Properties of the granules prepared with calcium carbonate using different concentrations of ocimum and compared with acacia (5%, w/w), as standard. Ocimum at 2.3% (w/w) level was found to be comparable with 5% (w/w) of acacia. Effect on drug release studied with paracetamol indicated that ocimum mucilage could be an alternative to acacia.

  11. MUCILAGE-RELATED10 Produces Galactoglucomannan That Maintains Pectin and Cellulose Architecture in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Berger, Adeline; Yang, Bo; Ebert, Berit; Scheller, Henrik V.; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn; Günl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Plants invest a lot of their resources into the production of an extracellular matrix built of polysaccharides. While the composition of the cell wall is relatively well characterized, the functions of the individual polymers and the enzymes that catalyze their biosynthesis remain poorly understood. We exploited the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat epidermis (SCE) to study cell wall synthesis. SCE cells produce mucilage, a specialized secondary wall that is rich in pectin, at a precise stage of development. A coexpression search for MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes identified MUCI10 as a key determinant of mucilage properties. MUCI10 is closely related to a fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) enzyme that has in vitro galactomannan α-1,6-galactosyltransferase activity. Our detailed analysis of the muci10 mutants demonstrates that mucilage contains highly branched galactoglucomannan (GGM) rather than unbranched glucomannan. MUCI10 likely decorates glucomannan, synthesized by CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2, with galactose residues in vivo. The degree of galactosylation is essential for the synthesis of the GGM backbone, the structure of cellulose, mucilage density, as well as the adherence of pectin. We propose that GGM scaffolds control mucilage architecture along with cellulosic rays and show that Arabidopsis SCE cells represent an excellent model in which to study the synthesis and function of GGM. Arabidopsis natural varieties with defects similar to muci10 mutants may reveal additional genes involved in GGM synthesis. Since GGM is the most abundant hemicellulose in the secondary walls of gymnosperms, understanding its biosynthesis may facilitate improvements in the production of valuable commodities from softwoods. PMID:26220953

  12. Mucilage: The hydraulic bridge between roots and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, Andrea; Zarabanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez A. A.

    2014-05-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the soil near the roots, the so called rhizosphere. Ultimately, as the soil hydraulic conductivity drops and the soil cannot sustain the transpiration demand, roots shrink and lose contact to the soil. Both, water depletion in the rhizosphere and formation of air-filled gaps at the root-soil interface potentially limit the availability of water to plants. How can plants overcome these potential hydraulic barriers at the root-soil interface? One strategy consists in the exudation of mucilage from the root tips. Mucilage is a polymeric gel that is capable of holding large volumes of water. When exuded into the soil, mucilage remains in the vicinity of roots thanks to its relatively high viscosity and reduced surface tension. As mucilage is mainly made of water, its slow penetration into the soil results in higher water content and hydraulic conductivity of the rhizosphere compared to the adjacent bulk soil. Recent measurements with a root pressure probe technique demonstrated that mucilage exudation facilitates the water flow in dry soils. Additionally, mucilage increases the adhesion of soil particles to the roots, reducing the formation of gaps at the root-soil interface. Based on these observations, it is very tempting to conclude that mucilage acts as an optimal hydraulic bridge across the root-soil interface. However, as mucilage dries and ages, it turns hydrophobic. Consequently, the rhizosphere becomes water repellent and its rewetting time increases. Our former experiments showed that after irrigation subsequent to a drying cycle, the rhizosphere of lupines remained markedly dry for 2 days. Recently, we demonstrated that the rhizosphere water repellency is concomitant with a decrease in local water uptake of 4-8 times. We conclude that after drying and rewetting, the rhzisophere temporarily limits root water uptake. In summary, the hydraulic properties of the root

  13. Extensive Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage Structure

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Zimmermann, Eva; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Günl, Markus; Fu, Lanbao; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Hydrated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds are coated by a gelatinous layer called mucilage, which is mainly composed of cell wall polysaccharides. Since mucilage is rich in pectin, its architecture can be visualized with the ruthenium red (RR) dye. We screened the seeds of around 280 Arabidopsis natural accessions for variation in mucilage structure, and identified a large number of novel variants that differed from the Col-0 wild-type. Most of the accessions released smaller RR-stained capsules compared to the Col-0 reference. By biochemically characterizing the phenotypes of 25 of these accessions in greater detail, we discovered that distinct changes in polysaccharide structure resulted in gelatinous coatings with a deceptively similar appearance. Monosaccharide composition analysis of total mucilage extracts revealed a remarkable variation (from 50 to 200% of Col-0 levels) in the content of galactose and mannose, which are important subunits of heteromannan. In addition, most of the natural variants had altered Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4B staining of cellulose and significantly reduced birefringence of crystalline structures. This indicates that the production or organization of cellulose may be affected by the presence of different amounts of hemicellulose. Although, the accessions described in this study were primarily collected from Western Europe, they form five different phenotypic classes based on the combined results of our experiments. This suggests that polymorphisms at multiple loci are likely responsible for the observed mucilage structure. The transcription of MUCILAGE-RELATED10 (MUCI10), which encodes a key enzyme for galactoglucomannan synthesis, was severely reduced in multiple variants that phenocopied the muci10-1 insertion mutant. Although, we could not pinpoint any causal polymorphisms in this gene, constitutive expression of fluorescently-tagged MUCI10 proteins complemented the mucilage defects of a muci10-like accession. This leads us to

  14. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  15. Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, Eva; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is controlled by the properties of the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the rhizosphere. In particular, the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere are altered by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by the roots. In this paper we present experimental results and a conceptual model of water flow in unsaturated soils mixed with mucilage. A central hypothesis of the model is that the different drying/wetting rate of mucilage compared to the bulk soil results in nonequilibrium relations between water content and water potential in the rhizosphere. We coupled this nonequilibrium relation with the Richards equation and obtained a constitutive equation for water flow in soil and mucilage. To test the model assumptions, we measured the water retention curve and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil mixed with mucilage from chia seeds. Additionally, we used neutron radiography to image water content in a layer of soil mixed with mucilage during drying and wetting cycles. The radiographs demonstrated the occurrence of nonequilibrium water dynamics in the soil-mucilage mixture. The experiments were simulated by numerically solving the nonequilibrium model. Our study provides conceptual and experimental evidences that mucilage has a strong impact on soil water dynamics. During drying, mucilage maintains a greater soil water content for an extended time, while during irrigation it delays the soil rewetting. We postulate that mucilage exudation by roots attenuates plant water stress by modulating water content dynamics in the rhizosphere.

  16. Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw cladode mucilage: Physico-chemical, rheological and functional behavior.

    PubMed

    Kalegowda, Pavithra; Chauhan, Attar Singh; Nanjaraj Urs, Shashirekha Mysore

    2017-02-10

    The yield of mucilage extracted from cladodes of Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw in aqueous medium was 6.2%. The neutral sugar comprised of arabinose (38.80%), galactose (33.00%), rhamnose (15.70%), xylose (5.10%), and glucose (5.10%). The mucilage showed pseudo plastic behavior with good swelling index (20%), water holding capacity (g water/g dry sample; 4±0.10) and micrometric properties. In addition, mucilage presented intrinsic viscosity of 3.7 dL/g with average molecular weight of 1.9×10(3)kDa. The FTIR and NMR spectra of extracted mucilage showed characteristic polysaccharide nature. Further, the mucilage exhibited anti-obesity property through lipase inhibition. These findings could highlight that isolated mucilage could be exploited as an additive in food and pharmaceutical sector.

  17. Mimosa pudica seed mucilage: isolation; characterization and evaluation as tablet disintegrant and binder.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Munish; Kumar, Ashok; Yadav, Parvinder; Singh, Kuldeep

    2013-06-01

    In the present study Mimosa pudica seed mucilage was isolated, characterized and evaluated as tablet binder and disintegrant. Several properties of mucilage like high swelling index and gelling nature prompted us to explore its applications as disintegrating and binding agent. Disintegrant properties were evaluated by formulating directly compressed hydrochlorothiazide tablets containing 1%-10% (w/w) of seed mucilage as disintegrant and compared with the standard disintegrants. The disintegration time of mucilage containing tablets was found to be in the order of 3%>1%>5%>7.5%>10%. On comparative evaluation with standard disintegrants, it was observed that the order of disintegration of tablets was Ac-Di-Sol<mucilage (3%, w/w)mucilage were evaluated by formulating the paracetamol tablets using the Mimosa mucilage at 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w) concentration as the binder and compared with tablets prepared using PVP-K25 (1.7%, w/w) and acacia (6.8%, w/w) as the binder. Mimosa mucilage at 10% (w/w) concentration provided tablets with adequate hardness and friability. In conclusion, M. pudica seed mucilage is a potential tablet disintegrant and binder.

  18. Comparative studies of mucilage cells in different organs in some species of Malva, Althaea and Alcea.

    PubMed

    Pakravan, M; Abedinzadeh, H; Safaeepur, J

    2007-08-01

    Distribution of Mucilage Cells (MC) in leaves and petals of two species of Malva L. : Malva neglecta Wallr and M. nicaeensis All, one species of Altheae L.: A. officinalis L. and one species of Alcea L: A. angulata (Freyn and Sint.) Freyn and Sint. ex Iljin, have studied. Except ofA. angulata that mucilage cells observed both in epidermis and mesophyll of leaves, in the others mucilage cells confined to epidermis cells. All of species have mucilage cells in the petals. The area of the mucilaginous elements in the leaves and petals of species determined planimetrically on definite cross-sections was studied as a comparative element to the mucilage content determined by extracting the raw mucilage by Hot Extraction Method (HEM) and then by comparing the dry weight, comparison between species was done. A correlation between the greater area of the mucilaginous elements and the mucilage content measured by methods mentioned was shown, basing on different microscopic examination of cross-sections of the organs fixed and stained with ruthenium red. The results were shown that mucilage content in the leaves of Malva neglecta was more than the others and mucilage content in petals of Malva neglecta was more than the others.

  19. Optimization of taro mucilage and fat levels in sliced breads.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Carina Lumie Pereira; Andrade, Luan Alberto; Pereira, Joelma

    2015-09-01

    Bread is one of the most commonly consumed foods, and much ongoing research is aimed at meeting the demand for higher quality bread products in terms of greater volume and softness with characteristic flavor, aroma and color. The goal of the present study was to optimize the amounts of lyophilized taro mucilage and hydrogenated vegetable fat added to sliced bread formulations to improve the physical characteristics of the bread while reducing lipid levels and maintaining good sensorial quality. For the analysis, a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used for the two factors, resulting in 11 total experiments. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses were performed. Breads containing taro mucilage were soft and exhibited good sensorial quality. Optimal amounts of the two factors studied were determined using response surface methodology to produce breads with greater specific volume, higher bread-making quality, and lower fat levels than current formulations. The optimal levels of lyophilized taro mucilage and hydrogenated vegetable fat in the sliced bread formulation were 0.73 g 100 g(-1) and 1.58 g 100 g(-1), respectively.

  20. A laboratory-incubated redox oscillation experiment to investigate Hg fluxes from highly contaminated coastal marine sediments (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Emili, A; Carrasco, L; Acquavita, A; Covelli, S

    2014-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) mobility at the sediment-water interface was investigated during a laboratory incubation experiment conducted with highly contaminated sediments (13 μg g(-1)) of the Gulf of Trieste. Undisturbed sediment was collected in front of the Isonzo River mouth, which inflows Hg-rich suspended material originating from the Idrija (NW Slovenia) mining district. Since hypoxic and anoxic conditions at the bottom are frequently observed and can influence the Hg biogeochemical behavior, a redox oscillation was simulated in the laboratory, at in situ temperature, using a dark flux chamber. Temporal variations of several parameters were monitored simultaneously: dissolved Hg (DHg) and methylmercury (MeHg), O2, NH4 (+), NO3 (-) + NO2 (-), PO4 (3-), H2S, dissolved Mn(2+), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC). Under anoxic conditions, both Hg (665 ng m(2) day(-1)) and MeHg (550 ng m(2) day(-1)) fluxed from sediments into the water column, whereas re-oxygenation caused concentrations of MeHg and Hg to rapidly drop, probably due to re-adsorption onto Fe/Mn-oxyhydroxides and enhanced demethylation processes. Hence, during anoxic events, sediments of the Gulf of Trieste may be considered as an important source of DHg species for the water column. On the contrary, re-oxygenation of the bottom compartment mitigates Hg and MeHg release from the sediment, thus acting as a natural "defence" from possible interaction between the metal and the aquatic organisms.

  1. Identification and Characterization of Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Proteins1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun; Kunieda, Tadashi; Rogalski, Jason; Foster, Leonard J.; Ellis, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    Plant cell wall proteins are important regulators of cell wall architecture and function. However, because cell wall proteins are difficult to extract and analyze, they are generally poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of proteins integral to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat mucilage, a specialized layer of the extracellular matrix composed of plant cell wall carbohydrates that is used as a model for cell wall research. The proteins identified in mucilage include those previously identified by genetic analysis, and several mucilage proteins are reduced in mucilage-deficient mutant seeds, suggesting that these proteins are genuinely associated with the mucilage. Arabidopsis mucilage has both nonadherent and adherent layers. Both layers have similar protein profiles except for proteins involved in lipid metabolism, which are present exclusively in the adherent mucilage. The most abundant mucilage proteins include a family of proteins named TESTA ABUNDANT1 (TBA1) to TBA3; a less abundant fourth homolog was named TBA-LIKE (TBAL). TBA and TBAL transcripts and promoter activities were detected in developing seed coats, and their expression requires seed coat differentiation regulators. TBA proteins are secreted to the mucilage pocket during differentiation. Although reverse genetics failed to identify a function for TBAs/TBAL, the TBA promoters are highly expressed and cell type specific and so should be very useful tools for targeting proteins to the seed coat epidermis. Altogether, these results highlight the mucilage proteome as a model for cell walls in general, as it shares similarities with other cell wall proteomes while also containing mucilage-specific features. PMID:28003327

  2. Viruses and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, R; Armeni, M; Corinaldesi, C; Mei, M L

    2003-03-01

    This short review summarises the present knowledge on pollutant impacts on marine viruses, virus-host systems and their potential ecological implications. Excess nutrients from sewage and river effluents are a primary cause of marine eutrophication and mucilage formation, often related to the development of large viral assemblages. At the same time, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides alter ecosystem functioning and can determinate changes in the virus-host interactions, thus increasing the potential of viral infection. All these pollutants might have synergistic effects on the virus-host system and are able to induce prophage, thus increasing the impact of viruses on marine ecosystems.

  3. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable.

  4. Mucilage processing and secretion in the green alga closterium. I. Cytology and biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Domozych, C.R.; Plante, K.; Blais, P.; Paliulis, L.; Domozych, D.S. )

    1993-10-01

    Placoderm desmids (Conjugales, Chlorophyta) such as Closterium exhibit a gliding locomotory behavior. This results from the forceful extrusion of an acidic polysaccharide from one pole of the cell causing the cell to glide in the opposite direction. A biochemical and cytological analysis of gliding behavior was performed. The mucilage is a high molecular weight polysaccharide rich in glucuronic acid and fucose. Under normal growth conditions, 3 [mu]g of mucilage is produced per cell in 30 days. Mucilage production increased 3-4 fold in cells challenged with low phosphate or nitrate conditions. A polyclonal antibody was raised against the mucilage and used in immunofluorescence studies. These results show that upon contact with another object Closterium aligns itself parallel to that object by a [open quotes]jack-knife[close quotes] motion. Subsequently, large amounts of mucilage are released to form elongate tubes enmeshing the cell with that object. In post-cytokinetic phases of the cell cycle, mucilage is extruded only through the pole of the developing semi-cell. Chlorotetracyclene-labeling of mucilage-secreting cells show a correlation between calcium-rich loci on the cell surface and sites of mucilage release. 20 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Addition of chia seed mucilage for reduction of fat content in bread and cakes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes

    2017-07-15

    In this study, breads and chocolate cakes were prepared with different levels of chia mucilage dried at 50°C or lyophilized as fat, resulting in healthier products. Results indicated that breads and chocolate cakes made with chia mucilage can replace up to 50% of fat without affecting the technological and physical characteristics. The replacement of 75% of fat, for both types of mucilage, had a significant reduction in fat content of 56.6% in breads and 51.6% in cakes, producing a slight decrease in the technological characteristics of the products. Sensorial parameters showed good acceptability, with greater purchase intent for both products when added with chia mucilage dried at 50°C. Therefore, chia mucilage proved to be a new alternative for replacing fat in food products, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods.

  6. Rural Incubator Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.

    This profile summarizes the responses of 20 managers of rural business incubators, reporting on their operations, entry and exit policies, facility promotion, service arrangements and economic development outcomes. Incubators assist small businesses in the early stages of growth by providing them with rental space, shared services, management and…

  7. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated.

  8. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  9. Highly Branched Xylan Made by IRREGULAR XYLEM14 and MUCILAGE-RELATED21 Links Mucilage to Arabidopsis Seeds1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Günl, Markus; Usadel, Björn

    2015-01-01

    All cells of terrestrial plants are fortified by walls composed of crystalline cellulose microfibrils and a variety of matrix polymers. Xylans are the second most abundant type of polysaccharides on Earth. Previous studies of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) irregular xylem (irx) mutants, with collapsed xylem vessels and dwarfed stature, highlighted the importance of this cell wall component and revealed multiple players required for its synthesis. Nevertheless, xylan elongation and substitution are complex processes that remain poorly understood. Recently, seed coat epidermal cells were shown to provide an excellent system for deciphering hemicellulose production. Using a coexpression and sequence-based strategy, we predicted several MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes that encode glycosyltransferases (GTs) involved in the production of xylan. We now show that MUCI21, a member of an uncharacterized clade of the GT61 family, and IRX14 (GT43 protein) are essential for the synthesis of highly branched xylan in seed coat epidermal cells. Our results reveal that xylan is the most abundant xylose-rich component in Arabidopsis seed mucilage and is required to maintain its architecture. Characterization of muci21 and irx14 single and double mutants indicates that MUCI21 is a Golgi-localized protein that likely facilitates the addition of xylose residues directly to the xylan backbone. These unique branches seem to be necessary for pectin attachment to the seed surface, while the xylan backbone maintains cellulose distribution. Evaluation of muci21 and irx14 alongside mutants that disrupt other wall components suggests that mucilage adherence is maintained by complex interactions between several polymers: cellulose, xylans, pectins, and glycoproteins. PMID:26482889

  10. Formulation and Characterization of Oral Mucoadhesive Chlorhexidine Tablets Using Cordia myxa Mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Aghel, Nasrin; Adelpour, Akram

    2012-01-01

    Background The dilution and rapid elimination of topically applied drugs due to the flushing action of saliva is a major difficulty in the effort to eradicate infections of oral cavity. Utilization a proper delivery system for incorporation of drugs has a major impact on drug delivery and such a system should be formulated for prolonged drug retention in oral cavity. Objectives The aim of the present study was the use of mucilage of Cordia myxa as a mucoadhesive material in production of chlorhexidine buccal tablets and its substitution for synthetic polymers such as HPMC. Materials and Methods The influence of mucilage concentration on the physicochemical responses (hardness, friability, disintegration time, dissolution, swelling, and muco-adhesiveness strength) was studied and swelling of mucilage and HPMC were compared. The evaluated responses included pharmacopoeial characteristics of tablets, the force needed to separate tablets from mucosa, and the amount of water absorbed by tablets. Results In comparison to HPMC, the rise of mucilage concentration in the formulations increased disintegration time, drug dissolution rate, and reduced MDT. Also, compared to 30% HPMC, muco-adhesiveness strength of buccal tablets containing 20% mucilage was significantly higher. Conclusions It can be concluded that the presence of Cordia myxa powdered mucilage may significantly affect the tablet characteristics, and increasing in muco-adhesiveness may be achieved by using 20% w/w mucilage. PMID:24624170

  11. PME58 plays a role in pectin distribution during seed coat mucilage extrusion through homogalacturonan modification

    PubMed Central

    Turbant, Amélie; Fournet, Françoise; Lequart, Michelle; Zabijak, Luciane; Pageau, Karine; Bouton, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Pectins are major components of plant primary cell walls. They include homogalacturonans (HGs), which are the most abundant pectin and can be the target of apoplastic enzymes like pectin methylesterases (PMEs) that control their methylesterification level. Several PMEs are expressed in the seed coat of Arabidopsis thaliana, particularly in mucilage secretory cells (MSCs). On the basis of public transcriptomic data, seven PME genes were selected and checked for their seed-specific expression by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Of these, PME58 presented the highest level of expression and was specifically expressed in MSCs at the early stages of seed development. pme58 mutants presented two discrete phenotypes: (i) their adherent mucilage was less stained by ruthenium red when compared to wild-type seeds, but only in the presence of EDTA, a Ca2+ chelator; and (ii) the MSC surface area was decreased. These phenotypes are the consequence of an increase in the degree of HG methylesterification connected to a decrease in PME activity. Analysis of the sugar composition of soluble and adherent mucilage showed that, in the presence of EDTA, sugars of adherent mucilage were more readily extracted in pme58 mutants. Immunolabelling with LM19, an antibody that preferentially recognizes unesterified HGs, also showed that molecular interactions with HGs were modified in the adherent mucilage of pme58 mutants, suggesting a role of PME58 in mucilage structure and organization. In conclusion, PME58 is the first PME identified to play a direct role in seed mucilage structure. PMID:26895630

  12. Slippery when sticky: Lubricating properties of thin films of Taxus baccata aril mucilage.

    PubMed

    Røn, Troels; Rishikesan, Sankaranarayanan; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-03-22

    Mucilage is hydrogel produced from succulent plants and microorganisms displaying unique adhesiveness and slipperiness simultaneously. The objective of this study is to establish an understanding on the lubricating mechanisms of the mucilage from Taxus baccata aril as thin, viscous lubricant films. Oscillation and flow rheological studies revealed that T. baccata mucilage is shear-thinning, thixotropic, and weak hydrogel that is highly stretchable under shear stress due to its high density physical crosslinking characteristics. In addition, T. baccata mucilage showed a distinct Weissenberg effect, i.e., increasing normal force with increasing shear rate, and thus it contributes to deplete the lubricant from tribological interfaces. Lubrication studies with a number of tribopairs with varying mechanical properties and surface wettability have shown that the lubricity of T. baccata mucilage is most effectively manifested at soft, hydrophilic, and rolling tribological contacts. Based on tenacious spreading on highly wetting surfaces, slip plane can be formed within mucilage hydrogel network even when the lubricating films cannot completely separate the opposing surfaces. Moreover, highly stretchable characteristics of mucilage under high shear enhance smooth shearing of two opposing surfaces as lubricating film.

  13. Evolution of Incubation Models: Evidence from the Italian Incubation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandi, Alessandro; Grimaldi, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of incubators in supporting new venture creation. A mapping of four different types of incubator is proposed: corporate private incubators (CPIs), independent private incubators (IPIs), business innovation centres (BICs) and university business incubators (UBIs). This mapping is exemplified through case studies of one…

  14. Distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere: combining 14C imaging with neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Maire; Carminati, Andrea; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Water and nutrients will be the major factors limiting food production in future. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to limited soil resources. Low molecular weight organic substances released by roots into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability by interactions with microorganisms, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. Though composition and quality of these substances have intensively been investigated, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging depending on drought stress. Plants were grown in rhizotrons well suited for neutron radiography and 14C imaging. Plants were exposed to various soil water contents experiencing different levels of drought stress. The water content in the rhizosphere was imaged during several drying/wetting cycles by neutron radiography. The radiographs taken a few hours after irrigation showed a wet region around the root tips showing the allocation and distribution of mucilage. The increased water content in the rhizosphere of the young root segments was related to mucilage concentrations by parameterization described in Kroener et al. (2014). In parallel 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) showed distribution of rhizodeposits including mucilage. Three days after setting the water content, plants were labeled in 14CO2 atmosphere. Two days later 14C distribution in soil was imaged by placing a phosphor-imaging plate on the rhizobox. To quantify rhizodeposition, 14C activity on the image was related to the absolute 14C activity in the soil and root after destructive sampling. By comparing the amounts of mucilage (neutron radiography) with the amount of total root derived C (14C imaging), we were able to differentiate between mucilage and root

  15. Degradation of seed mucilage by soil microflora promotes early seedling growth of a desert sand dune plant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Zhang, Wenhao; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-05-01

    In contrast to the extensive understanding of seed mucilage biosynthesis, much less is known about how mucilage is biodegraded and what role it plays in the soil where seeds germinate. We studied seed mucilage biodegradation by a natural microbial community. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) was used to determine monosaccharide composition in achene mucilage of Artemisia sphaerocephala. Mucilage degradation by the soil microbial community from natural habitats was examined by monosaccharide utilization tests using Biolog plates, chemical assays and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Glucose (29.4%), mannose (20.3%) and arabinose (19.5%) were found to be the main components of achene mucilage. The mucilage was biodegraded to CO(2) and soluble sugars, and an increase in soil microbial biomass was observed during biodegradation. Fluorescence microscopy showed the presence of mucilage (or its derivatives) in seedling tissues after growth with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled mucilage. The biodegradation also promoted early seedling growth in barren sand dunes, which was associated with a large soil microbial community that supplies substances promoting seedling establishment. We conclude that biodegradation of seed mucilage can play an ecologically important role in the life cycles of plants especially in harsh desert environments to which A. sphaerocephala is well-adapted.

  16. Incubation of NASA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Richard

    1996-03-01

    Traditionally, government agencies have sought to transfer technology by licensing to large corporations. An alternative route to commercialization is through the entrepreneurial process: using government technology to assist new businesses in the environment of a business incubator. The NASA Ames Technology Commercialization Center, in Sunnyvale, California, is a business incubator used to commercialize NASA technology. In operation almost two years, it has helped twenty new, high technology ventures. Ice Management Systems is one of these. The Center is funded by NASA and operated by IC2, a think-tank associated with the University of Texas at Austin.

  17. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, S. S.; Katare, Y. S.; Shyale, S. S.; Bhujbal, S. S.; Kadam, S. D.; Landge, D. A.; Shah, D. V.; Pawar, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae) has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpox, and measles. Reports have indicated that mucilage of the leaves of the plant is edible and nontoxic; hence, the present study is an attempt of isolation and evaluation of mucilage obtained from leaves of Adansonia digitata as suspending agent. Various physicochemical as well as suspending agent properties of mucilage were studied. Mucilage obtained from leaves has shown comparable results with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose. PMID:26709363

  18. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, S S; Katare, Y S; Shyale, S S; Bhujbal, S S; Kadam, S D; Landge, D A; Shah, D V; Pawar, J B

    2013-01-01

    Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae) has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpox, and measles. Reports have indicated that mucilage of the leaves of the plant is edible and nontoxic; hence, the present study is an attempt of isolation and evaluation of mucilage obtained from leaves of Adansonia digitata as suspending agent. Various physicochemical as well as suspending agent properties of mucilage were studied. Mucilage obtained from leaves has shown comparable results with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose.

  19. The involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells, we have cytochemically localized the enzyme in columella and peripheral cells of root caps of Zea mays. Glucose-6-phosphatase is associated with the plasmalemma and cell wall of columella cells. As columella cells differentiate into peripheral cells and begin to produce and secrete mucilage, glucose-6-phosphatase staining intensifies and becomes associated with the mucilage and, to a lesser extent, the cell wall. Cells being sloughed from the cap are characterized by glucose-6-phosphatase staining being associated with the vacuole and plasmalemma. These changes in enzyme localization during cellular differentiation in root caps suggest that glucose-6-phosphatase is involved in the production and/or secretion of mucilage by peripheral cells of Z. mays.

  20. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

    2010-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  1. Rheological and physical properties of spray-dried mucilage obtained from Hylocereus undatus cladodes.

    PubMed

    García-Cruz, E E; Rodríguez-Ramírez, J; Méndez Lagunas, L L; Medina-Torres, L

    2013-01-02

    This study examines the rheological behavior of reconstituted spray-dried mucilage isolated from the cladodes of pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus), the effects of concentration and its relationship with physical properties were analyzed in reconstituted solutions. Drying process optimization was carried out through the surface response method, utilizing a factorial 2(3) design with three central points, in order to evaluate yield and rheological properties. The reconstituted mucilage exhibited non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior, which adequately fit the Cross model (R(2)>0.95). This dynamic response suggests a random coil configuration. The steady-shear viscosity and dynamic response are suitably correlated through the Cox-Merz rule, confirming the mucilage's stability of flow. Analysis of the physical properties of the mucilage (Tg, DTP, and particle morphology) explains the shear-thinning behavior.

  2. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  3. Combining Ferric Salt and Cactus Mucilage for Arsenic Removal from Water.

    PubMed

    Fox, Dawn I; Stebbins, Daniela M; Alcantar, Norma A

    2016-03-01

    New methods to remediate arsenic-contaminated water continue to be studied, particularly to fill the need for accessible methods that can significantly impact developing communities. A combination of cactus mucilage and ferric (Fe(III)) salt was investigated as a flocculation-coagulation system to remove arsenic (As) from water. As(V) solutions, ferric nitrate, and mucilage suspensions were mixed and left to stand for various periods of time. Visual and SEM observations confirmed the flocculation action of the mucilage as visible flocs formed and settled to the bottom of the tubes within 3 min. The colloidal suspensions without mucilage were stable for up to 1 week. Sample aliquots were tested for dissolved and total arsenic by ICP-MS and HGAFS. Mucilage treatment improved As removal (over Fe(III)-only treatment); the system removed 75-96% As in 30 min. At neutral pH, removal was dependent on Fe(III) and mucilage concentration and the age of the Fe(III) solution. The process is fast, achieving maximum removal in 30 min, with the majority of As removed in 10-15 min. Standard jar tests with 1000 μg/L As(III) showed that arsenic removal and settling rates were pH-dependent; As removal was between 52% (high pH) and 66% (low pH).

  4. Relevance of the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax fragilis in mucilage formations of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Cangini, Monica; Totti, Cecilia; Urbani, Ranieri; Guerrini, Franca; Romagnoli, Tiziana; Sist, Paola; Palamidesi, Simona; Boni, Laurita; Pompei, Marinella

    2005-12-15

    Oceanographic cruises were carried out monthly from June 1999 to July 2002 to follow the mucilage formation process in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Results show that in correspondence with these events the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax fragilis (Schütt) Kofoid was observed both in the water column and within mucilage aggregates. In the water column, increasing abundances were observed from May until July, with values never exceeding 8500 cells l(-1). Much higher densities were observed within superficial gelatinous aggregates (22800-3400000 cells l(-1)). In mucilage samples, a large number of decomposing cells were present, together with abundant alive cells, enveloped in exudates. G. fragilis isolated from mucilage samples was cultured in three different culture media; it was characterized by a low growth rate but it produced a high amount of polysaccharides. The highest yield both in terms of cell number and carbohydrate production was observed in the medium having the highest nitrogen and phosphorus content and the lowest N/P ratio. The monomeric composition of G. fragilis carbohydrates, compared with that of mucilage samples, showed that in both natural and cultured samples galactose was the most abundant sugar; in addition, an overall good correlation, especially between the monomeric carbohydrate composition of G. fragilis grown in f/2 medium and that of a mucilage sample in which this species was present in high density, was observed.

  5. Xylan synthesized by Irregular Xylem 14 (IRX14) maintains the structure of seed coat mucilage in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ruibo; Li, Junling; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xun; Yang, Xuanwen; Tang, Qi; He, Guo; Zhou, Gongke; Kong, Yingzhen

    2016-01-01

    During differentiation, the Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells synthesize and secrete large quantities of pectinaceous mucilage into the apoplast, which is then released to encapsulate the seed upon imbibition. In this study, we showed that mutation in Irregular Xylem 14 (IRX14) led to a mucilage cohesiveness defect due to a reduced xylan content. Expression of IRX14 was detected specifically in the seed coat epidermal cells, reaching peak expression at 13 days post-anthesis (DPA) when the accumulation of mucilage polysaccharides has ceased. Sectioning of the irx14-1 seed coat revealed no visible structural change in mucilage secretory cell morphology. Although the total amount of mucilage was comparable with the wild type (WT), the partition between water-soluble and adherent layers was significantly altered in irx14-1, with redistribution from the adherent layer to the water-soluble layer. The monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that xylose content was significantly reduced in irx14-1 water-soluble and adherent mucilage compared with the WT. The macromolecular characteristics of the water-soluble mucilage were modified in irx14-1 with a loss of the larger polymeric components. In accordance, glycome profiling and dot immunoblotting of seed mucilage using antibodies specific for rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) and xylan confirmed the ultra-structural alterations in the irx14-1 mucilage. Meanwhile, the crystalline cellulose content was reduced in the irx14-1 mucilage. These results demonstrated that IRX14 was required for the biosynthesis of seed mucilage xylan, which plays an essential role in maintaining mucilage architecture potentially through altering the crystallization and organization of cellulose. PMID:26834178

  6. Spatiotemporal Secretion of PEROXIDASE36 Is Required for Seed Coat Mucilage Extrusion in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Kunieda, Tadashi; Shimada, Tomoo; Kondo, Maki; Nishimura, Mikio; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal cells of the Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat, which correspond to the second layer of the outer integument (oi2), contain large quantities of a pectic polysaccharide called mucilage within the apoplastic space beneath the outer periclinal cell wall. Immediately after seed imbibition, the mucilage is extruded and completely envelops the seed in a gel-like capsule. We found that a class III peroxidase family protein, PEROXIDASE36 (PER36), functions as a mucilage extrusion factor. Expression of PER36 occurred only in oi2 cells for a few days around the torpedo stage. A PER36–green fluorescent protein fusion was secreted into the outer cell wall in a polarized manner. per36 mutants were defective in mucilage extrusion after seed imbibition due to the failure of outer cell wall rupture, although the mutants exhibited normal monosaccharide composition of the mucilage. This abnormal phenotype of per36 was rescued by pectin solubilization, which promoted cell wall loosening. These results suggest that PER36 regulates the degradation of the outer cell wall. Taken together, this work indicates that polarized secretion of PER36 in a developmental stage-dependent manner plays a role in cell wall modification of oi2 cells. PMID:23572548

  7. Isolation and characterization of jackfruit mucilage and its comparative evaluation as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vidya; Patel, Vandana; Paranjape, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present research work was to extract jackfruit mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent, and to develop extended release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Materials and Methods: The mucilage was isolated from the jackfruit pulp by the aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. Three batches of tablets were prepared (wet granulation method) and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components: Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P, and isolated jackfruit mucilage using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug and changing the proportion of the mucoadhesive component (1:2:3), resulting in nine different formulations. Results: The results of the study indicate that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics, granules and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications, and in vitro release studies showed the sustained action of drug with increasing concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that changing the mucoadhesive component, permeability behavior was not statistically different (P > 0.05). FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and jackfruit mucilage. Conclusion: The developed mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing natural mucilage (MF3) have a potential for the sustained action of drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release were successfully developed using natural jackfruit mucilage. PMID:23119234

  8. Influence of electrical fields and asymmetric application of mucilage on curvature of primary roots of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Marcum, H; Moore, R

    1990-04-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent growing in an electric field curve towards the anode. Roots treated with EDTA and growing in electric field do not curve. When root cap mucilage is applied asymmetrically to tips of vertically-oriented roots, the roots curve toward the mucilage. Roots treated with EDTA curve toward the side receiving mucilage and toward blocks containing 10 mM CaCl2, but not toward "empty" agar blocks or the cut surfaces of severed root tips. These results suggest that 1) free calcium (Ca) is necessary for root electrotropism, 2) mucilage contains effector(s) that induce gravitropiclike curvature, and 3) mucilage can replace gravitropic effectors chelated by EDTA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the downward movement of gravitropic effectors to the lower sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots occurs at least partially in the apoplast.

  9. Influence of electrical fields and asymmetric application of mucilage on curvature of primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcum, H.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent growing in an electric field curve towards the anode. Roots treated with EDTA and growing in electric field do not curve. When root cap mucilage is applied asymmetrically to tips of vertically-oriented roots, the roots curve toward the mucilage. Roots treated with EDTA curve toward the side receiving mucilage and toward blocks containing 10 mM CaCl2, but not toward "empty" agar blocks or the cut surfaces of severed root tips. These results suggest that 1) free calcium (Ca) is necessary for root electrotropism, 2) mucilage contains effector(s) that induce gravitropiclike curvature, and 3) mucilage can replace gravitropic effectors chelated by EDTA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the downward movement of gravitropic effectors to the lower sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots occurs at least partially in the apoplast.

  10. Nanoporous microscale microbial incubators.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhifei; Girguis, Peter R; Buie, Cullen R

    2016-02-07

    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals abundant microbial diversity that has not been cultured in the laboratory. Many attribute this so-called 'great plate count anomaly' to traditional microbial cultivation techniques, which largely facilitate the growth of a single species. Yet, it is widely recognized that bacteria in nature exist in complex communities. One technique to increase the pool of cultivated bacterial species is to co-culture multiple species in a simulated natural environment. Here, we present nanoporous microscale microbial incubators (NMMI) that enable high-throughput screening and real-time observation of multi-species co-culture. The key innovation in NMMI is that they facilitate inter-species communication while maintaining physical isolation between species, which is ideal for genomic analysis. Co-culture of a quorum sensing pair demonstrates that the NMMI can be used to culture multiple species in chemical communication while monitoring the growth dynamics of individual species.

  11. Little Shop of Horrors: Rheology of the Mucilage of Drosera sp., a Carnivorous Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erni, Philipp; Varagnat, Matthieu; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2008-07-01

    Drosera sp. (`sundew') are carnivorous plants; they capture insects using tiny drops of mucilage secreted by stalked glands on their leaf laminae. Prey gets trapped by the sticky viscoelastic liquid, initiating a metabolic cascade on the leaf that eventually results in the insect being digested by the plant. The mucilage droplets typically are in the size range of tens of micrometers; at these extremely small sample sizes, complex fluids are usually not amenable to traditional rheometry. We discuss how microrheometric techniques, in particular capillary breakup extensional rheometry ("μ-caber"), can be used to test the nonlinear rheological properties of nanoliter volumes of such small-volume biopolymer samples.

  12. Unidirectional Movement of Cellulose Synthase Complexes in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Epidermal Cells Deposit Cellulose Involved in Mucilage Extrusion, Adherence, and Ray Formation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Patricia; Young, Robin; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) synthesizes cellulose necessary for seed mucilage adherence to seed coat epidermal cells of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The involvement of additional CESA proteins in this process and details concerning the manner in which cellulose is deposited in the mucilage pocket are unknown. Here, we show that both CESA3 and CESA10 are highly expressed in this cell type at the time of mucilage synthesis and localize to the plasma membrane adjacent to the mucilage pocket. The isoxaben resistant1-1 and isoxaben resistant1-2 mutants affecting CESA3 show defects consistent with altered mucilage cellulose biosynthesis. CESA3 can interact with CESA5 in vitro, and green fluorescent protein-tagged CESA5, CESA3, and CESA10 proteins move in a linear, unidirectional fashion around the cytoplasmic column of the cell, parallel with the surface of the seed, in a pattern similar to that of cortical microtubules. Consistent with this movement, cytological evidence suggests that the mucilage is coiled around the columella and unwinds during mucilage extrusion to form a linear ray. Mutations in CESA5 and CESA3 affect the speed of mucilage extrusion and mucilage adherence. These findings imply that cellulose fibrils are synthesized in an ordered helical array around the columella, providing a distinct structure to the mucilage that is important for both mucilage extrusion and adherence. PMID:25926481

  13. Incubation length of dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Prince, H.H.; Arnold, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    We collected unincubated eggs from wild Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Gadwall (A. strepera), Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), and Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata) nests and artificially incubated them at 37.5??C. Average incubation lengths of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs did not differ from their wild-nesting counterparts, but artificially incubated Blue-winged Teal eggs required an additional 1.7 days to hatch, suggesting that wild-nesting teal incubated more effectively. A small sample of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs artificially incubated at 38.3??C hatched 1 day sooner, indicating that incubation temperature affected incubation length. Mean incubation length of Blue-winged Teal declined by 1 day for each 11-day delay in nesting, but we found no such seasonal decline among Mallards, Gadwalls, or Northern Shovelers. There is no obvious explanation for the seasonal reduction in incubation length for Blue-winged Teal eggs incubated in a constant environment, and the phenomenon deserves further study. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.

  14. Differentiation of the seed coat and composition of the mucilage of Lepidium perfoliatum L.: a desert annual with typical myxospermy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Daihong; Wang, Cui; Yuan, Junwen; Cao, Jing; Lan, Haiyan

    2015-10-01

    Myxospermy is an important feature in seeds of many plant species grown in desert region. Fertilization can initiate differentiation of the seed coat epidermis into a specialized cell type with mucilage production. In the present study, comprehensive analyses were performed on the seed coat differentiation, mucilage production and composition, and seed germination in Lepidium perfoliatum (Brassicaceae), a desert annual with typical myxospermy in China. First, results indicated that mucilage was secreted uniformly at the outer tangential wall, resulting in compression of the cytoplasm to the bottom of the epidermal cells. Secondly, the inner tangential wall and two radial walls of the subepidermal cells were apparently thickened by production of a secondary cell wall material, which resulted in a 'typical' palisade appearance. Thirdly, immunohistochemical staining combined with the enzymatic digestion and infrared spectrum analysis of the mucilage indicated that, while one important component of the seed coat mucilage in L. perfoliatum was pectin, it also contained β-1,3-d-glucan and xyloglucan. Finally, seed germination showed that seeds with mucilage displayed significantly higher germination percentage than that of demucilaged seeds in abundant or excess water conditions. These results suggest that the possible ecological role of mucilage in L. perfoliatum is in the adaptation to habitats with well-watered and water-logged conditions, rather than water stress.

  15. Removing heavy metals in water: the interaction of cactus mucilage and arsenate (As (V)).

    PubMed

    Fox, Dawn I; Pichler, Thomas; Yeh, Daniel H; Alcantar, Norma A

    2012-04-17

    High concentrations of arsenic in groundwater continue to present health threats to millions of consumers worldwide. Particularly, affected communities in the developing world need accessible technologies for arsenic removal from drinking water. We explore the application of cactus mucilage, pectic polysaccharide extracts from Opuntia ficus-indica for arsenic removal. Synthetic arsenate (As (V)) solutions were treated with two extracts, a gelling extract (GE) and a nongelling extract (NE) in batch trials. The arsenic concentration at the air-water interface was measured after equilibration. The GE and NE treated solutions showed on average 14% and 9% increases in arsenic concentration at the air-water interface respectively indicating that the mucilage bonded and transported the arsenic to the air-water interface. FTIR studies showed that the -CO groups (carboxyl and carbonyl groups) and -OH (hydroxyl) functional groups of the mucilage were involved in the interaction with the arsenate. Mucilage activity was greater in weakly basic (pH 9) and weakly acidic (pH 5.5) pH. This interaction can be optimized and harnessed for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. This work breaks the ground for the application of natural pectic materials to the removal of anionic metallic species from water.

  16. Designing and characterizing of tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches prepared with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and povidone.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Ishaq, Beludari Mohammed; Shaik, Muneer; Bandagisa, Faheem

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare matrix type transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl using various ratios of Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using Tramadol HCl with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The interactions between Tramadol HCl with F. carica fruit mucilage and Povidone were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared patches were examined for physicochemical characterization and in vitro drug permeation studies (using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin), skin irritation studies and accelerated stability studies. The drug was found to be free from negligible interactions with the polymers used. The formulated patches possessed satisfactory physicochemical properties, in vitro drug permeation and devoid of serious skin irritation. The selected formulation (F-5) was retains the characteristics even after the accelerated environmental conditions. The study concludes that F. carica fruit mucilage with Povidone is a good combination for preparing transdermal patches.

  17. Effect of mucilage from yam on activation of lymphocytic immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Cheol-Min; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk

    2007-01-01

    The immunostimulating activities of mucilage fraction from yam were investigated. The proliferation of BSA-primed lymph node cells was enhanced between 4.1- to 10.9-fold compare to control, when cultured with 1 to 25 µg/mL of yam-mucilage fraction. It showed strong immunopotentiating activity than ginseng extract and as remarkable as Bifidobacterium adolescentis M101-4 known as a positive immunostimulator. Mitogenicity to lymph node cells was fully induced by concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide. The proliferation of splenocytes and Peyer's patch cells was enhanced between 5.0- to 14.1-fold and 2.4- to 6.4-fold, respectively, when cultured with 1 to 25 µg/mL of yam-mucilage fraction. It enhanced the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6 in the culture of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In the culture of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, production of cytokines was as similar as compared to controls. In unstimulated RAW 264.7 cells, both tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6 production were enhanced between 15.6- to 60.1-fold and 2.3- to 9.1-fold, respectively. Mucilage fraction from yam is expected to be a safe immunopotentiator to maintain the host immunity and develop a physiologically functional food. PMID:20535393

  18. An algorithm for the detection of the white-tide ('mucilage') phenomenon in the Adriatic Sea using AVHRR data

    SciTech Connect

    Tassan, S. )

    1993-06-01

    An algorithm using AVHRR data has been set up for the detection of a white tide consisting of algae secretion ('mucilage'), an event occurring in the Adriatic Sea under particular meteorological conditions. The algorithm, which includes an ad hoc procedure for cloud masking, has been tested with reference to the mucilage map obtained from the analysis of contemporary Thematic Mapper data, as well as by comparing consecutive AVHRR scenes. The main features of the exceptional mucilage phenomenon that took place in the northern basin of the Adriatic Sea in summer 1989 are shown by a time series of maps.

  19. Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Wayne P.; King, Joseph B.; Jankura, Richard E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done to operate the Lewis Incubator for Technology for the period October 2000 through September 2004. The Lewis Incubator helped the startup and growth of technology based businesses with the potential to incorporate technology from the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  20. Incubating Next -Gen.Edu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2008-01-01

    Given a blank slate, what should the 21st century college classroom look like, and how should it be operated? Answering those questions is the idea behind setting up "incubator classrooms," spaces dedicated to trying out new technologies and new ways of teaching and learning. By incubating new ideas, faculty members and IT staff discover which…

  1. Effect of soil water content on spatial distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water and nutrients are expected to become the major factors limiting food production. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to these limited soil resources. Low molecular root exudates released into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. However, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was therefore to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging at different levels of water stress. Maize plants were grown in rhizotrons filled with a silty soil and were exposed to varying soil conditions, from optimal to dry. Mucilage distribution around the roots was estimated from the profiles of water content in the rhizosphere - note that mucilage increases the soil water content. The profiles of water content around different root types and root ages were measured with neutron radiography. Rhizosphere extension was approx. 0.7 mm and did not differ between wet and dry treatments. However, water content (i.e. mucilage concentration) in the rhizosphere of plants grown in dry soils was higher than for plants grown under optimal conditions. This effect was particularly pronounced near the tips of lateral roots. The higher water contents near the root are explained as the water retained by mucilage. 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) was used to estimate the distribution of all rhizodeposits. Two days after labelling, 14C distribution was measured using phosphor-imaging. To quantify 14C in the rhizosphere a calibration was carried out by adding given amounts of 14C-glucose to soil. Plants grown in wet soil transported a higher percentage of 14C to the roots (14Croot/14Cshoot), compared to plants grown under dry conditions (46 vs. 36 %). However, the percentage of 14C allocated from roots to

  2. Infant incubators and radiant warmers.

    PubMed

    Bell, E F

    1983-10-01

    Incubators and radiant warmers are used to maintain the body temperature of newborn infants. This is best done so that the energy expended for metabolic heat production is minimized. The heat output of these devices is usually regulated by servocontrol to keep the skin temperature constant at a site on the abdomen where a thermistor probe is attached. In incubators, air temperature can also be controlled as an alternative to skin temperature servocontrol. Increased ambient humidity, heat shields and clothing have been used to decrease the evaporative or nonevaporative heat loss of infants in incubators under certain conditions. Double-walled incubators, by adding a second inner layer of Plexiglas, reduce radiant heat loss. They may also reduce total heat loss, but only if air temperature is controlled rather than skin temperature. The minimal oxygen consumption under a radiant warmer is the same or perhaps slightly higher than it is for the same infant in an incubator. Compared with incubators, the partition of body heat loss is quite different under radiant warmers. Radiant warmers increase convective and evaporative heat loss and insensible water loss but eliminate radiant heat loss or change it to net gain. A heat shield of thin polyethylene film can be used with a radiant warmer to reduce heat loss by convection and evaporation. The major advantage of the radiant warmer is the easy access it provides to critically-ill infants without disturbing the thermal environment. Its major disadvantage is the increase in insensible water loss produced by the radiant warmer. Most infants can be safely and adequately cared for in either incubator or radiant warmer bed.

  3. Relationship between the chemical components of taro rhizome mucilage and its emulsifying property.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luan Alberto; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pereira, Joelma

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of taro mucilage (TM) and explain its emulsification properties using different commercial emulsifiers and gums as benchmarks. The following analyses were performed: moisture, ether extract, protein, fiber, ash, sugar fraction, starch content, infrared spectroscopy and determination of monosaccharides and amino acids using HPLC. The analyses showed that TM has a high carbohydrate content and small protein fraction, similar to commercial gums. Commercial emulsifiers have a high content of lipids compared to TM. Therefore, it can be concluded that the emulsifying power of the studied mucilage is primarily caused by the protein content along with weakly polar amino acids, which occur in gums. The methyl group (CH3), which was observed in the infrared spectrum, and the lipid content may also contribute to the emulsifying activity by providing a hydrophobic moiety.

  4. A gradient of endogenous calcium forms in mucilage of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Agar blocks that contacted the upper sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots of Zea mays contain significantly less calcium (Ca) than blocks that contacted the lower sides of such roots. This gravity-induced gradient of Ca forms prior to the onset of gravicurvature, and does not form across tips of vertically-oriented roots or roots of agravitropic mutants. These results indicate that (1) Ca can be collected from mucilage of graviresponding roots, (2) gravity induces a downward movement of endogenous Ca in mucilage overlying the root tip, (3) this gravity-induced gradient of Ca does not form across tips of agravitropic roots, and (4) formation of a Ca gradient is not a consequence of gravicurvature. These results are consistent with gravity-induced movement of Ca being a trigger for subsequent redistribution of growth effectors (e.g. auxin) that induce differential growth and gravicurvature.

  5. Diatom Adhesive Mucilage Contains Distinct Supramolecular Assemblies of a Single Modular Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dugdale, T. M.; Dagastine, R.; Chiovitti, A.; Wetherbee, R.

    2006-01-01

    A previous study used atomic force microscopy saw-tooth retraction curves to characterize the adhesive mucilage pads of the diatom Toxarium undulatum. The major mucilage component consisted of adhesive nanofibers (ANFs) made up of modular proteins arranged into cohesive units, each containing a set number of modular proteins aligned in parallel. This study shows that T. undulatum adhesive mucilage is a biocomposite containing four additional adhesive components, including single modular proteins that are likely to be the structural units from which the ANFs are assembled. Two further distinct supramolecular assemblies were observed to coexist with ANFs (ANFs II and III), along with a continuum of single modular proteins through oligomers made up of varying numbers of modular proteins arranged in parallel. All components of the adhesive biocomposite produce a characteristic force spectrum with the same interpeak distance (35.3 ± 0.3 (mean ± SE) nm), suggesting they are derived from discrete supramolecular assemblies of the same modular protein, but they are distinguishable from one another based on the rupture force, persistence length, and interpeak force measured from their saw-tooth curves. PMID:16443662

  6. The flocculation performance of Tamarindus mucilage in relation to removal of vat and direct dyes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anuradha; Bajpai, Malvika

    2006-05-01

    A food grade natural mucilage, extracted from the seeds of Tamarindus indica pods, is used as a flocculant for removal of solubilised vat (golden yellow) and direct dye (direct fast scarlet) in aqueous solutions. The maximum removal obtained was 60% for golden yellow after 2 h and was 25% for direct fast scarlet after 1 h. The optimum mucilage dose was 10 mg/l and 15 mg/l for golden yellow and direct fast scarlet, respectively. The pH values also seem to affect the percent removal of both the dyes significantly. In case of vat dye, the pH value of the test samples affected the percent removal significantly. The change was highly significant between neutral and alkaline pH. In case of direct dye, there was no significant change in percent removal at pH 7 and pH 4 whereas a significant change in percent removal was observed between pH 7 and pH 9.2. The plausible mucilage-dye interaction and flocculation mechanism has been discussed. This new flocculant works better in the case of vat dye removal compared with the direct dye.

  7. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna

    PubMed Central

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I.; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L. Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-01-01

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic–biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night. PMID:27680661

  8. Relationships between organic carbon and microbial components in a Tyrrhenian area (Isola del Giglio) affected by mucilages.

    PubMed

    Misic, C; Giani, M; Povero, P; Polimene, L; Fabiano, M

    2005-12-15

    The chemical and biological properties of the water column at a Tyrrhenian site (Isola del Giglio) were studied during a 3-year period. The results highlighted the oligotrophic features of the site, characterised by quite low concentrations of organic carbon (on average DOC 102 micromol/L and POC 9 micromol/L). Relevant bacterial biomass (on average 42.1 microg C/L) and a notable activity (in terms of frequency of dividing cells, on average more than 5%) were observed. However, remarkable changes for these parameters were seasonally recorded. The cyclic occurrence, generally during the late spring-summer period, of benthic mucilage indicated that localised distrophic processes may occur. In particular, the benthic mucilage events of 2000 and 2001 were investigated, although some comparative information was available also for 1999 and 2002. The mucilage aggregates generally showed high bacterial colonisation, which have remarkable effects on the organic matter cycle both inside the aggregates and in the surrounding seawater. During the benthic mucilage development, an increase of DOC and POC concentrations was observed (up to 129 and 18 micromol/L, respectively, in June 2000 and up to 145 and 10 micromol/L, respectively, in May and June 2001) in the water column adjacent to the bottom. However, a general decrease of the trophic value of particulate matter (in terms of C/N ratio) was also observed, especially in 2000 after the disappearance of the mucilage. The available energy and organic matter during the mucilage events led to an increased presence of bacteria in the bottom waters of the Isola del Giglio, with maximum biomass values in 2001. Similarly, the replicative activity of bacteria was higher in 2001 (frequency of dividing cells about 5% vs. 3% of 2000). The lower activity of 2000, in addition to the lower trophic value of organic matter and different environmental conditions (namely lower temperature), might be involved in the persistence of mucilage in

  9. Dissecting the Genetic Basis for Seed Coat Mucilage Heteroxylan Biosynthesis in Plantago ovata Using Gamma Irradiation and Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Matthew R.; Ma, Chao; Phan, Jana; Neumann, Kylie; Shirley, Neil J.; Hahn, Michael G.; Cozzolino, Daniel; Burton, Rachel A.

    2017-01-01

    Seeds from the myxospermous species Plantago ovata release a polysaccharide-rich mucilage upon contact with water. This seed coat derived mucilage is composed predominantly of heteroxylan (HX) and is utilized as a gluten-free dietary fiber supplement to promote human colorectal health. In this study, a gamma-irradiated P. ovata population was generated and screened using histological stains and Fourier Transform Mid Infrared (FTMIR) spectroscopy to identify putative mutants showing defects in seed coat mucilage HX composition and/or structure. FTMIR analysis of dry seed revealed variation in regions of the IR spectra previously linked to xylan structure in Secale cereale (rye). Subsequent absorbance ratio and PCA multivariate analysis identified 22 putative mutant families with differences in the HX IR fingerprint region. Many of these showed distinct changes in the amount and subtle changes in structure of HX after mucilage extrusion, while 20% of the putative HX mutants identified by FTMIR showed no difference in staining patterns of extruded mucilage compared to wild-type. Transcriptional screening analysis of two putative reduced xylan in mucilage (rxm) mutants, rxm1 and rxm3, revealed that changes in HX levels in rxm1 correlate with reduced transcription of known and novel genes associated with xylan synthesis, possibly indicative of specific co-regulatory units within the xylan biosynthetic pathway. These results confirm that FTMIR is a suitable method for identifying putative mutants with altered mucilage HX composition in P. ovata, and therefore forms a resource to identify novel genes involved in xylan biosynthesis. PMID:28377777

  10. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2, a Glucomannan Synthase, Is Involved in Maintaining Adherent Mucilage Structure in Arabidopsis Seed1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li; Shi, Dachuan; Li, Junling; Kong, Yingzhen; Yu, Yanchong; Chai, Guohua; Hu, Ruibo; Wang, Juan; Hahn, Michael G.; Zhou, Gongke

    2014-01-01

    Mannans are hemicellulosic polysaccharides that are considered to have both structural and storage functions in the plant cell wall. However, it is not yet known how mannans function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed mucilage. In this study, CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2 (CSLA2; At5g22740) expression was observed in several seed tissues, including the epidermal cells of developing seed coats. Disruption of CSLA2 resulted in thinner adherent mucilage halos, although the total amount of the adherent mucilage did not change compared with the wild type. This suggested that the adherent mucilage in the mutant was more compact compared with that of the wild type. In accordance with the role of CSLA2 in glucomannan synthesis, csla2-1 mucilage contained 30% less mannosyl and glucosyl content than did the wild type. No appreciable changes in the composition, structure, or macromolecular properties were observed for nonmannan polysaccharides in mutant mucilage. Biochemical analysis revealed that cellulose crystallinity was substantially reduced in csla2-1 mucilage; this was supported by the removal of most mucilage cellulose through treatment of csla2-1 seeds with endo-β-glucanase. Mutation in CSLA2 also resulted in altered spatial distribution of cellulose and an absence of birefringent cellulose microfibrils within the adherent mucilage. As with the observed changes in crystalline cellulose, the spatial distribution of pectin was also modified in csla2-1 mucilage. Taken together, our results demonstrate that glucomannans synthesized by CSLA2 are involved in modulating the structure of adherent mucilage, potentially through altering cellulose organization and crystallization. PMID:24569843

  11. Microscale characterization of dissolved organic matter production and uptake in marine microbial mat communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerl, H. W.; Bebout, B. M.; Joye, S. B.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Intertidal marine microbial mats exhibited biologically mediated uptake of low molecular weight dissolved organic matter (DOM), including D-glucose, acetate, and an L-amino acid mixture at trace concentrations. Uptake of all compounds occurred in darkness, but was frequently enhanced under natural illumination. The photosystem 2 inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU) generally failed to inhibit light-stimulated DOM uptake. Occasionally, light plus DCMU-amended treatments led to uptake rates higher than light-incubated samples, possibly due to phototrophic bacteria present in subsurface anoxic layers. Uptake was similar with either 3H- or 14C-labeled substrates, indicating that recycling of labeled CO2 via photosynthetic fixation was not interfering with measurements of light-stimulated DOM uptake. Microautoradiographs showed a variety of pigmented and nonpigmented bacteria and, to a lesser extent, cyanobacteria and eucaryotic microalgae involved in light-mediated DOM uptake. Light-stimulated DOM uptake was often observed in bacteria associated with sheaths and mucilage surrounding filamentous cyanobacteria, revealing a close association of organisms taking up DOM with photoautotrophic members of the mat community. The capacity for dark- and light-mediated heterotrophy, coupled to efficient retention of fixed carbon in the mat community, may help optimize net production and accretion of mats, even in oligotrophic waters.

  12. Abrupt Changes in the Marmara Pelagic Ecosystem during the recent jellyfish Liriope tetraphylla invasion and mucilage events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan Kideys, Ahmet; Yüksek, Ahsen; Sur, Halil Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    In this study, meteorological and hydrographical conditions as well as chemical and biological parameters have been examined for the period 2005-2009 to determine the impact and cause of the massive mucilage phenomenon observed in the Sea of Marmara in October 2007. Results showed that there is a decrease pattern in chl concentration as well as both phytoplankton and zooplankton abundances from August till October in 2007 whilst the jellyfish Liriope tetraphylla had bloom levels. This period coincided with the maximum intensity of pelagic fishing throughout the years. Nitrogen/phosphate ratio increased prior to the mucilage formation. Invasive Liriope tetraphylla abundance increased exponentially in August and died in masses as a result of starvation and meteorological / oceanographic conditions. In October, following the mucilage matter production another new species for the region Gonyaulax fragilis was observed in high abundance through the basin. It is worthy to note that during basin wide samplings conducted in the Sea of Marmara in both 2005 and 2006, high abundances of Liriope tetraphylla have been detected particularly at the northern parts where no mucilage event was observed. We suggest that overfishing in the Sea of Marmara provided a ground for the establishment of the invasive jellyfish and accompanying mucilage event was due to by synergic combinations of several factors.

  13. The possible involvement of root-cap mucilage in gravitropism and calcium movement across root tips of Allium cepa L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. grown in aerated water elongate rapidly, but are not graviresponsive. These roots (1) possess extensive columella tissues comprised of cells containing numerous sedimented amyloplasts, (2) lack mucilage on their tips, and (3) are characterized by a weakly polar movement of calcium (Ca) across their tips. Placing roots in humid air correlates positively with the (1) onset of gravicurvature, (2) appearance of mucilage on tips of the roots, and (3) onset of the ability to transport Ca polarly to the lower side of the root tip. Gravicurvature of roots previously submerged in aerated water is more rapid when roots are oriented vertically for 1-2 h in humid air prior to being oriented horizontally. The more rapid gravicurvature of these roots correlates positively with the accumulation of mucilage at the tips of roots during the time the roots are oriented vertically. Therefore, the onset of gravicurvature and the ability of roots to transport Ca to the lower sides of their tips correlate positively with the presence of mucilage at their tips. These results suggest that mucilage may be important for the transport of Ca across root caps.

  14. In vitro assessment of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage and its impact on the human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni; Alonso, José Luis; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-02-01

    Aloe vera mucilage is reported to be rich in acemannan that is a polysaccharide with a backbone of β-(1→4)-D-mannose residues acetylated at the C-2 and C-3 positions and contains some side chains of galactose and arabinose attached to the C-6 carbon. The evaluation of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage was carried out by in vitro fermentation using intestinal microbiota from six healthy donors as the inoculum. The prebiotic activity was assessed through the quantification of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and the evaluation of dynamic bacterial population in mixed faecal cultures by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our findings support the possible incorporation of the Aloe vera mucilage in the development of a variety of food products known as prebiotics aimed at improving gastrointestinal health.

  15. Simultaneous decay of contact-angle and surface-tension during the rehydration of air-dried root mucilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arye, Gilboa; Chen, Fengxian

    2016-04-01

    Plants can extract or exude water and solutes at their root surface. Among the root exudates, the mucilage exhibits a surfactant like properties - depressing the surface-tension (ST, mN/m) at the water-air interface. The amphipathic nature of some of the mucilage molecules (e.g. lipids) is thought to be the reason for its surfactant like behavior. As the rhizosphere dries out, re-orientation and/or re-configuration of amphipathic molecules at the solid-air interface, may impart hydrophobic nature to the rhizosphere. Our current knowledge on the ST of natural and/or model root mucilage is based on measurements of the equilibrium ST. However, adsorption of amphipathic molecules at the water-air interface is not reached instantaneously. The hydrophobic nature of the rhizosphere was deduced from the initial advancing CA, commonly calculated from the first few milliseconds up to few seconds (depending on the method employed). We hypothesized that during the rehydration of the root mucilage; both quantities are dynamic. Processes such as water absorbance and dissolution, may vary the interfacial tensions as a function of time. Consequently, simultaneous reduction of both CA and ST as a function of time can be expected. The main objective of this study was to characterize and quantify the extent, persistency and dynamic of the CA and ST during rehydration of air-dried root mucilage. The study was involved with measurements of dynamic and equilibrium ST using the pedant drop or Wilhelmy plate method, respectively. Glass slides were coated with naturally occurring or model root mucilage and the CA of a sessile drop was measured optically, as a function of time. The results were analyzed based on the Young-Dupré and Young-Laplace equations, from which the simultaneous decay of CA and ST was deduced. The implication for the wettability and water flow in the rhizosphere will be discussed.

  16. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  17. Mucilage production during the incompatible interaction between Orobanche crenata and Vicia sativa.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Lozano, M Dolores; Cubero, José I; González-Melendi, Pablo; Risueño, M Carmen; Rubiales, Diego

    2006-01-01

    Orobanche spp. (broomrapes) are holoparasites lacking in chlorophyll and totally dependent on their host for their supply of nutrients. O. crenata is a severe constraint to legumes cultivation and breeding for resistance remains as one of the best available methods of control. However, little is known about the basis of host resistance to broomrapes. It is a multicomponent event, and resistance based on hampering development and necrosis of broomrape tubercles has been reported. In the present work, the formation of mucilage and occlusion of host xylem vessels associated with the death of O. crenata tubercles were studied histologically. Samples of necrotic O. crenata tubercles established on resistant and susceptible vetch genotypes were collected. The samples were fixed, sectioned and stained using different procedures. The sections were observed at the light microscopy level, either under bright field, epi-fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy. A higher proportion of necrotic tubercles was found on the resistant genotype and this was associated with a higher percentage of occluded vessels. Mucilage is composed mainly by carbohydrates (non-esterified pectins) and the presence of polyphenols was also detected. The mucilage and other substances composed by parasite secretions and host-degraded products was found to block host vessels and obstruct the parasite supply channel, being a quantitative defensive response against O. crenata in vetch, and probably also in other legumes and plants. The presence of foreign substances (i.e. parasite secretions) and host-degraded products (i.e. carbohydrates from cell walls) inside host vessels seems to activate this response and leads to xylem occlusion and further death of established Orobanche tubercles.

  18. Effect of lipid/polysaccharide ratio on surface activity of model root mucilage in its solid and liquid states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fengxian; Arye, Gilboa

    2016-04-01

    The rhizosphere can be defined as the volume of soil around living roots, which is influenced by root activity. The biological, chemical and physical conditions that prevail in the rhizosphere are significantly different from those of the bulk soil. Plant roots can release diverse organic materials in the rhizosphere which may have different effects on its bio-chemo-physical activity. Among these exudates is the root mucilage which can play a role on the maintenance of root-soil contact, lubrication of the root tip, protection of roots from desiccation and disease, stabilization of soil micro-aggregates and the selective absorption and storage of ions. The surface activity of the root mucilage at the liquid-air interface deduced from its surface tension depression relative to water, implying on its amphiphilic nature. Consequently as the rhizosphere dry out, hydrophobic functional groups may exhibit orientation at the solid-air interface and thus, the wettability of the rhizosphere may temporarily decrease. The major fraction of the root mucilage comprise of polysaccharides and to a much lesser extent, amino acids, organic acids, and phospholipids. The most frequent polysaccharide and phospholipids detected in root mucilage are polygalacturonic acid (PGA) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC), respectively. The latter, is thought to be main cause for the surface active nature of root mucilage. Nevertheless, the role and function of root mucilage in the rhizosphere is commonly studied based on model root mucilage that comprise of only one component, where the most frequent ones are PGA or PC (or lecithin). The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of concentration and PGA/PC ratios on the wettability of a model rhizosphere soil and the surface tension of the model root mucilage at the liquid-air interface. The PGA/PC mixtures were measured for their equilibrium and dynamic surface tension using the Wilhelmy-Plate method. Quartz sand or glass slides were

  19. Evaluation of the suspending properties of two local Opuntia spp. mucilages on paracetamol suspension.

    PubMed

    Gebresamuel, Naod; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige

    2013-01-01

    Some excipients are currently available for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The purpose of this study is to develop cheap and effective natural excipient that can be used as an effective alternative for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The suspending properties of Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia stricta mucilages (family Cactaceae) were evaluated comparatively with that of NaCMC at concentration range of 2-6% (w/v) in Paracetamol suspension. Sedimentation volume (%) (with and without electrolyte), rheology, redispersibility, and dissolution rate of the suspensions were employed as evaluation parameters. The values obtained were used as basis for comparison of the suspending agents. The apparent viscosities of the suspensions in all the suspending agents concentration levels and applied shear rates were in the order of NaCMC>OS>OFI with non-Newtonian flow and accordingly the flow rates of the suspensions were in the order of OFI > OS > NaCMC. The sedimentation volumes (%) of the suspensions in all the suspending agent concentration levels were higher for OS followed by OFI and then NaCMC. The high sedimentation volumes (%) of suspensions, in turn, were accompanied by ease of redispersibility of that order. The effect of electrolyte on sedimentation volume (%) had dual effect. It was only the suspensions that had NaCMC that showed increase in sedimentation volume (%) in all molar NaCl concentration. However, in suspensions that had mucilages of OS and OFI, an initial increase in sediment volumes (%) were accompanied by decrease after 1x10(-3)M and 1x10(-2)M of NaCl, respectively. Dissolution of the suspensions which had mucilages attained the acceptable ranges (> 80% drug release in 30 min) in 5 min. Similarly, except A6 formulations A2, A3, A4 and A5 have attained the limit but the release was not as quick as the previous formulations. Hence, it can be concluded that mucilages of Opuntia spp. (Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia stricta

  20. Investigation of the effect of nanoclay on the properties of quince seed mucilage edible films.

    PubMed

    Shekarabi, Azadeh Sadat; Oromiehie, Abdul Rasoul; Vaziri, Ali; Ardjmand, Mahdi; Safekordi, Ali Akbar

    2014-11-01

    Some physical properties like Gas barrier, thermal stability, and mechanical properties and brittleness of pure biopolymers film are inadequate for food packaging. The functional properties of quince seed mucilage-based films were enhanced by addition of nanoclay (NC) (Cloisite 30B). Edible films were cast from heated aqueous solutions of quince seed (10% w/w) and NC (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% w/w of quince seed). The effect of NC was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability, and glass transition temperature (T g) of the nano composite films. In films containing NC, ultimate tensile strength enhanced to 22 MPa, and elongation increased from 2.48% to 6.5%. The addition of NC also improved gas barrier properties of the films. In films containing 2% NC, WVP decreased from 6.69 × 10(-7) g·m(-1)·h(-1)·Pa(-1) to 1.10 × 10(-7) g·m(-1)·h(-1)·Pa(-1) and oxygen permeability declined to 13.68 mL·day·m-(2). NC also influences glass transition temperature significantly. The study demonstrated that the properties of quince seed mucilage edible films can be significantly improved using NC as reinforcement.

  1. Extraction optimization of mucilage from Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Sadaf; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous extraction of basil seed mucilage was optimized using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) for modeling of three independent variables: temperature (40-91 °C); extraction time (1.6-3.3 h) and water/seed ratio (18:1-77:1) was used to study the response for yield. Experimental values for extraction yield ranged from 7.86 to 20.5 g/100 g. Extraction yield was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by all the variables. Temperature and water/seed ratio were found to have pronounced effect while the extraction time was found to have minor possible effects. Graphical optimization determined the optimal conditions for the extraction of mucilage. The optimal condition predicted an extraction yield of 20.49 g/100 g at 56.7 °C, 1.6 h, and a water/seed ratio of 66.84:1. Optimal conditions were determined to obtain highest extraction yield. Results indicated that water/seed ratio was the most significant parameter, followed by temperature and time.

  2. Supercritical CO2 generation of nanometric structure from Ocimum basilicum mucilage prepared for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Iman; Ghoreishi, Seyyed M; Habibi, Neda

    2015-04-01

    Plant-derived polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their emollient, lack of toxicity, and irritating nature and low cost. In this work, basil seed mucilage was dried using supercritical carbon dioxide phase inversion technique to form a nanometric structure. The obtained polymeric structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and compared with the oven-derived sample group. It was demonstrated that the product morphology could be controlled by altering the composition of methanol which functioned as the co-solvent in the nonsolvent stream. The most homogeneous product (60-nm mean pore size diameter, 78 m(2)/g BET surface area with no agglomeration) was obtained with 2.5% methanol. The FTIR data showed that the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups suggested the bioadhesive property of basil seed mucilage was good and many active pharmaceutical compounds might be loaded to the resultant nanometric structure to enhance drug release. Furthermore, the FTIR analyses indicated that the nature of the final product did not change during the supercritical drying procedure.

  3. Sorption isotherms, thermodynamic properties and glass transition temperature of mucilage extracted from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Gutiérrez, Sandra Karina; Figueira, Ana Cristina; Rodríguez-Huezo, María Eva; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Carrillo-Navas, Hector; Pérez-Alonso, César

    2015-05-05

    Freeze-dried chia mucilage adsorption isotherms were determined at 25, 35 and 40°C and fitted with the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The integral thermodynamic properties (enthalpy and entropy) were estimated with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Pore radius of the mucilage, calculated with the Kelvin equation, varied from 0.87 to 6.44 nm in the temperature range studied. The point of maximum stability (minimum integral entropy) ranged between 7.56 and 7.63kg H2O per 100 kg of dry solids (d.s.) (water activity of 0.34-0.53). Enthalpy-entropy compensation for the mucilage showed two isokinetic temperatures: (i) one occurring at low moisture contents (0-7.56 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s.), controlled by changes in water entropy; and (ii) another happening in the moisture interval of 7.56-24 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s. and was enthalpy driven. The glass transition temperature Tg of the mucilage fluctuated between 42.93 and 57.93°C.

  4. Sticking to cellulose: exploiting Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage to understand cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall polysaccharide interactions.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Jonathan S; North, Helen M

    2017-02-13

    The cell wall defines the shape of cells and ultimately plant architecture. It provides mechanical resistance to osmotic pressure while still being malleable and allowing cells to grow and divide. These properties are determined by the different components of the wall and the interactions between them. The major components of the cell wall are the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose biosynthesis has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and more recently in the mucilage-producing epidermal cells of the seed coat. The latter has emerged as an excellent system to study cellulose biosynthesis and the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall polymers. Here we review some of the major advances in our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in the seed coat, and how mucilage has aided our understanding of the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall components required for wall cohesion. Recently, 10 genes involved in cellulose or hemicellulose biosynthesis in mucilage have been identified. These discoveries have helped to demonstrate that xylan side-chains on rhamnogalacturonan I act to link this pectin directly to cellulose. We also examine other factors that, either directly or indirectly, influence cellulose organization or crystallization in mucilage.

  5. Ultrasonic Removal of Mucilage for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Omega-3 Rich Oil from Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    PubMed

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2017-03-29

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds contain an important amount of edible oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Fast and alternative extraction techniques based on polar solvents, such as ethanol or water, have become relevant for oil extraction in recent years. However, chia seeds also contain a large amount of soluble fiber or mucilage, which makes difficult an oil extraction process with polar solvents. For that reason, the aim of this study was to develop a gentle extraction method for mucilage in order to extract chia oil with polar solvents using pressurized liquids and compare with organic solvent extraction. The proposed mucilage extraction method, using an ultrasonic probe and only water, was optimized at mild conditions (50 °C and sonication 3 min) to guarantee the omega-3 oil quality. Chia oil extraction was performed using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with different solvents and their mixtures at five different extraction temperatures (60, 90, 120, 150, and 200 °C). Optimal PLE conditions were achieved with ethyl acetate or hexane at 90 °C in only 10 min of static extraction time (chia oil yield up to 30.93%). In addition, chia oils extracted with nonpolar and polar solvents by PLE were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid composition at different extraction conditions. Chia oil contained ∼65% of α-linolenic acid regardless of mucilage extraction method, solvent, or temperature used. Furthermore, tocopherols and tocotrienols were also analyzed by HPLC in the extracted chia oils. The mucilage removal allowed the subsequent extraction of the chia oil with polar or nonpolar solvents by PLE producing chia oil with the same fatty acid and tocopherol composition as traditional extraction.

  6. Hydrated mucilage reduces post-dispersal seed removal of a sand desert shrub by ants in a semiarid ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Gao, Ruiru; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lingling; Li, Leilei; He, Hongju; Huang, Zhenying

    2013-12-01

    Post-dispersal seed removal by animals can lead to extensive seed loss and thus is an important factor in structuring plant communities. However, we know much less about post-dispersal seed predation than about other forms of herbivory. Mucilage plays many ecological roles in adaptation of plants to diverse environments; nevertheless, until now the role of mucilage in ant-mediated seed movement remains largely hypothetical. We studied the role of mucilage in seed removal of Artemisia sphaerocephala by ants in Mu Us Sandland in Inner Mongolia, China. Messor aciculatus was the most active seed predator of Artemisia sphaerocephala. Time to first ant collecting (T 1st) of wet intact seeds was longest and significantly different from that for dry intact seeds, wet demucilaged seeds, and dry demucilaged seeds; number of seeds removed to ant nests was lowest for wet intact seeds. After they were collected by ants, 5 % of wet intact seeds were dropped during transport. Our results indicate that seed mucilage of Artemisia sphaerocephala may play a significant role in post-dispersal seed removal by (1) making seeds less attractive to ants, thus resulting in a delay of collection time; (2) forming a strong bond to soil particles, making it difficult for ants to remove seeds; and (3) making seeds more likely to be dropped during transport, thereby allowing them to escape from predation even after collection by ants. This study demonstrates the importance of mucilage in reducing seed removal by ants and thus in anchoring seeds of desert plants in the vicinity of mother plants.

  7. Isolation and Identification of Lepidimoide, a New Allelopathic Substance from Mucilage of Germinated Cress Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Koji; Mizutani, Junya; Kosemura, Seiji; Yamamura, Shosuke

    1992-01-01

    A new allelopathic substance that promoted the shoot growth of different plant species but inhibited the root growth was isolated as an amorphous powder from mucilage of germinated cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seeds. This substance was identified as sodium 2-O-rhamnopyranosyl-4-deoxy-threo-hex-4-enopyranosiduronate (designated lepidimoide) from the mass and the nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra coupled with some chemical evidence. Lepidimoide promoted the hypocotyl growth of etiolated Amaranthus caudatus L. at concentrations higher than 3 μm and inhibited the root growth at concentrations higher than 100 μm. The growth-promoting activity in hypocotyls was 20 or 30 times as much as that of gibberellic acid. Images Figure 1 PMID:16653018

  8. Recently Investigated Natural Gums and Mucilages as Pharmaceutical Excipients: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Pritam Dinesh; Pawar, Harshal Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Due to advances in drug delivery technology, currently, excipients are included in novel dosage forms to fulfil specific functions and in some cases they directly or indirectly influence the extent and/or rate of drug release and drug absorption. Recent trends towards use of plant based and natural products demand the replacement of synthetic additives with natural ones. Today, the whole world is increasingly interested in natural drugs and excipients. These natural materials have many advantages over synthetic ones as they are chemically inert, nontoxic, less expensive, biodegradable, and widely available. This review discusses majority of the plant-derived polymeric compounds (gums and mucilage's), their sources, chemical constituents, uses, and some recent investigations as excipients in novel drug delivery systems. PMID:26556189

  9. Prebiotic potential of neutral oligo- and polysaccharides from seed mucilage of Hyptis suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Monika; Čavarkapa, Andrea; Unger, Frank M; Viernstein, Helmut; Praznik, Werner

    2017-04-15

    Prebiotics are selectively fermented by the gastrointestinal microflora, resulting in benefits to human health. The seed mucilage of Hyptis suaveolens contains neutral and acidic polysaccharides in a ratio of 1:1. The neutral polysaccharides consist of galactose, glucose and mannose whereas the acidic polysaccharides contain fucose, xylose and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid -residues. The growth of probiotics in the presence of total, acidic or neutral polysaccharides and oligosaccharides was tested using turbidity measurements. The majority (11 out of 14) of the tested probiotic strains significantly grew in the neutral fraction. Growth occurred with some time delay, but may be longer lasting than with other lower molecular prebiotics. The extent of growth increased with neutral polysaccharides from H. suaveolens corresponding to the externally available galactose units (20%). In conclusion, neutral poly- and oligosaccharides from H. suaveolens have a prebiotic potential characterized by a delayed but long lasting effect.

  10. Influence of nutrient factors on production of mucilage by Amphora coffeaeformis var. perpusilla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, Elena; Gianna, Roberto; Marchiori, Enrico; Bruno, Milena

    1997-08-01

    Widely distributed productions of mucilages affected the coasts of the Adriatic sea in the summers of 1988, 1989 and 1991 (the so-called "dirty sea" phenomenon). Samples taken in this area revealed a mix of diatom and dinoflagellate algae trapped in the mucilagenous matrix, but cultured isolates from the samples showed the species Amphora coffeaeformis var. perpusilla producing a kind of exopolysaccharide (EPS) very similar in structure to that of the floating pillows which appear in the Adriatic waters. The effects of growing concentrations of primary nutrients on EPS production by A. coffeaeformis were evaluated and the results showed a prevailing influence of nitrogen, alone or in synergy with phosphorus, with respect to phosphorus alone. EPS production never stopped, even during the stationary phase and never overlapped with growth curves. 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

  11. Collection of gravitropic effectors from mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fondren, W. M.; Moore, R.

    1987-01-01

    We placed agar blocks adjacent to tips of electrotropically stimulated primary roots of Zea mays. Blocks placed adjacent to the anode-side of the roots for 3 h induced significant curvature when subsequently placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Curvature was always toward the side of the root unto which the agar block was placed. Agar blocks not contacting roots and blocks placed adjacent to the cathode-side of electrotropically stimulated roots did not induce significant curvature when placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry indicated that blocks adjacent to the anode-side of electrotropically-stimulated roots contained significantly more calcium than (1) blocks not contacting roots, and (2) blocks contacting the cathode-side of roots. These results demonstrate the presence of a gradient of endogenous Ca in mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots (i.e. roots undergoing gravitropic-like curvature).

  12. Changes in Osmotic Pressure and Mucilage during Low-Temperature Acclimation of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, G; Nobel, P S

    1991-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism plant cultivated for its fruits and cladodes, was used to examine chemical and physiological events accompanying low-temperature acclimation. Changes in osmotic pressure, water content, low molecular weight solutes, and extracellular mucilage were monitored in the photosynthetic chlorenchyma and the water-storage parenchyma when plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30/20 degrees C were shifted to 10/0 degrees C. An increase in osmotic pressure of 0.13 megapascal occurred after 13 days at 10/0 degrees C. Synthesis of glucose, fructose, and glycerol accounted for most of the observed increase in osmotic pressure during the low-temperature acclimation. Extracellular mucilage and the relative apoplastic water content increased by 24 and 10%, respectively, during exposure to low temperatures. These increases apparently favor the extracellular nucleation of ice closer to the equilibrium freezing temperature for plants at 10/0 degrees C, which could make the cellular dehydration more gradual and less damaging. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies helped elucidate the cellular processes during ice formation, such as those revealed by changes in the relaxation times of two water fractions in the chlorenchyma. The latter results suggested a restricted mobility of intracellular water and an increased mobility of extracellular water for plants at 10/0 degrees C compared with those at 30/20 degrees C. Increased mobility of extracellular water could facilitate extracellular ice growth and thus delay the potentially lethal intracellular freezing during low-temperature acclimation.

  13. Growth under visible light increases conidia and mucilage production and tolerance to UV-B radiation in the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Henrique D; Massola, Nelson S; Flint, Stephan D; Silva, Geraldo J; Bachmann, Luciano; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto U L

    2015-01-01

    Light conditions can influence fungal development. Some spectral wavebands can induce conidial production, whereas others can kill the conidia, reducing the population size and limiting dispersal. The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose in several crops. During the asexual stage on the host plant, Colletototrichum produces acervuli with abundant mucilage-embedded conidia. These conidia are responsible for fungal dispersal and host infection. This study examined the effect of visible light during C. acutatum growth on the production of conidia and mucilage and also on the UV tolerance of these conidia. Conidial tolerance to an environmentally realistic UV irradiance was determined both in conidia surrounded by mucilage on sporulating colonies and in conidial suspension. Exposures to visible light during fungal growth increased production of conidia and mucilage as well as conidial tolerance to UV. Colonies exposed to light produced 1.7 times more conidia than colonies grown in continuous darkness. The UV tolerances of conidia produced under light were at least two times higher than conidia produced in the dark. Conidia embedded in the mucilage on sporulating colonies were more tolerant of UV than conidia in suspension that were washed free of mucilage. Conidial tolerance to UV radiation varied among five selected isolates.

  14. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5’-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5’-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage. PMID:16865772

  15. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 Promotes Arabidopsis Mucilage Release by Limiting Methylesterification of Homogalacturonan in Seed Coat Epidermal Cells[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Botran, Lucy; Ropartz, David; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Imbibed seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Djarly are affected in mucilage release from seed coat epidermal cells. The impaired locus was identified as a pectin methylesterase inhibitor gene, PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 (PMEI6), specifically expressed in seed coat epidermal cells at the time when mucilage polysaccharides are accumulated. This spatio-temporal regulation appears to be modulated by GLABRA2 and LEUNIG HOMOLOG/MUCILAGE MODIFIED1, as expression of PMEI6 is reduced in mutants of these transcription regulators. In pmei6, mucilage release was delayed and outer cell walls of epidermal cells did not fragment. Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) demethylate homogalacturonan (HG), and the majority of HG found in wild-type mucilage was in fact derived from outer cell wall fragments. This correlated with the absence of methylesterified HG labeling in pmei6, whereas transgenic plants expressing the PMEI6 coding sequence under the control of the 35S promoter had increased labeling of cell wall fragments. Activity tests on seeds from pmei6 and 35S:PMEI6 transgenic plants showed that PMEI6 inhibits endogenous PME activities, in agreement with reduced overall methylesterification of mucilage fractions and demucilaged seeds. Another regulator of PME activity in seed coat epidermal cells, the subtilisin-like Ser protease SBT1.7, acts on different PMEs, as a pmei6 sbt1.7 mutant showed an additive phenotype. PMID:23362209

  16. Incubation and Intuition in Creative Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation. PMID:27499745

  17. Edible film production from chia seed mucilage: Effect of glycerol concentration on its physicochemical and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Dick, Melina; Costa, Tania Maria Haas; Gomaa, Ahmed; Subirade, Muriel; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Flôres, Simone Hickmann

    2015-10-05

    This study investigated the physicochemical and mechanical properties of a novel edible film based on chia mucilage (CM) hydrocolloid. CM (1% w/v) films were prepared by incorporation of three concentrations of glycerol (25%, 50%, and 75% w/w, based on CM weight). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), elongation at break (EB), and water solubility of CM films increased while their tensile strength (TS), and Young's modulus (YM) decreased significantly (p<0.05). CM films containing a high concentration of glycerol were slightly reddish and yellowish in color but still had a transparent appearance. CM films exhibited excellent absorption of ultraviolet light, and good thermal stability. The scanning electron micrographs showed that all CM films had a uniform appearance. This study demonstrated that the chia mucilage hydrocolloid has important properties and potential as an edible film, or coating.

  18. Micro-incubator for bacterial biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clasen, Estine; Land, Kevin; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen

    2016-02-01

    The presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli ) is a commonly used indicator micro-organism to determine whether water is safe for human consumption.1 This paper discusses the design of a micro-incubator that can be applied to concentrate bacteria prior to environmental water quality screening tests. High sensitivity and rapid test time is essential and there is a great need for these tests to be implemented on-site without the use of a laboratory infrastructure. In the light of these requirements, a mobile micro-incubator was designed, manufactured and characterised. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) receptacle has been designed to house the 1-5 ml cell culture sample.2 A nano-silver printed electronics micro-heater has been designed to incubate the bacterial sample, with an array of temperature sensors implemented to accurately measure the sample temperature at various locations in the cell culture well. The micro-incubator limits the incubation temperature range to 37+/-3 °C in order to ensure near optimal growth of the bacteria at all times.3 The incubation time is adjustable between 30 minutes and 9 hours with a maximum rise time of 15 minutes to reach the set-point temperature. The surface area of the printed nano silver heating element is 500 mm2. Electrical and COMSOL Multiphysics simulations are included in order to give insight on micro-incubator temperature control. The design and characterization of this micro-incubator allows for further research in biosensing applications.

  19. An Inexpensive Incubator for the Biology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Describes the construction of an insulated wooden wall incubator that combines excellent temperature control over the usual operating range with easy electrical access, low cost, and a wide potential size range. Presents a temperature- monitoring circuit, designed to measure the small temperature variations within the incubator, which could…

  20. Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark

    One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

  1. Incubation energetics of the Laysan Albatross.

    PubMed

    Pettit, T N; Nagy, K A; Ellis, H I; Whittow, G C

    1988-01-01

    The energy expenditure of incubating and foraging Laysan Albatross (Diomedea immutabilis, mean body weight 3.07 kg) was estimated by means of the doubly-labelled water technique. During incubation, the energy expenditure was similar to that of resting birds that were not incubating an egg. The energy expenditure of foraging albatross (2072 kJ/day) was 2.6 times that of resting birds. It was concluded that the energy expenditure of the tropical Laysan Albatross was not less than that of species foraging over cold, high-latitude oceans. An energy budget compiled for an incubating pair of albatross revealed that the energy expenditure of the female was greater than that of the male bird, during the incubation period.

  2. Active noise control for infant incubators.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xun; Gujjula, Shruthi; Kuo, Sen M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an active noise control system for infant incubators. Experimental results show that global noise reduction can be achieved for infant incubator ANC systems. An audio-integration algorithm is presented to introduce a healthy audio (intrauterine) sound with the ANC system to mask the residual noise and soothe the infant. Carbon nanotube based transparent thin film speaker is also introduced in this paper as the actuator for the ANC system to generate the destructive secondary sound, which can significantly save the congested incubator space and without blocking the view of doctors and nurses.

  3. Seeds' physicochemical traits and mucilage protection against aluminum effect during germination and root elongation as important factors in a biofuel seed crop (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Silva, Giovanni Eustáquio Alves; Ramos, Flávia Toledo; de Faria, Ana Paula; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-10-01

    We determined the length, volume, dry biomass, and density in seeds of five castor bean cultivars and verified notable physicochemical trait differences. Seeds were then subjected to different toxic aluminum (Al) concentrations to evaluate germination, relative root elongation, and the role of root apices' rhizosphere mucilage layer. Seeds' physicochemical traits were associated with Al toxicity responses, and the absence of Al in cotyledons near to the embryo was revealed by Al-hematoxylin staining, indicating that Al did not induce significant germination reduction rates between cultivars. However, in the more sensitive cultivar, Al was found around the embryo, contributing to subsequent growth inhibition. After this, to investigate the role of mucilage in Al tolerance, an assay was conducted using NH4Cl to remove root mucilage before or after exposure to different Al concentrations. Sequentially, the roots were stained with hematoxylin and a quantitative analysis of staining intensity was obtained. These results revealed the significant contribution of the mucilage layer to Al toxicity responses in castor bean seedlings. Root growth elongation under Al toxicity confirmed the role of the mucilage layer, which jointly indicated the differential Al tolerance between cultivars and an efficient Al-exclusion mechanism in the tolerant cultivar.

  4. Neurobiology of the incubation of drug craving

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, Charles L.; Airavaara, Mikko; Theberge, Florence; Fanous, Sanya; Hope, Bruce T.; Shaham, Yavin

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested in 1986 that cue-induced drug craving in cocaine addicts progressively increases over the first several weeks of abstinence and remains high for extended periods. During the last decade, investigators have identified an analogous incubation phenomenon in rodents, in which time-dependent increases in cue-induced drug seeking are observed after withdrawal from intravenous cocaine self-administration. Such an incubation of drug craving is not specific to cocaine, as similar findings have been observed after self-administration of heroin, nicotine, methamphetamine, and alcohol in rats. In this review, we discuss recent results that have identified important brain regions involved in the incubation of drug craving, as well as evidence for the underlying cellular mechanisms. Understanding the neurobiology of the incubation of drug craving in rodents is likely to have significant implications for furthering our understanding of brain mechanisms and circuits that underlie drug craving in human addicts. PMID:21764143

  5. Molecular dimensions and structural features of neutral polysaccharides from the seed mucilage of Hyptis suaveolens L.

    PubMed

    Praznik, Werner; Čavarkapa, Andrea; Unger, Frank M; Loeppert, Renate; Holzer, Wolfgang; Viernstein, Helmut; Mueller, Monika

    2017-04-15

    The seed mucilage of Hyptis suaveolens L. includes acid - and neutral heteropolysaccharides in a ratio of about 1:1. The anionic charged fraction responsible for swelling and viscous behaviour possesses an average molar mass of Mw=350kg/mol, Mn=255kg/mol. The neutral polysaccharide fraction shows an average molar mass of Mw=47kg/mol and Mn=28kg/mol and is composed of d-Galp-, d-Glcp- and d-Manp residues in a molar ratio of about 3:2:1. The structural features present galactoglucan (30%) and galactoglucomannan (70%) with a high level of terminal β-linked d-Galp residues (18%). Structural details of galactoglucomannan are derived by combined enzymatic and chemical methods as well as NMR spectroscopy. Sequences of octa/nonasaccharide β-d-Glcp-(1→4)[β-d-Galp-(1→2)-α-d-Galp-(1→6)]-β-d-Manp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→4)[β-d-Galp-(1→2)-α-d-Galp-(1→6)]-β-d-Manp and lower mass tetrasaccharide repeating units β-d-Glcp-(1→4)[β-d-Galp-(1→2)-α-d-Galp-(1→6)]-β-d-Manp were found. The level of the prebiotic activity is related to the availability of β-linked d-Galp residues in the side chains of the molecules.

  6. The impact of mucilage on root water uptake—A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, N.; Carminati, A.; Javaux, M.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of water between soil and plants follows the gradient in water potential and depends on the hydraulic properties of the soil and the root. In models for root water uptake (RWU), it is usually assumed that the hydraulic properties near the plant root (i.e., in the rhizosphere) and in the bulk soil are identical. Yet a growing body of evidence has shown that the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere are affected by root exudates (specifically, mucilage) and markedly differ from those of the bulk soil. In this work, we couple a 3-D detailed description of RWU with a model that accounts for the rhizosphere-specific properties (i.e., rhizosphere hydraulic properties and a nonequilibrium relation between water content and matric head). We show that as the soil dries out (due to water uptake), the higher water holding capacity of the rhizosphere results in a delay of the stress onset. During rewetting, nonequilibrium results in a slower increase of the rhizosphere water content. Furthermore, the inverse relation between water content and relaxation time implies that the drier is the rhizosphere the longer it takes to rewet. Another outcome of nonequilibrium is the small fluctuation of the rhizosphere water content compared to the bulk soil. Overall, our numerical results are in agreement with recent experimental data and provide a tool to further examine the impact of various rhizosphere processes on RWU and water dynamics.

  7. Differences in glycosyltransferase family 61 accompany variation in seed coat mucilage composition in Plantago spp.

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Jana L.; Tucker, Matthew R.; Khor, Shi Fang; Shirley, Neil; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie; Bacic, Antony; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago genus to examine variation in heteroxylan composition and structure in seed coat mucilage. Compositional assays were combined with analysis of the glycosyltransferase family 61 (GT61) family during seed coat development, with the aim of identifying GT61 sequences participating in xylan backbone substitution. The results reveal natural variation in heteroxylan content and structure, particularly in P. ovata and P. cunninghamii, species which show a similar amount of heteroxylan but different backbone substitution profiles. Analysis of the GT61 family identified specific sequences co-expressed with IRREGULAR XYLEM 10 genes, which encode putative xylan synthases, revealing a close temporal association between xylan synthesis and substitution. Moreover, in P. ovata, several abundant GT61 sequences appear to lack orthologues in P. cunninghamii. Our results indicate that natural variation in Plantago species can be exploited to reveal novel details of seed coat development and polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27856710

  8. Physical, barrier and antioxidant properties of a novel plasticized edible film from quince seed mucilage.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of quince seed mucilage (QSM) as a new source for preparation of edible films and determined the physical, mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, microstructural and thermal properties. QSM films were prepared by incorporation of three levels of glycerol (25-50%, w/w). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability (O2P), elongation at break (EB), water solubility and moisture content of QSM films increased while, tensile strength (TS), density and surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly. The measurement of color values showed that by the increasing of the glycerol concentration in polymer matrix, the b and L values increased while ΔE value decreased. Microscopic views indicated smooth and uniform surface morphology without obvious cracks, breaks, or openings on the surfaces after the incorporation of glycerol as a plasticizer. The results of the present study suggest that QSM as a new antioxidant edible film with interesting specifications can potentially be used for packaging of a wide range of food products.

  9. Characterization of antioxidant-antibacterial quince seed mucilage films containing thyme essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In this study thyme essential oil (TEO) concentrations ranging from 0% to 2.0%, incorporated in quince seed mucilage (QSM) film were used. Antibacterial activity, physical, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties of QSM films were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of the QSM films incorporated with thyme essential oil was screened against 11 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. Films containing 1% of thyme essential oil were effective against all test microorganisms and exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Shewanella putrefaciens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. QSM films exhibited some antioxidant activity, which was significantly improved by the addition of the essential oil. A reduction of the glass transition temperature, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), was caused by addition of thyme essential oil into the QSM films. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to explain structure-property relationships. Incorporating thyme essential oil into edible QSM films provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods.

  10. Subfunctionalization of Cellulose Synthases in Seed Coat Epidermal Cells Mediates Secondary Radial Wall Synthesis and Mucilage Attachment1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mendu, Venugopal; Griffiths, Jonathan S.; Persson, Staffan; Stork, Jozsef; Downie, A. Bruce; Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Haughn, George W.; DeBolt, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) epidermal seed coat cells follow a complex developmental program where, following fertilization, cells of the ovule outer integument differentiate into a unique cell type. Two hallmarks of these cells are the production of a doughnut-shaped apoplastic pocket filled with pectinaceous mucilage and the columella, a thick secondary cell wall. Cellulose is thought to be a key component of both these secondary cell wall processes. Here, we investigated the role of cellulose synthase (CESA) subunits CESA2, CESA5, and CESA9 in the seed coat epidermis. We characterized the roles of these CESA proteins in the seed coat by analyzing cell wall composition and morphology in cesa mutant lines. Mutations in any one of these three genes resulted in lower cellulose content, a loss of cell shape uniformity, and reduced radial wall integrity. In addition, we found that attachment of the mucilage halo to the parent seed following extrusion is maintained by cellulose-based connections requiring CESA5. Hence, we show that cellulose fulfills an adhesion role between the extracellular mucilage matrix and the parent cell in seed coat epidermal cells. We propose that mucilage remains attached to the seed coat through interactions between components in the seed mucilage and cellulose. Our data suggest that CESA2 and CESA9 serve in radial wall reinforcement, as does CESA5, but CESA5 also functions in mucilage biosynthesis. These data suggest unique roles for different CESA subunits in one cell type and illustrate a complex role for cellulose biosynthesis in plant developmental biology. PMID:21750228

  11. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  12. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator

    PubMed Central

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. Methods The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Results Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. Conclusion The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost. PMID:22167517

  13. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  14. National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

  15. Gastroprotective effect of aqueous extract and mucilage from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhishek L.; Bhot, Meeta A.; Chandra, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bryophyllum pinnatum is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Tropical America and China for treatment of various diseases. B. pinnatum contains different groups of phytoconstituents viz., flavonoid, terpenoids, alkaloid, phenolic compounds. Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. pinnatum whole plant aqueous extract, and mucilage (MUC) isolated from the whole plant against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract at dose level of 500 and 750 mg/kg b.w., MUC at 500 mg/kg dose level and standard drug Rabeprazole at dose level of 20 mg/kg b.w. where given for 7 days. Results: The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg p.o. and MUC at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. markedly decrease the incidence of ulcers in ethanol induced ulcer rats. In ethanol induced ulcer rats, there was a decrease in the gastric volume, free and total acidity and ulcerative index as compared to the control group. Total carbohydrate content was found to be an increase as compare to control the group. The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in the above parameters which was comparable to the standard drug rabeprazole (20 mg/kg). B. pinnatum extract and MUC showed protection index 72.69 and 69.65% respectively, whereas standard drug rabeprazole showed protection index 75.49%. Conclusions: Whole plant extracts of B. pinnatum and MUC has potent gastroprotective effect which can be further clinically studied for new drug development. PMID:25593406

  16. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540...

  19. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540...

  20. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540...

  1. Pavlovian Incubation of US Signal Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Murray J.

    2013-01-01

    Four experiments with rats examined Pavlovian incubation, in which responding increases when Pavlovian conditioning is followed by a testing delay. In a within-subjects design, Experiment 1 first showed that when a single food pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) signaled the delivery of three additional pellets, responding after the single US was…

  2. Development of an Educational Innovation Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Odin; Kerr, Shantia

    2010-01-01

    The Educational Innovation Incubator is an electronic classroom designed to evolve at the University of Central Missouri. This newly enacted endeavor is a place for faculty and students to combine the scholarship of teaching and learning into their courses by experimenting with the latest technologies in education. This paper describes the process…

  3. 21 CFR 880.5400 - Neonatal incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neonatal incubator. 880.5400 Section 880.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic...

  4. Incubational domain characterization in lightly doped ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhipeng; Mori, Toshiyuki; John Auchterlonie, Graeme; Zou Jin; Drennan, John

    2012-08-15

    Microstructures of both Gd- and Y-doped ceria with different doping level (i.e., 10 at% and 25 at%) have been comprehensively characterized by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Coherent nano-sized domains can be widely observed in heavily doped ceria. Nevertheless, it was found that a large amount of dislocations actually exist in lightly doped ceria instead of heavily doped ones. Furthermore, incubational domains can be detected in lightly doped ceria, with dislocations located at the interfaces. The interactions between such linear dislocations and dopant defects have been simulated accordingly. As a consequence, the formation mechanism of incubational domains is rationalized in terms of the interaction between intrinsic dislocations of doped ceria and dopant defects. This study offers the insights into the initial state and related mechanism of the formation of nano-sized domains, which have been widely observed in heavily rare-earth-doped ceria in recent years. - Graphical abstract: Interactions between dislocations and dopants lead to incubational domain formation in lightly doped ceria. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures were characterized in both heavily and light Gd-/Y-doped ceria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocations are existed in lightly doped ceria rather than heavily doped one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interactions between dislocations and dopant defects were simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of dislocation associated incubational domain is rationalized.

  5. COBRA-LIKE2, a Member of the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored COBRA-LIKE Family, Plays a Role in Cellulose Deposition in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Secretory Cells1,2[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tov, Daniela; Abraham, Yael; Stav, Shira; Thompson, Kevin; Loraine, Ann; Elbaum, Rivka; de Souza, Amancio; Pauly, Markus; Kieber, Joseph J.; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of the maternally derived seed coat epidermal cells into mucilage secretory cells is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Recent studies identified cellulose as an important component of seed mucilage in various species. Cellulose is deposited as a set of rays that radiate from the seed upon mucilage extrusion, serving to anchor the pectic component of seed mucilage to the seed surface. Using transcriptome data encompassing the course of seed development, we identified COBRA-LIKE2 (COBL2), a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), as coexpressed with other genes involved in cellulose deposition in mucilage secretory cells. Disruption of the COBL2 gene results in substantial reduction in the rays of cellulose present in seed mucilage, along with an increased solubility of the pectic component of the mucilage. Light birefringence demonstrates a substantial decrease in crystalline cellulose deposition into the cellulosic rays of the cobl2 mutants. Moreover, crystalline cellulose deposition into the radial cell walls and the columella appears substantially compromised, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and in situ quantification of light birefringence. Overall, the cobl2 mutants display about 40% reduction in whole-seed crystalline cellulose content compared with the wild type. These data establish that COBL2 plays a role in the deposition of crystalline cellulose into various secondary cell wall structures during seed coat epidermal cell differentiation. PMID:25583925

  6. Mid Columbia sturgeon incubation and rearing study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric; Blubaugh, J

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results from the second year of a three-year investigation on the effects of different thermal regimes on incubation and rearing early life stages of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The Columbia River has been significantly altered by the construction of dams resulting in annual flows and water temperatures that differ from historical levels. White sturgeon have been demonstrated to spawn in two very distinct sections of the Columbia River in British Columbia, Canada, which are both located immediately downstream of hydropower facilities. The thermal regimes differ substantially between these two areas. The general approach of this study was to incubate and rear white sturgeon early life stages under two thermal regimes; one mimicking the current, cool water regime of the Columbia River downstream from Revelstoke Dam, and one mimicking a warmer regime similar to conditions found on the Columbia River at the international border. Second-year results suggest that thermal regimes during incubation influence rate of egg development and size at hatch. Eggs incubated under the warm thermal regime hatched sooner than those incubated under the cool thermal regime. Mean length of free embryos at hatch was significantly different between thermal regimes with free embryos from the warm thermal regime being longer at hatch. However, free embryos from the cool thermal regime had a significantly higher mean weight at hatch. This is in contrast with results obtained during 2009. The rearing trials revealed that growth of fish reared in the cool thermal regime was substantially less than growth of fish reared in the warm thermal regime. The magnitude of mortality was greatest in the warm thermal regime prior to initiation of exogenous feeding, but chronic low levels of mortality in the cool thermal regime were higher throughout the period. The starvation trials showed that the fish in the warm thermal regime exhausted their yolk reserves faster

  7. Use of coffee mucilage as a new substrate for hydrogen production in anaerobic co-digestion with swine manure.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mario Andrés; Rodríguez Susa, Manuel; Andres, Yves

    2014-09-01

    Coffee mucilage (CM), a novel substrate produced as waste from agricultural activity in Colombia, the largest fourth coffee producer in the world, was used for hydrogen production. The study evaluated three ratios (C1-3) for co-digestion of CM and swine manure (SM), and an increase in organic load to improve hydrogen production (C4). The hydrogen production was improved by a C/N ratio of 53.4 used in C2 and C4. The average hydrogen production rate in C4 was 7.6 NL H2/LCMd, which indicates a high hydrogen potential compare to substrates such as POME and wheat starch. In this condition, the biogas composition was 0.1%, 50.6% and 39.0% of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, respectively. The butyric and acetic fermentation pathways were the main routes identified during hydrogen production which kept a Bu/Ac ratio at around 1.0. A direct relationship between coffee mucilage, biogas and cumulative hydrogen volume was established.

  8. UUAT1 Is a Golgi-Localized UDP-Uronic Acid Transporter That Modulates the Polysaccharide Composition of Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage.

    PubMed

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rautengarten, Carsten; Temple, Henry; Sanhueza, Dayan; Ejsmentewicz, Troy; Sandoval-Ibañez, Omar; Doñas, Daniela; Parra-Rojas, Juan Pablo; Ebert, Berit; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude; Dupree, Paul; Scheller, Henrik V; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Reyes, Francisca C; Orellana, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) is the precursor of many plant cell wall polysaccharides and is required for production of seed mucilage. Following synthesis in the cytosol, it is transported into the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, where it is converted to UDP-galacturonic acid (UDP-GalA), UDP-arabinose, and UDP-xylose. To identify the Golgi-localized UDP-GlcA transporter, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in genes coding for putative nucleotide sugar transporters for altered seed mucilage, a structure rich in the GalA-containing polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I. As a result, we identified UUAT1, which encodes a Golgi-localized protein that transports UDP-GlcA and UDP-GalA in vitro. The seed coat of uuat1 mutants had less GalA, rhamnose, and xylose in the soluble mucilage, and the distal cell walls had decreased arabinan content. Cell walls of other organs and cells had lower arabinose levels in roots and pollen tubes, but no differences were observed in GalA or xylose contents. Furthermore, the GlcA content of glucuronoxylan in the stem was not affected in the mutant. Interestingly, the degree of homogalacturonan methylation increased in uuat1 These results suggest that this UDP-GlcA transporter plays a key role defining the seed mucilage sugar composition and that its absence produces pleiotropic effects in this component of the plant extracellular matrix.

  9. UUAT1 Is a Golgi-Localized UDP-Uronic Acid Transporter That Modulates the Polysaccharide Composition of Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rautengarten, Carsten; Temple, Henry; Sanhueza, Dayan; Ejsmentewicz, Troy; Sandoval-Ibañez, Omar; Parra-Rojas, Juan Pablo; Ebert, Berit; Reyes, Francisca C.

    2017-01-01

    UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) is the precursor of many plant cell wall polysaccharides and is required for production of seed mucilage. Following synthesis in the cytosol, it is transported into the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, where it is converted to UDP-galacturonic acid (UDP-GalA), UDP-arabinose, and UDP-xylose. To identify the Golgi-localized UDP-GlcA transporter, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in genes coding for putative nucleotide sugar transporters for altered seed mucilage, a structure rich in the GalA-containing polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I. As a result, we identified UUAT1, which encodes a Golgi-localized protein that transports UDP-GlcA and UDP-GalA in vitro. The seed coat of uuat1 mutants had less GalA, rhamnose, and xylose in the soluble mucilage, and the distal cell walls had decreased arabinan content. Cell walls of other organs and cells had lower arabinose levels in roots and pollen tubes, but no differences were observed in GalA or xylose contents. Furthermore, the GlcA content of glucuronoxylan in the stem was not affected in the mutant. Interestingly, the degree of homogalacturonan methylation increased in uuat1. These results suggest that this UDP-GlcA transporter plays a key role defining the seed mucilage sugar composition and that its absence produces pleiotropic effects in this component of the plant extracellular matrix. PMID:28062750

  10. The e-Incubator: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Compatible Mini Incubator

    PubMed Central

    Wartella, Karin; Khalilzad Sharghi, Vahid; Xu, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    The tissue engineering community has been vocal regarding the need for noninvasive instruments to assess the development of tissue-engineered constructs. Medical imaging has helped fulfill this role. However, specimens allocated to a test tube for imaging cannot be tested for a prolonged period or returned to the incubator. Therefore, samples are essentially wasted due to potential contamination and transfer in a less than optimal growth environment. In turn, we present a standalone, miniature, magnetic resonance imaging-compatible incubator, termed the e-incubator. This incubator uses a microcontroller unit to automatically sense and regulate physiological conditions for tissue culture, thus allowing for concurrent tissue culture and evaluation. The e-incubator also offers an innovative scheme to study underlying mechanisms related to the structural and functional evolution of tissues. Importantly, it offers a key step toward enabling real-time testing of engineered tissues before human transplantation. For validation purposes, we cultured tissue-engineered bone constructs for 4 weeks to test the e-incubator. Importantly, this technology allows for visualizing the evolution of temporal and spatial morphogenesis. In turn, the e-incubator can filter deficient constructs, thereby increasing the success rate of implantation of tissue-engineered constructs, especially as construct design grows in levels of complexity to match the geometry and function of patients' unique needs. PMID:25190214

  11. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  12. Experimental Investigation on Role of Root Mucilage and Microbial Exudates on Soil Water Retention Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrenegus, T. B.; Ghezzehei, T.

    2011-12-01

    The release of organic molecules by soil microbes and plant roots to adapt their surrounding represents a substantial portion of the energy use by these organisms. The hypothesis in this study is that the long-chain molecules and hydrophilic nature of the released organic compounds deposited on soil surfaces drastically alters the dynamism of the soil water retention curves (SWRC) of the rhizosphere relative to the bulk soil through direct effect besides the well-known indirect influence of the organic matter by modifying the soil structure and providing energy for the biogeochemical processes. The experiment was set up in such away that it suppresses the indirect effect of organic matter (OM) and rather it traces only its immediate effect on SWRC. To achieve this goal inert and uniform size (0.1-0.11 mm) glassbeads were used. We assumed that wet mixing of the glass beads with OM and slow drying the mixture (40-50oC) for 1-day will lead to deposition of the OM only at the surface of the glass beads, the short time being not enough for aggregate formation. This way we can simulate the natural deposition of OM on soil surfaces. Our argument is that this deposited OM has its own distinct time-dependent SWRC which is different from that of bulk soil. Model exudates including PGA, XA, and SPA are used to mimic the behavior of plant root mucilages, bacterial and fungal exudates respectively. These model exudates at varying concentration (0, 0.008, 0.04, and 0.2 gm/l) were wet mixed with glass beads. SWRC was determined using both water-hanging column and pressure plate for both low and high suction ranges respectively. We will present the effect of exudate type and level of concentration on the dynamic behavior of SWRC of the glassbeads by determining: i) the SWRC for each treatment; ii) the rate of drying and wetting at different intervals; iii) the hysteresis of the retention curves; iv) the saturated hydraulic conductivity.

  13. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  14. An Introduction to Developing an Urban Business Incubator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James; And Others

    Designed to provide a brief overview of the considerations involved in establishing a small business incubator, this guide presents information on incubator classification, funding methods, incubator operation techniques, and two-year college involvement in the formation of a working business incubator. Part 1 describes a small business incubator…

  15. Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

  16. Physics Incubator at Kansas State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Bret; Chakrabarti, Amitabha

    Funded by a major private endowment, the physics department at Kansas State University has recently started a physics incubator program that provides support to research projects with a high probability of commercial application. Some examples of these projects will be discussed in this talk. In a parallel effort, undergraduate physics majors and graduate students are being encouraged to work with our business school to earn an Entrepreneurship minor and a certification in Entrepreneurship. We will discuss how these efforts are promoting a ``culture change'' in the department. We will also discuss the advantages and the difficulties in running such a program in a Midwest college town.

  17. Changes in Osmotic Pressure and Mucilage during Low-Temperature Acclimation of Opuntia ficus-indica 1

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Guillermo; Nobel, Park S.

    1991-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism plant cultivated for its fruits and cladodes, was used to examine chemical and physiological events accompanying low-temperature acclimation. Changes in osmotic pressure, water content, low molecular weight solutes, and extracellular mucilage were monitored in the photosynthetic chlorenchyma and the water-storage parenchyma when plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30/20°C were shifted to 10/0°C. An increase in osmotic pressure of 0.13 megapascal occurred after 13 days at 10/0°C. Synthesis of glucose, fructose, and glycerol accounted for most of the observed increase in osmotic pressure during the low-temperature acclimation. Extracellular mucilage and the relative apoplastic water content increased by 24 and 10%, respectively, during exposure to low temperatures. These increases apparently favor the extracellular nucleation of ice closer to the equilibrium freezing temperature for plants at 10/0°C, which could make the cellular dehydration more gradual and less damaging. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies helped elucidate the cellular processes during ice formation, such as those revealed by changes in the relaxation times of two water fractions in the chlorenchyma. The latter results suggested a restricted mobility of intracellular water and an increased mobility of extracellular water for plants at 10/0°C compared with those at 30/20°C. Increased mobility of extracellular water could facilitate extracellular ice growth and thus delay the potentially lethal intracellular freezing during low-temperature acclimation. PMID:16668536

  18. Factors related to the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.; Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Kondrad, Shannon R.

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to artificially incubate the eggs of wild birds have failed in many respects in duplicating the success of natural incubation. As part of a larger study we had the opportunity to artificially incubate the eggs of 22 species of birds (three domestic and 19 wild species). We report the successes and failures associated with artificial incubation of these eggs. Moisture loss varied widely, not only for Orders of birds but for similar species within an Order. Overall hatching success and success through to 90% of incubation varied for different Orders and for similar species. Humidity and temperature are critical elements in the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs and must be closely monitored throughout incubation to ensure the best possible chance of hatching. Even when these elements are addressed, artificial incubation still can not duplicate the success of incubation by the parent.

  19. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in waterbird nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ± 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ± 1.6 days and 1.9 ± 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ± 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ± 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates.

  20. Sleep Regulates Incubation of Cocaine Craving

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    After withdrawal from cocaine, chronic cocaine users often experience persistent reduction in total sleep time, which is accompanied by increased sleep fragmentation resembling chronic insomnia. This and other sleep abnormalities have long been speculated to foster relapse and further drug addiction, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we report that after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited persistent reduction in nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, as well as increased sleep fragmentation. In an attempt to improve sleep after cocaine withdrawal, we applied chronic sleep restriction to the rats during their active (dark) phase of the day, which selectively decreased the fragmentation of REM sleep during their inactive (light) phase without changing NREM or the total amount of daily sleep. Animals with improved REM sleep exhibited decreased incubation of cocaine craving, a phenomenon depicting the progressive intensification of cocaine seeking after withdrawal. In contrast, experimentally increasing sleep fragmentation after cocaine self-administration expedited the development of incubation of cocaine craving. Incubation of cocaine craving is partially mediated by progressive accumulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After withdrawal from cocaine, animals with improved REM sleep exhibited reduced accumulation of CP-AMPARs in the NAc, whereas increasing sleep fragmentation accelerated NAc CP-AMPAR accumulation. These results reveal a potential molecular substrate that can be engaged by sleep to regulate cocaine craving and relapse, and demonstrate sleep-based therapeutic opportunities for cocaine addiction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sleep abnormalities are common symptoms in chronic drug users long after drug withdrawal. These withdrawal-associated sleep symptoms, particularly reduction in total sleep time and deteriorating sleep quality, have been

  1. Does incubation enhance problem solving? A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Sio, Ut Na; Ormerod, Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of empirical studies that have investigated incubation effects on problem solving is reported. Although some researchers have reported increased solution rates after an incubation period (i.e., a period of time in which a problem is set aside prior to further attempts to solve), others have failed to find effects. The analysis examined the contributions of moderators such as problem type, presence of solution-relevant or misleading cues, and lengths of preparation and incubation periods to incubation effect sizes. The authors identified a positive incubation effect, with divergent thinking tasks benefiting more than linguistic and visual insight tasks from incubation. Longer preparation periods gave a greater incubation effect, whereas filling an incubation period with high cognitive demand tasks gave a smaller incubation effect. Surprisingly, low cognitive demand tasks yielded a stronger incubation effect than did rest during an incubation period when solving linguistic insight problems. The existence of multiple types of incubation effect provides evidence for differential invocation of knowledge-based vs. strategic solution processes across different classes of problem, and it suggests that the conditions under which incubation can be used as a practical technique for enhancing problem solving must be designed with care.

  2. Expression of PRX36, PMEI6 and SBT1.7 is controlled by complex transcription factor regulatory networks for proper seed coat mucilage extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Ranocha, Philippe; Francoz, Edith; Burlat, Vincent; Dunand, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage secretory cells (MSC) form an intriguing cell layer important for seed germination. In Arabidopsis thaliana, several master transcription factors (TFs) and “actor” proteins have already been identified as key players for seed coat differentiation including epidermal cell formation, mucilage production and extrusion. The regulation of the genes coding for MSC cell wall “actor” proteins by TFs needs to be better established. Here, the expression and the regulation of 3 known actors (PRX36, PMEI6, SBT1.7) and 2 additional putative actors (PRX56, DIR12) have been analyzed in T-DNA mutants affected in master TFs (ap2, egl3/gl3, gl2, myb5, tt8, ttg1, ttg2 and luh1/mum1). Genes with somehow similar function are differentially regulated and conversely, genes with different functions are regulated in similar manner. PMID:25531128

  3. Transparent Plastic Incubator for the Anaerobic Glove Box

    PubMed Central

    Balish, Edward; Brown, James F.; Wilkins, Tracy D.

    1977-01-01

    An incubator designed for use inside an anaerobic glove box is described. The incubator is made of transparent plastic material, has sliding plastic doors, and can be made in various sizes from readily available materials. Images PMID:16345202

  4. Controlling droplet incubation using close-packed plug flow

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Pascaline; Abate, Adam R.; Agresti, Jeremy J.; Weitz, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling droplet incubation is critical for droplet-based microfluidic applications; however, current techniques are either of limited precision or place strict limits on the incubation times that can be achieved. Here, we present a simple technique to control incubation time by exploiting close-packed plug flow. In contrast to other techniques, this technique is applicable to very short and very long incubation times. PMID:21544238

  5. Input from Key Stakeholders in the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-31

    This report documents the input from key stakeholders of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) in developing a new technology incubator and related programs for southern New Mexico. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes identification of key stakeholders as well as a description and analysis of their input for the development of an incubator.

  6. Fermentative utilization of coffee mucilage using Bacillus coagulans and investigation of down-stream processing of fermentation broth for optically pure l(+)-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Neu, Anna-Katrin; Pleissner, Daniel; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    In this study, mucilage, a residue from coffee production, was investigated as substrate in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production. Mucilage was provided as liquid suspension consisting glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and sucrose as free sugars (up to 60gL(-1)), and used directly as medium in Bacillus coagulans batch fermentations carried out at 2 and 50L scales. Using mucilage and 5gL(-1) yeast extract as additional nitrogen source, more than 40gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained. Productivity and yield were 4-5gL(-1)h(-1) and 0.70-0.77g lactic acid per g of free sugars, respectively, irrespective the scale. Similar yield was found when no yeast extract was supplied, the productivity, however, was 1.5gL(-1)h(-1). Down-stream processing of culture broth, including filtration, electrodialysis, ion exchange chromatography and distillation, resulted in a pure lactic acid formulation containing 930gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid. Optical purity was 99.8%.

  7. Changes in pH and organic acids in mucilage of Eriophorum angustifolium roots after exposure to elevated concentrations of toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Javed, M Tariq; Stoltz, Eva; Lindberg, Sylvia; Greger, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The presence of Eriophorum angustifolium in mine tailings of pyrite maintains a neutral pH, despite weathering, thus lowering the release of toxic elements into acid mine drainage water. We investigated if the presence of slightly elevated levels of free toxic elements triggers the plant rhizosphere to change the pH towards neutral by increasing organic acid contents. Plants were treated with a combination of As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn at different concentrations in nutrient medium and in soil in a rhizobox-like system for 48-120 h. The pH and organic acids were detected in the mucilage dissolved from root surface, reflecting the rhizospheric solution. Also the pH of root-cell apoplasm was investigated. Both apoplasmic and mucilage pH increased and the concentrations of organic acids enhanced in the mucilage with slightly elevated levels of toxic elements. When organic acids concentration was high, also the pH was high. Thus, efflux of organic acids from the roots of E. angustifolium may induce rhizosphere basification.

  8. Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

  9. Stellar 'Incubators' Seen Cooking up Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

    This image composite compares visible-light and infrared views from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of the glowing Trifid Nebula, a giant star-forming cloud of gas and dust located 5,400 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius.

    Visible-light images of the Trifid taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Baltimore, Md. (inside left, figure 1) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., (outside left, figure 1) show a murky cloud lined with dark trails of dust. Data of this same region from the Institute for Radioastronomy millimeter telescope in Spain revealed four dense knots, or cores, of dust (outlined by yellow circles), which are 'incubators' for embryonic stars. Astronomers thought these cores were not yet ripe for stars, until Spitzer spotted the warmth of rapidly growing massive embryos tucked inside.

    These embryos are indicated with arrows in the false-color Spitzer picture (right, figure 1), taken by the telescope's infrared array camera. The same embryos cannot be seen in the visible-light pictures (left, figure 1). Spitzer found clusters of embryos in two of the cores and only single embryos in the other two. This is one of the first times that multiple embryos have been observed in individual cores at this early stage of stellar development.

  10. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  11. Meteorological and oceanographic conditions in the northern Adriatic Sea during the period June 1999-July 2002: influence on the mucilage phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Russo, Aniello; Maccaferri, Simona; Djakovac, Tamara; Precali, Robert; Degobbis, Danilo; Deserti, Marco; Paschini, Elio; Lyons, Daniel M

    2005-12-15

    Mucilage events (formation of very large organic aggregates and gelatinous surface layers) have been documented several times during the past two centuries in the northern Adriatic Sea (NA), while their frequency has significantly increased since 1988. In this work, meteorological and oceanographic conditions in the NA during the period June 1999-July 2002 are described and their relation to the outbreak and fate of the mucilage phenomenon was investigated. Salinity and temperature data were collected during approximately monthly cruises along three transects in the NA. Relevant meteorological situations (air temperature, rainfall, wind) were selected from large-scale ECMWF analyses and from the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS; Emilia Romagna Meteorological Service), while sea conditions (waves) were analysed by means of the Wave Adriatic Model (WAM). Data for air temperature, rainfall, and wind from several meteorological stations in the region were used. Average seasonal cycles of sea temperature and salinity simulated with statistical models, based on historical data collected in the NA since 1972, were used to determine thermal and haline anomalies. The monthly anomaly variability of maximum and minimum air temperatures, rainfall amount and number of rainy days did not appear to be relevant for the mucilage phenomenon outbreak. In contrast, both vertical and horizontal thermohaline gradients in the region were more developed during late spring and summer of 2000 and particularly of 2002, when the mucilage events were of greatest extent in space and time, compared to 2001 (short-lived event) and 1999 (no event). These more pronounced gradients were due to a combination of several unusual conditions: sharp heating of the sea surface in May-June, domination of eastwards transport of freshened waters formed in the Po Delta area, and intrusion of very high salinity intermediate waters originating in the eastern Mediterranean. Moreover, in winter of both

  12. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  13. Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seed mucilage-gellan mucoadhesive beads for controlled release of metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2014-07-17

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed mucilage (FSM)-gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl for oral use were developed through ionotropic-gelation technique. Effects of GG to FSM ratio and cross-linker (CaCl2) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10h (R10h, %) of ionotropically-gelled FSM-GG mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were optimized by 3(2) factorial design. The optimized mucoadhesive beads showed DEE of 92.53 ± 3.85% and R10h of 55.28 ± 1.58% and mean diameter of 1.62 ± 0.22 mm. The in vitro metformin HCl release from these ionotropically-gelled FSM-GG beads was prolonged over 10h and followed zero-order model with super case-II transport mechanism. The optimized mucoadhesive beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with biological mucosal membrane and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  14. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  15. Short Nissl staining for incubated cryostat sections of the brain.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, O F

    1991-01-01

    Nissl stain often binds poorly to cryostat sections which have been incubated in solutions of radiolabeled ligands. Such incubation is used in receptor autoradiography of the brain when using the in vitro method. We have developed a rapid (16 min) modification of Nissl staining for sections that bind stain poorly, e.g., incubated sections. The method stains well sections which cannot be stained with other rapid Nissl staining methods.

  16. Soil Organic Carbon Degradation during Incubation, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer

    Elizabeth Herndon; Ziming Yang; Baohua Gu

    2017-01-05

    This dataset provides information about soil organic carbon decomposition in Barrow soil incubation studies. The soil cores were collected from low-center polygon (Area A) and were incubated in the laboratory at different temperatures for up to 60 days. Transformations of soil organic carbon were characterized by UV and FT-IR, and small organic acids in water-soluble carbons were quantified by ion chromatography during the incubation (Herndon et al., 2015).

  17. Incubator Display Software Cost Reduction Toolset Software Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Susanne; Jeffords, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Incubator Display Software Requirements Specification was initially developed by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) under subcontract to Lockheed Martin, Contract Number NAS2-02090, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC) Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP). The Incubator Display is a User Payload Application (UPA) used to control an Incubator subrack payload for the SSBRP. The Incubator Display functions on-orbit as part of the subrack payload laptop, on the ground as part of the Communication and Data System (CDS) ground control system, and also as part of the crew training environment.

  18. Incubation Provides Relief from Artificial Fixation in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penaloza, Alan A.; Calvillo, Dustin P.

    2012-01-01

    An incubation effect occurs when taking a break from a problem helps solvers arrive at the correct solution more often than working on it continuously. The forgetting-fixation account, a popular explanation of how incubation works, posits that a break from a problem allows the solver to forget the incorrect path to the solution and finally access…

  19. Does Incubation Enhance Problem Solving? A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sio, Ut Na; Ormerod, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of empirical studies that have investigated incubation effects on problem solving is reported. Although some researchers have reported increased solution rates after an incubation period (i.e., a period of time in which a problem is set aside prior to further attempts to solve), others have failed to find effects. The…

  20. Enhancing Verbal Creativity via Brief Interventions during an Incubation Interval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Grabner, Roland H.; Fink, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies revealed inconsistent findings about the effects of cognitively low or high demanding interpolated tasks during incubation period on post-incubation creative performance. To explain this contradiction, two intervention tasks were administered (Reflecting on the generated ideas [RF] and the Word puzzle task [WP]), which are…

  1. Measles with a possible 23 day incubation period.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Tove L; Durrheim, David N; Merritt, Tony D; Birch, Christopher; Tran, Thomas

    2012-09-30

    Measles virus (MV) eradication is biologically, technically and operationally feasible. An essential feature in understanding the chain of MV transmission is its incubation period, that is, the time from infection to the onset of symptoms. This period is important for determining the likely source of infection and directing public health measures to interrupt ongoing transmission. Long measles incubation periods have rarely been documented in the literature. We report on a previously healthy 11-year-old Australian boy who was confirmed with measles genotype D9 infection following travel in the Philippines. Epidemiological evidence supported an unusually long incubation period of at least 23 days and virological evidence was consistent with this finding. Although public health control measures such as post exposure prophylaxis, isolation and surveillance of susceptible individuals should continue to be based on the more common incubation period, a longer incubation period may occasionally explain an unexpected measles case.

  2. Oxygen and sulfur isotope fractionation during methane dependent sulfate reduction in high pressure continuous incubation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deusner, C.; Brunner, B.; Holler, T.; Widdel, F.; Ferdelman, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction in marine sediments is an important sink in the global methane budget. However, many aspects of methane dependent sulfate reduction are not fully understood. We developed a novel high pressure biotechnical system to simulate marine conditions with high concentrations of dissolved gases, e.g. at gas seeps and gas hydrate systems. The system allows for batch, fed-batch and continuous gas-phase free incubation. We employ this system to study the kinetics and isotope fractionation during AOM at varying methane partial pressures up to 10 MPa. We present the results of long-term continuous and fed-batch incubations with highly active naturally enriched biomass from microbial mats from the Black Sea. During these experiments the methane partial pressure was increased stepwise from 0.1 to 10 MPa. The methane dependent sulfate reduction rate increased from 0.1 mmol/l/d to 3.5 mmol/l/d resulting from the increase in methane concentration and microbial growth. Sulfate reduction was negligible in the absence of methane. The sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction was strongly influenced by the concentration of dissolved methane. Sulfur isotope fractionation was highest at low methane concentrations, and lowest at high methane concentrations. Relative to sulfate reduction rates, oxygen isotope exchange between sulfate and water was highest at low methane concentrations, and lowest at high methane concentrations.

  3. Identification of Methanogens and Controls on Methane Production in Incubations of Natural Methane Seep Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevorkian, R.; Lloyd, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Methane, the most abundant hydrocarbon in Earth's atmosphere, is produced in large quantities in sediments underlying the world's oceans. Very little of this methane makes it to surface sediments as it is consumed by Anaerobic Methanotrophs (ANME's) in consortia with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB). Less is known about which organisms are responsible for methane production in marine sediments, and whether that production is under thermodynamic control based on hydrogen concentrations. Although ANMEs have been found to be active in methanogenic sediments and incubations, it is currently unknown whether they are able to grow in methanogenic conditions. We demonstrated with bottle incubations of methane seep sediment taken from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, that hydrogen controls methane production. While sulfate was present the hydrogen concentration was maintained at below 2 nM. Only after the depletion of sulfate allowed hydrogen concentrations to rise above 5 nM did we see production of methane. The same sediments when spiked with methane gas demonstrated its complete removal while sulfate reduction occurred. Quantitative PCR shows that ANME-2 and ANME-1 increase in 16S copy number as methane increases. Total direct cell counts demonstrate a decline in cells with the decrease of sulfate until a recovery corresponding with production of methane. Our results strongly suggest that hydrogen concentrations influence what metabolic processes can occur in marine sediments, and that ANME-1 and ANME-2 are able to grow on the energy provided from methane production.

  4. Toward a fuzzy logic control of the infant incubator.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narender P; Mathur, Garima; Hariharan, S I

    2009-10-01

    Premature birth is a world wide problem. Thermo regulation is a major problem in premature infants. Premature infants are often kept in infant incubators providing convective heating. Currently either the incubator air temperature is sensed and used to control the heat flow, or infant's skin temperature is sensed and used in the close loop control. Skin control often leads to large fluctuations in the incubator air temperature. Air control also leads to skin temperature fluctuations. The question remains if both the infant's skin temperature and the incubator air temperature can be simultaneously used in the control. The purpose of the present study was to address this question by developing a fuzzy logic control which incorporates both incubator air temperature and infant's skin temperature to control the heating. The control was evaluated using a lumped parameter mathematical model of infant-incubator system (Simon, B. N., N. P. Reddy, and A. Kantak, J. Biomech. Eng. 116:263-266, 1994). Simulation results confirmed previous experimental results that the on-off skin control could lead to fluctuations in the incubator air temperature, and the air control could lead to too slow rise time in the core temperature. The fuzzy logic provides a smooth control with the desired rise time.

  5. A portable freshwater closed-system fish egg incubation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutherland, Jenny L.; Manny, Bruce A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Allen, Jeffrey D.; Black, M. Glen

    2014-01-01

    To identify fish eggs collected in the field to species, a portable closed-system fish egg incubation system was designed and used to incubate and hatch the eggs in the laboratory. The system is portable, small in scale (2.54 × 1.52 × 2.03 m), and affordable, with the approximate cost of the system being US$8,300 (2012). The main tank is 678 L and holds a battery of up to 21 (egg) incubation jars. The system includes three independent water pumping systems to (1) provide aerated water to hatching jars, (2) filter and sterilize incubation water, and (3) provide temperature-controlled water in the main tank bath and the incubation jars. The system was successfully used to incubate freshwater fish eggs to raise resulting larvae to the post-yolk-sac stage for three seasons (spring 2012, spring 2013, and fall 2013) over two consecutive years, at two different locations, enabling us to identify fish eggs to species by providing identifiable fish larvae from incubated fish eggs.

  6. Eggshell breakage by incubating black ducks fed DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Samson, F.B.

    1973-01-01

    Black duck (Anas rubripes) hens fed 10 ppm dry weight (approximately 3 ppm wet weight) of p,p'-DDE in the diet laid eggs with shells 22 percent thinner at the equator, 30 percent thinner at the cap, and 33 percent thinner at the apex than those of controls. Natural incubation increased shell cracking more than fourfold as compared with mechanical incubation. Hens removed cracked eggs from nests, and one hen terminated incubation. Hens fed DDE produced one-fifth as many ducklings as controls. DDE in eggs of dosed hens averaged 64.9 ppm wet weight.

  7. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  8. Valorization of the Vicia faba mucilage on textile wastewater treatment as a bio-flocculant: process development and optimization using response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Bouatay, Feriel; Eljebsi, Nesrine; Dridi-Dhaouadi, Sonia; Mhenni, Farouk

    2017-02-01

    The Vicia faba membranes are an abundant and a low cost product. In the present research paper, the extracted Vicia faba mucilage was tested as an eco-friendly flocculant for textile wastewater treatment. Its performance as flocculant, in decolorization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the concentration of total suspended solids was checked. The natural extracted product was characterized using infrared spectroscopy. The total sugars were determined in the extracted product. The effect study, followed by an optimization and modeling analysis, of some experimental parameters on the coagulation-flocculation performance, using Vicia faba mucilage (as a flocculant), combined with aluminum sulfate (as a coagulant), showed that the best conditions for the flocculation process were pH of the effluent about 7, flocculant dose about 6.75 mg/L, flocculation mixing time about 3 min and flocculation mixing speed about 30 rpm, leading to a decolorization equal to 92.32%, COD removal of about 97.52% and total suspended solids of about 15.3 mg/L. A comparison study between the flocculation performance of commercial reagents and the bio-agent showed that the natural product presented a good flocculation performance.

  9. A chimeric AtMYB23 repressor induces hairy roots, elongation of leaves and stems, and inhibition of the deposition of mucilage on seed coats in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kyoko; Hiratsu, Keiichiro; Koyama, Tomotsugu; Tanaka, Hideo; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2005-01-01

    We reported previously that a chimeric repressor, in which a transcription factor was fused to the EAR motif repression domain, acted as a dominant repressor and suppressed the expression of target genes, such that resultant phenotypes were similar to those associated with loss-of-function alleles. We report here that expression of the chimeric AtMYB23 repressor induced a variety of morphological changes, namely the ectopic formation of root hairs, a short primary root, elongation of leaves and of inflorescence stems, and absence of the accumulation of mucilage on seed coats, in addition to disruption of the development of trichomes. The short primary root and the elongation of leaves and stems appeared to be due to the reduced and enhanced lengthwise expansion, respectively, of epidermal cells. Expression of the GL2 gene, which is involved in the formation of root hairs and the accumulation of mucilage, was suppressed in both the roots and siliques of the transgenic plants. In contrast, the expression of genes related to cell elongation, such as DWF1, SAUR, AQP, AGP15, DET3 and XET-1, was enhanced in leaves of the transgenic plants. Results suggest that the AtMYB23 transcription factor has the molecular function of regulating the development of epidermal cells not only in leaves but also in stems, roots and seeds. We describe that this type of chimeric repressor can be exploited as a useful tool for the functional analysis of redundant transcription factors.

  10. Corticosterone secretion through long incubation shifts in Diomedea albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Hector, J A; Harvey, S

    1986-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from free-living incubating Diomedea albatross during single incubation shifts, both daily (wandering albatross D. exulans and every 2 days (grey-headed albatross D. chrysostoma and black-browed albatross D. melanophris), and the concentration of corticosterone was determined. Within 48 hr a significant increase in the corticosterone concentration was observed in each species. The magnitude of the increase was greater in the grey-headed and black-browed albatrosses than in the wandering albatross. Corticosterone concentrations rose steadily through the incubation shift in grey-headed and black-browed albatrosses, but fluctuated erratically in wandering albatrosses. All three species of albatross fast during incubation and the increase in adrenocortical activity is probably related to the voluntary deprivation of food and water.

  11. Stochastic Modeling Approach to the Incubation Time of Prionic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, A. S.; da Silva, M. A.; Cressoni, J. C.

    2003-05-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are neurodegenerative diseases for which prions are the attributed pathogenic agents. A widely accepted theory assumes that prion replication is due to a direct interaction between the pathologic (PrPSc) form and the host-encoded (PrPC) conformation, in a kind of autocatalytic process. Here we show that the overall features of the incubation time of prion diseases are readily obtained if the prion reaction is described by a simple mean-field model. An analytical expression for the incubation time distribution then follows by associating the rate constant to a stochastic variable log normally distributed. The incubation time distribution is then also shown to be log normal and fits the observed BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) data very well. Computer simulation results also yield the correct BSE incubation time distribution at low PrPC densities.

  12. Low-temperature incubation using a water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.; Quimby, M.C.

    1967-01-01

    Cell and tissue culture has been concerned primarily with homiothermic vertebrate cells which require incubation at about 37 C, and there is a great variety of incubators designed to maintain temperatures which are usually above ambient. The culture of poikilothermic vertebrate cells--and invertebrate, plant, and some microbial cells--can often be carried out at ambient temperatures, but for some work cooler conditions must be provided. Variety among the so-called low-temperature incubators is somewhat restricted; there are no small units, and all require a power source to maintain temperatures below ambient. We have used a gravity-fed water supply for 5 years to provide trouble-free, constant, low-temperature incubation of stock cultures of fish and amphibian cells. Though it is but a small part of our low-temperature incubator capacity, it has no power requirements and it provides maximal protection against temperature rises which could be lethal to some of the cell lines. Though the system has limitations, there is a considerable likelihood that the domestic water supply in other laboratories can also be used to provide low-temperature incubation.

  13. Effects of incubation temperature on the bone development of broilers.

    PubMed

    Shim, M Y; Pesti, G M

    2011-09-01

    Manipulating the development of the leg bone by making simple changes to incubation temperature could help reduce the incidence of abnormalities. This study tested the hypothesis that increasing or decreasing the temperature of chick incubation by 1°C for 3 d during ED 4 to 7 affects hatchability, growth, and leg abnormalities of Cobb 500 broilers fed 3 diets: a diet that induced tibial dyschondroplasia, a Ca-deficient diet that induced rickets, and a P-deficient diet that induced rickets. In experiment 1, eggs hatched earlier, and more eggs hatched, at 38.5°C (92.77%) compared with at 37.5°C (86.22%). Body weight was lower in chicks incubated at the higher temperature compared with those incubated at the lower temperature (44.66 vs. 42.92 g). In experiment 2, egg setting times were +17 h for 36.5°C eggs and -10 h for 38.5°C compared with standard setting at 37.5°C (508 h). Hatchability of fertile eggs (92.92%) was highest at 37.5°C and decreased at 36.5°C (89.82%) and 38.5°C (81.55%). Body weight was lower (48.98 g) at 36.5°C than at 37.5°C (49.57 g) and at 38.5°C (50.56 g). Experiment 3 separated effects of incubation temperature and incubation time and was conducted with control and Ca-deficient diets. No main effects or interactions between incubation temperature or time and bone abnormalities were detected. It is important to note that eggs hatched at different times in this study. A difference as little as 1°C for 3 d during ED 4 to 7 affected hatching time and weight.

  14. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  15. An Investigative Study into Perspectives and Experiences of Incubates at the Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre at the Kenyatta University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munyanyiwa, Takaruza; Mutsau, Morgen; Rudhumbu, Norman; Svotwa, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The study presents results from an investigative study undertaken at the Kenyatta University (KU) Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre. A total of 10 incubates representing 10 projects were engaged in face to face interviews. The incubates were appreciative of the value that incubation centre such as the one at KU contributed to…

  16. High incubation temperatures enhance mitochondrial energy metabolism in reptile embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bao-Jun; Li, Teng; Gao, Jing; Ma, Liang; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Developmental rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature in ectothermic animals, but the biochemical basis underlying this thermal dependence is largely unexplored. We measured mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities of turtle embryos (Pelodiscus sinensis) incubated at different temperatures to identify the metabolic basis of the rapid development occurring at high temperatures in reptile embryos. Developmental rate increased with increasing incubation temperatures in the embryos of P. sinensis. Correspondingly, in addition to the thermal dependence of mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities, high-temperature incubation further enhanced mitochondrial respiration and COX activities in the embryos. This suggests that embryos may adjust mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities in response to developmental temperature to achieve high developmental rates at high temperatures. Our study highlights the importance of biochemical investigations in understanding the proximate mechanisms by which temperature affects embryonic development. PMID:25749301

  17. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  18. Summary of Research Report Lewis Incubator for Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Wayne P.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done to establish and operate the Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) for the period July 1996 through September 2000. The Lewis Incubator helps the startup and growth of technology-based businesses with the potential to incorporate technology from the NASA Glenn Research Center. During the grant period, LIFT began operation, met or exceeded all key performance measures, and continues its operation through a new cooperative agreement with NASA Glenn and also through continued funding from the State of Ohio.

  19. A comparison of artificial incubation and natural incubation hatching success of gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) eggs in southern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noel, Krista M.; Qualls, Carl P.; Ennen, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have found that Gopher Tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, populations in southern Mississippi exhibit low recruitment, due in part to very low hatching success of their eggs. We sought to determine if the cause(s) of this low hatching success was related to egg quality (intrinsic factors), unsuitability of the nest environment (extrinsic factors), or a combination of the two. In 2003, hatching success was monitored simultaneously for eggs from the same clutches that were incubated in the laboratory and left to incubate in nests. A subset of randomly chosen eggs from each clutch was incubated in the laboratory under physical conditions that were known to be conducive to successful hatching to estimate the proportion of eggs that were capable of hatching in a controlled setting. Hatching success in the laboratory was compared with that of eggs incubated in natural nests to estimate the proportion of eggs that failed to hatch presumably from extrinsic factors. Laboratory hatching success was 58.8%, suggesting that roughly 40% of the eggs were intrinsically incapable of hatching even when incubated under controlled conditions. Hatching success in natural nests, 16.7%, was significantly lower than hatching success in the laboratory, suggesting that approximately 42.1% of eggs were capable of hatching but failed to hatch due to some extrinsic aspect(s) of the nest environment. Thus, the low hatching success of Gopher Tortoise eggs in southern Mississippi appears to be attributable to a combination of intrinsic (egg quality) and extrinsic (nest environment) factors.

  20. Temperature induced decoupling of enzymatic hydrolysis and carbon remineralization in long-term incubations of Arctic and temperate sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robador, Alberto; Brüchert, Volker; Steen, Andrew D.; Arnosti, Carol

    2010-04-01

    Extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of high-molecular weight organic matter is the initial step in sedimentary organic carbon degradation and is often regarded as the rate-limiting step. Temperature effects on enzyme activities may therefore exert an indirect control on carbon mineralization. We explored the temperature sensitivity of enzymatic hydrolysis and its connection to subsequent steps in anoxic organic carbon degradation in long-term incubations of sediments from the Arctic and the North Sea. These sediments were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 24 months at temperatures of 0, 10, and 20 °C. The short-term temperature response of the active microbial community was tested in temperature gradient block incubations. The temperature optimum of extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, as measured with a polysaccharide (chondroitin sulfate), differed between Arctic and temperate habitats by about 8-13 °C in fresh sediments and in sediments incubated for 24 months. In both Arctic and temperate sediments, the temperature response of chondroitin sulfate hydrolysis was initially similar to that of sulfate reduction. After 24 months, however, hydrolysis outpaced sulfate reduction rates, as demonstrated by increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved carbohydrates. This effect was stronger at higher incubation temperatures, particularly in the Arctic sediments. In all experiments, concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were low, indicating tight coupling between VFA production and consumption. Together, these data indicate that long-term incubation at elevated temperatures led to increased decoupling of hydrolytic DOC production relative to fermentation. Temperature increases in marine sedimentary environments may thus significantly affect the downstream carbon mineralization and lead to the increased formation of refractory DOC.

  1. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    PubMed

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry.

  2. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  3. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  4. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in water bird nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ?? 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ?? 1.6 days and 1.9 ?? 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ?? 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ?? 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  5. Designing the Online Collaboratory for the Global Social Benefit Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro; Koch, James L.; Bruno, Albert; Carlson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Pedro Hernandez-Ramos, James L. Koch, Albert Bruno, and Eric Carlson describe the online collaboratory planned for the Global Social Benefit Incubator (GSBI), an international education program designed to serve social benefit entrepreneurs working in the fields of education, health, economic development, the environment, and equality around the…

  6. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  7. Food conditions affect yolk testosterone deposition but not incubation attendance.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Goerlich, Vivian C; Groothuis, Ton G G; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2012-03-01

    In many bird species with hatching asynchrony, yolk androgens increase across the laying sequence. This has been hypothesized to represent a compensatory mechanism for disadvantages of later-hatching chicks - via positive effects of yolk androgens on early competitiveness and growth. However, the costs and benefits of this compensatory strategy probably depend on environmental factors determining the survival chances of the chicks such as the food conditions, which should, therefore, influence maternal yolk androgen deposition. We studied the consequences of manipulated food conditions on the expected level of hatching asynchrony in canaries (Serinus canaria) assigning females to either a low (=LQ) or high quality (=HQ) diet. We measured the incubation behaviour (as incubation attendance) and the yolk androgen deposition in order to investigate whether and how females modulate hatching asynchrony in relation to the food conditions. Females on a HQ diet laid larger and heavier clutches, showed a stronger increase in yolk testosterone content towards the last-laid eggs, but did not alter their incubation attendance. Thus, females on a HQ diet seem to favour the survival of later hatching chicks, as indicated by their yolk testosterone deposition pattern. However, females on a HQ diet laid larger clutches and might need to compensate more in order to achieve a similar degree of hatching asynchrony than females on a LQ diet, given the lack of plasticity in incubation attendance. This suggests that canary females respond to food manipulations mainly via changes in clutch size rather than by altering the degree of hatching asynchrony.

  8. Growth of Campylobacter Incubated Aerobically in Media Supplemented with Peptones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of Campylobacter cultures incubated aerobically in media supplemented with peptones was studied, and additional experiments were conducted to compare growth of the bacteria in media supplemented with peptones to growth in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate-minerals-vitamins (FPMV). A b...

  9. Assessment of predation risk through referential communication in incubating birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.

    2015-05-01

    Parents of many bird species produce alarm calls when they approach and deter a nest predator in order to defend their offspring. Alarm calls have been shown to warn nestlings about predatory threats, but parents also face a similar risk of predation when incubating eggs in their nests. Here, I show that incubating female Japanese great tits, Parus minor, assess predation risk by conspecific alarm calls given outside the nest cavity. Tits produce acoustically discrete alarm calls for different nest predators: “jar” calls for snakes and “chicka” calls for other predators such as crows and martens. Playback experiments revealed that incubating females responded to “jar” calls by leaving their nest, whereas they responded to “chicka” calls by looking out of the nest entrance. Since snakes invade the nest cavity, escaping from the nest helps females avoid snake predation. In contrast, “chicka” calls are used for a variety of predator types, and therefore, looking out of the nest entrance helps females gather information about the type and location of approaching predators. These results show that incubating females derive information about predator type from different types of alarm calls, providing a novel example of functionally referential communication.

  10. Incubation of food craving is independent of macronutrient composition

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Rebecca A.; Dingess, Paige M.; Schlidt, Kevin C.; Smith, Erin M.; Brown, Travis E.

    2016-01-01

    Cues previously paired with rewarding stimuli induce a time-dependent increase in the motivational craving state (incubation of craving). Whether there is an increase in craving for high-fat (HF) food over time, which may contribute to overeating and obesity, has not been determined. We hypothesized that cues paired with HF pellets would elicit a greater incubation of craving effect than those paired with standard chow (SC) pellets. Rats exposed to cues associated with either HF or SC pellets demonstrated equivalent levels of craving over an abstinence period of 30 days. Diet preference tests between SC pellets and LabDiet revealed that SC pellets were preferred over LabDiet. Rats reared on SC pellets exclusively, did not display incubation of craving for SC pellets, suggesting that prior history with the food plays an important role in cue-induced seeking behavior. Results identified cues previously associated with food undergo a comparable magnitude of incubation of craving. When ingestive behavior was measured after 30 days of abstinence, rats significantly increased their consumption of HF pellets. Our results indicate that food cues gain importance over time, trigger increased approach behaviors, and increased consumption of HF food following abstinence. This may contribute to overeating and the development of obesity. PMID:27485660

  11. Longer incubation times for yeast fungemia: importance for presumptive treatment.

    PubMed

    Paugam, André; Ancelle, Thierry; Lortholary, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Isolation rates of Candida glabrata at ≤2 days were 8.9% and 34.8% at >2 days; for Cryptococcus neoformans, they were 0.9% and 8.6%, respectively (1741 fungemia analyzed). An incubation time >2 days supports candins as presumptive treatment for C. glabrata, keeping in mind the risk of Cryptococcus fungemia.

  12. Incubator Baby Shows: A Medical and Social Frontier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Hannah

    2001-01-01

    America's first hospitals for premature infants were built at the turn of the twentieth century at fairs, amusement parks, and expositions. These hospitals represented both a medical and a social frontier. They had a great impact on American medicine because they demonstrated the success of caring for premature infants using incubators. The…

  13. Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubation Environments: A Framework of Key Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dajani, Haya; Dedoussis, Evangelos; Watson, Erika; Tzokas, Nikalaos

    2014-01-01

    The benchmarking framework developed in this study is specifically designed for higher education institutions to consider when developing environments to encourage entrepreneurship among their students, graduates and staff. The objective of the study was to identify key success factors of Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubator Environments (GEIEs)…

  14. Efficient Swath Mapping Laser Altimetry Demonstration Instrument Incubator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A,; Harding, David J.; Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss our eighteen-month progress of a three-year Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) on swath mapping laser altimetry system. This paper will discuss the system approach, enabling technologies and instrument concept for the swath mapping laser altimetry.

  15. Mariner 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Mariner 2 was the world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft. Launched August 27, 1962, on an Atlas-Agena rocket, Mariner 2 passed within about 34,000 kilometers (21,000 miles) of Venus, sending back valuable new information about interplanetary space and the Venusian atmosphere. Mariner 2 recorded the temperature at Venus for the first time, revealing the planet's very hot atmosphere of about 500 degrees Celsius (900 degrees Fahrenheit). The spacecraft's solar wind experiment measured for the first time the density, velocity, composition and variation over time of the solar wind.

  16. Incubating Innovation: A standard model for nurturing new businesses, the incubator gains prominence in the world of biotech.

    PubMed

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Incubators, accelerators, innovation centers, launch pads. Everyone defines the idea a bit differently, but, generally, these infrastructures refer to a subsidized space where fledgling companies get support?a combination of mentorship, funding, low rent, networking opportunities, and other training?with the goal of propelling early businesses to success.

  17. Marine stings.

    PubMed

    Gurry, D

    1992-01-01

    Our superb coastline attracts local tourists and overseas visitors seeking recreation. There is increasing contact with marine life. The unwary and unprepared holiday-maker can be at risk of serious injury from a number of common sea creatures.

  18. Marine enzymes.

    PubMed

    Debashish, Ghosh; Malay, Saha; Barindra, Sana; Joydeep, Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Marine enzyme biotechnology can offer novel biocatalysts with properties like high salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, and ease in large-scale cultivation. This review deals with the research and development work done on the occurrence, molecular biology, and bioprocessing of marine enzymes during the last decade. Exotic locations have been accessed for the search of novel enzymes. Scientists have isolated proteases and carbohydrases from deep sea hydrothermal vents. Cold active metabolic enzymes from psychrophilic marine microorganisms have received considerable research attention. Marine symbiont microorganisms growing in association with animals and plants were shown to produce enzymes of commercial interest. Microorganisms isolated from sediment and seawater have been the most widely studied, proteases, carbohydrases, and peroxidases being noteworthy. Enzymes from marine animals and plants were primarily studied for their metabolic roles, though proteases and peroxidases have found industrial applications. Novel techniques in molecular biology applied to assess the diversity of chitinases, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia-metabolizing, and pollutant-degrading enzymes are discussed. Genes encoding chitinases, proteases, and carbohydrases from microbial and animal sources have been cloned and characterized. Research on the bioprocessing of marine-derived enzymes, however, has been scanty, focusing mainly on the application of solid-state fermentation to the production of enzymes from microbial sources.

  19. A Common Loon incubates rocks as surrogates for eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Destefano, Stephen; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; Pereira, Jillian W.

    2013-01-01

    A nesting Gavia immer (Common Loon) was discovered incubating 2 rocks on a floating nest platform on the Quabbin reservoir in central Massachusetts for 43 days, well beyond the typical period of 28 days, before we moved in to investigate. The rocks were likely unearthed in the soil and vegetation used on the platform to create a more natural substrate for the nest. We suggest sifting through soil and vegetation to remove rocks before placing material on nest platforms.

  20. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  1. Escaping mental fixation: incubation and inhibition in creative problem solving.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Rebecca H; Storm, Benjamin C

    2014-01-01

    The inhibition underlying retrieval-induced forgetting has been argued to play a crucial role in the ability to overcome interference in memory and cognition. Supporting this conjecture, recent research has found that participants who exhibit greater levels of retrieval-induced forgetting are better at overcoming fixation on the Remote Associates Test (RAT) than are participants who exhibit reduced levels of retrieval-induced forgetting. If the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses improves the ability to solve fixated RAT problems, then reducing the fixation caused by inappropriate responses should reduce the correlation between retrieval-induced forgetting and problem solving. We tested this hypothesis by inserting an incubation period between two 30-second problem-solving attempts: half of the participants were given an incubation period (distributed condition), half were not (continuous condition). In the continuous condition retrieval-induced forgetting correlated positively with problem-solving performance during both the initial and final 30 seconds of problem solving. In the distributed condition retrieval-induced forgetting only correlated with problem-solving performance during the first 30 seconds of problem solving. This finding suggests that incubation reduces the need for inhibition by reducing the extent to which problem solvers suffer fixation.

  2. Incubation temperature modifies neonatal thermoregulation in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Rachel M; Walguarnery, Justin W

    2007-08-01

    The thermal environment experienced during embryonic development can profoundly affect the phenotype, and potentially the fitness, of ectothermic animals. We examined the effect of incubation temperature on the thermal preferences of juveniles in the oviparous lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Temperature preference trials were conducted in a laboratory thermal gradient within 48 hr of hatching and after 22-27 days of maintenance in a common laboratory environment. Incubation temperature had a significant effect on the upper limit of the interquartile range (IQR) of temperatures selected by A. carolinensis within the first 2 days after hatching. Between the first and second trials, the IQR of selected temperatures decreased significantly and both the lower limit of the IQR and the median selected temperature increased significantly. This, along with a significant incubation temperature by time interaction in the upper limit of the IQR, resulted in a pattern of convergence in thermoregulation among treatment groups. The initial differences in selected temperatures, as well as the shift in selected temperatures between first and second trials, demonstrate plasticity in temperature selection. As a previous study failed to find environmentally induced plasticity in temperature selection in adult A. carolinensis, this study suggests that this type of plasticity is exclusive to the period of neonatal development.

  3. Use of hydrogen peroxide during incubation of landlocked fall Chinook salmon eggs in vertical-flow incubators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, M.E.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Six different hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes were evaluated in a series of three trials with landlocked fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha eggs incubated in vertical-flow incubators. Six daily 15-min hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes (1,000 mg/L; 1,000 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation; 2,000 mg/L; 2,000 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation; 2,500 mg/L; and 2,500 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation) were compared with daily 15-min treatments of 1,667 mg/L of formalin. Mortality at egg eye-up and fry hatch and from eye-up to hatch was significantly greater in eggs receiving the 2,500-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatments throughout incubation and in those receiving 2,500 mg/L hydrogen peroxide with a decrease to 500 mg/L during blastopore formation than in either of the 1,000-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes or the formalin-treated eggs in the first trial. No significant differences in mortality were observed among any of the treatments in the subsequent two trials with maximum hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 2,000 mg/L. Fungal infestations were observed primarily in the incubation trays treated at either of the 1,000-mg/L hydrogen peroxide regimens, as well as in those trays whose treatment concentrations were dropped to 500 mg/L during blastopore formation. Infestations were not observed in any of the formalin-treated trays. If minor fungal infestation is acceptable, then daily hydrogen peroxide treatments of 1,000 mg/L for 15 min would probably provide adequate fungal control compared with formalin usage.

  4. Ecophysiological Changes in Microbial Mats Incubated in a Greenhouse Collaboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad; DesMarais, David J.; GarciaPichel, Ferran; Hogan, Mary; Jahnke, Linda; Keller, Richard M.; Miller, Scott R.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial mats are modern examples of the earliest microbial communities known. Among the best studied are microbial mats growing in hypersaline ponds managed for the production of salt by Exportadora de Sal, S.A. de C.V., Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. In May, 2001, we collected mats from Ponds 4 and 5 in this system and returned them to Ames Research Center, where they have been maintained for a period of over nine months. We report here on both the ecophysiological changes occurring in the mats over that period of time as well as the facility in which they were incubated. Mats (approximately 1 sq. meter total area) were incubated in a greenhouse facility modified to provide the mats with natural levels of visible and ultraviolet radiation as well as constantly flowing, temperature-controlled water. Two replicated treatments were maintained, a 'high salinity' treatment (about 120 ppt) and a 'low salinity' treatment (about 90 ppt). Rates of net biological activity (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, trace gas production) in the mats were relatively constant over the several months, and were similar to rates of activity measured in the field. However, over the course of the incubation, mats in both treatments changed in physical appearance. The most obvious change was that mats in the higher salinity treatments developed a higher proportion of carotenoid pigments (relative to chlorophyll), resulting in a noticeably orange color in the high salinity mats. This trend is also seen in the natural salinity gradient present at the field site. Changes in the community composition of the mats, as assayed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), as well as biomarker compounds produced in the mats were also monitored. The degree to which the mats kept in the greenhouse changed from the originally collected mats, as well as differences between high and low salinity mats will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended

  5. Assessment of radiant temperature in a closed incubator.

    PubMed

    Décima, Pauline; Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Pelletier, Amandine; Ghyselen, Laurent; Delanaud, Stéphane; Dégrugilliers, Loïc; Telliez, Frédéric; Bach, Véronique; Libert, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    In closed incubators, radiative heat loss (R) which is assessed from the mean radiant temperature (Tr) accounts for 40-60% of the neonate's total heat loss. In the absence of a benchmark method to calculate Tr--often considered to be the same as the air incubator temperature-errors could have a considerable impact on the thermal management of neonates. We compared Tr using two conventional methods (measurement with a black-globe thermometer and a radiative "view factor" approach) and two methods based on nude thermal manikins (a simple, schematic design from Wheldon and a multisegment, anthropometric device developed in our laboratory). By taking the Tr estimations for each method, we calculated metabolic heat production values by partitional calorimetry and then compared them with the values calculated from V(O2) and V(CO2) measured in 13 preterm neonates. Comparisons between the calculated and measured metabolic heat production values showed that the two conventional methods and Wheldon's manikin underestimated R, whereas when using the anthropomorphic thermal manikin, the simulated versus clinical difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a need for a safety standard for measuring TR in a closed incubator. This standard should also make available estimating equations for all avenues of the neonate's heat exchange considering the metabolic heat production and the modifying influence of the thermal insulation provided by the diaper and by the mattress. Although thermal manikins appear to be particularly appropriate for measuring Tr, the current lack of standardized procedures limits their widespread use.

  6. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  7. Cellular Automata with network incubation in information technology diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseo, Renato; Guidolin, Mariangela

    2010-06-01

    Innovation diffusion of network goods determines direct network externalities that depress sales for long periods and delay full benefits. We model this effect through a multiplicative dynamic market potential driven by a latent individual threshold embedded in a special Cellular Automata representation. The corresponding mean field approximation of its aggregate version is a Riccati equation with a closed form solution. This allows the detection of a change-point time separating an incubation period from a subsequent take-off due to a collective threshold (critical mass). Weighted nonlinear least squares are the main inferential methodology. An application is analysed with reference to USA fax machine diffusion.

  8. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the identification and assessment of external service providers to the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant to Arrowhead Center, New Mexico State University. This report contains 1) a summary of the services to be provided by NSTI; 2) organizational descriptions of external service providers; and 3) a comparison of NSTI services and services offered by external providers.

  9. Marine energy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David

    2007-04-15

    Marine energy is renewable and carbon free and has the potential to make a significant contribution to energy supplies in the future. In the UK, tidal power barrages and wave energy could make the largest contribution, and tidal stream energy could make a smaller but still a useful contribution. This paper provides an overview of the current status and prospects for electrical generation from marine energy. It concludes that a realistic potential contribution to UK electricity supplies is approximately 80 TWh per year but that many years of development and investment will be required if this potential is to be realized.

  10. Effects of high CO2 level during early incubation and late incubation in ovo dexamethasone injection on perinatal embryonic parameters and post-hatch growth of broilers.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, H; Tona, K; Bruggeman, V; Onagbesan, O; Decuypere, E

    2008-03-01

    1. A total of 1200 Cobb broiler breeder eggs were incubated under either standard conditions (C group) or high CO(2) levels (CO(2) group) during the first 10 d of incubation. The CO(2) level of the CO(2) incubator was attained gradually by a natural build-up of CO(2) due to air-tight closure of the incubator. From d 10 of incubation onwards, all eggs were incubated under standard incubation conditions. At d 18 of incubation, the eggs of both incubation groups (CO(2) and C group) were either injected with water-soluble dexamethasone (DEXA group) or with saline (0.9% NaCl; saline group) or were not injected (control). 2. Body weights, plasma hormonal concentrations (T(3), T(4) and corticosteroid) and glucose concentrations were measured regularly during the perinatal (at IP, internal pipping) and post-hatch period (at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-hatch). Additionally, hatchability and pattern of embryonic mortality were determined after hatch. 3. The results showed that high CO(2) levels during the first 10 d of incubation or dexamethasone injection at d 18 of incubation decreased embryo mortality, mainly because of a reduction in embryo malpositioning. However, a combination of a CO(2) incubation and a dexamethasone injection led to an increase in embryo mortality and therefore a decrease in hatchability. 4. Although dexamethasone injection at embryonic d 18 decreased body weight in the second week of the rearing period and CO(2) incubation increased body weight during the first 2 weeks of the rearing period, no consistent effect of both the incubation and injection treatments on body weight at slaughter age was observed.

  11. Marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures.

  12. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  13. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  14. Mariner Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

  15. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  16. Extraction optimization by response surface methodology of mucilage polysaccharide from the peel of Opuntia dillenii haw. fruits and their physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-Lu; Gao, Jie; Yin, Yan-Yan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2016-10-20

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technology of mucilage polysaccharide from the peel of Opuntia dillenii haw. fruits (OFPP), and the physicochemical characteristics of OFPP were also investigated. The three parameters were the ratio of water to raw material (30-40ml/g), microwave power (300-400W) and extraction time (120-180s). The results indicated that the yield of OFPP was 15.62±0.37% under the optimum extraction conditions. Compared with MAE, the OFPP yield by hot water extraction (HWE) was 13.36±0.71%. In addition, the rheological properties of OFPP were also explored. The OFPP obtained by HWE exhibited a lower viscosity compared with that by MAE. The FT-IR spectra analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that there were strong interactions between Ca(2+) and OFPP, which resulted in the high viscosity, different microstructure and thermal stability of OFPP.

  17. Effective Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium infantis encapsulation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) and flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) mucilage and soluble protein by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mariela; Oomah, B Dave; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina

    2017-02-01

    Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7.5:0.6:7.5%, w/w/w), respectively. These ternary blends protected the probiotics and enhanced their resistance to simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Probiotics encapsulated with the ternary blends incorporated in instant juice powder exhibited high viability (>9Log10CFU/g) after 45days refrigerated storage. Encapsulation with the ternary blends reduced particle size of the probiotic powders thereby offering additional functional benefits. Our results reveal that chia seed and flaxseed are excellent sources of probiotic encapsulating agents.

  18. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC50, FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  19. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  20. [Genetical analysis on cross incubation of Beauveria bassiana].

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Ding, D; Wang, S; Li, Z

    2000-10-01

    Heterokaryon of Beauveria bassiana was formed during the cross incubation of two vegetative compatible strains with genetic markers of actidione resistance and 34 degrees C tolerance. The chromosome(s) or its fragment successive losses, recombination and segreation led to haploidization during the conidia formation period. After at least 4 generations of parasexual cycle, the genetic character of heterokayon could get to relative stable. Genetic marker and RAPD analysis indicated that the combinants showed the phenomenon of preferential selection of one parental type by unrandom chromosome lossing and the gene of the other parental strain was suppressed or lost completely. Different culture medium, in vivo or in vitro, and different mixture ratio of original strain spores could affect parasexual process and then the preferential selection. The results also demonstrated the heterosis effect of cross culture.

  1. Effects of methysergide on platelets incubated with reserpine

    PubMed Central

    Cumings, J. N.; Hilton, Barbara P.

    1971-01-01

    1. Platelets were incubated with methysergide and related compounds (2-bromo lysergic acid (BOL), ergotamine and methyl ergotamine) together with reserpine. 2. Methysergide inhibited the normal aggregation response of platelets to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) but did not affect the reduction in the 5HT content caused by reserpine, or the uptake of 5HT by the platelets. 3. BOL, ergotamine and methyl ergotamine behaved similarly. Methysergide had greater anti5HT potency than BOL, and methyl ergotamine had greater potency than ergotamine. 4. The use of platelets as a model for synaptic preparations is discussed. 5. The role of 5HT receptor sites on the platelet membrane and the significance of the results for migraine patients treated with methysergide are discussed. PMID:5116036

  2. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    PubMed

    Lacroux, Caroline; Simon, Stéphanie; Benestad, Sylvie L; Maillet, Séverine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Cassard, Hervé; Costes, Pierrette; Bergonier, Dominique; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Moldal, Torffin; Simmons, Hugh; Lantier, Frederic; Feraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc) accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  3. Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Degradation Modeled Through Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as is in the atmosphere, provides the main link between terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs, and fuels the microbial food web. The fate and removal of DOM is a result of several complex conditions and processes, including photodegradation, sorption/desorption, dominant vascular plant sources, and microbial abundance. In order to better constrain factors affecting microbial degradation, laboratory incubations were performed using Sacramento River water for microbial inoculums and vascular plant leachates. Four vascular plant sources were chosen based on their dominance in the Sacramento River Valley: gymnosperm needles from Pinus sabiniana (foothill pine), angiosperm dicot leaves from Quercus douglassi (blue oak), angiosperm monocot mixed annual grasses, and angiosperm monocot mixed Schoenoplectus acutus (tule) and Typha spp. (cattails). Three concentrations of microbial inoculum were used for each plant material, ranging from 0.2% to 10%. Degradation was monitored as a function of time using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-Vis absorbance, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and was compared across vascular plant type and inoculum concentration.

  4. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  5. Marine pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, D J

    2000-02-01

    Marine organisms have provided a large proportion of the bioactive natural products reported over the last 20 years, but none of these compounds have reached the pharmaceutical marketplace. This review describes current progress in the development of a selection of new antiinflammatory and anticancer agents, discusses some difficulties encountered during the development process and suggests how these difficulties may be overcome in the near future through applications of recent advances in biotechnology.

  6. Soil respiration is not limited by reductions in microbial biomass during long-term soil incubations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining rates of soil respiration are reliably observed during long-term laboratory incubations, but the cause is uncertain. We explored different controls on soil respiration during long-term soil incubations. Following a 707 day incubation (30 C) of soils from cultivated and forested plots at Ke...

  7. A study of knowledge supernetworks and network robustness in different business incubators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing; Zhao, Liming

    2016-04-01

    As the most important intangible resource of the new generation of business incubators, knowledge has been studied extensively, particularly with respect to how it spreads among incubating firms through knowledge networks. However, these homogeneous networks do not adequately describe the heterogeneity of incubating firms in different types of business incubators. To solve the problem of heterogeneity, the notion of a knowledge supernetwork has been used both to construct a knowledge interaction model among incubating firms and to distinguish social network relationships from knowledge network relationships. The process of knowledge interaction and network evolution can then be simulated with a few rules for incubating firms regarding knowledge innovation/absorption, social network connection, and entry and exit, among other aspects. Knowledge and networks have been used as performance indicators to evaluate the evolution of knowledge supernetworks. Moreover, we study the robustness of incubating firms' social networks by employing four types of attack strategies. Based on our simulation results, we conclude that there have been significant knowledge interaction and network evolution among incubating firms on a periodic basis and that both specialized and diversified business incubators have every advantage necessary in terms of both knowledge and networks to cultivate start-up companies. As far as network robustness is concerned, there is no obvious difference between the two types of business incubators with respect to the stability of their network structures, but specialized business incubators have stronger network communication abilities than diversified business incubators.

  8. The see-saw a vertical-lift incubator designed for channel catfish egg masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended in water that is agitated with rotating or oscillating paddles. We designed and tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Preliminary research in commercial hatcheries...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A DELAYED-INCUBATION, MEMBRANE FILTER TEST FOR ENTEROCCI IN WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A delayed-incubation procedure for assessing bacterial water quality is useful when sampling in remote locations. Although a delayed incubation test for coliforms is available, we are unaware of any published reports of delayed-incubation procedures for enterococci, an EPA recomm...

  10. Effect of quince seed mucilage edible films incorporated with oregano or thyme essential oil on shelf life extension of refrigerated rainbow trout fillets.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash; Khazaei, Naimeh

    2014-03-17

    The effects of quince seed mucilage film (QSMF) containing oregano (O) or thyme (T) essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during refrigerated storage (4°C) were evaluated over a period of 18days. Films were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. The control and the wrapped fillet samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (aerobic and psychrotrophic count, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae), chemical (TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N), and sensory characteristics. Bacteria grew most quickly in trout fillets stored in air, followed by those wrapped with QSMF and the lowest counts were in wrapped samples with QSMF+2%T. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and LAB counts were significantly lower in samples wrapped with QSMF+2%T. The lowest TBA value was obtained in fillets wrapped QSMF containing 2% oregano essential oil. The strong antioxidant activity of QSMF+2%O was related to the composition of oregano essential oil. The GC analysis of essential oil components revealed that carvacrol (81.85%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. TBA value varied for all treatments and remained lower than 2mg MDA/kg throughout storage. The formation of TVB-N, TMA-N increased with time of storage. TVB-N and TMA-N correlated well with the microbiological data, indicating that along with TVB-N, TMA-N may serve as a useful index for fillets spoilage. QSMF extended the microbial shelf life of rainbow trout fillets by 2days, whereas the QSMF+1%O, QSMF+1.5%O, QSMF+2%O, QSMF+1%T, QSMF+1.5%T and QSMF+2%T resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the trout fillets by 3, 5, 9, 6, 10 and 11days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  11. Fostering Entrepreneurship through Business Incubation: The Role and Prospects of Postsecondary Vocational-Technical Education. Report 1: Survey of Business Incubator Clients and Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Gantes, Victor M.; And Others

    A national survey examined the collective experiences of entrepreneurs, business incubator managers, and postsecondary institutions involved in educational and training strategies aimed at fostering entrepreneurship. The sample included incubators sponsored by universities (n=75), two-year colleges (n=25), and other sources (n=100). The survey…

  12. Morphofunctional disturbances of human sperm after incubation with organophosphorate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Contreras, H R; Badilla, J; Bustos-Obregón, E

    1999-08-01

    The organophosphorate pesticides are highly toxic for insects and mammals, but their effects in the male reproductive tract are scarcely known. Many alterations induced by organophosphorate pesticides have been described, such as: cytogenetic alterations in germinal cells, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia in the mouse. Parathion, the pesticide mostly utilized in Chilean agriculture, is rapidly metabolized to paraoxon, the active metabolite, in mammalian organisms. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Parathion and paraoxon on different morphological and functional parameters of the sperm. Human spermatozoa were incubated with Parathion and paraoxon at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mM). Vitality (tripan blue and eosin tests), acrosome reaction (triple stain test), plasma membrane integrity (HOS-test), and chromatin stability (sodium thioglycolate test) were determined. The observations were done by optical microscopy at 1000x of magnification and three hundred sperms were evaluated for each treatment. The results indicated that Parathion and paraoxon increase the percent of sperm with acrosome reaction and also increase the percentage of sperm with chromatin decondensation in a dose-dependent manner. The vitality and plasma membrane integrity decrease significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest a direct action of Parathion and paraoxon on the different parameters studied. The morphofunctionality of sperm is altered significatively, suggesting that Parathion and paraoxon, thanks to their alkylating and electrophylic properties, could act on DNA and proteins respectively, to elicit these changes.

  13. Excitation Emission Matrix Spectra (EEMS) of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Produced during Microbial Incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, N.; Nelson, N. B.; Parsons, R.

    2013-12-01

    The chromophoric or light-absorbing fraction of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is present ubiquitously in natural waters and has a significant impact on ocean biogeochemistry, affecting photosynthesis and primary production as well direct and indirect photochemical reactions (Siegel et al., 2002; Nelson et al., 2007). It has been largely researched in the past few decades, however the exact chemical composition remains unknown. Instrumental methods of analysis including simultaneous excitation-emission fluorescence spectra have allowed for further insight into source and chemical composition. While certain excitation-emission peaks have been associated with ';marine' sources, they have not been exclusively linked to bacterial production of CDOM (Coble, 1996; Zepp et al., 2004). In this study, ';grazer diluted' seawater samples (70% 0.2μm filtered water; 30% whole water) were collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea (31° 41' N; 64° 10' W) and incubated with an amendment of labile dissolved organic carbon (10μM C6H12O6), ammonium (1μM NH4Cl) and phosphate (0.1μM K2HPO4) to facilitate bacterial production. These substrates and concentrations have been previously shown to facilitate optimum bacterial and CDOM production (Nelson et al., 2004). Sample depths were chosen at 1m and 200m as water at these depths has been exposed to UV light (the Subtropical Mode Water at 200m has been subducted from the surface) and therefore has low initial concentrations of CDOM. After the samples were amended, they were incubated at in-situ temperatures in the dark for 72 hours, with bacteria counts, UV-Vis absorption and EEMS measurements taken at 6-8 hour intervals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were collected daily. For the surface water experiment specific bacteria populations were investigated using Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results showed a clear production of bacteria and production of CDOM, which

  14. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  15. Cytokine expression in head-kidney leucocytes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) after incubation with the probiotic Vagococcus fluvialis L-21.

    PubMed

    Román, L; Real, F; Padilla, D; El Aamri, F; Déniz, S; Grasso, V; Acosta, F

    2013-10-01

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) is one of the most extensively farmed marine fish in the Mediterranean sea. Under the high-density condition, common in aquaculture, the infectious diseases can cause significant economic losses. Probiotics are presented as an alternative to antibiotics for the control of aquaculture diseases. This study used real-time PCR to investigate in vitro the dynamic of expression of immune-related genes in sea bass after incubation with live and inactivated (heat and Uv-light) probiotic Vagoccus fluvialis L-21 at different times (T1, T12, T24, T48). The immune associated genes, interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), TumourTumour necrosis factor- (TNF-), ciclo-oxigenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Mx were studied in head-kidney (HK) leucocytes of sea bass after incubation with the probiotic strain. Transcript of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-, COX-2) was highly up-regulated after 1 h of incubation with the probiotic strain V. fluvialis L-21. We found statistically significant difference in pick of expression of TNF-, after 1 h of incubation with Uv-light inactivated probiotic strain. The COX-2 expression was highly up-regulated at all times studied, with the exception of 12 and 24 h post incubation for the Uv-light inactivated bacteria. Transcript of IL-10 and Casp-3 showed the higher statistically significant differences of expression after 48 h post incubation with live bacteria. In the contrast, sea bass HK leucocytes expressed Mx at 12 and 48 h without statistically differences among treatments. Our results suggest that V. fluvialis L-21 is able to stimulate in vitro some immune-related genes associated with the early inflammatory response. Future studies in vivo are necessary to clarify this process in sea bass.

  16. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3(-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3(-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3(-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time.

  17. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3−) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3− addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3− and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  18. Biparental incubation patterns in a high-Arctic breeding shorebird: how do pairs divide their duties?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In biparental species, parents may be in conflict over how much they invest into their offspring. To understand this conflict, parental care needs to be accurately measured, something rarely done. Here, we quantitatively describe the outcome of parental conflict in terms of quality, amount, and timing of incubation throughout the 21-day incubation period in a population of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) breeding under continuous daylight in the high Arctic. Incubation quality, measured by egg temperature and incubation constancy, showed no marked difference between the sexes. The amount of incubation, measured as length of incubation bouts, was on average 51min longer per bout for females (11.5h) than for males (10.7h), at first glance suggesting that females invested more than males. However, this difference may have been offset by sex differences in the timing of incubation; females were more often off nest during the warmer period of the day, when foraging conditions were presumably better. Overall, the daily timing of incubation shifted over the incubation period (e.g., for female incubation from evening–night to night–morning) and over the season, but varied considerably among pairs. At one extreme, pairs shared the amount of incubation equally, but one parent always incubated during the colder part of the day; at the other extreme, pairs shifted the start of incubation bouts between days so that each parent experienced similar conditions across the incubation period. Our results highlight how the simultaneous consideration of different aspects of care across time allows sex-specific investment to be more accurately quantified. PMID:24347997

  19. Effects of environmental factors on incubation patterns of Greater Sage-Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Delehanty, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Birds in which only one sex incubates the eggs are often faced with a direct conflict between foraging to meet metabolic needs and incubation. Knowledge of environmental and ecological factors that shape life-history strategies of incubation is limited. We used continuous videography to make precise measurements of female Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) incubation constancy (percentage of time spent at the nest in a 24-hour period) and recess duration. We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate incubation patterns in relation to grouse age, timing of incubation, raven abundance, microhabitat, weather, and food availability. Overall, sage-grouse females showed an incubation constancy of 96% and a distinctive bimodal distribution of brief incubation recesses that peaked at sunset and 30 min prior to sunrise. Grouse typically returned to their nests during low light conditions. Incubation constancy of yearlings was lower than that of adults, particularly in the later stages of incubation. Yearlings spent more time away from nests later in the morning and earlier in the evening compared to adults. Video images revealed that nearly all predation events by Common Ravens (Corvus corax), the most frequently recorded predator at sage-grouse nests, took place during mornings and evenings after sunrise and before sunset, respectively. These were the times of the day when sage-grouse typically returned from incubation recesses. Recess duration was negatively related to raven abundance. We found evidence that incubation constancy increased with greater visual obstruction, usually from vegetation, of nests. An understanding of how incubation patterns relate to environmental factors will help managers make decisions aimed at increasing productivity through successful incubation.

  20. Comparison and Recovery of Escherichia coli and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Water with a Chromogenic Medium Incubated at 41 and 44.5°C

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Jose L.; Soriano, Adela; Carbajo, Oscar; Amoros, Inmaculada; Garelick, Hemda

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5°C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5°C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41°C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41°C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters. PMID:10427079

  1. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    PubMed

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators.

  2. Characterizing the nutritional strategy of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Williams, T.D.; Kitaysky, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    We measured plasma concentrations of variables associated with lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, glycerol, triglyceride, and ??- hydroxybutyrate), protein metabolism (uric acid), and baseline corticosterone to characterize the nutritional state of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis and relate this to incubation constancy at two sites, Kuparuk and Teshekpuk, in northern Alaska. King eiders at both sites appeared to employ a partial-income incubation strategy, relying on both endogenous and exogenous energy resources. Females maintained high invariant levels of free fatty acids, ??-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol throughout incubation, indicating that fat reserves were a major energy source, and not completely depleted during incubation. Similarly, uric acid did not increase, suggesting effective protein sparing or protein ingestion and adequate lipid reserves throughout incubation. Baseline corticosterone and triglyceride levels increased during incubation, indicative of an increase in foraging during late stages of incubation. Incubating females at Kuparuk had higher triglyceride concentrations but also had higher ??-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than females at Teshekpuk. This dichotomy may reflect a short-term signal of feeding overlaying the longer-term signal of reliance on endogenous lipid reserves due to higher food intake yet higher metabolic costs at Kuparuk because of its colder environment. Incubation constancy was not correlated with plasma concentrations of lipid or protein metabolites. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  3. Incubation temperature effects on hatchling performance in the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Fisher, Leah R; Godfrey, Matthew H; Owens, David W

    2014-01-01

    Incubation temperature has significant developmental effects on oviparous animals, including affecting sexual differentiation for several species. Incubation temperature also affects traits that can influence survival, a theory that is verified in this study for the Northwest Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). We conducted controlled laboratory incubations and experiments to test for an effect of incubation temperature on performance of loggerhead hatchlings. Sixty-eight hatchlings were tested in 2011, and 31 in 2012, produced from eggs incubated at 11 different constant temperatures ranging from 27°C to 33°C. Following their emergence from the eggs, we tested righting response, crawling speed, and conducted a 24-hour long swim test. The results support previous studies on sea turtle hatchlings, with an effect of incubation temperature seen on survivorship, righting response time, crawling speed, change in crawl speed, and overall swim activity, and with hatchlings incubated at 27°C showing decreased locomotor abilities. No hatchlings survived to be tested in both years when incubated at 32°C and above. Differences in survivorship of hatchlings incubated at high temperatures are important in light of projected higher sand temperatures due to climate change, and could indicate increased mortality from incubation temperature effects.

  4. Effects of incubation temperature on growth and performance of the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus).

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robin M

    2008-10-01

    I evaluated the effect of incubation temperature on phenotypes of the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus. I chose this species for study because its large clutch size (30-40 eggs or more) allows replication within clutches both within and among experimental treatments. The major research objectives were (1) to assess the effect of constant low, moderate, and high temperatures on embryonic development, (2) to determine whether the best incubation temperature for embryonic development also produced the "best" hatchlings, and (3) to determine how a change in incubation temperature during mid-development would affect phenotype. To meet these objectives, I established five experimental temperature regimes and determined egg survival and incubation length and measured body size and shape, selected body temperatures, and locomotory performance of lizards at regular intervals from hatching to 90 d, or just before sexual maturity. Incubation temperature affected the length of incubation, egg survival, and body mass, but did not affect sprint speed or selected body temperature although selected body temperature affected growth in mass independently of treatment and clutch. Incubation at moderate temperatures provided the best conditions for both embryonic and post-hatching development. The highest incubation temperatures were disruptive to development; eggs had high mortality, developmental rate was low, and hatchlings grew slowly. Changes in temperature during incubation increased the among-clutch variance in incubation length relative to that of constant temperature treatments.

  5. Evaluating propagation method performance over time with Bayesian updating: an application to incubator testing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, J. N.; Olsen, G.H.; Shafer, C. C.; Hartup, Barry K.; Urbanek, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In captive-rearing programs, small sample sizes can limit the quality of information on performance of propagation methods. Bayesian updating can be used to increase information on method performance over time. We demonstrate an application to incubator testing at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. A new type of incubator was purchased for use in the whooping crane (Grus americana) propagation program, which produces birds for release. We tested the new incubator for reliability, using sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) eggs as surrogates. We determined that the new incubator should result in hatching rates no more than 5% lower than the available incubators, with 95% confidence, before it would be used to incubate whooping crane eggs. In 2007, 5 healthy chicks hatched from 12 eggs in the new incubator, and 2 hatched from 5 in an available incubator, for a median posterior difference of <1%, but with a large 95% credible interval (-41%, 43%). In 2008, we implemented a double-blind evaluation method, where a veterinarian determined whether eggs produced chicks that, at hatching, had no apparent health problems that would impede future release. We used the 2007 estimates as priors in the 2008 analysis. In 2008, 7 normal chicks hatched from 15 eggs in the new incubator, and 11 hatched from 15 in an available incubator, for a median posterior difference of 19%, with 95% credible interval (-8%, 44%). The increased sample size has increased our understanding of incubator performance. While additional data will be collected, at this time the new incubator does not appear adequate for use with whooping crane eggs.

  6. Metatranscriptomic insights into polyphosphate metabolism in marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Daniel S; Flood, Beverly E; Bailey, Jake V

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms can influence inorganic phosphate (Pi) in pore waters, and thus the saturation state of phosphatic minerals, by accumulating and hydrolyzing intracellular polyphosphate (poly-P). Here we used comparative metatranscriptomics to explore microbial poly-P utilization in marine sediments. Sulfidic marine sediments from methane seeps near Barbados and from the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) oxygen minimum zone were incubated under oxic and anoxic sulfidic conditions. Pi was sequestered under oxic conditions and liberated under anoxic conditions. Transcripts homologous to poly-P kinase type 2 (ppk2) were 6–22 × more abundant in metatranscriptomes from the anoxic incubations, suggesting that reversible poly-P degradation by Ppk2 may be an important metabolic response to anoxia by marine microorganisms. Overall, diverse taxa differentially expressed homologues of genes for poly-P degradation (ppk2 and exopolyphosphatase) under different incubation conditions. Sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms appeared to preferentially express genes for poly-P degradation under anoxic conditions, which may impact phosphorus cycling in a wide range of oxygen-depleted marine settings. PMID:26381585

  7. Effects of sodium azide on the abundance of prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christian; Kerros, Marie-Emmanuelle; Weinbauer, Markus G

    2012-01-01

    Flow cytometry is set to become the standard method for enumerating prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples. However, the samples need to be flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen directly after aldehyde fixation. Because liquid nitrogen may not always be available, we tested the potential of sodium azide as a preservative for prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples as a possible alternative. For that we conducted incubation experiments with untreated and sodium azide treated marine water samples at 4°C and room temperature. The data indicate that sodium azide cannot be used to maintain marine samples used for the enumeration of prokaryotes and viruses.

  8. Incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup Aythya marila on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup Aythya marila on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. The goals of the study were to describe the incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup in terms of incubation constancy, recess frequency and recess length. The use of endogenous reserves by Greater Scaup was examined by determining weight loss over the incubation period. Further, intraspecific variation in incubation constancy was considered in terms of hypotheses regarding timing of reproduction. Constancy (% time on nest) averaged 59% during egg laying and increased to 83% during incubation. Patterns of daily incubation constancy varied among females, with no overall trend. Females took an average of 4.3 recesses per day, with an average length of 57 minutes. Body mass declined by 6.4 g day-1 and females initiating nests later tended to be lighter. These data suggest that while Greater Scaup utilise some stored reserves during incubation, they probably meet most of their energetic demands by foraging during incubation recesses. These data are not consistent with the hypothesis that females are initiating nests before adequate forage is available in the spring to meet the demands of egg production and maintenance. Thus, the observed delay in the onset of nesting by Greater Scaup, relative to other sympatric nesting species, does not appear to be related to inadequate forage to meet nutritional requirements.

  9. Noise at the neonatal intensive care unit and inside the incubator.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Eliana Moreira; Guinsburg, Ruth; Nabuco, Marco Antonio de Araujo; Kakehashi, Tereza Yoshiko

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to identify sound pressure level (SPL) at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and inside the incubator of a teaching hospital of a public university from São Paulo - SP, Brazil. SPL inside the NICU and the incubator were measured using four dosimeters in January/2010. SPL at the NICU varied from 52.6 dBA to 80.4 dBA and inside the incubator, from 45.4 dBA to 79.1 dBA. SPL both at the NICU and inside the incubator are above the recommended values, but levels were higher at the NICU than inside the incubator. Although there are some specific factors related to SPL inside the incubator, the NICU and incubator acoustic features present a system: an increase/decrease in SPL at the NICU usually tends to increase/decrease SPL inside the incubator. The study points to the need for simultaneous monitoring of SPL at the NICU and inside the incubator.

  10. Comparison of five incubation systems for rat liver slices using functional and viability parameters.

    PubMed

    Olinga, P; Groen, K; Hof, I H; De Kanter, R; Koster, H J; Leeman, W R; Rutten, A A; Van Twillert, K; Groothuis, G M

    1997-10-01

    Precision-cut liver slices are presently used for various research objects, e.g. to study metabolism, transport, and toxicity of xenobiotics. Various incubation systems are presently employed, but a systematic comparison between these incubation systems with respect to preservation of slice function has not been performed yet. Therefore, we started a comparative study to evaluate five of these systems: the shaken flask (an Erlenmeyer in a shaking water bath), the stirred-well (24-well culture plate equipped with grids and magnetic stirrers), rocker platform (6-well culture plate with Netwell insert rocked on a platform), the roller system (dynamic organ culture rolled on an insert in a glass vial), and the 6-well shaker (6-well culture plate in a shaking water bath). The liver slices were incubated in these incubation systems for 0.5, 1.5, and 24.5 h and subsequently subjected to viability and metabolic function tests. The viability of the incubated liver slices was evaluated by: potassium content, MTT assay, energy charge, histomorphology, and LDH leakage. Their metabolic functions were studied by determination of the metabolism of lidocaine, testosterone, and antipyrine. Up to 1.5 h of incubation all five incubation systems gave similar results with respect to viability and metabolic function of the liver slices. However, after 24 h, the shaken flask, the rocker platform, and the 6-well shaker incubation systems appeared to be superior to the stirred well and the roller incubation systems.

  11. Variation in incubation periods and egg metabolism in mallards: Intrinsic mechanisms to promote hatch synchrony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCluskie, Margaret C.; Flint, Paul L.; Sedinger, James S.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting incubation time and metabolic rates of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs incubated under constant environmental conditions. Time required to reach the star-pipped stage of hatch varied significantly among females, but not with laying sequence or egg size. Metabolic rate of eggs varied positively with position in the laying sequence and tended to vary among females. Metabolic rate did not vary with egg volume or incubation length. Our results indicate metabolic rate may act as one synchronization mechanism for hatch. The role of maternal effects in development time should be considered in subsequent studies of incubation time in ducks.

  12. Mind the wind: microclimate effects on incubation effort of an arctic seabird.

    PubMed

    Høyvik Hilde, Christoffer; Pélabon, Christophe; Guéry, Loreleï; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Descamps, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    The energetic costs of reproduction in birds strongly depend on the climate experienced during incubation. Climate change and increasing frequency of extreme weather events may severely affect these costs, especially for species incubating in extreme environments. In this 3-year study, we used an experimental approach to investigate the effects of microclimate and nest shelter on the incubation effort of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in a wild Arctic population. We added artificial shelters to a random selection of nesting females, and compared incubation effort, measured as body mass loss during incubation, between females with and without shelter. Nonsheltered females had a higher incubation effort than females with artificial shelters. In nonsheltered females, higher wind speeds increased the incubation effort, while artificially sheltered females experienced no effect of wind. Although increasing ambient temperatures tended to decrease incubation effort, this effect was negligible in the absence of wind. Humidity had no marked effect on incubation effort. This study clearly displays the direct effect of a climatic variable on an important aspect of avian life-history. By showing that increasing wind speed counteracts the energetic benefits of a rising ambient temperature, we were able to demonstrate that a climatic variable other than temperature may also affect wild populations and need to be taken into account when predicting the effects of climate change.

  13. Marine antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment.

  14. The role of prolactin during incubation: comparative studies of three Diomedea albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Hector, J A; Goldsmith, A R

    1985-11-01

    There is much recent evidence that prolactin is an important influence on parental and incubatory behaviour in birds. In this study prolactin was measured at various stages of the breeding cycle in three closely related albatrosses (the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans, the grey-headed albatross D. chrysostoma, and the black-browed albatross D. melanophris). Each species is monogamous, laying one egg, with the sexes sharing parental duties, including lengthy incubation shifts. In experiments where blood samples were taken daily throughout single incubation shifts (of both sexes) and every 3 hr for 36 hr, high prolactin levels were observed, but there was no indication of any changes that might suggest direct relationships between the hormone concentrations and incubatory behaviour. However, high prolactin levels were characteristic of the whole incubation period with a significant decline in concentrations towards the end of the brood-guard period. The timing of the decline in prolactin levels remained constant, even when the incubation period was artificially lengthened or shortened, as did the overall duration of the incubation-brood-guard period. Further experiments eliminated the possibility that the secretion of prolactin was a response to tactile stimulation of the brood patch by the egg. These results suggest that the incubation period is not endogenously timed but that prolactin may still affect the overall duration of the incubation-brood-guard period, although having little or no effect on the number or duration of incubation shifts.

  15. The Contribution of University Business Incubators to New Knowledge-based Ventures: Evidence from Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Rosa; Grandi, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    University business incubators give businesses access to labs and equipment, scientific-technical knowledge, networks, and reputation. A study of incubators in Italy shows they do not resolve inadequate funding or lack of management and financial skills. However, the networking capacity can offset these problems. (Contains 25 notes/references.)…

  16. Automatic Incubator-type Temperature Control System for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    An automatic air-cooling incubator is proposed to replace the manual water-cooling blanket to control the brain tissue temperature for brain hypothermia treatment. Its feasibility is theoretically discussed as follows: First, an adult patient with the cooling incubator is modeled as a linear dynamical patient-incubator biothermal system. The patient is represented by an 18-compartment structure and described by its state equations. The air-cooling incubator provides almost same cooling effect as the water-cooling blanket, if a light breeze of speed around 3 m/s is circulated in the incubator. Then, in order to control the brain temperature automatically, an adaptive-optimal control algorithm is adopted, while the patient-blanket therapeutic system is considered as a reference model. Finally, the brain temperature of the patient-incubator biothermal system is controlled to follow up the given reference temperature course, in which an adaptive algorithm is confirmed useful for unknown environmental change and/or metabolic rate change of the patient in the incubating system. Thus, the present work ensures the development of the automatic air-cooling incubator for a better temperature regulation of the brain hypothermia treatment in ICU.

  17. Avian Incubation Inhibits Growth and Diversification of Bacterial Assemblages on Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Firestone, Mary K.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Beissinger, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial infection is a critical source of mortality for early life stages of oviparous vertebrates, but parental defenses against infection are less well known. Avian incubation has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of trans-shell infection by limiting microbial growth of pathogenic bacteria on eggshells, while enhancing growth of commensal or beneficial bacteria that inhibit or competitively exclude pathogens. We tested this hypothesis by comparing bacterial assemblages on naturally incubated and experimentally unincubated eggs at laying and late incubation using a universal 16S rRNA microarray containing probes for over 8000 bacterial taxa. Before treatment, bacterial assemblages on individual eggs from both treatment groups were dissimilar to one another, as measured by clustering in non-metric dimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination space. After treatment, assemblages of unincubated eggs were similar to one another, but those of incubated eggs were not. Furthermore, assemblages of unincubated eggs were characterized by high abundance of six indicator species while incubated eggs had no indicator species. Bacterial taxon richness remained static on incubated eggs, but increased significantly on unincubated eggs, especially in several families of Gram-negative bacteria. The relative abundance of individual bacterial taxa did not change on incubated eggs, but that of 82 bacterial taxa, including some known to infect the interior of eggs, increased on unincubated eggs. Thus, incubation inhibits all of the relatively few bacteria that grow on eggshells, and does not appear to promote growth of any bacteria. PMID:19225566

  18. Tenant Recruitment and Support Processes in Sustainability-Profiled Business Incubators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Natasha; Kanda, Wisdom

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment and support processes in sustainability-profiled incubators have received little research attention. The article addresses this knowledge gap in an empirical investigation of three sustainability-oriented incubators in Sweden, Finland and Germany. The data are based on interviews with managers, stakeholders and tenants in Green Tech…

  19. Experimental evidence that keeping eggs dry is a mechanism for the antimicrobial effects of avian incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alba, Liliana; Oborn, Allison; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2010-12-01

    Avian incubation dramatically reduces the abundance and diversity of microbial assemblages on eggshells, and this effect has been hypothesized as an adaptive explanation for partial incubation, the bouts of incubation that some birds perform during the egg-laying period. However, the mechanisms for these antimicrobial effects are largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that microbial inhibition is partly achieved through removal of liquid water, which generally enhances microbial growth, from eggshells, and experimentally tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, we placed the first- and second-laid eggs of tree swallow ( Tachycineta bicolor) clutches in unincubated holding nests with either ambient or increased water on eggshells. Second, we added water to eggshells in naturally partially incubated nests. We compared microbial growth on shells during a 5-day experimental period and found that, as predicted, both unincubated groups had higher microbial growth than naturally partially incubated controls, and that only in the absence of incubation did wetted eggs have higher microbial growth than unwetted eggs. Thus, we have shown that water increases microbial growth on eggshells and that incubation nullifies these effects, suggesting that removal of water from egg surfaces is one proximate mechanism for the antimicrobial effects of incubation.

  20. Accelerating Success: A Design Guide for Starting a New School Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robin; Rainey, Lydia

    2004-01-01

    Incubators are organizations that aim to decrease the learning curve for new schools and increase the likelihood that promising school plans will succeed. Incubators offer communities an innovative new way to support locally-initiated school designs. This design guide is intended to help people who are interested in starting a school incubator…

  1. Effect of Increased Egg Stocking Density in Existing and Experimental Catfish Incubators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in stationary wire mesh baskets suspended across metal troughs with flow-through water that is agitated and circulated between the baskets and around the eggs with rotating paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish e...

  2. Survival and growth of American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) hatchlings after artificial incubation and repatriation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Temsiripong, Y.; Woodward, A.R.; Ross, J.P.; Kubilis, P.S.; Percival, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Hatchling American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) produced from artificially incubated wild eggs were returned to their natal areas (repatriated). We compared artificially incubated and repatriated hatchlings released within and outside the maternal alligator's home range with naturally incubated hatchlings captured and released within the maternal alligator's home range on Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Orange Lake in Florida. We used probability of recapture and total length at approximately nine months after hatching as indices of survival and growth rates. Artificially incubated hatchlings released outside of the maternal alligator's home range had lower recapture probabilities than either naturally incubated hatchlings or artificially incubated hatchlings released near the original nest site. Recapture probabilities of other treatments did not differ significantly. Artificially incubated hatchlings were approximately 6% shorter than naturally incubated hatchlings at approximately nine months after hatching. We concluded that repatriation of hatchlings probably would not have long-term effects on populations because of the resiliency of alligator populations to alterations of early age-class survival and growth rates of the magnitude that we observed. Repatriation of hatchlings may be an economical alternative to repatriation of older juveniles for population restoration. However, the location of release may affect subsequent survival and growth. Copyright 2006 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  3. A Study of Business Incubators: Models, Best Practices, and Recommendations for NASA and Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide NASA-Kennedy Space Center with information and recommendations to support establishing one or more technology-based business incubators In Florida. The study involved assembling information about incubators: why they succeed, why they fail, how they are organized, and what services they provide. Consequently, this study focuses on widely-recognized "best practices," needed to establish successful technology- based business incubators. The findings are used to optimize the design and implementation of one or more technology-based business incubators to be established in Florida. Recommendations reflect both the essential characteristics of successful incubators and the optimal business demographics in Florida. Appendix A provides a fuller description of the objectives of the study. Technology-based business incubators are an increasing catalyst of new business development across the USi Incubators focus on providing entrepreneurs and small start-up firms with a wide array of support services necessary to bring forth new products and processes based on technologies developed in the nation's federal and private laboratories and universities. Appendix B provides extensive discussion of findings relative to technology- based business incubators.

  4. Effects of caffeine supplementation in post-thaw human semen over different incubation periods.

    PubMed

    Pariz, J R; Hallak, J

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of caffeine supplementation in post-cryopreservation human semen over different incubation periods. After collection by masturbation, 17 semen samples were analysed according to World Health Organization criteria, processed and cryopreserved with TEST-yolk buffer (1 : 1) in liquid nitrogen. After a thawing protocol, samples were incubated with 2 mm of caffeine for 0, 5, 15, 30 or 60 min, followed by analysis of motility and mitochondrial activity using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB). Mean variance analysis was performed, and P < 0.05 was the adopted significance threshold. Samples incubated for 15 min showed increased progressive motility compared to other periods of incubation, as well as a reduced percentage of immotile spermatozoa (P < 0.05). In samples incubated for 5 min, increased mitochondrial activity above 50% was observed (DABI and DABII). Although cryosurvival rates were low after the cryopreservation process, incubation with caffeine was associated with an increase in sperm motility, particularly 15-min incubation, suggesting that incubation with caffeine can be an important tool in patients with worsening seminal quality undergoing infertility treatment.

  5. A new view of avian life-history evolution tested on an incubation paradox.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    Viewing life-history evolution in birds based on an age-specific mortality framework can explain broad life-history patterns, including the long incubation periods in southern latitudes documented here. I show that incubation periods of species that are matched phylogenetically and ecologically between Argentina and Arizona are longer in Argentina. Long incubation periods have mystified scientists because they increase the accumulated risk of time-dependent mortality to young without providing a clear benefit. I hypothesize that parents of species with low adult mortality accept increased risk of mortality to their young from longer incubation if this allows reduced risk of mortality to themselves. During incubation, songbird parents can reduce risk of mortality to themselves by reducing nest attentiveness (percentage of time on the nest). Here I show that parents of species with lower adult mortality exhibit reduced nest attentiveness and that lower attentiveness is associated with longer incubation periods. However, the incubation period is also modified by juvenile mortality. Clutch size variation is also strongly correlated with age-specific mortality. Ultimately, adult and juvenile mortality explain variation in incubation and other life-history traits better than the historical paradigm. PMID:11839200

  6. A Conceptual Development Framework for Management and Leadership Learning in the UK Incubator Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D. Hannon, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses attention upon a recent phenomenon promoted by public sector policy and government funding and adopted within the private sector as a vehicle for wealth creation, where wealth can mean the development of different forms of capital such as financial, intellectual and social. Incubators and incubation programmes have established themselves…

  7. A rapid and cost effective method for soil carbon mineralization under static incubations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil incubations with subsequent measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) evolved are common soil assays to estimate C mineralization rates and active organic C. Two common methods used to detect CO2 in laboratory incubations are gas chromatography (GC) and alkali absorption followed by titration (NaOH)...

  8. A rapid and cost effective method for soil carbon mineralization under static incubations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil incubations with subsequent determination of carbon dioxide (CO2) are common soil assays used to estimate C mineralization rates and active organic C pools. Two common methods used to detect CO2 in laboratory incubations are gas chromatography (GC) and alkali absorption followed by titration (...

  9. Effects of incubation temperatures on embryonic and larval survival in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incubation temperature is commonly used by hatcheries to manipulate hatch date in salmonids including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Target dates for hatching often change during the incubation period and require a sudden adjustment in temperature. Although there are many studies charac...

  10. Comparison of medium, temperature, and length of incubation for detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang D Hua; Evans, Kaye D; Goh, Rosalinda A; Tan, Grace L; Peterson, Ellena M

    2012-07-01

    Campylobacter (Campy; BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD), Spectra VRE (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and bile-esculin-azide-vancomycin (BEAV; Remel) agars were compared for their ability to detect vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in 750 stool specimens. The media were compared at 24 h and 48 h of incubation at 35°C and 42°C. When incubated for 24 h at 35°C, Campy was the most sensitive (97.8%) and specific (99.9%) but was comparable to Spectra, which has a sensitivity of 95.6% and a specificity of 99.1%, whereas BEAV was significantly less sensitive (90%) and specific (96.1%). Incubation at 42°C or extended incubation at 35°C for 48 h yielded no advantage over incubation at 35°C for 24 h.

  11. Incubation Period Duration and Severity of Clinical Disease Following Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Virlogeux, Victor; Fang, Vicky J.; Wu, Joseph T.; Ho, Lai-Ming; Malik Peiris, J. S.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Few previous studies have investigated the association between the severity of an infectious disease and the length of incubation period. Methods We estimated the association between the length of the incubation period and the severity of infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, using data from the epidemic in 2003 in Hong Kong. Results We estimated the incubation period of SARS based on a subset of patients with available data on exposure periods and a separate subset of patients in a putative common source outbreak, and we found significant associations between shorter incubation period and greater severity in both groups after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions Our findings suggest that patients with a shorter incubation period proceeded to have more severe disease. Further studies are needed to investigate potential biological mechanisms for this association. PMID:26133021

  12. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  13. Salinity of incubation media influences embryonic development of a freshwater turtle.

    PubMed

    Bower, Deborah S; Hodges, Kate M; Georges, Arthur

    2013-02-01

    Variations in water potential have marked effects on aspects of embryological development in reptiles. Therefore variation in the salinity of the incubation environment is likely to have significant consequences on the early life stage. The combination of an extended incubation period, coupled with the real threat of soil salinisation within their range makes Chelodina expansa an ideal model to assess the influence of salinity on turtle embryology. We quantified the influence of salt on the development of C. expansa hatchlings in four substrate treatments varying in salinity. Embryos incubated in higher salinities had 39 % less survival than those incubated in substrates with freshwater. Hatchlings that emerged from eggs in saline treatments were smaller with higher concentrations of plasma sodium, chloride, urea, and potassium. The physiological effects of salinity mirror those of turtles incubated in drier media with low water potential. Salinisation of river banks has the potential to reduce hatching success and fitness of nesting reptiles.

  14. Assessment and Certification of Neonatal Incubator Sensors through an Inferential Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Júnior, José Medeiros; de Menezes Júnior, José Maria Pires; de Albuquerque, Alberto Alexandre Moura; Almeida, Otacílio da Mota; de Araújo, Fábio Meneghetti Ugulino

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using sensors systems. This paper proposes a new procedure based on an inferential neural network to evaluate and calibrate a neonatal incubator. The proposal presents significant advantages over the standard calibration process, i.e., the number of sensors is drastically reduced, and it runs with the incubator under operation. Since the sensors used in the new calibration process are already installed in the commercial incubator, no additional hardware is necessary; and the calibration necessity can be diagnosed in real time without the presence of technical professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Experimental tests involving the aforementioned calibration system are carried out in a commercial incubator in order to validate the proposal. PMID:24248278

  15. Si nanowire growth on sapphire: Classical incubation, reverse reaction, and steady state supersaturation

    SciTech Connect

    Shakthivel, Dhayalan; Rathkanthiwar, Shashwat; Raghavan, Srinivasan

    2015-04-28

    Si nanowire growth on sapphire substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method using Au catalyst particles has been studied. Sapphire was chosen as the substrate to ensure that the vapor phase is the only source of Si. Three hitherto unreported observations are described. First, an incubation period of 120–480 s, which is shown to be the incubation period as defined in classical nucleation theory, is reported. This incubation period permits the determination of a desolvation energy of Si from Au-Si alloys of 15 kT. Two, transmission electron microscopy studies of incubation, point to Si loss by reverse reaction as an important part of the mechanism of Si nanowire growth by VLS. Three, calculations using these physico-chemical parameters determined from incubation and measured steady state growth rates of Si nanowires show that wire growth happens from a supersaturated catalyst droplet.

  16. The effects of heterospecifics and climatic conditions on incubation behavior within a mixed-species colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Hothem, Roger L.; Howe, Kristy H.; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with different life history breeding strategies. Although research has identified nest survival advantages of mixing colonies, behavioral mechanisms that might explain these effects is largely lacking. We examined parental incubation behavior using video-monitoring techniques on Alcatraz Island, California, of black-crowned night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax(hereinafter, night-heron) in a mixed-species colony with California gulls Larus californicus and western gulls L. occidentalis. We first quantified general nesting behaviors (i.e. incubation constancy, and nest attendance), and a suite of specific nesting behaviors (i.e. inactivity, vigilance, preening, and nest maintenance) with respect to six different daily time periods. We employed linear mixed effects models to investigate environmental and temporal factors as sources of variation in incubation constancy and nest attendance using 211 nest days across three nesting seasons (2010–2012). We found incubation constancy (percent of time on the eggs) and nest attendance (percent of time at the nest) were lower for nests that were located < 3 m from one or more gull nest, which indirectly supports the predator protection hypothesis, whereby heterospecifics provide protection allowing more time for foraging and other self-maintenance activities. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evidence of the influence of one nesting species on the incubation behavior of another. We also identified distinct differences between incubation constancy and nest attentiveness, indicating that these biparental incubating species do not share similar energetic constraints as those that are observed for uniparental species. Additionally, we found that variation in incubation behavior was a function of temperature and precipitation, where the strength of these effects

  17. Enrichment of marine anammox bacteria in Hiroshima Bay sediments.

    PubMed

    Kindaichi, T; Awata, T; Tanabe, K; Ozaki, N; Ohashi, A

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) involves the microbiological oxidation of ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor and dinitrogen gas as the main product. The Scalindua species, an anammox genus that dominates natural habitats, plays an important role in catalysing the loss of nitrogen from marine environments. Until now, a few Scalindua species have been reported to be enriched from sea sediments. The objective of this study is to enrich marine anammox bacteria with coastal sediments in Hiroshima Bay as the inocula. The enrichment was achieved using a continuous upflow column reactor with synthetic sea water containing ammonium and nitrite. After 48 days of incubation, a simultaneous decrease in ammonium and nitrite was observed. A total nitrogen removal rate of 1.16 kg-N m(-3) day(-1) was attained after 306 days of incubation when the nitrogen loading rate was 1.32 kg-N m(-3) day(-1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequence similarity between the marine anammox-like bacteria in this reactor and the unidentified Candidatus Scalindua sp. was 96-98%. We successfully enriched marine anammox bacteria in the sediments of Hiroshima Bay by using synthetic sea water. Further studies are needed to investigate the characteristics of marine anammox bacteria, including optimal pH, temperature, and nitrogen loading rate.

  18. Effect of eggshell temperature during incubation on embryo development, hatchability, and posthatch development.

    PubMed

    Lourens, A; van den Brand, H; Meijerhof, R; Kemp, B

    2005-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different eggshell temperature (EST) profiles during incubation on embryo mortality, hatchability, and embryo development. Furthermore, chicks from different EST profiles were reared under low and high housing temperatures to investigate subsequent posthatch growth and rectal temperature. Two batches of eggs were used in this experiment. Hatching eggs were subjected to 36.7 or 37.8 degrees C EST during the first week, to 37.8 degrees C EST during the second week, and to 37.8 or 38.9 degrees C EST during the third week of incubation. Posthatch housing temperature decreased from 35 degrees C at d 1 to 30 degrees C at d 7 (high) or decreased from 30 degrees C at d 1 to 25 degrees C at d 7 (low). The difference between machine temperature and EST (DT) was used to illustrate the effect of EST on heat production during incubation. DT differed per batch, and was smallest when eggs were incubated at 36.7 degrees C instead of 37.8 degrees C during wk 1. High EST during wk 3 of incubation (38.9 degrees C instead of 37.8 degrees C) reduced DT only in batch 2. Embryo development was most retarded in eggs incubated at 36.7 degrees C EST compared with at 37.8 degrees C during the first week of incubation. However, highest hatchability and embryo development were always found when EST was maintained at 37.8 degrees C constantly throughout incubation. Chicks that hatched from eggs incubated at low EST during wk 1 of incubation had lower rectal temperature after hatching, especially under low housing temperatures, and this effect lasted until 7 d posthatch in batch 1. The highest rectal temperatures were always found in chicks incubated at 37.8 degrees C EST constantly throughout incubation. Eggs and chicks from different batches require different environmental conditions for optimal embryo development, hatchability, and posthatch growth. Rearing temperature and incubation conditions affect the ability of young chicks to maintain

  19. Frontiers of marine science.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J; Poloczanska, Elvira S

    2011-06-23

    On 9-13 October 2010 early career scientists from the UK and Australia across marine research fields were given the opportunity to come together in Perth, Australia to discuss the frontiers of marine research and exchange ideas.

  20. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  1. Factors affecting incubation patterns and sex roles of black oystercatchers in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiegel, Caleb S.; Haig, Susan M.; Goldstein, Michael I.; Huso, Manuela M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of human disturbance on avian parental behavior and reproductive success are fundamental to bird conservation. However, many such studies fail to also consider the influence of natural threats, a variable environment, and parental roles. Our work examines interactive relationships of cyclical (time of day, tide, temperature, seasonality) and stochastic (natural/human disturbance) processes with incubation patterns (attendance, bout lengths, recess rates) of the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), a shorebird of conservation concern. We used 24-hour-per-day video monitoring of 13 molecularly-sexed breeding pairs to systematically examine incubation, revealing previously undocumented information that may inform conservation practices for the genus. Seven of 22 video-monitored nests failed, primarily from egg depredation by nocturnally-active mammals. Analyses of 3177 hrs of video footage indicated a near doubling of incubation bout lengths at night, corresponding to the increased risk of nighttime egg predation. Females had higher overall nest attendance (54% vs. 42%) and longer mean incubation bout lengths than males (88 min vs. 73 min). Uninterrupted incubation bouts were over twice as long as bouts interrupted by disturbance. Incubating males departed nests substantially more frequently due to nest-area disturbances than females in one, but not both, years of our study. Our findings suggest that sexes exhibit different, but complimentary, incubation patterns, facilitating efficient egg care in a dynamic environment with several nest threats. We emphasize the importance of considering natural influences when evaluating human threats to shorebird reproductive behavior and success.

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of organic matter of a soil and vinasse mixture during aerobic or anaerobic incubation

    SciTech Connect

    Doelsch, Emmanuel Masion, Armand; Cazevieille, Patrick

    2009-06-15

    Mineralization potentials are often used to classify organic wastes. These methods involve measuring CO{sub 2} production during batch experiments, so variations in chemical compounds are not addressed. Moreover, the physicochemical conditions are not monitored during the reactions. The present study was designed to address these deficiencies. Incubations of a mixture of soil and waste (vinasse at 20% dry matter from a fermentation industry) were conducted in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and liquid samples obtained by centrifugation were collected at 2 h, 1 d and 28 d. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) patterns highlighted that: there was a 'soil effect' which increased organic matter (OM) degradation in all conditions compared to vinasse incubated alone; and OM degradation was faster under aerobic conditions since 500 mg kg{sup -1} of C remained after aerobic incubation, as compared to 4000 mg kg{sup -1} at the end of the anaerobic incubation period. No changes were detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) between 2 h and 1 d incubation. At 28 days incubation, the FTIR signal of the aerobic samples was deeply modified, thus confirming the high OM degradation. Under anaerobic conditions, the main polysaccharide contributions ({nu}(C-O)) disappeared at 1000 and 1200 cm{sup -1}, as also confirmed by the {sup 13}C NMR findings. Under aerobic incubation, a 50% decrease in the polysaccharide proportion was observed. Under anaerobic conditions, significant chemical modifications of the organic fraction were detected, namely formation of low molecular weight organic acids.

  3. Equipment-Free Incubation of Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Reactions Using Body Heat

    PubMed Central

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The development of isothermal amplification platforms for nucleic acid detection has the potential to increase access to molecular diagnostics in low resource settings; however, simple, low-cost methods for heating samples are required to perform reactions. In this study, we demonstrated that human body heat may be harnessed to incubate recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reactions for isothermal amplification of HIV-1 DNA. After measuring the temperature of mock reactions at 4 body locations, the axilla was chosen as the ideal site for comfortable, convenient incubation. Using commonly available materials, 3 methods for securing RPA reactions to the body were characterized. Finally, RPA reactions were incubated using body heat while control RPA reactions were incubated in a heat block. At room temperature, all reactions with 10 copies of HIV-1 DNA and 90% of reactions with 100 copies of HIV-1 DNA tested positive when incubated with body heat. In a cold room with an ambient temperature of 10 degrees Celsius, all reactions containing 10 copies or 100 copies of HIV-1 DNA tested positive when incubated with body heat. These results suggest that human body heat may provide an extremely low-cost solution for incubating RPA reactions in low resource settings. PMID:25372030

  4. Applicability of soil column incubation experiments to measure CO2 efflux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Linlin; Nishimura, Taku; Imoto, Hiromi; Sun, Zhigang

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of CO2 efflux from soils are essential to understand dynamic changes in soil carbon storage. Column incubation experiments are commonly used to study soil water and solute transport; however, the use of column incubation experiments to study soil CO2 efflux has seldom been reported. In this study, a 150-day greenhouse experiment with two treatments (no-tillage and tillage soils) was conducted to evaluate the applicability of soil column incubation experiments to study CO2 efflux. Both the chamber measurement and the gradient method were used, and results from the two methods were consistent: tillage increased soil cumulative CO2 efflux during the incubation period. Compared with fieldwork, incubation experiments can create or precisely control experimental conditions and thus have advantages for investigating the influence of climate factors or human activities on CO2 efflux. They are superior to bottle incubation because soil column experiments maintain a soil structure that is almost the same as that in the field, and thus can facilitate analyses on CO2 behaviour in the soil profile and more accurate evaluations of CO2 efflux. Although some improvements are still required for column incubation experiments, wider application of this method to study soil CO2 behaviour is expected.

  5. Predator-specific effects on incubation behaviour and offspring growth in great tits.

    PubMed

    Basso, Alessandra; Richner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    In birds, different types of predators may target adults or offspring differentially and at different times of the reproductive cycle. Hence they may also differentially influence incubation behaviour and thus embryonic development and offspring phenotype. This is poorly understood, and we therefore performed a study to assess the effects of the presence of either a nest predator or a predator targeting adults and offspring after fledging on female incubation behaviour in great tits (Parus major), and the subsequent effects on offspring morphological traits. We manipulated perceived predation risk during incubation using taxidermic models of two predators: the short-tailed weasel posing a risk to incubating females and nestlings, and the sparrowhawk posing a risk to adults and offspring after fledging. To disentangle treatment effects induced during incubation from potential carry-over effects of parental behaviour after hatching, we cross-fostered whole broods from manipulated nests with broods from unmanipulated nests. Both predator treatments lead to a reduced on- and off-bout frequency, to a slower decline in on-bout temperature as incubation advanced and showed a negative effect on nestling body mass gain. At the current state of knowledge on predator-induced variation in incubation patterns alternative hypotheses are feasible, and the findings of this study will be useful for guiding future research.

  6. Incubation temperature affects the behavior of adult leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    PubMed

    Flores, D; Tousignant, A; Crews, D

    1994-06-01

    The leopard gecko has temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); females are predominantly produced when incubated at 26 degrees C (100%), 30 degrees C (70%), and 34 degrees C (95%), whereas males are predominantly produced at 32.5 degrees C (75%). Exogenous estradiol can override the effect of temperature on sex determination. To compare temperature-determined females with hormone-determined females, eggs from the male-biased temperature were treated with estradiol benzoate during incubation. As adults, animals from a male-biased incubation temperature were more likely to exhibit aggression than animals from female-biased incubation temperatures. Furthermore, females from a male-biased incubation temperature tended to be less attractive than females from female-biased temperatures. Hormone-determined females were both attractive and aggressive. This suggests that incubation temperature is an important development determinant of adult aggressiveness and attractiveness. The 26 degrees C animals ovariectomized on the day of hatch exhibited more frequent aggression and were unreceptive to males, indicating that postnatal ovarian hormones also play a role in adult sociosexual behaviors. The parallel between incubation temperature and intrauterine position in laboratory mammals is discussed.

  7. Effect of egg weight and position relative to incubator fan on broiler hatchability and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments, which included 3 incubators, were carried out to investigate the effects of egg weight and position relative to incubator (setter) fan on embryonic mortality, second quality chicks, and fertile hatchability of broiler eggs. Three egg weight groups termed small (approximately 62.4 g), average (approximately 65.4 g), and large (approximately 68.9 g) were set in either the incubator trolley most distant from the fan (FAR) or in the incubator trolley nearest the fan (NEAR) as would be the case during single-stage operation in this type of incubator. Fertile hatchability decreased in the large egg weight group due to increased percentage late embryonic mortality in experiment 1, and both percentage early and late embryonic mortality in experiment 2. Percentage late embryonic mortality and second quality chicks increased and percentage fertile hatchability decreased for eggs in the FAR position in experiment 1 only. A significant interaction of incubator position x egg weight group for late embryonic mortality, second quality chicks, and fertile hatchability was found in experiment 1, but only late embryonic mortality was so affected in experiment 2. Experiment 2 was conducted so that eggshell temperatures could be measured. Large eggs in the FAR position at transfer time (E 18) exhibited significantly higher eggshell temperatures than did the other groups probably because air velocity or air distribution was modified in the FAR position of the incubator and large eggs were most negatively influenced in the trolley in this position.

  8. Light Reduction Capabilities of Homemade and Commercial Incubator Covers in NICU.

    PubMed

    Ludington-Hoe, Susan M; Abouelfettoh, Amel

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of high-risk neonates' exposure to aversive light stimulation is an important component of developmentally supportive care. In neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), usually light is reduced by reducing the room's light level or by using incubator covers. Many types of incubator covers are in use, including homemade and commercial covers. A comparative study was used to determine the light reducing capabilities of 19 homemade incubator covers, 2 commercial covers, and 1 receiving blanket. The covers were tested by covering and uncovering an incubator and an oxygen hood in the NICU during daytime and nighttime lightings. The light reducing capabilities value was determined for each cover using an Extech light dosimeter when the cover was placed over and removed from an oxyhood, and an incubator. The study showed that the light reducing capability of the commercial covers was 91.2%, the homemade covers capability was 72.1%, and the receiving blankets capability was 55.1%. A significant difference between the commercial and homemade covers was found (F = 452.50, P < 0.00). Commercial incubator covers are the most effective covers to achieve light reduction; homemade covers can be effective if made large enough so that they completely cover all sides of the incubator.

  9. Equipment-free incubation of recombinase polymerase amplification reactions using body heat.

    PubMed

    Crannell, Zachary Austin; Rohrman, Brittany; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The development of isothermal amplification platforms for nucleic acid detection has the potential to increase access to molecular diagnostics in low resource settings; however, simple, low-cost methods for heating samples are required to perform reactions. In this study, we demonstrated that human body heat may be harnessed to incubate recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reactions for isothermal amplification of HIV-1 DNA. After measuring the temperature of mock reactions at 4 body locations, the axilla was chosen as the ideal site for comfortable, convenient incubation. Using commonly available materials, 3 methods for securing RPA reactions to the body were characterized. Finally, RPA reactions were incubated using body heat while control RPA reactions were incubated in a heat block. At room temperature, all reactions with 10 copies of HIV-1 DNA and 90% of reactions with 100 copies of HIV-1 DNA tested positive when incubated with body heat. In a cold room with an ambient temperature of 10 degrees Celsius, all reactions containing 10 copies or 100 copies of HIV-1 DNA tested positive when incubated with body heat. These results suggest that human body heat may provide an extremely low-cost solution for incubating RPA reactions in low resource settings.

  10. Pathogenicity of Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus propagated in vitro at different incubation temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ebling, Peter M; Caputo, Guido F; Cook, Barbara J

    2003-01-01

    To optimize the in vitro production of Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) as a potential microbial pest control agent, the pathogenicity of occlusion bodies (OBs) produced in two cell lines at three incubation temperatures was determined by bioassay. A plaque-purified isolate of CfMNPV was amplified in permissive C. fumiferana cell lines, FPMI-CF-203 and FPMI-CF-2C1, and incubated at 22, 24, and 28 degrees C. Occlusion bodies propagated in FPMI-CF-203 cells at 28 degrees C were significantly larger (17.5 microm(3)) and more pathogenic (LD(50) = 27; LD(95) = 185, where LD(50) and LD(95) are doses required to kill 50 and 95% of the test larvae, respectively) than those produced in either of the cell lines at any of the incubation temperatures tested. Increased temperatures yielded larger OBs from both cell lines. The pathogenicity of OBs propagated in the FPMI-CF-203 cell line increased with incubation temperature, whereas that of OBs produced in FPMI-CF-2C1 cells decreased. Comparison of the pathogenicity of OBs, whether naturally occurring or genetically modified, should be standardized by cell line and incubation temperature used for propagation. Production efficiency decreased with increasing incubation temperature for each cell line. Lower incubation temperatures used for propagation, and standardization of the titer of viral inoculum, should be further investigated to determine the economic feasibility of the in vitro production of CfMNPV as a microbial pest control agent.

  11. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  12. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  13. Role of Fe-Oxidizing Bacteria in Metal Bio-Corrosion in the Marine Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-30

    DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2008-31/03/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Fe-oxidizing bacteria in metal bio-corrosion in the marine...source, and that steel coupons incubated in natural seawater are rapidly colonized by these bacteria . This is the first demonstration these bacteria ...exist outside of marine hydrothermal vents. These bacteria are early colonizers of steel surfaces and through th&ir fomiatiori of a thick tiufilir

  14. The Central Amygdala Nucleus is Critical for Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-01-01

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this ‘incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4–5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that ‘incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on ‘incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving. PMID:25475163

  15. Geographic variation in avian incubation periods and parental influences on embryonic temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.; Auer, S.K.; Bassar, R.D.; Niklison, Alina M.; Lloyd, P.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts shorter embryonic periods in species with greater embryo mortality risk and smaller body size. Field studies of 80 passerine species on three continents yielded data that largely conflicted with theory; incubation (embryonic) periods were longer rather than shorter in smaller species, and egg (embryo) mortality risk explained some variation within regions, but did not explain larger differences in incubation periods among geographic regions. Incubation behavior of parents seems to explain these discrepancies. Bird embryos are effectively ectothermic and depend on warmth provided by parents sitting on the eggs to attain proper temperatures for development. Parents of smaller species, plus tropical and southern hemisphere species, commonly exhibited lower nest attentiveness (percent of time spent on the nest incubating) than larger and northern hemisphere species. Lower nest attentiveness produced cooler minimum and average embryonic temperatures that were correlated with longer incubation periods independent of nest predation risk or body size. We experimentally tested this correlation by swapping eggs of species with cool incubation temperatures with eggs of species with warm incubation temperatures and similar egg mass. Incubation periods changed (shortened or lengthened) as expected and verified the importance of egg temperature on development rate. Slower development resulting from cooler temperatures may simply be a cost imposed on embryos by parents and may not enhance offspring quality. At the same time, incubation periods of transferred eggs did not match host species and reflect intrinsic differences among species that may result from nest predation and other selection pressures. Thus, geographic variation in embryonic development may reflect more complex interactions than previously recognized. ?? 2007 The Author(s).

  16. Geographic variation in avian incubation periods and parental influences on embryonic temperature.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E; Auer, Sonya K; Bassar, Ronald D; Niklison, Alina M; Lloyd, Penn

    2007-11-01

    Theory predicts shorter embryonic periods in species with greater embryo mortality risk and smaller body size. Field studies of 80 passerine species on three continents yielded data that largely conflicted with theory; incubation (embryonic) periods were longer rather than shorter in smaller species, and egg (embryo) mortality risk explained some variation within regions, but did not explain larger differences in incubation periods among geographic regions. Incubation behavior of parents seems to explain these discrepancies. Bird embryos are effectively ectothermic and depend on warmth provided by parents sitting on the eggs to attain proper temperatures for development. Parents of smaller species, plus tropical and southern hemisphere species, commonly exhibited lower nest attentiveness (percent of time spent on the nest incubating) than larger and northern hemisphere species. Lower nest attentiveness produced cooler minimum and average embryonic temperatures that were correlated with longer incubation periods independent of nest predation risk or body size. We experimentally tested this correlation by swapping eggs of species with cool incubation temperatures with eggs of species with warm incubation temperatures and similar egg mass. Incubation periods changed (shortened or lengthened) as expected and verified the importance of egg temperature on development rate. Slower development resulting from cooler temperatures may simply be a cost imposed on embryos by parents and may not enhance offspring quality. At the same time, incubation periods of transferred eggs did not match host species and reflect intrinsic differences among species that may result from nest predation and other selection pressures. Thus, geographic variation in embryonic development may reflect more complex interactions than previously recognized.

  17. The central amygdala nucleus is critical for incubation of methamphetamine craving.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Zeric, Tamara; Kambhampati, Sarita; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-03-13

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal but mechanisms underlying this 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' are unknown. Here we studied the role of central amygdala (CeA), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), brain regions implicated in incubation of cocaine and heroin craving, in incubation of methamphetamine craving. We also assessed the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine (10 days; 9 h/day, 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and tested them for cue-induced methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions during early (2 days) or late (4-5 weeks) withdrawal. We first confirmed that 'incubation of methamphetamine craving' occurs under our experimental conditions. Next, we assessed the effect of reversible inactivation of CeA or BLA by GABAA+GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen, 0.03+0.3 nmol) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during early and late withdrawal. We also assessed the effect of muscimol+baclofen reversible inactivation of vmPFC, dmPFC, and OFC on 'incubated' cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late withdrawal. Lever presses in the cue-induced methamphetamine extinction tests were higher during late withdrawal than during early withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Muscimol+baclofen injections into CeA but not BLA decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking during late but not early withdrawal. Muscimol+baclofen injections into dmPFC, vmPFC, or OFC during late withdrawal had no effect on incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking. Together with previous studies, results indicate that the CeA has a critical role in incubation of both drug and non-drug reward craving and demonstrate an unexpected dissociation in mechanisms of incubation of methamphetamine vs cocaine craving.

  18. Effects of human recreation on the incubation behavior of American Oystercatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, C.P.; Simons, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    Human recreational disturbance and its effects on wildlife demographics and behavior is an increasingly important area of research. We monitored the nesting success of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) in coastal North Carolina in 2002 and 2003. We also used video monitoring at nests to measure the response of incubating birds to human recreation. We counted the number of trips per hour made by adult birds to and from the nest, and we calculated the percent time that adults spent incubating. We asked whether human recreational activities (truck, all-terrain vehicle [ATV], and pedestrian traffic) were correlated with parental behavioral patterns. Eleven a priori models of nest survival and behavioral covariates were evaluated using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to see whether incubation behavior influenced nest survival. Factors associated with birds leaving their nests (n = 548) included ATV traffic (25%), truck traffic (17%), pedestrian traffic (4%), aggression with neighboring oystercatchers or paired birds exchanging incubation duties (26%), airplane traffic (1%) and unknown factors (29%). ATV traffic was positively associated with the rate of trips to and away from the nest (??1 = 0.749, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with percent time spent incubating (??1 = -0.037, P = 0.025). Other forms of human recreation apparently had little effect on incubation behaviors. Nest survival models incorporating the frequency of trips by adults to and from the nest, and the percentage of time adults spent incubating, were somewhat supported in the AIC analyses. A low frequency of trips to and from the nest and, counter to expectations, low percent time spent incubating were associated with higher daily nest survival rates. These data suggest that changes in incubation behavior might be one mechanism by which human recreation affects the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers.

  19. In-situ measured primary productivity of ice algae in Arctic sea ice floes using a new incubation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ho Jung; Lee, Jae Hyung; Kim, Gawn Woo; Ahn, So Hyun; Joo, Houng-Min; Jeong, Jin Young; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang Heon

    2016-09-01

    Recent changes in climate and environmental conditions have had great negative effects such as decreasing sea ice thickness and the extent of Arctic sea ice floes that support ice-related organisms. However, limited field observations hinder the understanding of the impacts of the current changes in the previously ice-covered regions on sea ice algae and other ice-related ecosystems. Our main objective in this study was to measure recent primary production of ice algae and their relative contribution to total primary production (ice plus pelagic primary production). In-situ primary productivity experiments with a new incubation system for ice algae were conducted in 3 sea ice cores at 2 different ice camps in the northern Chukchi Sea, 2014, using a 13C and 15N isotope tracer technique. A new incubation system was tested for conducting primary productivity experiments on ice algae that has several advantages over previous incubation methods, enabling stable carbon and nitrogen uptake experiments on ice algae under more natural environmental conditions. The vertical C-shaped distributions of the ice algal chl- a, with elevated concentrations at the top and bottom of the sea ice were observed in all cores, which is unusual for Arctic sea ice. The mean chl- a concentration (0.05 ± 0.03 mg chl- a m-3) and the daily carbon uptake rates (ranging from 0.55 to 2.23 mg C m-2 d-1) for the ice algae were much lower in this study than in previous studies in the Arctic Ocean. This is likely because of the late sampling periods and thus the substantial melting occurring. Ice algae contributed 1.5-5.7% of the total particulate organic carbon (POC) contents of the combined euphotic water columns and sea ice floes. In comparison, ice algae contributed 4.8-8.6% to the total primary production which is greater than previously reported in the Arctic Ocean. If all of the ice-associated productions were included, the contributions of the sea ice floes to the total primary production

  20. Incubation time of heterogeneous growth of islands in the mode of incomplete condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    The incubation time necessary for the growth of surface islands on heterogeneous nucleation centers to begin has been theoretically analyzed depending on the material gas flow and surface temperature. It is shown that, under heterogeneous growth in the mode of incomplete condensation, the incubation time increases with temperature according to the Arrhenius law and is inversely proportional to the flow, irrespective of the mechanism of diffusion transport to islands. The results obtained have been qualitatively compared with the experimental data on the incubation time for three-dimensional GaN islands arising in the initial stage of self-induced growth of GaN nanowires.

  1. Role of Central Amygdala Neuronal Ensembles in Incubation of Nicotine Craving

    PubMed Central

    Coen, Kathleen; Tamadon, Sahar; Hope, Bruce T.; Shaham, Yavin; Lê, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    The craving response to smoking-associated cues in humans or to intravenous nicotine-associated cues in adult rats progressively increases or incubates after withdrawal. Here, we further characterized incubation of nicotine craving in the rat model by determining whether this incubation is observed after adolescent-onset nicotine self-administration. We also used the neuronal activity marker Fos and the Daun02 chemogenetic inactivation procedure to identify cue-activated neuronal ensembles that mediate incubation of nicotine craving. We trained adolescent and adult male rats to self-administer nicotine (2 h/d for 12 d) and assessed cue-induced nicotine seeking in extinction tests (1 h) after 1, 7, 14, or 28 withdrawal days. In both adult and adolescent rats, nicotine seeking in the relapse tests followed an inverted U-shaped curve, with maximal responding on withdrawal day 14. Independent of the withdrawal day, nicotine seeking in the relapse tests was higher in adult than in adolescent rats. Analysis of Fos expression in different brain areas of adolescent and adult rats on withdrawal days 1 and 14 showed time-dependent increases in the number of Fos-positive neurons in central and basolateral amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens core and shell. In adult Fos–lacZ transgenic rats, selective inactivation of nicotine-cue-activated Fos neurons in central amygdala, but not orbitofrontal cortex, decreased “incubated” nicotine seeking on withdrawal day 14. Our results demonstrate that incubation of nicotine craving occurs after adolescent-onset nicotine self-administration and that neuronal ensembles in central amygdala play a critical role in this incubation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The craving response to smoking-associated cues in humans or to intravenous nicotine-associated cues in adult rats progressively increases or incubates after withdrawal. It is currently unknown whether incubation of craving

  2. Trans-shell infection by pathogenic micro-organisms reduces the shelf life of non-incubated bird's eggs: a constraint on the onset of incubation?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mark I; Beissinger, Steven R; Toranzos, Gary A; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Arendt, Wayne J

    2003-01-01

    Many birds initiate incubation before clutch completion, which results in asynchronous hatching. The ensuing within-brood size disparity often places later-hatched nestlings at a developmental disadvantage, but the functional significance of the timing of the onset of incubation is poorly understood. Early incubation may serve to maintain the viability of early-laid eggs, which declines over time owing to the putative effects of ambient temperature. An unexplored risk to egg viability is trans-shell infection by micro-organisms. We experimentally investigated the rate and magnitude of microbial trans-shell infection of the egg, and the relative effects of ambient temperature and micro-organisms on hatching success. We show that infection of egg contents is prevalent and occurs within the time required to lay a clutch. The probability of infection depends on the climatic conditions, the exposure period and the phylogenetic composition of the eggshell microbiota. We also demonstrate that microbial infection and ambient temperature act independently to reduce egg viability considerably. Our results suggest that these two factors could affect the onset of avian incubation in a wide range of environments. PMID:14613609

  3. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  4. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  5. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) embryonic development from 7 to 42 days of incubation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Z; Cloete, S W P; Malecki, I A; Brown, C R

    2017-04-01

    1. Hatching success of ostrich eggs is poor (50-60% of fertile eggs). The current study was designed to identify the timing of key stages in the development of the ostrich embryo. 2. Growth of both embryo and wing length during 42 d of incubation was comparable and approximately linear, with a more or less weekly doubling in size up to 35 d of incubation. 3. The embryo eye size increased more rapidly than beak length and reached a maximum of ~16.2 mm by 28 d of incubation, whereas beak length increased continuously until hatching at 42 d. 4. Linear regression equations were derived from morphometric measurements of embryos between 7 and 42 d. 5. Information stemming from these results can be used to estimate the age of dead-in-shell embryos in an attempt to identify timing of incubation problems that potentially result in low hatchability of fertile eggs.

  6. The design of multi temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Junyu; Xu, Peng; Peng, Zitao; Qiang, Haonan; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is only one monitor of the temperature and humidity in an incubator, which may cause inaccurate or unreliable data, and even endanger the life safety of the baby. In order to solve this problem,we designed a multi-point temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubators. The system uses the STC12C5A60S2 microcontrollers as the sender core chip which is connected to four AM2321 temperature and humidity sensors. We select STM32F103ZET6 core development board as the receiving end,cooperating with Zigbee wireless transmitting and receiving module to realize data acquisition and transmission. This design can realize remote real-time observation data on the computer by communicating with PC via Ethernet. Prototype tests show that the system can effectively collect and display the information of temperature and humidity of multiple incubators at the same time and there are four monitors in each incubator.

  7. Kangaroo care compared to incubators in maintaining body warmth in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Ludington-Hoe, S M; Nguyen, N; Swinth, J Y; Satyshur, R D

    2000-07-01

    Many preterm infants cared for in incubators do not experience Kangaroo Care (KC), skin-to-skin contact with their mothers, due to fear of body heat loss when being held outside the incubator. A randomized clinical trial of 16 KC and 13 control infants using a pretest-test-posttest design of three consecutive interfeeding intervals of 2.5 to 3.0 h duration each was conducted over 1 day. Infant abdominal and toe temperatures were measured in and out of the incubator; maternal breast temperature was measured during KC. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in abdominal temperature across all periods and between groups. Toe temperatures were significantly higher during KC than incubator periods, and maternal breast temperature met each infant's neutral thermal zone requirements within 5 min of onset of KC. Preterm infants similar to those studied here will maintain body warmth with up to 3 h of KC.

  8. Incubation behavior of king eiders on the coastal plain of Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Phillips, Laura M.; Suydam, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Incubating birds balance their energetic demands during incubation with the needs of the developing embryos. Incubation behavior is correlated with body size; larger birds can accumulate more endogenous reserves and maintain higher incubation constancy. King eiders (Somateria spectabilis) contend with variable and cold spring weather, little nesting cover, and low food availability, and thus are likely to rely heavily on endogenous reserves to maintain high incubation constancy. We examined the patterns of nest attendance of king eiders at Teshekpuk and Kuparuk, Alaska (2002-2005) in relation to clutch size, daily temperature, and endogenous reserves to explore factors controlling incubation behavior. Females at Kuparuk had higher constancy (98.5 ?? 0.2%, n = 30) than at Teshekpuk (96.9 ?? 0.8%, n = 26), largely due to length of recesses. Mean recess length ranged from 21.5 to 23.7 min at Kuparuk, and from 28.5 to 51.2 min at Teshekpuk. Mean body mass on arrival at breeding grounds (range; Teshekpuk 1,541-1,805, Kuparuk 1,616-1,760), and at the end of incubation (Teshekpuk 1,113-1,174, Kuparuk 1,173-1,183), did not vary between sites or among years (F < 1.1, P > 0.3). Daily constancy increased 1% with every 5??C increase in minimum daily temperature (??min = 0.005, 95% CI 0.002, 0.009). Higher constancy combined with similar mass loss at Kuparuk implies that females there met foraging requirements with shorter recesses. Additionally, females took more recesses at low temperatures, suggesting increased maintenance needs which were potentially ameliorated by feeding during these recesses, indicating that metabolic costs and local foraging conditions drove incubation behavior. ?? 2010 US Government.

  9. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ neutral detergent fiber incubation.

    PubMed

    Krämer, M; Nørgaard, P; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-07-01

    Particle size alterations during neutral detergent fiber (NDF) determination and in situ rumen incubation were analyzed by dry sieving and image analysis to evaluate the in situ procedure for estimation of NDF degradation parameters and indigestible NDF concentration in terms of particle size. Early-cut and late-cut grass silages, corn silage, alfalfa silage, rapeseed meal, and dried distillers grains were examined. Treatments were (1) drying and grinding of forage samples and grinding of concentrates; (2) neutral detergent-soluble (NDS) extraction; (3) machine washing and NDS extraction; (4) 24-h rumen incubation, machine washing, and NDS extraction; and (5) 288-h rumen incubation, machine washing, and NDS extraction. Degradation profiles for potentially degradable NDF were determined and image analysis was used to estimate particle size profiles and thereby the risk for particle loss. Particle dimensions changed during NDF determination and in situ rumen incubation and variations depended on feedstuff and treatment. Corn silage and late-cut grass silage varied most in particle area among feedstuffs, with an increase of 139% between 0 and 24h and a decrease of 77% between 24 and 288 h for corn silage and a decrease of 74% for late-cut grass silage between 24- and 288-h in situ rumen incubation. Especially for late-cut grass silage residues after 288 h in situ rumen incubation, a high mass proportion in the critical zone for escape was found. Particle area decreased linearly with increasing incubation time. Particle loss during in situ rumen incubation cannot be excluded and is likely to vary among feedstuffs.

  10. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator: Formalization of Relationships

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the formalization of relationships with external service providers in the development of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report summarizes the process in developing and formalizing relationships with those service providers and includes a sample letter of cooperation executed with each provider.

  11. Avian embryo monitoring during incubation using multi-channel diffuse speckle contrast analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Chaebeom; Park, Hyun-cheol; Lee, Kijoon; Song, Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Determining the survival rate of avian embryos during incubation is essential for cost-saving in the poultry industry. A multi-channel diffuse speckle contrast analysis (DSCA) system, comprising four optical fiber channels, is proposed to achieve noninvasive in vivo measurements of deep tissue flow. The system was able to monitor chick embryo vital signs over the entire incubation period. Moreover, it proved useful in distinguishing between chick embryos in healthy and weakened conditions. PMID:26819820

  12. Composition and location of simulated lake-shore redds influence incubation success in kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fincel, M.J.; Chipps, S.R.; Bennett, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for improving spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), were explored by quantifying incubation success of embryos exposed to three substrate treatments in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, USA. Substrate treatments included no modification that used existing gravels in the lake (EXISTING), a cleaned substrate treatment where existing gravels were sifted in the water column to remove silt (CLEANED) and the addition of new, silt-free gravel (ADDED). Incubation success was evaluated using Whitlock-Vibert incubation boxes buried within each substrate treatment that contained recently fertilised embryos. Upon retrieval, live and dead sac fry and eyed eggs were enumerated to determine incubation success (sac fry and eyed eggs ?? 100/number of fertilised embryos). Incubation success varied significantly among locations and redd treatments. In general, incubation success among ADDED redds (0.0-13.0%) was significantly lower than that for EXISTING (1.4-61.0%) and CLEANED (0.4-62.5%) redds. Adding new gravel to spawning areas changed the morphometry of the gravel-water interface and probably exposed embryos to disturbance from wave action and reduced embryo survival. Moreover, efforts to improve spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee should consider water depth and location (e.g. protected shorelines) as important variables. Adding clean gravel to existing spawning areas may provide little benefit if water depth or lake-bottom morphometry are altered. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. A review of factors influencing the availability of dissolved oxygen to incubating salmonid embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, S. M.; Sear, D. A.; Carling, P. A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations into factors influencing incubation success of salmonid progeny have largely been limited to the development of empirical relationships between characteristics of the incubation environment and survival to emergence. It is suggested that adopting a process-based approach to assessing incubation success aids identification of the precise causes of embryonic mortalities, and provides a robust framework for developing and implementing managerial responses.Identifying oxygen availability within the incubation environment as a limiting factor, a comprehensive review of trends in embryonic respiration, and processes influencing the flux of oxygenated water through gravel riverbeds is provided. The availability of oxygen to incubating salmonid embryos is dependent on the exchange of oxygenated water with the riverbed, and the ability of the riverbed gravel medium to transport this water at a rate and concentration appropriate to support embryonic respiratory requirements. Embryonic respiratory trends indicate that oxygen consumption varies with stage of development, ambient water temperature and oxygen availability. The flux of oxygenated water through the incubation environment is controlled by a complex interaction of intragravel and extragravel processes and factors. The processes driving the exchange of channel water with gravel riverbeds include bed topography, bed permeability, and surface roughness effects. The flux of oxygenated water through riverbed gravels is controlled by gravel permeability, coupling of surface-subsurface flow and oxygen demands imposed by materials infiltrating riverbed gravels. Temporally and spatially variable inputs of groundwater can also influence the oxygen concentration of interstitial water. Copyright

  14. Influence of incubation conditions on hydrolysis efficiency and iodine enrichment in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Dolińska, Barbara; Zieliński, Michał; Dobrzański, Zbigniew; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Opaliński, Sebastian; Ryszka, Florian

    2012-06-01

    The influence of incubation conditions, enzyme type, hydrolysis time, and potassium iodide concentration on hydrolysis and iodine enrichment were studied in supernatant and pellets of Saccharomyces cervisiae hydrolysates. The type of enzyme used and incubation time significantly influence hydrolysis efficiency and protein concentration in supernatant and pellet. The highest protein hydrolysis efficiency was obtained by 24-h incubation with papain. Significantly lower values were observed for pepsin and autolysis. The potassium iodide concentration influences the iodine content of supernatant and pellet, but not hydrolysis. Iodide enrichment of supernatant and pellet depends on the concentration of iodide using during incubation. High concentration of iodide and long incubation times were the conditions for optimal iodide enrichment and high-protein hydrolysates. The optimal hydrolysis efficiency and iodine enrichment were obtained during 24-h incubation with papain in a 4.5-mM potassium iodide medium. The efficiency reached 98.22% with iodine concentrations of 2,664.91 and 9,200.67 μg/g iodine in pellet and supernatant, respectively.

  15. Incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. However, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. We incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. When exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 24 °C had lower cumulative mortalities (55%, therefore, higher immunocompetence) than those from 28 °C (85%) or 32 °C (100%). Consistent with higher immunocompetence, hatchlings from low incubation temperature had higher IgM, IgD, and CD3γ expressions than their counterparts from the other two higher incubation temperatures. Conversely, the activity of immunity-related enzymes did not match the among-temperature difference in immune function. Specifically, enzyme activity was higher at intermediate temperatures (alkaline phosphatase) or was not affected by incubation temperature (acid phosphatase, lysozyme). Our study is the first to provide unequivocal evidence (at the molecular and organismal level) about the significant effect of incubation temperature on offspring immunity in reptiles. Our results also indicate that the reduced immunity induced by high developmental temperatures might increase the vulnerability of reptiles to the outbreak of diseases under global warming scenarios. PMID:26028216

  16. Remote monitoring of parental incubation conditions in the greater sandhill crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Hatfield, J.; Howey, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    To monitor incubation conditions in nests of greater sandhill cranes, a radiotransmitting egg was built using six temperature sensors, a position sensor, and a light sensor. Sensor readings were received, along with time of observations, and stored in a computer. The egg was used to monitor incubation in nests of six pairs of cranes during 1987 and 1988. Ambient temperature was also measured. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to relate highest egg temperature, core egg temperature, and lowest egg temperature to ambient temperature, time since the egg was last turned, and time since the beginning of incubation. Ambient temperature had the greatest effect on egg temperature (P 0.0001), followed by the time since the beginning of incubation and time since the egg was last turned. Pair effect, the class variable in the ANCOVA. was also very significant (P < 0.0001). A nine-term Fourier series was used to estimate the average core egg temperature versus time of day and was found to fit the data well (r2 = 0.94). The Fourier series will be used to run a mechanical incubator to simulate natural incubation conditions for cranes.

  17. Incubating rainbow trout in soft water increased their later sensitivity to cadmium and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Hennessy, Daniel P.; Dillon, Frank S.

    2010-01-01

    Water hardness is well known to affect the toxicity of some metals; however, reports on the influence of hardness during incubation or acclimation on later toxicity to metals have been conflicting. We incubated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) near the confluence of two streams, one with soft water and one with very-soft water (average incubation hardnesses of about 21 and 11 mg/L as CaCO3, respectively). After developing to the swim-up stage, the fish were exposed for 96-h to a mixture of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in water with a hardness of 27 mg/L as CaCO3. The fish incubated in the higher hardness water were about two times more resistant than the fish incubated in the extremely soft water. This difference was similar or greater than the difference that would have been predicted by criteria hardness equations had the fish been tested in the different acclimation waters. We think it is plausible that the energy demands for fish to maintain homeostasis in the lower hardness water make the fish more sensitive to metals that inhibit ionoregulation such as Cd and Zn. We suggest that if important decisions were to be based upon test results, assumptions of adequate hardness acclimation should be carefully considered and short acclimation periods avoided. If practical, incubating rainbow trout in the control waters to be tested may reduce uncertainties in the possible influences of differing rearing water hardness on the test results.

  18. Incubation period for campylobacteriosis and its importance in the estimation of incidence related to travel.

    PubMed

    Horn, B J; Lake, R J

    2013-10-03

    Differentiation between travel-related and domestic cases of infectious disease is important in managing risk. Incubation periods of cases from several outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada, Europe, and the United States with defined exposure time of less than 24 hours were collated to provide information on the incubation period distribution. This distribution was consistent across the varied outbreaks considered, with 84% (702/832) of cases having an incubation period of four days or less and 1% having an incubation period of eight days or more. The incubation period distribution was incorporated into a model for the number of travel-related cases presenting with symptom onset at given dates after return to their country of residence. Using New Zealand notification data between 2006 and 2010 for cases who had undertaken foreign travel within 10 days prior to symptom onset, we found that 29.6% (67/227 cases; 95% confidence interval (CI): 28.3–30.8%) of these cases were likely to have been domestic cases. When cases with symptom onset prior to arrival were included, the probable domestic cases represented 11.8% (67/571; 95% CI: 11.2–12.3%). Consideration of incubation time distributions and consistent collection of travel start/end dates with symptom onset dates would assist attribution of cases to foreign travel.

  19. Adrenocortical suppression in highland chick embryos is restored during incubation at sea level.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos E; Villena, Mercedes; Blanco, Carlos E; Giussani, Dino A

    2011-01-01

    By combining the chick embryo model with incubation at high altitude, this study tested the hypothesis that development at high altitude is related to a fetal origin of adrenocortical but not adrenomedullary suppression and that hypoxia is the mechanism underlying the relationship. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at altitude with oxygen supplementation. At day 20 of incubation, embryonic blood was taken for measurement of plasma corticotropin, corticosterone, and Po(2). Following biometry, the adrenal glands were collected and frozen for measurement of catecholamine content. Development of chick embryos at high altitude led to pronounced adrenocortical blunting, but an increase in adrenal catecholamine content. These effects were similar whether the fertilized eggs were laid by sea-level or high altitude hens. The effects of high altitude on the stress axes were completely prevented by incubation at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. When chick embryos from high altitude hens were incubated at sea level, plasma hormones and adrenal catecholamine content were partially restored toward levels measured in sea-level chick embryos. There was a significant correlation between adrenocortical blunting and elevated adrenal catecholamine content with both asymmetric growth restriction and fetal hypoxia. The data support the hypothesis tested and provide evidence to isolate the direct contribution of developmental hypoxia to alterations in the stress system.

  20. Incubation under climate warming affects learning ability and survival in hatchling lizards.

    PubMed

    Dayananda, Buddhi; Webb, Jonathan K

    2017-03-01

    Despite compelling evidence for substantial individual differences in cognitive performance, it is unclear whether cognitive ability influences fitness of wild animals. In many animals, environmental stressors experienced in utero can produce substantial variation in the cognitive abilities of offspring. In reptiles, incubation temperatures experienced by embryos can influence hatchling brain function and learning ability. Under climate warming, the eggs of some lizard species may experience higher temperatures, which could affect the cognitive abilities of hatchlings. Whether such changes in cognitive abilities influence the survival of hatchlings is unknown. To determine whether incubation-induced changes in spatial learning ability affect hatchling survival, we incubated velvet gecko, Amalosia lesueurii, eggs using two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current (cold) versus future (hot) nest temperatures. We measured the spatial learning ability of hatchlings from each treatment, and released individually marked animals at two field sites in southeastern Australia. Hatchlings from hot-incubated eggs were slower learners than hatchlings from cold-incubated eggs. Survival analyses revealed that hatchlings with higher learning scores had higher survival than hatchlings with poor learning scores. Our results show that incubation temperature affects spatial learning ability in hatchling lizards, and that such changes can influence the survival of hatchlings in the wild.

  1. Exposing broiler eggs to green, red and white light during incubation.

    PubMed

    Archer, G S

    2017-02-08

    Previous work has shown that exposing broiler eggs to white light during incubation can improve hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare. It was hypothesized that due to how different wavelengths of light can affect avian physiology differently, and how pigmented eggshells filter light that different monochromatic wavelengths would have differential effects on hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare indicators. To determine, we incubated chicken eggs (n=6912) under either no light (dark), green light, red light or white light; the light level was 250 lux. White and red light were observed to increase hatch of fertile (P0.05). Fear response of during isolation and tonic immobility was reduced (P0.05) from dark incubated broilers. All light incubated broilers had lower (P<0.05) plasma corticosterone and higher (P<0.05) plasma serotonin concentrations than dark incubated broilers. These results indicate that white light and red light that is a component of it are possibly the key spectrum to improving hatchability and lower fear and stress susceptibility, whereas green light is not as effective. Incubating broiler eggs under these spectrums could be used to improve hatchery efficiency and post-hatch animal welfare at the same time.

  2. Incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-06-01

    Identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. However, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. We incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. When exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 24 °C had lower cumulative mortalities (55%, therefore, higher immunocompetence) than those from 28 °C (85%) or 32 °C (100%). Consistent with higher immunocompetence, hatchlings from low incubation temperature had higher IgM, IgD, and CD3γ expressions than their counterparts from the other two higher incubation temperatures. Conversely, the activity of immunity-related enzymes did not match the among-temperature difference in immune function. Specifically, enzyme activity was higher at intermediate temperatures (alkaline phosphatase) or was not affected by incubation temperature (acid phosphatase, lysozyme). Our study is the first to provide unequivocal evidence (at the molecular and organismal level) about the significant effect of incubation temperature on offspring immunity in reptiles. Our results also indicate that the reduced immunity induced by high developmental temperatures might increase the vulnerability of reptiles to the outbreak of diseases under global warming scenarios.

  3. Incubation of Conditioning-Specific Reflex Modification: Implications for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schreurs, Bernard G.; Smith-Bell, Carrie A.; Burhans, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    Incubation of fear has been used to account for the delayed manifestation of symptoms of fear and anxiety including the delayed onset of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). We have shown the utility of classical conditioning-specific modification of the rabbit nictitating membrane response (NMR) as a model of PTSD. This modification includes an exaggeration in the size and a change in the timing of the unconditioned NMR after several days of classical conditioning. To assess the effects of incubation on conditioning-specific modification, we measured changes in responding as a function of the time between classical conditioning and NMR testing. After just one day of classical conditioning resulting in modest levels of learning, increases in response size were an inverted-U shaped function of days of incubation with little if any change occurring one and ten days after training but significant change occurring after six days. The incubation effect persisted for a week. An unpaired control group showed no change in the size of the response confirming the incubation effect was associative. The results bear a striking resemblance to symptoms of PTSD that do not always occur immediately after trauma and become exacerbated over time and then persist. They point to a window when incubation can exacerbate symptoms and speak to the vulnerability of re-experiencing trauma too soon. This could be a serious problem for military or emergency personnel recalled to combat or a disaster site without sufficient time to deal with the effects of their initial experiences. PMID:21803372

  4. Sucrose incubation increases freezing tolerance of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) embryogenic cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Jitsuyama, Y; Suzuki, T; Harada, T; Fujikawa, S

    2002-01-01

    The freezing tolerance of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) embryogenic cells, as determined by electrolyte leakage, was increased by the incubation of samples in medium containing 0.8 M sucrose. To elucidate the mechanism involved, we investigated the changes in soluble carbohydrates, cell ultrastructure and proteins accompanying the increase in freezing tolerance following incubation in sugar-rich medium. During sugar incubation, the intracellular sucrose content increased from 67 mol g-1FW to 429 mol g-1FW; it was also metabolized into fructose and glucose, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microscopy revealed that sugar incubation induced plasmolysis of embryogenic cells and drastic changes in cell ultrastructure with the appearance of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Furthermore, immunoblotting analysis with anti-dehydrin antiserum revealed that a dehydrin-like protein appeared only when maximal freezing tolerance was induced by sugar incubation. These results suggest that freezing tolerance of asparagus embryogenic cells is increased by a complex mechanism involving notably changes in cell ultrastructure and accumulation of certain sugars and proteins during sugar incubation.

  5. [Modulating marine ecosystem by marine viruses--a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Bai, Shijie; Cai, Wenwei; Zheng, Tianling

    2009-05-01

    Marine viruses play great roles in the marine ecological system such as modulating the biodiversity and species population, regulating the nutrient cycling, intervening gene transfer and influencing climate changes. Recent research achievements on marine viruses were reviewed in this paper. We focused on the modulating role of marine viruses in marine ecosystem and discussed future research perspectives.

  6. The role of preparation technique, culture media and incubation time for embryonation of Heterakis gallinarum eggs.

    PubMed

    Püllen, U; Cheat, Sophal; Moors, E; Gauly, M

    2008-01-01

    The importance of preparation technique, culture media and incubation time in the embryonation of the infective egg stages of the intestinal nematode parasite Heterakis gallinarum was studied. Mature H. gallinarum worms were isolated from the caeca of infected chickens and separated by sex. In a first experiment intact female worms were kept for the development of their eggs in four different media (0.5% formalin, 2% formalin, 0.1 N sulphuric acid, 0.1% potassium dichromate) and incubated under constant temperature (20-22 degrees C) for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks. Afterwards the body of the worms were ruptured and the numbers of unembryonated and embryonated eggs were determined using a McMaster egg counting chamber, and the percentage of embryonated eggs was calculated. After 8 weeks of incubation in 0.5% formalin, 0.1 N sulphuric acid or 0.1% potassium dichromate 27.6%, 26.7% and 29.4% of the eggs, respectively, embryonated into third stage larvae (p > 0.05). In contrast, incubation in 2% formalin resulted in an embryonation of 18.6% only (p < 0.05). In a second experiment H. gallinarum eggs were directly harvested from worm uteri and cultivated afterwards in different media (2% formalin, 0.1 N sulphuric acid, 0.1% potassium dichromate) at 20 to 22 degrees C for 6 weeks. An incubation of isolated eggs in 2.0% formalin or 0.1% potassium dichromate during 6 weeks resulted in a significantly higher percentage of embryonation in comparison to the incubation of intact worms (first experiment). The results suggest that preparation technique, media and time of incubation has an essential influence on the development rate of H. gallinarum eggs.

  7. Prolonged pre-incubation increases the susceptibility of Galleria mellonella larvae to bacterial and fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Browne, Niall; Surlis, Carla; Maher, Amie; Gallagher, Clair; Carolan, James C; Clynes, Martin; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Galleria mellonella larvae are widely used for assessing the virulence of microbial pathogens and for measuring the in vivo activity of antimicrobial agents and produce results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. The aim of the work described here was to ascertain the effect of pre-incubation at 15°C for 1, 3, 6 or 10 weeks on the susceptibility of larvae to infection with Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. Larvae infected with C. albicans after 1 week pre-incubation at 15°C showed 73.3 ± 3.3% survival at 24 hours post-infection while those infected after 10 weeks pre-incubation showed 30 ± 3.3% survival (P < 0.01). Larvae infected with S. aureus after 1 week pre-incubation showed 65.5 ± 3.3% survival after 24 hours while those infected after 10 weeks pre-incubation showed 13.3 ± 3.3% (P < 0.001). Analysis of the haemocyte density in larvae pre-incubated for 3-10 weeks showed a reduction in haemocytes over time but a proportionate increase in the density of granular haemocytes in the population as determined by FACS analysis. Proteomic analysis revealed decreased abundance of proteins associated with metabolic pathways (e.g. malate dehydrogenase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and prophenoloxidase. G. mellonella larvae are a useful in vivo model system but the duration of the pre-incubation stage significantly affects their susceptibility to microbial pathogens possibly as a result of altered metabolism.

  8. Adaptations in AMPA receptor transmission in the nucleus accumbens contributing to incubation of cocaine craving

    PubMed Central

    Loweth, Jessica A.; Tseng, Kuei Y.; Wolf, Marina E.

    2013-01-01

    Cue-induced cocaine craving in rodents intensifies or “incubates” during the first months of withdrawal from long access cocaine self-administration. This incubation phenomenon is relevant to human users who achieve abstinence but exhibit persistent vulnerability to cue-induced relapse. It is well established that incubation of cocaine craving involves complex neuronal circuits. Here we will focus on neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region of convergence for pathways that control cocaine seeking. A key adaptation is a delayed (~3–4 weeks) accumulation of Ca2+-permeable AMPAR receptors (CP-AMPARs) in synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSN) of the NAc. These CP-AMPARs mediate the expression of incubation after prolonged withdrawal, although different mechanisms must be responsible during the first weeks of withdrawal, prior to CP-AMPAR accumulation. The cascade of events leading to CP-AMPAR accumulation is still unclear. However, several candidate mechanisms have been identified. First, mGluR1 has been shown to negatively regulate CP-AMPAR levels in NAc synapses, and it is possible that a withdrawal-dependent decrease in this effect may help explain CP-AMPAR accumulation during incubation. Second, an increase in phosphorylation of GluA1 subunits (at the protein kinase A site) within extrasynaptic homomeric GluA1 receptors (CP-AMPARs) may promote their synaptic insertion and oppose their removal. Finally, elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the NAc may contribute to maintenance of incubation after months of withdrawal, although incubation-related increases in BDNF accumulation do not account for CP-AMPAR accumulation. Receptors and pathways that negatively regulate incubation, such as mGluR1, are promising targets for the development of therapeutic strategies to help recovering addicts maintain abstinence. PMID:23727437

  9. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  10. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Williams, Long Marine Lab, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California at Santa Cruz, 100...: The subject amendment to Permit No. 13602 was requested under the authority of the Marine...

  11. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  12. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  13. Methylation of inorganic mercury in polar marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnherr, Igor; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Hintelmann, Holger; Kirk, Jane L.

    2011-05-01

    Monomethylmercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in marine organisms, with serious implications for human health. The toxin is of particular concern to northern Inuit peoples, for example, whose traditional diets are composed primarily of marine mammals and fish. The ultimate source of monomethylmercury to marine organisms has remained uncertain, although various potential sources have been proposed, including export from coastal and deep-sea sediments and major river systems, atmospheric deposition and water-column production. Here, we report results from incubation experiments in which we added isotopically labelled inorganic mercury and monomethylmercury to seawater samples collected from a range of sites in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Monomethylmercury formed from the methylation of inorganic mercury in all samples. Demethylation of monomethylmercury was also observed in water from all sites. We determined steady-state concentrations of monomethylmercury in marine waters by incorporating the rate constants for monomethylmercury formation and degradation derived from these experiments into a numerical model. We estimate that the conversion of inorganic mercury to monomethylmercury in the water column accounts for around 47% (+/-62%, standard deviation) of the monomethylmercury present in polar marine waters, with site-to-site differences in inorganic mercury and monomethylmercury levels accounting for most of the variability. We suggest that water-column methylation of inorganic mercury is a significant source of monomethylmercury in pelagic marine food webs in the Arctic, and possibly in the world's oceans in general.

  14. Parasites and marine invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  15. Channel catfish hatchery production efficiency using a vertical-lift incubator the see-saw at various egg loading densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish spawns are typically incubated in ¼-in mesh baskets suspended in water that is agitated with paddles positioned between baskets. We tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish spawns. Previous research demonstrated that when loaded with spawns at...

  16. Developing a Model for a "Ladder of Incubation" Linked to Higher and Further Education Institutions in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisey, Pam; Gornall, Lynne; Jones, Paul; Thomas, Brychan

    2005-01-01

    Business incubators play a critical role in economic regeneration through the development and support of new and sustainable enterprises. Many UK incubator projects are funded by the European Commission through the higher education sector. This study compares and contrasts six business incubation case studies and identifies significant criteria…

  17. 18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 (broken cradle) center; cradle for Marine Railway #3 on right. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  18. Composition of incubation solution impacts in vitro protein uptake to silicone hydrogel contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Heynen, Miriam; Luensmann, Doerte; Jones, Lyndon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of incubation solution composition on protein deposition to silicone hydrogel (SH) contact lenses using a simplistic and a complex model of the tear film. Methods Three SH materials – senofilcon A (SA), lotrafilcon B (LB), and balafilcon A (BA) – were incubated in two different solutions; Solution A was a simplistic augmented buffered saline solution containing a single protein, whereas Solution B was a complex artificial tear solution (ATS), containing the augmented buffered saline solution in addition to proteins, lipids, and mucins (pH=7.4). The proteins of interest (lysozyme, lactoferrin, albumin) were radiolabeled with Iodine-125 (2% protein of interest) and the accumulation of the conjugated protein to the lens materials was determined after 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of incubation. Protein deposition was measured using a gamma counter and the raw data were translated into absolute amounts (µg/lens) via extrapolation from standards. Results After 28 days, lysozyme uptake was significantly lower on BA lenses when incubated in Solution A (33.7 μg) compared to Solution B (56.2 μg), p<0.001. SA lenses deposited similar amounts of lysozyme when incubated in either Solution A (2.6 μg) or Solution B (4.1 μg), p>0.05. LB lenses also deposited similar amounts of lysozyme for both solutions (Solution A: 5.0 μg, Solution B: 4.7 μg, p>0.05). After 28 days, BA lenses accumulated approximately twice the amount of lactoferrin than the other lens materials, with 30.3 μg depositing when exposed to Solution A and 22.0 μg with Solution B. The difference between the two solutions was statistically significant (p<0.001). LB materials deposited significantly greater amounts of lactoferrin when incubated in Solution A (16.6 μg) compared to Solution B (10.3 μg), p<0.001. Similar amounts of lactoferrin were accumulated onto SA lenses regardless of incubation solution composition (Solution A: 8.2 μg, Solution B: 11.2 μg, p>0.05). After 28

  19. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was identifying entrepreneurs

  20. Effects of incubation substrates on hatch timing and success of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act in 1994 because several decades of failed spawning had put the population at risk of extinction. Natural spawning is known to occur at several locations in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but there is little natural recruitment. Microhabitat where embryo incubation occurs is known to be an important factor in white sturgeon reproductive success. This study was conducted to address questions regarding the suitability of different substrates as egg attachment and incubation sites for these fish. A comparative laboratory study using six types of incubation substrates—clean river rocks, periphyton- and algae-covered rocks, waterlogged wood, sand, riparian vegetation, and clean glass plates—tested the hypothesis that survival to hatch of white sturgeon eggs differs among incubation substrates. The results showed that sand was unsuitable as an incubation substrate, as the adhesive embryos were easily dislodged. Periphyton- and algae-covered rocks had the lowest hatch success, and all other substrates had similar hatch success.

  1. Swimming performance of hatchling green turtles is affected by incubation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Booth, David T.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2006-08-01

    In an experiment repeated for two separate years, incubation temperature was found to affect the body size and swimming performance of hatchling green turtles ( Chelonia mydas). In the first year, hatchlings from eggs incubated at 26°C were larger in size than hatchlings from 28 and 30°C, whilst in the second year hatchlings from 25.5°C were similar in size to hatchings from 30°C. Clutch of origin influenced the size of hatchlings at all incubation temperatures even when differences in egg size were taken into account. In laboratory measurements of swimming performance, in seawater at 28°C, hatchlings from eggs incubated at 25.5 and 26°C had a lower stroke rate frequency and lower force output than hatchlings from 28 and 30°C. These differences appeared to be caused by the muscles of hatchlings from cooler temperatures fatiguing at a faster rate. Clutch of origin did not influence swimming performance. This finding that hatchling males incubated at lower temperature had reduced swimming ability may affect their survival whilst running the gauntlet of predators in shallow near-shore waters, prior to reaching the relative safety of the open sea.

  2. Influence of incubation temperature on biofilm formation and corrosion of carbon steel by Serratia marcescens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harimawan, Ardiyan; Devianto, Hary; Kurniawan, Ignatius Chandra; Utomo, Josephine Christine

    2017-01-01

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion is one type of corrosion, directly or indirectly influenced by microbial activities, by forming biofilm and adhering on the metal surface. When forming biofilm, the microorganisms can produce extracellular products which influence the cathodic and anodic reactions on metal surfaces. This will result in electrochemical changes in the interface between the biofilm and the metal surface, leading to corrosion and deterioration of the metal. MIC might be caused by various types of microorganism which leads to different corrosion mechanism and reaction kinetics. Furthermore, this process will also be influenced by various environmental conditions, such as pH and temperature. This research is aimed to determine the effect of incubation temperature on corrosion of carbon steel caused by Serratia marcescens in a mixture solution of synthetic seawater with Luria Bertani medium with a ratio of 4:1. The incubation was performed for 19 days with incubation temperature of 30, 37, and 50°C. The analyses of biofilm were conducted by total plate count (TPC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Biofilm was found to be evenly growth on the surface and increasing with increasing incubation temperature. It consists of functional group of alcohol, alkane, amine, nitro, sulfate, carboxylic acid, and polysulfide. The analyses of the corrosion were conducted by gravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Higher incubation temperature was found to increase the corrosion rate. However, the corrosion products were not detected by XRD analysis.

  3. Web-based remote monitoring of infant incubators in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Shin, D I; Huh, S J; Lee, T S; Kim, I Y

    2003-09-01

    A web-based real-time operating, management, and monitoring system for checking temperature and humidity within infant incubators using the Intranet has been developed and installed in the infant Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We have created a pilot system which has a temperature and humidity sensor and a measuring module in each incubator, which is connected to a web-server board via an RS485 port. The system transmits signals using standard web-based TCP/IP so that users can access the system from any Internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using this method, the system gathers temperature and humidity data transmitted from the measuring modules via the RS485 port on the web-server board and creates a web document containing these data. The system manager can maintain centralized supervisory monitoring of the situations in all incubators while sitting within the infant ICU at a work space equipped with a personal computer. The system can be set to monitor unusual circumstances and to emit an alarm signal expressed as a sound or a light on a measuring module connected to the related incubator. If the system is configured with a large number of incubators connected to a centralized supervisory monitoring station, it will improve convenience and assure meaningful improvement in response to incidents that require intervention.

  4. Metabolic and embryonic responses to terrestrial incubation of Fundulus grandis embryos across a temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Brown, C A; Green, C C

    2014-03-01

    This study simulated terrestrial incubation and measured rates of embryogenesis, nitrogen elimination, heart rate, lactate production, maximum length of time a hatch could be delayed and developmental responses of terrestrially incubated Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis embryos at temperatures ranging from 20 to 30° C. Temperature had a positive relationship with rate of embryogenesis, but a negative relationship with extent of extended incubation. The 30° C treatment reached embryonic maturity 6 days before the 20° C treatment. Embryos hatched between intervals of 240 and 336, 144 and 288, 96 and 240 and 96 and 192 h after reaching developmental maturity for the 20, 23, 26 and 30° C treatments. Significantly higher concentrations of total nitrogen, in the form of ammonia and urea, were recorded in the 20 and 30° C treatments. While temperature significantly influenced lactate and ATP concentrations, no significant influence of time of incubation was detected. Terrestrial embryos displayed an ability to develop quickly during embryogenesis and prolong incubation for an extended period of time after reaching embryonic maturity. This adaptation may be a life-history trait used to minimize asynchronous hatching, cannibalism and cohort size heterogeneity.

  5. Nitrogen mineralization and transformation from composts and biosolids during field incubation in a sandy soil

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.L.; Alva, A.K.; Yan, P.; Li, Y.C.; Calvert, D.V.; Stoffella, P.J.; Banks, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Field evaluation of nutrient release from composts is important to estimate nutrient contribution to crops, potential leaching of nutrients, and, ultimately, to determine optimum application rates, timing, and placement of composts. Field incubation and laboratory analyses were conducted to evaluate the mineralization rate and transformation of N in biosolids (BSD), yard waste (YW), and West Palm Beach co-compost (WPCC). Each of the composts or biosolids was packed into PVC columns and inserted vertically into the upper layer of an Oldsmar fine sand of raised citrus beds. The top end of the PVC column was capped to prevent excessive leaching of nutrients from the columns. The moisture equilibrium between the incubated sample and the soil in the field was attained through the bottom and four side holes of each column, which were separated from the contacting soil by 400-mesh nylon screen. A set of the incubated columns was removed at monthly intervals, and the soil underlying each column was sampled to analyze for KCl-extractable NH{sub 4}-N and NO{sub 3}-N. Total C and N of the incubated samples were determined at the end of the 1-year incubation.

  6. Effect of the incubation conditions on the production of patulin by Penicillium griseofulvum isolated from wheat.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M; Mateo, R; Mateo, J J; Huerta, T; Hernández, E

    1991-09-01

    Sixty-four wheat samples from Spanish flour factories were screened for patulin and patulin-producing moulds. None of them was found to contain any patulin, whereas samples experimentally contaminated with this toxin proved it to be highly unstable. On the other hand, Penicillium griseofulvum was the only in vitro patulin-producing species found (19 samples). Mould growth in the samples was investigated by using yeast-sucrose medium (YES) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to measure the amounts of toxin produced during 40 day's incubation at 20 and 28 degrees C. The highest yield rate of patulin was obtained between the 20th and 30th day of incubation; such a rate, however, was very low throughout the vigorous growth phase, during the first 20 days of incubation. The more appropriate temperature for incubation and patulin production was 28 degrees C. We also investigated the influence of other incubation conditions in the yield and found stationary dark cultures to be more efficient that shaken or fermentation cultures in YES medium. The best patulin yield achieved was 11.9 mg in the culture broth and 6.3 mg in the mycelium from 100 ml of medium.

  7. Resource allocation between reproductive phases: the importance of thermal conditions in determining the cost of incubation.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, J M; Monaghan, P; Ruxton, G D

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the resources allocated to particular stages of reproduction are expected to influence allocation to, and performance in, subsequent reproductive stages. Experimental manipulation of individual investment patterns provides important evidence that such physiological trade-offs occur, and can highlight the key environmental variables that influence reproductive costs. By temporarily altering the thermal properties of starling nests, we reduced the energetic demand of first-clutch incubation, and examined the effect of this manipulation on performance during the same and the subsequent reproductive attempts. Compared with controls, starlings investing less in incubation were more successful in fledging young, and were more likely to hatch all their eggs if a subsequent reproductive attempt was made. Our results show that incubation demands can limit reproductive success, and that resources saved during incubation can be reallocated to later stages of the same reproductive attempt and to future reproductive attempts. This study also shows that small changes in thermal environment can affect breeding success by altering the energetic demands imposed on incubating parents, independently of the effect of temperature on other environmental variables such as food supply. PMID:10670950

  8. Cardiac and vascular disease prior to hatching in chick embryos incubated at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Camm, E J; Tuckett, J D; Weerakkody, R A; Kane, A D; Shelley, A M; Wooding, F B P; Quy, M; Giussani, D A

    2010-02-01

    The partial contributions of reductions in fetal nutrition and oxygenation to slow fetal growth and a developmental origin of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. By combining high altitude with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of high-altitude hypoxia on growth. This study isolated the direct effects of high-altitude hypoxia on cardiovascular development. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high-altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. High altitude promoted embryonic growth restriction, cardiomegaly and aortic wall thickening, effects which could be prevented by incubating eggs from high-altitude hens at sea level or by incubating eggs from sea-level hens at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. Embryos from high-altitude hens showed reduced effects of altitude incubation on growth restriction but not on cardiovascular remodeling. The data show that: (1) high-altitude hypoxia promotes embryonic cardiac and vascular disease already evident prior to hatching and that this is associated with growth restriction; (2) the effects can be prevented by increased oxygenation; and (3) the effects are different in embryos from sea-level or high-altitude hens.

  9. Sitting in the sun: Nest microhabitat affects incubation temperatures in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lorinda A; Downs, Colleen T; Brown, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During incubation parent birds are committed to a nest site and endure a range of ambient conditions while regulating egg temperatures. Using artificial eggs containing temperature loggers alongside ambient temperature (Ta) controls, incubation profiles were determined for four tropical seabird species at different nest site locations. Camera traps were used for ad-hoc behavioural incubation observations. Eggs experienced a range of temperatures during incubation and varied significantly between species and in some cases between different microhabitats within a species. Such variation has important consequences in the phenotypic expression of both physical and physiological traits of chicks, and ultimately species fitness. Exposed nest sites were more strongly correlated to Tas. Camera traps highlighted different incubation strategies employed by these species that could be related to trade-offs in predator defence, feeding habits, and temperature regulation of eggs. This study provides evidence that species with similar breeding habits could be affected by environmental stressors in similar ways and that the differences shown in nest site selection could negate some of these effects. We propose that habitats providing suitable nest microclimates will become increasingly important for the successful breeding of seabird species, particularly under predicted climate change scenarios.

  10. Deimination level and peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 expression are elevated in astrocytes with increased incubation temperature.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Algeciras, Mabel; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K; Serra, Horacio M

    2015-09-01

    Astrocytes respond to environmental cues, including changes in temperatures. Increased deimination, observed in many progressive neurological diseases, is thought to be contributed by astrocytes. We determined the level of deimination and expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in isolated primary astrocytes in response to changes on either side (31°C and 41°C) of the optimal temperature (37°C). We investigated changes in the astrocytes by using a number of established markers and accounted for cell death with the CellTiter-Blue assay. We found increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, ALDH1L1, and J1-31, resulting from increased incubation temperature and increased expression of TSP1, S100β, and AQP4, resulting from decreased incubation temperature vs. optimal temperature, suggesting activation of different biochemical pathways in astrocytes associated with different incubation temperatures. Mass spectrometric analyses support such trends. The PAD2 level was increased only as a result of increased incubation temperature with a commensurate increased level of deimination. Actin cytoskeleton and iso[4]LGE, a lipid peroxidase modification, also showed an increase with higher incubation temperature. Altogether, these results suggest that temperature, as an environmental cue, activates astrocytes in a different manner on either side of the optimal temperature and that increase in deimination is associated only with the higher temperature side of the spectrum.

  11. Design and Fabrication of an MRI-Compatible, Autonomous Incubation System.

    PubMed

    Khalilzad-Sharghi, Vahid; Xu, Huihui

    2015-10-01

    Tissue engineers have long sought access to an autonomous, imaging-compatible tissue incubation system that, with minimum operator handling, can provide real-time visualization and quantification of cells, tissue constructs, and organs. This type of screening system, capable of operating noninvasively to validate tissue, can overcome current limitations like temperature shock, unsustainable cellular environments, sample contamination, and handling/stress. However, this type of system has been a major challenge, until now. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of an innovative, autonomous incubation system that is compatible with a 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Termed the e-incubator (patent pending; application number: 13/953,984), this microcontroller-based system is integrated into an MRI scanner and noninvasively screens cells and tissue cultures in an environment where temperature, pH, and media/gas handling are regulated. The 4-week study discussed herein details the continuous operation of the e-incubator for a tissue-engineered osteogenic construct, validated by LIVE/DEAD(®) cell assays and histology. The evolving MR quantitative parameters of the osteogenic construct were used as biomarkers for bone tissue engineering and to further validate the quality of the product noninvasively before harvesting. Importantly, the e-incubator reliably facilitates culturing cells and tissue constructs to create engineered tissues and/or investigate disease therapies.

  12. Biodegradation of the low concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil by microbial consortium during incubation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Lin, Xin; Li, Peijun; Liu, Wan; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Chukwuka, K S

    2009-12-30

    The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (8.15 mg PAHs kg(-1) soil) in aged contaminated soil by isolated microbial consortium (five fungi and three bacteria) during the incubation of 64d is reported. The applied treatments were: (1) biodegradation by adding microbial consortium in sterile soils (BM); (2) biodegradation by adding microbial consortium in non-sterile soils (BMN); and (3) biodegradation by in situ "natural" microbes in non-sterile soils (BNN). The fungi in BM and BMN soils grew rapidly 0-4d during the incubation and then reached a relative equilibrium. In contrast the fungi in BNN soil remained at a constant level for the entire time. Comparison with the fungi, the bacteria in BNN soils grew rapidly during the incubation 0-2d and then reached a relative equilibrium, and those in BM and BMN soils grew slowly during the incubation of 64 d. After 64 d of incubation, the PAH biodegradations were 35%, 40.7% and 41.3% in BNN, BMN and BM, respectively. The significant release of sequestrated PAHs in aged contaminated soil was observed in this experiment, especially in the BM soil. Therefore, although bioaugmentation of introduced microbial consortium increased significantly the biodegradation of PAHs in aged contaminated soil with low PAH concentration, the creation of optimum of the environmental situation might be the best way to use bioremediation successfully in the field.

  13. Effects of subcutaneous transmitters on reproduction, incubation behavior, and annual return rates of female wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.; Folk, T.H.; Hartke, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    Radiotransmitters attached externally to breeding waterfowl can have a variety of negative effects. Implanted transmitters can reduce potential deleterious effects; abdominal implants are used most commonly in waterfowl. Methods also have been developed to implant transmitters subcutaneously, but effects of subcutaneous implants on adult ducks have not been evaluated. In this study, we subcutaneously implanted radiotransmitters in pre-laying female wood ducks (Aix sponsa, n = 62) and compared nest initiation date, incubation behavior, body mass, and annual return rates of radiomarked females to a group of females that were not radiomarked. Ninety-six percent (50 of 52) of radiomarked females that were monitored for the entire breeding season initiated nests. Nesting date of radiomarked adult females did not differ from that of adult females without radios, but radiomarked yearling females nested earlier than yearlings not receiving transmitters. We found no differences in early- and late-incubation body mass, incubation constancy, recess frequency, and incubation period between radiomarked females and those without radios. Annual return rates of females that initiated nests did not differ between radiomarked females and those not receiving radios. Data suggest that implanting radiotransmitters subcutaneously in pre-laying female wood ducks did not negatively impact subsequent reproduction, incubation behavior, and survival.

  14. Female but not male zebra finches adjust heat output in response to increased incubation demand.

    PubMed

    Hill, Davina L; Lindström, Jan; McCafferty, Dominic J; Nager, Ruedi G

    2014-04-15

    In many incubating birds, heat transfer from parent to egg is facilitated by the brood patch, an area of ventral abdominal skin that becomes highly vascularised, swells and loses its down feathers around the time of laying. Only the female develops a brood patch in most passerine species, but males of some species can incubate and maintain the eggs at similar temperatures to females even without a brood patch. Here we used a novel application of infrared thermography to examine sex differences in parental care from a physiological perspective. Using incubating male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which the male lacks a brood patch, we measured the surface temperature of the ventral plumage overlying the abdomen and a reference area that does not contact the eggs (thorax) twice per pair. In half of the pairs, clutch size was experimentally enlarged between the two sets of measurements to increase incubation demand. We found that the temperature differential between abdomen and thorax plumage was greater in females than in males, and that abdomen plumage was warmer after clutch enlargement than before in females but not in males. These findings are consistent with morphological sex differences in brood patch development and suggest that male and female zebra finches differ in the way they regulate abdomen versus general body surface temperature in response to variation in incubation demand.

  15. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  16. Effect of embryonic development on the chicken egg yolk plasma proteome after 12 days of incubation.

    PubMed

    Réhault-Godbert, Sophie; Mann, Karlheinz; Bourin, Marie; Brionne, Aurélien; Nys, Yves

    2014-03-26

    To better appreciate the dynamics of yolk proteins during embryonic development, we analyzed the protein quantitative changes occurring in the yolk plasma at the day of lay and after 12 days of incubation, by comparing unfertilized and fertilized chicken eggs. Of the 127 identified proteins, 69 showed relative abundance differences among conditions. Alpha-fetoprotein and two uncharacterized proteins (F1NHB8 and F1NMM2) were identified for the first time in the egg. After 12 days of incubation, five proteins (vitronectin, α-fetoprotein, similar to thrombin, apolipoprotein B, and apovitellenin-1) showed a major increase in relative abundance, whereas 15 proteins showed a significant decrease in the yolks of fertilized eggs. In unfertilized/table eggs, we observed an accumulation of proteins likely to originate from other egg compartments during incubation. This study provides basic knowledge on the utilization of egg yolk proteins by the embryo and gives some insight into how storage can affect egg quality.

  17. Resistance to extinction of conditioned electrodermal responses: a study of the incubation fear hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sandin, Bonifacio; Chorot, Paloma

    2002-08-01

    In the present study we examined Eysenck's incubation hypothesis of fear. Probability of skin conductance response (SCR) was analyzed for a sample of 79 undergraduate women, ranging in age from 18 to 25 years. Different groups of participants were conditioned to two levels of unconditioned stimuli (UCS) intensity and presented to three levels of unreinforced conditioned stimuli (CS) exposures (extinction phase) in a delay differential conditioning paradigm. The CSs were fear-relevant slides (snakes and spiders) and the UCSs were aversive tones. Analysis did not show a clear incubation effect; instead an increased resistance to extinction of SCR probability in association to the high-UCS and the short unreinforced CS presentation was evident. Findings support partially Eysenck's incubation theory of fear/anxiety.

  18. Male songbirds provide indirect parental care by guarding females during incubation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, B.C.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Across many taxa, guarding of fertile mates is a widespread tactic that enhances paternity assurance. However, guarding of mates can also occur during the nonfertile period, and the fitness benefits of this behavior are unclear. Male songbirds, for example, sometimes guard nonfertile females during foraging recesses from incubation. We hypothesized that guarding postreproductive mates may have important, but unrecognized, benefits by enhancing female foraging efficiency, thereby increasing time spent incubating eggs. We tested the hypothesis in 2 songbird species by examining female behavior during natural and experimentally induced absences of males. Male absence caused increased vigilance in foraging females that decreased their efficiency and resulted in less time spent incubating eggs. Male guarding of nonfertile females can thus provide a previously unrecognized form of indirect parental care.

  19. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus detected by separation and incubation of cells from salmonid cavity fluid.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Batts, W.N.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus is usually detected by inoculating susceptible cell cultures with cavity ("ovarian") fluid (CF) from spawning females. We identified additional adult carriers of virus in spawning populations of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) by collecting nonerythrocytic cells from CF samples by low-speed centrifugation, culturing the cells for at least 7 d at 15 °C, and then testing the culture medium for virus. Virus appeared in the cultured cells from some samples of CF that remained negative during incubation. In additional samples of CF from these species, the virus titer increased in cultured cells compared with the titer in the original CF sample. With chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha), no negative samples converted to positive during incubation, but the virus titer was retained in incubated CF cells, but not in cell-free CF.

  20. A novel type of colony formation in marine planktonic diatoms revealed by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bosak, Sunčica; Pletikapić, Galja; Hozić, Amela; Svetličić, Vesna; Sarno, Diana; Viličić, Damir

    2012-01-01

    Diatoms have evolved a variety of colonial life forms in which cells are connected by organic threads, mucilage pads or silicate structures. In this study, we provide the first description of a novel strategy of colony formation among marine planktonic diatoms. Bacteriastrum jadranum forms loose but regular chains with distinct heterovalvate terminal cells. The colonial cells and their siliceous projections, the setae, are not in direct contact; instead, they are enclosed within the optically transparent organic matrix. This cell jacket structure was detected by staining procedure with Alcian Blue, which showed that the polysaccharides are predominant matrix constituents and revealed that the jacket reaches the span of the setae. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed distinguishable fibrillar network firmly associated with cells. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we were able to visualise and characterise the cell jacket structure at molecular resolution. At nanoscale resolution, the cell jacket appears as a cross-linked fibrillar network organised into a recognisable structure. The circular patches of self-repeating pattern (hexagonal pores with openings of 8-100 nm) are connected through thicker surrounding fibrils and reinforced by branching fibrils. The pore-forming fibrils within the patches are only 0.6-1.6 nm high, the surrounding fibrils connecting patches are 2.0-2.8 nm high, and the branching fibrils are considerably wider but not higher than 4.0 nm. The discovered polysaccharide fibrillar network is highly organised and delicately structured with a monomolecular fibril height of 0.6 nm. We conclude that the Bacteriastrum polysaccharide jacket represents an essential part of the cell, as the conjunction of the polymer network with the frustule appears to be extremely tight and such specific and unique patterns have never been found in self-assembled polysaccharide gel networks, which are usually encountered in the marine

  1. Eggs under pressure: components of water potential of chameleon eggs during incubation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Geoffrey K; Andrews, Robin M; Noble, Lydia M

    2010-01-01

    Water exchange of squamate eggs is driven by the difference between the water potentials of eggs and of their nest environment. While osmotic potential is generally assumed to dominate the net water potential of eggs, resistance of the eggshell to stretching also affects egg water potential. We therefore determined osmotic potentials and pressure potentials (mechanical pressure) of eggs of the veiled chameleon Chamaeleo calyptratus over the course of incubation. Because embryos are diapausing gastrulae when eggs are laid and diapause persists several months, the water potential of eggs can be evaluated before it is influenced by the developing embryo. Water uptake during the first 2 wk of incubation was rapid as a result of the large difference between the total water potential of the egg (-848 kPa) and that of its incubation substrate. After about 2 wk, water potential of the egg stabilized at -460 kPa. By day 80 of incubation, the developing embryo and allantois affected water exchange of the egg. The allantoic fluid was initially very dilute, but its osmotic potential decreased to about -200 kPa by the end of incubation. Pressure potential of the egg averaged 25 kPa, with no systematic trend during incubation. The pressure potential exerted by the eggshell reduced the difference between the water potential of the egg and the water potential of the environment, that is, the ability of eggs to take up water. At the time of oviposition, this effect was relatively small, producing a 4%-6% reduction in water potential difference. Once the yolk osmotic potential stabilized, however, the reduction was 12% or more. This observation means that the dynamics of water uptake by squamate eggs cannot be fully understood without consideration of the pressure that is exerted on the contents of eggs by their shells.

  2. Impact of changing wind conditions on foraging and incubation success in male and female wandering albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Cornioley, Tina; Börger, Luca; Ozgul, Arpat; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-09-01

    Wind is an important climatic factor for flying animals as by affecting their locomotion, it can deeply impact their life-history characteristics. In the context of globally changing wind patterns, we investigated the mechanisms underlying recently reported increase in body mass of a population of wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) with increasing wind speed over time. We built a foraging model detailing the effects of wind on movement statistics and ultimately on mass gained by the forager and mass lost by the incubating partner. We then simulated the body mass of incubating pairs under varying wind scenarios. We tracked the frequency at which critical mass leading to nest abandonment was reached to assess incubation success. We found that wandering albatrosses behave as time minimizers during incubation as mass gain was independent of any movement statistics but decreased with increasing mass at departure. Individuals forage until their energy requirements, which are determined by their body conditions, are fulfilled. This can come at the cost of their partner's condition as mass loss of the incubating partner depended on trip duration. This behaviour is consistent with strategies of long-lived species which favoured their own survival over their current reproductive attempt. In addition, wind speed increased ground speed which in turn reduced trip duration and males foraged further away than females at high ground speed. Contrasted against an independent data set, the simulation performed satisfactorily for males but less so for females under current wind conditions. The simulation predicted an increase in male body mass growth rate with increasing wind speed, whereas females' rate decreased. This trend may provide an explanation for the observed increase in mass of males but not of females. Conversely, the simulation predicted very few nest abandonments, which is in line with the high breeding success of this species and is contrary to the hypothesis that

  3. Dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities associated with eggshells during incubation

    PubMed Central

    Grizard, Stéphanie; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Tieleman, B Irene; Salles, Joana F

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are closely associated with eggs and may play a determinant role in embryo survival. Yet, the majority of studies focusing on this association relied on culture-based methodology, eventually leading to a skewed assessment of microbial communities. By targeting the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, we, respectively, described bacterial and fungal communities on eggshells of the homing pigeon Columba livia. We explored their structure, abundance, and composition. Firstly, we showed that sampling technique affected the outcome of the results. While broadly used, the egg swabbing procedure led to a lower DNA extraction efficiency and provided different profiles of bacterial communities than those based on crushed eggshell pieces. Secondly, we observed shifts in bacterial and fungal communities during incubation. At late incubation, bacterial communities showed a reduction in diversity, while their abundance increased, possibly due to the competitive advantage of some species. When compared to their bacterial counterparts, fungal communities also decreased in diversity at late incubation. In that case, however, the decline was associated with a diminution of their overall abundance. Conclusively, our results showed that although incubation might inhibit microbial growth when compared to unincubated eggs, we observed the selective growth of specific bacterial species during incubation. Moreover, we showed that fungi are a substantial component of the microbial communities associated with eggshells and require further investigations in avian ecology. Identifying the functional roles of these microorganisms is likely to provide news insights into the evolutionary strategies that control embryo survival. We aimed to describe the dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities on homing pigeon eggshell surfaces. We investigated these communities at early and late incubation stages. PMID:24772289

  4. Habitat-specific clutch size and cost of incubation in eiders reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Ost, Markus; Wickman, Mikael; Matulionis, Edward; Steele, Benjamin

    2008-11-01

    The energetic incubation constraint hypothesis (EICH) for clutch size states that birds breeding in poor habitat may free up resources for future reproduction by laying a smaller clutch. The eider (Somateria mollissima) is considered a candidate for supporting this hypothesis. Clutch size is smaller in exposed nests, presumably because of faster heat loss and higher incubation cost, and, hence, smaller optimal clutch size. However, an alternative explanation is partial predation: the first egg(s) are left unattended and vulnerable to predation, which may disproportionately affect exposed nests, so clutch size may be underestimated. We experimentally investigated whether predation on first-laid eggs in eiders depends on nest cover. We then re-evaluated how nesting habitat affects clutch size and incubation costs based on long-term data, accounting for confounding effects between habitat and individual quality. We also experimentally assessed adult survival costs of nesting in sheltered nests. The risk of egg predation in experimental nests decreased with cover. Confounding between individual and habitat quality is unlikely, as clutch size was also smaller in open nests within individuals, and early and late breeders had similar nest cover characteristics. A trade-off between clutch and female safety may explain nest cover variation, as the risk of female capture by us, mimicking predation on adults, increased with nest cover. Nest habitat had no effect on female hatching weight or weight loss, while lower temperature during incubation had an unanticipated positive relationship with hatching weight. There were no indications of elevated costs of incubating larger clutches, while clutch size and colony size were positively correlated, a pattern not predicted by the 'energetic incubation constraint' hypothesis. Differential partial clutch predation thus offers the more parsimonious explanation for clutch size variation among habitats in eiders, highlighting the need

  5. Marine biogeochemistry: Methylmercury manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossa, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The neurotoxin methylmercury can accumulate in marine food webs, contaminating seafood. An analysis of the isotopic composition of fish in the North Pacific suggests that much of the mercury that enters the marine food web originates from low-oxygen subsurface waters.

  6. Monitoring Marine Microbial Fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques developed for studying marine fouling. Methods originally developed to study fouling of materials used in Space Shuttle solid fuel booster rockets. Methods used to determine both relative fouling rates and efficacy of cleaning methods to remove fouling on various surfaces including paints, metals, and sealants intended for marine use.

  7. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  8. Marine Curators Gather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Floyd W.

    1977-01-01

    Reports on a recent meeting of marine curators in which data dissemination, standardization of marine curating techniques and methods, responsibilities of curators, funding problems, and sampling equipment were the main areas of discussion. A listing of the major deep sea sample collections in the United States is also provided. (CP)

  9. "Marinating" Our Urban Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Describes marine education programs at the elementary and secondary levels in the New York City area. The city's extensive coastline and numerous learning centers comprise one of the richest educational resources in the country for studying the marine environment. (Author/WB)

  10. An outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections with an unusually long incubation period.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John T; Matyas, Bela T; Fontana, John; DeGroot, Mary Ann; Beuchat, Larry R; Hoekstra, Michael; Friedman, Cindy R

    2012-03-01

    A 1998 investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections among children tasting unpasteurized milk during tours of a dairy farm demonstrated a distribution of unusually long incubation periods (median, 8 days; interquartile range [IQR], 6-14 days). Bacterial isolates were highly acid tolerant and contained genes associated with protection against destructive phagocytic reactive oxygen intermediates. We hypothesize that exposure to low-dose oral inoculum of a pathogen with these properties could have contributed to cases of non-typhoidal salmonellosis with the longest incubation period reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  11. Incubation Temperature during Fetal Development Influences Morphophysiological Characteristics and Preferred Ambient Temperature of Chicken Hatchlings

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Viviane de Souza; de Almeida, Vitor Rosa; Matos, João Batista; Vicentini, Tamiris Iara; van den Brand, Henry; Boleli, Isabel Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin and feather characteristics, which play a critical role in body temperature maintenance, can be affected by incubation circumstances, such as incubation temperature. However, no study to date has assessed the influence of incubation temperature during the fetal stage on morphometric characteristics and vascular development of the skin, feather characteristics, and their relationship to hormone levels and preferred temperature in later life in chickens. Broiler breeder eggs were exposed to low (36°C), control (37.5°C), or high (39°C) temperatures (treatments LT, CK, and HT, respectively) from day 13 of incubation onward, because it is known that the endocrine axes are already established at this time. During this period, eggshell temperature of HT eggs (38.8±0.33°C) was higher than of LT (37.4±0.08°C) and CK eggs (37.8 ±0.15°C). The difference between eggshell and incubator air temperature diminished with the increasing incubation temperature, and was approximately zero for HT. HT hatchlings had higher surface temperature on the head, neck, and back, and thinner and more vascularized skin than did CK and LT hatchlings. No differences were found among treatments for body weight, total feather weight, number and length of barbs, barbule length, and plasma T4 concentration. LT hatchlings showed lower plasma T3 and GH, as well as lower T3/T4 ratio and decreased vascularity in the neck, back, and thigh skin compared to CK hatchlings. On the other hand, HT hatchlings had decreased skin thickness and increased vascularity, and preferred a higher ambient temperature compared to CK and HT hatchlings. In addition, for all treatments, surface temperature on the head was higher than of the other body regions. We conclude that changes in skin thickness and vascularity, as well as changes in thyroid and growth hormone levels, are the result of embryonic strategies to cope with higher or lower than normal incubation temperatures. Additionally exposure to increased

  12. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes for drug delivery: Efficiency related to length and incubation time.

    PubMed

    Sciortino, Niccolò; Fedeli, Stefano; Paoli, Paolo; Brandi, Alberto; Chiarugi, Paola; Severi, Mirko; Cicchi, Stefano

    2017-04-15

    Batches of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes differing in length were adopted to prepare two drug delivery systems (DDS) loaded with doxorubicin. The different internalization of the two batches, verified by atomic emission spectroscopy onto cell lysates, was also confirmed by the different toxicity of the same DDS loaded with doxorubicin. In vitro experiments evidenced, after 48h of incubation, the superior efficacy of the shortest nanotubes. However, upon prolonging the incubation time up to 72h the difference in efficiency was minimized due to the spontaneous release of doxorubicin by the non-internalized long nanotubes.

  13. Physical origin of the incubation time of self-induced GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consonni, V.; Trampert, A.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.

    2011-07-01

    The nucleation process of self-induced GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements. It is found that stable nuclei in the form of spherical cap-shaped islands develop only after an incubation time that is strongly dependent upon the growth conditions. Its evolution with the growth temperature and gallium rate has been described within standard island nucleation theory, revealing a nucleation energy of 4.9 ± 0.1 eV and a very small nucleus critical size. The consideration of the incubation time is critical for the control of the nanowire morphology.

  14. Fate of lignin, cutin and suberin in soil organic matter fractions - an incubation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Mueller, Kevin E.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Ingrid, Kögel-Knabner

    2010-05-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled by its chemical composition, its spatial accessibility and the association with the mineral phase. Separation of bulk soils by physical fractionation and subsequent chemical analysis of these fractions should give insights to how compositional differences in SOM drive turnover rates of different size-defined carbon pools. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the relative abundance and recalcitrance of lignin, cutin and suberin in aggregated bulk soils and SOM fractions in the course of SOM decomposition. Bulk soils and physically-separated size fractions (sand, silt and clay) of the Ah horizon of a forest soil (under Picea abies L.Karst) were parallel incubated over a period of one year. In order to differentiate between particulate OM (POM) and mineral-associated SOM the particle size fractions were additionally separated by density after the incubation experiment. We used solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS (after copper oxide oxidation and solvent extraction) to analyze the composition of the incubated samples. The abundance and isotopic composition (including 13C and 14C) of the respired CO2 further enabled us to monitor the dynamics of SOM mineralization. This approach allowed for differentiating between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation and to biochemical recalcitrance at different scales of resolution (GC-MS, NMR). We found a relative enrichment of alkyl C and decreasing lignin contents in the order of sand < silt < clay by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS within soils and fractions before the incubation, resulting in increased lipid to lignin ratios with decreasing particle size. An accumulation of aliphatic C compounds was especially found for the small silt and clay sized particulate OM (POM). For the fresh particulate OM (POM) of the sand fraction a clear decay of lignin was observed in the course of the incubation experiment, indicated by

  15. Marin Tsunami (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  16. The importance of having a partner: male help releases females from time limitation during incubation in birds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Male contribution to parental care varies widely among avian species. Yet the reasons for this variation, as well as its consequences, are still unclear. Because the amount of care provided by one sex is ultimately constrained by the time available for energy acquisition, contribution by the other sex should increase when overall parental workload is high. We tested this prediction by analyzing male contribution to incubation in 528 populations of 320 species of passerines, where females usually devote more time to incubation than males. Our worldwide sample included species with female-only parental care (the male is not present), incubation feeding (the male feeds the incubating female), and shared incubation (both sexes incubate the eggs). Results Overall nest attentiveness was greatest in species with shared incubation followed by species with incubation feeding and lowest in species with female-only care. Nest attentiveness and the degree of male contribution to incubation in species with shared incubation were very strongly correlated, whereas this correlation was absent in females. Interestingly, female contribution decreased towards the equator while male contribution did not change significantly with latitude. Hence, relative male incubation effort increased towards the equator, whereas that of female decreased. In species with incubation feeding, female nest attentiveness increased with the frequency of male feeding. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that male help is indispensable for increasing nest attentiveness in birds, either in the form of incubation feeding (supply of energy) or direct incubation of eggs. We conclude that energy acquisition constraints might be a potent force driving sex-specific contribution to parental care. PMID:24607032

  17. Glycosylation of a Fasciclin-Like Arabinogalactan-Protein (SOS5) Mediates Root Growth and Seed Mucilage Adherence via a Cell Wall Receptor-Like Kinase (FEI1/FEI2) Pathway in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debarati; Tian, Lu; Debrosse, Tayler; Poirier, Emily; Emch, Kirk; Herock, Hayley; Travers, Andrew; Showalter, Allan M.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental processes that underpin plant growth and development depend crucially on the action and assembly of the cell wall, a dynamic structure that changes in response to both developmental and environmental cues. While much is known about cell wall structure and biosynthesis, much less is known about the functions of the individual wall components, particularly with respect to their potential roles in cellular signaling. Loss-of-function mutants of two arabinogalactan-protein (AGP)-specific galactosyltransferases namely, GALT2 and GALT5, confer pleiotropic growth and development phenotypes indicating the important contributions of carbohydrate moieties towards AGP function. Notably, galt2galt5 double mutants displayed impaired root growth and root tip swelling in response to salt, likely as a result of decreased cellulose synthesis. These mutants phenocopy a salt-overly sensitive mutant called sos5, which lacks a fasciclin-like AGP (SOS5/FLA4) as well as a fei1fei2 double mutant, which lacks two cell wall-associated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases. Additionally, galt2gal5 as well as sos5 and fei2 showed reduced seed mucilage adherence. Quintuple galt2galt5sos5fei1fei2 mutants were produced and provided evidence that these genes act in a single, linear genetic pathway. Further genetic and biochemical analysis of the quintuple mutant demonstrated involvement of these genes with the interplay between cellulose biosynthesis and two plant growth regulators, ethylene and ABA, in modulating root cell wall integrity. PMID:26731606

  18. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY...

  19. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY...

  20. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY...

  1. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY...

  2. Adopting Disruptive Technologies in Traditional Universities: Continuing Education as an Incubator for Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Walter; Anderson, Terry; Garrison, Randy

    1999-01-01

    Traditional universities are feeling the impact of "disruptive technologies" such as distance education. Seeing how businesses have responded to such disruptions, universities should "incubate" innovations in a semiautonomous unit such as continuing education, which can address new markets with low margins. (SK)

  3. [Fertilization and subsequent development of cattle oocytes after reduced incubation with spermatozoa].

    PubMed

    Krivokharchenko, A S; Smetanina, I G; Tatarinova, L V

    2001-01-01

    We studied the influence of the duration of joint incubation of cattle oocytes and spermatozoa (18 versus 1 h) on fertilization, cleavage, and embryonic development in vitro until the blastocyst stage. Spermatozoa of a bull of the Britanofrizskaya breed were used in the experiments. It was shown in the first experimental series that after a long-term incubation with the spermatozoa, the percentage of penetrated eggs increased: 71.7% and 56.0% (p < 0.05) after 18-hour and 1-hour incubation, respectively. However, no differences were found in the number of normally fertilized eggs: 46.5 and 39.0%, respectively. In the second experimental series, no significant differences were found in either the number of cleaving embryos (41.2 and 32.2%, respectively) or the capacity of cleaving embryos to develop in vitro until the blastocyst stage (21.7 and 15.8%, respectively). Thus, reduction in the time of joint incubation of cattle gametes upon in vitro fertilization to 1 h did not reduce the number of normally fertilized eggs and did not affect their capacity for subsequent in vitro development.

  4. Graphene oxide enhances cellular delivery of hydrophilic small molecules by co-incubation.

    PubMed

    Hung, Andy H; Holbrook, Robert J; Rotz, Matthew W; Glasscock, Cameron J; Mansukhani, Nikhita D; MacRenaris, Keith W; Manus, Lisa M; Duch, Matthew C; Dam, Kevin T; Hersam, Mark C; Meade, Thomas J

    2014-10-28

    The delivery of bioactive molecules into cells has broad applications in biology and medicine. Polymer-modified graphene oxide (GO) has recently emerged as a de facto noncovalent vehicle for hydrophobic drugs. Here, we investigate a different approach using native GO to deliver hydrophilic molecules by co-incubation in culture. GO adsorption and delivery were systematically studied with a library of 15 molecules synthesized with Gd(III) labels to enable quantitation. Amines were revealed to be a key chemical group for adsorption, while delivery was shown to be quantitatively predictable by molecular adsorption, GO sedimentation, and GO size. GO co-incubation was shown to enhance delivery by up to 13-fold and allowed for a 100-fold increase in molecular incubation concentration compared to the alternative of nanoconjugation. When tested in the application of Gd(III) cellular MRI, these advantages led to a nearly 10-fold improvement in sensitivity over the state-of-the-art. GO co-incubation is an effective method of cellular delivery that is easily adoptable by researchers across all fields.

  5. A combined study of heat and mass transfer in an infant incubator with an overhead screen.

    PubMed

    Ginalski, Maciej K; Nowak, Andrzej J; Wrobel, Luiz C

    2007-06-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the major physical processes taking place inside an infant incubator, before and after modifications have been made to its interior chamber. The modification involves the addition of an overhead screen to decrease radiation heat losses from the infant placed inside the incubator. The present study investigates the effect of these modifications on the convective heat flux from the infant's body to the surrounding environment inside the incubator. A combined analysis of airflow and heat transfer due to conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation has been performed, in order to calculate the temperature and velocity fields inside the incubator before and after the design modification. Due to the geometrical complexity of the model, computer-aided design (CAD) applications were used to generate a computer-based model. All numerical calculations have been performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT, together with in-house routines used for managing purposes and user-defined functions (UDFs) which extend the basic solver capabilities. Numerical calculations have been performed for three different air inlet temperatures: 32, 34 and 36 degrees C. The study shows a decrease of the radiative and convective heat losses when the overhead screen is present. The results obtained were numerically verified as well as compared with results available in the literature from investigations of dry heat losses from infant manikins.

  6. Oxygen consumption and temperature control of premature infants in a double-wall incubator.

    PubMed

    Marks, K H; Lee, C A; Bolan, C D; Maisels, M J

    1981-07-01

    The effects of a double wall in a forced convection-heated incubator were studied on ten naked, nondistressed, premature infants by measuring their mean skin temperature, esophageal temperature, and oxygen consumption when they were in thermal steady state, with, and without, the double wall in place. The incubator air temperature was maintained within the recommended thermoneutral zone during the consecutive paired experiments. Ambient room temperature and relative humidity were constant and the infant's activity (quiet sleep) and postprandial state were the same in both conditions. Together with a significant rise in operative temperature (P less than .05) induced by the double wall (accounted for by a 0.9 C mean increased in incubator wall temperature nearest the baby), their mean skin temperature and esophageal temperatures increased (P less than .025), while a decrease in oxygen consumption occurred in nine of the ten infants (P less than .05). These findings suggest that the double wall reduced radiant and total heat loss from the baby by diminishing the temperature gradient between the skin and incubator surfaces and that metabolic heat production (oxygen consumption) was reduced when the double wall was in place.

  7. Release of native and amended boron from arid zone soils after varying incubation times

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we evaluated the boron (B) release from soils containing elevated native B and examined the extent to which incubation time affected B release. Five soils varying in initial pH and clay content were selected for the study. The soils were spiked with five varying doses of B as H3BO3 (...

  8. Design of an Incubator for Premature Infant Based on LabVIEW.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; Zhou, Runjing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the system structure, hardware circuits, control algorithms, and software program of the incubator for premature infant based on LabVIEW. The main advantages of this device are that preheating is less time than others, the capability of meeting of emergency is provided, control track of temperature and humidity are visible, operation is easy to clinical practice, and maintainability is possessed.

  9. Experimental and numerical studies on convective heat transfer in a neonatal incubator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Kwon, C H; Yoo, S C

    2002-01-01

    Thermo-neutrality is one of the major environmental factors affecting a premature or low-birth-weight neonate inside an incubator. Severe temperature differences inside an incubator lead to neonate heat loss, hypothermia and apnoea, which are closely related to air flow and air velocity. In the study, flow visualisations, hot-wire velocity measurements and computational fluid dynamics simulate the airflow inside a neonatal incubator. An anatomically correct neonate model is designed using a three-dimensional laser scanner system and a rapid prototyping machine. Flow visualisations demonstrate that large-scale rotating airflow is produced inside the chamber, and a number of small, stationary eddies are found in regions between the air inlet and the neonate. Hot-wire measurements show that air velocities along the long inlets are not uniform. Computational fluid dynamics show relatively uniform temperatures of about 34 degrees C on the neonate's anterior aspect and the highest temperature of 36.1 degrees C at the right armpit and the crotch. Flow fields from airflow visualisations, hot-wire measurements and computational fluid dynamics are very similar, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The small eddies produced between the neonate and the mattress could interfere with convective and evaporative heat transfers from the neonate. Therefore it is important to eliminate eddies around the neonate in future designs of neonatal incubators.

  10. Small Business Incubator Educational Development Program Education & Training Center. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green River Community Coll., Auburn, WA.

    The establishment of Green River Community College's Education and Training Center as a permanent anchor tenant in the Kent Business Incubator required the college to develop a comprehensive business plan and needs assessment survey. College and community leaders identified the role and services of the educational tenant, leading to the…

  11. Progress of the Photovoltaic Technology Incubator Project Towards an Enhanced U.S. Manufacturing Base: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.; Mitchell, R.; Keyes, B.; VanSant, K.; von Roedern, B.; Symko-Davies, M.; Kane, V.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the major accomplishments of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) Photovoltaic (PV) Technology Incubator project. The Incubator project facilitates a company's transition from developing a solar cell or PV module prototype to pilot- and large-scale U.S. manufacturing. The project targets small businesses that have demonstrated proof-of-concept devices or processes in the laboratory. Their success supports U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu's SunShot Initiative, which seeks to achieve PV technologies that are cost-competitive without subsidies at large scale with fossil-based energy sources by the end of this decade. The Incubator Project has enhanced U.S. PV manufacturing capacity and created more than 1200 clean energy jobs, resulting in an increase in American economic competitiveness. The investment raised to date by these PV Incubator companies as a result of DOE's $ 59 million investment totals nearly $ 1.3 billion.

  12. A Vertical-Lift Incubator (The "Seesaw") Designed for Channel Catfish Egg Masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish spawns have been incubated the same way for nearly a century. Spawns are placed in baskets and agitated with rotating paddles. While this system is widely used, it has been recently determined that dissolved oxygen in the center of a spawn may be as much as 5 ppm less than air-saturated wate...

  13. Multi-layer thermoelectric-temperature-mapping microbial incubator designed for geo-biochemistry applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Gen; Liu, Man-Chi; Tsai, Ming-Fei; Yu, Wei-Shun; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Cheng, I-Chun; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate a novel, vertical temperature-mapping incubator utilizing eight layers of thermoelectric (TE) modules mounted around a test tube. The temperature at each layer of the TE module is individually controlled to simulate the vertical temperature profile of geo-temperature variations with depth. Owing to the constraint of non-intrusion to the filled geo-samples, the temperature on the tube wall is adopted for measurement feedback. The design considerations for the incubator include spatial arrangement of the energy transfer mechanism, heating capacity of the TE modules, minimum required sample amount for follow-up instrumental or chemical analysis, and the constraint of non-intrusion to the geo-samples during incubation. The performance of the incubator is experimentally evaluated with two tube conditions and under four preset temperature profiles. Test tubes are either empty or filled with quartz sand, which has comparable thermal properties to the materials in the geo-environment. The applied temperature profiles include uniform, constant temperature gradient, monotonic-increasing parabolic, and parabolic. The temperature on the tube wall can be controlled between 20 °C and 90 °C with an averaged root mean squared error of 1 °C.

  14. Resistance of soybean genotypes to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates in different incubation environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important soybean pathogen. The objectives of this study were to evaluate levels of resistance of soybean genotypes to the fungus, and to determine the effects of different incubation environments on host resistance and pathogen aggression. Two experiments were conduct...

  15. Inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium by Cultures of Cecal Bacteria during Aerobic Incubation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to examine the ability of cecal bacterial cultures from broilers to inhibit growth of Salmonella Typhimurium during aerobic incubation. Cecal broth media was inoculated with 10 µl of cecal contents from 6 week old broilers taken from 2 separate flocks. Cultures were incubat...

  16. Effect of semen preparation technique and its incubation on sperm quality in the Moroccan population.

    PubMed

    Aboulmaouahib, S; Madkour, A; Kaarouch, I; Saadani, B; Sefrioui, O; Louanjli, N; Copin, H; Cadi, R; Benkhalifa, M

    2016-09-05

    In in vitro fertilisation (IVF), sperm preparation as critical part and influencing the sperm quality is especially dependent on the chosen technique itself and incubation parameters including temperature and CO2. In this study, we compared firstly density-gradient centrifugation technique (DGC) to the adapted DGC using the sperm pellet of 80% fraction (DGC/80P) in order to improve the sperm yield. Secondly, this study led to evaluate different sperm incubation conditions based on temperature effect (room temperature (RT = 23°C) versus 35°C) and in the other hand, with or without 5% CO2 during 24 hrs. Based on evaluating sperm conventional parameters and the DNA damage using TUNEL assay, our result showed that DGC/80P increased sperm quality compared to DGC with 25% of improvement. For temperature incubation effect after 24 hrs, 35°C increased the DNA damage and decreased the sperm quality while RT could improve sperm motility by 38%. Moreover, the sperm incubation with 5% CO2 after 24 hrs realised a negative impact on sperm parameters and its DNA damage. Indeed, for current IVF practice, a good sperm quality can be maintained for several hours at room temperature, while the sperm preparation is processed using the DGC/80P without CO2.

  17. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... choice to treat bacterial diseases. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special...

  18. The impact of egg incubation temperature on the personality of oviparous reptiles.

    PubMed

    Siviter, Harry; Charles Deeming, D; Rosenberger, Joanna; Burman, Oliver H P; Moszuti, Sophie A; Wilkinson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Personality traits, defined as differences in the behavior of individual animals of the same species that are consistent over time and context, such as 'boldness,' have been shown to be both heritable and be influenced by external factors, such as predation pressure. Currently, we know very little about the role that early environmental factors have upon personality. Thus, we investigated the impact of incubation temperature upon the boldness on an oviparous reptile, the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Eggs, from one clutch, were incubated at two different average temperatures within the normal range. After hatching the lizards were raised under the same environmental conditions. Novel object and novel environment tests were used to assess personality. Each test was repeated in both the short term and the long term. The results revealed that incubation temperature did impact upon 'boldness' but only in the short term and suggests that, rather than influencing personality, incubation temperature may have an effect on the development of behavioral of oviparous reptiles at different stages across ontogeny.

  19. Interrupted: The roles of distributed effort and incubation in preventing fixation and generating problem solutions.

    PubMed

    Sio, Ut Na; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Cagan, Jonathan

    2016-12-27

    Fixation on inappropriate concepts is a key barrier to problem solving. Previous research has shown that continuous work is likely to cause repeated retrieval of those concepts, resulting in increased fixation. Accordingly, distributing effort across problems through multiple, brief, and interlaced sessions (distributed effort) should prevent such fixation and in turn enhance problem solving. This study examined whether distributed effort can provide an advantage for problem solving, particularly for problems that can induce fixation (Experiment 1), and whether and how incubation can be combined with distributed effort to further enhance performance (Experiment 2). Remote Associates Test (RAT) problems were used as the problem-solving tasks. Half of them (i.e., misleading RAT) were more likely to mislead individuals to fixate on incorrect associates than the other half. Experiments revealed a superiority of distributed over massed effort on misleading RAT performance and a differing time course of incubation for the massed and distributed groups. We conclude that distributed effort facilitates problem solving, most likely via overcoming fixation. Cognitive mechanisms other than the commonly posited forgetting of inappropriate ideas may occur during incubation to facilitate problem solving. The experiments in this article offer support for the occurrence of spreading activation during incubation.

  20. Technology Entrepreneurship Promoted by Universities' Incubation Centers in Taiwan: Its Successes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2005-01-01

    Since 1996, the Small and Medium Enterprise Administration (SMEA) in Taiwan has supported various institutions to establish incubation centers (ICs) for facilitating start-ups and innovation. At present, there are 79 ICs in total and 65 (or 83%) of them are established in universities/colleges. Most ICs in the universities/colleges offering…

  1. Identification of multiple quantitative trait loci linked to prion disease incubation period in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Sarah E.; Onwuazor, Obia N.; Beck, Jonathan A.; Mallinson, Gary; Farrall, Martin; Targonski, Paul; Collinge, John; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the prion protein gene are known to affect prion disease incubation times and susceptibility in humans and mice. However, studies with inbred lines of mice show that large differences in incubation times occur even with the same amino acid sequence of the prion protein, suggesting that other genes may contribute to the observed variation. To identify these loci we analyzed 1,009 animals from an F2 intercross between two strains of mice, CAST/Ei and NZW/OlaHSd, with significantly different incubation periods when challenged with RML scrapie prions. Interval mapping identified three highly significantly linked regions on chromosomes 2, 11, and 12; composite interval mapping suggests that each of these regions includes multiple linked quantitative trait loci. Suggestive evidence for linkage was obtained on chromosomes 6 and 7. The sequence conservation between the mouse and human genome suggests that identification of mouse prion susceptibility alleles may have direct relevance to understanding human susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infection, as well as identifying key factors in the molecular pathways of prion pathogenesis. However, the demonstration of other major genetic effects on incubation period suggests the need for extreme caution in interpreting estimates of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease epidemic size utilizing existing epidemiological models. PMID:11353827

  2. Comparison of methods for evaluating energy expenditure of incubating wandering albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, S A; Costa, D P; Weimerskirch, H

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of incubation energetics can vary depending on the method used to measure metabolism of an incubating bird. Therefore, we evaluated the energy expenditure of six male and four female wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans Linnaeus) using doubly labeled water (DLW), the rate of mass loss, and estimates of metabolic water production derived from water influx rate (WIR). Incubation metabolic rates (IMR) determined with DLW (169+/-21 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1) SD) were significantly lower than estimates derived from mass loss (277+/-46 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1) SD) and WIR (males=289+/-60 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1) vs. females=400+/-69 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1) SD). Estimates of IMR from mass loss and WIR were similar to IMR (305+/-39 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1) SD) determined by respirometry in a previous study, and IMR from DLW was similar to estimates based on heart rate (HR; 147+/-26 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1) SD) determined in another study. Applying the different measurements of IMR to construct an energy budget, we estimate that a breeding pair of wandering albatrosses spends 124-234 MJ to incubate the egg for 78 d. Finally, IMRs determined with DLW and HR were similar to estimated basal metabolic rates derived from six different allometric equations, suggesting that heat production from adult maintenance metabolism is sufficient to incubate the egg.

  3. Mycobacterium and Aerobic Actinomycete Culture: Are Two Medium Types and Extended Incubation Times Necessary?

    PubMed

    Simner, Patricia J; Doerr, Kelly A; Steinmetz, Lory K; Wengenack, Nancy L

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterial cultures are historically performed using a liquid medium and a solid agar medium with an incubation period of up to 60 days. We performed a retrospective analysis of 21,494 mycobacterial and aerobic actinomycetes cultures performed over 10 months to determine whether two medium types remain necessary and to investigate whether culture incubation length can be shortened. Specimens were cultured using Bactec MGIT liquid medium and Middlebrook 7H11/S7H11 solid medium with incubation periods of 42 and 60 days, respectively. Time-to-positivity and the identity of isolates recovered from each medium were evaluated. A total of 1,205/21,494 cultures (6%) were positive on at least one medium. Of the 1,353 isolates recovered, 1,110 (82%) were nontuberculous mycobacteria, 145 (11%) were aerobic actinomycetes, and 98 (7%) wereMycobacterium tuberculosiscomplex. Assessing medium types, 1,121 isolates were recovered from solid medium cultures, 922 isolates were recovered from liquid medium cultures, and 690 isolates were recovered on both media. Liquid cultures were positive an average of 10 days before solid cultures when the two medium types were positive (P< 0.0001). Isolates detected on solid medium after 6 weeks of incubation included 65 (5%) nontuberculous mycobacteria, 4 (0.3%) aerobic actinomycetes, and 2 (0.2%) isolates from theM. tuberculosiscomplex. Medical chart review suggested that most of these later-growing isolates were insignificant, as the diagnosis was already known, or they were considered colonizers/contaminants. This study reaffirms the need for both liquid medium and solid medium for mycobacterial and aerobic actinomycetes culture and demonstrates that solid medium incubation times may be reduced to 6 weeks without significantly impacting sensitivity.

  4. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. ADDRESSES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  5. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  6. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  7. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  8. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as...

  9. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  10. Marine Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

  11. Marine medicinal glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

  12. JEP-MARINE CLEAN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka ECOVOOM-MARINE, this surface washing agent is used in oil spill cleanups. Manual pump sprayers should be used to presoak contaminated areas, then pressure washers used to agitate after presoak has been applied.

  13. Mariner-Venus 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

  14. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  15. Protecting the Marine Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA works with U.S. government agency partners, foreign nations, industry and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that international decisions and management of marine pollution issues support EPA's mission

  16. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    LiVecchi, Al; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2010-06-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power

  17. A systematic study of pre-incubation on the release of nitric oxide from arid soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, T.; Bruse, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    There is microbial activity in nearly in all terrestrial soils, since primeval times. During the last decades, an increasing number of laboratory studies on biogenic nitric oxide (NO) emission from dryland became available. However, the fast adaptation of microbes to changing environmental conditions, which is known as the "lab rat effect", may cause a series of problems for these studies. Particularly, the question of initial conditions and standardized preparation (e.g. pre-incubation) is not well investigated. These parameters are very important to make different studies comparable, especially for a comparison between usually dry arid soils and organic rich, usually wet mid-latitude soils. The length of the pre-incubation period, the (controlled) soil temperature and soil water content seem to be the most variable parameters. Pre-incubation of (air-dried) soil samples from semi-arid, arid, and hyper-arid regions has been considered as an effective measure to avoid the so-called "pulsing effect", a strong and sudden enhancement of NO release from re-wetted of completely dry soil. However, in a lot of previous studies, the increase of NO release after rewetting is considered generally as "pulsing". However, this could be misleading, because NO release depends strongly on the initial soil water content before re-wetting. For that reason, we define "pulsing" more specifically: it is the increase of the NO release rate over the entire range of soil water content during an experiment with a given (non-zero) pre-incubation length compared to the NO release rate over the entire range of soil water content during an experiment of no pre-incubation. We present results of a systematic study on different soil samples from the Gobi desert (Mongolia) and from the Taklimakan desert (NW-China). These samples have been exposed to different time periods of pre-incubation (0, 3, 12, 48 and 192 hours) under constant soil temperature (25° C) and soil water content (field capacity

  18. Marine biodiversity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boeuf, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity.

  19. Modulating intracellular acidification by regulating the incubation time of proton caged compounds.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marilena; Sabbatella, Gianfranco; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Orlando, Viviana; Biagioni, Stefano; Nucara, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    A proton caged compound, the 1-(2-nitrophenyl)- ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS), was dosed into HEK-293 at different incubation times. Samples were irradiated with filtered UV light for inducing photolysis of the HDNS and then probed by infrared spectroscopy. The intracellular acidification reaction can be followed by monitoring the consequent CO2 peak intensity variation. The total CO2 produced is similar for all the samples, hence it is only a function of the initial HDNS concentration. The way it is achieved, though, is different for the different incubation times and follows kinetics, which results in a combination of a linear CO2 increase and a steep CO2 increase followed by a decay. This is interpreted in terms of confinement of the HDNS into intracellular vesicles of variable average size and sensitive to UV light when they reach critical dimensions.

  20. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

    PubMed Central

    Comoy, Emmanuel E.; Mikol, Jacqueline; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Correia, Evelyne; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Durand, Valérie; Dehen, Capucine; Andreoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Baron, Thierry; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie. PMID:26123044

  1. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period.

    PubMed

    Comoy, Emmanuel E; Mikol, Jacqueline; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Correia, Evelyne; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Durand, Valérie; Dehen, Capucine; Andreoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A; Greenlee, Justin J; Baron, Thierry; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-30

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.

  2. The effect of laser irradiation on living cells incubated with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, Olga; Singh, Prateek; Popov, Alexey; Akchurin, Georgy; Skovorodkin, Ilya; Khanadeev, Vitaly; Kinnunen, Matti; Bogatyrev, Vladimir; Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Vainio, Seppo; Tuchin, Valery

    2015-03-01

    Plasmon-resonant nanoparticles attached to cell membranes, under laser treatment can temporarily increase membrane permeability. In this paper, the influence of continuous-wave and pulsed (nanosecond) laser irradiation on living cells incubated with gold nanoparticles was investigated. Gold nanospheres, nanostars, and nanorods with different functionalization were used as plasmonic agents. The dependence between increase of medium temperature on the irradiation time was showed for nanostars and nanorods with different surface properties. Cells samples incubated with gold nanorods showed the highest temperature increase. Feasibility of cell optoporation by the use of gold nanospheres with variable functionalization was demonstrated. The cell membrane permeability was successfully enhanced as shown by the uptake of the fluorescent dye upon nanosecond laser treatment. Toxicity of the nanoparticles was estimated by MTT assay.

  3. Microbial-based inoculants impact nitrous oxide emissions from an incubated soil medium containing urea fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Pamela; Watts, Dexter B; Ames, Robert N; Kloepper, Joseph W; Torbert, H Allen

    2013-01-01

    There is currently much interest in developing crop management practices that will decrease NO emissions from agricultural soils. Many different approaches are being investigated, but to date, no studies have been published on how microbial inoculants affect NO emissions. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that microbial-based inoculants known to promote root growth and nutrient uptake can reduce NO emissions in the presence of N fertilizers under controlled conditions. Carbon dioxide and CH fluxes were also measured to evaluate microbial respiration and determine the aerobic and anaerobic conditions of the incubated soil. The microbial-based treatments investigated were SoilBuilder (SB), a metabolite extract of SoilBuilder (SBF), and a mixture of four strains of plant growth-promoting spp. Experiments included two different N fertilizer treatments, urea and urea-NHNO 32% N (UAN), and an unfertilized control. Emissions of NO and CO were determined from soil incubations and analyzed with gas chromatography. After 29 d of incubation, cumulative NO emissions were reduced 80% by SB and 44% by SBF in soils fertilized with UAN. Treatment with spp. significantly reduced NO production on Days 1 and 2 of the incubation in soils fertilized with UAN. In the unfertilized treatment, cumulative emissions of NO were significantly reduced 92% by SBF. Microbial-based treatments did not reduce NO emissions associated with urea application. Microbial-based treatments increased CO emissions from soils fertilized with UAN, suggesting a possible increase in microbial activity. Overall, the results demonstrated that microbial-based inoculants can reduce NO emissions associated with N fertilizer application, and this response varies with the type of microbial-based inoculant and fertilizer.

  4. Vesicle-associated microRNAs are released from blood cells on incubation of blood samples.

    PubMed

    Köberle, Verena; Kakoschky, Bianca; Ibrahim, Ahmed Atef; Schmithals, Christian; Peveling-Oberhag, Jan; Zeuzem, Stefan; Kronenberger, Bernd; Waidmann, Oliver; Pleli, Thomas; Piiper, Albrecht

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) circulating extracellularly in the blood are currently intensively studied as novel disease markers. However, the preanalytical factors influencing the levels of the extracellular miRNAs are still incompletely explored. In particular, it is unknown, whether the incubation of blood samples as occurring in clinical routine can lead to a release of miRNAs from blood cells and thus alter the extracellular miRNA levels before the preparation of serum or plasma from the blood cells. Using a set of marker miRNAs and quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the levels of extracellular miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 were increased in EDTA and serum collection tubes incubated for 1-3 hours at room temperature and declined thereafter; the levels of the liver-specific miRNA-122 declined monophasically. These events occurred in the absence of significant hemolysis. When the blood was supplemented with Ribonuclease A inhibitor, the levels of miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 increased substantially during the initial 3 hours of incubation and those of miRNA-122 remained unchanged, indicating that the release of blood cell-derived miRNAs occurred during the initial 3 hours of incubation of the blood tubes, but not at later time points. Separation of 5-hour preincubated blood into vesicle and nonvesicle fractions revealed a selective increase in the portion of vesicle-associated miRNAs. Together, these data indicate that the release of vesicle-associated miRNAs from blood cells can occur in blood samples within the time elapsing in normal clinical practice until their processing without significant hemolysis. This becomes particularly visible on the inhibition of miRNA degradation by Ribonuclease A inhibitor.

  5. Incubation of Methamphetamine and Palatable Food Craving after Punishment-Induced Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Krasnova, Irina N; Marchant, Nathan J; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T; Panlilio, Leigh V; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin; Cadet, Jean L

    2014-01-01

    In a rat model of drug craving and relapse, cue-induced drug seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from methamphetamine and other drugs, a phenomenon termed ‘incubation of drug craving'. However, current experimental procedures used to study incubation of drug craving do not incorporate negative consequences of drug use, which is a common factor promoting abstinence in humans. Here, we studied whether incubation of methamphetamine craving is observed after suppression of drug seeking by adverse consequences (punishment). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine or palatable food for 9 h per day for 14 days; reward delivery was paired with a tone-light cue. Subsequently, for one group within each reward type, 50% of the lever-presses were punished by mild footshock for 9–10 days, whereas for the other group lever-presses were not punished. Shock intensity was gradually increased over time. Next, we assessed cue-induced reward seeking in 1-h extinction sessions on withdrawal days 2 and 21. Response-contingent punishment suppressed extended-access methamphetamine or food self-administration; surprisingly, food-trained rats showed greater resistance to punishment than methamphetamine-trained rats. During the relapse tests, both punished and unpunished methamphetamine- and food-trained rats showed significantly higher cue-induced reward seeking on withdrawal day 21 than on day 2. These results demonstrate that incubation of both methamphetamine and food craving occur after punishment-induced suppression of methamphetamine or palatable food self-administration. Our procedure can be used to investigate mechanisms of relapse to drug and palatable food seeking under conditions that more closely approximate the human condition. PMID:24584329

  6. Calcium Imaging of AM Dyes Following Prolonged Incubation in Acute Neuronal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Morley, John W.; Tapson, Jonathan; Breen, Paul P.; van Schaik, André

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-imaging is a sensitive method for monitoring calcium dynamics during neuronal activity. As intracellular calcium concentration is correlated to physiological and pathophysiological activity of neurons, calcium imaging with fluorescent indicators is one of the most commonly used techniques in neuroscience today. Current methodologies for loading calcium dyes into the tissue require prolonged incubation time (45–150 min), in addition to dissection and recovery time after the slicing procedure. This prolonged incubation curtails experimental time, as tissue is typically maintained for 6–8 hours after slicing. Using a recently introduced recovery chamber that extends the viability of acute brain slices to more than 24 hours, we tested the effectiveness of calcium AM staining following long incubation periods post cell loading and its impact on the functional properties of calcium signals in acute brain slices and wholemount retinae. We show that calcium dyes remain within cells and are fully functional >24 hours after loading. Moreover, the calcium dynamics recorded >24 hrs were similar to the calcium signals recorded in fresh tissue that was incubated for <4 hrs. These results indicate that long exposure of calcium AM dyes to the intracellular cytoplasm did not alter the intracellular calcium concentration, the functional range of the dye or viability of the neurons. This data extends our previous work showing that a custom recovery chamber can extend the viability of neuronal tissue, and reliable data for both electrophysiology and imaging can be obtained >24hrs after dissection. These methods will not only extend experimental time for those using acute neuronal tissue, but also may reduce the number of animals required to complete experimental goals. PMID:27183102

  7. Biomarkers as Indicators of Respiration During Laboratory Incubations of Alaskan Arctic Tundra Permafrost Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, J.; Schuur, E.; Bianchi, T. S.; Bracho, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    High latitude permafrost soils are estimated to store 1,330 - 1,580 Pg C, which account for ca. 40% of global soil C and nearly twice that of atmospheric C. Disproportionate heating of high latitude regions during climate warming potentially results in permafrost thaw and degradation of surficial and previously-frozen soil C. Understanding how newly-thawed soils respond to microbial degradation is essential to predicting C emissions from this region. Laboratory incubations have been a key tool in understanding potential respiration rates from high latitude soils. A recent study found that among the common soil measurements, C:N was the best predictor of C losses. Here, we analyzed Alaskan Arctic tundra soils from before and after a nearly 3-year laboratory incubation. Bulk geochemical values as well as the following biomarkers were measured: lignin, amino acids, n-alkanes, and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT). We found that initial C:N did not predict C losses and no significant change in C:N between initial and final samples. The lignin acid to aldehyde (Ad:Al) degradation index showed the same results with a lack of C loss prediction and no significant change during the experiment. However, we did find that C:N and Ad:Al had a significant negative correlation suggesting behavior consistent with expectations. The failure to predict C losses was likely influenced by a number of factors, including the possibility that biomarkers were tracking a smaller fraction of slower cycling components of soil C. To better interpret these results, we also used a hydroxyproline-based amino acid degradation index and n-alkanes to estimate the contribution Sphagnum mosses to soil samples - known to have slower turnover times than vascular plants. Finally, we applied a GDGT soil temperature proxy to estimate the growing season soil temperatures before each incubation, as well as investigating the effects of incubation temperature on the index's temperature estimate.

  8. Development of a method to control the water evaporation of hatching eggs during incubation.

    PubMed

    Ohi, A; Inoue, N; Furuta, H; Sugawara, M; Ohta, Y

    2010-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to develop methods to control the amount of water loss and to evaluate the metabolic effects of water condition in the White Leghorn breeder eggs during incubation. One hundred twenty, 54, and 90 Julia strain White Leghorn breeder eggs were incubated at 37.8 degrees C, 60% RH in experiments 1, 2, and 3. In experiment 1, eggs were drilled with various bore diameters of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm on the blunt end of the eggshell. In experiment 2, 4 x 4 mm(2) windows were cut into the eggs or the eggs were drilled with 5 holes of bore diameter 2 mm on the blunt end of eggshell. In experiment 3, eggs were drilled with 1, 3, 5, and 7 holes of diameter 2 mm on the blunt end of eggshell. Eggs were treated on d 3 of each experiment and the amount of water loss was recorded on d 19 of incubation. Embryo growth was evaluated in experiments 2 and 3. In addition, the livers of embryos were collected in the 0-, 1-, 3-, and 5-hole treatment groups after weighing eggs to determine 3-hydroxy acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity. In experiment 1, although higher water loss was observed in all windowed eggs than in control, there were no differences in amount of water loss among all bore diameters. Accordingly, that was not successful to control amount of water loss. In experiment 2, higher water loss was observed in drilled eggs at the same levels in windowed eggs as in control. Drilling holes was a more useful treatment to control amount of water loss on incubated eggs than windowing. In experiment 3, amount of water loss increased linearly with increasing number of holes on the blunt end of eggshell. Hepatic 3-hydroxy acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity increased with increasing the number of drilled holes.

  9. [Utility of prolonged incubation and terminal subcultures of blood cultures from immunocompromised patients].

    PubMed

    Soloaga, R; Procopio, A; Manganello, S; Ivanovic, V; Romay, N; Pirosanto, Y; Fernández, A; Zudiker, R; Echeverría, A; Nagel, C; del Castillo, M; López, E; Gutfraind, Z; Tokumoto, M; Guelfand, L

    2001-01-01

    The value of blind terminal subcultures (7 and 30 days) and prolonged incubation (30 days) of blood cultures from immunosuppressed patients was analyzed in the Fundación Favaloro, the Fundación para la Lucha contra las Enfermedades Neurológicas de la Infancia and the Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez. A total of 2707 blood cultures and 369 patients were included (transplantation of solid organs 154, oncohematologic disorders 106 and solid tumors 109). Bact-Alert bottles were incubated at 35 degrees C for 30 days in the Bact-Alert System. Bottles with positive signals were routinely removed, and aliquots of the broth were Gram stained and subcultured aerobically in chocolate agar and Sabouraud agar. A total of 136 bacteremic episodes were obtained. The positivization time of blood cultures was 81.6% at 24 h, 93.3% at 48 h, 94.5% at 72 h and 97.7% within 7 days. Only 3 (2.2%) episodes were positive by blind terminal subcultures and 1 (0.75%) by prolonged incubation (14 days). The median time and range of positivization in hours were 13.8 and 2.2-168, respectively. The microorganisms isolated were coagulase negative staphylococci (n = 24), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 22), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 21), Escherichia coli (n = 18), Acinetobacter spp (n = 9), Candida spp (n = 8), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 6), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 5), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 5), Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella spp and Capnocytophaga sputigena (n = 2), Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecium, Citrobacter diversus, Candida albicans, Klebsiella oxytoca, Chryseomonas luteola, Serratia marcescens, Abiotrophia spp, Campylobacter jejuni, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella urethralis, Neisseria sicca, beta hemolytic group G streptococci, Rhodococcus equi, Micrococcus spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Streptococcus mitis (n = 1). In our experience, blind terminal subcultures and prolonged incubation of blood cultures from immunosuppressed patients are unnecessary and

  10. Incubation of methamphetamine and palatable food craving after punishment-induced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Krasnova, Irina N; Marchant, Nathan J; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T; Panlilio, Leigh V; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin; Cadet, Jean L

    2014-07-01

    In a rat model of drug craving and relapse, cue-induced drug seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from methamphetamine and other drugs, a phenomenon termed 'incubation of drug craving'. However, current experimental procedures used to study incubation of drug craving do not incorporate negative consequences of drug use, which is a common factor promoting abstinence in humans. Here, we studied whether incubation of methamphetamine craving is observed after suppression of drug seeking by adverse consequences (punishment). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine or palatable food for 9 h per day for 14 days; reward delivery was paired with a tone-light cue. Subsequently, for one group within each reward type, 50% of the lever-presses were punished by mild footshock for 9-10 days, whereas for the other group lever-presses were not punished. Shock intensity was gradually increased over time. Next, we assessed cue-induced reward seeking in 1-h extinction sessions on withdrawal days 2 and 21. Response-contingent punishment suppressed extended-access methamphetamine or food self-administration; surprisingly, food-trained rats showed greater resistance to punishment than methamphetamine-trained rats. During the relapse tests, both punished and unpunished methamphetamine- and food-trained rats showed significantly higher cue-induced reward seeking on withdrawal day 21 than on day 2. These results demonstrate that incubation of both methamphetamine and food craving occur after punishment-induced suppression of methamphetamine or palatable food self-administration. Our procedure can be used to investigate mechanisms of relapse to drug and palatable food seeking under conditions that more closely approximate the human condition.

  11. Extended scrapie incubation time in goats singly heterozygous for PRNP S146 or K222.

    PubMed

    White, Stephen N; Reynolds, James O; Waldron, Daniel F; Schneider, David A; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2012-06-10

    Scrapie is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats, and scrapie eradication in sheep is based in part on strong genetic resistance to classical scrapie. Goats may serve as a scrapie reservoir, and to date there has been no experimental inoculation confirming strong genetic resistance in goats. Two prion protein variants (amino acid substitutions S146 and K222) in goats have been significantly underrepresented in scrapie cases though present in scrapie-exposed flocks, and have demonstrated low cell-free protein conversion efficiency to the disease form (PrP(D)). To test degree of genetic resistance conferred in live animals with consistent exposure, we performed the first oral scrapie challenge of goats singly heterozygous for either PRNP S146 or K222. All N146-Q222 homozygotes became clinically scrapie positive by an average of 24months, but all S146 and K222 heterozygotes remain scrapie negative by both rectal biopsy and clinical signs at significantly longer incubation times (P<0.0001 for both comparisons). Recent reports indicate small numbers of S146 and K222 heterozygous goats have become naturally infected with scrapie, suggesting these alleles do not confer complete resistance in the heterozygous state but rather extend incubation. The oral challenge results presented here confirm extended incubation observed in a recent intracerebral challenge of K222 heterozygotes, and to our knowledge provide the first demonstration of extended incubation in S146 heterozygotes. These results suggest longer relevant trace-back histories in scrapie-eradication programs for animals bearing these alleles and strengthen the case for additional challenge experiments in both homozygotes to assess potential scrapie resistance.

  12. Chronic hypoxic incubation blunts a cardiovascular reflex loop in embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Hicks, James W; Crossley, Dane A

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxia is a naturally occurring environmental challenge for embryonic non-avian reptiles, and this study is the first to investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on a possible chemoreflex loop in a developing non-avian reptile. We measured heart rate and blood pressure in normoxic and hypoxic-incubated (10% O(2)) American alligator embryos (Alligator mississippiensis) at 70 and 90/95% of development. We hypothesized that hypoxic incubation would blunt embryonic alligators' response to a reflex loop stimulated by phenylbiguanide (PBG), a 5-HT(3) receptor agonist that stimulates vagal pulmonary C-fiber afferents. PBG injection caused a hypotensive bradycardia in 70 and 95% of development embryos (paired t tests, P < 0.05), a response similar to mammals breathing inspired air (all injections made through occlusive catheter in tertiary chorioallantoic membrane artery). Hypoxic incubation blunted the bradycardic response to PBG in embryos at 95% of development (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.01). We also demonstrated that the vagally mediated afferent limb of this reflex can be partially or completely blocked in ovo with a 5-HT(3) receptor blockade using ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate (OHD), with a ganglionic blockade using hexamethonium, or with a cholinergic blockade using atropine. Atropine eliminated the hypotensive and bradycardic responses to PBG, and OHD and hexamethonium significantly blunted these responses. This cardiovascular reflex mediated by the vagus was affected by hypoxic incubation, suggesting that reptilian sympathetic and parasympathetic reflex loops have the potential for developmental plasticity in response to hypoxia. We suggest that the American alligator, with an extended length of time between each developmental stage relative to avian species, may provide an excellent model to test the cardiorespiratory effects of prolonged exposure to changes in atmospheric gases. This extended period allows for lengthy studies at each stage without the

  13. Genetics and polymorphism of the mouse prion gene complex: control of scrapie incubation time.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, G A; Goodman, P A; Lovett, M; Taylor, B A; Marshall, S T; Peterson-Torchia, M; Westaway, D; Prusiner, S B

    1988-01-01

    The mouse prion protein (PrP) gene (Prn-p), which encodes the only macromolecule that has been identified in scrapie prions, is tightly linked or identical to a gene (Prn-i) that controls the duration of the scrapie incubation period in mice. Constellations of restriction fragment length polymorphisms distinguish haplotypes a to f of Prn-p. The Prn-pb allele encodes a PrP that differs in sequence from those encoded by the other haplotypes and, in inbred mouse strains, correlates with long scrapie incubation time (Westaway et al., Cell 51: 651-662, 1987). In segregating crosses of mice, we identified rare individuals with a divergent scrapie incubation time phenotype and Prn-p genotype, but progeny testing to demonstrate meiotic recombination was not possible because scrapie is a lethal disease. Crosses involving the a, d, and e haplotypes demonstrated that genes unlinked to Prn-p could modulate scrapie incubation time and that there were only two alleles of Prn-i among the mouse strains tested. All inbred strains of mice that had the Prnb haplotype were probably direct descendants of the I/LnJ progenitors. We established the linkage relationship between the prion gene complex (Prn) and other chromosome 2 genes; the gene order, proximal to distal, is B2m-II-1a-Prn-Itp-A. Recombination suppression in the B2m-Prn-p interval occurred during the crosses involved in transferring the I/LnJ Prnb complex into a C57BL/6J background. Transmission ratio distortion by Prna/Prnb heterozygous males was also observed in the same crosses. These phenomena, together with the founder effect, would favor apparent linkage disequilibrium between Prn-p and Prn-i. Therefore, transmission genetics may underestimate the number of genes in Prn. Images PMID:3149717

  14. Mouse spermatozoa contain a nuclease that is activated by pretreatment with EGTA and subsequent calcium incubation.

    PubMed

    Boaz, Segal M; Dominguez, Kenneth; Shaman, Jeffrey A; Ward, W Steven

    2008-04-01

    We demonstrated that mouse spermatozoa cleave their DNA into approximately 50 kb loop-sized fragments with topoisomerase IIB when treated with MnCl(2) and CaCl(2) in a process we term sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF). SCF can be reversed by EDTA. A nuclease then further degrades the DNA in a process we term sperm DNA degradation (SDD). MnCl(2) alone could elicit this activity, but CaCl(2) had no effect. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a nuclease in the vas deferens that can be activated by ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) to digest the sperm DNA by SDD. Spermatozoa were extracted with salt and dithiothreitol to remove protamines and then incubated with EGTA. Next, the EGTA was removed and divalent cations were added. We found that Mn(2+), Ca(2+), or Zn(2+) could each activate SDD in spermatozoa but Mg(2+) could not. When the reaction was slowed by incubation on ice, EGTA pretreatment followed by incubation in Ca(2+) elicited the reversible fragmentation of sperm DNA evident in SCF. When the reactions were then incubated at 37 degrees C they progressed to the more complete degradation of DNA by SDD. EDTA could also be used to activate the nuclease, but required a higher concentration than EGTA. This EGTA-activatable nuclease activity was found in each fraction of the vas deferens plasma: in the spermatozoa, in the surrounding fluid, and in the insoluble components in the fluid. These results suggest that this sperm nuclease is regulated by a mechanism that is sensitive to EGTA, possibly by removing inhibition of a calcium binding protein.

  15. Prevention of the incubation of cocaine seeking by aerobic exercise in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent research has demonstrated that aerobic exercise can attenuate craving for drugs of abuse and reduce escalation and reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in animal models. The present study examined the effects of aerobic exercise on the development of the incubation of cocaine-seeking behavior or the progressive increase in cocaine seeking over a protracted withdrawal period from cocaine self-administration. METHODS Female rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/inf) during daily 6-h sessions for 10 days. Subsequently, access to cocaine and cocaine-paired cues was discontinued during a 3- or 30-day withdrawal period when rats had access to either a locked or unlocked running wheel. At the end of the withdrawal period, rats were reintroduced to the operant conditioning chamber and reexposed to cocaine-paired cues to examine cocaine-seeking behavior under extinction conditions. RESULTS Rats with access to a locked running wheel during 30 days of withdrawal had significantly greater cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior than rats that had access to an unlocked running wheel for 30 days. Further, there was robust incubation of cocaine seeking in rats with access to a locked running wheel as cocaine seeking was notably elevated at 30 vs. 3 days of withdrawal. However, cocaine-seeking behavior did not differ between rats with access to an unlocked running wheel for 30 vs. 3 days, indicating that incubation of cocaine seeking was suppressed following access to exercise for 30 days. CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise during extended withdrawal from cocaine self-administration decreased incubation of cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior and may reduce vulnerability to relapse. PMID:26159456

  16. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá

    2007-10-01

    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.

  17. Formation of tissue factor activity following incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein with plasma lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, T.; Kisiel, W. )

    1990-11-01

    Incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein (Apo-TF) with human plasma decreased the recalcified clotting time of this plasma in a time-and dose-dependent manner suggesting relipidation of the Apo-TF by plasma lipoproteins. Incubation of Apo-TF with purified preparations of human very low density, low density and high density lipoproteins resulted in tissue factor activity in a clotting assay. The order of effectiveness was VLDL greater than LDL much greater than HDL. Tissue factor activity generated by incubation of a fixed amount of Apo-TF with plasma lipoproteins was lipoprotein concentration-dependent and saturable. The association of Apo-TF with lipoprotein particles was supported by gel filtration studies in which {sup 125}I-Apo-TF coeluted with the plasma lipoprotein in the void volume of a Superose 6 column in the presence and absence of calcium ions. In addition, void-volume Apo-TF-lipoprotein fractions exhibited tissue factor activity. These results suggest that the factor VIII-bypassing activity of bovine Apo-TF observed in a canine hemophilic model may be due, in part, to its association with plasma lipoproteins and expression of functional tissue factor activity.

  18. HL-60 cells can be made copper deficient by incubating with tetraethylenepentamine.

    PubMed

    Percival, S S; Layden-Patrice, M

    1992-12-01

    A system for studying copper deficiency was developed in a cell culture model. HL-60 cells were incubated with three chelators known to bind copper. One chelator, tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), reduced cellular copper levels and the activities of two copper-requiring enzymes, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and cytochrome c oxidase. The specificity of the chelator was assessed by incubating cells with both copper and TEPA and, in other experiments, with zinc and TEPA. Copper levels, Cu/Zn-SOD activity and cytochrome c oxidase activity were restored to control values when copper and TEPA were added to cultures simultaneously, indicating the TEPA was responsible for reducing these aspects of copper metabolism. Incubating with both zinc and TEPA reduced copper levels relative to the control, but did not reduce Cu/Zn-SOD activity to the same extent as TEPA alone. The chelation of copper was a time-dependent process that was stable for at least 4 d. Cell growth and viability were not affected by TEPA. Respiratory burst activity, an indicator of differentiation, was not affected by TEPA, demonstrating that the reduction of Cu/Zn-SOD activity was due to copper chelation and not due to changes in Cu/Zn-SOD protein levels that occur during differentiation. Loss of copper, as well as a reduction of the activity of two copper-requiring enzymes, provides evidence that TEPA is a useful compound for creating a functional copper deficiency in cell culture.

  19. Laboratory evidence for short and long-term damage to pink salmon incubating in oiled gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Heintz, R.; Rice, S.; Wiedmer, M.

    1995-12-31

    Pink salmon, incubating in gravel contaminated with crude oil, demonstrated immediate and delayed responses in the laboratory at doses consistent with the concentrations observed in oiled streams in Prince William Sound. The authors incubated pink salmon embryos in a simulated intertidal environment with gravel contaminated by oil from the Exxon Valdez. During the incubation and emergence periods the authors quantified dose-response curves for characters affected directly by the oil. After emergence, fish were coded wire tagged and released, or cultured in netpens. Delayed responses have been observed among the cultured fish, and further observations will be made when coded wire tagged fish return in September 1995. The experiments have demonstrated that eggs need not contact oiled gravel to experience increased mortality, and doses as low as 17 ppb tPAH in water can have delayed effects on growth. A comparison of sediment tPAH concentrations from streams in Prince William Sound with these laboratory data suggests that many 1989 brood pink salmon were exposed to deleterious quantities of oil.

  20. Maturation of silent synapses in amygdala-accumbens projection contributes to incubation of cocaine craving.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian R; Ma, Yao-Ying; Huang, Yanhua H; Wang, Xiusong; Otaka, Mami; Ishikawa, Masago; Neumann, Peter A; Graziane, Nicholas M; Brown, Travis E; Suska, Anna; Guo, Changyong; Lobo, Mary Kay; Sesack, Susan R; Wolf, Marina E; Nestler, Eric J; Shaham, Yavin; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dong, Yan

    2013-11-01

    In rat models of drug relapse and craving, cue-induced cocaine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from the drug. This 'incubation of cocaine craving' is partially mediated by time-dependent adaptations at glutamatergic synapses in nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the circuit-level adaptations mediating this plasticity remain elusive. We studied silent synapses, often regarded as immature synapses that express stable NMDA receptors with AMPA receptors being either absent or labile, in the projection from the basolateral amygdala to the NAc in incubation of cocaine craving. Silent synapses were detected in this projection during early withdrawal from cocaine. As the withdrawal period progressed, these silent synapses became unsilenced, a process that involved synaptic insertion of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs). In vivo optogenetic stimulation-induced downregulation of CP-AMPARs at amygdala-to-NAc synapses, which re-silenced some of the previously silent synapses after prolonged withdrawal, decreased incubation of cocaine craving. Our findings indicate that silent synapse-based reorganization of the amygdala-to-NAc projection is critical for persistent cocaine craving and relapse after withdrawal.

  1. In vitro incubation of human spermatozoa promotes reactive oxygen species generation and DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Cicaré, J; Caille, A; Zumoffen, C; Ghersevich, S; Bahamondes, L; Munuce, M J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative process associated with sperm capacitation and its impact on DNA fragmentation and sperm function. Redox activity and lipid peroxidation were analysed in human spermatozoa after 3, 6 and 22 h of incubation in Ham's F10 medium plus bovine albumin at 37° and 5% CO2 for capacitation. DNA status, tyrosine phosphorylation pattern and induced acrosome reaction were evaluated after capacitating conditions. At 22 h of incubation, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in oxygen-free radicals and lipid peroxidation, with no effect on sperm viability. There also was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in fragmented DNA in capacitated spermatozoa compared to semen values with higher rates being found after the occurrence of the induced acrosome reaction. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation pattern confirms that capacitation took place in parallel with the occurrence of DNA fragmentation. These results indicate that when spermatozoa are incubated for several hours (22 h), a common practice in assisted reproductive techniques, an increase in oxidative sperm metabolism and in the proportion of fragmented DNA should be expected. However, there was no effect on any of the other functional parameters associated with sperm fertilising capacity.

  2. An adaptable stage perfusion incubator for the controlled cultivation of C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Felix; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Bärtschi, Christoph A; Dittrich, Petra S

    2015-01-07

    Here we present a stage perfusion incubation system that allows for the cultivation of mammalian cells within PDMS microfluidic devices for long-term microscopic examination and analysis. The custom-built stage perfusion incubator is adaptable to any x-y microscope stage and is enabled for temperature, gas and humidity control as well as equipped with chip and tubing holder. The applied double-layered microfluidic chip allows the predetermined positioning and concentration of cells while the gas permeable PDMS material facilitates pH control via CO2 levels throughout the chip. We demonstrate the functionality of this system by culturing C2C12 murine myoblasts in buffer free medium within its confines for up to 26 hours. We moreover demonstrated the system's compatibility with various chip configurations, other cells lines (HEK-293 cells) and for longer-term culturing. The cost-efficient system are applicable for any type of PDMS-based cell culture system. Detailed technical drawings and specification to reproduce this perfusion incubation system is provided in the ESI.

  3. Low Oxygen Tension During Incubation Periods of Chondrocyte Expansion Is Sufficient to Enhance Postexpansion Chondrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ginley, Nell M.; Caplan, Arnold I.; Niyibizi, Christopher; Dennis, James E.

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether low oxygen (O2) tension during expansion affects the matrix density, as well as quantity, of cartilage formed, and to determine whether application of low O2 tension during incubation periods alone is sufficient to modulate chondrogenic expression, rabbit chondrocytes expanded at either 21% O2 or 5% O2 were analyzed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and DNA content, total collagen, and gene expression during expansion and postexpansion aggregate cultures. When cultured as aggregates at 21% O2, chondrocytes expanded at 5% O2 produced cartilage aggregates that contained more total GAG, GAG per wet weight, GAG per DNA, and total collagen than chondrocytes expanded at 21% O2. Less of an effect on GAG and collagen content was observed when aggregate culture was performed at 5% O2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of COL2A1 expression showed upregulated levels of type IIA (an early marker) and IIB (a late marker) during expansion and elevated levels of type IIB during aggregate culture in chondrocytes expanded in low O2. The application of low O2 tension during incubation periods of chondrocyte expansion enhances the ultimate cartilage matrix density and quantity, and this enhancement can be achieved through the use of an O2 control incubator. PMID:19958052

  4. Co-incubation of Acanthamoeba castellanii with strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alters the survival of amoeba.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, A M; Harmis, N; Stapleton, F

    2000-06-01

    Enhanced survival of Acanthamoeba castellanii has previously been reported following co-incubation with a single strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different strains of P. aeruginosa on amoebae survival. Four contact lens solutions were challenged with A. castellanii for between 6 and 24 h, and survival rates of amoeba were calculated. Subsequently, A. castellanii was co-incubated with different strains of P. aeruginosa (strain 6294, an invasive isolate; 6206, a cytotoxic isolate; and Paer 001, a null isolate). Differences in amoeba survival over time between solutions for each bacterial strain were analysed. Non-neutralized hydrogen peroxide was the most effective system against A. castellani at all time points (P<0.05). Survival rates were not different between multipurpose solutions and neutralized hydrogen peroxide. Co-incubation with P. aeruginosa altered amoeba survival, and maximum survival occurred in the presence of the invasive strain of P. aeruginosa. Enhanced amoeba survival may occur in the presence of certain strains of Gram-negative bacteria, and with certain types of contact lens disinfection systems.

  5. Incubation of cocaine-craving relates to glutamate over-flow within ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Shin, Christina B; Serchia, Michela M; Shahin, John R; Ruppert-Majer, Micaela A; Kippin, Tod E; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2016-03-01

    Craving elicited by drug-associated cues intensifies across protracted drug abstinence - a phenomenon termed "incubation of craving" - and drug-craving in human addicts correlates with frontal cortical hyperactivity. Herein, we employed a rat model of cue-elicited cocaine-craving to test the hypothesis that the time-dependent incubation of cue-elicited cocaine-craving is associated with adaptations in dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (6 h/day × 10 days) and underwent in vivo microdialysis procedures during 2 h-tests for cue-elicited cocaine-craving at either 3 or 30 days withdrawal. Controls rats were trained to either self-administer sucrose pellets or received no primary reinforcer. Cocaine-seeking rats exhibited a withdrawal-dependent increase and decrease, respectively, in cue-elicited glutamate and dopamine release. These patterns of neurochemical change were not observed in either control condition. Thus, cue-hypersensitivity of vmPFC glutamate terminals is a biochemical correlate of incubated cocaine-craving that may stem from dopamine dysregulation in this region.

  6. Only child syndrome in snakes: Eggs incubated alone produce asocial individuals

    PubMed Central

    Aubret, Fabien; Bignon, Florent; Kok, Philippe J. R.; Blanvillain, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Egg-clustering and communal nesting behaviours provide advantages to offspring. Advantages range from anti-predatory benefits, maintenance of moisture and temperature levels within the nest, preventing the eggs from rolling, to enabling hatching synchrony through embryo communication. It was recently suggested that embryo communication may extend beyond development fine-tuning, and potentially convey information about the quality of the natal environment as well as provide an indication of forthcoming competition amongst siblings, conspecifics or even heterospecifics. Here we show that preventing embryos from communicating not only altered development rates but also strongly influenced post-natal social behaviour in snakes. Clutches of water snakes, Natrix maura, were split evenly into half-clutches and incubated as (1) clusters (i.e. eggs in physical contact with each other) or (2) as single eggs placed in individual goblets (i.e. no physical contact amongst sibling eggs). Single incubated eggs produced less-sociable young snakes than their siblings that were incubated in a cluster: the former were more active, less aggregated and physically contacted each other less often than the latter. Potential long-term effects and evolutionary drivers for this new example of informed dispersal are discussed. PMID:27761007

  7. Characterization of calcium carbonate crystals in pigeon yolk sacs with different incubation times.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Hu, Jingxiao; Tong, Hua

    2014-05-01

    Calcium carbonate crystals are known to form in the yolk sacs of fertile pigeon eggs at late stages of incubation. The composition and structure of these crystals were investigated, the crystallization environment was inspected, and the physical chemistry constants of the yolk fluid were determined through the incubation period. Polarized light microscopy was used to observe the generation and distribution of calcium carbonate crystals in the yolk sac. In addition, X-ray diffraction was employed to analyze the composition and crystal phase of the yolk sac. A decalcification and deproteination method was established to analyze the ultrastructure and composition of the crystals, as well as the internal relationship between inorganic and organic phases of the crystals. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to evaluate the characteristics of the crystals. Our results demonstrated that the calcium carbonate crystals were mainly composed of vaterite and calcite, with vaterite being the major component. Vaterite, a type of biomaterial generated by an organic template control, presented as a concentric hierarchical spherical structure. The organic nature of the biomaterial prevented vaterite from transforming into calcite, which is more thermodynamically stable than vaterite. Additionally, the configuration, size, and aggregation of vaterite were also mediated by the organic template. This bio-vaterite was found during the incubation period and is valuable in calcium transport during embryonic development.

  8. Only child syndrome in snakes: Eggs incubated alone produce asocial individuals.

    PubMed

    Aubret, Fabien; Bignon, Florent; Kok, Philippe J R; Blanvillain, Gaëlle

    2016-10-20

    Egg-clustering and communal nesting behaviours provide advantages to offspring. Advantages range from anti-predatory benefits, maintenance of moisture and temperature levels within the nest, preventing the eggs from rolling, to enabling hatching synchrony through embryo communication. It was recently suggested that embryo communication may extend beyond development fine-tuning, and potentially convey information about the quality of the natal environment as well as provide an indication of forthcoming competition amongst siblings, conspecifics or even heterospecifics. Here we show that preventing embryos from communicating not only altered development rates but also strongly influenced post-natal social behaviour in snakes. Clutches of water snakes, Natrix maura, were split evenly into half-clutches and incubated as (1) clusters (i.e. eggs in physical contact with each other) or (2) as single eggs placed in individual goblets (i.e. no physical contact amongst sibling eggs). Single incubated eggs produced less-sociable young snakes than their siblings that were incubated in a cluster: the former were more active, less aggregated and physically contacted each other less often than the latter. Potential long-term effects and evolutionary drivers for this new example of informed dispersal are discussed.

  9. Microbiological response of Japanese quail eggs to disinfection and location in the setter during incubation.

    PubMed

    Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Szablewski, Tomasz; Cegielska-Radziejewska, Renata; Kontecka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ethyl alcohol (75%) disinfection of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) hatching eggs and analysis of microbial contamination of eggs during incubation, depending on their location in the setter. Disinfected eggshells were found to have lower total bacteria (TBC) and fungi (TFC) count. Concerning the vertical location of eggs (top, middle, bottom), disinfected eggs were characterized by similar values of the TBC (x = 1.54 log CFU/shell surface). For eggs without disinfection, it was found that those from middle and bottom levels of the setter had similar and lower TBC (by about 1.22 log CFU/shell surface) as compared to eggs from the top level. No statistically significant differences between levels were found in the case of TFC. Hatch breakouts (dead-in-shell embryos) from non-disinfected eggs were characterized by higher TBC (on average 0.37 log CFU/g). Disinfected eggs, located at the middle and bottom levels of the incubator, had similar and lower TBC in comparison with eggs from the top level. There were no microscopic fungi inside disinfected eggs of hatch breakouts. On the other hand, the non-disinfected eggs, placed on trays from the middle level of the incubator, had greater TFC (by about 0.9 log CFU/g) than those from top and bottom levels. Regardless of whether the eggs were disinfected or not, the largest group of microscopic fungi included Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  10. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  11. Food Supplementation Fails to Reveal a Trade-Off between Incubation and Self-Maintenance in Female House Wrens

    PubMed Central

    Lothery, Cassie J.; Thompson, Charles F.; Lawler, Megan L.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Incubating birds must allocate their time and energy between maintaining egg temperature and obtaining enough food to meet their own metabolic demands. We tested the hypothesis that female house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) face a trade-off between incubation and self-maintenance by providing females with supplemental food during incubation. We predicted that food supplementation would increase the amount of time females devoted to incubating their eggs, lower their baseline plasma corticosterone levels (a measure of chronic stress), and increase their body mass, haematocrit (a measure of anaemia), and reproductive success relative to control females. As predicted, food-supplemented females spent a greater proportion of time incubating their eggs than control females. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no evidence that food supplementation significantly influenced female baseline plasma corticosterone levels, body mass, haematocrit, or reproductive success. However, females with high levels of corticosterone at the beginning of incubation were more likely to abandon their nesting attempt after capture than females with low levels. Corticosterone significantly increased between the early incubation and early nestling stages of the breeding cycle in all females. These results suggest that although food supplementation results in a modest increase in incubation effort, it does not lead to significantly lower levels of chronic stress as reflected in lower baseline corticosterone levels. We conclude that female house wrens that begin the incubation period with low levels of plasma corticosterone can easily meet their own nutritional needs while incubating their eggs, and that any trade-off between incubation and self-feeding does not influence female reproductive success under the conditions at the time of our study. PMID:25184281

  12. Heat shock protein concentration and clarity of porcine lenses incubated at elevated temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Dzialoszynski, T. M.; Milne, K.J.; Trevithick, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the concentration of heat shock proteins in lenses in lens organ culture at elevated temperatures, and to examine the relation between elevated temperature and lens clarity. Methods Pig lenses obtained from a local abattoir were dissected aseptically and incubated in medium M199 without serum for 4 days to stabilize, and lenses with protein leakage of less than 10 mg/l were obtained for heat shock exposure. Heat shock was performed by incubation for 1 h in M199 without serum at various temperatures ranging from 37 °C to 55 °C. After incubation for 24 h, cataract blurring of the images was assessed using Scantox™ and Scion Image analysis of the lens photographs. Lens homogenates were subsequently analyzed for Hsp70 and Hsp27 with western blotting. Results The degree of cataract blurring of the images increased with increasing temperature, but the two functional measures provided different results. Focal length inconsistency, as assessed with the back vertex distance standard error of the mean (BVD SEM; the variability in focal lengths measured at 20 equally spaced locations across the lens, Scantox™), increased nearly linearly with the heat treatment temperature. In contrast, decreased clarity, evident by a fuzzy image with lower contrast, was not markedly altered as the temperature rose until a threshold of approximately 47.5 °C. The inducible isoform of the Hsp70 family (Hsp70) of heat shock proteins was increased at all temperatures above the control except those above 50 °C. Changes in Hsp27 were less clear as the protein content increased only at the incubation temperatures of 39 °C and 48.5 °C. Conclusions The porcine lens demonstrates subtle changes in the variability of the focal length, and the variability increases as the incubation temperature rises. In contrast, lens clarity is relatively stable at temperatures up to 47.5 °C, above which dramatic changes, indicative of the formation of cataracts, occur. The lens content

  13. Predicting the denitrification capacity of sandy aquifers from shorter-term incubation experiments and sediment properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschenbach, W.; Well, R.

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge about the spatial variability of denitrification rates and the lifetime of denitrification in nitrate-contaminated aquifers is crucial to predict the development of groundwater quality. Therefore, regression models were derived to estimate the measured cumulative denitrification of aquifer sediments after one year of incubation from initial denitrification rates and several sediment parameters, namely total sulphur, total organic carbon, extractable sulphate, extractable dissolved organic carbon, hot water soluble organic carbon and potassium permanganate labile organic carbon. For this purpose, we incubated aquifer material from two sandy Pleistocene aquifers in Northern Germany under anaerobic conditions in the laboratory using the 15N tracer technique. The measured amount of denitrification ranged from 0.19 to 56.2 mg N kg-1 yr-1. The laboratory incubations exhibited high differences between non-sulphidic and sulphidic aquifer material in both aquifers with respect to all investigated sediment parameters. Denitrification rates and the estimated lifetime of denitrification were higher in the sulphidic samples. For these samples, the cumulative denitrification measured during one year of incubation (Dcum(365)) exhibited distinct linear regressions with the stock of reduced compounds in the investigated aquifer samples. Dcum(365) was predictable from sediment variables within a range of uncertainty of 0.5 to 2 (calculated Dcum(365)/measured Dcum(365)) for aquifer material with a Dcum(365) > 20 mg N kg-1 yr-1. Predictions were poor for samples with lower Dcum(365), such as samples from the NO3- bearing groundwater zone, which includes the non-sulphidic samples, from the upper part of both aquifers where denitrification is not sufficient to protect groundwater from anthropogenic NO3- input. Calculation of Dcum(365) from initial denitrification rates was only successful for samples from the NO3--bearing zone, whereas a lag-phase of denitrification in samples

  14. Epigenomics in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Metzger, David C H; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are an underappreciated and often ignored component of an organism's response to environmental change and may underlie many types of phenotypic plasticity. Recent technological advances in methods for detecting epigenetic marks at a whole-genome scale have launched new opportunities for studying epigenomics in ecologically relevant non-model systems. The study of ecological epigenomics holds great promise to better understand the linkages between genotype, phenotype, and the environment and to explore mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. The many attributes of marine fish species, including their high diversity, variable life histories, high fecundity, impressive plasticity, and economic value provide unique opportunities for studying epigenetic mechanisms in an environmental context. To provide a primer on epigenomic research for fish biologists, we start by describing fundamental aspects of epigenetics, focusing on the most widely studied and most well understood of the epigenetic marks: DNA methylation. We then describe the techniques that have been used to investigate DNA methylation in marine fishes to date and highlight some new techniques that hold great promise for future studies. Epigenomic research in marine fishes is in its early stages, so we first briefly discuss what has been learned about the establishment, maintenance, and function of DNA methylation in fishes from studies in zebrafish and then summarize the studies demonstrating the pervasive effects of the environment on the epigenomes of marine fishes. We conclude by highlighting the potential for ongoing research on the epigenomics of marine fishes to reveal critical aspects of the interaction between organisms and their environments.

  15. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    PubMed Central

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  16. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    PubMed

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-14

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  17. Dangerous marine animals.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C

    1976-04-01

    Tales of dangerous marine animals have flourished, entwining history, legend and imagination. Man is now demonstrating his remarkable adaptability in returning to the aquatic environment, from which he had his origins, and factual knowledge of marine creatures is surplanting mystery, folklore and fear. There is still cause to fear certain aspects of the underwater world, and the one aspect that still holds sway over public interest is that of dangerous marine animals. There is little justification for this top priority. The kelp beds of San Diego will claim more diving victims than all the marine animals around the United States of America. The cold seas off the English coastline, the tidal currents of Hawaii and the multitude of drowning accidents in water caves of Florida and Australia belittle the relatively few fatalities caused by marine animals. Nevertheless, the latter do cause injury and death, especially in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The Indo-Pacific area seems particularly well endowed with a variety of potentially lethal species, and some of these will be dealt with in this paper.

  18. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT INCUBATOR MODELS ON MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCED CHANGES IN NEURITE OUTGROWTH IN PC-12 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    OBJECTIVE: Devise a method to standardize responses of cells to MF-exposure in different incubator environments. METHODS: We compared the cell responses to generated MF in a standard cell-culture incubator (Forma, model #3158) with cell responses to the same exposure when a mu-m...

  19. IN Like Flint: How the Innovation Incubator at UM-Flint Fosters Social Entrepreneurship in a City Remaking Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Nic

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the University of Michigan-Flint's Innovation Incubator supports emerging for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations through programming, business plan development, and ongoing mentorship. The Incubator is especially interested in supporting start-ups that address key social issues in the surrounding community,…

  20. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26{degree}C and downshifted 30-26-30{degree}C) and females (constant 30{degree}C and upshifted 26-30-26{degree}C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26{degree}C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30{degree}C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26{degree}C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30{degree}C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25{degree}C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30{degree}C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  1. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26[degree]C and downshifted 30-26-30[degree]C) and females (constant 30[degree]C and upshifted 26-30-26[degree]C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26[degree]C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30[degree]C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26[degree]C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30[degree]C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25[degree]C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30[degree]C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  2. The Business of Creating Small Businesses: A Case Study of the Springfield Business Incubator at Springfield Technical Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauber, James Shuler, Sr.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to understand and explain the characteristics of a small business incubator located on the campus of a community college. Business incubation and entrepreneurship programs are increasing in number on community college campuses across the country (Montoya, 2009). As community colleges have traditionally played a…

  3. The “See-Saw”: A Vertical-Lift Incubator Designed for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Egg Masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended within metal troughs with water that is agitated and pushed around the eggs with paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish eggs is the absorption of oxygen to the ...

  4. Responses of indigenous microorganisms to soil incubation as viewed by transmission electron microscopy of cell thin sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, h. C.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Indigenous soil microorganisms were cultivated in their soil habitat with 50% moisture capacity at 30 C for two weeks. Changes in microorganism cells were studied by electron microscopy during incubation, with particular attention to the dormant cell growth and to the ability of cystlike cells to germinate and reencyst. The responses of various cell species to incubation conditions are described and illustrated by photomicrographs.

  5. Dinosaur incubation periods directly determined from growth-line counts in embryonic teeth show reptilian-grade development

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Gregory M.; Zelenitsky, Darla K.; Kay, David Ian; Norell, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Birds stand out from other egg-laying amniotes by producing relatively small numbers of large eggs with very short incubation periods (average 11–85 d). This aspect promotes high survivorship by limiting exposure to predation and environmental perturbation, allows for larger more fit young, and facilitates rapid attainment of adult size. Birds are living dinosaurs; their rapid development has been considered to reflect the primitive dinosaurian condition. Here, nonavian dinosaurian incubation periods in both small and large ornithischian taxa are empirically determined through growth-line counts in embryonic teeth. Our results show unexpectedly slow incubation (2.8 and 5.8 mo) like those of outgroup reptiles. Developmental and physiological constraints would have rendered tooth formation and incubation inherently slow in other dinosaur lineages and basal birds. The capacity to determine incubation periods in extinct egg-laying amniotes has implications for dinosaurian embryology, life history strategies, and survivorship across the Cretaceous–Paleogene mass extinction event. PMID:28049837

  6. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargraves, Paul E.

    Until recently, anyone who needed to accurately identify marine phytoplankton had one of four choices: use the outdated Englishlanguage volumes by E. E. Cupp and N. I. Hendey plus the more recent book by J. Dodge, acquire a working knowledge of German and use the old volumes by Schiller and Hustedt, spend huge amounts of time in an exceedingly well-equipped marine science library trying in vain to keep up with the rapidly evolving field of phytoplankton systematics and taxonomy, or track down one of the rarest of endangered species—a phytoplankton taxonomist—and beg for help.To these unfortunate choices is added one considerably more hopeful: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. This volume, which has seven contributing authors, contains most of the taxonomic groups that make up the planktonic autotrophs and some heterotrophs of the seas, coasts, and estuaries of the world (missing are cyanobacteria and some of the picoplankton groups).

  7. Pressure-induced alteration in effects of high CO2 on marine bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, N.; Tsukasaki, A.; Tsurushima, N.; Suzumura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key mitigation technology to reduce the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Current CCS research is dominated by improvements of the efficiency of the capturing, transport or storage of CO2. Also, it is important to estimate potential impacts on marine environments related to potential CO2 leakage. It has been demonstrated that seawater acidification effects on marine community structure and food chains. Bacteria are the basis of marine microbial food web and responsible for a significant part of marine biogeochemical cycles in both water column and bottom sediments. We used a high pressure incubation system which is composed of an HPLC pump and stainless-steel pressure vessels. The system could maintain stably the pressure up to 30 MPa. Using the system, we investigated the effects of high CO2 concentration on a deep-sea bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp., isolated from the western North Pacific Ocean. The isolate was incubated in acidified seawaters at various CO2 concentrations under simulated pressure conditions between 0.1 MPa and 30 MPa. We determined bacterial growth rate and live/dead cell viability. It was found that both CO2 concentration and pressure influenced substantially the growth rate of the isolate. In order to assess potential effects of leaked CO2 on microbial assemblages in marine environments, it was suggested that hydraulic pressure is one essential variable to be considered.

  8. Marine methane paradox explained by bacterial degradation of dissolved organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repeta, Daniel J.; Ferrón, Sara; Sosa, Oscar A.; Johnson, Carl G.; Repeta, Lucas D.; Acker, Marianne; Delong, Edward F.; Karl, David M.

    2016-12-01

    Biogenic methane is widely thought to be a product of archaeal methanogenesis, an anaerobic process that is inhibited or outcompeted by the presence of oxygen and sulfate. Yet a large fraction of marine methane delivered to the atmosphere is produced in high-sulfate, fully oxygenated surface waters that have methane concentrations above atmospheric equilibrium values, an unexplained phenomenon referred to as the marine methane paradox. Here we use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to show that polysaccharide esters of three phosphonic acids are important constituents of dissolved organic matter in seawater from the North Pacific. In seawater and pure culture incubations, bacterial degradation of these dissolved organic matter phosphonates in the presence of oxygen releases methane, ethylene and propylene gas. Moreover, we found that in mutants of a methane-producing marine bacterium, Pseudomonas stutzeri, disrupted in the C-P lyase phosphonate degradation pathway, methanogenesis was also disabled, indicating that the C-P lyase pathway can catalyse methane production from marine dissolved organic matter. Finally, the carbon stable isotope ratio of methane emitted during our incubations agrees well with anomalous isotopic characteristics of seawater methane. We estimate that daily cycling of only about 0.25% of the organic matter phosphonate inventory would support the entire atmospheric methane flux at our study site. We conclude that aerobic bacterial degradation of phosphonate esters in dissolved organic matter may explain the marine methane paradox.

  9. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  10. View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine Corps Officers' Housing, with carports on left and duplex on right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Corps Officers' Duplex Quarters, Salvor Street & Russell Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... No: 2010-8619] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway...

  12. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Güven, Kasım Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  13. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  14. Mariner 9 navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

  15. Marine Science Building Dedicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Officials cut the ribbon during dedication ceremonies of the George A. Knauer Marine Science Building on Oct. 17 at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC). The $2.75 million facility, the first building at the test site funded by the state of Mississippi, houses six science labs, classrooms and office space for 40 faculty and staff. Pictured are, from left, Rear Adm. Thomas Donaldson, commander of the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command; SSC Assistant Director David Throckmorton; Dr. George A. Knauer, founder of the Center of Marine Science at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM); Lt. Gov. Amy Tuck; and USM President Dr. Shelby Thames.

  16. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  17. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2014-01-17

    This review covers the literature published in 2012 for marine natural products, with 1035 citations (673 for the period January to December 2012) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1241 for 2012), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

  18. LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Study of Marine Bacterial Secondary Metabolite and Antibiotic Production in Salinispora arenicola

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Utpal; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Ng, Yi Kai; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Fuerst, John A.; Hodson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    An LC-MS-based metabolomics approach was used to characterise the variation in secondary metabolite production due to changes in the salt content of the growth media as well as across different growth periods (incubation times). We used metabolomics as a tool to investigate the production of rifamycins (antibiotics) and other secondary metabolites in the obligate marine actinobacterial species Salinispora arenicola, isolated from Great Barrier Reef (GBR) sponges, at two defined salt concentrations and over three different incubation periods. The results indicated that a 14 day incubation period is optimal for the maximum production of rifamycin B, whereas rifamycin S and W achieve their maximum concentration at 29 days. A “chemical profile” link between the days of incubation and the salt concentration of the growth medium was shown to exist and reliably represents a critical point for selection of growth medium and harvest time. PMID:25574739

  19. Marine Thermoelectric Devices and Installations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    thermoelectric devices and units as marine sources of electric power, Prospects for the use of thermoelectric generators in main ship propulsion plants, Electric propulsion complexes for marine thermoelectric plants).

  20. High bacterial biodiversity increases degradation performance of hydrocarbons during bioremediation of contaminated harbor marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Dell'Anno, Antonio; Beolchini, Francesca; Rocchetti, Laura; Luna, Gian Marco; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    We investigated changes of bacterial abundance and biodiversity during bioremediation experiments carried out on oxic and anoxic marine harbor sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons. Oxic sediments, supplied with inorganic nutrients, were incubated in aerobic conditions at 20 °C and 35 °C for 30 days, whereas anoxic sediments, amended with organic substrates, were incubated in anaerobic conditions at the same temperatures for 60 days. Results reported here indicate that temperature exerted the main effect on bacterial abundance, diversity and assemblage composition. At higher temperature bacterial diversity and evenness increased significantly in aerobic conditions, whilst decreased in anaerobic conditions. In both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, biodegradation efficiencies of hydrocarbons were significantly and positively related with bacterial richness and evenness. Overall results presented here suggest that bioremediation strategies, which can sustain high levels of bacterial diversity rather than the selection of specific taxa, may significantly increase the efficiency of hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated marine sediments.