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Sample records for incubated marine mucilages

  1. Characterization of mucilage aggregates in Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea: structure similarities between mucilage samples and the insoluble fractions of marine humic substance.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, M; Acquistucci, R; Di Noto, V; Pietrantonio, E; Amici, M; Cardarilli, D

    2001-08-01

    The appearance of gelatinous aggregates called mucilages causes serious damages to tourism and fishery industries of the Adriatic Sea. So, many studies have been planned and some of them are still in progress to clarify the origin and causes of the phenomenon. The scientific research has showed that mucilages are produced by several marine organisms when peculiar climatic and trophic conditions occur. Moreover, as far as the mucilage composition is concerned, although it is well known that polysaccharides give a high contribution, knowledge of the structural characteristics of mucilages and their relationship with the natural organic matter of the marine environment has not been clarified yet. In this paper a study on the characterization of the marine mucilage samples collected in the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas is described. The study was performed by spectroscopic (infrared and colorimetric) techniques, and elemental analysis. The results showed that mucilage samples have chemical and structural similarities with the insoluble fraction of the marine humic substance (humin). According to experimental evidences it is possible to establish the relationship between mucilages and the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the marine environment in order to identify the most likely pathways of mucilage formation.

  2. Spectroscopic evidence of the marine origin of mucilages in the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Berto, Daniela; Giani, Michele; Taddei, Paola; Bottura, Giorgio

    2005-12-15

    Vibrational Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectroscopies coupled to thermogravimetry were used to characterise the gelatinous aggregates as well as the humin and humic fractions extracted from the aggregates. Spectroscopic analysis made it possible to identify the main classes of compounds present in the samples. The FTIR spectra of the aggregates showed the presence of carbohydrates, saturated aliphatic compounds, aminic, esteric, amidic (proteins) and ketonic compounds, organic and inorganic phosphates, silica and, in some cases, carbonates. The FTIR spectra of humin and humic acids showed functional groups similar to those found in the spectra of the aggregates. The high aliphatic character and the absence of aromatic compounds observed in many aggregates sampled far from estuarine areas suggest the marine origin of mucilages. These results were also confirmed by the 270/407 nm (A2/A4) and 465/665 nm (E4/E6) absorbance ratio in humic acids.

  3. Mucilage microcosms.

    PubMed

    Del Negro, Paola; Crevatin, Erica; Larato, Chiara; Ferrari, Carla; Totti, Cecilia; Pompei, Marinella; Giani, Michele; Berto, Daniela; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2005-12-15

    In the summers of 2000, 2001 and 2002, large amounts of sticky mucilaginous material aggregated to form masses of impressive dimensions over large areas of the Adriatic Sea, particularly in its northern part. Aggregates differing in size were sampled by SCUBA divers and submitted to chemical (nutrient and organic matter concentrations) and biological analysis (virus, bacteria and phytoplankton abundances and bacterial metabolism). Suspended and sinking mucilaginous aggregates were biota-rich environments where the abundance of planktonic organisms and the concentration of nutrients were orders of magnitude higher than in the surrounding seawater. The embedded phytoplankton was mostly composed of diatoms, but the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax fragilis, previously reported in association with the aggregates, was also present. A variety of processes occurred within the mucilaginous aggregates which resulted in the transformation of the organic matter composition and lability and contributed to a partial degradation of mucilage. For an efficient degradation of mucilage, several conditions are necessary: high bacterial abundance and activity and an efficient recycling of nutrients within the aggregates. Most of these conditions, appear to change depending on the type and age of the aggregate. During the first phase of aggregation (cobwebs and ribbons), bacterial activities addressed the degradation of organic matter, particularly that of the nitrogen fraction. The degradation products were rapidly taken up by bacteria, supporting an increase in their abundance and production. In aged mucilage (clouds), the degradation processes decreased and the bacterial metabolism suggested the presence of new organic labile compounds probably due to phytoplankton production. On the basis of our results, stringers, generally considered the first step of the aggregation process, seemed to be the result of a mechanical disruption of other types of aggregates.

  4. Dynamics of particulate organic matter in a coastal system characterized by the occurrence of marine mucilage - A stable isotope study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liénart, Camilla; Susperregui, Nicolas; Rouaud, Vanessa; Cavalheiro, Joana; David, Valérie; Del Amo, Yolanda; Duran, Robert; Lauga, Béatrice; Monperrus, Mathilde; Pigot, Thierry; Bichon, Sabrina; Charlier, Karine; Savoye, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    In coastal systems, particulate organic matter (POM) originates from various autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter sources. Also, some coastal systems are characterized by the occurrence of large amounts of mucilaginous material of biologic origin (i.e. phytoplankton, bacteria), which aggregates and potentially traps other organisms and particles present in the water column. This study focuses on POM origin and spatio-temporal dynamics in the South-East coast of the Bay of Biscay, an area subject to mucilage occurrence. In order to investigate POM quantitative and qualitative (C and N elemental and isotopic ratios) characteristics, sampling was performed over an annual cycle at two sites experiencing different mucilage occurrence and river influence. Contribution of phytoplankton, terrestrial POM and anthropogenic POM to coastal-POM composition was calculated using a three-sources mixing model. Overall, phytoplankton dominated the coastal-POM composition at all seasons, sites and most of the depths (71.6 ± 24.2%). Terrestrial-POM contribution was moderate (22.7 ± 21.8%) and anthropogenic-POM contribution was usually negligible (5.7 ± 7.4%). Both sites mainly exhibited similar vertical and temporal variations in terms of POM origin and dynamics: terrestrial-POM contribution increased with depth and was higher in winter at all depths and in autumn in bottom waters, compared to other seasons. The main differences between both sites were related to the vertical dynamics of the terrestrial contribution to the coastal POM. Horizontal, vertical and temporal variation of POM composition was linked to processes driving the sedimentary hydrodynamics: the river flow, the direction of the river plume and events of sediment resuspension/deposition. During the study period, the mucilage occurred only as flocs (small aggregates). The mucilage was of autochthonous origin and did not trap detectable amount of allochthonous material.

  5. Human health implications associated with mucilage in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Funari, E; Ade, P

    1999-01-01

    Mucilage in the northern Adriatic Sea is well known for its negative impact not only on the ecology of the affected area and on fishing activities but on tourism as well. The microhabitat mucilage creates in the sea can provide favourable conditions for the growth and/or survival of some environmental microorganisms that include human opportunistic pathogens. It also seems to favour the selective development of some marine toxic algae. Finally, mucilage can concentrate chemical contaminants from surrounding waters, hence increasing their bioaccumulation in seafoods. This paper examines the possible direct and indirect effects on human health of mucilage and other forms of marine aggregates.

  6. Arsenoriboside degradation in marine systems: the use of bacteria culture incubation experiments as model systems.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Elliott G; Maher, William A; Foster, Simon D; Mikac, Katarina M; Krikowa, Frank; Florance, Anthea

    2014-01-01

    Arsenoribosides (as glycerol; phosphate; sulfate and sulfonate) persisted in all bacteria-inoculated cultures irrespective of the source of bacteria (seawater, macro-algae surface) or the culture media used (DIFCO Marine Broth 2216 or novel blended Hormosira banksii tissue-based). This is unlike observations from traditional macro-algae tissue decomposition studies or in nature. In addition known arsenoriboside degradation products such as dimethylarsenoethanol (DMAE), dimethylarsenate (DMA), methylarsenate (MA) and arsenate - As(V) were not detected in any cultures. Consequently, the use of bacterial culture incubation experiments to explain the fate of arsenoribosides in marine systems appears limited as the processes governing arsenoriboside degradation in these experiments appear to be different to those in macro-algae tissue decomposition studies or in nature.

  7. Thermophilic nitrate-reducing microorganisms prevent sulfate reduction in cold marine sediments incubated at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepomnyashchaya, Yana; Rezende, Julia; Hubert, Casey

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen sulphide produced during metabolism of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) is toxic, corrosive and causes detrimental oil reservoir souring. During secondary oil recovery, injecting oil reservoirs with seawater that is rich in sulphate and that also cools high temperature formations provides favourable growth conditions for SRM. Nitrate addition can prevent metabolism of SRM by stimulating nitrate-reducing microorganisms (NRM). The investigations of thermophilic NRM are needed to develop mechanisms to control the metabolism of SRM in high temperature oil field ecosystems. We therefore established a model system consisting of enrichment cultures of cold surface marine sediments from the Baltic Sea (Aarhus Bay) that were incubated at 60°C. Enrichments contained 25 mM nitrate and 40 mM sulphate as potential electron acceptors, and a mixture of the organic substrates acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate (5 mM each) and yeast extract (0.01%) as potential carbon sources and electron donors. Slurries were incubated at 60°C both with and without initial pasteurization at 80°C for 2 hours. In the enrichments containing both nitrate and sulphate, the concentration of nitrate decreased indicating metabolic activity of NRM. After a four-hour lag phase the rate of nitrate reduction increased and the concentration of nitrate dropped to zero after 10 hours of incubation. The concentration of nitrite increased as the reduction of nitrate progressed and reached 16.3 mM after 12 hours, before being consumed and falling to 4.4 mM after 19-day of incubation. No evidence for sulphate reduction was observed in these cultures during the 19-day incubation period. In contrast, the concentration of sulphate decreased up to 50% after one week incubation in controls containing only sulphate but no nitrate. Similar sulfate reduction rates were seen in the pasteurized controls suggesting the presence of heat resistant SRM, whereas nitrate reduction rates were lower in the

  8. Testing potential bias in marine plankton respiration rates by dark bottle incubations in the NW Iberian shelf: incubation time and bottle volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elena García-Martín, Enma; Serret, Pablo; Pérez-Lorenzo, María

    2011-04-01

    The accurate determination of the balance between plankton production and respiration in the ocean is important for C budgets and global change predictions. Disagreements on the measurement of such a balance at different scales (from microbiological to biogeochemical) have produced a controversy over the trophic status of the ocean. This is especially striking in the oligotrophic open ocean, where plankton community O 2 consumption rates in 24 h incubations have frequently produced a net heterotrophic balance, but similar difficulties emerge in coastal systems. These results have been criticised due to the possibility that the standard 24 h in vitro incubations are biased because of the long incubation time needed and the so-called "bottle effect". To study the influence of the incubation time and bottle volume on the measurement of plankton net metabolism, we carried out several time series experiments in the NW Iberian coastal system. Here we present measurements of plankton community respiration rates concurrently obtained through (1) standard in vitro changes in dissolved oxygen concentration after different incubation times ranging from 2 to 48 h, and with bottle volumes of 50, 125 and 570 mL, and (2) the decrease in the oxygen concentration measured every 20 s with oxygen microsensors, during 48 h. Our results refute the contention that 24 h dark 125 mL bottle incubations are systematically biased, and highlight the validity of oxygen microsensors to study the dynamics of natural marine plankton respiration.

  9. Culturing bias in marine heterotrophic flagellates analyzed through seawater enrichment incubations.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Javier; Balagué, Vanessa; Forn, Irene; Lekunberri, Itziar; Massana, Ramon

    2013-10-01

    The diversity of heterotrophic flagellates is generally based on cultivated strains, on which ultrastructural, physiological, and molecular studies have been performed. However, the relevance of these cultured strains as models of the dominant heterotrophic flagellates in the marine planktonic environment is unclear. In fact, molecular surveys typically recover novel eukaryotic lineages that have refused cultivation so far. This study was designed to directly address the culturing bias in planktonic marine heterotrophic flagellates. Several microcosms were established adding increasing amounts and sources of organic matter to a confined natural microbial community pre-filtered by 3 μm. Growth dynamics were followed by epifluorescence microscopy and showed the expected higher yield of bacteria and heterotrophic flagellates at increased organic matter additions. Moreover, protist diversity analyzed by molecular tools showed a clear substitution in the community, which differed more and more from the initial sample as the organic matter increased. Within this gradient, there was also an increase of sequences related to cultured organisms as well as a decrease in diversity. Culturing bias is partly explained by the use of organic matter in the isolation process, which drives a shift in the community to conditions closer to laboratory cultures. An intensive culturing effort using alternative isolation methods is necessary to allow the access to the missing heterotrophic flagellates that constitute the abundant and active taxa in marine systems.

  10. Calcification response of Pleurochrysis carterae to iron concentrations in batch incubations: implication for the marine biogeochemical cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiang; Sun, Shiyong; Lin, Sen; Shen, Kexuan; Dong, Faqin; Tan, Daoyong; Nie, Xiaoqin; Liu, Mingxue; Wei, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Calcified coccolithophores, a diverse and widely distributed group of marine microalgae, produce biogenic calcite in the form of coccoliths located on the cell surface. Using batch incubations of the coccolithophorid Pleurochrysis carterae, we investigated the responses of this calcification process to iron concentrations by changing the iron supply in the initial culture media from a normal concentration to 1 ppm (parts per million), 5 ppm, and 10 ppm. Time-dependent measurements of cell population, production of inorganic carbon (coccoliths), and organic carbon (organic cellular components) showed that elevated iron supply in the growth medium of P. carterae stimulates carbon sequestration by increasing growth along enhanced photosynthetic activity and calcification. In addition, the acquired time-dependent UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra revealed that iron fertilization-enhanced coccolith calcification is accompanied by a crystalline phase transition from calcite to aragonite or amorphous phase. Our results suggest that iron concentration has a significant influence on the marine carbon cycle of coccolithophores.

  11. Effective extraction of Arabidopsis adherent seed mucilage by ultrasonic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xianhai; Qiao, Lijun; Wu, Ai-Min

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis seed coat is composed of two layers of mucilage, a water-soluble non-adherent outer layer and an adherent inner layer. The non-adherent mucilage can easily be extracted by gentle shaking. However, adherent mucilage is extremely difficult to dissociate from the seed coat. Despite various treatments to extract the adherent mucilage, including EDTA, ammonium oxalate, dilute alkali or acid washes, most of it remains on the seed coat. Here, we show for the first time the extraction of almost all of the adherent mucilage from the Arabidopsis seed coat. Our results demonstrate that ultrasonic treatment was able to extract the adherent mucilage effectively within 20 seconds. Adherent mucilage, like non-adherent mucilage, is mainly composed of rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I). The crystalline cellulose content in adherent mucilage was measured as 3.7 mg g−1 of dry seed. Compared with non-adherent mucilage, the adherent mucilage exhibits relatively stable levels of sugar under various environmental conditions. In all cases, adherent mucilage showed higher levels of sugar than non-adherent mucilage. The cell wall remnant could associate with the adherent mucilage, which could prevent the extraction of the adherent mucilage. Our results show that ultrasonic treatment is an effective method for the quick extraction of Arabidopsis adherent mucilage with little effort. PMID:28091592

  12. Rewetting Rate of Dry Rhizosphere Limited by Mucilage Viscosity and Mucilage Hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, S.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Ahmed, M. A.; Carminati, A.; Kostka, S.

    2014-12-01

    During root water uptake from dry soils, the highly nonlinear relation between hydraulic conductivity and water content as well as the radial root geometry result in steep water potential gradients close to the root surface. The hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere - the interface between root and soil - are one of the most important and least understood components in controlling root water uptake. Previous research using young lupine plants revealed that after irrigation it took 1-2 days for the water content of the dry rhizosphere to increase. How can this delay be explained? Our hypotheses: a) mucilage - a polymeric plant exudate - alters rhizosphere hydraulic properties, b) its hydrophobic moieties make the rhizosphere water repellent when dry, c) mucilage is a highly viscous, gelatinous material, the dryer it gets the more viscous it becomes, d) mucilage viscosity reduces rhizosphere hydraulic conductivity. To test our hypotheses we used mucilage extracted from chia seed as an analogue for root mucilage. We measured: 1) the contact angle between water and pure dry and wet mucilage, dry soil treated with various concentrations of mucilage, 2) mucilage viscosity as function of concentration and shear rate, 3) saturated hydraulic conductivity as function of mucilage concentration, 4) swelling of dry mucilage in water. Finally, to mimic flow of water across the rhizosphere, we measured the capillary rise in soils treated with different mucilage concentrations. The results showed that: 1) dry mucilage has a contact angle >90° while it loses its water repellency when it gets wet, 2) viscosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity can change several orders of magnitude with a small change in mucilage concentration, 3) 1g of dry mucilage absorbs 300g water in its fully swollen state, 4) the swelling rate of mucilage showed an exponential behavior with half time of 5 hours. Capillary rise became slower in soils with higher mucilage concentration, while the final

  13. Rewetting Rate of Dry Rhizosphere Limited by Mucilage Viscosity and Mucilage Hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, Stacey; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Carminati, Andrea; Kostka, Stanley

    2015-04-01

    During root water uptake from dry soils, the highly nonlinear relation between hydraulic conductivity and water content as well as the radial root geometry result in steep water potential gradients close to the root surface. The hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere - the interface between root and soil - are one of the most important and least understood components in controlling root water uptake. Previous research using young lupine plants revealed that after irrigation it took 1-2 days for the water content of the dry rhizosphere to increase. How can this delay be explained? Our hypotheses are that: a) mucilage - a polymeric plant exudate - alters rhizosphere hydraulic properties, b) its hydrophobic moieties make the rhizosphere water repellent when dry, c) mucilage is a highly viscous, gelatinous material, the dryer it gets the more viscous it becomes, d) mucilage viscosity reduces rhizosphere hydraulic conductivity. To test our hypotheses we used mucilage extracted from chia seed as an analogue for root mucilage. We measured: 1) the contact angle between water and pure dry and wet mucilage, dry soil treated with various concentrations of mucilage, 2) mucilage viscosity as function of concentration and shear rate, 3) saturated hydraulic conductivity as function of mucilage concentration, 4) swelling of dry mucilage in water. Finally, to mimic flow of water across the rhizosphere, we measured the capillary rise in soils treated with different mucilage concentrations. The results showed that: 1) dry mucilage has a contact angle > 90° while it loses its water repellency when it gets wet, 2) viscosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity can change several orders of magnitude with a small change in mucilage concentration, 3) 1g of dry mucilage absorbs 300g water in its fully swollen state, 4) the swelling rate of mucilage showed an exponential behavior with half time of 5 hours. Capillary rise became slower in soils with higher mucilage concentration, while the

  14. Variable effects of maize mucilage on rhizosphere rewetting - a new method to collect mucilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent experiments suggested that the mucilaginous fraction of root exudates may cause water repellency of the rhizosphere. Our objectives were to: 1) investigate whether maize rhizosphere turns hydrophobic; 2) measure the contact angle of mucilage collected from plants growing in wet and dry soils; and 3) find a quantitative relation between rhizosphere rewetting, particle size, soil matric potential and mucilage concentration. Maize plants were grown in sandy soil for five weeks. The soil was then allowed to dry and it was irrigated. The soil water content during irrigation was imaged using neutron radiography. In a parallel experiment, mucilage was collected from brace roots. The contact angle was measured for varying mucilage concentration. Additionally, capillary rise experiments were performed in soils of different particle size and mucilage concentration. We then used a pore-network model in which mucilage was randomly distributed in a cubic lattice. The general idea was that the rewetting of a pore is impeded when the concentration of mucilage on the pore surface [g cm-2] is higher than a given threshold value. The threshold value depended on soil matric potential, pore radius and contact angle. Then, we randomly distributed mucilage in the pore network and we calculated the percolation of water across a cubic lattice for varying soil particle size, mucilage concentration and matric potential. Our results showed that: 1) the rhizosphere stayed temporarily dry after irrigation; 2) in both plants growing in wet and dry soils, mucilage became hydrophobic after drying. Mucilage contact angle increased with mucilage concentration. Interestingly, the contact angle of mucilage from plants growing in dry soil was higher than the one from plants growing in wet soils; 3) water could easily cross the rhizosphere when the mucilage concentration was below a given threshold. In contrast, above a critical mucilage concentration water could not flow through the rhizosphere

  15. Organic matter recycling during a mucilage event and its influence on the surrounding environment (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misic, Cristina; Schiaparelli, Stefano; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi

    2011-04-01

    The development of benthic mucilage in the Marine Protected Area of Portofino (Ligurian Sea) during the summer of 2009 was studied to verify the influence of this event on the surrounding environment (seawater and soft-bottom). The calm meteorological and sea conditions at the beginning of the time frame under consideration caused the thermal stratification of the water column. This stratification was one of the driving factors influencing the development of the mucilage, which developed on a large boulder surface above the pycnocline. Mucilage was progressively detached from the boulder surface by hydrodynamism, together with macroalgae, and sank onto the sediment below the thermocline. Increased surface-water movements, caused by meteorological forcing during the study period, influenced the aggregation-disaggregation of mucilage flocks above the thermocline, leading to increased dissolved oxygen concentrations and enhanced production and turnover of the organic matter (OM). Mixing with the adjacent seawater led to the fertilisation of the surrounding environment with potentially labile OM and inorganic phosphorus, which caused increases in the hydrolytic enzymatic activity. Conversely, below the thermocline, the sunken mucilage and algae aggregates supported a heterotrophic consumption system. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were lower than those recorded in the mucilage lying above the thermocline, making more carbohydrates than proteins and labile phosphorus available. Despite the slow oxygenation of this mucilage, it contributed to the food supply for the soft-bottom macrofauna, which showed an increase in density, diversity and biomass during the study. These results suggest that the development and fate of the mucilage, as well as its interactions with the surrounding environment, were principally regulated by physical features. In the oligotrophic coastal area of the Ligurian Sea, certain compartments of the ecosystem were able to promptly respond and take

  16. Ultraviolet radiation affects emission of ozone-depleting substances by marine macroalgae: results from a laboratory incubation study.

    PubMed

    Laturnus, Frank; Svensson, Teresia; Wiencke, Christian; Oberg, Gunilla

    2004-12-15

    The depletion of stratospheric ozone due to the effects of ozone-depleting substances, such as volatile organohalogens, emitted into the atmosphere from industrial and natural sources has increased the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface. Especially in the subpolar and polar regions, where stratospheric ozone destruction is the highest, individual organisms and whole ecosystems can be affected. In a laboratory study, several species of marine macroalgae occurring in the polar and northern temperate regions were exposed to elevated levels of ultraviolet radiation. Most of the macroalgae released significantly more chloroform, bromoform, dibromomethane, and methyl iodide-all volatile organohalogens. Calculating on the basis of the release of total chlorine, bromine, and iodine revealed that, except for two macroalgae emitting chlorine and one alga emitting iodine, exposure to ultraviolet radiation caused macroalgae to emit significantly more total chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Increasing levels of ultraviolet radiation due to possible further destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer as a result of ongoing global atmospheric warming may thus increase the future importance of marine macroalgae as a source for the global occurrence of reactive halogen-containing compounds.

  17. Coupled model of root water uptake, mucilage exudation and degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez A.; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Although the fact that root mucilage plays a prominent role in soil-plant water relations is becoming more and more accepted, many aspects of how mucilage distribution and root water uptake interact with each other remain unexplored. First, it is not clear how long mucilage persists in soil. Furthermore, the effects of water content and root water uptake (i.e. convective fluxes) on the diffusion of mucilage from the root surface into the soil are not included in current models of water uptake. The aims of this study were: i) to measure the effect of soil moisture on mucilage decomposition; ii) to develop a coupled model of root water uptake and mucilage diffusion and degradation during root growth. C4 root mucilage from maize was added as single pulses to a C3 soil of two different moisture levels. We have then employed the Richards Equation for water flow and an advection-dispersion equation to describe the dynamic distribution of mucilage in a single-root model. Most of the mucilage was decomposed under optimum water supply. Drought significantly suppressed mucilage mineralization. Opposed to classical solute transport models the water flow in the rhizosphere was affected by the local concentration of mucilage. Namely a higher concentration of mucilage results in (a) an increase in equilibrium water retention curve, (b) a reduction of hydraulic conductivity at a given water content and (c) a non-equilibrium water retention curve caused by swelling and shrinking dynamics of mucilage in the pore space. The dispersion coefficient, on the other hand, depends on the water content. The parameters of mucilage diffusion have been fitted to observations on real plants. The model shows that mucilage exuded in wet soils diffuses far from the roots and it is rapidly degraded. On the contrary, mucilage of plants growing in dry soil is not easily degradable and it remains at higher concentrations in a narrow region around the roots, resulting in a marked increase in water

  18. Microbe-mediated transformations of marine dissolved organic matter during 2,100 years of natural incubation in the cold, oxic crust of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah Walter, S. R.; Jaekel, U.; Huber, J. A.; Dittmar, T.; Girguis, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    On the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, oxic seawater from the deep ocean is downwelled into the basaltic crust, supplying the crustal aquifer with an initial inoculum of organic matter and electron acceptors. Studies have shown that fluids circulating within the crust are minimally altered from original seawater, making this subsurface environment a unique natural experiment in which the fate of marine organic matter and the limitations of microbial adaptability in the context of reduced carbon supply can be examined. To make the subsurface crustal aquifer accessible, two CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories have been installed at North Pond, a sediment-filled depression beneath the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea. Radiocarbon analysis of dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) in samples recovered from these observatories show uncoupled aging between DOC and DIC with Δ14C values of DOC as low as -933‰ despite isolation from the open ocean for, at most, 2,100 years. This extreme value is part of a general trend of decreasing DOC δ13C and Δ14C values with increasing incubation time within the aquifer. Combined with reduced concentrations of DOC, our results argue for selective microbial oxidation of the youngest, most 13C-enriched components of downwelled DOC, possibly identifying these as characteristics of the more bioavailable fractions of deep-ocean dissolved organic matter. They also suggest that microbial oxidation during low-temperature hydrothermal circulation could be an important sink for aged marine dissolved organic matter.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Proteins.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun; Kunieda, Tadashi; Rogalski, Jason; Foster, Leonard J; Ellis, Brian E; Haughn, George W

    2017-02-01

    Plant cell wall proteins are important regulators of cell wall architecture and function. However, because cell wall proteins are difficult to extract and analyze, they are generally poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of proteins integral to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat mucilage, a specialized layer of the extracellular matrix composed of plant cell wall carbohydrates that is used as a model for cell wall research. The proteins identified in mucilage include those previously identified by genetic analysis, and several mucilage proteins are reduced in mucilage-deficient mutant seeds, suggesting that these proteins are genuinely associated with the mucilage. Arabidopsis mucilage has both nonadherent and adherent layers. Both layers have similar protein profiles except for proteins involved in lipid metabolism, which are present exclusively in the adherent mucilage. The most abundant mucilage proteins include a family of proteins named TESTA ABUNDANT1 (TBA1) to TBA3; a less abundant fourth homolog was named TBA-LIKE (TBAL). TBA and TBAL transcripts and promoter activities were detected in developing seed coats, and their expression requires seed coat differentiation regulators. TBA proteins are secreted to the mucilage pocket during differentiation. Although reverse genetics failed to identify a function for TBAs/TBAL, the TBA promoters are highly expressed and cell type specific and so should be very useful tools for targeting proteins to the seed coat epidermis. Altogether, these results highlight the mucilage proteome as a model for cell walls in general, as it shares similarities with other cell wall proteomes while also containing mucilage-specific features. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. On the other hand, after irrigation the rhizosphere remained markedly dry and it rewetted only after one-two days. We hypothesize that: 1) drying/wetting rates of the rhizosphere are controlled by mucilage exuded by roots; 2) mucilage alters the soil hydraulic conductivity: in particular, wet mucilage increases the soil hydraulic conductivity and dry mucilage makes the soil water repellent; 3) mucilage exudation favors root water uptake in dry soil; and 4) dry mucilage limits water loss from roots to dry soils. We used a root pressure probe to measure the hydraulic conductance of artificial roots sitting in soils. As an artificial root we employed a suction cup with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 45 mm. The root pressure probe gave the hydraulic conductance of the soil-root continuum during pulse experiments in which water was injected into or sucked from the soil. First, we performed experiments with roots in a relatively dry soil with a volumetric water content of 0.03. Then, we repeated the experiment with artificial roots covered with mucilage and then placed into the soil. As a model for mucilage, we collected mucilage from Chia seeds. The water contents (including that of mucilage) in the experiments with and without mucilage were equal. The pressure curves were fitted with a model of root water that includes rhizosphere dynamics. We found that the artificial roots covered with wet mucilage took up water more easily. In a second experimental set-up we measured the outflow of water from the artificial roots into dry soils. We compared two soils: 1) a sandy soil and 2) the same soil wetted with mucilage from Chia seeds and then let dry. The latter soil became water repellent. Due to the water repellency, the outflow of water from

  1. Evaluation of binding property of mucilage from Litsea glutinosa wall

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sunil K.; Kumar, A.; Talukdar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Litsea glitinosa is an evergreen tree of medium size which grows to a height of about 20 to 30 feet. It belongs to family Lauraceae. In India it is found mainly in North Eastern region. The leaves and the mucilage from the bark of plant is utilized in the gum for poultices. Methods: Mucilage of Litsea glutinosa was isolated from powdered bark by continuous hot extraction technique using water and precipitation by absolute alcohol (38% w/w yield). The mucilage was evaluated for binding properties in tablets and granules, using paracetamol as a model drug. The granules were prepared using 4 different concentrations of mucilage (4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) and evaluated for percentage of fines, average particle size, total porosity, compressibility index, and flow properties. The prepared tablets were evaluated for content uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution profiles. Results: The results obtained with the lower concentrations of mucilage, that is, less than 6% were not so encouraging. The tablets prepared by using 10% mucilage of L. glutinosa as binder exhibited more hardness as compared with the starch. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the concentration ranging from 6% to 8% of L. glutinosa mucilage may be considered as better option as a binding agent for the preparation of tablets as compared to the starch (10%). PMID:21589753

  2. Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice.

    PubMed

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi

    2016-05-01

    Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word "loab" in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today's chronic ailments. A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future.

  3. Medicinal plants contain mucilage used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM).

    PubMed

    Ameri, Ahmad; Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Mahdavi Jafari, Jamileh; Ghobadi, Ali; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-04-01

    Conventional therapies using mucilage plants greatly used by practitioners in Iran. The usage of mucilages is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 4000 years. Scientific assessment of these historical documents could be valuable for finding new potential usage in the current medicine. This study assembled an inventory of mucilage plants considered important therapeutic aids for alleviating the ailments in ancient Persian medicine and compared therapeutic applications of ancient times with current findings of medicinal mucilages in the same plant species. A literature search compiled some main traditional manuscripts of Persian medicine, including the book of AlHavi, Canon of Medicine, Zakhireh-iKharazmshahi, Qarabadine-kabir, Tohfat ol Moemenin, and Makhzan-ol-advieh, and select mucilage plants used in treating the mouth and respiratory system disorders. Also, current investigations on related subjects were considered through a search of the Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal plants contains mucilage date back to ancient times. In mentioned medieval Persian books, 20 medicinal plants containing mucilage were identified. Mucilages have been traditionally used via oral or topical routes for a variety of disorders. According to this study, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their mucilaginous, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. A scientific evaluation of these historical documents can give an insight into the ideas of the past and be valuable in finding new data on clinical use of the mucilages that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  4. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation.

  5. Mucilage: More than just a carbon source for microbial life in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Sanaullah, Muhammad; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Dippold, Michaela; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Although increasing evidence supports the prominent role of mucilage in soil-plant water relations, it remains unclear how long mucilage persists in soil of varying water content. The aim of this study was to measure: 1) the effects of soil moisture (optimum and drought stress) on mucilage decomposition, 2) the effect of mucilage on soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition, and 3) the effect of mucilage on enzymes activities. Two doses of maize root mucilage (i.e. C4 plant-derived) were added to a C3 soil at optimum moisture (80% WHC) and drought (30% WHC) conditions. Under optimum conditions, CO2 efflux increased with mucilage addition. In contrast, there was no effect of mucilage addition on CO2 efflux under drought. After 15 days, most of the mucilage was decomposed under optimum water supply (98% and 88% for low and high dose, respectively). Drought significantly suppressed mucilage mineralization (77% and 30%). Incorporation of mucilage C into microbial biomass was not affected by drought, suggesting its unhindered bioavailability. High-dose mucilage amendment increased microbial biomass for both optimum and drought conditions compared to the treatment without mucilage. Despite this increase in microbial biomass, negative priming effect on native soil organic matter was induced by the addition of mucilage. Under drought, mucilage addition always increased enzyme activities and frequently also affinity relative to the non-amended soil, and thus compensated for the loss in enzyme activity or affinity induced by drought. This study suggests that, besides its function as a C source for microorganisms, mucilage provides biofilm-like properties that maintain microbial and exoenzymatic activities, even under drought. The low decomposition rate of mucilage in drying soils, proves that mucilage can remain functional for long time, favoring the capture of water and nutrients, especially when water is scarce.

  6. Characterisation of mucilages extracted from seven Italian cultivars of flax.

    PubMed

    Kaewmanee, Thammarat; Bagnasco, Lucia; Benjakul, Soottawat; Lanteri, Silvia; Morelli, Carlo F; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosulich, M Elisabetta

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition, physicochemical, functional and sensory properties of mucilages, extracted from seven Italian flax cultivars, were evaluated. All samples were composed of neutral and acidic sugars, with a low protein content. From the NMR data, a rhamnogalacturonan backbone could be inferred as a common structural feature for all the mucilages, with some variations depending on the cultivar. All the suspensions showed a poor stability, which was consistent with a low zeta potential absolute value. The viscosity seemed to be positively correlated with the neutral sugars and negatively with the amount of proteins. Functional properties were dependent on the cultivar. The sensory analysis showed that most mucilages are tasteless. All these outcomes could support the use of flaxseed mucilages for industrial applications. In particular, Solal and Festival cultivars could be useful as thickeners, due to their high viscosity, while Natural, Valoal and Kaolin as emulsifiers for their good surface-active properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation and characterization of mucilage polysaccharide for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Archana, G; Sabina, K; Babuskin, S; Radhakrishnan, K; Fayidh, Mohammed A; Babu, P Azhagu Saravana; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2013-10-15

    In the present investigation, the polysaccharide/mucilage from waste of Abelmoscus esculentus by modification in hot extraction using two different solvents (Acetone, Methanol) were extracted, characterized and further compared with seaweed polysaccharide for their potential applications. The percentage yield, emulsifying capacity and swelling index of this mucilage were determined. The macro algae and okra waste, gave high % yield (22.2% and 8.6% respectively) and good emulsifying capacity (EC%=52.38% and 54.76% respectively) with acetone, compared to methanol (11.3% and 0.28%; EC%=50%) (PH=7) while swelling index was greater with methanol than acetone extracts respectively. The infrared (I.R.) spectrum of the samples was recorded to investigate the chemical structure of mucilage. Thermal analysis of the mucilage was done with TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) which showed both okra and algal polysaccharide were thermostable hydrogels.

  8. Use of Natural Gums and Mucilages as Pharmaceutical Excipients.

    PubMed

    Hamman, Hannlie; Steenekamp, Jan; Hamman, Josias

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide rich gums and mucilages are produced by different natural sources such as plants, animals and microbial organisms to fulfil structural and physiological functions. Their diverse structural compositions with a broad range of physicochemical properties make them useful for inclusion in dosage forms for different purposes such as to improve manufacturing processes and/or to facilitate drug delivery. A number of natural gums and mucilages have been investigated for inclusion in pharmaceutical formulations for a variety of reasons. The search for new excipients continues to be an active topic in dosage form design and drug delivery research. The aim of this review article is to give an overview of the chemical nature of natural gums and mucilages and to discuss their applications in the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Special emphasis will be placed on the use of gums and mucilages in novel drug delivery systems, such as modified release dosage forms and delivery systems that target specific sites of delivery.

  9. Natural polymers, gums and mucilages as excipients in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shobhit; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Use of natural polymers, gums and mucilages in drug delivery systems has been weighed down by the synthetic materials. Natural based excipients offered advantages such as non-toxicity, less cost and abundantly availablity. Aqueous solubility of natural excipients plays an important role in their selection for designing immediate, controlled or sustained release formulations. This review article provide an overview of natural gum, polymers and mucilages as excipients in dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.

  10. Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Carminati, A.; Kroener, E.; Holz, M.; Zarebanadkouki, M.

    2014-12-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. We hypothesise that the increased water content in the rhizosphere was caused by mucilage exuded by roots. It is probably that the higher water content in the rhizosphere results in higher hydraulic conductivity of the root-soil interface. In this case, mucilage exudation would favour the uptake of water in dry soils. To test this hypothesis, we covered a suction cup, referred to as an artificial root, with mucilage. We placed it in soil with a water content of 0.03 cm3 cm-3, and used the root pressure probe technique to measure the hydraulic conductivity of the root-soil continuum. The results were compared with measurements with roots not covered with mucilage. The root pressure relaxation curves were fitted with a model of root water uptake including rhizosphere dynamics. The results demonstrated that when mucilage is added to the root surface, it keeps the soil near the roots wet and hydraulically well conductive, facilitating the water flow from dry soils towards the root surface. Mucilage exudation seems to be an optimal plant trait that favours the capture of water when water is scarce.

  11. Mechanism of biological liquid superlubricity of Brasenia schreberi mucilage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengxiao; Liu, Yuhong; Yang, Ye; Chen, Zhe; Li, Jinjin; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-04-08

    In the present work, an excellent biological lubricant extracted from an aquatic plant called Brasenia schreberi (B.s) is reported. With a rotary cylinder-on-ring tribometer, the lubrication properties of the B.s mucilage between quartz glass surfaces have been investigated under different rotation velocity, and an ultralow friction coefficient between 0.004 and 0.006 is obtained. It is observed that the ultralow friction coefficient is independent of the rotation speed, when it is less than 0.1 m/s. SEM images indicate that the mucilage surrounding B.s is composed of polysaccharide gels with a layered structure, which are called nanosheets in the following work. Moreover, it can be deduced that the liquid superlubricity is closely related to the B.s mucilage layer absorbed on the quartz glass surface by hydrogen bonds and the superlubricity behavior only occurs when the adsorption layer stably forms between the quartz glass surface and the B.s mucilage. It is also found that superlubricity is closely dependent upon the sheet structure of the B.s mucilage and water molecules in the mucilage. According to these results, a layered nanosheets lubrication mechanism has been revealed, i.e., the ultralow friction coefficient is due to the adsorption layer of polysaccharide on the quartz glass surface and the hydration layers of water molecules bonded on the polysaccharide nanosheets between the sliding surfaces.

  12. Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Liu, Guangzheng; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-01-01

    The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand burial. In a greenhouse experiment, two types of Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes (intact and demucilaged) were exposed to different combinations of burial depth (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mm) and irrigation regimes (low, medium and high, which simulated the precipitation amount and frequency in May, June and July in the natural habitat, respectively). Seedling emergence increased with increasing irrigation. It was highest at 5 mm sand burial depth and ceased at burial depths greater than 20 mm in all irrigation regimes. Mucilage significantly enhanced seedling emergence at 0, 5 and 10 mm burial depths in low irrigation, at 0 and 5 mm burial depths in medium irrigation and at 0 and 10 mm burial depths in high irrigation. Seed mucilage also reduced seedling mortality at the shallow sand burial depths. Moreover, mucilage significantly affected seedling emergence time and quiescence and dormancy percentages. Our findings suggest that seed mucilage plays an ecologically important role in successful seedling establishment of A. sphaerocephala by improving seedling emergence and reducing seedling mortality in stressful habitats of the sandy desert environment. PMID:22511952

  13. “Sticky invasion” – the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata L. seed mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-01-01

    The mucilage envelope of seeds has various functions including the provision of different ways for the dispersal of diaspores. Chemical composition and water content of the mucilage yield particular adhesive and frictional properties in the envelope that also influence the dispersal of seeds. To determine the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata seed mucilage we studied (1) composition, (2) desiccation, (3) adhesion, and (4) friction properties of the mucilage under different hydration conditions. We revealed the presence of cellulose fibrils in the mucilage, which are responsible for a continuous and even distribution of the mucilaginous layer on the seed surface. The measured values of adhesive and frictional properties differed significantly in comparison to the previously studied pectic mucilage of Linum usitatissimum. Also, the water loss from the cellulose mucilage was more rapid. The obtained different values can result from the presence of cellulose fibrils and their interaction with pectins in the mucilage. Because of this feature the mucilage of P. lanceolata may represent a more regularly ordered and stabile system than the pectic mucilage of flax, which lacks cellulose. In spite of the fact that P. lanceolata mucilage revealed different adhesive and frictional properties than the pectic mucilage, it still demonstrates an effective system promoting zoochoric seed dispersal. Cellulose may additionally prevent the mucilage against loss from the seed surface. PMID:28144540

  14. High-pressure systems for gas-phase free continuous incubation of enriched marine microbial communities performing anaerobic oxidation of methane.

    PubMed

    Deusner, Christian; Meyer, Volker; Ferdelman, Timothy G

    2010-02-15

    Novel high-pressure biotechnical systems that were developed and applied for the study of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) are described. The systems, referred to as high-pressure continuous incubation system (HP-CI system) and high-pressure manifold-incubation system (HP-MI system), allow for batch, fed-batch, and continuous gas-phase free incubation at high concentrations of dissolved methane and were designed to meet specific demands for studying environmental regulation and kinetics as well as for enriching microbial biomass in long-term incubation. Anoxic medium is saturated with methane in the first technical stage, and the saturated medium is supplied for biomass incubation in the second stage. Methane can be provided in continuous operation up to 20 MPa and the incubation systems can be operated during constant supply of gas-enriched medium at a hydrostatic pressure up to 45 MPa. To validate the suitability of the high-pressure systems, we present data from continuous and fed-batch incubation of highly active samples prepared from microbial mats from the Black Sea collected at a water depth of 213 m. In continuous operation in the HP-CI system initial methane-dependent sulfide production was enhanced 10- to 15-fold after increasing the methane partial pressure from near ambient pressure of 0.2 to 10.0 MPa at a hydrostatic pressure of 16.0 MPa in the incubation stage. With a hydraulic retention time of 14 h a stable effluent sulfide concentration was reached within less than 3 days and a continuing increase of the volumetric AOM rate from 1.2 to 1.7 mmol L(-1) day(-1) was observed over 14 days. In fed-batch incubation the AOM rate increased from 1.5 to 2.7 and 3.6 mmol L(-1) day(-1) when the concentration of aqueous methane was stepwise increased from 5 to 15 mmol L(-1) and 45 mmol L(-1). A methane partial pressure of 6 MPa and a hydrostatic pressure of 12 MPa in manifold fed-batch incubation in the HP-MI system yielded a sixfold increase in the

  15. Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future. PMID:27840507

  16. Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future. PMID:27516674

  17. Mucilage impact on gorgonians in the Tyrrhenian sea.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, S; Virno Lamberti, C; Sonni, C; Pellegrini, D

    2005-12-15

    The mucilage phenomenon has affected the Tuscan Archipelago since its first appearance (1991) in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean Sea) [Innamorati M, Raddi E, Buzzichelli A, Melley S, Demoulin M. Le mucillaggini nel Mar Tirreno. Biol Mar Suppl Notiz 1992;1:23-26; Sartoni G, Sonni C. Tribonema marinum J. Feldmann e Acinetospora crinita (Carmichael) Sauvageau nelle formazioni mucillaginose bentoniche osservate sulle coste toscane nell'estate 1991. Inf Bot Ital 1991;23:23-30; Sartoni G, Cinelli F, Boddi S. Ruolo di Tribonema marinum J. Feldmann ed Acinetospora crinita (Carmichael) Sauvageau negli aggregati mucillaginosi bentonici delle coste toscane. Biol Mar Suppl Notiz 1993;1:31-34]. Seasonally, these mucous aggregates become very common in the benthic domain. The gorgonians are the most exposed organisms because they provide the best support for mucilage growth; indeed, their long branches positioned in orthogonally with respect to the current so as to capture plankton, also trap the filamentous mucilage present in the water. A 3-year monitoring programme at Capo Calvo (Island of Elba) was carried out in order to study the appearance of the mucilage phenomenon and its impact on three species of gorgonians (Eunicella cavolinii, Eunicella singularis, and Paramuricea clavata). The composition of mucilage and the gorgonian recovery capacity, when damaged, were investigated. During the first year of study (1999), no relevant interactions between gorgonians and mucilages were recorded. Instead, massive presence of mucilages causing different types of damage to the different gorgonian species investigated was recorded during the second (2000) and third year (2001). The type and the extent of the impact of mucilages also depend on the season. Three species of algae (Nematochrysopsis marina, Chrysonephos lewisii and Acinetospora crinita) constitute the principal components of the mucilaginous aggregates. In general, the first two species occur during the spring season

  18. Potential of plant mucilages in pharmaceuticals and therapy.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Jyoti; Nair, Anroop; Kumria, Rachna

    2013-04-01

    Mucilages, and in particular plant mucilages, have gained more attention over the last few decades due to their reputable medicinal properties. Some publications have appeared in reputable Scientific Journals that have made appreciable contributions to the discovery of the functions and utilizations of such naturally occurring products. Therapeutic value of mucilages has been extended to wound healing, diabetes, immunostimulation, cancer, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, stomachic, and antioxidant properties. Based on their sustaining capacities as well as binding and gelling properties, mucilages have been proposed to be one of the most useful materials to modulate drug delivery. Chemical analysis reveals that generally these contain monosachrides along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although physiological properties of various plant mucialges have been described, it still remains uncertain as to which of the component(s) is responsible for these physiological properties. Further research needs to be done to unravel the myth surrounding the biological activities and the functional properties of them. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the applications of plant mucilages as therapeutic agent and pharmaceutical additives.

  19. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    PubMed

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on Ocimum gratissimum seed mucilage: evaluation of binding properties.

    PubMed

    Anroop, B; Ghosh, B; Parcha, V; Vasanti, S

    2006-11-15

    Mucilage extracted from Ocimum gratissimum seeds, inertness and safety parameters established by a previous study was subjected to preformulation trial to assess its suitability as a pharmaceutical binder. Properties of the granules prepared with calcium carbonate using different concentrations of ocimum and compared with acacia (5%, w/w), as standard. Ocimum at 2.3% (w/w) level was found to be comparable with 5% (w/w) of acacia. Effect on drug release studied with paracetamol indicated that ocimum mucilage could be an alternative to acacia.

  1. Pore-scale distribution of mucilage affecting water repellency in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, Pascal; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Hedwig, Clemens; Holz, Maire; Ahmed, Mutez; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere are altered by plants, fungi and microorganism. Plant roots release different compounds into the soil. One of these substances is mucilage, a gel which turns water repellent upon drying. We introduce a conceptual model of mucilage deposition during soil drying and its impact on the soil wettability. As the soil dries, water menisci recede and draw mucilage towards the contact region between particles where it is deposited. At high mucilage content, mucilage deposits expand into the open pore space and finally block water infiltration when a critical fraction of the pore space is blocked. To test this hypothesis, we mixed mucilage and particles of different grain size, we let them dry and measured the contact angle using the sessile drop method. Mucilage deposition was visualized by light microscopy imaging. Contact angle measurements showed a distinct threshold-like behavior with a sudden increase in apparent contact angle at high mucilage concentrations. Particle roughness induced a more uniform distribution of mucilage. The observed threshold corresponds to the concentration when mucilage deposition occupies a critical fraction of the pore space, as visualized with the microscope images. In conclusion, water repellency is critically affected by the distribution of mucilage on the pore-scale. This microscopic heterogeneity has to be taken into account in the description of macroscopic processes, like water infiltration or rewetting of water repellent soil.

  2. MUCILAGE-RELATED10 Produces Galactoglucomannan That Maintains Pectin and Cellulose Architecture in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Berger, Adeline; Yang, Bo; Ebert, Berit; Scheller, Henrik V.; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn; Günl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Plants invest a lot of their resources into the production of an extracellular matrix built of polysaccharides. While the composition of the cell wall is relatively well characterized, the functions of the individual polymers and the enzymes that catalyze their biosynthesis remain poorly understood. We exploited the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat epidermis (SCE) to study cell wall synthesis. SCE cells produce mucilage, a specialized secondary wall that is rich in pectin, at a precise stage of development. A coexpression search for MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes identified MUCI10 as a key determinant of mucilage properties. MUCI10 is closely related to a fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) enzyme that has in vitro galactomannan α-1,6-galactosyltransferase activity. Our detailed analysis of the muci10 mutants demonstrates that mucilage contains highly branched galactoglucomannan (GGM) rather than unbranched glucomannan. MUCI10 likely decorates glucomannan, synthesized by CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2, with galactose residues in vivo. The degree of galactosylation is essential for the synthesis of the GGM backbone, the structure of cellulose, mucilage density, as well as the adherence of pectin. We propose that GGM scaffolds control mucilage architecture along with cellulosic rays and show that Arabidopsis SCE cells represent an excellent model in which to study the synthesis and function of GGM. Arabidopsis natural varieties with defects similar to muci10 mutants may reveal additional genes involved in GGM synthesis. Since GGM is the most abundant hemicellulose in the secondary walls of gymnosperms, understanding its biosynthesis may facilitate improvements in the production of valuable commodities from softwoods. PMID:26220953

  3. Mucilage: The hydraulic bridge between roots and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, Andrea; Zarabanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez A. A.

    2014-05-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the soil near the roots, the so called rhizosphere. Ultimately, as the soil hydraulic conductivity drops and the soil cannot sustain the transpiration demand, roots shrink and lose contact to the soil. Both, water depletion in the rhizosphere and formation of air-filled gaps at the root-soil interface potentially limit the availability of water to plants. How can plants overcome these potential hydraulic barriers at the root-soil interface? One strategy consists in the exudation of mucilage from the root tips. Mucilage is a polymeric gel that is capable of holding large volumes of water. When exuded into the soil, mucilage remains in the vicinity of roots thanks to its relatively high viscosity and reduced surface tension. As mucilage is mainly made of water, its slow penetration into the soil results in higher water content and hydraulic conductivity of the rhizosphere compared to the adjacent bulk soil. Recent measurements with a root pressure probe technique demonstrated that mucilage exudation facilitates the water flow in dry soils. Additionally, mucilage increases the adhesion of soil particles to the roots, reducing the formation of gaps at the root-soil interface. Based on these observations, it is very tempting to conclude that mucilage acts as an optimal hydraulic bridge across the root-soil interface. However, as mucilage dries and ages, it turns hydrophobic. Consequently, the rhizosphere becomes water repellent and its rewetting time increases. Our former experiments showed that after irrigation subsequent to a drying cycle, the rhizosphere of lupines remained markedly dry for 2 days. Recently, we demonstrated that the rhizosphere water repellency is concomitant with a decrease in local water uptake of 4-8 times. We conclude that after drying and rewetting, the rhzisophere temporarily limits root water uptake. In summary, the hydraulic properties of the root

  4. Extensive Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage Structure

    PubMed Central

    Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Zimmermann, Eva; Schmidt, Maximilian Heinrich-Wilhelm; Günl, Markus; Fu, Lanbao; North, Helen M.; Usadel, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Hydrated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds are coated by a gelatinous layer called mucilage, which is mainly composed of cell wall polysaccharides. Since mucilage is rich in pectin, its architecture can be visualized with the ruthenium red (RR) dye. We screened the seeds of around 280 Arabidopsis natural accessions for variation in mucilage structure, and identified a large number of novel variants that differed from the Col-0 wild-type. Most of the accessions released smaller RR-stained capsules compared to the Col-0 reference. By biochemically characterizing the phenotypes of 25 of these accessions in greater detail, we discovered that distinct changes in polysaccharide structure resulted in gelatinous coatings with a deceptively similar appearance. Monosaccharide composition analysis of total mucilage extracts revealed a remarkable variation (from 50 to 200% of Col-0 levels) in the content of galactose and mannose, which are important subunits of heteromannan. In addition, most of the natural variants had altered Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4B staining of cellulose and significantly reduced birefringence of crystalline structures. This indicates that the production or organization of cellulose may be affected by the presence of different amounts of hemicellulose. Although, the accessions described in this study were primarily collected from Western Europe, they form five different phenotypic classes based on the combined results of our experiments. This suggests that polymorphisms at multiple loci are likely responsible for the observed mucilage structure. The transcription of MUCILAGE-RELATED10 (MUCI10), which encodes a key enzyme for galactoglucomannan synthesis, was severely reduced in multiple variants that phenocopied the muci10-1 insertion mutant. Although, we could not pinpoint any causal polymorphisms in this gene, constitutive expression of fluorescently-tagged MUCI10 proteins complemented the mucilage defects of a muci10-like accession. This leads us to

  5. Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, Eva; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is controlled by the properties of the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the rhizosphere. In particular, the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere are altered by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by the roots. In this paper we present experimental results and a conceptual model of water flow in unsaturated soils mixed with mucilage. A central hypothesis of the model is that the different drying/wetting rate of mucilage compared to the bulk soil results in nonequilibrium relations between water content and water potential in the rhizosphere. We coupled this nonequilibrium relation with the Richards equation and obtained a constitutive equation for water flow in soil and mucilage. To test the model assumptions, we measured the water retention curve and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil mixed with mucilage from chia seeds. Additionally, we used neutron radiography to image water content in a layer of soil mixed with mucilage during drying and wetting cycles. The radiographs demonstrated the occurrence of nonequilibrium water dynamics in the soil-mucilage mixture. The experiments were simulated by numerically solving the nonequilibrium model. Our study provides conceptual and experimental evidences that mucilage has a strong impact on soil water dynamics. During drying, mucilage maintains a greater soil water content for an extended time, while during irrigation it delays the soil rewetting. We postulate that mucilage exudation by roots attenuates plant water stress by modulating water content dynamics in the rhizosphere.

  6. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  7. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  8. Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw cladode mucilage: Physico-chemical, rheological and functional behavior.

    PubMed

    Kalegowda, Pavithra; Chauhan, Attar Singh; Nanjaraj Urs, Shashirekha Mysore

    2017-02-10

    The yield of mucilage extracted from cladodes of Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw in aqueous medium was 6.2%. The neutral sugar comprised of arabinose (38.80%), galactose (33.00%), rhamnose (15.70%), xylose (5.10%), and glucose (5.10%). The mucilage showed pseudo plastic behavior with good swelling index (20%), water holding capacity (g water/g dry sample; 4±0.10) and micrometric properties. In addition, mucilage presented intrinsic viscosity of 3.7 dL/g with average molecular weight of 1.9×10(3)kDa. The FTIR and NMR spectra of extracted mucilage showed characteristic polysaccharide nature. Further, the mucilage exhibited anti-obesity property through lipase inhibition. These findings could highlight that isolated mucilage could be exploited as an additive in food and pharmaceutical sector.

  9. A mathematical model of mucilage expansion in myxospermous seeds of Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse).

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenni; Jeng, Dong-Sheng; Toorop, Peter E; Squire, Geoffrey R; Iannetta, Pietro P M

    2012-02-01

    Myxospermy is a term which describes the ability of a seed to produce mucilage upon hydration. The mucilage is mainly comprised of plant cell-wall polysaccharides which are deposited during development of those cells that comprise the seed coat (testa). Myxospermy is more prevalent among those plant species adapted to surviving on arid sandy soils, though its significance in determining the ecological fitness of plants is unclear. In this study, the first mathematical model of myxospermous seed mucilage expansion is presented based on seeds of the model plant species Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse). The structures underpinning the expansion process were described using light, electron and time-lapse confocal micrographs. The data and experimental observations were used to create a mathematical model of myxospermous seed mucilage expansion based on diffusion equations. The mucilage expansion was rapid, taking 5 s, during which the cell mucilage volume increased 75-fold. At the level of the seed, this represented a 6-fold increase in seed volume and a 2·5-fold increase in seed surface area. These increases were shown to be a function of water uptake (16 g water g(-1) mucilage dry weight), and relaxation of the polymers which comprised the mucilage. In addition, the osmotic pressure of the seed mucilage, estimated by assessing the mucilage expansion of seeds hydrated in solutions of varying osmotic pressure, was -0·54 MPa (equivalent to 0·11 M or 6·6 g L(-1) NaCl). The results showed that the mucilage may be characterized as hydrogel and seed-mucilage expansion may be modelled using the diffusion equation described. The potential of myxospermous seeds to affect the ecological services provided by soil is discussed briefly.

  10. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Viruses and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, R; Armeni, M; Corinaldesi, C; Mei, M L

    2003-03-01

    This short review summarises the present knowledge on pollutant impacts on marine viruses, virus-host systems and their potential ecological implications. Excess nutrients from sewage and river effluents are a primary cause of marine eutrophication and mucilage formation, often related to the development of large viral assemblages. At the same time, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides alter ecosystem functioning and can determinate changes in the virus-host interactions, thus increasing the potential of viral infection. All these pollutants might have synergistic effects on the virus-host system and are able to induce prophage, thus increasing the impact of viruses on marine ecosystems.

  12. Mimosa pudica seed mucilage: isolation; characterization and evaluation as tablet disintegrant and binder.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Munish; Kumar, Ashok; Yadav, Parvinder; Singh, Kuldeep

    2013-06-01

    In the present study Mimosa pudica seed mucilage was isolated, characterized and evaluated as tablet binder and disintegrant. Several properties of mucilage like high swelling index and gelling nature prompted us to explore its applications as disintegrating and binding agent. Disintegrant properties were evaluated by formulating directly compressed hydrochlorothiazide tablets containing 1%-10% (w/w) of seed mucilage as disintegrant and compared with the standard disintegrants. The disintegration time of mucilage containing tablets was found to be in the order of 3%>1%>5%>7.5%>10%. On comparative evaluation with standard disintegrants, it was observed that the order of disintegration of tablets was Ac-Di-Sol<mucilage (3%, w/w)mucilage were evaluated by formulating the paracetamol tablets using the Mimosa mucilage at 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w) concentration as the binder and compared with tablets prepared using PVP-K25 (1.7%, w/w) and acacia (6.8%, w/w) as the binder. Mimosa mucilage at 10% (w/w) concentration provided tablets with adequate hardness and friability. In conclusion, M. pudica seed mucilage is a potential tablet disintegrant and binder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative studies of mucilage cells in different organs in some species of Malva, Althaea and Alcea.

    PubMed

    Pakravan, M; Abedinzadeh, H; Safaeepur, J

    2007-08-01

    Distribution of Mucilage Cells (MC) in leaves and petals of two species of Malva L. : Malva neglecta Wallr and M. nicaeensis All, one species of Altheae L.: A. officinalis L. and one species of Alcea L: A. angulata (Freyn and Sint.) Freyn and Sint. ex Iljin, have studied. Except ofA. angulata that mucilage cells observed both in epidermis and mesophyll of leaves, in the others mucilage cells confined to epidermis cells. All of species have mucilage cells in the petals. The area of the mucilaginous elements in the leaves and petals of species determined planimetrically on definite cross-sections was studied as a comparative element to the mucilage content determined by extracting the raw mucilage by Hot Extraction Method (HEM) and then by comparing the dry weight, comparison between species was done. A correlation between the greater area of the mucilaginous elements and the mucilage content measured by methods mentioned was shown, basing on different microscopic examination of cross-sections of the organs fixed and stained with ruthenium red. The results were shown that mucilage content in the leaves of Malva neglecta was more than the others and mucilage content in petals of Malva neglecta was more than the others.

  14. A laboratory-incubated redox oscillation experiment to investigate Hg fluxes from highly contaminated coastal marine sediments (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Emili, A; Carrasco, L; Acquavita, A; Covelli, S

    2014-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) mobility at the sediment-water interface was investigated during a laboratory incubation experiment conducted with highly contaminated sediments (13 μg g(-1)) of the Gulf of Trieste. Undisturbed sediment was collected in front of the Isonzo River mouth, which inflows Hg-rich suspended material originating from the Idrija (NW Slovenia) mining district. Since hypoxic and anoxic conditions at the bottom are frequently observed and can influence the Hg biogeochemical behavior, a redox oscillation was simulated in the laboratory, at in situ temperature, using a dark flux chamber. Temporal variations of several parameters were monitored simultaneously: dissolved Hg (DHg) and methylmercury (MeHg), O2, NH4 (+), NO3 (-) + NO2 (-), PO4 (3-), H2S, dissolved Mn(2+), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC). Under anoxic conditions, both Hg (665 ng m(2) day(-1)) and MeHg (550 ng m(2) day(-1)) fluxed from sediments into the water column, whereas re-oxygenation caused concentrations of MeHg and Hg to rapidly drop, probably due to re-adsorption onto Fe/Mn-oxyhydroxides and enhanced demethylation processes. Hence, during anoxic events, sediments of the Gulf of Trieste may be considered as an important source of DHg species for the water column. On the contrary, re-oxygenation of the bottom compartment mitigates Hg and MeHg release from the sediment, thus acting as a natural "defence" from possible interaction between the metal and the aquatic organisms.

  15. Optimization of taro mucilage and fat levels in sliced breads.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Carina Lumie Pereira; Andrade, Luan Alberto; Pereira, Joelma

    2015-09-01

    Bread is one of the most commonly consumed foods, and much ongoing research is aimed at meeting the demand for higher quality bread products in terms of greater volume and softness with characteristic flavor, aroma and color. The goal of the present study was to optimize the amounts of lyophilized taro mucilage and hydrogenated vegetable fat added to sliced bread formulations to improve the physical characteristics of the bread while reducing lipid levels and maintaining good sensorial quality. For the analysis, a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used for the two factors, resulting in 11 total experiments. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses were performed. Breads containing taro mucilage were soft and exhibited good sensorial quality. Optimal amounts of the two factors studied were determined using response surface methodology to produce breads with greater specific volume, higher bread-making quality, and lower fat levels than current formulations. The optimal levels of lyophilized taro mucilage and hydrogenated vegetable fat in the sliced bread formulation were 0.73 g 100 g(-1) and 1.58 g 100 g(-1), respectively.

  16. Polysaccharide hydrolases are released with mucilages after water hydration of flax seeds.

    PubMed

    Paynel, Florence; Pavlov, Andrey; Ancelin, Gaël; Rihouey, Christophe; Picton, Luc; Lebrun, Laurent; Morvan, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Water imbibition of flax seed induces secretion of mucilages whose physico-chemical properties vary according to genotype and environment. The viscosity and composition of mucilage have ecological implications and also affect the utility of the crop. Several types of enzymes are secreted along with the mucilage. Our objective was to study these enzymes in the context of the composition and physical properties of the mucilage. The kinetics of production by flax seeds (variety Eden) of i) mucilages, ii) glycosidases and iii) endo-hydrolases were followed over 48 h under sterile conditions. The impact of enzymatic activities on mucilage was investigated by SEC-MALLS, viscosimetry and sugar composition. The mucilages consisted mainly of rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I, 52-62%) and arabinoxylan (AX, 27-36%). RG-I related enzyme activities (rhamnogalacturonase and β,d-galactosidase) were quantified, together with AX related activity of α,l-arabinofuranosidase, β,d-xylosidase and β-xylanase. Maximal xylanase activity was reached after 4 h seed-hydration, when the minimal viscosity of the polysaccharides was observed, and the AX/RG-I ratio was the lowest. At that time, poly and oligosaccharides mainly contained pectic sugars. From 24 to 48 h water-hydration, when mucilages more tightly associated with cell walls were released, the glycosidase activities per g mucilage became maximal; the percentage, average molar-mass and viscosity of the polysaccharides decreased. Glucose, xylose and arabinose were the main sugars in the oligomer fraction. Our data confirmed the presence of β-d xylosidase and α-l-arabinofuranosidase activities and provided evidence for significant pectinase activities in flax mucilages. They also indicate an impact of enzymatic activities on the physicochemical properties of mucilages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification and Characterization of Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Proteins1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun; Kunieda, Tadashi; Rogalski, Jason; Foster, Leonard J.; Ellis, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    Plant cell wall proteins are important regulators of cell wall architecture and function. However, because cell wall proteins are difficult to extract and analyze, they are generally poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of proteins integral to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat mucilage, a specialized layer of the extracellular matrix composed of plant cell wall carbohydrates that is used as a model for cell wall research. The proteins identified in mucilage include those previously identified by genetic analysis, and several mucilage proteins are reduced in mucilage-deficient mutant seeds, suggesting that these proteins are genuinely associated with the mucilage. Arabidopsis mucilage has both nonadherent and adherent layers. Both layers have similar protein profiles except for proteins involved in lipid metabolism, which are present exclusively in the adherent mucilage. The most abundant mucilage proteins include a family of proteins named TESTA ABUNDANT1 (TBA1) to TBA3; a less abundant fourth homolog was named TBA-LIKE (TBAL). TBA and TBAL transcripts and promoter activities were detected in developing seed coats, and their expression requires seed coat differentiation regulators. TBA proteins are secreted to the mucilage pocket during differentiation. Although reverse genetics failed to identify a function for TBAs/TBAL, the TBA promoters are highly expressed and cell type specific and so should be very useful tools for targeting proteins to the seed coat epidermis. Altogether, these results highlight the mucilage proteome as a model for cell walls in general, as it shares similarities with other cell wall proteomes while also containing mucilage-specific features. PMID:28003327

  18. Mucilage processing and secretion in the green alga closterium. I. Cytology and biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Domozych, C.R.; Plante, K.; Blais, P.; Paliulis, L.; Domozych, D.S. )

    1993-10-01

    Placoderm desmids (Conjugales, Chlorophyta) such as Closterium exhibit a gliding locomotory behavior. This results from the forceful extrusion of an acidic polysaccharide from one pole of the cell causing the cell to glide in the opposite direction. A biochemical and cytological analysis of gliding behavior was performed. The mucilage is a high molecular weight polysaccharide rich in glucuronic acid and fucose. Under normal growth conditions, 3 [mu]g of mucilage is produced per cell in 30 days. Mucilage production increased 3-4 fold in cells challenged with low phosphate or nitrate conditions. A polyclonal antibody was raised against the mucilage and used in immunofluorescence studies. These results show that upon contact with another object Closterium aligns itself parallel to that object by a [open quotes]jack-knife[close quotes] motion. Subsequently, large amounts of mucilage are released to form elongate tubes enmeshing the cell with that object. In post-cytokinetic phases of the cell cycle, mucilage is extruded only through the pole of the developing semi-cell. Chlorotetracyclene-labeling of mucilage-secreting cells show a correlation between calcium-rich loci on the cell surface and sites of mucilage release. 20 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable.

  20. Addition of chia seed mucilage for reduction of fat content in bread and cakes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes

    2017-07-15

    In this study, breads and chocolate cakes were prepared with different levels of chia mucilage dried at 50°C or lyophilized as fat, resulting in healthier products. Results indicated that breads and chocolate cakes made with chia mucilage can replace up to 50% of fat without affecting the technological and physical characteristics. The replacement of 75% of fat, for both types of mucilage, had a significant reduction in fat content of 56.6% in breads and 51.6% in cakes, producing a slight decrease in the technological characteristics of the products. Sensorial parameters showed good acceptability, with greater purchase intent for both products when added with chia mucilage dried at 50°C. Therefore, chia mucilage proved to be a new alternative for replacing fat in food products, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  2. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated.

  3. Rural Incubator Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.

    This profile summarizes the responses of 20 managers of rural business incubators, reporting on their operations, entry and exit policies, facility promotion, service arrangements and economic development outcomes. Incubators assist small businesses in the early stages of growth by providing them with rental space, shared services, management and…

  4. The Transcriptional Regulator LEUNIG_HOMOLOG Regulates Mucilage Release from the Arabidopsis Testa1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Murray; Tehseen, Muhammad; Doblin, Monika S.; Pettolino, Filomena A.; Wilson, Sarah M.; Bacic, Antony; Golz, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of the mature Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed to water results in the rapid release of pectinaceous mucilage from the outer cells of the testa. Once released, mucilage completely envelops the seed in a gel-like capsule. The physical force required to rupture the outer cell wall of the testa comes from the swelling of the mucilage as it expands rapidly following hydration. In this study, we show that mutations in the transcriptional regulator LEUNIG_HOMOLOG (LUH) cause a mucilage extrusion defect due to altered mucilage swelling. Based on sugar linkage and immunomicroscopic analyses, we show that the structure of luh mucilage is altered, having both an increase in substituted rhamnogalacturonan I and in methyl-esterified homogalacturonan. Also correlated with the structural modification of luh mucilage is a significant decrease in MUCILAGE MODIFIED2 (MUM2; a β-galactosidase) expression in the luh seed coat, raising the possibility that reduced activity of this glycosidase is directly responsible for the luh mucilage defects. Consistent with this is the structural similarity between mum2 and luh mucilage as well as the observation that elevating MUM2 expression in luh mutants completely suppresses the mucilage extrusion defect. Suppression of the luh mutant phenotype was also observed when LEUNIG, a transcriptional corepressor closely related to LUH, was introduced in luh mutants under the control of the LUH promoter. Based on these data, we propose a new model for the regulation of pectin biosynthesis during plant growth and development. PMID:21402796

  5. Endogeneous β-D: -xylosidase and α-L: -arabinofuranosidase activity in flax seed mucilage.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Louise E; Meyer, Anne S

    2010-12-01

    Flax seed mucilage (FM) contains a mixture of highly doubly substituted arabinoxylan as well as rhamnogalacturonan I with unusual side group substitutions. Treatment of FM with a GH11 Bacillus subtilis XynA endo 1,4-β-xylanase (BsX) gave limited formation of reducing ends but when BsX and FM were incubated together on different wheat arabinoxylan substrates and birchwood xylan, significant amounts of xylose were released. Moreover, arabinose was released from both water-extractable and water-unextractable wheat arabinoxylan. Since no xylose or arabinose was released by BsX addition alone on these substrates, nor without FM or BsX addition, the results indicate the presence of endogenous β-D: -xylosidase and α-L: -arabinofuranosidase activities in FM. FM also exhibited activity on both p-nitrophenyl α-L: -arabinofuranoside (pNPA) and p-nitrophenyl β-D: -xylopyranoside (pNPX). Based on K ( M ) values, the FM enzyme activities had a higher affinity for pNPX (K ( M ) 2 mM) than for pNPA (K ( M ) 20 mM).

  6. Highly Branched Xylan Made by IRREGULAR XYLEM14 and MUCILAGE-RELATED21 Links Mucilage to Arabidopsis Seeds1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Günl, Markus; Usadel, Björn

    2015-01-01

    All cells of terrestrial plants are fortified by walls composed of crystalline cellulose microfibrils and a variety of matrix polymers. Xylans are the second most abundant type of polysaccharides on Earth. Previous studies of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) irregular xylem (irx) mutants, with collapsed xylem vessels and dwarfed stature, highlighted the importance of this cell wall component and revealed multiple players required for its synthesis. Nevertheless, xylan elongation and substitution are complex processes that remain poorly understood. Recently, seed coat epidermal cells were shown to provide an excellent system for deciphering hemicellulose production. Using a coexpression and sequence-based strategy, we predicted several MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes that encode glycosyltransferases (GTs) involved in the production of xylan. We now show that MUCI21, a member of an uncharacterized clade of the GT61 family, and IRX14 (GT43 protein) are essential for the synthesis of highly branched xylan in seed coat epidermal cells. Our results reveal that xylan is the most abundant xylose-rich component in Arabidopsis seed mucilage and is required to maintain its architecture. Characterization of muci21 and irx14 single and double mutants indicates that MUCI21 is a Golgi-localized protein that likely facilitates the addition of xylose residues directly to the xylan backbone. These unique branches seem to be necessary for pectin attachment to the seed surface, while the xylan backbone maintains cellulose distribution. Evaluation of muci21 and irx14 alongside mutants that disrupt other wall components suggests that mucilage adherence is maintained by complex interactions between several polymers: cellulose, xylans, pectins, and glycoproteins. PMID:26482889

  7. Formulation and Characterization of Oral Mucoadhesive Chlorhexidine Tablets Using Cordia myxa Mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Aghel, Nasrin; Adelpour, Akram

    2012-01-01

    Background The dilution and rapid elimination of topically applied drugs due to the flushing action of saliva is a major difficulty in the effort to eradicate infections of oral cavity. Utilization a proper delivery system for incorporation of drugs has a major impact on drug delivery and such a system should be formulated for prolonged drug retention in oral cavity. Objectives The aim of the present study was the use of mucilage of Cordia myxa as a mucoadhesive material in production of chlorhexidine buccal tablets and its substitution for synthetic polymers such as HPMC. Materials and Methods The influence of mucilage concentration on the physicochemical responses (hardness, friability, disintegration time, dissolution, swelling, and muco-adhesiveness strength) was studied and swelling of mucilage and HPMC were compared. The evaluated responses included pharmacopoeial characteristics of tablets, the force needed to separate tablets from mucosa, and the amount of water absorbed by tablets. Results In comparison to HPMC, the rise of mucilage concentration in the formulations increased disintegration time, drug dissolution rate, and reduced MDT. Also, compared to 30% HPMC, muco-adhesiveness strength of buccal tablets containing 20% mucilage was significantly higher. Conclusions It can be concluded that the presence of Cordia myxa powdered mucilage may significantly affect the tablet characteristics, and increasing in muco-adhesiveness may be achieved by using 20% w/w mucilage. PMID:24624170

  8. Slippery when sticky: Lubricating properties of thin films of Taxus baccata aril mucilage.

    PubMed

    Røn, Troels; Rishikesan, Sankaranarayanan; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-03-22

    Mucilage is hydrogel produced from succulent plants and microorganisms displaying unique adhesiveness and slipperiness simultaneously. The objective of this study is to establish an understanding on the lubricating mechanisms of the mucilage from Taxus baccata aril as thin, viscous lubricant films. Oscillation and flow rheological studies revealed that T. baccata mucilage is shear-thinning, thixotropic, and weak hydrogel that is highly stretchable under shear stress due to its high density physical crosslinking characteristics. In addition, T. baccata mucilage showed a distinct Weissenberg effect, i.e., increasing normal force with increasing shear rate, and thus it contributes to deplete the lubricant from tribological interfaces. Lubrication studies with a number of tribopairs with varying mechanical properties and surface wettability have shown that the lubricity of T. baccata mucilage is most effectively manifested at soft, hydrophilic, and rolling tribological contacts. Based on tenacious spreading on highly wetting surfaces, slip plane can be formed within mucilage hydrogel network even when the lubricating films cannot completely separate the opposing surfaces. Moreover, highly stretchable characteristics of mucilage under high shear enhance smooth shearing of two opposing surfaces as lubricating film.

  9. PME58 plays a role in pectin distribution during seed coat mucilage extrusion through homogalacturonan modification

    PubMed Central

    Turbant, Amélie; Fournet, Françoise; Lequart, Michelle; Zabijak, Luciane; Pageau, Karine; Bouton, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Pectins are major components of plant primary cell walls. They include homogalacturonans (HGs), which are the most abundant pectin and can be the target of apoplastic enzymes like pectin methylesterases (PMEs) that control their methylesterification level. Several PMEs are expressed in the seed coat of Arabidopsis thaliana, particularly in mucilage secretory cells (MSCs). On the basis of public transcriptomic data, seven PME genes were selected and checked for their seed-specific expression by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Of these, PME58 presented the highest level of expression and was specifically expressed in MSCs at the early stages of seed development. pme58 mutants presented two discrete phenotypes: (i) their adherent mucilage was less stained by ruthenium red when compared to wild-type seeds, but only in the presence of EDTA, a Ca2+ chelator; and (ii) the MSC surface area was decreased. These phenotypes are the consequence of an increase in the degree of HG methylesterification connected to a decrease in PME activity. Analysis of the sugar composition of soluble and adherent mucilage showed that, in the presence of EDTA, sugars of adherent mucilage were more readily extracted in pme58 mutants. Immunolabelling with LM19, an antibody that preferentially recognizes unesterified HGs, also showed that molecular interactions with HGs were modified in the adherent mucilage of pme58 mutants, suggesting a role of PME58 in mucilage structure and organization. In conclusion, PME58 is the first PME identified to play a direct role in seed mucilage structure. PMID:26895630

  10. Evaluation of Mimosa pudica seed mucilage as sustained-release excipient.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuldeep; Kumar, Ashok; Langyan, Naresh; Ahuja, Munish

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the sustained-release properties of Mimosa pudica seed mucilage. Matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium containing different proportions of mucilage and dibasic calcium phosphate as diluent were formulated by wet granulation method. The tablets had uniform physical appearance, average weight, drug content, and adequate hardness. The results of in vitro release conducted using USP type II dissolution rate apparatus, in a dissolution media comprising of 900 mL of 0.1 N HCl for 2 h followed by phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) for 24 h at 37 degrees C and 50 rpm, revealed that as the proportion of mucilage in the matrix was increased there was a corresponding decrease in the release of drug. Further, the matrix tablets were found to release the drug following Higuchi square root release kinetics, with the mechanism of release being diffusion for tablets containing higher proportion of mucilage and a combination of matrix erosion and diffusion for tablets containing smaller proportion of mucilage. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that, as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets. The SEM photomicrographs showed gelling structures in tablets containing higher percentage of mucilage, while both pores and gelling structures were present on the surface of tablets containing smaller proportion of mucilage and commercial formulation. On comparative evaluation, the dissolution profile from formulation containing mucilage to drug in the proportion of 1:40 was found to be similar to the commercial sustained-release formulation of diclofenac.

  11. Microstructure, chemical composition and mucilage exudation of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) nutlets from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Capitani, Marianela I; Ixtaina, Vanesa Y; Nolasco, Susana M; Tomás, Mabel C

    2013-12-01

    The micromorphology and anatomy of nutlets, myxocarpy (mucilage exudation) and mucilage structure of Argentinean chia were described using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proximal composition of nutlets and mucilage was also studied. Chia nutlets are made up of a true seed and a pericarp enclosing the seed; they are small, glabrous, elliptic and apically rounded. The pericarp has cuticle, exocarp, mesocarp and bone cells vertically arranged and endocarp. The myxocarpy was carefully recorded by SEM. After 5 min in contact with water, the cuticle of nutlets is broken and the exocarp cell content gradually surrounds the rest of the nutlet. The proximal composition of chia nutlets was studied; fat is the major component (327 ± 8.0 g kg(-1)) followed by protein (293 ± 4.0 g kg(-1)) and fiber (276 ± 1.0 g kg(-1)). Extractions of chia nutlets with water at room temperature yielded 38 ± 1.0 g kg(-1) (dry basis) of mucilage. The fresh mucilage structure was similar to a network of open pores. The freeze-dried crude mucilage contained more ash, residual fat and protein than commercial guar and locust bean gum. The solubility of 10.0 g L(-1) w/v solution of chia freeze-dried crude mucilage in water increased with temperature, being maximal at 60 °C (870 g kg(-1)). The results obtained show a fast exudation of chia mucilage when nutlets are in contact with water. The freeze-dried crude mucilage hydrates easily in water, even at low temperatures. Chia nutlets have mucilaginous substances, with interesting functional properties from a technological and physiological point of view. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Novel rhamnogalacturonan I and arabinoxylan polysaccharides of flax seed mucilage.

    PubMed

    Naran, Radnaa; Chen, Guibing; Carpita, Nicholas C

    2008-09-01

    The viscous seed mucilage of flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a mixture of rhamnogalacturonan I and arabinoxylan with novel side group substitutions. The rhamnogalacturonan I has numerous single nonreducing terminal residues of the rare sugar l-galactose attached at the O-3 position of the rhamnosyl residues instead of the typical O-4 position. The arabinoxylan is highly branched, primarily with double branches of nonreducing terminal l-arabinosyl units at the O-2 and O-3 positions along the xylan backbone. While a portion of each polysaccharide can be purified by anion-exchange chromatography, the side group structures of both polysaccharides are modified further in about one-third of the mucilage to form composites with enhanced viscosity. Our finding of the unusual side group structures for two well-known cell wall polysaccharides supports a hypothesis that plants make a selected few ubiquitous backbone polymers onto which a broad spectrum of side group substitutions are added to engender many possible functions. To this end, modification of one polymer may be accompanied by complementary modifications of others to impart functions to heterocomposites not present in either polymer alone.

  13. Modeling water uptake by root system covered with mucilage at different degradation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Nimrod; Carminati, Andrea; Meunier, Félicien; Javaux, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    For many years the rhizosphere which is the zone of soil in the vicinity of the roots and which is influenced by the roots is known as a unique soil environment with different physical, biological and chemical properties than those of the bulk soil. In recent studies, it has been shown that root exudates and especially mucilage alter the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere, and that drying and wetting cycles of mucilage result in non-equilibrium dynamics in the rhizosphere, affecting water content distribution and root water uptake (RWU). Current models that integrate RWU with rhizosphere processes are limited to a simplified one root system with a homogeneous distribution of rhizosphere and root properties. In this work, we present a 3D model of water flow in the soil-plant continuum that takes in consideration root architecture and rhizosphere processes including the spatial and temporal variation in root and rhizosphere hydraulic properties, resulted from mucilage exudation and biodegradation. In the new model mucilage concentration is distributed along the root system according to the exudation period and the biodegradation rate of mucilage described with a Monod-type equation. Mucilage considered being composed of miscible and immiscible components, each with contrasted microbial degradation preferences and rate, resulting in a different distribution of each of the component. The rhizosphere water holding capacity and hydraulic conductivity were set to be a function of the total mucilage concentration, and hydrophobicity (captured using non-equilibrium formulation) was set to be a function of the immiscible concentration. Several scenarios describing different degradation and exudation parameters were examined. The results show that the rhizosphere water content is positively related to the mucilage concentration and that the rhizosphere hydraulic conductivity is negatively related to mucilage concentration. We observed a complex relation between the

  14. Distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere: combining 14C imaging with neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Maire; Carminati, Andrea; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Water and nutrients will be the major factors limiting food production in future. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to limited soil resources. Low molecular weight organic substances released by roots into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability by interactions with microorganisms, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. Though composition and quality of these substances have intensively been investigated, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging depending on drought stress. Plants were grown in rhizotrons well suited for neutron radiography and 14C imaging. Plants were exposed to various soil water contents experiencing different levels of drought stress. The water content in the rhizosphere was imaged during several drying/wetting cycles by neutron radiography. The radiographs taken a few hours after irrigation showed a wet region around the root tips showing the allocation and distribution of mucilage. The increased water content in the rhizosphere of the young root segments was related to mucilage concentrations by parameterization described in Kroener et al. (2014). In parallel 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) showed distribution of rhizodeposits including mucilage. Three days after setting the water content, plants were labeled in 14CO2 atmosphere. Two days later 14C distribution in soil was imaged by placing a phosphor-imaging plate on the rhizobox. To quantify rhizodeposition, 14C activity on the image was related to the absolute 14C activity in the soil and root after destructive sampling. By comparing the amounts of mucilage (neutron radiography) with the amount of total root derived C (14C imaging), we were able to differentiate between mucilage and root

  15. The rheological properties of the seed coat mucilage of Capsella bursa-pastoris L. Medik. (shepherd's purse).

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenni; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Hallett, Paul D; Toorop, Peter E; Squire, Geoffrey R; Jeng, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The outer surface of myxospermous seed coats contains mucilage which absorbs large amounts of water relative to its dry weight. Ecologically, the seed mucilage can affect seed germination and dormancy. Upon hydration, a large proportion of the seed mucilage is lost to the soil and the physics of soil-seed mucilage interactions has not been assessed. Towards that end, the dynamic rheological properties of mucilage extracted from Capsella bursa-pastoris L. Medik. (shepherd's purse) seeds were assessed as a function of mucilage concentration (1-10% [w/w]), temperature (0-80°C) and shear frequency (0.1-100 rad s-1). The seed mucilage was shear thinning and was classified as a highly viscous "weak gel". The relationship between the viscoelastic parameters (viscosity, η*, storage and loss modulus, G' and G″, yield and flow stresses, τy and τf) and mucilage concentration were well fitted by power law models. The values of η*, G' and G″ increased as temperature increased above 40°C and were also slightly frequency dependent. The shepherd's purse seed mucilage is more viscous than that from other plant parts, such as fruits and roots. These properties highlight the possibility that seed mucilage may affect soil conditions and therefore present an additional facilitative ecological role (beyond that already reported, which directly affect seed biology); and this is discussed.

  16. Degradation of seed mucilage by soil microflora promotes early seedling growth of a desert sand dune plant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Zhang, Wenhao; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-05-01

    In contrast to the extensive understanding of seed mucilage biosynthesis, much less is known about how mucilage is biodegraded and what role it plays in the soil where seeds germinate. We studied seed mucilage biodegradation by a natural microbial community. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) was used to determine monosaccharide composition in achene mucilage of Artemisia sphaerocephala. Mucilage degradation by the soil microbial community from natural habitats was examined by monosaccharide utilization tests using Biolog plates, chemical assays and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Glucose (29.4%), mannose (20.3%) and arabinose (19.5%) were found to be the main components of achene mucilage. The mucilage was biodegraded to CO(2) and soluble sugars, and an increase in soil microbial biomass was observed during biodegradation. Fluorescence microscopy showed the presence of mucilage (or its derivatives) in seedling tissues after growth with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled mucilage. The biodegradation also promoted early seedling growth in barren sand dunes, which was associated with a large soil microbial community that supplies substances promoting seedling establishment. We conclude that biodegradation of seed mucilage can play an ecologically important role in the life cycles of plants especially in harsh desert environments to which A. sphaerocephala is well-adapted.

  17. Evolution of Incubation Models: Evidence from the Italian Incubation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandi, Alessandro; Grimaldi, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of incubators in supporting new venture creation. A mapping of four different types of incubator is proposed: corporate private incubators (CPIs), independent private incubators (IPIs), business innovation centres (BICs) and university business incubators (UBIs). This mapping is exemplified through case studies of one…

  18. Evolution of Incubation Models: Evidence from the Italian Incubation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandi, Alessandro; Grimaldi, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of incubators in supporting new venture creation. A mapping of four different types of incubator is proposed: corporate private incubators (CPIs), independent private incubators (IPIs), business innovation centres (BICs) and university business incubators (UBIs). This mapping is exemplified through case studies of one…

  19. The involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells, we have cytochemically localized the enzyme in columella and peripheral cells of root caps of Zea mays. Glucose-6-phosphatase is associated with the plasmalemma and cell wall of columella cells. As columella cells differentiate into peripheral cells and begin to produce and secrete mucilage, glucose-6-phosphatase staining intensifies and becomes associated with the mucilage and, to a lesser extent, the cell wall. Cells being sloughed from the cap are characterized by glucose-6-phosphatase staining being associated with the vacuole and plasmalemma. These changes in enzyme localization during cellular differentiation in root caps suggest that glucose-6-phosphatase is involved in the production and/or secretion of mucilage by peripheral cells of Z. mays.

  20. Seed coat mucilage cells of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for plant cell wall research.

    PubMed

    Arsovski, Andrej A; Haughn, George W; Western, Tamara L

    2010-07-01

    Plant cells are encased within a complex polysaccharide wall that strengthens the cell and has key roles in all aspects of plant cell growth, differentiation, and interaction with the environment. This dynamic structure is under continual modification during plant development, and its synthesis and modification require the activity of a myriad of enzymes. The mucilage secretory cells (MSCs) of the Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat provide a model for the discovery of novel genes involved in the synthesis, secretion and modification of cell wall components, particularly pectin. These cells synthesize copious amounts of pectinaceous mucilage during development and, upon hydration of the desiccated seed, the mucilage rapidly swells, bursts from the MSCs and surrounds the seed in a gelatinous capsule. Several genes affecting MSC differentiation, pectin synthesis, and mucilage release have been identified and additional genes involved in these and related processes including pectin secretion and the mechanical alteration of cell walls await to be discovered.

  1. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite. PMID:22247868

  2. Rheological and physical properties of spray-dried mucilage obtained from Hylocereus undatus cladodes.

    PubMed

    García-Cruz, E E; Rodríguez-Ramírez, J; Méndez Lagunas, L L; Medina-Torres, L

    2013-01-02

    This study examines the rheological behavior of reconstituted spray-dried mucilage isolated from the cladodes of pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus), the effects of concentration and its relationship with physical properties were analyzed in reconstituted solutions. Drying process optimization was carried out through the surface response method, utilizing a factorial 2(3) design with three central points, in order to evaluate yield and rheological properties. The reconstituted mucilage exhibited non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior, which adequately fit the Cross model (R(2)>0.95). This dynamic response suggests a random coil configuration. The steady-shear viscosity and dynamic response are suitably correlated through the Cox-Merz rule, confirming the mucilage's stability of flow. Analysis of the physical properties of the mucilage (Tg, DTP, and particle morphology) explains the shear-thinning behavior.

  3. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

    2010-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  4. The involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells, we have cytochemically localized the enzyme in columella and peripheral cells of root caps of Zea mays. Glucose-6-phosphatase is associated with the plasmalemma and cell wall of columella cells. As columella cells differentiate into peripheral cells and begin to produce and secrete mucilage, glucose-6-phosphatase staining intensifies and becomes associated with the mucilage and, to a lesser extent, the cell wall. Cells being sloughed from the cap are characterized by glucose-6-phosphatase staining being associated with the vacuole and plasmalemma. These changes in enzyme localization during cellular differentiation in root caps suggest that glucose-6-phosphatase is involved in the production and/or secretion of mucilage by peripheral cells of Z. mays.

  5. Incubation of NASA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Richard

    1996-03-01

    Traditionally, government agencies have sought to transfer technology by licensing to large corporations. An alternative route to commercialization is through the entrepreneurial process: using government technology to assist new businesses in the environment of a business incubator. The NASA Ames Technology Commercialization Center, in Sunnyvale, California, is a business incubator used to commercialize NASA technology. In operation almost two years, it has helped twenty new, high technology ventures. Ice Management Systems is one of these. The Center is funded by NASA and operated by IC2, a think-tank associated with the University of Texas at Austin.

  6. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  7. Xylans Provide the Structural Driving Force for Mucilage Adhesion to the Arabidopsis Seed Coat.

    PubMed

    Ralet, Marie-Christine; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Tran, Joseph; Berger, Adeline; Sallé, Christine; Granier, Fabienne; Botran, Lucy; North, Helen M

    2016-05-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat epidermal cells produce large amounts of mucilage that is released upon imbibition. This mucilage is structured into two domains: an outer diffuse layer that can be easily removed by agitation and an inner layer that remains attached to the outer seed coat. Both layers are composed primarily of pectic rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), the inner layer also containing rays of cellulose that extend from the top of each columella. Perturbation in cellulosic ray formation has systematically been associated with a redistribution of pectic mucilage from the inner to the outer layer, in agreement with cellulose-pectin interactions, the nature of which remained unknown. Here, by analyzing the outer layer composition of a series of mutant alleles, a tight proportionality of xylose, galacturonic acid, and rhamnose was evidenced, except for mucilage modified5-1 (mum5-1; a mutant showing a redistribution of mucilage pectin from the inner adherent layer to the outer soluble one), for which the rhamnose-xylose ratio was increased drastically. Biochemical and in vitro binding assay data demonstrated that xylan chains are attached to RG-I chains and mediate the adsorption of mucilage to cellulose microfibrils. mum5-1 mucilage exhibited very weak adsorption to cellulose. MUM5 was identified as a putative xylosyl transferase recently characterized as MUCI21. Together, these findings suggest that the binding affinity of xylose ramifications on RG-I to a cellulose scaffold is one of the factors involved in the formation of the adherent mucilage layer. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Xylans Provide the Structural Driving Force for Mucilage Adhesion to the Arabidopsis Seed Coat1

    PubMed Central

    Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Berger, Adeline; Sallé, Christine; Botran, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat epidermal cells produce large amounts of mucilage that is released upon imbibition. This mucilage is structured into two domains: an outer diffuse layer that can be easily removed by agitation and an inner layer that remains attached to the outer seed coat. Both layers are composed primarily of pectic rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), the inner layer also containing rays of cellulose that extend from the top of each columella. Perturbation in cellulosic ray formation has systematically been associated with a redistribution of pectic mucilage from the inner to the outer layer, in agreement with cellulose-pectin interactions, the nature of which remained unknown. Here, by analyzing the outer layer composition of a series of mutant alleles, a tight proportionality of xylose, galacturonic acid, and rhamnose was evidenced, except for mucilage modified5-1 (mum5-1; a mutant showing a redistribution of mucilage pectin from the inner adherent layer to the outer soluble one), for which the rhamnose-xylose ratio was increased drastically. Biochemical and in vitro binding assay data demonstrated that xylan chains are attached to RG-I chains and mediate the adsorption of mucilage to cellulose microfibrils. mum5-1 mucilage exhibited very weak adsorption to cellulose. MUM5 was identified as a putative xylosyl transferase recently characterized as MUCI21. Together, these findings suggest that the binding affinity of xylose ramifications on RG-I to a cellulose scaffold is one of the factors involved in the formation of the adherent mucilage layer. PMID:26979331

  9. Effect of temperature and concentration on the surface tension of chia seed mucilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuting; Arye, Gilboa

    2017-04-01

    The production of mucilage by the seed coat during hydration is a common adaptation of many different plant species. The mucilage may play many ecological roles in adaptation and seed germination in diverse environments, especially in extreme desert conditions. The major compound of the seed mucilage is polysaccharides (e.g. pectins and hemicelluloses), which makes it highly hydrophilic. Consequently, it can hydrate quickly in the presence of water; forming a gel like coating surrounding the seed. However, the seed mucilage also reported to contain small amounts of protein and lipid which may exhibit surface activity at the water-air interface. As a result, decay in the surface tension of water can be occur and consequently a reduction in soil capillary pressure. This in turn may affect the water retention and transport during seed germination. The physical properties of the seeds mucilage have been studied mainly in conjunction with its rheological properties. To the best of our knowledge, its surface activity at the water-air interface has been reported mainly in the realms of food engineering, using a robust method of extraction. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of temperature and concentration on the surface tension of seed mucilage. The mucilage in this study was extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds, using distilled water (1:20 w/w) by shaking for 12 h at 4°C. The extracts were freeze dried after centrifuge (5000rpm for 20min). Fresh samples of different concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 6 mg/ml, were prepared before each surface tension measurements. The equilibrium surface tension was measured by the Wilhelmy plate method using a tensiometer (DCAT 11, Data Physics) with temperature control unit. For a given mucilage concentration, surface tension measurements carried out at 5, 15, 25, 35, 45 °C. The quantitative and thermodynamic analysis of the results will be presented and discussed.

  10. Relevance of the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax fragilis in mucilage formations of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Cangini, Monica; Totti, Cecilia; Urbani, Ranieri; Guerrini, Franca; Romagnoli, Tiziana; Sist, Paola; Palamidesi, Simona; Boni, Laurita; Pompei, Marinella

    2005-12-15

    Oceanographic cruises were carried out monthly from June 1999 to July 2002 to follow the mucilage formation process in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Results show that in correspondence with these events the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax fragilis (Schütt) Kofoid was observed both in the water column and within mucilage aggregates. In the water column, increasing abundances were observed from May until July, with values never exceeding 8500 cells l(-1). Much higher densities were observed within superficial gelatinous aggregates (22800-3400000 cells l(-1)). In mucilage samples, a large number of decomposing cells were present, together with abundant alive cells, enveloped in exudates. G. fragilis isolated from mucilage samples was cultured in three different culture media; it was characterized by a low growth rate but it produced a high amount of polysaccharides. The highest yield both in terms of cell number and carbohydrate production was observed in the medium having the highest nitrogen and phosphorus content and the lowest N/P ratio. The monomeric composition of G. fragilis carbohydrates, compared with that of mucilage samples, showed that in both natural and cultured samples galactose was the most abundant sugar; in addition, an overall good correlation, especially between the monomeric carbohydrate composition of G. fragilis grown in f/2 medium and that of a mucilage sample in which this species was present in high density, was observed.

  11. Water dynamics in the rhizosphere - a new model of coupled water uptake and mucilage exudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Ahmed, Mutez; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Bittelli, Marco; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is affected by the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the so-called rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is influenced by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by roots that alters the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere. Here we present a model that accounts for: (a) an increase in equilibrium water retention curve caused by the water holding capacity of mucilage, (b) a reduction of hydraulic conductivity at a given water content due to the higher viscosity of mucilage and (c) the swelling and shrinking dynamics by decoupling water content and water potential and introducing a non-equilibrium water retention curve. The model has been tested for mixtures of soil and mucilage and we applied it to simulate observations of previous experiments with real plants growing in soil that show evidences of altered hydraulic dynamics in the rhizosphere. Furthermore we present results about how the parameters of the model depend on soil texture and root age. Finally we couple our hydraulic model to a diffusion model of mucilage into the soil. Opposed to classical solute transport models here the water flow in the rhizosphere is affected by the concentration distribution of mucilage.

  12. Combining Ferric Salt and Cactus Mucilage for Arsenic Removal from Water.

    PubMed

    Fox, Dawn I; Stebbins, Daniela M; Alcantar, Norma A

    2016-03-01

    New methods to remediate arsenic-contaminated water continue to be studied, particularly to fill the need for accessible methods that can significantly impact developing communities. A combination of cactus mucilage and ferric (Fe(III)) salt was investigated as a flocculation-coagulation system to remove arsenic (As) from water. As(V) solutions, ferric nitrate, and mucilage suspensions were mixed and left to stand for various periods of time. Visual and SEM observations confirmed the flocculation action of the mucilage as visible flocs formed and settled to the bottom of the tubes within 3 min. The colloidal suspensions without mucilage were stable for up to 1 week. Sample aliquots were tested for dissolved and total arsenic by ICP-MS and HGAFS. Mucilage treatment improved As removal (over Fe(III)-only treatment); the system removed 75-96% As in 30 min. At neutral pH, removal was dependent on Fe(III) and mucilage concentration and the age of the Fe(III) solution. The process is fast, achieving maximum removal in 30 min, with the majority of As removed in 10-15 min. Standard jar tests with 1000 μg/L As(III) showed that arsenic removal and settling rates were pH-dependent; As removal was between 52% (high pH) and 66% (low pH).

  13. Xylan synthesized by Irregular Xylem 14 (IRX14) maintains the structure of seed coat mucilage in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ruibo; Li, Junling; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xun; Yang, Xuanwen; Tang, Qi; He, Guo; Zhou, Gongke; Kong, Yingzhen

    2016-01-01

    During differentiation, the Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells synthesize and secrete large quantities of pectinaceous mucilage into the apoplast, which is then released to encapsulate the seed upon imbibition. In this study, we showed that mutation in Irregular Xylem 14 (IRX14) led to a mucilage cohesiveness defect due to a reduced xylan content. Expression of IRX14 was detected specifically in the seed coat epidermal cells, reaching peak expression at 13 days post-anthesis (DPA) when the accumulation of mucilage polysaccharides has ceased. Sectioning of the irx14-1 seed coat revealed no visible structural change in mucilage secretory cell morphology. Although the total amount of mucilage was comparable with the wild type (WT), the partition between water-soluble and adherent layers was significantly altered in irx14-1, with redistribution from the adherent layer to the water-soluble layer. The monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that xylose content was significantly reduced in irx14-1 water-soluble and adherent mucilage compared with the WT. The macromolecular characteristics of the water-soluble mucilage were modified in irx14-1 with a loss of the larger polymeric components. In accordance, glycome profiling and dot immunoblotting of seed mucilage using antibodies specific for rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) and xylan confirmed the ultra-structural alterations in the irx14-1 mucilage. Meanwhile, the crystalline cellulose content was reduced in the irx14-1 mucilage. These results demonstrated that IRX14 was required for the biosynthesis of seed mucilage xylan, which plays an essential role in maintaining mucilage architecture potentially through altering the crystallization and organization of cellulose. PMID:26834178

  14. Xylan synthesized by Irregular Xylem 14 (IRX14) maintains the structure of seed coat mucilage in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruibo; Li, Junling; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xun; Yang, Xuanwen; Tang, Qi; He, Guo; Zhou, Gongke; Kong, Yingzhen

    2016-03-01

    During differentiation, the Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells synthesize and secrete large quantities of pectinaceous mucilage into the apoplast, which is then released to encapsulate the seed upon imbibition. In this study, we showed that mutation in Irregular Xylem 14 (IRX14) led to a mucilage cohesiveness defect due to a reduced xylan content. Expression of IRX14 was detected specifically in the seed coat epidermal cells, reaching peak expression at 13 days post-anthesis (DPA) when the accumulation of mucilage polysaccharides has ceased. Sectioning of the irx14-1 seed coat revealed no visible structural change in mucilage secretory cell morphology. Although the total amount of mucilage was comparable with the wild type (WT), the partition between water-soluble and adherent layers was significantly altered in irx14-1, with redistribution from the adherent layer to the water-soluble layer. The monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that xylose content was significantly reduced in irx14-1 water-soluble and adherent mucilage compared with the WT. The macromolecular characteristics of the water-soluble mucilage were modified in irx14-1 with a loss of the larger polymeric components. In accordance, glycome profiling and dot immunoblotting of seed mucilage using antibodies specific for rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) and xylan confirmed the ultra-structural alterations in the irx14-1 mucilage. Meanwhile, the crystalline cellulose content was reduced in the irx14-1 mucilage. These results demonstrated that IRX14 was required for the biosynthesis of seed mucilage xylan, which plays an essential role in maintaining mucilage architecture potentially through altering the crystallization and organization of cellulose. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. PME58 plays a role in pectin distribution during seed coat mucilage extrusion through homogalacturonan modification.

    PubMed

    Turbant, Amélie; Fournet, Françoise; Lequart, Michelle; Zabijak, Luciane; Pageau, Karine; Bouton, Sophie; Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Pectins are major components of plant primary cell walls. They include homogalacturonans (HGs), which are the most abundant pectin and can be the target of apoplastic enzymes like pectin methylesterases (PMEs) that control their methylesterification level. Several PMEs are expressed in the seed coat of Arabidopsis thaliana, particularly in mucilage secretory cells (MSCs). On the basis of public transcriptomic data, seven PME genes were selected and checked for their seed-specific expression by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Of these, PME58 presented the highest level of expression and was specifically expressed in MSCs at the early stages of seed development. pme58 mutants presented two discrete phenotypes: (i) their adherent mucilage was less stained by ruthenium red when compared to wild-type seeds, but only in the presence of EDTA, a Ca(2+)chelator; and (ii) the MSC surface area was decreased. These phenotypes are the consequence of an increase in the degree of HG methylesterification connected to a decrease in PME activity. Analysis of the sugar composition of soluble and adherent mucilage showed that, in the presence of EDTA, sugars of adherent mucilage were more readily extracted in pme58 mutants. Immunolabelling with LM19, an antibody that preferentially recognizes unesterified HGs, also showed that molecular interactions with HGs were modified in the adherent mucilage of pme58 mutants, suggesting a role of PME58 in mucilage structure and organization. In conclusion, PME58 is the first PME identified to play a direct role in seed mucilage structure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Untangle soil-water-mucilage interactions: 1H NMR Relaxometry is lifting the veil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Mathilde; Buchmann, Christian; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2017-04-01

    Mucilage is mainly produced at the root tips and has a high water holding capacity derived from highly hydrophilic gel-forming substances. The objective of the MUCILAGE project is to understand the mechanistic role of mucilage for the regulation of water supply for plants. Our subproject investigates the chemical and physical properties of mucilage as pure gel and mixed with soil. 1H-NMR Relaxometry and PFG NMR represent non-intrusive powerful methods for soil scientific research by allowing quantification of the water distribution as well as monitoring of the water mobility in soil pores and gel phases.Relaxation of gel water differs from the one of pure water due to additional interactions with the gel matrix. Mucilage in soil leads to a hierarchical pore structure, consisting of the polymeric biohydrogel network surrounded by the surface of soil particles. The two types of relaxation rates 1/T1 and 1/T2 measured with 1H-NMR relaxometry refer to different relaxation mechanisms of water, while PFG-NMR measures the water self-diffusion coefficient. The objective of our study is to distinguish in situ water in gel from pore water in a simplified soil system, and to determine how the "gel effect" affects both relaxation rates and the water self-diffusion coefficient in porous systems. We demonstrate how the mucilage concentration and the soil solution alter the properties of water in the respective gel phases and pore systems in model soils. To distinguish gel-inherent processes from classical processes, we investigated the variations of the water mobility in pure chia mucilage under different conditions by using 1H-NMR relaxometry and PFG NMR. Using model soils, the signals coming from pore water and gel water were differentiated. We combined the equations describing 1H-NMR relaxation in porous systems and our experimental results, to explain how the presence of gel in soil affects 1H-NMR relaxation. Out of this knowledge we propose a method, which determines in

  17. Spatiotemporal Secretion of PEROXIDASE36 Is Required for Seed Coat Mucilage Extrusion in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Kunieda, Tadashi; Shimada, Tomoo; Kondo, Maki; Nishimura, Mikio; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal cells of the Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat, which correspond to the second layer of the outer integument (oi2), contain large quantities of a pectic polysaccharide called mucilage within the apoplastic space beneath the outer periclinal cell wall. Immediately after seed imbibition, the mucilage is extruded and completely envelops the seed in a gel-like capsule. We found that a class III peroxidase family protein, PEROXIDASE36 (PER36), functions as a mucilage extrusion factor. Expression of PER36 occurred only in oi2 cells for a few days around the torpedo stage. A PER36–green fluorescent protein fusion was secreted into the outer cell wall in a polarized manner. per36 mutants were defective in mucilage extrusion after seed imbibition due to the failure of outer cell wall rupture, although the mutants exhibited normal monosaccharide composition of the mucilage. This abnormal phenotype of per36 was rescued by pectin solubilization, which promoted cell wall loosening. These results suggest that PER36 regulates the degradation of the outer cell wall. Taken together, this work indicates that polarized secretion of PER36 in a developmental stage-dependent manner plays a role in cell wall modification of oi2 cells. PMID:23572548

  18. The effects of diatom pore-size on the structures and extensibilities of single mucilage molecules.

    PubMed

    Sanka, Immanuel; Suyono, Eko Agus; Alam, Parvez

    2017-08-07

    Diatoms secrete extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), or mucilage, around the cell wall that may serve to aid in motility and form a discrete layer that may help maintain thicker layers of EPS that have a greater role in adhesion. Mucilage molecules adhere to the diatom frustules, which are biosilica skeletons that develop from the diatom cell walls. Here, molecular dynamics methods were used to determine the characteristics of mucilage molecules as a function of pore size; notably 1,4-α-D-galacturonic acid, 1,4-β-glucuronic acid and 1,4-β-D-mannuronic acid. These uronic acids differ from each other in structure and extensibility as a function of their folding characteristics. Here, we find that when overlain upon a pore, mucilage molecules try to return to their native folded states but are restrained by their interactions with the silica surfaces. Furthermore, the extensibility of mucilage molecules over pore spaces affects the extent of mechanical energy required to straighten them. As such, different EPS molecules will affect sliding, friction and adhesion to subsequent layers of EPS in different ways. We conclude that higher EPS extensibility is homonymous with higher adhesive or frictive resistance since the molecules will be able to strain more before they reach the most extended (and thus rigid) conformation. The research herein is applicable to modern engineering as it yields insight into the biomimetic design of molecules and surfaces for improved adhesion or motility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variability of seed traits and properties of soluble mucilages in lines of the flax genetic collection of Vavilov Institute.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, A; Paynel, F; Rihouey, C; Porokhovinova, E; Brutch, N; Morvan, C

    2014-07-01

    Upon hydration, flax seeds secrete mucilages whose content and physico-chemical properties vary according to the genotype and environment. The aim of the work was to investigate the complex genetic relationships between the vegetative period, colour, size and production of seed, the composition (polysaccharides and proteins) and physico-chemical properties of soluble mucilages collected at 28 °C from seeds of 18 lines grown in St Petersburg area. The vegetative period duration was found to impact the size and production of seeds, the yield of mucilages, including the polysaccharides, and the galactosidase enzymes, as well as their composition (mainly the rhamnogalacturonan I moieties) and some of their properties (mainly viscosity). Data allowed to significantly distinguish 6 fibre lines with mucilages enriched in rhamnogalacturonan I, 6 lines with mucilages enriched in arabinoxylan including 5 linseeds and 1 mutated fibre-line, and 5 lines with mucilages enriched in homogalacturonan-like polymer including 4 fibre lines and 1 brown linseed. Seven fibre lines had mucilages particularly rich in galactose. High to very high variability was found for 14 traits. Relatively independent characters (form/shape, protein and galactosidase) were identified and could be combined by breeding, with a focus on mucilage yield, composition and properties. Main-component analyses of line characters showed a large diversity in linseeds mainly due to their different origin but small variation in Russian fibre lines with brown seeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and characterization of jackfruit mucilage and its comparative evaluation as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vidya; Patel, Vandana; Paranjape, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present research work was to extract jackfruit mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent, and to develop extended release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Materials and Methods: The mucilage was isolated from the jackfruit pulp by the aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. Three batches of tablets were prepared (wet granulation method) and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components: Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P, and isolated jackfruit mucilage using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug and changing the proportion of the mucoadhesive component (1:2:3), resulting in nine different formulations. Results: The results of the study indicate that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics, granules and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications, and in vitro release studies showed the sustained action of drug with increasing concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that changing the mucoadhesive component, permeability behavior was not statistically different (P > 0.05). FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and jackfruit mucilage. Conclusion: The developed mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing natural mucilage (MF3) have a potential for the sustained action of drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release were successfully developed using natural jackfruit mucilage. PMID:23119234

  1. Isolation and characterization of jackfruit mucilage and its comparative evaluation as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, Vidya; Patel, Vandana; Paranjape, Archana

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present research work was to extract jackfruit mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent, and to develop extended release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the jackfruit pulp by the aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. Three batches of tablets were prepared (wet granulation method) and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components: Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P, and isolated jackfruit mucilage using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug and changing the proportion of the mucoadhesive component (1:2:3), resulting in nine different formulations. The results of the study indicate that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics, granules and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications, and in vitro release studies showed the sustained action of drug with increasing concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that changing the mucoadhesive component, permeability behavior was not statistically different (P > 0.05). FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and jackfruit mucilage. The developed mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing natural mucilage (MF3) have a potential for the sustained action of drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release were successfully developed using natural jackfruit mucilage.

  2. Influence of electrical fields and asymmetric application of mucilage on curvature of primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcum, H.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent growing in an electric field curve towards the anode. Roots treated with EDTA and growing in electric field do not curve. When root cap mucilage is applied asymmetrically to tips of vertically-oriented roots, the roots curve toward the mucilage. Roots treated with EDTA curve toward the side receiving mucilage and toward blocks containing 10 mM CaCl2, but not toward "empty" agar blocks or the cut surfaces of severed root tips. These results suggest that 1) free calcium (Ca) is necessary for root electrotropism, 2) mucilage contains effector(s) that induce gravitropiclike curvature, and 3) mucilage can replace gravitropic effectors chelated by EDTA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the downward movement of gravitropic effectors to the lower sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots occurs at least partially in the apoplast.

  3. Influence of electrical fields and asymmetric application of mucilage on curvature of primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcum, H.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent growing in an electric field curve towards the anode. Roots treated with EDTA and growing in electric field do not curve. When root cap mucilage is applied asymmetrically to tips of vertically-oriented roots, the roots curve toward the mucilage. Roots treated with EDTA curve toward the side receiving mucilage and toward blocks containing 10 mM CaCl2, but not toward "empty" agar blocks or the cut surfaces of severed root tips. These results suggest that 1) free calcium (Ca) is necessary for root electrotropism, 2) mucilage contains effector(s) that induce gravitropiclike curvature, and 3) mucilage can replace gravitropic effectors chelated by EDTA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the downward movement of gravitropic effectors to the lower sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots occurs at least partially in the apoplast.

  4. Influence of electrical fields and asymmetric application of mucilage on curvature of primary roots of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Marcum, H; Moore, R

    1990-04-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent growing in an electric field curve towards the anode. Roots treated with EDTA and growing in electric field do not curve. When root cap mucilage is applied asymmetrically to tips of vertically-oriented roots, the roots curve toward the mucilage. Roots treated with EDTA curve toward the side receiving mucilage and toward blocks containing 10 mM CaCl2, but not toward "empty" agar blocks or the cut surfaces of severed root tips. These results suggest that 1) free calcium (Ca) is necessary for root electrotropism, 2) mucilage contains effector(s) that induce gravitropiclike curvature, and 3) mucilage can replace gravitropic effectors chelated by EDTA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the downward movement of gravitropic effectors to the lower sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots occurs at least partially in the apoplast.

  5. Bacteria Responsible for Mucilage-Layer Decomposition in Kona Coffee Cherries1

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Hilmer A.; Lum, Norma A.; Cruz, Amy S. Dela

    1965-01-01

    The predominant microbial flora present during decomposition of the mucilage layer of Kona coffee cherries were gram-negative bacteria which fermented lactose rapidly. Cultures isolated from coffee cherries under-going fermentation included species of Erwinia, Paracolobactrum, and Escherichia. Unblemished cherry surfaces and coffee plantation soil also had a microflora containing a high proportion of bacteria belonging to these three genera. Of 168 isolates tested, the 44 strains capable of demucilaging depulped coffee cherries were all members of Erwinia dissolvens. Supernatant growth medium liquids, after removal of E. dissolvens cells, actively decomposed the mucilage layer of depulped cherries. PMID:14325879

  6. Little Shop of Horrors: Rheology of the Mucilage of Drosera sp., a Carnivorous Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erni, Philipp; Varagnat, Matthieu; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2008-07-01

    Drosera sp. (`sundew') are carnivorous plants; they capture insects using tiny drops of mucilage secreted by stalked glands on their leaf laminae. Prey gets trapped by the sticky viscoelastic liquid, initiating a metabolic cascade on the leaf that eventually results in the insect being digested by the plant. The mucilage droplets typically are in the size range of tens of micrometers; at these extremely small sample sizes, complex fluids are usually not amenable to traditional rheometry. We discuss how microrheometric techniques, in particular capillary breakup extensional rheometry ("μ-caber"), can be used to test the nonlinear rheological properties of nanoliter volumes of such small-volume biopolymer samples.

  7. Nanoporous microscale microbial incubators.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhifei; Girguis, Peter R; Buie, Cullen R

    2016-02-07

    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals abundant microbial diversity that has not been cultured in the laboratory. Many attribute this so-called 'great plate count anomaly' to traditional microbial cultivation techniques, which largely facilitate the growth of a single species. Yet, it is widely recognized that bacteria in nature exist in complex communities. One technique to increase the pool of cultivated bacterial species is to co-culture multiple species in a simulated natural environment. Here, we present nanoporous microscale microbial incubators (NMMI) that enable high-throughput screening and real-time observation of multi-species co-culture. The key innovation in NMMI is that they facilitate inter-species communication while maintaining physical isolation between species, which is ideal for genomic analysis. Co-culture of a quorum sensing pair demonstrates that the NMMI can be used to culture multiple species in chemical communication while monitoring the growth dynamics of individual species.

  8. Unidirectional Movement of Cellulose Synthase Complexes in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Epidermal Cells Deposit Cellulose Involved in Mucilage Extrusion, Adherence, and Ray Formation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Patricia; Young, Robin; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) synthesizes cellulose necessary for seed mucilage adherence to seed coat epidermal cells of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The involvement of additional CESA proteins in this process and details concerning the manner in which cellulose is deposited in the mucilage pocket are unknown. Here, we show that both CESA3 and CESA10 are highly expressed in this cell type at the time of mucilage synthesis and localize to the plasma membrane adjacent to the mucilage pocket. The isoxaben resistant1-1 and isoxaben resistant1-2 mutants affecting CESA3 show defects consistent with altered mucilage cellulose biosynthesis. CESA3 can interact with CESA5 in vitro, and green fluorescent protein-tagged CESA5, CESA3, and CESA10 proteins move in a linear, unidirectional fashion around the cytoplasmic column of the cell, parallel with the surface of the seed, in a pattern similar to that of cortical microtubules. Consistent with this movement, cytological evidence suggests that the mucilage is coiled around the columella and unwinds during mucilage extrusion to form a linear ray. Mutations in CESA5 and CESA3 affect the speed of mucilage extrusion and mucilage adherence. These findings imply that cellulose fibrils are synthesized in an ordered helical array around the columella, providing a distinct structure to the mucilage that is important for both mucilage extrusion and adherence. PMID:25926481

  9. Mucoadhesivity Characterization of Isabgol Husk Mucilage Microspheres Crosslinked by Glutaraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vipin Kumar; Sharma, Prince Prashant; Mazumder, Bhasker; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Singh, Thakuri

    2015-01-01

    The microspheres of Isabgol husk were prepared by emulsification-crosslinking technique and the gastrointestinal transition behavior of the formulation was studied by gamma scintigraphy. The impact of different process variables such as amount of glutaraldehyde, concentration of Isabgol husk and temperature was studied on surface morphology and mucoadhesion. In vitro mucoadhesive testing of formulations was performed by determination of zeta potential, mucus glycoprotein assay and mucus adsorption isotherms. The effect of feeding on retention of microspheres in the gastrointestinal track (GIT) was studied in albino rabbits by gamma scintigraphy study. The results indicated the formation of microspheres as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The smooth and round surfaces of microspheres were obtained on increasing Isabgol husk and glutaraldehyde amount. The positive zeta potential of all formulations indicated the electrostatic interaction as a mechanism of mucoadhesion between the mucus of GIT membranes and the microspheres surfaces. The influence of electrostatic interaction on mucoadhesion of microspheres was again ascertained when the mucin equilibrium adsorption on preparations indicated well fitness in Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. During gamma scintigraphy, the stability of (99m)Tc-sodium pertechnetate was found 98.82% at pH 6.8 and 96.78% at pH 7.2, respectively. It indicated the minimal leaching of bound radionuclide from microspheres during gastrointestinal transition as observed in gamma scintigraphic images of the rabbits. The microspheres retained in GIT even after 24 hrs of oral administration. The results indicated the applicability of Isabgol husk mucilage in the development of mucoadhesive microspheres.

  10. Differentiation of the seed coat and composition of the mucilage of Lepidium perfoliatum L.: a desert annual with typical myxospermy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Daihong; Wang, Cui; Yuan, Junwen; Cao, Jing; Lan, Haiyan

    2015-10-01

    Myxospermy is an important feature in seeds of many plant species grown in desert region. Fertilization can initiate differentiation of the seed coat epidermis into a specialized cell type with mucilage production. In the present study, comprehensive analyses were performed on the seed coat differentiation, mucilage production and composition, and seed germination in Lepidium perfoliatum (Brassicaceae), a desert annual with typical myxospermy in China. First, results indicated that mucilage was secreted uniformly at the outer tangential wall, resulting in compression of the cytoplasm to the bottom of the epidermal cells. Secondly, the inner tangential wall and two radial walls of the subepidermal cells were apparently thickened by production of a secondary cell wall material, which resulted in a 'typical' palisade appearance. Thirdly, immunohistochemical staining combined with the enzymatic digestion and infrared spectrum analysis of the mucilage indicated that, while one important component of the seed coat mucilage in L. perfoliatum was pectin, it also contained β-1,3-d-glucan and xyloglucan. Finally, seed germination showed that seeds with mucilage displayed significantly higher germination percentage than that of demucilaged seeds in abundant or excess water conditions. These results suggest that the possible ecological role of mucilage in L. perfoliatum is in the adaptation to habitats with well-watered and water-logged conditions, rather than water stress.

  11. Incubation length of dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Prince, H.H.; Arnold, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    We collected unincubated eggs from wild Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Gadwall (A. strepera), Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), and Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata) nests and artificially incubated them at 37.5??C. Average incubation lengths of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs did not differ from their wild-nesting counterparts, but artificially incubated Blue-winged Teal eggs required an additional 1.7 days to hatch, suggesting that wild-nesting teal incubated more effectively. A small sample of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs artificially incubated at 38.3??C hatched 1 day sooner, indicating that incubation temperature affected incubation length. Mean incubation length of Blue-winged Teal declined by 1 day for each 11-day delay in nesting, but we found no such seasonal decline among Mallards, Gadwalls, or Northern Shovelers. There is no obvious explanation for the seasonal reduction in incubation length for Blue-winged Teal eggs incubated in a constant environment, and the phenomenon deserves further study. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.

  12. SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE5 Mediates Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Adherence and Organization through Pectins1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Jonathan S.; Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun; Xue, Hui; Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Šola, Krešimir; Seifert, Georg J.; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Haughn, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between cell wall polymers are critical for establishing cell wall integrity and cell-cell adhesion. Here, we exploit the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat mucilage system to examine cell wall polymer interactions. On hydration, seeds release an adherent mucilage layer strongly attached to the seed in addition to a nonadherent layer that can be removed by gentle agitation. Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) is the primary component of adherent mucilage, with homogalacturonan, cellulose, and xyloglucan constituting minor components. Adherent mucilage contains rays composed of cellulose and pectin that extend above the center of each epidermal cell. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) and the arabinogalactan protein SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE5 (SOS5) are required for mucilage adherence through unknown mechanisms. SOS5 has been suggested to mediate adherence by influencing cellulose biosynthesis. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between SOS5 and CESA5. cesa5-1 seeds show reduced cellulose, RG I, and ray size in adherent mucilage. In contrast, sos5-2 seeds have wild-type levels of cellulose but completely lack adherent RG I and rays. Thus, relative to each other, cesa5-1 has a greater effect on cellulose, whereas sos5-2 mainly affects pectin. The double mutant cesa5-1 sos5-2 has a much more severe loss of mucilage adherence, suggesting that SOS5 and CESA5 function independently. Double-mutant analyses with mutations in MUCILAGE MODIFIED2 and FLYING SAUCER1 that reduce mucilage release through pectin modification suggest that only SOS5 influences pectin-mediated adherence. Together, these findings suggest that SOS5 mediates adherence through pectins and does so independently of but in concert with cellulose synthesized by CESA5. PMID:24808103

  13. In situ, chemical and macromolecular study of the composition of Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat mucilage.

    PubMed

    Macquet, Audrey; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Kronenberger, Jocelyne; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis was carried out of the composition of seed coat mucilage from Arabidopsis thaliana using the Columbia-0 accession. Pectinaceous mucilage is released from myxospermous seeds upon imbibition, and in Arabidopsis consists of a water-soluble, outer layer and an adherent, inner layer. Analysis of monosaccharide composition in conjunction with digestion with pectolytic enzymes conclusively demonstrated that the principal pectic domain of both layers was rhamnogalacturonan I, and that in the outer layer this was unbranched. The macromolecular characteristics of the water-soluble mucilage indicated that the rhamnogalacturonan molecules in the outer layer were in a slightly expanded random-coil conformation. The inner, adherent layer remained attached to the seed, even after extraction with acid and alkali, suggesting that its integrity was maintained by covalent bonds. Confocal microscopy and monosaccharide composition analyses showed that the inner layer can be separated into two domains. The internal domain contained cellulose microfibrils, which could form a matrix with RGI and bind it to the seed. In effect, in the mum5-1 mutant where most of the inner and outer mucilage layers were water soluble, cellulose remained attached to the seed coat. Immunolabeling with anti-pectin antibodies indicated the presence of galactan and arabinan in the inner layer, with the latter only present in the non-cellulose-containing external domain. In addition, JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies labeled different domains of the inner layer, suggesting the presence of stretches of homogalacturonan with different levels of methyl esterification.

  14. Designing and characterizing of tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches prepared with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and povidone.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Ishaq, Beludari Mohammed; Shaik, Muneer; Bandagisa, Faheem

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare matrix type transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl using various ratios of Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using Tramadol HCl with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The interactions between Tramadol HCl with F. carica fruit mucilage and Povidone were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared patches were examined for physicochemical characterization and in vitro drug permeation studies (using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin), skin irritation studies and accelerated stability studies. The drug was found to be free from negligible interactions with the polymers used. The formulated patches possessed satisfactory physicochemical properties, in vitro drug permeation and devoid of serious skin irritation. The selected formulation (F-5) was retains the characteristics even after the accelerated environmental conditions. The study concludes that F. carica fruit mucilage with Povidone is a good combination for preparing transdermal patches.

  15. Removing heavy metals in water: the interaction of cactus mucilage and arsenate (As (V)).

    PubMed

    Fox, Dawn I; Pichler, Thomas; Yeh, Daniel H; Alcantar, Norma A

    2012-04-17

    High concentrations of arsenic in groundwater continue to present health threats to millions of consumers worldwide. Particularly, affected communities in the developing world need accessible technologies for arsenic removal from drinking water. We explore the application of cactus mucilage, pectic polysaccharide extracts from Opuntia ficus-indica for arsenic removal. Synthetic arsenate (As (V)) solutions were treated with two extracts, a gelling extract (GE) and a nongelling extract (NE) in batch trials. The arsenic concentration at the air-water interface was measured after equilibration. The GE and NE treated solutions showed on average 14% and 9% increases in arsenic concentration at the air-water interface respectively indicating that the mucilage bonded and transported the arsenic to the air-water interface. FTIR studies showed that the -CO groups (carboxyl and carbonyl groups) and -OH (hydroxyl) functional groups of the mucilage were involved in the interaction with the arsenate. Mucilage activity was greater in weakly basic (pH 9) and weakly acidic (pH 5.5) pH. This interaction can be optimized and harnessed for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. This work breaks the ground for the application of natural pectic materials to the removal of anionic metallic species from water.

  16. Physical characterization of biodegradable films based on chitosan, polyvinyl alcohol and Opuntia mucilage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study aimed to develop and characterize biodegradable films containing mucilage, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in different concentrations. The films were prepared by casting on glass plates using glycerol as plasticizer. Mechanical properties, water vapor and oxygen barrier, as well as ...

  17. Roles of mucilage in Emilia fosbergii, a myxocarpic Asteraceae: Efficient seed imbibition and diaspore adhesion.

    PubMed

    De-Paula, Orlando C; Marzinek, Juliana; Oliveira, Denise M T; Paiva, Élder A S

    2015-09-01

    Several angiosperm families have myxodiaspory, such as the Asteraceae in which cypselae are frequently wind-dispersed. The roles of mucilage in cypselae remain misunderstood, and the route of water uptake from substrate to embryo remains unknown. In this work, we analyze the fruits of Emilia fosbergii aiming to clarify how the water is absorbed and how the structure of the pericarp can be related to the processes of diaspore adhesion and seed imbibition. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the cypselae of Emilia fosbergii were analyzed with histochemical tests and light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We assessed the roles of mucilage in seed imbibition using apoplasmic tracing with Lucifer yellow and epifluorescence microscopy and in adhesion with a sand assay. We describe structural and ultrastructural aspects of the exocarpic cells, especially the mucilaginous twin hairs. Lucifer yellow was absorbed only by the twin hairs, the cells where water primarily enters the seed during seed imbibition. In the sand assay, the mucilage was adhesive. The twin hairs on the surface of the cypselae can play a dual role in the establishment of new plants of this species. First, these trichomes constitute the main passage for water intake, which is essential for seed imbibition and germination, and after imbibition, they release mucilage that can adhere the diaspore. Therefore, the presence of myxocarpy in Asteraceae could be important in anemochoric species to avoid secondary dispersal. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Application of Isfarzeh seed (Plantago ovate L.) mucilage as a fat mimetic in mayonnaise.

    PubMed

    Amiri Aghdaei, S S; Aalami, M; Babaei Geefan, Saeed; Ranjbar, A

    2014-10-01

    In present study, application of Isfarzeh seed (Plantago ovate L.) mucilage as fat replacer was studied in mayonnaise formulation. Fat was partially substituted by mucilage gels (2 and 3 % suspensions) at levels of 30, 40 and 50 % which were referred to as FM2-30 % (2 % gel and 30 % substitution level), FM2-40 %, FM2-50 %, FM3-30 %, FM3-40 %, and FM3-50 % formulations, respectively and the full fat (Ff) mayonnaise with 78 % oil was used as control. Physicochemical, texture and sensory analysis of Ff and Low fat (Lf) treatments were evaluated. Results indicated that Lf samples had considerably lower energy content compared with control, but higher water content than their Ff counterpart. In view of texture, FM3-30 % showed similar textural characteristics as those of control. Both Ff and Lf samples exhibited thixotropic and shear thinning behavior through rheological studies and all samples followed the power law model except FM3-40 % and FM3-50 %. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that all of mayonnaise samples, containing 3 % mucilage, were more acceptable. It was concluded that Isfarzeh seed mucilage can be used as a suitable fat replacer in mayonnaise formulation.

  19. Effect of mucilage from yam on activation of lymphocytic immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Cheol-Min; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk

    2007-01-01

    The immunostimulating activities of mucilage fraction from yam were investigated. The proliferation of BSA-primed lymph node cells was enhanced between 4.1- to 10.9-fold compare to control, when cultured with 1 to 25 µg/mL of yam-mucilage fraction. It showed strong immunopotentiating activity than ginseng extract and as remarkable as Bifidobacterium adolescentis M101-4 known as a positive immunostimulator. Mitogenicity to lymph node cells was fully induced by concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide. The proliferation of splenocytes and Peyer's patch cells was enhanced between 5.0- to 14.1-fold and 2.4- to 6.4-fold, respectively, when cultured with 1 to 25 µg/mL of yam-mucilage fraction. It enhanced the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6 in the culture of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In the culture of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, production of cytokines was as similar as compared to controls. In unstimulated RAW 264.7 cells, both tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6 production were enhanced between 15.6- to 60.1-fold and 2.3- to 9.1-fold, respectively. Mucilage fraction from yam is expected to be a safe immunopotentiator to maintain the host immunity and develop a physiologically functional food. PMID:20535393

  20. An algorithm for the detection of the white-tide ('mucilage') phenomenon in the Adriatic Sea using AVHRR data

    SciTech Connect

    Tassan, S. )

    1993-06-01

    An algorithm using AVHRR data has been set up for the detection of a white tide consisting of algae secretion ('mucilage'), an event occurring in the Adriatic Sea under particular meteorological conditions. The algorithm, which includes an ad hoc procedure for cloud masking, has been tested with reference to the mucilage map obtained from the analysis of contemporary Thematic Mapper data, as well as by comparing consecutive AVHRR scenes. The main features of the exceptional mucilage phenomenon that took place in the northern basin of the Adriatic Sea in summer 1989 are shown by a time series of maps.

  1. Small Business Incubator Resource Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    This kit consists of a set of resources to assist those interested in the start-up and management (incubation) of a new business. A guide to starting and managing a small business incubator (SBI) is provided. Included in the guide are the following: a discussion of the role and characteristics of the SBI concept; guidelines for carrying out the…

  2. Incubating Next -Gen.Edu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2008-01-01

    Given a blank slate, what should the 21st century college classroom look like, and how should it be operated? Answering those questions is the idea behind setting up "incubator classrooms," spaces dedicated to trying out new technologies and new ways of teaching and learning. By incubating new ideas, faculty members and IT staff discover which…

  3. Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Wayne P.; King, Joseph B.; Jankura, Richard E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done to operate the Lewis Incubator for Technology for the period October 2000 through September 2004. The Lewis Incubator helped the startup and growth of technology based businesses with the potential to incorporate technology from the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  4. Electromagnetic fields and infant incubators.

    PubMed

    Bearer, C F

    1994-01-01

    Two models of infant incubators were studied to determine the strength of the magnetic field generated by the heater and fan motors. Measurements were taken at intervals along the center line of the incubator. The results show that fields greater than 100 milligauss and 25 milligauss were measured in the C-86 and C-100 model Isolettes, respectively.

  5. Incubating Next -Gen.Edu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2008-01-01

    Given a blank slate, what should the 21st century college classroom look like, and how should it be operated? Answering those questions is the idea behind setting up "incubator classrooms," spaces dedicated to trying out new technologies and new ways of teaching and learning. By incubating new ideas, faculty members and IT staff discover which…

  6. Effect of soil water content on spatial distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water and nutrients are expected to become the major factors limiting food production. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to these limited soil resources. Low molecular root exudates released into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. However, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was therefore to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging at different levels of water stress. Maize plants were grown in rhizotrons filled with a silty soil and were exposed to varying soil conditions, from optimal to dry. Mucilage distribution around the roots was estimated from the profiles of water content in the rhizosphere - note that mucilage increases the soil water content. The profiles of water content around different root types and root ages were measured with neutron radiography. Rhizosphere extension was approx. 0.7 mm and did not differ between wet and dry treatments. However, water content (i.e. mucilage concentration) in the rhizosphere of plants grown in dry soils was higher than for plants grown under optimal conditions. This effect was particularly pronounced near the tips of lateral roots. The higher water contents near the root are explained as the water retained by mucilage. 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) was used to estimate the distribution of all rhizodeposits. Two days after labelling, 14C distribution was measured using phosphor-imaging. To quantify 14C in the rhizosphere a calibration was carried out by adding given amounts of 14C-glucose to soil. Plants grown in wet soil transported a higher percentage of 14C to the roots (14Croot/14Cshoot), compared to plants grown under dry conditions (46 vs. 36 %). However, the percentage of 14C allocated from roots to

  7. Identification of a seed coat-specific promoter fragment from the Arabidopsis MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4 gene.

    PubMed

    Dean, Gillian H; Jin, Zhaoqing; Shi, Lin; Esfandiari, Elahe; McGee, Robert; Nabata, Kylie; Lee, Tiffany; Kunst, Ljerka; Western, Tamara L; Haughn, George W

    2017-07-20

    The Arabidopsis seed coat-specific promoter fragment described is an important tool for basic and applied research in Brassicaceae species. During differentiation, the epidermal cells of the Arabidopsis seed coat produce and secrete large quantities of mucilage. On hydration of mature seeds, this mucilage becomes easily accessible as it is extruded to form a tightly attached halo at the seed surface. Mucilage is composed mainly of pectin, and also contains the key cell wall components cellulose, hemicellulose, and proteins, making it a valuable model for studying numerous aspects of cell wall biology. Seed coat-specific promoters are an important tool that can be used to assess the effects of expressing biosynthetic enzymes and diverse cell wall-modifying proteins on mucilage structure and function. Additionally, they can be used for production of easily accessible recombinant proteins of commercial interest. The MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4 (MUM4) gene is expressed in a wide variety of plant tissues and is strongly up-regulated in the seed coat during mucilage synthesis, implying the presence of a seed coat-specific region in its promoter. Promoter deletion analysis facilitated isolation of a 308 base pair sequence (MUM4 0.3Pro ) that directs reporter gene expression in the seed coat cells of both Arabidopsis and Camelina sativa, and is regulated by the same transcription factor cascade as endogenous MUM4. Therefore, MUM4 0.3Pro is a promoter fragment that serves as a new tool for seed coat biology research.

  8. Occurrence of myo-inositol and alkyl-substituted polysaccharide in the prey-trapping mucilage of Drosera capensis.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Tetsuo

    2017-09-22

    The chemical composition of the exudate mucilage droplets of the carnivorous plant Drosera capensis was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mucilage was found to contain beside a very large molecular weight polysaccharide a significant amount of myo-inositol. It appears that myo-inositol escaped detection due to the commonly applied methodology on the chemical analysis of plant mucilage, such as dialysis, precipitation of polysaccharide component with alcohol, acid hydrolysis and detection of the resultant monosaccharide (aldose) units. The possible functions of myo-inositol in the mucilage droplets and the fate after being washed off from the leaf tentacles are proposed. On the polysaccharide component, the presence of methyl ester and alkyl chain-like moieties could be confirmed. These lipophilic moieties may provide the prey-trapping mucilage with the unique adhesive property onto the hydrophobic insect body parts, as well as onto the nature's well-known superhydrophobic surfaces such as the leaves of the sacred lotus plants. A re-evaluation of the mineral components of the mucilage, reported 40 years ago, is presented from the viewpoints of the current result and plants' natural habitat. A case for re-examination of the well-studied plant mucilaginous materials is made in light of the new findings.

  9. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 promotes Arabidopsis mucilage release by limiting methylesterification of homogalacturonan in seed coat epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Botran, Lucy; Ropartz, David; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M

    2013-01-01

    Imbibed seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Djarly are affected in mucilage release from seed coat epidermal cells. The impaired locus was identified as a pectin methylesterase inhibitor gene, PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 (PMEI6), specifically expressed in seed coat epidermal cells at the time when mucilage polysaccharides are accumulated. This spatio-temporal regulation appears to be modulated by GLABRA2 and LEUNIG HOMOLOG/MUCILAGE MODIFIED1, as expression of PMEI6 is reduced in mutants of these transcription regulators. In pmei6, mucilage release was delayed and outer cell walls of epidermal cells did not fragment. Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) demethylate homogalacturonan (HG), and the majority of HG found in wild-type mucilage was in fact derived from outer cell wall fragments. This correlated with the absence of methylesterified HG labeling in pmei6, whereas transgenic plants expressing the PMEI6 coding sequence under the control of the 35S promoter had increased labeling of cell wall fragments. Activity tests on seeds from pmei6 and 35S:PMEI6 transgenic plants showed that PMEI6 inhibits endogenous PME activities, in agreement with reduced overall methylesterification of mucilage fractions and demucilaged seeds. Another regulator of PME activity in seed coat epidermal cells, the subtilisin-like Ser protease SBT1.7, acts on different PMEs, as a pmei6 sbt1.7 mutant showed an additive phenotype.

  10. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna

    PubMed Central

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I.; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L. Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-01-01

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic–biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night. PMID:27680661

  11. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna.

    PubMed

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-09-29

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic-biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night.

  12. A naturally occurring mutation in an Arabidopsis accession affects a beta-D-galactosidase that increases the hydrophilic potential of rhamnogalacturonan I in seed mucilage.

    PubMed

    Macquet, Audrey; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Loudet, Olivier; Kronenberger, Jocelyne; Mouille, Gregory; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M

    2007-12-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana accession Shahdara was identified as a rare naturally occurring mutant that does not liberate seed mucilage on imbibition. The defective locus was found to be allelic to the mum2-1 and mum2-2 mutants. Map-based cloning showed that MUCILAGE-MODIFIED2 (MUM2) encodes the putative beta-D-galactosidase BGAL6. Activity assays demonstrated that one of four major beta-D-galactosidase activities present in developing siliques is absent in mum2 mutants. No difference was observed in seed coat epidermal cell structure between wild-type and mutant seed; however, weakening of the outer tangential cell wall by chemical treatment resulted in the release of mucilage from mum2 seed coat epidermal cells, and the mum2 mucilage only increased slightly in volume, relative to the wild type. Consistent with the absence of beta-D-galactosidase activity in the mutant, the inner layer of mucilage contained more Gal. The allocation of polysaccharides between the inner and outer mucilage layers was also modified in mum2. Mass spectrometry showed that rhamnogalacturonan I in mutant mucilage had more branching between rhamnose and hexose residues relative to the wild type. We conclude that the MUM2/BGAL6 beta-D-galactosidase is required for maturation of rhamnogalacturonan I in seed mucilage by the removal of galactose/galactan branches, resulting in increased swelling and extrusion of the mucilage on seed hydration.

  13. The incubation period of kuru.

    PubMed

    Huillard d'Aignaux, Jérôme N; Cousens, Simon N; Maccario, Jean; Costagliola, Dominique; Alpers, Michael P; Smith, Peter G; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2002-07-01

    Kuru is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that was identified in Papua New Guinea in the late 1950s. Several thousand cases of the disease occurred during a period of several decades. Epidemiologic investigations implicated ritual endocannibalistic funeral feasts as the likely route through which the infectious agent was spread. We estimated the incubation period distribution of kuru using a back-calculation model and explored the relation among sex, age at infection, and incubation period. Key assumptions in the model were that the number of new kuru infections in a year was proportional to the number of kuru cases dying that year, and that the epidemic arose from a single case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease occurring around 1900. The mean incubation period of kuru was estimated at between 10.3 and 13.2 years. Point estimates of the 90th percentile ranged from 21.1 to 27.0 years. The incubation period in females was estimated to be shorter than that in males. The shortest incubation periods were estimated in adult women, who may have been exposed to the largest doses of infectious material. Our findings suggest that the relatively young age of cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease probably reflects increased levels of exposure in young people, rather than age-dependency in the incubation period.

  14. Development of a technique for psyllium husk mucilage purification with simultaneous microencapsulation of curcumin

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on evaluating a technique for the psyllium husk mucilage (PHM) purification with simultaneous microencapsulation of curcumin. PHM was extracted with water and purified with ethanol. For the mucilage purification and simultaneous microencapsulation, an ethanolic solution of curcumin was used. After dehydration, the samples were analysed by instrumental techniques and evaluated for thermal stability. The presence of curcumin in the solution did not impair the yield of precipitated polysaccharide. Interactions of the dye and carbohydrates were confirmed by displacement of peaks in FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The onset temperature of degradation of microcapsules was superior to that of curcumin. Thermal stability in solution at 90°C also improved. After 300 minutes of heating, the microcapsules had a remnant curcumin content exceeding 70%, while, in standard sample, the remaining curcumin content was 4.46%. Thus, the developed technique was successful on purification of PHM and microencapsulation of curcumin. PMID:28817614

  15. A gradient of endogenous calcium forms in mucilage of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Agar blocks that contacted the upper sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots of Zea mays contain significantly less calcium (Ca) than blocks that contacted the lower sides of such roots. This gravity-induced gradient of Ca forms prior to the onset of gravicurvature, and does not form across tips of vertically-oriented roots or roots of agravitropic mutants. These results indicate that (1) Ca can be collected from mucilage of graviresponding roots, (2) gravity induces a downward movement of endogenous Ca in mucilage overlying the root tip, (3) this gravity-induced gradient of Ca does not form across tips of agravitropic roots, and (4) formation of a Ca gradient is not a consequence of gravicurvature. These results are consistent with gravity-induced movement of Ca being a trigger for subsequent redistribution of growth effectors (e.g. auxin) that induce differential growth and gravicurvature.

  16. A gradient of endogenous calcium forms in mucilage of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Agar blocks that contacted the upper sides of tips of horizontally-oriented roots of Zea mays contain significantly less calcium (Ca) than blocks that contacted the lower sides of such roots. This gravity-induced gradient of Ca forms prior to the onset of gravicurvature, and does not form across tips of vertically-oriented roots or roots of agravitropic mutants. These results indicate that (1) Ca can be collected from mucilage of graviresponding roots, (2) gravity induces a downward movement of endogenous Ca in mucilage overlying the root tip, (3) this gravity-induced gradient of Ca does not form across tips of agravitropic roots, and (4) formation of a Ca gradient is not a consequence of gravicurvature. These results are consistent with gravity-induced movement of Ca being a trigger for subsequent redistribution of growth effectors (e.g. auxin) that induce differential growth and gravicurvature.

  17. Relationship between the chemical components of taro rhizome mucilage and its emulsifying property.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luan Alberto; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pereira, Joelma

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of taro mucilage (TM) and explain its emulsification properties using different commercial emulsifiers and gums as benchmarks. The following analyses were performed: moisture, ether extract, protein, fiber, ash, sugar fraction, starch content, infrared spectroscopy and determination of monosaccharides and amino acids using HPLC. The analyses showed that TM has a high carbohydrate content and small protein fraction, similar to commercial gums. Commercial emulsifiers have a high content of lipids compared to TM. Therefore, it can be concluded that the emulsifying power of the studied mucilage is primarily caused by the protein content along with weakly polar amino acids, which occur in gums. The methyl group (CH3), which was observed in the infrared spectrum, and the lipid content may also contribute to the emulsifying activity by providing a hydrophobic moiety.

  18. Microscale characterization of dissolved organic matter production and uptake in marine microbial mat communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerl, H. W.; Bebout, B. M.; Joye, S. B.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Intertidal marine microbial mats exhibited biologically mediated uptake of low molecular weight dissolved organic matter (DOM), including D-glucose, acetate, and an L-amino acid mixture at trace concentrations. Uptake of all compounds occurred in darkness, but was frequently enhanced under natural illumination. The photosystem 2 inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU) generally failed to inhibit light-stimulated DOM uptake. Occasionally, light plus DCMU-amended treatments led to uptake rates higher than light-incubated samples, possibly due to phototrophic bacteria present in subsurface anoxic layers. Uptake was similar with either 3H- or 14C-labeled substrates, indicating that recycling of labeled CO2 via photosynthetic fixation was not interfering with measurements of light-stimulated DOM uptake. Microautoradiographs showed a variety of pigmented and nonpigmented bacteria and, to a lesser extent, cyanobacteria and eucaryotic microalgae involved in light-mediated DOM uptake. Light-stimulated DOM uptake was often observed in bacteria associated with sheaths and mucilage surrounding filamentous cyanobacteria, revealing a close association of organisms taking up DOM with photoautotrophic members of the mat community. The capacity for dark- and light-mediated heterotrophy, coupled to efficient retention of fixed carbon in the mat community, may help optimize net production and accretion of mats, even in oligotrophic waters.

  19. Microscale characterization of dissolved organic matter production and uptake in marine microbial mat communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerl, H. W.; Bebout, B. M.; Joye, S. B.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Intertidal marine microbial mats exhibited biologically mediated uptake of low molecular weight dissolved organic matter (DOM), including D-glucose, acetate, and an L-amino acid mixture at trace concentrations. Uptake of all compounds occurred in darkness, but was frequently enhanced under natural illumination. The photosystem 2 inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU) generally failed to inhibit light-stimulated DOM uptake. Occasionally, light plus DCMU-amended treatments led to uptake rates higher than light-incubated samples, possibly due to phototrophic bacteria present in subsurface anoxic layers. Uptake was similar with either 3H- or 14C-labeled substrates, indicating that recycling of labeled CO2 via photosynthetic fixation was not interfering with measurements of light-stimulated DOM uptake. Microautoradiographs showed a variety of pigmented and nonpigmented bacteria and, to a lesser extent, cyanobacteria and eucaryotic microalgae involved in light-mediated DOM uptake. Light-stimulated DOM uptake was often observed in bacteria associated with sheaths and mucilage surrounding filamentous cyanobacteria, revealing a close association of organisms taking up DOM with photoautotrophic members of the mat community. The capacity for dark- and light-mediated heterotrophy, coupled to efficient retention of fixed carbon in the mat community, may help optimize net production and accretion of mats, even in oligotrophic waters.

  20. Infant incubators and radiant warmers.

    PubMed

    Bell, E F

    1983-10-01

    Incubators and radiant warmers are used to maintain the body temperature of newborn infants. This is best done so that the energy expended for metabolic heat production is minimized. The heat output of these devices is usually regulated by servocontrol to keep the skin temperature constant at a site on the abdomen where a thermistor probe is attached. In incubators, air temperature can also be controlled as an alternative to skin temperature servocontrol. Increased ambient humidity, heat shields and clothing have been used to decrease the evaporative or nonevaporative heat loss of infants in incubators under certain conditions. Double-walled incubators, by adding a second inner layer of Plexiglas, reduce radiant heat loss. They may also reduce total heat loss, but only if air temperature is controlled rather than skin temperature. The minimal oxygen consumption under a radiant warmer is the same or perhaps slightly higher than it is for the same infant in an incubator. Compared with incubators, the partition of body heat loss is quite different under radiant warmers. Radiant warmers increase convective and evaporative heat loss and insensible water loss but eliminate radiant heat loss or change it to net gain. A heat shield of thin polyethylene film can be used with a radiant warmer to reduce heat loss by convection and evaporation. The major advantage of the radiant warmer is the easy access it provides to critically-ill infants without disturbing the thermal environment. Its major disadvantage is the increase in insensible water loss produced by the radiant warmer. Most infants can be safely and adequately cared for in either incubator or radiant warmer bed.

  1. Chemical components and emulsification properties of mucilage from Dioscorea opposita Thunb.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fanyi; Zhang, Yun; Yao, Yanna; Wen, Yurong; Hu, Weiping; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiuhua; Bell, Alan E; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2017-08-01

    The properties of mucilage obtained from Dioscorea opposita, generated during industrial manufacturing were investigated in this study. Characteristics such as monosaccharide content, amino acid content, molecular weight, and structural features were measured, whereas morphology was observed using a scanning/transmission electron microscope. Additionally, emulsification properties at different concentrations (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and 1.0%) and under acidic and basic pH (5.0 and 9.0) conditions were studied. The results showed that emulsions prepared from mucilage and medium-chain triglycerides presented more effective emulsifying functions and higher stability, especially at low concentrations. Both, acidic and basic conditions improved the overall emulsification properties, which suggested that the isoelectric point of amino acids may be involved in the emulsification properties. The results of this study show that mucilage from Dioscorea opposita can be considered as a sustainable resource of a natural emulsifier obtained from industrial waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diatom Adhesive Mucilage Contains Distinct Supramolecular Assemblies of a Single Modular Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dugdale, T. M.; Dagastine, R.; Chiovitti, A.; Wetherbee, R.

    2006-01-01

    A previous study used atomic force microscopy saw-tooth retraction curves to characterize the adhesive mucilage pads of the diatom Toxarium undulatum. The major mucilage component consisted of adhesive nanofibers (ANFs) made up of modular proteins arranged into cohesive units, each containing a set number of modular proteins aligned in parallel. This study shows that T. undulatum adhesive mucilage is a biocomposite containing four additional adhesive components, including single modular proteins that are likely to be the structural units from which the ANFs are assembled. Two further distinct supramolecular assemblies were observed to coexist with ANFs (ANFs II and III), along with a continuum of single modular proteins through oligomers made up of varying numbers of modular proteins arranged in parallel. All components of the adhesive biocomposite produce a characteristic force spectrum with the same interpeak distance (35.3 ± 0.3 (mean ± SE) nm), suggesting they are derived from discrete supramolecular assemblies of the same modular protein, but they are distinguishable from one another based on the rupture force, persistence length, and interpeak force measured from their saw-tooth curves. PMID:16443662

  3. The flocculation performance of Tamarindus mucilage in relation to removal of vat and direct dyes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anuradha; Bajpai, Malvika

    2006-05-01

    A food grade natural mucilage, extracted from the seeds of Tamarindus indica pods, is used as a flocculant for removal of solubilised vat (golden yellow) and direct dye (direct fast scarlet) in aqueous solutions. The maximum removal obtained was 60% for golden yellow after 2 h and was 25% for direct fast scarlet after 1 h. The optimum mucilage dose was 10 mg/l and 15 mg/l for golden yellow and direct fast scarlet, respectively. The pH values also seem to affect the percent removal of both the dyes significantly. In case of vat dye, the pH value of the test samples affected the percent removal significantly. The change was highly significant between neutral and alkaline pH. In case of direct dye, there was no significant change in percent removal at pH 7 and pH 4 whereas a significant change in percent removal was observed between pH 7 and pH 9.2. The plausible mucilage-dye interaction and flocculation mechanism has been discussed. This new flocculant works better in the case of vat dye removal compared with the direct dye.

  4. Dissecting the Genetic Basis for Seed Coat Mucilage Heteroxylan Biosynthesis in Plantago ovata Using Gamma Irradiation and Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Matthew R.; Ma, Chao; Phan, Jana; Neumann, Kylie; Shirley, Neil J.; Hahn, Michael G.; Cozzolino, Daniel; Burton, Rachel A.

    2017-01-01

    Seeds from the myxospermous species Plantago ovata release a polysaccharide-rich mucilage upon contact with water. This seed coat derived mucilage is composed predominantly of heteroxylan (HX) and is utilized as a gluten-free dietary fiber supplement to promote human colorectal health. In this study, a gamma-irradiated P. ovata population was generated and screened using histological stains and Fourier Transform Mid Infrared (FTMIR) spectroscopy to identify putative mutants showing defects in seed coat mucilage HX composition and/or structure. FTMIR analysis of dry seed revealed variation in regions of the IR spectra previously linked to xylan structure in Secale cereale (rye). Subsequent absorbance ratio and PCA multivariate analysis identified 22 putative mutant families with differences in the HX IR fingerprint region. Many of these showed distinct changes in the amount and subtle changes in structure of HX after mucilage extrusion, while 20% of the putative HX mutants identified by FTMIR showed no difference in staining patterns of extruded mucilage compared to wild-type. Transcriptional screening analysis of two putative reduced xylan in mucilage (rxm) mutants, rxm1 and rxm3, revealed that changes in HX levels in rxm1 correlate with reduced transcription of known and novel genes associated with xylan synthesis, possibly indicative of specific co-regulatory units within the xylan biosynthetic pathway. These results confirm that FTMIR is a suitable method for identifying putative mutants with altered mucilage HX composition in P. ovata, and therefore forms a resource to identify novel genes involved in xylan biosynthesis. PMID:28377777

  5. Relationships between organic carbon and microbial components in a Tyrrhenian area (Isola del Giglio) affected by mucilages.

    PubMed

    Misic, C; Giani, M; Povero, P; Polimene, L; Fabiano, M

    2005-12-15

    The chemical and biological properties of the water column at a Tyrrhenian site (Isola del Giglio) were studied during a 3-year period. The results highlighted the oligotrophic features of the site, characterised by quite low concentrations of organic carbon (on average DOC 102 micromol/L and POC 9 micromol/L). Relevant bacterial biomass (on average 42.1 microg C/L) and a notable activity (in terms of frequency of dividing cells, on average more than 5%) were observed. However, remarkable changes for these parameters were seasonally recorded. The cyclic occurrence, generally during the late spring-summer period, of benthic mucilage indicated that localised distrophic processes may occur. In particular, the benthic mucilage events of 2000 and 2001 were investigated, although some comparative information was available also for 1999 and 2002. The mucilage aggregates generally showed high bacterial colonisation, which have remarkable effects on the organic matter cycle both inside the aggregates and in the surrounding seawater. During the benthic mucilage development, an increase of DOC and POC concentrations was observed (up to 129 and 18 micromol/L, respectively, in June 2000 and up to 145 and 10 micromol/L, respectively, in May and June 2001) in the water column adjacent to the bottom. However, a general decrease of the trophic value of particulate matter (in terms of C/N ratio) was also observed, especially in 2000 after the disappearance of the mucilage. The available energy and organic matter during the mucilage events led to an increased presence of bacteria in the bottom waters of the Isola del Giglio, with maximum biomass values in 2001. Similarly, the replicative activity of bacteria was higher in 2001 (frequency of dividing cells about 5% vs. 3% of 2000). The lower activity of 2000, in addition to the lower trophic value of organic matter and different environmental conditions (namely lower temperature), might be involved in the persistence of mucilage in

  6. Small Technology Business Incubation Needs

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This report contains a summary of typical business incubation needs of small technology companies. This document will serve as a guide in the design and implementation of services offered by the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), an incubator program being designed and developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the methodology used to perform the needs assessment and services proposed to meet the needs of client companies. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland.

  7. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2, a Glucomannan Synthase, Is Involved in Maintaining Adherent Mucilage Structure in Arabidopsis Seed1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li; Shi, Dachuan; Li, Junling; Kong, Yingzhen; Yu, Yanchong; Chai, Guohua; Hu, Ruibo; Wang, Juan; Hahn, Michael G.; Zhou, Gongke

    2014-01-01

    Mannans are hemicellulosic polysaccharides that are considered to have both structural and storage functions in the plant cell wall. However, it is not yet known how mannans function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed mucilage. In this study, CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A2 (CSLA2; At5g22740) expression was observed in several seed tissues, including the epidermal cells of developing seed coats. Disruption of CSLA2 resulted in thinner adherent mucilage halos, although the total amount of the adherent mucilage did not change compared with the wild type. This suggested that the adherent mucilage in the mutant was more compact compared with that of the wild type. In accordance with the role of CSLA2 in glucomannan synthesis, csla2-1 mucilage contained 30% less mannosyl and glucosyl content than did the wild type. No appreciable changes in the composition, structure, or macromolecular properties were observed for nonmannan polysaccharides in mutant mucilage. Biochemical analysis revealed that cellulose crystallinity was substantially reduced in csla2-1 mucilage; this was supported by the removal of most mucilage cellulose through treatment of csla2-1 seeds with endo-β-glucanase. Mutation in CSLA2 also resulted in altered spatial distribution of cellulose and an absence of birefringent cellulose microfibrils within the adherent mucilage. As with the observed changes in crystalline cellulose, the spatial distribution of pectin was also modified in csla2-1 mucilage. Taken together, our results demonstrate that glucomannans synthesized by CSLA2 are involved in modulating the structure of adherent mucilage, potentially through altering cellulose organization and crystallization. PMID:24569843

  8. Abrupt Changes in the Marmara Pelagic Ecosystem during the recent jellyfish Liriope tetraphylla invasion and mucilage events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan Kideys, Ahmet; Yüksek, Ahsen; Sur, Halil Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    In this study, meteorological and hydrographical conditions as well as chemical and biological parameters have been examined for the period 2005-2009 to determine the impact and cause of the massive mucilage phenomenon observed in the Sea of Marmara in October 2007. Results showed that there is a decrease pattern in chl concentration as well as both phytoplankton and zooplankton abundances from August till October in 2007 whilst the jellyfish Liriope tetraphylla had bloom levels. This period coincided with the maximum intensity of pelagic fishing throughout the years. Nitrogen/phosphate ratio increased prior to the mucilage formation. Invasive Liriope tetraphylla abundance increased exponentially in August and died in masses as a result of starvation and meteorological / oceanographic conditions. In October, following the mucilage matter production another new species for the region Gonyaulax fragilis was observed in high abundance through the basin. It is worthy to note that during basin wide samplings conducted in the Sea of Marmara in both 2005 and 2006, high abundances of Liriope tetraphylla have been detected particularly at the northern parts where no mucilage event was observed. We suggest that overfishing in the Sea of Marmara provided a ground for the establishment of the invasive jellyfish and accompanying mucilage event was due to by synergic combinations of several factors.

  9. The possible involvement of root-cap mucilage in gravitropism and calcium movement across root tips of Allium cepa L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. grown in aerated water elongate rapidly, but are not graviresponsive. These roots (1) possess extensive columella tissues comprised of cells containing numerous sedimented amyloplasts, (2) lack mucilage on their tips, and (3) are characterized by a weakly polar movement of calcium (Ca) across their tips. Placing roots in humid air correlates positively with the (1) onset of gravicurvature, (2) appearance of mucilage on tips of the roots, and (3) onset of the ability to transport Ca polarly to the lower side of the root tip. Gravicurvature of roots previously submerged in aerated water is more rapid when roots are oriented vertically for 1-2 h in humid air prior to being oriented horizontally. The more rapid gravicurvature of these roots correlates positively with the accumulation of mucilage at the tips of roots during the time the roots are oriented vertically. Therefore, the onset of gravicurvature and the ability of roots to transport Ca to the lower sides of their tips correlate positively with the presence of mucilage at their tips. These results suggest that mucilage may be important for the transport of Ca across root caps.

  10. The possible involvement of root-cap mucilage in gravitropism and calcium movement across root tips of Allium cepa L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. grown in aerated water elongate rapidly, but are not graviresponsive. These roots (1) possess extensive columella tissues comprised of cells containing numerous sedimented amyloplasts, (2) lack mucilage on their tips, and (3) are characterized by a weakly polar movement of calcium (Ca) across their tips. Placing roots in humid air correlates positively with the (1) onset of gravicurvature, (2) appearance of mucilage on tips of the roots, and (3) onset of the ability to transport Ca polarly to the lower side of the root tip. Gravicurvature of roots previously submerged in aerated water is more rapid when roots are oriented vertically for 1-2 h in humid air prior to being oriented horizontally. The more rapid gravicurvature of these roots correlates positively with the accumulation of mucilage at the tips of roots during the time the roots are oriented vertically. Therefore, the onset of gravicurvature and the ability of roots to transport Ca to the lower sides of their tips correlate positively with the presence of mucilage at their tips. These results suggest that mucilage may be important for the transport of Ca across root caps.

  11. RT 128: New Project Incubator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-04

    trustworthy, and persuasive technology principles applied to cybersociophysical systems. Her work in computer science includes a new project on...Doctor’s Checklist Can Help Us Change Health Care from the Inside Out. New York , NY: Plume. Rasmussen, J. (1983). “Skills, Rules, and Knowledge...RT 128: New Project Incubator Technical Report

  12. MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4 Encodes a Putative Pectin Biosynthetic Enzyme Developmentally Regulated by APETALA2, TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1, and GLABRA2 in the Arabidopsis Seed Coat1

    PubMed Central

    Western, Tamara L.; Young, Diana S.; Dean, Gillian H.; Tan, Wei Ling; Samuels, A. Lacey; Haughn, George W.

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis seed coat epidermis undergoes a complex process of differentiation that includes the biosynthesis and secretion of large quantities of pectinaceous mucilage, cytoplasmic rearrangement, and secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Mutations in MUM4 (MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4) lead to a decrease in seed coat mucilage and incomplete cytoplasmic rearrangement. We show that MUM4 encodes a putative NDP-l-rhamnose synthase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of the pectin rhamnogalacturonan I, the major component of Arabidopsis mucilage. This result suggests that the synthesis of monosaccharide substrates is a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of pectinaceous seed coat mucilage. In addition, the reduced cytoplasmic rearrangement observed in the absence of a key enzyme in pectin biosynthesis in mum4 mutants establishes a causal link between mucilage production and cellular morphogenesis. The cellular phenotype seen in mum4 mutants is similar to that of several transcription factors (AP2 [APETALA2], TTG1 [TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1], TTG2 MYB61, and GL2 [GLABRA2]). Expression studies suggest that MUM4 is developmentally regulated in the seed coat by AP2, TTG1, and GL2, whereas TTG2 and MYB61 appear to be regulating mucilage production through alternate pathway(s). Our results provide a framework for the regulation of mucilage production and secretory cell differentiation. PMID:14701918

  13. Boron-bridged RG-II and calcium are required to maintain the pectin network of the Arabidopsis seed mucilage ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Shi, Da-Chuan; Wang, Juan; Hu, Rui-Bo; Zhou, Gong-Ke; O'Neill, Malcolm A; Kong, Ying-Zhen

    2017-06-01

    The structure of a pectin network requires both calcium (Ca(2+)) and boron (B). Ca(2+) is involved in crosslinking pectic polysaccharides and arbitrarily induces the formation of an "egg-box" structure among pectin molecules, while B crosslinks rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) side chain A apiosyl residues in primary cell walls to generate a borate-dimeric-rhamnogalacturonan II (dRG-II-B) complex through a boron-bridge bond, leading to the formation of a pectin network. Based on recent studies of dRG-II-B structures, a hypothesis has been proposed suggesting that Ca(2+)is a common component of the dRG-II-B complex. However, no in vivo evidence has addressed whether B affects the stability of Ca(2+) crosslinks. Here, we investigated the L-fucose-deficient dwarf mutant mur1, which was previously shown to require exogenous B treatment for phenotypic reversion. Imbibed Arabidopsis thaliana seeds release hydrated polysaccharides to form a halo of seed mucilage covering the seed surface, which consists of a water-soluble outer layer and an adherent inner layer. Our study of mur1 seed mucilage has revealed that the pectin in the outer layer of mucilage was relocated to the inner layer. Nevertheless, the mur1 inner mucilage was more vulnerable to rough shaking or ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction than that of the wild type. Immunolabeling analysis suggested that dRG-II-B was severely decreased in mur1 inner mucilage. Moreover, non-methylesterified homogalacturonan (HG) exhibited obvious reassembly in the mur1 inner layer compared with the wild type, which may imply a possible connection between dRG-II-B deficiency and pectin network transformation in the seed mucilage. As expected, the concentration of B in the mur1 inner mucilage was reduced, whereas the distribution and concentration of Ca(2+)in the inner mucilage increased significantly, which could be the reason why pectin relocates from the outer mucilage to the inner mucilage. Consequently, the

  14. In vitro assessment of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage and its impact on the human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni; Alonso, José Luis; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-02-01

    Aloe vera mucilage is reported to be rich in acemannan that is a polysaccharide with a backbone of β-(1→4)-D-mannose residues acetylated at the C-2 and C-3 positions and contains some side chains of galactose and arabinose attached to the C-6 carbon. The evaluation of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage was carried out by in vitro fermentation using intestinal microbiota from six healthy donors as the inoculum. The prebiotic activity was assessed through the quantification of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and the evaluation of dynamic bacterial population in mixed faecal cultures by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our findings support the possible incorporation of the Aloe vera mucilage in the development of a variety of food products known as prebiotics aimed at improving gastrointestinal health.

  15. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs: effects on apparent digestibility of fat and energy and fecal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, A; Bjørnvad, C R

    2016-12-01

    In humans, dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage and calcium decrease apparent digestibility of fat and energy. These supplements could prove useful for weight management in dogs. To examine dry matter, energy and fat apparent digestibility, and fecal characteristics following dietary flaxseed mucilage supplementation alone or in combination with calcium. A single-blinded crossover feeding trial was conducted on 11 privately owned dogs. During three consecutive 14-day periods, dogs where fed commercial dog food supplemented with potato starch (control diet), flaxseed mucilage or flaxseed mucilage and calcium. Feces from the past 2 days of each period were collected for analysis. Owners recorded fecal score (1-7: 1=very hard/dry feces, 2-3=ideal and 7=diarrhea). Apparent digestibility of fat was lower in both flaxseed mucilage diet (94.5±0.8%), and flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet (92.9±0.9%) compared with control diet (96.9±0.2%, P<0.0001) with fat digestibility in flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet being significantly lower than the diet supplemented with only flaxseed mucilage. Dry matter and energy digestibility was not significantly affected by diet. Fecal wet weight, dry weight and dry matter percentage was not affected by diet despite a higher fecal score for test diets (3.7±0.3) compared with control (2.8±0.2, P<0.007). In dogs, flaxseed mucilage decreased fat apparent digestibility and this effect was enhanced when combined with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.

  16. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  17. Simultaneous decay of contact-angle and surface-tension during the rehydration of air-dried root mucilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arye, Gilboa; Chen, Fengxian

    2016-04-01

    Plants can extract or exude water and solutes at their root surface. Among the root exudates, the mucilage exhibits a surfactant like properties - depressing the surface-tension (ST, mN/m) at the water-air interface. The amphipathic nature of some of the mucilage molecules (e.g. lipids) is thought to be the reason for its surfactant like behavior. As the rhizosphere dries out, re-orientation and/or re-configuration of amphipathic molecules at the solid-air interface, may impart hydrophobic nature to the rhizosphere. Our current knowledge on the ST of natural and/or model root mucilage is based on measurements of the equilibrium ST. However, adsorption of amphipathic molecules at the water-air interface is not reached instantaneously. The hydrophobic nature of the rhizosphere was deduced from the initial advancing CA, commonly calculated from the first few milliseconds up to few seconds (depending on the method employed). We hypothesized that during the rehydration of the root mucilage; both quantities are dynamic. Processes such as water absorbance and dissolution, may vary the interfacial tensions as a function of time. Consequently, simultaneous reduction of both CA and ST as a function of time can be expected. The main objective of this study was to characterize and quantify the extent, persistency and dynamic of the CA and ST during rehydration of air-dried root mucilage. The study was involved with measurements of dynamic and equilibrium ST using the pedant drop or Wilhelmy plate method, respectively. Glass slides were coated with naturally occurring or model root mucilage and the CA of a sessile drop was measured optically, as a function of time. The results were analyzed based on the Young-Dupré and Young-Laplace equations, from which the simultaneous decay of CA and ST was deduced. The implication for the wettability and water flow in the rhizosphere will be discussed.

  18. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  19. Effect of lipid/polysaccharide ratio on surface activity of model root mucilage in its solid and liquid states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fengxian; Arye, Gilboa

    2016-04-01

    The rhizosphere can be defined as the volume of soil around living roots, which is influenced by root activity. The biological, chemical and physical conditions that prevail in the rhizosphere are significantly different from those of the bulk soil. Plant roots can release diverse organic materials in the rhizosphere which may have different effects on its bio-chemo-physical activity. Among these exudates is the root mucilage which can play a role on the maintenance of root-soil contact, lubrication of the root tip, protection of roots from desiccation and disease, stabilization of soil micro-aggregates and the selective absorption and storage of ions. The surface activity of the root mucilage at the liquid-air interface deduced from its surface tension depression relative to water, implying on its amphiphilic nature. Consequently as the rhizosphere dry out, hydrophobic functional groups may exhibit orientation at the solid-air interface and thus, the wettability of the rhizosphere may temporarily decrease. The major fraction of the root mucilage comprise of polysaccharides and to a much lesser extent, amino acids, organic acids, and phospholipids. The most frequent polysaccharide and phospholipids detected in root mucilage are polygalacturonic acid (PGA) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC), respectively. The latter, is thought to be main cause for the surface active nature of root mucilage. Nevertheless, the role and function of root mucilage in the rhizosphere is commonly studied based on model root mucilage that comprise of only one component, where the most frequent ones are PGA or PC (or lecithin). The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of concentration and PGA/PC ratios on the wettability of a model rhizosphere soil and the surface tension of the model root mucilage at the liquid-air interface. The PGA/PC mixtures were measured for their equilibrium and dynamic surface tension using the Wilhelmy-Plate method. Quartz sand or glass slides were

  20. Mucilage production during the incompatible interaction between Orobanche crenata and Vicia sativa.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Lozano, M Dolores; Cubero, José I; González-Melendi, Pablo; Risueño, M Carmen; Rubiales, Diego

    2006-01-01

    Orobanche spp. (broomrapes) are holoparasites lacking in chlorophyll and totally dependent on their host for their supply of nutrients. O. crenata is a severe constraint to legumes cultivation and breeding for resistance remains as one of the best available methods of control. However, little is known about the basis of host resistance to broomrapes. It is a multicomponent event, and resistance based on hampering development and necrosis of broomrape tubercles has been reported. In the present work, the formation of mucilage and occlusion of host xylem vessels associated with the death of O. crenata tubercles were studied histologically. Samples of necrotic O. crenata tubercles established on resistant and susceptible vetch genotypes were collected. The samples were fixed, sectioned and stained using different procedures. The sections were observed at the light microscopy level, either under bright field, epi-fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy. A higher proportion of necrotic tubercles was found on the resistant genotype and this was associated with a higher percentage of occluded vessels. Mucilage is composed mainly by carbohydrates (non-esterified pectins) and the presence of polyphenols was also detected. The mucilage and other substances composed by parasite secretions and host-degraded products was found to block host vessels and obstruct the parasite supply channel, being a quantitative defensive response against O. crenata in vetch, and probably also in other legumes and plants. The presence of foreign substances (i.e. parasite secretions) and host-degraded products (i.e. carbohydrates from cell walls) inside host vessels seems to activate this response and leads to xylem occlusion and further death of established Orobanche tubercles.

  1. MYB61 Is Required for Mucilage Deposition and Extrusion in the Arabidopsis Seed Coat

    PubMed Central

    Penfield, Steven; Meissner, Ruth C.; Shoue, Douglas A.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Bevan, Michael W.

    2001-01-01

    We have undertaken a systematic reverse genetic approach to understand R2R3-MYB gene function in Arabidopsis. Here, we report the functional characterization of MYB61 based on the phenotype of three independent insertion alleles. Wide-ranging phenotype screens indicated that MYB61 mutants were deficient in seed mucilage extrusion upon imbibition. This phenotype was expressed in the sporophytic tissues of the seed. Deposition and extrusion of the principal component of the mucilage, a relatively unbranched rhamnogalacturonan, were reduced in the MYB61 mutant seed coats. Additional defects in the maturation of the testa epidermal cells suggested a potential deficiency in extracellular secretion in myb61 lines. Consistent with a proposed role in testa development, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the highest MYB61 expression in siliques, which was localized to the seed coat by a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene fusion. Lower levels of GUS expression were detected in developing vascular tissue. Parallel analysis of the ttg1-1 mutant phenotype indicated that this mutant showed more severe developmental defects than myb61 and suggested that MYB61 may function in a genetic pathway distinct from that of TTG1. The transient nature of seed epidermal characteristics in the ttg1-1 mutant suggested that TTG1 was required for maintenance rather than initiation of testa epidermal differentiation. Germination and seedling establishment were compromised in the myb61 and ttg1-1 mutants under conditions of reduced water potential, suggesting a function for Arabidopsis seed mucilage during germination in dry conditions. PMID:11752387

  2. Evaluation of the suspending properties of two local Opuntia spp. mucilages on paracetamol suspension.

    PubMed

    Gebresamuel, Naod; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige

    2013-01-01

    Some excipients are currently available for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The purpose of this study is to develop cheap and effective natural excipient that can be used as an effective alternative for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The suspending properties of Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia stricta mucilages (family Cactaceae) were evaluated comparatively with that of NaCMC at concentration range of 2-6% (w/v) in Paracetamol suspension. Sedimentation volume (%) (with and without electrolyte), rheology, redispersibility, and dissolution rate of the suspensions were employed as evaluation parameters. The values obtained were used as basis for comparison of the suspending agents. The apparent viscosities of the suspensions in all the suspending agents concentration levels and applied shear rates were in the order of NaCMC>OS>OFI with non-Newtonian flow and accordingly the flow rates of the suspensions were in the order of OFI > OS > NaCMC. The sedimentation volumes (%) of the suspensions in all the suspending agent concentration levels were higher for OS followed by OFI and then NaCMC. The high sedimentation volumes (%) of suspensions, in turn, were accompanied by ease of redispersibility of that order. The effect of electrolyte on sedimentation volume (%) had dual effect. It was only the suspensions that had NaCMC that showed increase in sedimentation volume (%) in all molar NaCl concentration. However, in suspensions that had mucilages of OS and OFI, an initial increase in sediment volumes (%) were accompanied by decrease after 1x10(-3)M and 1x10(-2)M of NaCl, respectively. Dissolution of the suspensions which had mucilages attained the acceptable ranges (> 80% drug release in 30 min) in 5 min. Similarly, except A6 formulations A2, A3, A4 and A5 have attained the limit but the release was not as quick as the previous formulations. Hence, it can be concluded that mucilages of Opuntia spp. (Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia stricta

  3. COBRA-LIKE2, a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE family, plays a role in cellulose deposition in arabidopsis seed coat mucilage secretory cells.

    PubMed

    Ben-Tov, Daniela; Abraham, Yael; Stav, Shira; Thompson, Kevin; Loraine, Ann; Elbaum, Rivka; de Souza, Amancio; Pauly, Markus; Kieber, Joseph J; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2015-03-01

    Differentiation of the maternally derived seed coat epidermal cells into mucilage secretory cells is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Recent studies identified cellulose as an important component of seed mucilage in various species. Cellulose is deposited as a set of rays that radiate from the seed upon mucilage extrusion, serving to anchor the pectic component of seed mucilage to the seed surface. Using transcriptome data encompassing the course of seed development, we identified COBRA-LIKE2 (COBL2), a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), as coexpressed with other genes involved in cellulose deposition in mucilage secretory cells. Disruption of the COBL2 gene results in substantial reduction in the rays of cellulose present in seed mucilage, along with an increased solubility of the pectic component of the mucilage. Light birefringence demonstrates a substantial decrease in crystalline cellulose deposition into the cellulosic rays of the cobl2 mutants. Moreover, crystalline cellulose deposition into the radial cell walls and the columella appears substantially compromised, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and in situ quantification of light birefringence. Overall, the cobl2 mutants display about 40% reduction in whole-seed crystalline cellulose content compared with the wild type. These data establish that COBL2 plays a role in the deposition of crystalline cellulose into various secondary cell wall structures during seed coat epidermal cell differentiation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Novel Rhamnogalacturonan I and Arabinoxylan Polysaccharides of Flax Seed Mucilage1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Naran, Radnaa; Chen, Guibing; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2008-01-01

    The viscous seed mucilage of flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a mixture of rhamnogalacturonan I and arabinoxylan with novel side group substitutions. The rhamnogalacturonan I has numerous single nonreducing terminal residues of the rare sugar l-galactose attached at the O-3 position of the rhamnosyl residues instead of the typical O-4 position. The arabinoxylan is highly branched, primarily with double branches of nonreducing terminal l-arabinosyl units at the O-2 and O-3 positions along the xylan backbone. While a portion of each polysaccharide can be purified by anion-exchange chromatography, the side group structures of both polysaccharides are modified further in about one-third of the mucilage to form composites with enhanced viscosity. Our finding of the unusual side group structures for two well-known cell wall polysaccharides supports a hypothesis that plants make a selected few ubiquitous backbone polymers onto which a broad spectrum of side group substitutions are added to engender many possible functions. To this end, modification of one polymer may be accompanied by complementary modifications of others to impart functions to heterocomposites not present in either polymer alone. PMID:18667723

  5. Arabinoxylan from Mucilage of Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.): Structure and Antinociceptive Effect in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Georgia Erdmann; Baggio, Cristiane H; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Iacomini, Marcello; Cordeiro, Lucimara M C

    2016-02-17

    Tomato is a known functional food due to its content of bioactive compounds. Herein, polysaccharides were extracted from mucilage of tomatoes, and a purified fraction (PTOK) was analyzed by sugar composition, methylation, and NMR spectroscopy analysis. The results showed the presence of an arabinoxylan, having (1→4)-linked β-d-Xylp units in the main chain, which carried a low proportion of branching (∼5.6%), at O-2 and O-3 position, with side chains constituted by single Araf or Xylp units. Intraperitoneal administration of the arabinoxylan in mice significantly reduced the number of abdominal constrictions induced by 0.6% acetic acid and the inflammatory phase of nociception induced by 2.5% formalin, indicating that it had an antinociceptive effect on inflammatory pain models, amplifying the biological role displayed by arabinoxylans in the diet. Furthermore, this study reports the presence of an arabinoxylan in a dicotyledon plant, and also it is the first study of polysaccharides from mucilage of tomatoes.

  6. Extraction optimization of mucilage from Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Sadaf; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous extraction of basil seed mucilage was optimized using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) for modeling of three independent variables: temperature (40-91 °C); extraction time (1.6-3.3 h) and water/seed ratio (18:1-77:1) was used to study the response for yield. Experimental values for extraction yield ranged from 7.86 to 20.5 g/100 g. Extraction yield was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by all the variables. Temperature and water/seed ratio were found to have pronounced effect while the extraction time was found to have minor possible effects. Graphical optimization determined the optimal conditions for the extraction of mucilage. The optimal condition predicted an extraction yield of 20.49 g/100 g at 56.7 °C, 1.6 h, and a water/seed ratio of 66.84:1. Optimal conditions were determined to obtain highest extraction yield. Results indicated that water/seed ratio was the most significant parameter, followed by temperature and time.

  7. Supercritical CO2 generation of nanometric structure from Ocimum basilicum mucilage prepared for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Iman; Ghoreishi, Seyyed M; Habibi, Neda

    2015-04-01

    Plant-derived polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their emollient, lack of toxicity, and irritating nature and low cost. In this work, basil seed mucilage was dried using supercritical carbon dioxide phase inversion technique to form a nanometric structure. The obtained polymeric structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and compared with the oven-derived sample group. It was demonstrated that the product morphology could be controlled by altering the composition of methanol which functioned as the co-solvent in the nonsolvent stream. The most homogeneous product (60-nm mean pore size diameter, 78 m(2)/g BET surface area with no agglomeration) was obtained with 2.5% methanol. The FTIR data showed that the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups suggested the bioadhesive property of basil seed mucilage was good and many active pharmaceutical compounds might be loaded to the resultant nanometric structure to enhance drug release. Furthermore, the FTIR analyses indicated that the nature of the final product did not change during the supercritical drying procedure.

  8. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel of midazolam prepared with Ficus carica mucilage.

    PubMed

    Basu, Shyamoshree; Bandyopadhyay, Amal Kumar

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare mucoadhesive in situ nasal gels with mucilage isolated from fig fruits (Ficus carica, family: Moraceae) containing midazolam hydrochloride. Nasal gels of midazolam were prepared using three different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% w/v) of F. carica mucilage (FCM) and synthetic polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and Carbopol 934). Evaluation of FCM showed that it was as safe as the synthetic polymers for nasal administration. In situ gels were prepared with mixture Pluronic F127 and mucoadhesive agents. Evaluation of the prepared gels was carried out, including determination of viscosity, texture profile analysis and mucoadhesive strength. In vitro drug permeation study was conducted with the gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (0.5% w/v sodium taurocholate) using excised goat nasal mucosa. In vitro permeation profiles were evaluated, and histological study of nasal mucosae before and after permeation study was also conducted to determine histological change, if any. In vivo experiments conducted in rabbits further confirmed that in situ nasal gels provided better bioavailability of midazolam than the gels prepared from synthetic mucoadhesive polymers. It was observed that the nasal gel containing 0.5% FCM and 0.5% sodium taurocholate exhibited appropriate rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties and showed better drug release profiles. Moreover, this formulation produced no damage to the nasal mucosa that was used for the permeation study, and absolute bioavailability was also higher compared to gels prepared from synthetic polymers.

  9. Investigation of the effect of nanoclay on the properties of quince seed mucilage edible films.

    PubMed

    Shekarabi, Azadeh Sadat; Oromiehie, Abdul Rasoul; Vaziri, Ali; Ardjmand, Mahdi; Safekordi, Ali Akbar

    2014-11-01

    Some physical properties like Gas barrier, thermal stability, and mechanical properties and brittleness of pure biopolymers film are inadequate for food packaging. The functional properties of quince seed mucilage-based films were enhanced by addition of nanoclay (NC) (Cloisite 30B). Edible films were cast from heated aqueous solutions of quince seed (10% w/w) and NC (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% w/w of quince seed). The effect of NC was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability, and glass transition temperature (T g) of the nano composite films. In films containing NC, ultimate tensile strength enhanced to 22 MPa, and elongation increased from 2.48% to 6.5%. The addition of NC also improved gas barrier properties of the films. In films containing 2% NC, WVP decreased from 6.69 × 10(-7) g·m(-1)·h(-1)·Pa(-1) to 1.10 × 10(-7) g·m(-1)·h(-1)·Pa(-1) and oxygen permeability declined to 13.68 mL·day·m-(2). NC also influences glass transition temperature significantly. The study demonstrated that the properties of quince seed mucilage edible films can be significantly improved using NC as reinforcement.

  10. Sorption isotherms, thermodynamic properties and glass transition temperature of mucilage extracted from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Gutiérrez, Sandra Karina; Figueira, Ana Cristina; Rodríguez-Huezo, María Eva; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Carrillo-Navas, Hector; Pérez-Alonso, César

    2015-05-05

    Freeze-dried chia mucilage adsorption isotherms were determined at 25, 35 and 40°C and fitted with the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The integral thermodynamic properties (enthalpy and entropy) were estimated with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Pore radius of the mucilage, calculated with the Kelvin equation, varied from 0.87 to 6.44 nm in the temperature range studied. The point of maximum stability (minimum integral entropy) ranged between 7.56 and 7.63kg H2O per 100 kg of dry solids (d.s.) (water activity of 0.34-0.53). Enthalpy-entropy compensation for the mucilage showed two isokinetic temperatures: (i) one occurring at low moisture contents (0-7.56 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s.), controlled by changes in water entropy; and (ii) another happening in the moisture interval of 7.56-24 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s. and was enthalpy driven. The glass transition temperature Tg of the mucilage fluctuated between 42.93 and 57.93°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sticking to cellulose: exploiting Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage to understand cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall polysaccharide interactions.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Jonathan S; North, Helen M

    2017-05-01

    The cell wall defines the shape of cells and ultimately plant architecture. It provides mechanical resistance to osmotic pressure while still being malleable and allowing cells to grow and divide. These properties are determined by the different components of the wall and the interactions between them. The major components of the cell wall are the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose biosynthesis has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and more recently in the mucilage-producing epidermal cells of the seed coat. The latter has emerged as an excellent system to study cellulose biosynthesis and the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall polymers. Here we review some of the major advances in our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in the seed coat, and how mucilage has aided our understanding of the interactions between cellulose and other cell wall components required for wall cohesion. Recently, 10 genes involved in cellulose or hemicellulose biosynthesis in mucilage have been identified. These discoveries have helped to demonstrate that xylan side-chains on rhamnogalacturonan I act to link this pectin directly to cellulose. We also examine other factors that, either directly or indirectly, influence cellulose organization or crystallization in mucilage. © 2017 INRA. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Ultrasonic Removal of Mucilage for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Omega-3 Rich Oil from Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    PubMed

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2017-03-29

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds contain an important amount of edible oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Fast and alternative extraction techniques based on polar solvents, such as ethanol or water, have become relevant for oil extraction in recent years. However, chia seeds also contain a large amount of soluble fiber or mucilage, which makes difficult an oil extraction process with polar solvents. For that reason, the aim of this study was to develop a gentle extraction method for mucilage in order to extract chia oil with polar solvents using pressurized liquids and compare with organic solvent extraction. The proposed mucilage extraction method, using an ultrasonic probe and only water, was optimized at mild conditions (50 °C and sonication 3 min) to guarantee the omega-3 oil quality. Chia oil extraction was performed using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with different solvents and their mixtures at five different extraction temperatures (60, 90, 120, 150, and 200 °C). Optimal PLE conditions were achieved with ethyl acetate or hexane at 90 °C in only 10 min of static extraction time (chia oil yield up to 30.93%). In addition, chia oils extracted with nonpolar and polar solvents by PLE were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid composition at different extraction conditions. Chia oil contained ∼65% of α-linolenic acid regardless of mucilage extraction method, solvent, or temperature used. Furthermore, tocopherols and tocotrienols were also analyzed by HPLC in the extracted chia oils. The mucilage removal allowed the subsequent extraction of the chia oil with polar or nonpolar solvents by PLE producing chia oil with the same fatty acid and tocopherol composition as traditional extraction.

  13. Hydrated mucilage reduces post-dispersal seed removal of a sand desert shrub by ants in a semiarid ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Gao, Ruiru; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lingling; Li, Leilei; He, Hongju; Huang, Zhenying

    2013-12-01

    Post-dispersal seed removal by animals can lead to extensive seed loss and thus is an important factor in structuring plant communities. However, we know much less about post-dispersal seed predation than about other forms of herbivory. Mucilage plays many ecological roles in adaptation of plants to diverse environments; nevertheless, until now the role of mucilage in ant-mediated seed movement remains largely hypothetical. We studied the role of mucilage in seed removal of Artemisia sphaerocephala by ants in Mu Us Sandland in Inner Mongolia, China. Messor aciculatus was the most active seed predator of Artemisia sphaerocephala. Time to first ant collecting (T 1st) of wet intact seeds was longest and significantly different from that for dry intact seeds, wet demucilaged seeds, and dry demucilaged seeds; number of seeds removed to ant nests was lowest for wet intact seeds. After they were collected by ants, 5 % of wet intact seeds were dropped during transport. Our results indicate that seed mucilage of Artemisia sphaerocephala may play a significant role in post-dispersal seed removal by (1) making seeds less attractive to ants, thus resulting in a delay of collection time; (2) forming a strong bond to soil particles, making it difficult for ants to remove seeds; and (3) making seeds more likely to be dropped during transport, thereby allowing them to escape from predation even after collection by ants. This study demonstrates the importance of mucilage in reducing seed removal by ants and thus in anchoring seeds of desert plants in the vicinity of mother plants.

  14. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... incubator. (a) Identification. A microbiological incubator is a device with various chambers or water-filled...

  15. The development of the rhizosphere: simulation of root exudation for two contrasting exudates: citrate and mucilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Cheng; Bol, Roland; Vetterlein, Doris; Vanderborght, Jan; Schnepf, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Different types of root exudates and their effect on soil/rhizosphere properties have received a lot of attention. Since their influence of rhizosphere properties and processes depends on their concentration in the soil, the assessment of the spatial-temporal exudate concentration distribution around roots is of key importance for understanding the functioning of the rhizosphere. Different root systems have different root architectures. Different types of root exudates diffuse in the rhizosphere with different diffusion coefficient. Both of them are responsible for the dynamics of exudate concentration distribution in the rhizosphere. Hence, simulations of root exudation involving four kinds of plant root systems (Vicia faba, Lupinus albus, Triticum aestivum and Zea mays) and two kinds of root exudates (citrate and mucilage) were conducted. We consider a simplified root architecture where each root is represented by a straight line. Assuming that root tips move at a constant velocity and that mucilage transport is linear, concentration distributions can be obtained from a convolution of the analytical solution of the transport equation in a stationary flow field for an instantaneous point source injection with the spatial-temporal distribution of the source strength. By coupling the analytical equation with a root growth model that delivers the spatial-temporal source term, we simulated exudate concentration distributions for citrate and mucilage with MATLAB. From the simulation results, we inferred the following information about the rhizosphere: (a) the dynamics of the root architecture development is the main effect of exudate distribution in the root zone; (b) a steady rhizosphere with constant width is more likely to develop for individual roots when the diffusion coefficient is small. The simulations suggest that rhizosphere development depends in the following way on the root and exudate properties: the dynamics of the root architecture result in various

  16. Influence of nutrient factors on production of mucilage by Amphora coffeaeformis var. perpusilla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, Elena; Gianna, Roberto; Marchiori, Enrico; Bruno, Milena

    1997-08-01

    Widely distributed productions of mucilages affected the coasts of the Adriatic sea in the summers of 1988, 1989 and 1991 (the so-called "dirty sea" phenomenon). Samples taken in this area revealed a mix of diatom and dinoflagellate algae trapped in the mucilagenous matrix, but cultured isolates from the samples showed the species Amphora coffeaeformis var. perpusilla producing a kind of exopolysaccharide (EPS) very similar in structure to that of the floating pillows which appear in the Adriatic waters. The effects of growing concentrations of primary nutrients on EPS production by A. coffeaeformis were evaluated and the results showed a prevailing influence of nitrogen, alone or in synergy with phosphorus, with respect to phosphorus alone. EPS production never stopped, even during the stationary phase and never overlapped with growth curves. 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

  17. Prebiotic potential of neutral oligo- and polysaccharides from seed mucilage of Hyptis suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Monika; Čavarkapa, Andrea; Unger, Frank M; Viernstein, Helmut; Praznik, Werner

    2017-04-15

    Prebiotics are selectively fermented by the gastrointestinal microflora, resulting in benefits to human health. The seed mucilage of Hyptis suaveolens contains neutral and acidic polysaccharides in a ratio of 1:1. The neutral polysaccharides consist of galactose, glucose and mannose whereas the acidic polysaccharides contain fucose, xylose and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid -residues. The growth of probiotics in the presence of total, acidic or neutral polysaccharides and oligosaccharides was tested using turbidity measurements. The majority (11 out of 14) of the tested probiotic strains significantly grew in the neutral fraction. Growth occurred with some time delay, but may be longer lasting than with other lower molecular prebiotics. The extent of growth increased with neutral polysaccharides from H. suaveolens corresponding to the externally available galactose units (20%). In conclusion, neutral poly- and oligosaccharides from H. suaveolens have a prebiotic potential characterized by a delayed but long lasting effect.

  18. Collection of gravitropic effectors from mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fondren, W. M.; Moore, R.

    1987-01-01

    We placed agar blocks adjacent to tips of electrotropically stimulated primary roots of Zea mays. Blocks placed adjacent to the anode-side of the roots for 3 h induced significant curvature when subsequently placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Curvature was always toward the side of the root unto which the agar block was placed. Agar blocks not contacting roots and blocks placed adjacent to the cathode-side of electrotropically stimulated roots did not induce significant curvature when placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry indicated that blocks adjacent to the anode-side of electrotropically-stimulated roots contained significantly more calcium than (1) blocks not contacting roots, and (2) blocks contacting the cathode-side of roots. These results demonstrate the presence of a gradient of endogenous Ca in mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots (i.e. roots undergoing gravitropic-like curvature).

  19. Collection of gravitropic effectors from mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fondren, W. M.; Moore, R.

    1987-01-01

    We placed agar blocks adjacent to tips of electrotropically stimulated primary roots of Zea mays. Blocks placed adjacent to the anode-side of the roots for 3 h induced significant curvature when subsequently placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Curvature was always toward the side of the root unto which the agar block was placed. Agar blocks not contacting roots and blocks placed adjacent to the cathode-side of electrotropically stimulated roots did not induce significant curvature when placed asymmetrically on tips of vertically-oriented roots. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry indicated that blocks adjacent to the anode-side of electrotropically-stimulated roots contained significantly more calcium than (1) blocks not contacting roots, and (2) blocks contacting the cathode-side of roots. These results demonstrate the presence of a gradient of endogenous Ca in mucilage of electrotropically-stimulated roots (i.e. roots undergoing gravitropic-like curvature).

  20. Recently Investigated Natural Gums and Mucilages as Pharmaceutical Excipients: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Pritam Dinesh; Pawar, Harshal Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Due to advances in drug delivery technology, currently, excipients are included in novel dosage forms to fulfil specific functions and in some cases they directly or indirectly influence the extent and/or rate of drug release and drug absorption. Recent trends towards use of plant based and natural products demand the replacement of synthetic additives with natural ones. Today, the whole world is increasingly interested in natural drugs and excipients. These natural materials have many advantages over synthetic ones as they are chemically inert, nontoxic, less expensive, biodegradable, and widely available. This review discusses majority of the plant-derived polymeric compounds (gums and mucilage's), their sources, chemical constituents, uses, and some recent investigations as excipients in novel drug delivery systems. PMID:26556189

  1. Isolation and Identification of Lepidimoide, a New Allelopathic Substance from Mucilage of Germinated Cress Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Koji; Mizutani, Junya; Kosemura, Seiji; Yamamura, Shosuke

    1992-01-01

    A new allelopathic substance that promoted the shoot growth of different plant species but inhibited the root growth was isolated as an amorphous powder from mucilage of germinated cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seeds. This substance was identified as sodium 2-O-rhamnopyranosyl-4-deoxy-threo-hex-4-enopyranosiduronate (designated lepidimoide) from the mass and the nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectra coupled with some chemical evidence. Lepidimoide promoted the hypocotyl growth of etiolated Amaranthus caudatus L. at concentrations higher than 3 μm and inhibited the root growth at concentrations higher than 100 μm. The growth-promoting activity in hypocotyls was 20 or 30 times as much as that of gibberellic acid. Images Figure 1 PMID:16653018

  2. Role of Pectinolytic Yeasts in the Degradation of Mucilage Layer of Coffea robusta Cherries

    PubMed Central

    Agate, A. D.; Bhat, J. V.

    1966-01-01

    Pectinolytic yeasts, Saccharomyces marxianus, S. bayanus, S. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus, and Schizosaccharomyces sp., predominated in the natural fermentation of coffee cherries of Coffea robusta variety grown in Chikmagalur district of Mysore State, India. These yeast species were found on the cherry surfaces, and evidence was adduced to show that the natural fermentation of coffee was the result of activity of microflora from the cherry surface itself rather than that of flora of air or water. Incorporation of pure cultures of Saccharomyces species was shown to aid the process when a mixture of all three species was used. An enzyme preparation from the Saccharomyces species was observed to hasten the mucilage-layer degradation. PMID:5959859

  3. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-07-21

    To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5'-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5'-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage.

  4. Growth under visible light increases conidia and mucilage production and tolerance to UV-B radiation in the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Henrique D; Massola, Nelson S; Flint, Stephan D; Silva, Geraldo J; Bachmann, Luciano; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto U L

    2015-01-01

    Light conditions can influence fungal development. Some spectral wavebands can induce conidial production, whereas others can kill the conidia, reducing the population size and limiting dispersal. The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose in several crops. During the asexual stage on the host plant, Colletototrichum produces acervuli with abundant mucilage-embedded conidia. These conidia are responsible for fungal dispersal and host infection. This study examined the effect of visible light during C. acutatum growth on the production of conidia and mucilage and also on the UV tolerance of these conidia. Conidial tolerance to an environmentally realistic UV irradiance was determined both in conidia surrounded by mucilage on sporulating colonies and in conidial suspension. Exposures to visible light during fungal growth increased production of conidia and mucilage as well as conidial tolerance to UV. Colonies exposed to light produced 1.7 times more conidia than colonies grown in continuous darkness. The UV tolerances of conidia produced under light were at least two times higher than conidia produced in the dark. Conidia embedded in the mucilage on sporulating colonies were more tolerant of UV than conidia in suspension that were washed free of mucilage. Conidial tolerance to UV radiation varied among five selected isolates.

  5. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 Promotes Arabidopsis Mucilage Release by Limiting Methylesterification of Homogalacturonan in Seed Coat Epidermal Cells[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Botran, Lucy; Ropartz, David; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Imbibed seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Djarly are affected in mucilage release from seed coat epidermal cells. The impaired locus was identified as a pectin methylesterase inhibitor gene, PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 (PMEI6), specifically expressed in seed coat epidermal cells at the time when mucilage polysaccharides are accumulated. This spatio-temporal regulation appears to be modulated by GLABRA2 and LEUNIG HOMOLOG/MUCILAGE MODIFIED1, as expression of PMEI6 is reduced in mutants of these transcription regulators. In pmei6, mucilage release was delayed and outer cell walls of epidermal cells did not fragment. Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) demethylate homogalacturonan (HG), and the majority of HG found in wild-type mucilage was in fact derived from outer cell wall fragments. This correlated with the absence of methylesterified HG labeling in pmei6, whereas transgenic plants expressing the PMEI6 coding sequence under the control of the 35S promoter had increased labeling of cell wall fragments. Activity tests on seeds from pmei6 and 35S:PMEI6 transgenic plants showed that PMEI6 inhibits endogenous PME activities, in agreement with reduced overall methylesterification of mucilage fractions and demucilaged seeds. Another regulator of PME activity in seed coat epidermal cells, the subtilisin-like Ser protease SBT1.7, acts on different PMEs, as a pmei6 sbt1.7 mutant showed an additive phenotype. PMID:23362209

  6. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5’-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5’-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage. PMID:16865772

  7. Changes in Osmotic Pressure and Mucilage during Low-Temperature Acclimation of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, G; Nobel, P S

    1991-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism plant cultivated for its fruits and cladodes, was used to examine chemical and physiological events accompanying low-temperature acclimation. Changes in osmotic pressure, water content, low molecular weight solutes, and extracellular mucilage were monitored in the photosynthetic chlorenchyma and the water-storage parenchyma when plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30/20 degrees C were shifted to 10/0 degrees C. An increase in osmotic pressure of 0.13 megapascal occurred after 13 days at 10/0 degrees C. Synthesis of glucose, fructose, and glycerol accounted for most of the observed increase in osmotic pressure during the low-temperature acclimation. Extracellular mucilage and the relative apoplastic water content increased by 24 and 10%, respectively, during exposure to low temperatures. These increases apparently favor the extracellular nucleation of ice closer to the equilibrium freezing temperature for plants at 10/0 degrees C, which could make the cellular dehydration more gradual and less damaging. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies helped elucidate the cellular processes during ice formation, such as those revealed by changes in the relaxation times of two water fractions in the chlorenchyma. The latter results suggested a restricted mobility of intracellular water and an increased mobility of extracellular water for plants at 10/0 degrees C compared with those at 30/20 degrees C. Increased mobility of extracellular water could facilitate extracellular ice growth and thus delay the potentially lethal intracellular freezing during low-temperature acclimation.

  8. Wettability of natural root mucilage studied by atomic force microscopy and contact angle: Links between nanoscale and macroscale surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenbach, Robin; Diehl, Dörte; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2017-04-01

    Organic coatings are considered as main cause of soil water repellency (SWR). This phenomenon plays a crucial role in the rhizosphere, at the interface of plant water uptake and soil hydraulics. Still, there is little knowledge about the nanoscale properties of natural soil compounds such as root-mucilage and its mechanistic effect on wettability. In this study, dried films of natural root-mucilage from Sorghum (Sorghum sp., MOENCH) on glass substrates were studied in order to explore experimental and evaluation methods that allow to link between macroscopic wettability and nano-/microscopic surface properties in this model soil system. SWR was assessed by optical contact angle (CA) measurements. The nanostructure of topography and adhesion forces of the mucilage surfaces was revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements in ambient air, using PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PFQNM). Undiluted mucilage formed hydrophobic films on the substrate with CA > 90° and rather homogeneous nanostructure. Contact angles showed reduced water repellency of surfaces, when concentration of mucilage was decreased by dilution. AFM height and adhesion images displayed incomplete mucilage surface coverage for diluted samples. Hole-like structures in the film frequently exhibited increased adhesion forces. Spatial analysis of the AFM data via variograms enabled a numerical description of such 'adhesion holes'. The use of geostatistical approaches in AFM studies of the complex surface structure of soil compounds was considered meaningful in view of the need of comprehensive analysis of large AFM image data sets that exceed the capability of comparative visual inspection. Furthermore, force curves measured with the AFM showed increased break-free distances and pull-off forces inside the observed 'adhesion holes', indicating enhanced capillary forces due to adsorbed water films at hydrophilic domains for ambient RH (40 ± 2 %). This offers the possibility of

  9. Incubation and Intuition in Creative Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation. PMID:27499745

  10. Edible film production from chia seed mucilage: Effect of glycerol concentration on its physicochemical and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Dick, Melina; Costa, Tania Maria Haas; Gomaa, Ahmed; Subirade, Muriel; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Flôres, Simone Hickmann

    2015-10-05

    This study investigated the physicochemical and mechanical properties of a novel edible film based on chia mucilage (CM) hydrocolloid. CM (1% w/v) films were prepared by incorporation of three concentrations of glycerol (25%, 50%, and 75% w/w, based on CM weight). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), elongation at break (EB), and water solubility of CM films increased while their tensile strength (TS), and Young's modulus (YM) decreased significantly (p<0.05). CM films containing a high concentration of glycerol were slightly reddish and yellowish in color but still had a transparent appearance. CM films exhibited excellent absorption of ultraviolet light, and good thermal stability. The scanning electron micrographs showed that all CM films had a uniform appearance. This study demonstrated that the chia mucilage hydrocolloid has important properties and potential as an edible film, or coating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanoencapsulation of chia seed oil with chia mucilage (Salvia hispanica L.) as wall material: Characterization and stability evaluation.

    PubMed

    de Campo, Camila; Dos Santos, Priscilla Pereira; Costa, Tania Maria Haas; Paese, Karina; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Flôres, Simone Hickmann

    2017-11-01

    In this study, chia seed oil was nanoencapsulated utilizing chia seed mucilage (CSM) as wall material. The viscosity, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, transmission electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal properties of chia seed oil nanoparticles (CSO-NP) were performed after preparation. Particle size, zeta potential, span value, and pH of CSO-NP and oxidation stability of nanoencapsulated and unencapsulated oil were evaluated during 28days of storage at accelerated conditions (40°C). The CSO-NP showed spherical shape, an average size of 205±4.24nm and zeta potential of -11.58±1.87mV. The encapsulation efficiency (82.8%), loading capacity (35.38%) and FT-IR spectroscopy demonstrated the interaction between oil and mucilage. Furthermore, CSO-NP were thermally stable at temperatures up 300°C and nanoencapsulated oil showed higher stability against oxidation than unencapsulated oil. The results suggest that chia seed mucilage represents a promising alternative to substitute synthetic polymers in nanoencapsulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. National Security Technology Incubator Evaluation Process

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the process by which the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) will be evaluated. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the components, steps, and measures of the proposed evaluation process. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. An effective evaluation process of the NSTI is an important step as it can provide qualitative and quantitative information on incubator performance over a given period. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The mission of the NSTI is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. To achieve success for both incubator businesses and the NSTI program, an evaluation process is essential to effectively measure results and implement corrective processes in the incubation design if needed. The evaluation process design will collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through performance evaluation system.

  13. An Inexpensive Incubator for the Biology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Describes the construction of an insulated wooden wall incubator that combines excellent temperature control over the usual operating range with easy electrical access, low cost, and a wide potential size range. Presents a temperature- monitoring circuit, designed to measure the small temperature variations within the incubator, which could…

  14. Micro-incubator for bacterial biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clasen, Estine; Land, Kevin; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen

    2016-02-01

    The presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli ) is a commonly used indicator micro-organism to determine whether water is safe for human consumption.1 This paper discusses the design of a micro-incubator that can be applied to concentrate bacteria prior to environmental water quality screening tests. High sensitivity and rapid test time is essential and there is a great need for these tests to be implemented on-site without the use of a laboratory infrastructure. In the light of these requirements, a mobile micro-incubator was designed, manufactured and characterised. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) receptacle has been designed to house the 1-5 ml cell culture sample.2 A nano-silver printed electronics micro-heater has been designed to incubate the bacterial sample, with an array of temperature sensors implemented to accurately measure the sample temperature at various locations in the cell culture well. The micro-incubator limits the incubation temperature range to 37+/-3 °C in order to ensure near optimal growth of the bacteria at all times.3 The incubation time is adjustable between 30 minutes and 9 hours with a maximum rise time of 15 minutes to reach the set-point temperature. The surface area of the printed nano silver heating element is 500 mm2. Electrical and COMSOL Multiphysics simulations are included in order to give insight on micro-incubator temperature control. The design and characterization of this micro-incubator allows for further research in biosensing applications.

  15. Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark

    One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

  16. Incubation energetics of the Laysan Albatross.

    PubMed

    Pettit, T N; Nagy, K A; Ellis, H I; Whittow, G C

    1988-01-01

    The energy expenditure of incubating and foraging Laysan Albatross (Diomedea immutabilis, mean body weight 3.07 kg) was estimated by means of the doubly-labelled water technique. During incubation, the energy expenditure was similar to that of resting birds that were not incubating an egg. The energy expenditure of foraging albatross (2072 kJ/day) was 2.6 times that of resting birds. It was concluded that the energy expenditure of the tropical Laysan Albatross was not less than that of species foraging over cold, high-latitude oceans. An energy budget compiled for an incubating pair of albatross revealed that the energy expenditure of the female was greater than that of the male bird, during the incubation period.

  17. Seeds' physicochemical traits and mucilage protection against aluminum effect during germination and root elongation as important factors in a biofuel seed crop (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Silva, Giovanni Eustáquio Alves; Ramos, Flávia Toledo; de Faria, Ana Paula; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-10-01

    We determined the length, volume, dry biomass, and density in seeds of five castor bean cultivars and verified notable physicochemical trait differences. Seeds were then subjected to different toxic aluminum (Al) concentrations to evaluate germination, relative root elongation, and the role of root apices' rhizosphere mucilage layer. Seeds' physicochemical traits were associated with Al toxicity responses, and the absence of Al in cotyledons near to the embryo was revealed by Al-hematoxylin staining, indicating that Al did not induce significant germination reduction rates between cultivars. However, in the more sensitive cultivar, Al was found around the embryo, contributing to subsequent growth inhibition. After this, to investigate the role of mucilage in Al tolerance, an assay was conducted using NH4Cl to remove root mucilage before or after exposure to different Al concentrations. Sequentially, the roots were stained with hematoxylin and a quantitative analysis of staining intensity was obtained. These results revealed the significant contribution of the mucilage layer to Al toxicity responses in castor bean seedlings. Root growth elongation under Al toxicity confirmed the role of the mucilage layer, which jointly indicated the differential Al tolerance between cultivars and an efficient Al-exclusion mechanism in the tolerant cultivar.

  18. Modeling incubation temperature: the effects of incubator design, embryonic development, and egg size.

    PubMed

    French, N A

    1997-01-01

    A simple model to describe the relationship between the temperature of the developing embryo, incubator temperature, embryo heat production, and thermal conductivity of the egg and surrounding air is presented. During early incubation, embryo temperature is slightly lower than incubator temperature because of evaporative cooling. However, from midincubation onwards, metabolic heat production from the embryo raises embryo temperature above incubator temperature. The extent of the rise in embryo temperature depends on thermal conductivity, which, in turn, is mainly influenced by the air speed over the egg. The importance of air speed and restrictions to air flow within artificial incubators is discussed. Exact determinations of optimum incubation temperatures from studies reported in the literature are difficult because only incubator temperatures are reported. Embryo temperatures can differ from incubator temperature because of differences in thermal conductivity between different incubation systems and differences between incubators in their ability to control temperatures uniformly. It is suggested that shell surface temperatures are monitored in experiments to investigate temperature effects to allow consistent comparisons between trials. Monitoring shell temperatures would also make it easier to translate optimum temperatures derived in small experimental incubators to the large commercial incubators used by the poultry industry. The relationship between egg temperature, the metabolism of the developing embryo and egg size is discussed.

  19. Networked incubators. Hothouses of the new economy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M T; Chesbrough, H W; Nohria, N; Sull, D N

    2000-01-01

    Business incubators such as Hotbank, CMGI, and Idealab! are a booming industry. Offering office space, funding, and basic services to start-ups, these organizations have become the hottest way to nurture and grow fledgling businesses. But are incubators a fleeting phenomenon born of an overheated stock market, or are they an important and lasting way of creating value and wealth in the new economy? The authors argue that one type of incubator, called a networked incubator, represents a fundamentally new and enduring organizational model uniquely suited to growing businesses in the Internet economy. It shares certain features with other incubators--mainly, it fosters a spirit of entrepreneurship and offers economies of scale. But its key distinguishing feature is its ability to give start-ups preferential access to a network of potential partners. Such incubators institutionalize their networking--they have systems in place to encourage networking, helping start-ups, for example, to meet with potential business allies. That doesn't mean incubatees get preferential treatment; it means only that they have built-in access to partnerships that might not have existed without the incubator. Even with this advantage, however, networked incubators can easily follow the road to ruin. To avoid failure, they must create a portfolio of companies and advisers that their incubatees can leverage. That can be done by strategically investing in portfolio firms and by enlisting a large set of business allies. It can also be done by establishing connections and relationships that are anchored more to the incubator than to particular individuals.

  20. Active noise control for infant incubators.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xun; Gujjula, Shruthi; Kuo, Sen M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an active noise control system for infant incubators. Experimental results show that global noise reduction can be achieved for infant incubator ANC systems. An audio-integration algorithm is presented to introduce a healthy audio (intrauterine) sound with the ANC system to mask the residual noise and soothe the infant. Carbon nanotube based transparent thin film speaker is also introduced in this paper as the actuator for the ANC system to generate the destructive secondary sound, which can significantly save the congested incubator space and without blocking the view of doctors and nurses.

  1. The incubation period in sterility testing.

    PubMed

    Bathgate, H; Lazzari, D; Cameron, H; McKay, D

    1993-01-01

    Sterility test results gathered over a ten year period have been analysed to determine the effects of the incubation period. Overall there was no difference between the membrane filtration test and direct inoculation in the time required for visible growth of contaminants. Growth occurred earlier if products had no preservative or antimicrobial substances. However use of the membrane filtration method did not significantly enhance the efficiency of detection at seven days incubation. Regardless of the nature of the product or the method of test an unacceptable proportion of contaminants would be missed by limiting incubation to seven days.

  2. Differences in glycosyltransferase family 61 accompany variation in seed coat mucilage composition in Plantago spp.

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Jana L.; Tucker, Matthew R.; Khor, Shi Fang; Shirley, Neil; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie; Bacic, Antony; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago genus to examine variation in heteroxylan composition and structure in seed coat mucilage. Compositional assays were combined with analysis of the glycosyltransferase family 61 (GT61) family during seed coat development, with the aim of identifying GT61 sequences participating in xylan backbone substitution. The results reveal natural variation in heteroxylan content and structure, particularly in P. ovata and P. cunninghamii, species which show a similar amount of heteroxylan but different backbone substitution profiles. Analysis of the GT61 family identified specific sequences co-expressed with IRREGULAR XYLEM 10 genes, which encode putative xylan synthases, revealing a close temporal association between xylan synthesis and substitution. Moreover, in P. ovata, several abundant GT61 sequences appear to lack orthologues in P. cunninghamii. Our results indicate that natural variation in Plantago species can be exploited to reveal novel details of seed coat development and polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27856710

  3. Molecular dimensions and structural features of neutral polysaccharides from the seed mucilage of Hyptis suaveolens L.

    PubMed

    Praznik, Werner; Čavarkapa, Andrea; Unger, Frank M; Loeppert, Renate; Holzer, Wolfgang; Viernstein, Helmut; Mueller, Monika

    2017-04-15

    The seed mucilage of Hyptis suaveolens L. includes acid - and neutral heteropolysaccharides in a ratio of about 1:1. The anionic charged fraction responsible for swelling and viscous behaviour possesses an average molar mass of Mw=350kg/mol, Mn=255kg/mol. The neutral polysaccharide fraction shows an average molar mass of Mw=47kg/mol and Mn=28kg/mol and is composed of d-Galp-, d-Glcp- and d-Manp residues in a molar ratio of about 3:2:1. The structural features present galactoglucan (30%) and galactoglucomannan (70%) with a high level of terminal β-linked d-Galp residues (18%). Structural details of galactoglucomannan are derived by combined enzymatic and chemical methods as well as NMR spectroscopy. Sequences of octa/nonasaccharide β-d-Glcp-(1→4)[β-d-Galp-(1→2)-α-d-Galp-(1→6)]-β-d-Manp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→4)[β-d-Galp-(1→2)-α-d-Galp-(1→6)]-β-d-Manp and lower mass tetrasaccharide repeating units β-d-Glcp-(1→4)[β-d-Galp-(1→2)-α-d-Galp-(1→6)]-β-d-Manp were found. The level of the prebiotic activity is related to the availability of β-linked d-Galp residues in the side chains of the molecules.

  4. The impact of mucilage on root water uptake—A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, N.; Carminati, A.; Javaux, M.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of water between soil and plants follows the gradient in water potential and depends on the hydraulic properties of the soil and the root. In models for root water uptake (RWU), it is usually assumed that the hydraulic properties near the plant root (i.e., in the rhizosphere) and in the bulk soil are identical. Yet a growing body of evidence has shown that the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere are affected by root exudates (specifically, mucilage) and markedly differ from those of the bulk soil. In this work, we couple a 3-D detailed description of RWU with a model that accounts for the rhizosphere-specific properties (i.e., rhizosphere hydraulic properties and a nonequilibrium relation between water content and matric head). We show that as the soil dries out (due to water uptake), the higher water holding capacity of the rhizosphere results in a delay of the stress onset. During rewetting, nonequilibrium results in a slower increase of the rhizosphere water content. Furthermore, the inverse relation between water content and relaxation time implies that the drier is the rhizosphere the longer it takes to rewet. Another outcome of nonequilibrium is the small fluctuation of the rhizosphere water content compared to the bulk soil. Overall, our numerical results are in agreement with recent experimental data and provide a tool to further examine the impact of various rhizosphere processes on RWU and water dynamics.

  5. Physical, barrier and antioxidant properties of a novel plasticized edible film from quince seed mucilage.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of quince seed mucilage (QSM) as a new source for preparation of edible films and determined the physical, mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, microstructural and thermal properties. QSM films were prepared by incorporation of three levels of glycerol (25-50%, w/w). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability (O2P), elongation at break (EB), water solubility and moisture content of QSM films increased while, tensile strength (TS), density and surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly. The measurement of color values showed that by the increasing of the glycerol concentration in polymer matrix, the b and L values increased while ΔE value decreased. Microscopic views indicated smooth and uniform surface morphology without obvious cracks, breaks, or openings on the surfaces after the incorporation of glycerol as a plasticizer. The results of the present study suggest that QSM as a new antioxidant edible film with interesting specifications can potentially be used for packaging of a wide range of food products.

  6. Characterization of antioxidant-antibacterial quince seed mucilage films containing thyme essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In this study thyme essential oil (TEO) concentrations ranging from 0% to 2.0%, incorporated in quince seed mucilage (QSM) film were used. Antibacterial activity, physical, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties of QSM films were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of the QSM films incorporated with thyme essential oil was screened against 11 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. Films containing 1% of thyme essential oil were effective against all test microorganisms and exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Shewanella putrefaciens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. QSM films exhibited some antioxidant activity, which was significantly improved by the addition of the essential oil. A reduction of the glass transition temperature, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), was caused by addition of thyme essential oil into the QSM films. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to explain structure-property relationships. Incorporating thyme essential oil into edible QSM films provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods.

  7. In vitro evaluation of novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet of oxytocin prepared with Diospyros peregrina fruit mucilages.

    PubMed

    Metia, Pulak Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Amal Kumar

    2008-04-01

    Novel mucoadhesive buccal tablets (NMBTs) of oxytocin were prepared as cores in cup fashion to release and permeate the drug unidirectionally toward the buccal mucosa to reach the systemic circulation directly. Adhesive cups for NMBTs were prepared with mucilage (DPM) isolated from edible Diospyros peregrina fruit. Mucoadhesive properties like shear and tensile and peel strengths of the adhesive cups were estimated on freshly excised bovine buccal mucosa. Core tablets were formulated with oxytocin using two penetration enhancers, sodium taurocholate and sodium thioglycollate. In vitro permeability studies of NMBTs were conducted in a Franz diffusion cell containing 50 ml of phosphate buffer, pH 6.6, at 37+/-0.2 degrees C through excised bovine buccal mucosa, and the amount of drug permeated was estimated at 220 nm on reverse-phase HPLC using a BDS Hypersil C(8) column with acetonitrile and potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer 0.05 M, pH 6.6, (20 : 80 v/v) as the mobile phase, at flow rate of 1.25 ml/m. The NMBTs containing 0.75% w/w sodium taurocholate showed 26% permeability without damaging the histology of the buccal mucosa. The results suggest that this formulation may be a suitable alternative to oxytocin injections.

  8. Development of pectinate-ispagula mucilage mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl by central composite design.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-05-01

    Ionotropically-gelled mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl composed of low methoxy (LM) pectin-ispaghula husk mucilage (IHM) polymer-blend was developed and optimized using central composite design (spherical type, single center point, and α=1.414). Effects of LM pectin and IHM amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h) were analysed using response surface methodology. The optimized beads containing metformin HCl (F-O) showed DEE of 86.98 ± 3.26% and R10h of 47.20 ± 1.28%. All these beads exhibited suitable controlled in vitro sustained drug release pattern with super case-II transport mechanism over 10h. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration, which could possibly be lucrative in terms of prolonged systemic absorption of metformin HCl maintaining tight blood glucose level and advanced patient compliance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of incubation time for dermatophytes cultures.

    PubMed

    Rezusta, Antonio; de la Fuente, Sonia; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Vidal-García, Matxalen; Alcalá, Leticia; López-Calleja, Ana; Ruiz, Maria Angeles; Revillo, Maria José

    2016-07-01

    In general, it is recommended to incubate dermatophytes cultures for a minimum of 4 weeks. Several aspects of routine fungal cultures should be evaluated in order to implement appropriate and necessary changes. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum incubation time for routine dermatophytes cultures, analysing the time to find first fungal growth by visual observation. We recorded the time when the initial growth was detected for all dermatophyte isolates during a 4-year period. A total of 5459 dermatophyte cultures were submitted to our laboratory. From the total cultures, only 16 (1.42%) isolates were recovered over/after 17 days of incubation and only three dermatophyte species were recovered over 17 days. Fourteen isolates belong to Trichophyton rubrum, one isolate to Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and one isolate to Epidermophyton floccosum. We concluded that an incubation period of 17 days is enough to establish a microbiological diagnosis of dermatophytosis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Neurobiology of the incubation of drug craving

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, Charles L.; Airavaara, Mikko; Theberge, Florence; Fanous, Sanya; Hope, Bruce T.; Shaham, Yavin

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested in 1986 that cue-induced drug craving in cocaine addicts progressively increases over the first several weeks of abstinence and remains high for extended periods. During the last decade, investigators have identified an analogous incubation phenomenon in rodents, in which time-dependent increases in cue-induced drug seeking are observed after withdrawal from intravenous cocaine self-administration. Such an incubation of drug craving is not specific to cocaine, as similar findings have been observed after self-administration of heroin, nicotine, methamphetamine, and alcohol in rats. In this review, we discuss recent results that have identified important brain regions involved in the incubation of drug craving, as well as evidence for the underlying cellular mechanisms. Understanding the neurobiology of the incubation of drug craving in rodents is likely to have significant implications for furthering our understanding of brain mechanisms and circuits that underlie drug craving in human addicts. PMID:21764143

  11. Air temperature recordings in infant incubators.

    PubMed Central

    Aynsley-Green, A; Roberton, N R; Rolfe, P

    1975-01-01

    Air temperatures were continuously recorded inside four incubators with proportional heating control and six incubators with on/off heating cycles, during routine use. The air temperatures in the former were constant throughout, with a gradient between the roof and above-mattress air temperature not exceeding 1 degree C. In contrast, the recordings from the latter models showed a regular cyclical oscillation, the duration of the cycle varying from 14 to 44 minutes. Each incubator had a characteristic profile. The roof air temperature could vary by as much as 7-1 degrees C and the above-mattress air temperature by as much as 2-6 degrees C during the cycle. The oscillation persisted in the air temperatures recorded inside an open-ended hemicylindrical heat shield when used inside these incubators, but was markedly reduced inside a closed-ended heat shield, Carbon dioxide concentration did not increase significantly inside the latter. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1147654

  12. Don't wait to incubate: immediate versus delayed incubation in divergent thinking.

    PubMed

    Gilhooly, Kenneth J; Georgiou, George J; Garrison, Jane; Reston, Jon D; Sirota, Miroslav

    2012-08-01

    Previous evidence for the effectiveness of immediate incubation in divergent creative tasks has been weak, because earlier studies exhibited a range of methodological problems. This issue is theoretically important, as a demonstration of the effects of immediate incubation would strengthen the case for the involvement of unconscious work in incubation effects. For the present experiment, we used a creative divergent-thinking task (alternative uses) in which separate experimental groups had incubation periods that were either delayed or immediate and that consisted of either spatial or verbal tasks. Control groups were tested without incubation periods, and we carried out checks for intermittent conscious work on the target task during the incubation periods. The results showed significant incubation effects that were stronger for immediate than for delayed incubation. Performance was not different between the verbal and spatial incubation conditions, and we found no evidence for intermittent conscious working during the incubation periods. These results support a role for unconscious work in creative divergent thinking, particularly in the case of immediate incubation.

  13. A theoretical model of infant incubator dynamics.

    PubMed

    Simon, B N; Reddy, N P; Kantak, A

    1994-08-01

    A spatially lumped mathematical model was developed and used for a computer simulation of the neonate-incubator system for parametric analysis of the factors that influence neonatal thermo-regulation. The simulation examined the effects of the following parameters: (1) size of the infant; (2) respiratory rate; (3) metabolic rate; (4) heart rate; (5) thermal properties of the mattress; (6) specific heat capacity of the incubator wall; (7) air flow rate; (8) heater control mechanisms.

  14. Subfunctionalization of Cellulose Synthases in Seed Coat Epidermal Cells Mediates Secondary Radial Wall Synthesis and Mucilage Attachment1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mendu, Venugopal; Griffiths, Jonathan S.; Persson, Staffan; Stork, Jozsef; Downie, A. Bruce; Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Haughn, George W.; DeBolt, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) epidermal seed coat cells follow a complex developmental program where, following fertilization, cells of the ovule outer integument differentiate into a unique cell type. Two hallmarks of these cells are the production of a doughnut-shaped apoplastic pocket filled with pectinaceous mucilage and the columella, a thick secondary cell wall. Cellulose is thought to be a key component of both these secondary cell wall processes. Here, we investigated the role of cellulose synthase (CESA) subunits CESA2, CESA5, and CESA9 in the seed coat epidermis. We characterized the roles of these CESA proteins in the seed coat by analyzing cell wall composition and morphology in cesa mutant lines. Mutations in any one of these three genes resulted in lower cellulose content, a loss of cell shape uniformity, and reduced radial wall integrity. In addition, we found that attachment of the mucilage halo to the parent seed following extrusion is maintained by cellulose-based connections requiring CESA5. Hence, we show that cellulose fulfills an adhesion role between the extracellular mucilage matrix and the parent cell in seed coat epidermal cells. We propose that mucilage remains attached to the seed coat through interactions between components in the seed mucilage and cellulose. Our data suggest that CESA2 and CESA9 serve in radial wall reinforcement, as does CESA5, but CESA5 also functions in mucilage biosynthesis. These data suggest unique roles for different CESA subunits in one cell type and illustrate a complex role for cellulose biosynthesis in plant developmental biology. PMID:21750228

  15. National Security Technology Incubation Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-02-26

    This strategic plan contains information on the vision, mission, business and technology environment, goals, objectives, and incubation process of the National Security Technology Incubation Program (NSTI) at Arrowhead Center. The development of the NSTI is a key goal of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP). Objectives to achieve this goal include developing incubator plans (strategic, business, action, and operations), creating an incubator environment, creating a support and mentor network for companies in the incubator program, attracting security technology businesses to the region, encouraging existing business to expand, initiating business start-ups, evaluating products and processes of the incubator program, and achieving sustainability of the incubator program. With the events of 9/11, the global community faces ever increasing and emerging threats from hostile groups determined to rule by terror. According to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Plan, the United States must be able to quickly respond and adapt to unanticipated situations as they relate to protection of our homeland and national security. Technology plays a key role in a strong national security position, and the private business community, along with the national laboratories, academia, defense and homeland security organizations, provide this technology. Fostering innovative ideas, translated into relevant technologies answering the needs of NNSA, is the purpose of the NSTI. Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To develop the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet the planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability activities for the program and identify and incubate new technologies to assist the NNSA in meeting its mission and goals. Technology alone does not give a competitive advantage to the country, but the creativity and speed with which it is employed does. For a company to

  16. What is the incubation period for listeriosis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Listeriosis is a foodborne infection with a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Unlike common foodborne diseases, the incubation period can be long. The first incubation periods were documented during a large listeriosis outbreak published in 1987 by Linnan and al. in the New England Journal of Medicine (range: 3 days to 70 days). Data on the incubation period of listeriosis are scarce. Our study aim was to estimate precisely the incubation period of listeriosis using available data since 1987. Methods We estimated the incubation period of listeriosis using available published data and data from outbreak investigations carried out by the French National Institute for Public Health Surveillance. We selected cases with an incubation period calculated when a patient had a single exposure to a confirmed food source contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. Results We identified 37 cases of invasive listeriosis (10 cases with central nervous system involvement (CNS cases), 15 bacteraemia cases and 12 pregnancy-associated cases) and 9 outbreaks with gastroenteritis. The overall median incubation period of invasive listeriosis was 8 days (range: 1–67 days) and differed significantly by clinical form of the disease (p<0.0001). A longer incubation period was observed for pregnancy-associated cases (median: 27.5 days; range: 17–67 days) than for CNS cases (median: 9 days; range: 1–14 days) and for bacteraemia cases (median: 2 days; range: 1–12 days). For gastroenteritis cases, the median incubation period was 24 hours with variation from 6 to 240 hours. Conclusions This information has implications for the investigation of food borne listeriosis outbreaks as the incubation period is used to determine the time period for which a food history is collected. We believe that, for listeriosis outbreaks, adapting the exposure window for documenting patients’ food histories in accordance with the clinical form of infection will facilitate the

  17. Possible role of pectin-containing mucilage and dew in repairing embryo DNA of seeds adapted to desert conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenying; Boubriak, Ivan; Osborne, Daphne J; Dong, Ming; Gutterman, Yitzchak

    2008-01-01

    Repair of damage to DNA of seed embryos sustained during long periods of quiescence under dry desert conditions is important for subsequent germination. The possibility that repair of embryo DNA can be facilitated by small amounts of water derived from dew temporarily captured at night by pectinaceous surface pellicles was tested. These pellicles are secreted during early seed development and form mucilage when hydrated. Seeds of Artemisia sphaerocephala and Artemisia ordosica were collected from a sandy desert. Their embryos were damaged by gamma radiation to induce a standard level of DNA damage. The treated seeds were then exposed to nocturnal dew deposition on the surface of soil in the Negev desert highlands. The pellicles were removed from some seeds and left intact on others to test the ability of mucilage to support repair of the damaged DNA when night-time humidity and temperature favoured dew formation. Repair was assessed from fragmentation patterns of extracted DNA on agarose gels. For A. sphaerocephala, which has thick seed pellicles, DNA repair occurred in seeds with intact pellicles after 50 min of cumulative night dew formation, but not in seeds from which the pellicles had been removed. For A. ordosica, which has thin seed pellicles, DNA repair took at least 510 min of cumulative night dewing to achieve partial recovery of DNA integrity. The mucilage has the ability to rehydrate after daytime dehydration. The ability of seeds to develop a mucilaginous layer when wetted by night-time dew, and to repair their DNA under these conditions, appear to be mechanisms that help maintain seed viability under harsh desert conditions.

  18. Possible Role of Pectin-containing Mucilage and Dew in Repairing Embryo DNA of Seeds Adapted to Desert Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhenying; Boubriak, Ivan; Osborne, Daphne J.; Dong, Ming; Gutterman, Yitzchak

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Repair of damage to DNA of seed embryos sustained during long periods of quiescence under dry desert conditions is important for subsequent germination. The possibility that repair of embryo DNA can be facilitated by small amounts of water derived from dew temporarily captured at night by pectinaceous surface pellicles was tested. These pellicles are secreted during early seed development and form mucilage when hydrated. Methods Seeds of Artemisia sphaerocephala and Artemisia ordosica were collected from a sandy desert. Their embryos were damaged by gamma radiation to induce a standard level of DNA damage. The treated seeds were then exposed to nocturnal dew deposition on the surface of soil in the Negev desert highlands. The pellicles were removed from some seeds and left intact on others to test the ability of mucilage to support repair of the damaged DNA when night-time humidity and temperature favoured dew formation. Repair was assessed from fragmentation patterns of extracted DNA on agarose gels. Key Results For A. sphaerocephala, which has thick seed pellicles, DNA repair occurred in seeds with intact pellicles after 50 min of cumulative night dew formation, but not in seeds from which the pellicles had been removed. For A. ordosica, which has thin seed pellicles, DNA repair took at least 510 min of cumulative night dewing to achieve partial recovery of DNA integrity. The mucilage has the ability to rehydrate after daytime dehydration. Conclusions The ability of seeds to develop a mucilaginous layer when wetted by night-time dew, and to repair their DNA under these conditions, appear to be mechanisms that help maintain seed viability under harsh desert conditions. PMID:17495979

  19. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  20. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator

    PubMed Central

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. Methods The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Results Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. Conclusion The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost. PMID:22167517

  1. Gastroprotective effect of aqueous extract and mucilage from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhishek L.; Bhot, Meeta A.; Chandra, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bryophyllum pinnatum is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Tropical America and China for treatment of various diseases. B. pinnatum contains different groups of phytoconstituents viz., flavonoid, terpenoids, alkaloid, phenolic compounds. Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. pinnatum whole plant aqueous extract, and mucilage (MUC) isolated from the whole plant against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract at dose level of 500 and 750 mg/kg b.w., MUC at 500 mg/kg dose level and standard drug Rabeprazole at dose level of 20 mg/kg b.w. where given for 7 days. Results: The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg p.o. and MUC at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. markedly decrease the incidence of ulcers in ethanol induced ulcer rats. In ethanol induced ulcer rats, there was a decrease in the gastric volume, free and total acidity and ulcerative index as compared to the control group. Total carbohydrate content was found to be an increase as compare to control the group. The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in the above parameters which was comparable to the standard drug rabeprazole (20 mg/kg). B. pinnatum extract and MUC showed protection index 72.69 and 69.65% respectively, whereas standard drug rabeprazole showed protection index 75.49%. Conclusions: Whole plant extracts of B. pinnatum and MUC has potent gastroprotective effect which can be further clinically studied for new drug development. PMID:25593406

  2. National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

  3. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  4. Prolonged incubation behavior by a marbled godwit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1974-01-01

    On 9 May 1972 I flushed a Marbled Godwit (Limosa fedoa) from a nest containing four eggs in a large field of mulched wheat stubble in northwestern Stutsman County, North Dakota. I revisited the nest on 31 May and on 7, 9, 12, 15, 16, 20, and 21 June, and found an incubating adult on the nest during all visits except 21 June. Another adult was seen near the nest site only on 9 May. On 12 June the eggs looked rotten, and the incubating bird seemed to have a crippled leg. On 21 June Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis) destroyed the eggs.

  5. [Audit "Toys and incubators in neonatology"].

    PubMed

    Raginel, T; Bigoin-Dupont, M; Aguelon, V; Fines-Guyon, M; Guillemin, M G

    2009-08-01

    Owing to an increase in nosocomial septicaemias in the Neonatalogy department, we've judged it necessary to consider the role of items not linked to the nursing procedures, and nevertheless present in the incubators, as well as the hygiene techniques applied to them. In November 2007, we've made a longitudinal prospective study consisting in an observation audit during 3 successive days, observing every single incubator with a newborn baby. In each incubator, we've checked whether there were or not items that weren't required by the nursing activities, along with their characteristics and the hygiene procedures applied to them. We've inquired as well whether the parents and the nursing staff knew and applied the required hygiene procedures. In 13 among the 17 incubators under survey, at least one item not strictly required by the nursing procedures could be found. The number of toys in each incubator varied from seven to one. Among the 33 toys surveyed, 24 (73%) of them showed a score of maximum fluffiness (4 out of 4), and only 10 wore labels giving cleansing advice from the manufacturers. Without any record about the cleaning/disinfecting of the toys brought in hospital, we have observed that the parents were given varied advice about how to clean the toys at home before putting them in the incubators (only four parents had washed the toys in their washing machines at more than 30 degrees C). From the six samples under scrutiny, all the culture results were tested positive. In particular two of the soft toys sampled were found infected by a Pseudomonas oryzihabitans. These particular toys belonged to a baby who had been diagnosed with a septicaemia characterized by hemocultures positive to a P. oryzihabitans of a different strain. Our audit has been an efficient reminder that any item put in an incubator is a potential vector and reservoir of pathogen organisms. After a general feedback towards the department staff, the medical staff then prescribed to

  6. COBRA-LIKE2, a Member of the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored COBRA-LIKE Family, Plays a Role in Cellulose Deposition in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Secretory Cells1,2[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tov, Daniela; Abraham, Yael; Stav, Shira; Thompson, Kevin; Loraine, Ann; Elbaum, Rivka; de Souza, Amancio; Pauly, Markus; Kieber, Joseph J.; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of the maternally derived seed coat epidermal cells into mucilage secretory cells is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Recent studies identified cellulose as an important component of seed mucilage in various species. Cellulose is deposited as a set of rays that radiate from the seed upon mucilage extrusion, serving to anchor the pectic component of seed mucilage to the seed surface. Using transcriptome data encompassing the course of seed development, we identified COBRA-LIKE2 (COBL2), a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), as coexpressed with other genes involved in cellulose deposition in mucilage secretory cells. Disruption of the COBL2 gene results in substantial reduction in the rays of cellulose present in seed mucilage, along with an increased solubility of the pectic component of the mucilage. Light birefringence demonstrates a substantial decrease in crystalline cellulose deposition into the cellulosic rays of the cobl2 mutants. Moreover, crystalline cellulose deposition into the radial cell walls and the columella appears substantially compromised, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and in situ quantification of light birefringence. Overall, the cobl2 mutants display about 40% reduction in whole-seed crystalline cellulose content compared with the wild type. These data establish that COBL2 plays a role in the deposition of crystalline cellulose into various secondary cell wall structures during seed coat epidermal cell differentiation. PMID:25583925

  7. A Maize Glycine-Rich Protein Is Synthesized in the Lateral Root Cap and Accumulates in the Mucilage1

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Takashi; Satoh, Hidetaka; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    The root cap functions in the perception of gravity, the protection of the root apical meristem, and facilitation of the passage of roots through the soil, but the genes involved in these functions are poorly understood. Here we report the isolation of a root-specific gene from the cap of maize (Zea mays L.) primary root by cDNA subtraction and differential screening. The gene zmGRP4 (Z. mays glycine rich protein 4) encodes a member of the glycine-rich proteins with a putative signal peptide at the amino terminus. The deduced molecular mass of mature zmGRP4 is 14.4 kD. In situ-hybridization analysis has shown zmGRP4 to be strongly expressed in the lateral root cap and weakly expressed in the root epidermis. A polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant zmGRP4 detected a protein of 36 kD in the insoluble protein fraction extracted from the root tip and the root proper, indicating posttranslational modification(s) of zmGRP4. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the accumulation of zmGRP4 in the mucilage that covers the root tip. These results indicate that lateral root-cap cells secrete modified zmGRP4 into the mucilage to which the protein may contribute to its characteristic physical properties. PMID:10398701

  8. Use of coffee mucilage as a new substrate for hydrogen production in anaerobic co-digestion with swine manure.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mario Andrés; Rodríguez Susa, Manuel; Andres, Yves

    2014-09-01

    Coffee mucilage (CM), a novel substrate produced as waste from agricultural activity in Colombia, the largest fourth coffee producer in the world, was used for hydrogen production. The study evaluated three ratios (C1-3) for co-digestion of CM and swine manure (SM), and an increase in organic load to improve hydrogen production (C4). The hydrogen production was improved by a C/N ratio of 53.4 used in C2 and C4. The average hydrogen production rate in C4 was 7.6 NL H2/LCMd, which indicates a high hydrogen potential compare to substrates such as POME and wheat starch. In this condition, the biogas composition was 0.1%, 50.6% and 39.0% of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, respectively. The butyric and acetic fermentation pathways were the main routes identified during hydrogen production which kept a Bu/Ac ratio at around 1.0. A direct relationship between coffee mucilage, biogas and cumulative hydrogen volume was established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Incubation Period of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, Francisca; Mertz, Gregory; Castillo, Constanza; Belmar, Edith; Delgado, Iris; Tapia, Mauricio; Ferrés, Marcela

    2006-01-01

    The potential incubation period from exposure to onset of symptoms was 7–39 days (median 18 days) in 20 patients with a defined period of exposure to Andes virus in a high-risk area. This period was 14–32 days (median 18 days) in 11 patients with exposure for <48 hours. PMID:16965713

  10. Pavlovian Incubation of US Signal Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Murray J.

    2013-01-01

    Four experiments with rats examined Pavlovian incubation, in which responding increases when Pavlovian conditioning is followed by a testing delay. In a within-subjects design, Experiment 1 first showed that when a single food pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) signaled the delivery of three additional pellets, responding after the single US was…

  11. Development of an Educational Innovation Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Odin; Kerr, Shantia

    2010-01-01

    The Educational Innovation Incubator is an electronic classroom designed to evolve at the University of Central Missouri. This newly enacted endeavor is a place for faculty and students to combine the scholarship of teaching and learning into their courses by experimenting with the latest technologies in education. This paper describes the process…

  12. Problems associated with incubation and hatching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    There are numerous problems in incubation and hatching that can result in a dead embryo. Many of these problems can be prevented if the proper diagnosis of embryo mortality is made and the client instructed on how to prevent the probem in the future. This session is designed to give the avian practitioner an introduction to this area.

  13. 21 CFR 880.5400 - Neonatal incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neonatal incubator. 880.5400 Section 880.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic...

  14. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  17. Development of an Educational Innovation Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Odin; Kerr, Shantia

    2010-01-01

    The Educational Innovation Incubator is an electronic classroom designed to evolve at the University of Central Missouri. This newly enacted endeavor is a place for faculty and students to combine the scholarship of teaching and learning into their courses by experimenting with the latest technologies in education. This paper describes the process…

  18. Pavlovian Incubation of US Signal Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Murray J.

    2013-01-01

    Four experiments with rats examined Pavlovian incubation, in which responding increases when Pavlovian conditioning is followed by a testing delay. In a within-subjects design, Experiment 1 first showed that when a single food pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) signaled the delivery of three additional pellets, responding after the single US was…

  19. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  20. Incubational domain characterization in lightly doped ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhipeng; Mori, Toshiyuki; John Auchterlonie, Graeme; Zou Jin; Drennan, John

    2012-08-15

    Microstructures of both Gd- and Y-doped ceria with different doping level (i.e., 10 at% and 25 at%) have been comprehensively characterized by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Coherent nano-sized domains can be widely observed in heavily doped ceria. Nevertheless, it was found that a large amount of dislocations actually exist in lightly doped ceria instead of heavily doped ones. Furthermore, incubational domains can be detected in lightly doped ceria, with dislocations located at the interfaces. The interactions between such linear dislocations and dopant defects have been simulated accordingly. As a consequence, the formation mechanism of incubational domains is rationalized in terms of the interaction between intrinsic dislocations of doped ceria and dopant defects. This study offers the insights into the initial state and related mechanism of the formation of nano-sized domains, which have been widely observed in heavily rare-earth-doped ceria in recent years. - Graphical abstract: Interactions between dislocations and dopants lead to incubational domain formation in lightly doped ceria. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures were characterized in both heavily and light Gd-/Y-doped ceria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocations are existed in lightly doped ceria rather than heavily doped one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interactions between dislocations and dopant defects were simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of dislocation associated incubational domain is rationalized.

  1. UUAT1 Is a Golgi-Localized UDP-Uronic Acid Transporter That Modulates the Polysaccharide Composition of Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rautengarten, Carsten; Temple, Henry; Sanhueza, Dayan; Ejsmentewicz, Troy; Sandoval-Ibañez, Omar; Parra-Rojas, Juan Pablo; Ebert, Berit; Reyes, Francisca C.

    2017-01-01

    UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) is the precursor of many plant cell wall polysaccharides and is required for production of seed mucilage. Following synthesis in the cytosol, it is transported into the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, where it is converted to UDP-galacturonic acid (UDP-GalA), UDP-arabinose, and UDP-xylose. To identify the Golgi-localized UDP-GlcA transporter, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in genes coding for putative nucleotide sugar transporters for altered seed mucilage, a structure rich in the GalA-containing polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I. As a result, we identified UUAT1, which encodes a Golgi-localized protein that transports UDP-GlcA and UDP-GalA in vitro. The seed coat of uuat1 mutants had less GalA, rhamnose, and xylose in the soluble mucilage, and the distal cell walls had decreased arabinan content. Cell walls of other organs and cells had lower arabinose levels in roots and pollen tubes, but no differences were observed in GalA or xylose contents. Furthermore, the GlcA content of glucuronoxylan in the stem was not affected in the mutant. Interestingly, the degree of homogalacturonan methylation increased in uuat1. These results suggest that this UDP-GlcA transporter plays a key role defining the seed mucilage sugar composition and that its absence produces pleiotropic effects in this component of the plant extracellular matrix. PMID:28062750

  2. UUAT1 Is a Golgi-Localized UDP-Uronic Acid Transporter That Modulates the Polysaccharide Composition of Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage

    SciTech Connect

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rautengarten, Carsten; Temple, Henry; Sanhueza, Dayan; Ejsmentewicz, Troy; Sandoval-Ibañez, Omar; Doñas, Daniela; Parra-Rojas, Juan Pablo; Ebert, Berit; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude; Dupree, Paul; Scheller, Henrik V.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Reyes, Francisca C.; Orellana, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) is the precursor of many plant cell wall polysaccharides and is required for production of seed mucilage. Following synthesis in the cytosol, it is transported into the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, where it is converted to UDP-galacturonic acid (UDP-GalA), UDP-arabinose, and UDP-xylose. To identify the Golgi-localized UDP-GlcA transporter, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in genes coding for putative nucleotide sugar transporters for altered seed mucilage, a structure rich in the GalA-containing polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I. As a result, we identified UUAT1, which encodes a Golgi-localized protein that transports UDP-GlcA and UDP-GalA in vitro. The seed coat of uuat1 mutants had less GalA, rhamnose, and xylose in the soluble mucilage, and the distal cell walls had decreased arabinan content. Cell walls of other organs and cells had lower arabinose levels in roots and pollen tubes, but no differences were observed in GalA or xylose contents. Furthermore, the GlcA content of glucuronoxylan in the stem was not affected in the mutant. Interestingly, the degree of homogalacturonan methylation increased in uuat1. These results suggest that this UDP-GlcA transporter plays a key role defining the seed mucilage sugar composition and that its absence produces pleiotropic effects in this component of the plant extracellular matrix.

  3. UUAT1 Is a Golgi-Localized UDP-Uronic Acid Transporter That Modulates the Polysaccharide Composition of Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage

    DOE PAGES

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rautengarten, Carsten; Temple, Henry; ...

    2017-01-01

    UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) is the precursor of many plant cell wall polysaccharides and is required for production of seed mucilage. Following synthesis in the cytosol, it is transported into the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, where it is converted to UDP-galacturonic acid (UDP-GalA), UDP-arabinose, and UDP-xylose. To identify the Golgi-localized UDP-GlcA transporter, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in genes coding for putative nucleotide sugar transporters for altered seed mucilage, a structure rich in the GalA-containing polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I. As a result, we identified UUAT1, which encodes a Golgi-localized protein that transports UDP-GlcA and UDP-GalA in vitro. The seed coat ofmore » uuat1 mutants had less GalA, rhamnose, and xylose in the soluble mucilage, and the distal cell walls had decreased arabinan content. Cell walls of other organs and cells had lower arabinose levels in roots and pollen tubes, but no differences were observed in GalA or xylose contents. Furthermore, the GlcA content of glucuronoxylan in the stem was not affected in the mutant. Interestingly, the degree of homogalacturonan methylation increased in uuat1. These results suggest that this UDP-GlcA transporter plays a key role defining the seed mucilage sugar composition and that its absence produces pleiotropic effects in this component of the plant extracellular matrix.« less

  4. The Achene Mucilage Hydrated in Desert Dew Assists Seed Cells in Maintaining DNA Integrity: Adaptive Strategy of Desert Plant Artemisia sphaerocephala

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wenhao; Dong, Ming; Boubriak, Ivan; Huang, Zhenying

    2011-01-01

    Despite proposed ecological importance of mucilage in seed dispersal, germination and seedling establishment, little is known about the role of mucilage in seed pre-germination processes. Here we investigated the role of mucilage in assisting achene cells to repair DNA damage during dew deposition in the desert. Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes were first treated γ-irradiation to induce DNA damage, and then they were repaired in situ in the desert dew. Dew deposition duration can be as long as 421 min in early mornings. Intact achenes absorbed more water than demucilaged achenes during dew deposition and also carried water for longer time following sunrise. After 4-d dew treatment, DNA damage of irradiated intact and demucilaged achenes was reduced to 24.38% and 46.84%, respectively. The irradiated intact achenes exhibited much higher DNA repair ratio than irradiated demucilaged achenes. Irradiated intact achenes showed an improved germination and decreased nonviable achenes after dew treatment, and significant differences in viability between the two types of achenes were detected after 1020 min of dew treatment. Achene mucilage presumably plays an ecologically important role in the life cycle of A. sphaerocephala by aiding DNA repair of achene cells in genomic-stressful habitats. PMID:21912689

  5. The achene mucilage hydrated in desert dew assists seed cells in maintaining DNA integrity: adaptive strategy of desert plant Artemisia sphaerocephala.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wenhao; Dong, Ming; Boubriak, Ivan; Huang, Zhenying

    2011-01-01

    Despite proposed ecological importance of mucilage in seed dispersal, germination and seedling establishment, little is known about the role of mucilage in seed pre-germination processes. Here we investigated the role of mucilage in assisting achene cells to repair DNA damage during dew deposition in the desert. Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes were first treated γ-irradiation to induce DNA damage, and then they were repaired in situ in the desert dew. Dew deposition duration can be as long as 421 min in early mornings. Intact achenes absorbed more water than demucilaged achenes during dew deposition and also carried water for longer time following sunrise. After 4-d dew treatment, DNA damage of irradiated intact and demucilaged achenes was reduced to 24.38% and 46.84%, respectively. The irradiated intact achenes exhibited much higher DNA repair ratio than irradiated demucilaged achenes. Irradiated intact achenes showed an improved germination and decreased nonviable achenes after dew treatment, and significant differences in viability between the two types of achenes were detected after 1020 min of dew treatment. Achene mucilage presumably plays an ecologically important role in the life cycle of A. sphaerocephala by aiding DNA repair of achene cells in genomic-stressful habitats.

  6. Flying saucer1 is a transmembrane RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates the degree of pectin methylesterification in Arabidopsis seed mucilage.

    PubMed

    Voiniciuc, Catalin; Dean, Gillian H; Griffiths, Jonathan S; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Hwang, Yeen Ting; Gillett, Alan; Dow, Graham; Western, Tamara L; Estelle, Mark; Haughn, George W

    2013-03-01

    Pectins are complex polysaccharides that form the gel matrix of the primary cell wall and are abundant in the middle lamella that holds plant cells together. Their degree of methylesterification (DM) impacts wall strength and cell adhesion since unesterified pectin regions can cross-link via Ca(2+) ions to form stronger gels. Here, we characterize flying saucer1 (fly1), a novel Arabidopsis thaliana seed coat mutant, which displays primary wall detachment, reduced mucilage extrusion, and increased mucilage adherence. These defects appear to result from a lower DM in mucilage and are enhanced by the addition of Ca(2+) or completely rescued using alkaline Ca(2+) chelators. FLY1 encodes a transmembrane protein with a RING-H2 domain that has in vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. FLY1 is orthologous to TRANSMEMBRANE UBIQUITIN LIGASE1, a Golgi-localized E3 ligase involved in the quality control of membrane proteins in yeast. However, FLY1-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusions are localized in punctae that are predominantly distinct from the Golgi and the trans-Golgi network/early endosome in the seed coat epidermis. Wortmannin treatment, which induces the fusion of late endosomes in plants, resulted in enlarged FLY1-YFP bodies. We propose that FLY1 regulates the DM of pectin in mucilage, potentially by recycling pectin methylesterase enzymes in the endomembrane system of seed coat epidermal cells.

  7. UUAT1 Is a Golgi-Localized UDP-Uronic Acid Transporter That Modulates the Polysaccharide Composition of Arabidopsis Seed Mucilage.

    PubMed

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rautengarten, Carsten; Temple, Henry; Sanhueza, Dayan; Ejsmentewicz, Troy; Sandoval-Ibañez, Omar; Doñas, Daniela; Parra-Rojas, Juan Pablo; Ebert, Berit; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude; Dupree, Paul; Scheller, Henrik V; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Reyes, Francisca C; Orellana, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) is the precursor of many plant cell wall polysaccharides and is required for production of seed mucilage. Following synthesis in the cytosol, it is transported into the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, where it is converted to UDP-galacturonic acid (UDP-GalA), UDP-arabinose, and UDP-xylose. To identify the Golgi-localized UDP-GlcA transporter, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in genes coding for putative nucleotide sugar transporters for altered seed mucilage, a structure rich in the GalA-containing polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I. As a result, we identified UUAT1, which encodes a Golgi-localized protein that transports UDP-GlcA and UDP-GalA in vitro. The seed coat of uuat1 mutants had less GalA, rhamnose, and xylose in the soluble mucilage, and the distal cell walls had decreased arabinan content. Cell walls of other organs and cells had lower arabinose levels in roots and pollen tubes, but no differences were observed in GalA or xylose contents. Furthermore, the GlcA content of glucuronoxylan in the stem was not affected in the mutant. Interestingly, the degree of homogalacturonan methylation increased in uuat1 These results suggest that this UDP-GlcA transporter plays a key role defining the seed mucilage sugar composition and that its absence produces pleiotropic effects in this component of the plant extracellular matrix.

  8. Mid Columbia sturgeon incubation and rearing study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric; Blubaugh, J

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results from the second year of a three-year investigation on the effects of different thermal regimes on incubation and rearing early life stages of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The Columbia River has been significantly altered by the construction of dams resulting in annual flows and water temperatures that differ from historical levels. White sturgeon have been demonstrated to spawn in two very distinct sections of the Columbia River in British Columbia, Canada, which are both located immediately downstream of hydropower facilities. The thermal regimes differ substantially between these two areas. The general approach of this study was to incubate and rear white sturgeon early life stages under two thermal regimes; one mimicking the current, cool water regime of the Columbia River downstream from Revelstoke Dam, and one mimicking a warmer regime similar to conditions found on the Columbia River at the international border. Second-year results suggest that thermal regimes during incubation influence rate of egg development and size at hatch. Eggs incubated under the warm thermal regime hatched sooner than those incubated under the cool thermal regime. Mean length of free embryos at hatch was significantly different between thermal regimes with free embryos from the warm thermal regime being longer at hatch. However, free embryos from the cool thermal regime had a significantly higher mean weight at hatch. This is in contrast with results obtained during 2009. The rearing trials revealed that growth of fish reared in the cool thermal regime was substantially less than growth of fish reared in the warm thermal regime. The magnitude of mortality was greatest in the warm thermal regime prior to initiation of exogenous feeding, but chronic low levels of mortality in the cool thermal regime were higher throughout the period. The starvation trials showed that the fish in the warm thermal regime exhausted their yolk reserves faster

  9. Experimental Investigation on Role of Root Mucilage and Microbial Exudates on Soil Water Retention Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrenegus, T. B.; Ghezzehei, T.

    2011-12-01

    The release of organic molecules by soil microbes and plant roots to adapt their surrounding represents a substantial portion of the energy use by these organisms. The hypothesis in this study is that the long-chain molecules and hydrophilic nature of the released organic compounds deposited on soil surfaces drastically alters the dynamism of the soil water retention curves (SWRC) of the rhizosphere relative to the bulk soil through direct effect besides the well-known indirect influence of the organic matter by modifying the soil structure and providing energy for the biogeochemical processes. The experiment was set up in such away that it suppresses the indirect effect of organic matter (OM) and rather it traces only its immediate effect on SWRC. To achieve this goal inert and uniform size (0.1-0.11 mm) glassbeads were used. We assumed that wet mixing of the glass beads with OM and slow drying the mixture (40-50oC) for 1-day will lead to deposition of the OM only at the surface of the glass beads, the short time being not enough for aggregate formation. This way we can simulate the natural deposition of OM on soil surfaces. Our argument is that this deposited OM has its own distinct time-dependent SWRC which is different from that of bulk soil. Model exudates including PGA, XA, and SPA are used to mimic the behavior of plant root mucilages, bacterial and fungal exudates respectively. These model exudates at varying concentration (0, 0.008, 0.04, and 0.2 gm/l) were wet mixed with glass beads. SWRC was determined using both water-hanging column and pressure plate for both low and high suction ranges respectively. We will present the effect of exudate type and level of concentration on the dynamic behavior of SWRC of the glassbeads by determining: i) the SWRC for each treatment; ii) the rate of drying and wetting at different intervals; iii) the hysteresis of the retention curves; iv) the saturated hydraulic conductivity.

  10. The e-incubator: a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible mini incubator.

    PubMed

    Othman, Shadi F; Wartella, Karin; Sharghi, Vahid Khalilzad; Xu, Huihui

    2015-04-01

    The tissue engineering community has been vocal regarding the need for noninvasive instruments to assess the development of tissue-engineered constructs. Medical imaging has helped fulfill this role. However, specimens allocated to a test tube for imaging cannot be tested for a prolonged period or returned to the incubator. Therefore, samples are essentially wasted due to potential contamination and transfer in a less than optimal growth environment. In turn, we present a standalone, miniature, magnetic resonance imaging-compatible incubator, termed the e-incubator. This incubator uses a microcontroller unit to automatically sense and regulate physiological conditions for tissue culture, thus allowing for concurrent tissue culture and evaluation. The e-incubator also offers an innovative scheme to study underlying mechanisms related to the structural and functional evolution of tissues. Importantly, it offers a key step toward enabling real-time testing of engineered tissues before human transplantation. For validation purposes, we cultured tissue-engineered bone constructs for 4 weeks to test the e-incubator. Importantly, this technology allows for visualizing the evolution of temporal and spatial morphogenesis. In turn, the e-incubator can filter deficient constructs, thereby increasing the success rate of implantation of tissue-engineered constructs, especially as construct design grows in levels of complexity to match the geometry and function of patients' unique needs.

  11. The e-Incubator: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Compatible Mini Incubator

    PubMed Central

    Wartella, Karin; Khalilzad Sharghi, Vahid; Xu, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    The tissue engineering community has been vocal regarding the need for noninvasive instruments to assess the development of tissue-engineered constructs. Medical imaging has helped fulfill this role. However, specimens allocated to a test tube for imaging cannot be tested for a prolonged period or returned to the incubator. Therefore, samples are essentially wasted due to potential contamination and transfer in a less than optimal growth environment. In turn, we present a standalone, miniature, magnetic resonance imaging-compatible incubator, termed the e-incubator. This incubator uses a microcontroller unit to automatically sense and regulate physiological conditions for tissue culture, thus allowing for concurrent tissue culture and evaluation. The e-incubator also offers an innovative scheme to study underlying mechanisms related to the structural and functional evolution of tissues. Importantly, it offers a key step toward enabling real-time testing of engineered tissues before human transplantation. For validation purposes, we cultured tissue-engineered bone constructs for 4 weeks to test the e-incubator. Importantly, this technology allows for visualizing the evolution of temporal and spatial morphogenesis. In turn, the e-incubator can filter deficient constructs, thereby increasing the success rate of implantation of tissue-engineered constructs, especially as construct design grows in levels of complexity to match the geometry and function of patients' unique needs. PMID:25190214

  12. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  13. Hatching a Theory of Incubation Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    attainment of insight. For example, Koestler (1964) tells how Benjamin Franklin originally wanted to test his theory that lightening was electricity by...cues (Judson et. al., 1956; Mendelsohn & Griswold, 1964) support the view that apparently irrelevant events can affect problem-solving behavior...one of the interrupted groups (Gall & Mendelsohn , 1967). The other failed to find incubation effects of any kind (Olton & Johnson, 1976). 3 In addition

  14. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  15. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  16. Parasitological diagnosis of onchocerciasis: comparisons of incubation media and incubation times for skin snips.

    PubMed

    Collins, R C; Brandling-Bennett, A D; Holliman, R B; Campbell, C C; Darsie, R F

    1980-01-01

    Tissue culture fluid NCTC 135 (Hank's base) was compared to water and to saline as incubation media for the detection of microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus in skin snips. NCTC 135 allowed detection of significantly more positive persons than did water (P less than 0.001) or saline (P less than 0.05) when two snips per person were incubated for periods of 0.5 or 24 hours. In addition, snips containing microfilariae were incubated in NCTC 135 or in saline and the number of emerged microfilariae was determined at various intervals of time up to 24 hours. After incubation, snips were either fixed in 10% formalin, serially sectioned, and the microfilariae counted, or they were digested in collagenase solution to free unemerged microfilaire. Of the total number of microfilariae present in the snips, 43.9% +/- 18.5, 80.2% +/- 22.2, 83.0% +/- 19.5, and 85.3% +/- 18.0 had emerged by 0.5, 4, 8, and 24 hours of incubation, respectively. Of the microfilariae that remained in the skin after incubation, most were located deep in the dermis.

  17. An Introduction to Developing an Urban Business Incubator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James; And Others

    Designed to provide a brief overview of the considerations involved in establishing a small business incubator, this guide presents information on incubator classification, funding methods, incubator operation techniques, and two-year college involvement in the formation of a working business incubator. Part 1 describes a small business incubator…

  18. Incubation temperature, morphology and performance in loggerhead (Caretta caretta) turtle hatchlings from Mon Repos, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Elizabeth L.; Booth, David T.; Limpus, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    Marine turtles are vulnerable to climate change because their life history and reproduction are tied to environmental temperatures. The egg incubation stage is arguably the most vulnerable stage, because marine turtle eggs require a narrow range of temperatures for successful incubation. Additionally, incubation temperature affects sex, emergence success, morphology and locomotor performance of hatchlings. Hatchlings often experience high rates of predation in the first few hours of their life, and increased size or locomotor ability may improve their chances of survival. Between 2010 and 2013 we monitored the temperature of loggerhead (Caretta caretta; Linnaeus 1758) turtle nests at Mon Repos Rookery, and used these data to calculate a mean three day maximum temperature (T3dm) for each nest. We calculated the hatching and emergence success for each nest, then measured the mass, size and locomotor performance of hatchlings that emerged from those nests. Nests with a T3dm greater than 34°C experienced a lower emergence success and produced smaller hatchlings than nests with a T3dm lower than 34°C. Hatchlings from nests with a T3dm below 34°C performed better in crawling and swimming trials than hatchlings from nests with a T3dm above 34°C. Thus even non-lethal increases in global temperatures have the potential to detrimentally affect fitness and survival of marine turtle hatchlings. PMID:26002933

  19. Quince seed mucilage magnetic nanocomposites as novel bioadsorbents for efficient removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Mohammadi, Sina

    2015-12-10

    This study investigated the potential use of quince seed mucilage (QSM) as alternative bioadsorbents for methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. This novel magnetic nanocomposite adsorbent (MNCA) based on QSM was synthesized by in situ formation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles into QSM solution. The MNCAs were characterized using FTIR, SEM, TEM, XRD, and VSM. Removal of MB was investigated by batch adsorption technique. The thermodynamic parameters suggest that the dye adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Moreover, the adsorbents showed high selectivity for the adsorption of cationic dyes with regenerated properties. The pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models also provide the best correlation of the experimental data for MB adsorption. The results indicate that the MNCAs can be employed as efficient low cost adsorbents with excellent dye adsorption performance in wastewater treatment process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Managing incubation: where are we and why?

    PubMed

    Hulet, R M

    2007-05-01

    An improvement in the rate of gain of broilers during the past 20 yr has made the incubation period a larger percentage of the overall growth period for commercial poultry and has played a larger role in improving growth efficiency. Recently, hatchery managers have observed concomitant decreases in hatchability and chick performance, whereas temperature profiles in the setters and hatchers have not changed appreciably. Therefore, these decreases in hatchability, first week livability, hatch time, and overall chick quality have precipitated the need for a change in the way we manage our hatcheries. Historically, the broiler industry within the United States and United Kingdom have successfully utilized multistage incubation. Currently, the use of single-stage incubation in Europe has increased, because research has shown this system more precisely meets the developmental demands of the embryos. Therefore, research has focused on multi- and single-stage hatcheries to determine the proper hatch conditions necessary to optimize embryonic development, chick quality, and their effects on posthatch performance. Studies have shown how increases in shell temperature, independent of machine temperature, can result in increases in embryonic mortality, decreased heart weight as a percentage of chick weight, decreased yolk-free BW, and increased yolk weight. Factors that have contributed to the increase in heat stress on developing embryos include egg size, air flow, age of the embryo, and breeder flock fertility. Other studies have shown that the variation in chick performance can be explained by heat stress in the hatchery. Therefore, symposium presentations will show how improvements in our knowledge of the requirements of the developing avian embryo can help improve not only hatchability and first week livability but posthatch performance.

  1. Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

  2. Changes in Osmotic Pressure and Mucilage during Low-Temperature Acclimation of Opuntia ficus-indica 1

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Guillermo; Nobel, Park S.

    1991-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism plant cultivated for its fruits and cladodes, was used to examine chemical and physiological events accompanying low-temperature acclimation. Changes in osmotic pressure, water content, low molecular weight solutes, and extracellular mucilage were monitored in the photosynthetic chlorenchyma and the water-storage parenchyma when plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30/20°C were shifted to 10/0°C. An increase in osmotic pressure of 0.13 megapascal occurred after 13 days at 10/0°C. Synthesis of glucose, fructose, and glycerol accounted for most of the observed increase in osmotic pressure during the low-temperature acclimation. Extracellular mucilage and the relative apoplastic water content increased by 24 and 10%, respectively, during exposure to low temperatures. These increases apparently favor the extracellular nucleation of ice closer to the equilibrium freezing temperature for plants at 10/0°C, which could make the cellular dehydration more gradual and less damaging. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies helped elucidate the cellular processes during ice formation, such as those revealed by changes in the relaxation times of two water fractions in the chlorenchyma. The latter results suggested a restricted mobility of intracellular water and an increased mobility of extracellular water for plants at 10/0°C compared with those at 30/20°C. Increased mobility of extracellular water could facilitate extracellular ice growth and thus delay the potentially lethal intracellular freezing during low-temperature acclimation. PMID:16668536

  3. Physics Incubator at Kansas State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Bret; Chakrabarti, Amitabha

    Funded by a major private endowment, the physics department at Kansas State University has recently started a physics incubator program that provides support to research projects with a high probability of commercial application. Some examples of these projects will be discussed in this talk. In a parallel effort, undergraduate physics majors and graduate students are being encouraged to work with our business school to earn an Entrepreneurship minor and a certification in Entrepreneurship. We will discuss how these efforts are promoting a ``culture change'' in the department. We will also discuss the advantages and the difficulties in running such a program in a Midwest college town.

  4. [Salmonella identification after incubation in the soil].

    PubMed

    Bakhrouf, A; Dhiaf, A; Chnity, N; Bahri, M; Mechergui, F; Said, A

    2002-01-01

    We have tried to study the fate of Salmonella strains in soil. We have looked at their biochemical modifications during their evolution to dormant state and during their reviviscence. The beta galactosidase which is negative in the parent strain became positive after two weeks of cells starvation in soil. Stressed cells became able to produce acetoin. Some stressed cells did not produce the lysine decarboxylase, which is positive in parent cells. These modifications are reversible and depend on cultural conditions. Incubation of stressed cells in nutrient broth for more than four weeks helped them to reverse to normal forms. Simultaneous search for atypical Salmonella was done in dissect sludge of a domestic wastewater treatment plant and in soil irrigated with treated water. Atypical strains of Salmonella are found. We have seen that, after incubation in nutrient broth for more than four weeks, atypical strains characters evolved generally to their parental characters. All modifications of Salmonella in soil samples can make their identification very difficult and perhaps impossible.

  5. [Studies on noise stress caused by infant incubators (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gädeke, R; Petersen, P; de Liddle, I W

    1979-03-01

    The following acoustic effects of incubators were investigated: Noise level and vibration measurements inside incubators. Noise emanation into the vicinity of incubators. Deadening of incubator noise by the hood. The noise intensity inside the incubators was also registered under conditions of intensive care using sound emitting therapeutic and monitoring equipment. The results show that the noise level of incubator motors can be tolerated. This applies to well-serviced incubators only, however. The hood muffles outside noise, particularly in the range of greatest hearing acuity. But there is no protection against noisy intensive-care systems within the incubator. The infants own noise production is considered to contribute substantially to the noise within an incubator.

  6. Factors related to the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.; Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Kondrad, Shannon R.

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to artificially incubate the eggs of wild birds have failed in many respects in duplicating the success of natural incubation. As part of a larger study we had the opportunity to artificially incubate the eggs of 22 species of birds (three domestic and 19 wild species). We report the successes and failures associated with artificial incubation of these eggs. Moisture loss varied widely, not only for Orders of birds but for similar species within an Order. Overall hatching success and success through to 90% of incubation varied for different Orders and for similar species. Humidity and temperature are critical elements in the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs and must be closely monitored throughout incubation to ensure the best possible chance of hatching. Even when these elements are addressed, artificial incubation still can not duplicate the success of incubation by the parent.

  7. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in waterbird nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ± 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ± 1.6 days and 1.9 ± 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ± 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ± 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates.

  8. Sleep Regulates Incubation of Cocaine Craving.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Zheng; Dong, Yan; Huang, Yanhua H

    2015-09-30

    After withdrawal from cocaine, chronic cocaine users often experience persistent reduction in total sleep time, which is accompanied by increased sleep fragmentation resembling chronic insomnia. This and other sleep abnormalities have long been speculated to foster relapse and further drug addiction, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we report that after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited persistent reduction in nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, as well as increased sleep fragmentation. In an attempt to improve sleep after cocaine withdrawal, we applied chronic sleep restriction to the rats during their active (dark) phase of the day, which selectively decreased the fragmentation of REM sleep during their inactive (light) phase without changing NREM or the total amount of daily sleep. Animals with improved REM sleep exhibited decreased incubation of cocaine craving, a phenomenon depicting the progressive intensification of cocaine seeking after withdrawal. In contrast, experimentally increasing sleep fragmentation after cocaine self-administration expedited the development of incubation of cocaine craving. Incubation of cocaine craving is partially mediated by progressive accumulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After withdrawal from cocaine, animals with improved REM sleep exhibited reduced accumulation of CP-AMPARs in the NAc, whereas increasing sleep fragmentation accelerated NAc CP-AMPAR accumulation. These results reveal a potential molecular substrate that can be engaged by sleep to regulate cocaine craving and relapse, and demonstrate sleep-based therapeutic opportunities for cocaine addiction. Significance statement: Sleep abnormalities are common symptoms in chronic drug users long after drug withdrawal. These withdrawal-associated sleep symptoms, particularly reduction in total sleep time and deteriorating sleep quality, have been

  9. Sleep Regulates Incubation of Cocaine Craving

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    After withdrawal from cocaine, chronic cocaine users often experience persistent reduction in total sleep time, which is accompanied by increased sleep fragmentation resembling chronic insomnia. This and other sleep abnormalities have long been speculated to foster relapse and further drug addiction, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we report that after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited persistent reduction in nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, as well as increased sleep fragmentation. In an attempt to improve sleep after cocaine withdrawal, we applied chronic sleep restriction to the rats during their active (dark) phase of the day, which selectively decreased the fragmentation of REM sleep during their inactive (light) phase without changing NREM or the total amount of daily sleep. Animals with improved REM sleep exhibited decreased incubation of cocaine craving, a phenomenon depicting the progressive intensification of cocaine seeking after withdrawal. In contrast, experimentally increasing sleep fragmentation after cocaine self-administration expedited the development of incubation of cocaine craving. Incubation of cocaine craving is partially mediated by progressive accumulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After withdrawal from cocaine, animals with improved REM sleep exhibited reduced accumulation of CP-AMPARs in the NAc, whereas increasing sleep fragmentation accelerated NAc CP-AMPAR accumulation. These results reveal a potential molecular substrate that can be engaged by sleep to regulate cocaine craving and relapse, and demonstrate sleep-based therapeutic opportunities for cocaine addiction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sleep abnormalities are common symptoms in chronic drug users long after drug withdrawal. These withdrawal-associated sleep symptoms, particularly reduction in total sleep time and deteriorating sleep quality, have been

  10. Expression of PRX36, PMEI6 and SBT1.7 is controlled by complex transcription factor regulatory networks for proper seed coat mucilage extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Ranocha, Philippe; Francoz, Edith; Burlat, Vincent; Dunand, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage secretory cells (MSC) form an intriguing cell layer important for seed germination. In Arabidopsis thaliana, several master transcription factors (TFs) and “actor” proteins have already been identified as key players for seed coat differentiation including epidermal cell formation, mucilage production and extrusion. The regulation of the genes coding for MSC cell wall “actor” proteins by TFs needs to be better established. Here, the expression and the regulation of 3 known actors (PRX36, PMEI6, SBT1.7) and 2 additional putative actors (PRX56, DIR12) have been analyzed in T-DNA mutants affected in master TFs (ap2, egl3/gl3, gl2, myb5, tt8, ttg1, ttg2 and luh1/mum1). Genes with somehow similar function are differentially regulated and conversely, genes with different functions are regulated in similar manner. PMID:25531128

  11. Stellar Incubators Seen Cooking up Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-12

    This image composite compares visible-light and infrared views from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of the glowing Trifid Nebula, a giant star-forming cloud of gas and dust located 5,400 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. Visible-light images of the Trifid taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Baltimore, Md. (inside left, figure 1) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., (outside left, figure 1) show a murky cloud lined with dark trails of dust. Data of this same region from the Institute for Radioastronomy millimeter telescope in Spain revealed four dense knots, or cores, of dust (outlined by yellow circles), which are "incubators" for embryonic stars. Astronomers thought these cores were not yet ripe for stars, until Spitzer spotted the warmth of rapidly growing massive embryos tucked inside. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07226

  12. A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, John P.; Gower, James F. R.; King, Stephanie A.; Bissett, W. Paul; Fischer, Andrew M.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Kolber, Zbigniew; Mazzillo, Fernanda; Rienecker, Erich V.; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2008-06-01

    Novel remote sensing methods and in situ observations reveal that intense dinoflagellate blooms occur frequently in Monterey Bay, California. Blooms can contain surface chlorophyll concentrations exceeding 500 μg l-1 and occupy ~5 to 80 km2. They occur primarily during August through November and can persist for > 1 month. Maximum bloom frequency and mean intensity are in a shallow (< 25 m depth) area of the northeastern bay, in coincidence with the warmest surface water, low wind stress, and retentive circulation. These conditions favor dinoflagellates, which can vertically migrate to acquire nutrients in the thermocline and aggregate as "red tide" near the surface. Bloom incubation areas, also indicated in other coastal upwelling systems, may disproportionately influence regional bloom ecology.

  13. Does incubation enhance problem solving? A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Sio, Ut Na; Ormerod, Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of empirical studies that have investigated incubation effects on problem solving is reported. Although some researchers have reported increased solution rates after an incubation period (i.e., a period of time in which a problem is set aside prior to further attempts to solve), others have failed to find effects. The analysis examined the contributions of moderators such as problem type, presence of solution-relevant or misleading cues, and lengths of preparation and incubation periods to incubation effect sizes. The authors identified a positive incubation effect, with divergent thinking tasks benefiting more than linguistic and visual insight tasks from incubation. Longer preparation periods gave a greater incubation effect, whereas filling an incubation period with high cognitive demand tasks gave a smaller incubation effect. Surprisingly, low cognitive demand tasks yielded a stronger incubation effect than did rest during an incubation period when solving linguistic insight problems. The existence of multiple types of incubation effect provides evidence for differential invocation of knowledge-based vs. strategic solution processes across different classes of problem, and it suggests that the conditions under which incubation can be used as a practical technique for enhancing problem solving must be designed with care.

  14. Changes in pH and organic acids in mucilage of Eriophorum angustifolium roots after exposure to elevated concentrations of toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Javed, M Tariq; Stoltz, Eva; Lindberg, Sylvia; Greger, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The presence of Eriophorum angustifolium in mine tailings of pyrite maintains a neutral pH, despite weathering, thus lowering the release of toxic elements into acid mine drainage water. We investigated if the presence of slightly elevated levels of free toxic elements triggers the plant rhizosphere to change the pH towards neutral by increasing organic acid contents. Plants were treated with a combination of As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn at different concentrations in nutrient medium and in soil in a rhizobox-like system for 48-120 h. The pH and organic acids were detected in the mucilage dissolved from root surface, reflecting the rhizospheric solution. Also the pH of root-cell apoplasm was investigated. Both apoplasmic and mucilage pH increased and the concentrations of organic acids enhanced in the mucilage with slightly elevated levels of toxic elements. When organic acids concentration was high, also the pH was high. Thus, efflux of organic acids from the roots of E. angustifolium may induce rhizosphere basification.

  15. Fermentative utilization of coffee mucilage using Bacillus coagulans and investigation of down-stream processing of fermentation broth for optically pure l(+)-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Neu, Anna-Katrin; Pleissner, Daniel; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    In this study, mucilage, a residue from coffee production, was investigated as substrate in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production. Mucilage was provided as liquid suspension consisting glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and sucrose as free sugars (up to 60gL(-1)), and used directly as medium in Bacillus coagulans batch fermentations carried out at 2 and 50L scales. Using mucilage and 5gL(-1) yeast extract as additional nitrogen source, more than 40gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained. Productivity and yield were 4-5gL(-1)h(-1) and 0.70-0.77g lactic acid per g of free sugars, respectively, irrespective the scale. Similar yield was found when no yeast extract was supplied, the productivity, however, was 1.5gL(-1)h(-1). Down-stream processing of culture broth, including filtration, electrodialysis, ion exchange chromatography and distillation, resulted in a pure lactic acid formulation containing 930gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid. Optical purity was 99.8%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Incubating Integrative Medicine in India through PMO's Atal Incubator Scheme of Niti Aayog

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Akshay; Tyagi, Rahul; Kaur, Paramvir

    2017-01-01

    Background Incubation centers are considered important tools to advance in a field of activity with multidisciplinary approach. The idea of incubation emerged long time back but it is actively pursued by funding agencies as a medium to propel community development. India's fast developing economy had limited tryst with Integrative Medicine until Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, role modelled for Yoga in Chandigarh on the occasion of International Yoga Day. Integrative Medicine is a growing field and widely accepted as a cost-effective problem solving method that simplifies the management of incurable and complex disorders where modern medicine has little to offer. Summary Development of integrative medicine health incubator is the key to development of multidisciplinary program that offers to reduce the cost of healthcare, out of pocket expenses and emphasizes on preventive healthcare as means to achieve a healthy population in a developing country like India. Key Message Incubation center may become practical solution for many health problems in singular platform for healthier society by integrating traditional and modern medicine. PMID:28867893

  17. Incubating Integrative Medicine in India through PMO's Atal Incubator Scheme of Niti Aayog.

    PubMed

    Anand, Akshay; Tyagi, Rahul; Kaur, Paramvir

    2017-07-01

    Incubation centers are considered important tools to advance in a field of activity with multidisciplinary approach. The idea of incubation emerged long time back but it is actively pursued by funding agencies as a medium to propel community development. India's fast developing economy had limited tryst with Integrative Medicine until Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, role modelled for Yoga in Chandigarh on the occasion of International Yoga Day. Integrative Medicine is a growing field and widely accepted as a cost-effective problem solving method that simplifies the management of incurable and complex disorders where modern medicine has little to offer. Development of integrative medicine health incubator is the key to development of multidisciplinary program that offers to reduce the cost of healthcare, out of pocket expenses and emphasizes on preventive healthcare as means to achieve a healthy population in a developing country like India. Incubation center may become practical solution for many health problems in singular platform for healthier society by integrating traditional and modern medicine.

  18. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  19. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  20. Transparent Plastic Incubator for the Anaerobic Glove Box

    PubMed Central

    Balish, Edward; Brown, James F.; Wilkins, Tracy D.

    1977-01-01

    An incubator designed for use inside an anaerobic glove box is described. The incubator is made of transparent plastic material, has sliding plastic doors, and can be made in various sizes from readily available materials. Images PMID:16345202

  1. National Alliance of Clean Energy Incubator Activities - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Downing, P.E.

    2004-12-14

    Summary of activity related to development of the Alliance of Clean Energy Business Incubators and incubation services provided to the clean energy sector by the Advanced Technology Development Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

  2. Controlling droplet incubation using close-packed plug flow

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Pascaline; Abate, Adam R.; Agresti, Jeremy J.; Weitz, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling droplet incubation is critical for droplet-based microfluidic applications; however, current techniques are either of limited precision or place strict limits on the incubation times that can be achieved. Here, we present a simple technique to control incubation time by exploiting close-packed plug flow. In contrast to other techniques, this technique is applicable to very short and very long incubation times. PMID:21544238

  3. Input from Key Stakeholders in the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-31

    This report documents the input from key stakeholders of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) in developing a new technology incubator and related programs for southern New Mexico. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes identification of key stakeholders as well as a description and analysis of their input for the development of an incubator.

  4. Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

  5. 21 CFR 880.5410 - Neonatal transport incubator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal transport incubator. 880.5410 Section 880.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5410 Neonatal transport incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal transport incubator is a...

  6. Meteorological and oceanographic conditions in the northern Adriatic Sea during the period June 1999-July 2002: influence on the mucilage phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Russo, Aniello; Maccaferri, Simona; Djakovac, Tamara; Precali, Robert; Degobbis, Danilo; Deserti, Marco; Paschini, Elio; Lyons, Daniel M

    2005-12-15

    Mucilage events (formation of very large organic aggregates and gelatinous surface layers) have been documented several times during the past two centuries in the northern Adriatic Sea (NA), while their frequency has significantly increased since 1988. In this work, meteorological and oceanographic conditions in the NA during the period June 1999-July 2002 are described and their relation to the outbreak and fate of the mucilage phenomenon was investigated. Salinity and temperature data were collected during approximately monthly cruises along three transects in the NA. Relevant meteorological situations (air temperature, rainfall, wind) were selected from large-scale ECMWF analyses and from the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS; Emilia Romagna Meteorological Service), while sea conditions (waves) were analysed by means of the Wave Adriatic Model (WAM). Data for air temperature, rainfall, and wind from several meteorological stations in the region were used. Average seasonal cycles of sea temperature and salinity simulated with statistical models, based on historical data collected in the NA since 1972, were used to determine thermal and haline anomalies. The monthly anomaly variability of maximum and minimum air temperatures, rainfall amount and number of rainy days did not appear to be relevant for the mucilage phenomenon outbreak. In contrast, both vertical and horizontal thermohaline gradients in the region were more developed during late spring and summer of 2000 and particularly of 2002, when the mucilage events were of greatest extent in space and time, compared to 2001 (short-lived event) and 1999 (no event). These more pronounced gradients were due to a combination of several unusual conditions: sharp heating of the sea surface in May-June, domination of eastwards transport of freshened waters formed in the Po Delta area, and intrusion of very high salinity intermediate waters originating in the eastern Mediterranean. Moreover, in winter of both

  7. Stellar 'Incubators' Seen Cooking up Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

    This image composite compares visible-light and infrared views from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of the glowing Trifid Nebula, a giant star-forming cloud of gas and dust located 5,400 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius.

    Visible-light images of the Trifid taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Baltimore, Md. (inside left, figure 1) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., (outside left, figure 1) show a murky cloud lined with dark trails of dust. Data of this same region from the Institute for Radioastronomy millimeter telescope in Spain revealed four dense knots, or cores, of dust (outlined by yellow circles), which are 'incubators' for embryonic stars. Astronomers thought these cores were not yet ripe for stars, until Spitzer spotted the warmth of rapidly growing massive embryos tucked inside.

    These embryos are indicated with arrows in the false-color Spitzer picture (right, figure 1), taken by the telescope's infrared array camera. The same embryos cannot be seen in the visible-light pictures (left, figure 1). Spitzer found clusters of embryos in two of the cores and only single embryos in the other two. This is one of the first times that multiple embryos have been observed in individual cores at this early stage of stellar development.

  8. Cultural Incubators and Spread of Innovation.

    PubMed

    Crema, Enrico R; Lake, Mark W

    2015-07-01

    Several forms of social learning rely on the direct or indirect evaluation of the fitness of cultural traits. Here we argue, via a simple agent-based model, that payoff uncertainty, that is, the correlation between a trait and the signal used to evaluate its fitness, plays a pivotal role in the spread of beneficial innovation. More specifically, we examine how this correlation affects the evolutionary dynamics of different forms of social learning and how each form can generate divergent historical trajectories depending on the size of the sample pool. In particular, we demonstrate that social learning by copying the best model is particularly susceptible to a sampling effect caused by the interaction of payoff uncertainty, the number of models sampled (the sample pool), and the frequency with which a trait is present in the population. As a result, we identify circumstances in which smaller sample pools can act as "cultural incubators" that promote the spread of innovations, while more widespread sampling of the population actually retards the rate of cultural evolution.

  9. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  10. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  11. Sound transmission into incubators in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Robertson, A; Cooper-Peel, C; Vos, P

    1999-01-01

    To measure the attenuation of sound by modern incubators. LEQ, LMAX, LPEAK, and frequency distribution were measured simultaneously inside and outside two recent model incubators. The attenuation of sound (outside minus inside) was 15 to 18 dBA with the motor off and 4 to 8 dBA with the motor on. There was a significant difference between incubators in their attenuation of sound. Octave band analysis showed attenuation in frequency bands of > 31.5 Hz with the motor off. With the motor on, the sound level inside the incubator was higher than outside at frequency bands of < 250 Hz. Caring for infants inside modern incubators reduces "averaged" sound exposure to levels near those recommended for the neonatal intensive care unit. Lower frequency sounds are louder inside the incubator and arise from the incubator motor.

  12. Rheological properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed mucilage obtained by spray-drying as a novel source of hydrocolloid.

    PubMed

    Alpizar-Reyes, Erik; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Gallardo-Rivera, Raquel; Varela-Guerrero, Victor; Cruz-Olivares, Julian; Pérez-Alonso, César

    2017-09-18

    Tamarind seed mucilage (TSM) was extracted and obtained by spray drying. The power law model well described the rheological behavior of the TSM dispersions with determination coefficients R(2) higher than 0.93. According to power law model, non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior was observed at all concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) and temperatures (25, 30, 40, and 60°C) studied. Increasing temperature decreased the viscosity and increased the flow behavior index, opposite effect was observed when increasing the concentration. The temperature effect was more pronounced at 2.0% TSM concentration with an activation energy of 20.25kJ/mol. A clear dependence of viscosity on pH was observed, as pH increased from acidic to alkaline conditions, the viscosity increased. It was found that the rheological properties of TSM were affected by the sucrose and salts and their concentrations as well due to the addition of ions (or sucrose) decreases repulsion and allows molecule expansion promoting a significant reduction in viscosity. These results suggest that TMS could be applied in the production of foods that require additives with thickening capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel mucoadhesive buccal oxytocin tablet prepared with Dillenia indica fruit mucilage.

    PubMed

    Metia, P K; Bandyopadhyay, A K

    2008-04-01

    Novel mucoadhesive buccal tablets (NMBT) of oxytocin were prepared as core in cup fashion to release the drug unidirectionally towards the buccal mucosa. Adhesive cups were prepared with a mucilage isolated from edible Dillenia indica fruits (DIM). Shear, tensile and peel strengths of prepared adhesive cups were estimated on freshly excised bovine buccal mucosa. Core tablets were formulated with oxytocin using permeation enhancers viz. sodium taurocholate and sodium thioglycollate. In vitro permeability studies of NMBT were conducted in a Franz diffusion cell containing 50 mL of phosphate buffer pH 6.6 at 37 +/- 0.2 degrees C through excised bovine buccal mucosa. In vivo studies on anaesthetized New Zealand albino male rabbits were conducted and drug levels in plasma were estimated at 220 nm by reverse phase HPLC using BDS Hypersil C8 column using acetonitrile and 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer pH 6.6 (20:80 v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.25 mL/ min. Optimized formulation showed C(max), T(max), t1/2 and AUC(total), 688 pg/mL, 2 h, 0.079 h, and 1999.72 h x pg/mL respectively. The NMBT containing 0.75% w/w sodium taurocholate showed 27% bioavailability without damaging the buccal mucosasuggesting its suitability as an alternative to noninvasive administration of oxytocin.

  14. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  15. Soil Organic Carbon Degradation during Incubation, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer

    Elizabeth Herndon; Ziming Yang; Baohua Gu

    2017-01-05

    This dataset provides information about soil organic carbon decomposition in Barrow soil incubation studies. The soil cores were collected from low-center polygon (Area A) and were incubated in the laboratory at different temperatures for up to 60 days. Transformations of soil organic carbon were characterized by UV and FT-IR, and small organic acids in water-soluble carbons were quantified by ion chromatography during the incubation (Herndon et al., 2015).

  16. Short Nissl staining for incubated cryostat sections of the brain.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, O F

    1991-01-01

    Nissl stain often binds poorly to cryostat sections which have been incubated in solutions of radiolabeled ligands. Such incubation is used in receptor autoradiography of the brain when using the in vitro method. We have developed a rapid (16 min) modification of Nissl staining for sections that bind stain poorly, e.g., incubated sections. The method stains well sections which cannot be stained with other rapid Nissl staining methods.

  17. Electromagnetic fields in neonatal incubators: the reasons for an alert.

    PubMed

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Nardi, Valentina; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Di Fabio, Sandra; Pinto, Iole; Verrotti, Alberto

    2017-10-08

    Neonatal incubators are important tools for sick newborns in the first few days of life. Nevertheless, their electric engine, often very close to the newborn's body, emits electromagnetic fields (EMF) to which newborns are exposed. Aim of this paper is to review the available literature on EMF exposure in incubators, and the effects of such exposures on newborns that have been investigated. We carried out a systematic review of studies about EMF emissions produced by incubators, using Medline and Embase databases from 1993 to 2017. We retrieved 15 papers that described the EMF exposure in incubators and their biological effects on babies. EMF levels in incubators appear to be between 2 and 100 mG, depending on the distance of the mattress from the electric engine. In some cases they exceed this range. These values interfere with melatonin production or with vagal tone. Even caregivers are exposed to high EMF, above 200 mG, when working at close contact with the incubators. EMF have been described as potentially hazardous for human health, and values reported in this review are an alert to prevent babies' and caregivers' exposure when close to the incubators. A precautionary approach should be adopted in future incubator design, to prevent high exposures of newborns in incubators and of caregivers as well.

  18. 8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION TANKS. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. Incubator Display Software Cost Reduction Toolset Software Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Susanne; Jeffords, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Incubator Display Software Requirements Specification was initially developed by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) under subcontract to Lockheed Martin, Contract Number NAS2-02090, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC) Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP). The Incubator Display is a User Payload Application (UPA) used to control an Incubator subrack payload for the SSBRP. The Incubator Display functions on-orbit as part of the subrack payload laptop, on the ground as part of the Communication and Data System (CDS) ground control system, and also as part of the crew training environment.

  20. Wound healing properties of quince seed mucilage: in vivo evaluation in rabbit full-thickness wound model.

    PubMed

    Tamri, Pari; Hemmati, Aliasghar; Boroujerdnia, Mehri Ghafourian

    2014-01-01

    Quince seed mucilage (QSM) has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for the treatment of skin wounds and burns. Recent studies indicated that QSM accelerated wound healing. The present study was undertaken to investigate the healing efficiency of QSM formulated as 5%, 10%, and 20% creams in eucerin base with especial attention on growth factors involving in wound healing. Full thickness wounds were created in Iranian male rabbits divided into five experimental groups (n = 6), as negative control, eucerin and treatments. Negative control group did not receive any treatment. Eucerin group received topical eucerin, twice a day. Treatment groups were treated topically by creams of QSM 5%, 10% and 20% (w/w) in eucerin base, twice daily. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated based on wound contraction, haydroxyproline content, tensile strength of wound tissue. The levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) were also determined in serum and wound fluid of tested animals. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences in wound contraction between QSM 10 and 20% creams treatments groups and control groups (P < 0.05) in most of the days. Rabbits treated with QSM 20% cream had the best results (completed healing in 13 days, higher hydroxyproline content, higher tissue resistance and higher wound fluid levels of evaluated growth factors). We concluded tha QSM in 10-20% concentrations have a good potential for promote wound healing thus supports its traditional use. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancing Verbal Creativity via Brief Interventions during an Incubation Interval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Grabner, Roland H.; Fink, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies revealed inconsistent findings about the effects of cognitively low or high demanding interpolated tasks during incubation period on post-incubation creative performance. To explain this contradiction, two intervention tasks were administered (Reflecting on the generated ideas [RF] and the Word puzzle task [WP]), which are…

  2. Improved transport incubator temperature control with insulating thermal cover.

    PubMed

    Macnab, A J; Schweers, D; Kendall, M D; Komori, J H; Biddle, M

    1995-01-01

    Cold stress, secondary to heat loss, can compromise infants in transport incubators during interfacility transfer. With current incubator designs, considerable radiant heat loss occurs. The use of additional external thermal insulation to reduce heat loss has been recommended for infant transports in cold environments. A laboratory experiment was done to compare the rate of heat loss from a transport incubator with and without a commercially available, thermal insulating cover in place. The environment was a commercial freezer simulating subzero environmental temperatures. Measurements included air temperatures. inside the incubator and freezer, patterns of heater action and duration of battery power output. The significance of the different rates of cooling was compared using Pearson's r. Suboptimal battery performance was excluded by repeating one arm of the study with an external battery in place of the internal unit. The rate of heat loss from the incubator was: 1) significantly slower when the covered and uncovered incubators were compared (r2 = 0.52), and 2) essentially identical for the uncovered incubator with either the internal or the external battery (r2 = 0.96). In the laboratory setting, external thermal insulation slows transport incubator radiant heat loss. Clinically, this effect likely would benefit infants at risk of cold stress during interfacility transports.

  3. Incubation Provides Relief from Artificial Fixation in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penaloza, Alan A.; Calvillo, Dustin P.

    2012-01-01

    An incubation effect occurs when taking a break from a problem helps solvers arrive at the correct solution more often than working on it continuously. The forgetting-fixation account, a popular explanation of how incubation works, posits that a break from a problem allows the solver to forget the incorrect path to the solution and finally access…

  4. Does Incubation Enhance Problem Solving? A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sio, Ut Na; Ormerod, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of empirical studies that have investigated incubation effects on problem solving is reported. Although some researchers have reported increased solution rates after an incubation period (i.e., a period of time in which a problem is set aside prior to further attempts to solve), others have failed to find effects. The…

  5. Incubation Provides Relief from Artificial Fixation in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penaloza, Alan A.; Calvillo, Dustin P.

    2012-01-01

    An incubation effect occurs when taking a break from a problem helps solvers arrive at the correct solution more often than working on it continuously. The forgetting-fixation account, a popular explanation of how incubation works, posits that a break from a problem allows the solver to forget the incorrect path to the solution and finally access…

  6. Does Incubation Enhance Problem Solving? A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sio, Ut Na; Ormerod, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of empirical studies that have investigated incubation effects on problem solving is reported. Although some researchers have reported increased solution rates after an incubation period (i.e., a period of time in which a problem is set aside prior to further attempts to solve), others have failed to find effects. The…

  7. The incubation period of cholera: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Azman, Andrew S; Rudolph, Kara E; Cummings, Derek A T; Lessler, Justin

    2013-05-01

    Recent large cholera outbreaks highlight the need for improved understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of cholera. The incubation period of cholera has important implications for clinical and public health decision-making, yet statements of the incubation period of cholera are often imprecise. Here we characterize the distribution of cholera's incubation period. We conducted a systematic review of the literature for statements of the incubation period of cholera and data that might aid in its estimation. We extracted individual-level data, parametrically estimated the distribution of toxigenic cholera's incubation period, and evaluated evidence for differences between strains. The incubation period did not differ by a clinically significant margin between strains (except O1 El Tor Ogawa). We estimate the median incubation period of toxigenic cholera to be 1.4 days (95% CI, 1.3-1.6). Five percent of cholera cases will develop symptoms by 0.5 days (95% CI 0.4-0.5), and 95% by 4.4 days (95% CI 3.9-5.0) after infection. We recommend that cholera investigations use a recall period of at least five days to capture relevant exposures; significantly longer than recent risk factor studies from the Haitian epidemic. This characterization of cholera's incubation period can help improve clinical and public health practice and advance epidemiologic research. Copyright © 2012 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 7 CFR 58.56 - Incubation of product samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incubation of product samples. 58.56 Section 58.56..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 Regulations... Packaging Products with Official Identification § 58.56 Incubation of product samples. (a) Samples of...

  9. 7 CFR 58.56 - Incubation of product samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incubation of product samples. 58.56 Section 58.56..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 Regulations... Packaging Products with Official Identification § 58.56 Incubation of product samples. (a) Samples of...

  10. Enhancing Verbal Creativity via Brief Interventions during an Incubation Interval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Grabner, Roland H.; Fink, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies revealed inconsistent findings about the effects of cognitively low or high demanding interpolated tasks during incubation period on post-incubation creative performance. To explain this contradiction, two intervention tasks were administered (Reflecting on the generated ideas [RF] and the Word puzzle task [WP]), which are…

  11. Oxygen and sulfur isotope fractionation during methane dependent sulfate reduction in high pressure continuous incubation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deusner, C.; Brunner, B.; Holler, T.; Widdel, F.; Ferdelman, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction in marine sediments is an important sink in the global methane budget. However, many aspects of methane dependent sulfate reduction are not fully understood. We developed a novel high pressure biotechnical system to simulate marine conditions with high concentrations of dissolved gases, e.g. at gas seeps and gas hydrate systems. The system allows for batch, fed-batch and continuous gas-phase free incubation. We employ this system to study the kinetics and isotope fractionation during AOM at varying methane partial pressures up to 10 MPa. We present the results of long-term continuous and fed-batch incubations with highly active naturally enriched biomass from microbial mats from the Black Sea. During these experiments the methane partial pressure was increased stepwise from 0.1 to 10 MPa. The methane dependent sulfate reduction rate increased from 0.1 mmol/l/d to 3.5 mmol/l/d resulting from the increase in methane concentration and microbial growth. Sulfate reduction was negligible in the absence of methane. The sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction was strongly influenced by the concentration of dissolved methane. Sulfur isotope fractionation was highest at low methane concentrations, and lowest at high methane concentrations. Relative to sulfate reduction rates, oxygen isotope exchange between sulfate and water was highest at low methane concentrations, and lowest at high methane concentrations.

  12. Identification of Methanogens and Controls on Methane Production in Incubations of Natural Methane Seep Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevorkian, R.; Lloyd, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Methane, the most abundant hydrocarbon in Earth's atmosphere, is produced in large quantities in sediments underlying the world's oceans. Very little of this methane makes it to surface sediments as it is consumed by Anaerobic Methanotrophs (ANME's) in consortia with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB). Less is known about which organisms are responsible for methane production in marine sediments, and whether that production is under thermodynamic control based on hydrogen concentrations. Although ANMEs have been found to be active in methanogenic sediments and incubations, it is currently unknown whether they are able to grow in methanogenic conditions. We demonstrated with bottle incubations of methane seep sediment taken from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, that hydrogen controls methane production. While sulfate was present the hydrogen concentration was maintained at below 2 nM. Only after the depletion of sulfate allowed hydrogen concentrations to rise above 5 nM did we see production of methane. The same sediments when spiked with methane gas demonstrated its complete removal while sulfate reduction occurred. Quantitative PCR shows that ANME-2 and ANME-1 increase in 16S copy number as methane increases. Total direct cell counts demonstrate a decline in cells with the decrease of sulfate until a recovery corresponding with production of methane. Our results strongly suggest that hydrogen concentrations influence what metabolic processes can occur in marine sediments, and that ANME-1 and ANME-2 are able to grow on the energy provided from methane production.

  13. Edible crabs "go west": migrations and incubation cycle of Cancer pagurus revealed by electronic tags.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ewan; Eaton, Derek; Stewart, Christie; Lawler, Andrew; Smith, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Crustaceans are key components of marine ecosystems which, like other exploited marine taxa, show seasonable patterns of distribution and activity, with consequences for their availability to capture by targeted fisheries. Despite concerns over the sustainability of crab fisheries worldwide, difficulties in observing crabs' behaviour over their annual cycles, and the timings and durations of reproduction, remain poorly understood. From the release of 128 mature female edible crabs tagged with electronic data storage tags (DSTs), we demonstrate predominantly westward migration in the English Channel. Eastern Channel crabs migrated further than western Channel crabs, while crabs released outside the Channel showed little or no migration. Individual migrations were punctuated by a 7-month hiatus, when crabs remained stationary, coincident with the main period of crab spawning and egg incubation. Incubation commenced earlier in the west, from late October onwards, and brooding locations, determined using tidal geolocation, occurred throughout the species range. With an overall return rate of 34%, our results demonstrate that previous reluctance to tag crabs with relatively high-cost DSTs for fear of loss following moulting is unfounded, and that DSTs can generate precise information with regards life-history metrics that would be unachievable using other conventional means.

  14. Measles with a possible 23 day incubation period.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Tove L; Durrheim, David N; Merritt, Tony D; Birch, Christopher; Tran, Thomas

    2012-09-30

    Measles virus (MV) eradication is biologically, technically and operationally feasible. An essential feature in understanding the chain of MV transmission is its incubation period, that is, the time from infection to the onset of symptoms. This period is important for determining the likely source of infection and directing public health measures to interrupt ongoing transmission. Long measles incubation periods have rarely been documented in the literature. We report on a previously healthy 11-year-old Australian boy who was confirmed with measles genotype D9 infection following travel in the Philippines. Epidemiological evidence supported an unusually long incubation period of at least 23 days and virological evidence was consistent with this finding. Although public health control measures such as post exposure prophylaxis, isolation and surveillance of susceptible individuals should continue to be based on the more common incubation period, a longer incubation period may occasionally explain an unexpected measles case.

  15. The Pre-Incubator: A Longitudinal Study of 10 Years of University Pre-Incubation in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisey, Pamela; Jones, Paul; Thomas, Brychan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal study of over 10 years of university pre-incubation in Wales, using case studies of incubated businesses to track their performance since 2001. Surviving "graduated" businesses were investigated and quantitative and qualitative data were gathered to profile the current status of these businesses and…

  16. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  17. Characterization of mucilage polysaccharides, arabinogalactanproteins and cell-wall hemicellulosic polysaccharides isolated from flax seed meal: A wealth of structural moieties.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sayani; Paynel, Florence; Morvan, Claudine; Lerouge, Patrice; Driouich, Azeddine; Ray, Bimalendu

    2013-04-02

    The present study aimed at analyzing the structural features of seed mucilage and cell-wall polysaccharides which accounted for 41% of the mass of flax meal (FM). A combination of high molar-mass mucilage-like polysaccharides (rhamnogalacturonan and arabinoxylan) was released from FM in water, together with arabinogalactan proteins and glucans. About half of FM homogalacturonans was extracted using a calcium chelator and boiling water. Hemicellulosic xyloglucans and xylans were further extracted with 1M KOH, in ∼13% FM-sugars yield. Structural characterization of the xyloglucan using specific enzyme hydrolysis, ion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy showed the presence of XXXG type xyloglucan, but also that of XXGG-structure, possibly characteristic of flax seeds. Hydrolysis of xylans with endo-(1→4)-β-D-xylanase, and analysis of the neutral and acidic oligosaccharides by MALDI-TOF-MS showed that xylan consisted of β-(1→4)-linked-D-xylopyranose backbone with some zones (DP 5-7) substituted with 4-O-MeGlcA\\GlcA\\Glc residues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Yam tuber mucilage as a candidate substance for saliva substitute: in vitro study of its viscosity and influences on lysozyme and peroxidase activities.

    PubMed

    Kho, Hong-Seop; Park, Moon-Soo; Chang, Ji-Youn; Kim, Yoon-Young

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the viscosity of yam tuber mucilage (YTM) and its effects on lysozyme and peroxidase activities in solution phase and on surface phase. Two kinds of YTM were extracted, one containing both protein and carbohydrate and the other containing mainly carbohydrate. Hen egg-white lysozyme and bovine lactoperoxidase were used as lysozyme and peroxidase sources, respectively. Viscosity was measured with a cone-and-plate digital viscometer. Lysozyme activity was determined using the turbidimetric method, and peroxidase activity was determined using the NbsSCN assay. Hydroxyapatite beads were used as a solid phase. The viscosity values of YTM followed a pattern of a non-Newtonian fluid. The carbohydrate concentration affected the viscosity values at all shear rates, while the protein concentration affected the viscosity values at low shear rates. It could be suggested that YTM composed of 1.0 mg/ml protein and 1.0 mg/ml carbohydrate has viscosity values similar to those of unstimulated whole saliva at shear rates present at routine oral functions. Hydroxyapatite-adsorbed YTM significantly increased the adsorption and subsequent enzymatic activities of lysozyme, but not those of peroxidase. Yam tuber mucilage has viscoelastic properties similar to those of human saliva and enhances the enzymatic activity of lysozyme on hydroxyapatite surfaces. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Valorization of the Vicia faba mucilage on textile wastewater treatment as a bio-flocculant: process development and optimization using response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Bouatay, Feriel; Eljebsi, Nesrine; Dridi-Dhaouadi, Sonia; Mhenni, Farouk

    2017-02-01

    The Vicia faba membranes are an abundant and a low cost product. In the present research paper, the extracted Vicia faba mucilage was tested as an eco-friendly flocculant for textile wastewater treatment. Its performance as flocculant, in decolorization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the concentration of total suspended solids was checked. The natural extracted product was characterized using infrared spectroscopy. The total sugars were determined in the extracted product. The effect study, followed by an optimization and modeling analysis, of some experimental parameters on the coagulation-flocculation performance, using Vicia faba mucilage (as a flocculant), combined with aluminum sulfate (as a coagulant), showed that the best conditions for the flocculation process were pH of the effluent about 7, flocculant dose about 6.75 mg/L, flocculation mixing time about 3 min and flocculation mixing speed about 30 rpm, leading to a decolorization equal to 92.32%, COD removal of about 97.52% and total suspended solids of about 15.3 mg/L. A comparison study between the flocculation performance of commercial reagents and the bio-agent showed that the natural product presented a good flocculation performance.

  20. A chimeric AtMYB23 repressor induces hairy roots, elongation of leaves and stems, and inhibition of the deposition of mucilage on seed coats in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kyoko; Hiratsu, Keiichiro; Koyama, Tomotsugu; Tanaka, Hideo; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2005-01-01

    We reported previously that a chimeric repressor, in which a transcription factor was fused to the EAR motif repression domain, acted as a dominant repressor and suppressed the expression of target genes, such that resultant phenotypes were similar to those associated with loss-of-function alleles. We report here that expression of the chimeric AtMYB23 repressor induced a variety of morphological changes, namely the ectopic formation of root hairs, a short primary root, elongation of leaves and of inflorescence stems, and absence of the accumulation of mucilage on seed coats, in addition to disruption of the development of trichomes. The short primary root and the elongation of leaves and stems appeared to be due to the reduced and enhanced lengthwise expansion, respectively, of epidermal cells. Expression of the GL2 gene, which is involved in the formation of root hairs and the accumulation of mucilage, was suppressed in both the roots and siliques of the transgenic plants. In contrast, the expression of genes related to cell elongation, such as DWF1, SAUR, AQP, AGP15, DET3 and XET-1, was enhanced in leaves of the transgenic plants. Results suggest that the AtMYB23 transcription factor has the molecular function of regulating the development of epidermal cells not only in leaves but also in stems, roots and seeds. We describe that this type of chimeric repressor can be exploited as a useful tool for the functional analysis of redundant transcription factors.

  1. Single stage incubators and Hypercapnia during incubation affect the vascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane in broiler embryos.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, J I M; Bortoluzzi, C; Schmidt, J M; Scapini, L B; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E

    2017-01-01

    Incubation management can have direct effects on neonate health and consequently affect post-hatching development. The effects of incubation in multiple and single stage incubators with different concentrations of CO2 were evaluated in terms of the vessel density in the chorioallantoic membrane, hatching, heart morphology, and body development of the neonate up to the tenth day. A total of 2,520 fertile eggs were used and distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 levels of CO2 in 4 single-stage incubators (4,000; 6,000; 8,000; and 10,000 ppm) and a control treatment based on multiple-stage incubation, totaling 5 treatments. The levels of CO2 were used during the first 10 d of the incubation period, and after this period, all eggs were submitted to the same level of CO2 (4,000 ppm). Eggs that were incubated in multiple-stage incubators presented a lower percentage of vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane, lower yolk absorption by the embryo, wall depth of the right ventricle, and greater humidity losses in the eggs when compared to eggs in the single-stage incubators. The eggs submitted to hypercapnia, between 5,000 and 6,000 ppm of CO2, had a higher percentage of vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane; the embryos originating from these eggs had higher weight, with higher relative weight of the liver. However, the same levels reduced the yolk absorption. Single-stage incubation with moderate levels of hypercapnia is an efficient tool to be adopted by the hatcheries when attempting to improve chick quality. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Aligning business strategy of incubator center and tenants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Agustiani, Elly; Jumayla, Sari

    2017-06-01

    Incubator center is developed to help a particular group of small business players to achieve the expected business growth. In this center, business players often called as tenants will get assistances in pertaining with space, professional network, marketing, investment or funding, and training to improve their business capability. There are three types of incubator center, namely universities that help their alumni or business people in their surrounded area, company that supports small business as the corporate social responsibility, and independent organizations that have specialties in the business development. Some might success in increasing the capacity of the tenants, while other can have difficulties to increase the simplest business capability, e.g., to define the production cost to measure the profit. This study was intended to propose a model to align the business strategy between incubator center and its tenants. The sales and profit growth are the main priorities for the tenants together with their business capability and sustainability. The proposed alignment model provides measurement tools that link the motivation of tenants for joining the incubation process with the mission of incubator center. The linkage covered the key performance indicators (KPI), steps to achieve the target and evaluation tools to improve the current handicaps. An experiment on 4 (four) diverse business fields of the tenants of an incubator center was performed to test the model. As a result, the increase of KPI of incubator center will simultaneously yield a higher value of the tenants' sales.

  3. Creativity-the unconscious foundations of the incubation period.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Simone M; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is one of the most important assets we have to navigate through the fast changing world of the 21st century. Anecdotal accounts of creative individuals suggest that oftentimes, creative discoveries result from a process whereby initial conscious thought is followed by a period during which one refrains from task-related conscious thought. For example, one may spend an embarrassing amount of time thinking about a problem when the solution suddenly pops into consciousness while taking a shower. Not only creative individuals but also traditional theories of creativity have put a lot of emphasis on this incubation stage in creative thinking. The aim of the present article is twofold. First, an overview of the domain of incubation and creativity is provided by reviewing and discussing studies on incubation, mind-wandering, and sleep. Second, the causes of incubation effects are discussed. Previously, little attention has been paid to the causes of incubation effects and most findings do not really speak to whether the effects should be explained by unconscious processes or merely by consequences of a period of distraction. In the latter case, there is no need to assume active unconscious processes. The findings discussed in the current article support the idea that it is not merely the absence of conscious thought that drives incubation effects, but that during an incubation period unconscious processes contribute to creative thinking. Finally, practical implications and directions for future research will be discussed.

  4. Creativity—the unconscious foundations of the incubation period

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Simone M.; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is one of the most important assets we have to navigate through the fast changing world of the 21st century. Anecdotal accounts of creative individuals suggest that oftentimes, creative discoveries result from a process whereby initial conscious thought is followed by a period during which one refrains from task-related conscious thought. For example, one may spend an embarrassing amount of time thinking about a problem when the solution suddenly pops into consciousness while taking a shower. Not only creative individuals but also traditional theories of creativity have put a lot of emphasis on this incubation stage in creative thinking. The aim of the present article is twofold. First, an overview of the domain of incubation and creativity is provided by reviewing and discussing studies on incubation, mind-wandering, and sleep. Second, the causes of incubation effects are discussed. Previously, little attention has been paid to the causes of incubation effects and most findings do not really speak to whether the effects should be explained by unconscious processes or merely by consequences of a period of distraction. In the latter case, there is no need to assume active unconscious processes. The findings discussed in the current article support the idea that it is not merely the absence of conscious thought that drives incubation effects, but that during an incubation period unconscious processes contribute to creative thinking. Finally, practical implications and directions for future research will be discussed. PMID:24782742

  5. Liquid incubator with perfluorochemicals for extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Hiroma, Takehiko; Baba, Atsushi; Tamura, Masanori; Nakamura, Tomohiko

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of appropriate body temperature, humidification and prevention of skin injury are very important in the management of extremely premature infants with immature skin. We have developed a new closed liquid incubator, utilising the characteristics of perfluorochemical (PFC) liquids, i.e., high specific gravity and chemical and biological inertness. The potential of this incubator to control body temperature was evaluated in rats. PFC liquid (FC43; 3M Company, Tokyo, Japan) within the incubator was heated or cooled and the rectal temperature of each rat and the PFC temperature were monitored. The rectal temperature of rats floating on the PFC liquid surface changed almost in parallel to the temperature of PFC within the incubator, indicating that this technique can be used to warm or cool adults rats in a stable manner. The relative humidity of air within the incubator was maintained constant at 100%. The liquid incubator used in the present study maintained an environment with a relative humidity of 100% and allowed stable maintenance of temperature in adult rats. We also demonstrated that heating and cooling the PFC liquid allowed control of body temperature. Although further studies are required, this new incubator may be useful for the clinical management of extremely premature infants. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Toward a fuzzy logic control of the infant incubator.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narender P; Mathur, Garima; Hariharan, S I

    2009-10-01

    Premature birth is a world wide problem. Thermo regulation is a major problem in premature infants. Premature infants are often kept in infant incubators providing convective heating. Currently either the incubator air temperature is sensed and used to control the heat flow, or infant's skin temperature is sensed and used in the close loop control. Skin control often leads to large fluctuations in the incubator air temperature. Air control also leads to skin temperature fluctuations. The question remains if both the infant's skin temperature and the incubator air temperature can be simultaneously used in the control. The purpose of the present study was to address this question by developing a fuzzy logic control which incorporates both incubator air temperature and infant's skin temperature to control the heating. The control was evaluated using a lumped parameter mathematical model of infant-incubator system (Simon, B. N., N. P. Reddy, and A. Kantak, J. Biomech. Eng. 116:263-266, 1994). Simulation results confirmed previous experimental results that the on-off skin control could lead to fluctuations in the incubator air temperature, and the air control could lead to too slow rise time in the core temperature. The fuzzy logic provides a smooth control with the desired rise time.

  7. A portable freshwater closed-system fish egg incubation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutherland, Jenny L.; Manny, Bruce A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Allen, Jeffrey D.; Black, M. Glen

    2014-01-01

    To identify fish eggs collected in the field to species, a portable closed-system fish egg incubation system was designed and used to incubate and hatch the eggs in the laboratory. The system is portable, small in scale (2.54 × 1.52 × 2.03 m), and affordable, with the approximate cost of the system being US$8,300 (2012). The main tank is 678 L and holds a battery of up to 21 (egg) incubation jars. The system includes three independent water pumping systems to (1) provide aerated water to hatching jars, (2) filter and sterilize incubation water, and (3) provide temperature-controlled water in the main tank bath and the incubation jars. The system was successfully used to incubate freshwater fish eggs to raise resulting larvae to the post-yolk-sac stage for three seasons (spring 2012, spring 2013, and fall 2013) over two consecutive years, at two different locations, enabling us to identify fish eggs to species by providing identifiable fish larvae from incubated fish eggs.

  8. Using candlers to determine the incubation stage of passerine eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, John T.; Koford, Rolf R.

    1996-01-01

    Determining the incubation stage of bird eggs can provide important information to investigators conducting nesting studies. We describe the use of candlers in the field to determine the incubation stage in eggs of Lark Buntings (Calamospiza melanocorys) and other small birds with an incubation period of 11-13 d. Candling was accomplished easily using simple tools and did not involve the destruction of eggs or lengthy disturbance of nests. Candling is often preferable to other methods that rely on egg mass, mass-growth curves, or immersion of eggs in water.

  9. Eggshell breakage by incubating black ducks fed DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Samson, F.B.

    1973-01-01

    Black duck (Anas rubripes) hens fed 10 ppm dry weight (approximately 3 ppm wet weight) of p,p'-DDE in the diet laid eggs with shells 22 percent thinner at the equator, 30 percent thinner at the cap, and 33 percent thinner at the apex than those of controls. Natural incubation increased shell cracking more than fourfold as compared with mechanical incubation. Hens removed cracked eggs from nests, and one hen terminated incubation. Hens fed DDE produced one-fifth as many ducklings as controls. DDE in eggs of dosed hens averaged 64.9 ppm wet weight.

  10. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  11. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  12. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  13. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  14. Incubation period of ebola hemorrhagic virus subtype zaire.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Martin; Dowell, Scott F; Firese, Nina

    2011-06-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever has killed over 1300 people, mostly in equatorial Africa. There is still uncertainty about the natural reservoir of the virus and about some of the factors involved in disease transmission. Until now, a maximum incubation period of 21 days has been assumed. We analyzed data collected during the Ebola outbreak (subtype Zaire) in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in 1995 using maximum likelihood inference and assuming a log-normally distributed incubation period. The mean incubation period was estimated to be 12.7 days (standard deviation 4.31 days), indicating that about 4.1% of patients may have incubation periods longer than 21 days. If the risk of new cases is to be reduced to 1% then 25 days should be used when investigating the source of an outbreak, when determining the duration of surveillance for contacts, and when declaring the end of an outbreak.

  15. Learning Incubator: an instrument to foster entrepreneurship in Nursing.

    PubMed

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Obem, Marielle Kulakowski; Pereira, Simone Barbosa; Gomes, Carine Alves; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2015-01-01

    this study aimed to know the contributions of the Learning Incubator to the process of lifelong education in health. this is a qualitative field research whose data was collected from August to December 2014 by the focus group technique. The research had 34 employees of a Teaching Hospital in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul that participated previously in the incubation process. from the data encoded by content analysis, three themes were selected: Learning Incubator - welcoming and integrating space; An instigating instrument that enhances possibilities; Continuous and lifelong education strategy. the Learning Incubator is an important instrument to foster entrepreneurship in nursing and other health areas due to its capacity of rethinking mechanized practices, to the possibility of instigating new ways of being and acting, and to the ability of creating and developing new ideas based on individual and institutional needs.

  16. Stochastic Modeling Approach to the Incubation Time of Prionic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, A. S.; da Silva, M. A.; Cressoni, J. C.

    2003-05-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are neurodegenerative diseases for which prions are the attributed pathogenic agents. A widely accepted theory assumes that prion replication is due to a direct interaction between the pathologic (PrPSc) form and the host-encoded (PrPC) conformation, in a kind of autocatalytic process. Here we show that the overall features of the incubation time of prion diseases are readily obtained if the prion reaction is described by a simple mean-field model. An analytical expression for the incubation time distribution then follows by associating the rate constant to a stochastic variable log normally distributed. The incubation time distribution is then also shown to be log normal and fits the observed BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) data very well. Computer simulation results also yield the correct BSE incubation time distribution at low PrPC densities.

  17. NASA Spacecraft Images One of Earth Iceberg Incubators

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-13

    Acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, this image shows the west coast of Greenland, one of Earth premiere incubators for icebergs -- large blocks of land ice that break off from glaciers or ice shelves and float in the ocean.

  18. Corticosterone secretion through long incubation shifts in Diomedea albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Hector, J A; Harvey, S

    1986-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from free-living incubating Diomedea albatross during single incubation shifts, both daily (wandering albatross D. exulans and every 2 days (grey-headed albatross D. chrysostoma and black-browed albatross D. melanophris), and the concentration of corticosterone was determined. Within 48 hr a significant increase in the corticosterone concentration was observed in each species. The magnitude of the increase was greater in the grey-headed and black-browed albatrosses than in the wandering albatross. Corticosterone concentrations rose steadily through the incubation shift in grey-headed and black-browed albatrosses, but fluctuated erratically in wandering albatrosses. All three species of albatross fast during incubation and the increase in adrenocortical activity is probably related to the voluntary deprivation of food and water.

  19. Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant "incubation" effect.

    PubMed

    Pettit, G H; Ediger, M N; Weiblinger, R P

    1991-01-01

    Pulse-to-pulse consistency of excimer laser etching of cornea has been examined via two noncontact techniques: photoacoustic probe beam deflection, and time-resolved excimer pulse reflectometry. These methods clearly document the incubation phenomenon accompanying excimer laser ablation of polymethyl-methacrylate and the absence of the effect during polyimide ablation. In comparison, results for corneal ablation indicate consistent tissue etching over a train of pulses. Consequently, incubation appears to have negligible impact on corneal ablation.

  20. Low-temperature incubation using a water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.; Quimby, M.C.

    1967-01-01

    Cell and tissue culture has been concerned primarily with homiothermic vertebrate cells which require incubation at about 37 C, and there is a great variety of incubators designed to maintain temperatures which are usually above ambient. The culture of poikilothermic vertebrate cells--and invertebrate, plant, and some microbial cells--can often be carried out at ambient temperatures, but for some work cooler conditions must be provided. Variety among the so-called low-temperature incubators is somewhat restricted; there are no small units, and all require a power source to maintain temperatures below ambient. We have used a gravity-fed water supply for 5 years to provide trouble-free, constant, low-temperature incubation of stock cultures of fish and amphibian cells. Though it is but a small part of our low-temperature incubator capacity, it has no power requirements and it provides maximal protection against temperature rises which could be lethal to some of the cell lines. Though the system has limitations, there is a considerable likelihood that the domestic water supply in other laboratories can also be used to provide low-temperature incubation.

  1. MRI-compatible incubation chamber for cell culture experiments.

    PubMed

    Schwenzer, Nina F; Grönewäller, Eckart F; Rodegerdts, Enno; Kehlbach, Rainer; Duda, Stephan H; Claussen, Claus D

    2006-01-01

    To develop an incubation chamber that is compatible with MRI, while avoiding sources of error due to the experimental setup. Two identical and gas-tight chambers were constructed of Plexiglas. The temperature and the CO(2) concentration were adjustable. Temperature variations within and between both chambers were measured. The pH values of the cell culture media were measured under different environmental settings. For each environment a colony formation test was carried out. The homogeneity of the magnetic field inside the chambers was estimated by phantom tests. The temperature variations within the chambers were <0.3 degrees C, and the variation between the chambers was on average <0.05 degrees C. After eight hours the pH values of the cell culture media were 7.47 and 7.48 in the reference and measurement chambers, respectively; 7.41 in the CO(2) incubator; and 8.73 in ambient air. In colony formation tests the survival fraction in the Plexiglas chamber was comparable to that in the CO(2) incubator. No distortions of the magnetic field from the incubation chamber were observed. The incubation system presented can provide the conditions of a CO(2) incubator without alteration of the magnetic flux density.

  2. Childhood leukemia and magnetic fields in infant incubators.

    PubMed

    Söderberg, Karin C; Naumburg, Estelle; Anger, Gert; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria

    2002-01-01

    In studies of magnetic field exposure and childhood leukemia, power lines and other electrical installations close to the children's homes constitute the most extensively studied source of exposure. We conducted a study to assess whether exposure to magnetic fields in infant incubators is associated with an increased leukemia risk. We identified all children with leukemia born in Sweden between 1973 and 1989 from the national Cancer Registry and selected at random one control per case, individually matched by sex and time of birth, from the study base. We retrieved information about treatment in infant incubators from medical records. We made measurements of the magnetic fields inside the incubators for each incubator model kept by the hospitals. Exposure assessment was based on measurements of the magnetic field level inside the incubator, as well as on the length of treatment. For acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the risk estimates were close to unity for all exposure definitions. For acute myeloid leukemia, we found a slightly elevated risk, but with wide confidence intervals and with no indication of dose response. Overall, our results give little evidence that exposure to magnetic fields inside infant incubators is associated with an increased risk of childhood leukemia.

  3. Using Fyrite to monitor incubator carbon dioxide levels.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E; Boone, W R; Lee, S T; Blackhurst, D W

    1995-02-01

    The Fyrite analyzer (Bacharach, Incorporated) was evaluated to ascertain whether it would perform within the range specified by the manufacturer (+/- 0.5%). Fyrite analyzer samples were compared to control samples obtained using an infrared CO2 monitor (Ohmeda, Model Number 5200). Ten Fyrite analyzer measurements from each of three incubators were obtained using two different analyzers by three investigators for a total of 60 measurements per investigator. Twenty control measurements for each of the three incubators were obtained using an infrared monitor calibrated at the 5.0% CO2 level. Fyrite analyzer values fell outside of an acceptable range (Control mean CO2 +/- 0.5%) for 7 of 60 (11.7%) observations for Incubator 1 and 4 of 60 (6.7%) observations for Incubator 2. (Incubator 3 had no values outside the range.) The Fyrite analyzers were significantly different from each other (P = 0.002). The three investigators (I) differed significantly from the control (I1 and I3, P < 0.001; I2, P = 0.02) as well as from each other (I1 vs I2, P < 0.001; I1 vs I3, P < 0.001; I2 vs I3, P < 0.016). Use of an infrared monitor for incubator calibration and monthly CO2 checks in concert with daily use of the Fyrite as a monitoring tool only is the better method.

  4. Mariner 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Mariner 2 was the world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft. Launched August 27, 1962, on an Atlas-Agena rocket, Mariner 2 passed within about 34,000 kilometers (21,000 miles) of Venus, sending back valuable new information about interplanetary space and the Venusian atmosphere. Mariner 2 recorded the temperature at Venus for the first time, revealing the planet's very hot atmosphere of about 500 degrees Celsius (900 degrees Fahrenheit). The spacecraft's solar wind experiment measured for the first time the density, velocity, composition and variation over time of the solar wind.

  5. Effects of incubation temperature on the bone development of broilers.

    PubMed

    Shim, M Y; Pesti, G M

    2011-09-01

    Manipulating the development of the leg bone by making simple changes to incubation temperature could help reduce the incidence of abnormalities. This study tested the hypothesis that increasing or decreasing the temperature of chick incubation by 1°C for 3 d during ED 4 to 7 affects hatchability, growth, and leg abnormalities of Cobb 500 broilers fed 3 diets: a diet that induced tibial dyschondroplasia, a Ca-deficient diet that induced rickets, and a P-deficient diet that induced rickets. In experiment 1, eggs hatched earlier, and more eggs hatched, at 38.5°C (92.77%) compared with at 37.5°C (86.22%). Body weight was lower in chicks incubated at the higher temperature compared with those incubated at the lower temperature (44.66 vs. 42.92 g). In experiment 2, egg setting times were +17 h for 36.5°C eggs and -10 h for 38.5°C compared with standard setting at 37.5°C (508 h). Hatchability of fertile eggs (92.92%) was highest at 37.5°C and decreased at 36.5°C (89.82%) and 38.5°C (81.55%). Body weight was lower (48.98 g) at 36.5°C than at 37.5°C (49.57 g) and at 38.5°C (50.56 g). Experiment 3 separated effects of incubation temperature and incubation time and was conducted with control and Ca-deficient diets. No main effects or interactions between incubation temperature or time and bone abnormalities were detected. It is important to note that eggs hatched at different times in this study. A difference as little as 1°C for 3 d during ED 4 to 7 affected hatching time and weight.

  6. Marine stings.

    PubMed

    Gurry, D

    1992-01-01

    Our superb coastline attracts local tourists and overseas visitors seeking recreation. There is increasing contact with marine life. The unwary and unprepared holiday-maker can be at risk of serious injury from a number of common sea creatures.

  7. Thermoregulation: incubators, radiant warmers, artificial skins, and body hoods.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, M H

    1991-09-01

    Keeping babies warm whether using incubator or radiant warmers is important in optimizing their chances of survival. Many design changes have occurred in devices for keeping babies warm, while few controlled studies using clinically important end points have been conducted to assess these changes. Radiant warmers produce larger evaporative heat and water losses and slightly higher basal metabolic rate than incubators. The clinical significance of the higher metabolic rate is uncertain. The water losses create an additional problem in managing infants under radiant warmers. The use of hoods made of thin plastic films to raise local humidity and reduce evaporative water loss helps control this problem. In incubators, humidity may be necessary to provide a warm enough environment for the most immature infants. Artificial skins as yet have not supplanted body hoods for this purpose. Both incubators and radiant warmers produce temperature instability when used as skin servocontrolled devices. There are, however, no data currently available to say how much thermal instability can be well tolerated by a baby. Too much thermal instability produces apnea and increased mortality. Air servocontrolling an incubator reduces environmental temperature instability.

  8. Shadoo (Sprn) and prion disease incubation time in mice.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Sarah E; Grizenkova, Julia; Pota, Hirva; Collinge, John

    2009-06-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders of mammalian species and include scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). The prion protein (PrP) plays a key role in the disease, with coding polymorphism in both human and mouse influencing disease susceptibility and incubation time, respectively. Other genes are also thought to be important and a plausible candidate is Sprn, which encodes the PrP-like protein Shadoo (Sho). Sho is expressed in the adult central nervous system and exhibits neuroprotective activity reminiscent of PrP in an in vitro assay. To investigate the role of Sprn in prion disease incubation time we sequenced the open reading frame (ORF) in a diverse panel of mice and saw little variation except in strains derived from wild-trapped mice. Sequencing the untranslated regions revealed polymorphisms that allowed us to carry out an association study of incubation period in the Northport heterogeneous stock of mice inoculated with Chandler/RML prions. We also examined the expression level of Sprn mRNA in the brains of normal and prion-infected mice and saw no correlation with either genotype or incubation time. We therefore conclude that Sprn does not play a major role in prion disease incubation time in these strains of mice.

  9. Marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Berling, Ingrid; Isbister, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Marine stings are common but most are minor and do not require medical intervention. Severe and systemic marine envenoming is uncommon, but includes box jellyfish stings, Irukandji syndrome, major stingray trauma and blue-ringed octopus envenoming. Almost all marine injuries are caused by jellyfish stings, and penetrating injuries from spiny fish, stingrays or sea urchins. This article describes the presentation and management of marine envenomations and injuries that may occur in Australia. First aid for jellyfish includes tentacle removal, application of vinegar for box jellyfish, and hot water immersion (45°C for 20 min) for bluebottle jellyfish stings. Basic life support is essential for severe marine envenomings that result in cardiac collapse or paralysis. Irukandji syndrome causes severe generalised pain, autonomic excess and minimal local pain, which may require large amounts of analgesia, and, uncommonly, myocardial depression and pulmonary oedema occur. Penetrating marine injuries can cause significant trauma depending on location of the injury. Large and unclean wounds may have delayed healing and secondary infection if not adequately irrigated, debrided and observed.

  10. Marine enzymes.

    PubMed

    Debashish, Ghosh; Malay, Saha; Barindra, Sana; Joydeep, Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Marine enzyme biotechnology can offer novel biocatalysts with properties like high salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, and ease in large-scale cultivation. This review deals with the research and development work done on the occurrence, molecular biology, and bioprocessing of marine enzymes during the last decade. Exotic locations have been accessed for the search of novel enzymes. Scientists have isolated proteases and carbohydrases from deep sea hydrothermal vents. Cold active metabolic enzymes from psychrophilic marine microorganisms have received considerable research attention. Marine symbiont microorganisms growing in association with animals and plants were shown to produce enzymes of commercial interest. Microorganisms isolated from sediment and seawater have been the most widely studied, proteases, carbohydrases, and peroxidases being noteworthy. Enzymes from marine animals and plants were primarily studied for their metabolic roles, though proteases and peroxidases have found industrial applications. Novel techniques in molecular biology applied to assess the diversity of chitinases, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia-metabolizing, and pollutant-degrading enzymes are discussed. Genes encoding chitinases, proteases, and carbohydrases from microbial and animal sources have been cloned and characterized. Research on the bioprocessing of marine-derived enzymes, however, has been scanty, focusing mainly on the application of solid-state fermentation to the production of enzymes from microbial sources.

  11. Isolation and structural elucidation by 2D NMR of planteose, a major oligosaccharide in the mucilage of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaohui; Hsieh, Yves S Y; Yap, Kuok; Ang, Main E; Lahnstein, Jelle; Tucker, Matthew R; Burton, Rachel A; Bulone, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    An oligosaccharide was isolated in high purity and excellent yield from the water-extractable mucilage of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds using an optimized solid-phase extraction method. LC-MS analysis showed that the compound presents a molecular mass of 504Da and trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis revealed that it consists of galactose, glucose and fructose. Glycosidic linkage analysis showed that the oligosaccharide contains two non-reducing ends corresponding to terminal glucopyranose and terminal galactopyranose, respectively. The oligosaccharide was identified as planteose by the complete assignment of a series of 2D NMR spectra (COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC). The significance of the presence of planteose in chia seeds is discussed in the context of nutrition and food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Investigative Study into Perspectives and Experiences of Incubates at the Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre at the Kenyatta University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munyanyiwa, Takaruza; Mutsau, Morgen; Rudhumbu, Norman; Svotwa, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The study presents results from an investigative study undertaken at the Kenyatta University (KU) Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre. A total of 10 incubates representing 10 projects were engaged in face to face interviews. The incubates were appreciative of the value that incubation centre such as the one at KU contributed to…

  13. Temperature induced decoupling of enzymatic hydrolysis and carbon remineralization in long-term incubations of Arctic and temperate sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robador, Alberto; Brüchert, Volker; Steen, Andrew D.; Arnosti, Carol

    2010-04-01

    Extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of high-molecular weight organic matter is the initial step in sedimentary organic carbon degradation and is often regarded as the rate-limiting step. Temperature effects on enzyme activities may therefore exert an indirect control on carbon mineralization. We explored the temperature sensitivity of enzymatic hydrolysis and its connection to subsequent steps in anoxic organic carbon degradation in long-term incubations of sediments from the Arctic and the North Sea. These sediments were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 24 months at temperatures of 0, 10, and 20 °C. The short-term temperature response of the active microbial community was tested in temperature gradient block incubations. The temperature optimum of extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, as measured with a polysaccharide (chondroitin sulfate), differed between Arctic and temperate habitats by about 8-13 °C in fresh sediments and in sediments incubated for 24 months. In both Arctic and temperate sediments, the temperature response of chondroitin sulfate hydrolysis was initially similar to that of sulfate reduction. After 24 months, however, hydrolysis outpaced sulfate reduction rates, as demonstrated by increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved carbohydrates. This effect was stronger at higher incubation temperatures, particularly in the Arctic sediments. In all experiments, concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were low, indicating tight coupling between VFA production and consumption. Together, these data indicate that long-term incubation at elevated temperatures led to increased decoupling of hydrolytic DOC production relative to fermentation. Temperature increases in marine sedimentary environments may thus significantly affect the downstream carbon mineralization and lead to the increased formation of refractory DOC.

  14. High incubation temperatures enhance mitochondrial energy metabolism in reptile embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bao-Jun; Li, Teng; Gao, Jing; Ma, Liang; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Developmental rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature in ectothermic animals, but the biochemical basis underlying this thermal dependence is largely unexplored. We measured mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities of turtle embryos (Pelodiscus sinensis) incubated at different temperatures to identify the metabolic basis of the rapid development occurring at high temperatures in reptile embryos. Developmental rate increased with increasing incubation temperatures in the embryos of P. sinensis. Correspondingly, in addition to the thermal dependence of mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities, high-temperature incubation further enhanced mitochondrial respiration and COX activities in the embryos. This suggests that embryos may adjust mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities in response to developmental temperature to achieve high developmental rates at high temperatures. Our study highlights the importance of biochemical investigations in understanding the proximate mechanisms by which temperature affects embryonic development. PMID:25749301

  15. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  16. Prolonged incubation of processed human spermatozoa will increase DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Nabi, A; Khalili, M A; Halvaei, I; Roodbari, F

    2014-05-01

    One of the causes of failure in ART is sperm DNA fragmentation which may be associated with long period of spermatozoa incubation at 37 °C. The objective was to evaluate the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation using the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test after swim-up at different time intervals prior to use. In this prospective study, 21 normozoospermic specimens were analysed. The samples were incubated at 37 °C after preparation by direct swim-up. DNA fragmentation was assessed at different time intervals (0, 1, 2 and 3 h) using SCD test. Spermatozoa with no DNA fragmentation showed large- or medium-sized halos, and sperm cells with DNA fragmentation showed either a small halo or no halo. The rates of normal morphology and progressive motility after sperm processing were 72.33 ± 2.53% and 90 ± 1.02%, respectively. The rate of sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly higher after 2 h (8.81 ± 0.93%, P = 0.004) and 3 h (10.76 ± 0.89%, P < 0.0001) of incubation compared to 0 h (4.38 ± 0.8%). A positive correlation was found between the incubation time and sperm DNA damage (P < 0.0001). Prolonged incubation of prepared normozoospermic samples at 37 °C is associated with higher rates of sperm DNA fragmentation. Therefore, sperm samples intended for ART procedures should be used within 2 h of incubation at 37 °C. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Double wall versus single wall incubator for reducing heat loss in very low birth weight infants in incubators.

    PubMed

    Laroia, N; Phelps, D L; Roy, J

    2007-04-18

    Studies have shown improved survival of newborn infants maintained in the thermoneutral range. The concept of an incubator with additional insulation, a double plexiglass wall, is appealing for very low birth weight infants as it may help to provide a thermoneutral environment. To assess the effects of double walled incubator versus a single wall incubator on insensible water loss, rate of oxygen consumption, episodes of hypothermia, time to regain birth weight, duration of hospitalization and infant mortality in premature infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of electronic databases: Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2006), MEDLINE (1966 - 2006), EMBASE, previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conference and symposia proceedings, expert informants in all published languages, and CINAHL (1982 - 2006). Only studies using random or quasi-random methods of allocation were considered for this review. Eligible studies assessed at least one of the outcome variables identified as important to this topic. Independent data extraction and quality assessment of included trials was conducted by the review authors. Data were analyzed using generic inverse variance methodology and weighted mean difference (WMD). Results are presented with 95% confidence intervals. Meta-analysis was undertaken using a fixed effect model. Three studies met the criteria. Four other studies were excluded, as they did not compare double versus single wall incubators (details of the studies are given in the included and excluded studies section). Double wall incubators have the advantage of decreasing heat loss, decreasing heat production and decreasing radiant heat loss when compared to single wall incubators. There is also the advantage of reduced oxygen consumption. A minimal increase in conductive heat loss was noted when

  18. Summary of Research Report Lewis Incubator for Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Wayne P.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done to establish and operate the Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) for the period July 1996 through September 2000. The Lewis Incubator helps the startup and growth of technology-based businesses with the potential to incorporate technology from the NASA Glenn Research Center. During the grant period, LIFT began operation, met or exceeded all key performance measures, and continues its operation through a new cooperative agreement with NASA Glenn and also through continued funding from the State of Ohio.

  19. A comparison of artificial incubation and natural incubation hatching success of gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) eggs in southern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noel, Krista M.; Qualls, Carl P.; Ennen, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have found that Gopher Tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, populations in southern Mississippi exhibit low recruitment, due in part to very low hatching success of their eggs. We sought to determine if the cause(s) of this low hatching success was related to egg quality (intrinsic factors), unsuitability of the nest environment (extrinsic factors), or a combination of the two. In 2003, hatching success was monitored simultaneously for eggs from the same clutches that were incubated in the laboratory and left to incubate in nests. A subset of randomly chosen eggs from each clutch was incubated in the laboratory under physical conditions that were known to be conducive to successful hatching to estimate the proportion of eggs that were capable of hatching in a controlled setting. Hatching success in the laboratory was compared with that of eggs incubated in natural nests to estimate the proportion of eggs that failed to hatch presumably from extrinsic factors. Laboratory hatching success was 58.8%, suggesting that roughly 40% of the eggs were intrinsically incapable of hatching even when incubated under controlled conditions. Hatching success in natural nests, 16.7%, was significantly lower than hatching success in the laboratory, suggesting that approximately 42.1% of eggs were capable of hatching but failed to hatch due to some extrinsic aspect(s) of the nest environment. Thus, the low hatching success of Gopher Tortoise eggs in southern Mississippi appears to be attributable to a combination of intrinsic (egg quality) and extrinsic (nest environment) factors.

  20. Thermal management in closed incubators: New software for assessing the impact of humidity on the optimal incubator air temperature.

    PubMed

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Durand, Estelle; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates are nursed in closed incubators to prevent transcutaneous water loss. The RH's impact on the optimal incubator air temperature setting has not been studied. On the basis of a clinical cohort study, we modelled all the ambient parameters influencing body heat losses and gains. The algorithm quantifies the change in RH on the air temperature, to maintain optimal thermal conditions in the incubator. Twenty-three neonates (gestational age (GA): 30.0 [28.9-31.6] weeks) were included. A 20% increase and a 20% decrease in the RH induced a change in air temperature of between -1.51 and +1.85°C for a simulated 650g neonate (GA: 26 weeks), between -1.66 and +1.87°C for a 1000g neonate (GA: 31 weeks), and between -1.77 and +1.97°C for a 2000g neonate (GA: 33 weeks) (p<0.001). According to regression analyses, the optimal incubator air temperature=a+b relative humidity +c age +d weight (p<0.001). We have developed new mathematical equations for calculating the optimal temperature for the incubator air as a function of the latter's relative humidity. The software constitutes a decision support tool for improving patient care in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Broiler incubation. 1. Effect of elevated temperature during late incubation on body weight and organs of chicks.

    PubMed

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Plumstead, P W; Brannan, K E; Brake, J

    2007-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of increased egg temperature during the final third of incubation on BW, yolk sac, heart, and digestive organs of broiler chicks at hatching. Egg temperatures were found to be approximately 1.0 to 1.5 degrees C higher than incubator air temperature. Elevated egg temperature (39.5 degrees C) after embryonic day 14 generally accelerated hatching time but decreased the relative weight of the heart in all 3 experiments, whereas BW and relative weights of the gizzard, proventriculus, and small intestines were significantly smaller in 2 of 3 experiments as compared with the control (approximately 38.2 degrees C). Relative weights of the yolk sac or liver were significantly larger due to elevated egg temperature in single experiments only. A striking feature of the chicks that developed at an elevated egg temperature was their white color as compared with the yellow color of chicks from eggs incubated at more normal temperatures.

  2. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in water bird nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ?? 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ?? 1.6 days and 1.9 ?? 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ?? 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ?? 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  3. Designing the Online Collaboratory for the Global Social Benefit Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro; Koch, James L.; Bruno, Albert; Carlson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Pedro Hernandez-Ramos, James L. Koch, Albert Bruno, and Eric Carlson describe the online collaboratory planned for the Global Social Benefit Incubator (GSBI), an international education program designed to serve social benefit entrepreneurs working in the fields of education, health, economic development, the environment, and equality around the…

  4. Efficient Swath Mapping Laser Altimetry Demonstration Instrument Incubator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A,; Harding, David J.; Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss our eighteen-month progress of a three-year Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) on swath mapping laser altimetry system. This paper will discuss the system approach, enabling technologies and instrument concept for the swath mapping laser altimetry.

  5. Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubation Environments: A Framework of Key Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dajani, Haya; Dedoussis, Evangelos; Watson, Erika; Tzokas, Nikalaos

    2014-01-01

    The benchmarking framework developed in this study is specifically designed for higher education institutions to consider when developing environments to encourage entrepreneurship among their students, graduates and staff. The objective of the study was to identify key success factors of Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubator Environments (GEIEs)…

  6. Incubation of food craving is independent of macronutrient composition

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Rebecca A.; Dingess, Paige M.; Schlidt, Kevin C.; Smith, Erin M.; Brown, Travis E.

    2016-01-01

    Cues previously paired with rewarding stimuli induce a time-dependent increase in the motivational craving state (incubation of craving). Whether there is an increase in craving for high-fat (HF) food over time, which may contribute to overeating and obesity, has not been determined. We hypothesized that cues paired with HF pellets would elicit a greater incubation of craving effect than those paired with standard chow (SC) pellets. Rats exposed to cues associated with either HF or SC pellets demonstrated equivalent levels of craving over an abstinence period of 30 days. Diet preference tests between SC pellets and LabDiet revealed that SC pellets were preferred over LabDiet. Rats reared on SC pellets exclusively, did not display incubation of craving for SC pellets, suggesting that prior history with the food plays an important role in cue-induced seeking behavior. Results identified cues previously associated with food undergo a comparable magnitude of incubation of craving. When ingestive behavior was measured after 30 days of abstinence, rats significantly increased their consumption of HF pellets. Our results indicate that food cues gain importance over time, trigger increased approach behaviors, and increased consumption of HF food following abstinence. This may contribute to overeating and the development of obesity. PMID:27485660

  7. Growth of Campylobacter Incubated Aerobically in Media Supplemented with Peptones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth of Campylobacter cultures incubated aerobically in media supplemented with peptones was studied, and additional experiments were conducted to compare growth of the bacteria in media supplemented with peptones to growth in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate-minerals-vitamins (FPMV). A b...

  8. Longer incubation times for yeast fungemia: importance for presumptive treatment.

    PubMed

    Paugam, André; Ancelle, Thierry; Lortholary, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Isolation rates of Candida glabrata at ≤2 days were 8.9% and 34.8% at >2 days; for Cryptococcus neoformans, they were 0.9% and 8.6%, respectively (1741 fungemia analyzed). An incubation time >2 days supports candins as presumptive treatment for C. glabrata, keeping in mind the risk of Cryptococcus fungemia.

  9. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-06-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubation Environments: A Framework of Key Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dajani, Haya; Dedoussis, Evangelos; Watson, Erika; Tzokas, Nikalaos

    2014-01-01

    The benchmarking framework developed in this study is specifically designed for higher education institutions to consider when developing environments to encourage entrepreneurship among their students, graduates and staff. The objective of the study was to identify key success factors of Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubator Environments (GEIEs)…

  11. Incubator Baby Shows: A Medical and Social Frontier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Hannah

    2001-01-01

    America's first hospitals for premature infants were built at the turn of the twentieth century at fairs, amusement parks, and expositions. These hospitals represented both a medical and a social frontier. They had a great impact on American medicine because they demonstrated the success of caring for premature infants using incubators. The…

  12. Alternating Incubation Effects in the Generation of Category Exemplars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven M.; Gerkens, David R.; Angello, Genna

    2017-01-01

    Four experiments tested the forgetting fixation hypothesis of incubation effects, comparing continuous vs. alternating generation of exemplars from three different types of categories. In two experiments, participants who listed as many members as possible from two different categories produced more responses, and more novel responses, when they…

  13. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  14. Food conditions affect yolk testosterone deposition but not incubation attendance.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Goerlich, Vivian C; Groothuis, Ton G G; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2012-03-01

    In many bird species with hatching asynchrony, yolk androgens increase across the laying sequence. This has been hypothesized to represent a compensatory mechanism for disadvantages of later-hatching chicks - via positive effects of yolk androgens on early competitiveness and growth. However, the costs and benefits of this compensatory strategy probably depend on environmental factors determining the survival chances of the chicks such as the food conditions, which should, therefore, influence maternal yolk androgen deposition. We studied the consequences of manipulated food conditions on the expected level of hatching asynchrony in canaries (Serinus canaria) assigning females to either a low (=LQ) or high quality (=HQ) diet. We measured the incubation behaviour (as incubation attendance) and the yolk androgen deposition in order to investigate whether and how females modulate hatching asynchrony in relation to the food conditions. Females on a HQ diet laid larger and heavier clutches, showed a stronger increase in yolk testosterone content towards the last-laid eggs, but did not alter their incubation attendance. Thus, females on a HQ diet seem to favour the survival of later hatching chicks, as indicated by their yolk testosterone deposition pattern. However, females on a HQ diet laid larger clutches and might need to compensate more in order to achieve a similar degree of hatching asynchrony than females on a LQ diet, given the lack of plasticity in incubation attendance. This suggests that canary females respond to food manipulations mainly via changes in clutch size rather than by altering the degree of hatching asynchrony.

  15. Incubation of food craving is independent of macronutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Darling, Rebecca A; Dingess, Paige M; Schlidt, Kevin C; Smith, Erin M; Brown, Travis E

    2016-08-03

    Cues previously paired with rewarding stimuli induce a time-dependent increase in the motivational craving state (incubation of craving). Whether there is an increase in craving for high-fat (HF) food over time, which may contribute to overeating and obesity, has not been determined. We hypothesized that cues paired with HF pellets would elicit a greater incubation of craving effect than those paired with standard chow (SC) pellets. Rats exposed to cues associated with either HF or SC pellets demonstrated equivalent levels of craving over an abstinence period of 30 days. Diet preference tests between SC pellets and LabDiet revealed that SC pellets were preferred over LabDiet. Rats reared on SC pellets exclusively, did not display incubation of craving for SC pellets, suggesting that prior history with the food plays an important role in cue-induced seeking behavior. Results identified cues previously associated with food undergo a comparable magnitude of incubation of craving. When ingestive behavior was measured after 30 days of abstinence, rats significantly increased their consumption of HF pellets. Our results indicate that food cues gain importance over time, trigger increased approach behaviors, and increased consumption of HF food following abstinence. This may contribute to overeating and the development of obesity.

  16. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  17. Assessment of predation risk through referential communication in incubating birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.

    2015-05-01

    Parents of many bird species produce alarm calls when they approach and deter a nest predator in order to defend their offspring. Alarm calls have been shown to warn nestlings about predatory threats, but parents also face a similar risk of predation when incubating eggs in their nests. Here, I show that incubating female Japanese great tits, Parus minor, assess predation risk by conspecific alarm calls given outside the nest cavity. Tits produce acoustically discrete alarm calls for different nest predators: “jar” calls for snakes and “chicka” calls for other predators such as crows and martens. Playback experiments revealed that incubating females responded to “jar” calls by leaving their nest, whereas they responded to “chicka” calls by looking out of the nest entrance. Since snakes invade the nest cavity, escaping from the nest helps females avoid snake predation. In contrast, “chicka” calls are used for a variety of predator types, and therefore, looking out of the nest entrance helps females gather information about the type and location of approaching predators. These results show that incubating females derive information about predator type from different types of alarm calls, providing a novel example of functionally referential communication.

  18. Marine Antimalarials

    PubMed Central

    Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease causing at least 1 million deaths per year, and, unfortunately, the chemical entities available to treat malaria are still too limited. In this review we highlight the contribution of marine chemistry in the field of antimalarial research by reporting the most important results obtained until the beginning of 2009, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries. About 60 secondary metabolites produced by marine organisms have been grouped into three structural types and discussed in terms of their reported antimalarial activities. The major groups of metabolites include isonitrile derivatives, alkaloids and endoperoxide derivatives. The following discussion evidences that antimalarial marine molecules can efficiently integrate the panel of lead compounds isolated from terrestrial sources with new chemical backbones and, sometimes, with unique functional groups. PMID:19597577

  19. A System for Incubations at High Gas Partial Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed 1 MPa at in situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well. We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120°C, and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. To keep costs low, the system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow-through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g., fluid–gas–rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration. As an application of the system we extracted organic compounds from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O–CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C) and pressure (5 MPa). Subsamples were taken at different time points during the incubation and analyzed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could

  20. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed 1 MPa at in situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well. We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120°C, and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. To keep costs low, the system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow-through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g., fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration. As an application of the system we extracted organic compounds from sub-bituminous coal using H(2)O as well as a H(2)O-CO(2) mixture at elevated temperature (90°C) and pressure (5 MPa). Subsamples were taken at different time points during the incubation and analyzed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could

  1. Otters, Marine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  2. Marine energy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David

    2007-04-15

    Marine energy is renewable and carbon free and has the potential to make a significant contribution to energy supplies in the future. In the UK, tidal power barrages and wave energy could make the largest contribution, and tidal stream energy could make a smaller but still a useful contribution. This paper provides an overview of the current status and prospects for electrical generation from marine energy. It concludes that a realistic potential contribution to UK electricity supplies is approximately 80 TWh per year but that many years of development and investment will be required if this potential is to be realized.

  3. Incubating Innovation: A standard model for nurturing new businesses, the incubator gains prominence in the world of biotech.

    PubMed

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Incubators, accelerators, innovation centers, launch pads. Everyone defines the idea a bit differently, but, generally, these infrastructures refer to a subsidized space where fledgling companies get support?a combination of mentorship, funding, low rent, networking opportunities, and other training?with the goal of propelling early businesses to success.

  4. Marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures.

  5. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  6. Mariner Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

  7. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  8. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  9. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  10. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  11. [Collagenase production increases in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis synoviocytes incubated].

    PubMed

    Montrull, H L; Brizuela, N Y; Demurtas, S L; Strusberg, A M; Spitale, L S; Meirovich, C I

    2000-01-01

    Cartilage is a specialized connective tissue. It contains few cells into an extracell matrix. The matrix mainly constituents are collagen and proteoglycans. Its degradation depends on synoviocytes activity, that secrete metalloproteases, agents to proteoglycans catabolism. There are two types of synoviocytes: macrophagics (type "A:') and fibroblastics (type "B"). The proteoglycan destruction can be LT-dependent or LT-independent. The aim of this work is synoviocytes function ex vívo study, free immune system influence. In order to do it, heparinized synovial fluid samples were obtained from 6 osteoarthritic (OA) and 6 arthritic (RA) both sex untreated patients, diagnosed according ACR criteria, which disease duration was longer than 6 months. Patients average age was 70 +/- 2 years. Control samples were synovial fluid from traumatic arthritis or non inflammatory bone-muscle pathology. Synovial fluid was centifugated at 1500 g for 30 minutes to isolate synoviocytes. Sediment containing cells was 6 hs incubed with Dulbecco-Eagles media, that has HEPES Gibco (26 mM); NaHCO3 (0.5 g/I); glutamine (2 mM), streptomicine (100 mg/l), G-penicillin (1 U/ml); anphotericine B (2.5 mg/l). Cells calification and viability were cytopathologically determined. Before and after incubation, collagenase activity was measured by ELISA-double-sandwich, using 10 micrograms/ml monoclonal anti-MMPs in phosphate-buffer-saline. The antigen-antibody complex production with inespecific proteins was blocked by bovine seric albumine. Streptavidin peroxidase was added and washed with 2,2,azin,di(3-ethyl-benztazoilinsuiphonic) acid to develop color. The link of labeled antibody by absorbance at 410 nm was determined in ELISA-spectrophothometer. RA patients earlier MMPs synoviocytes production was 1373 +/- 115 ng/ml. Then 6 hs incubation 2143 +/- 132 ng/ml was reached. The increase (56%) had high significance (p < 0.0001). OA earlier MMPs cells production was 276 +/- 23 ng/ml, but after incubation

  12. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  13. A Common Loon incubates rocks as surrogates for eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Destefano, Stephen; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; Pereira, Jillian W.

    2013-01-01

    A nesting Gavia immer (Common Loon) was discovered incubating 2 rocks on a floating nest platform on the Quabbin reservoir in central Massachusetts for 43 days, well beyond the typical period of 28 days, before we moved in to investigate. The rocks were likely unearthed in the soil and vegetation used on the platform to create a more natural substrate for the nest. We suggest sifting through soil and vegetation to remove rocks before placing material on nest platforms.

  14. Escaping mental fixation: incubation and inhibition in creative problem solving.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Rebecca H; Storm, Benjamin C

    2014-01-01

    The inhibition underlying retrieval-induced forgetting has been argued to play a crucial role in the ability to overcome interference in memory and cognition. Supporting this conjecture, recent research has found that participants who exhibit greater levels of retrieval-induced forgetting are better at overcoming fixation on the Remote Associates Test (RAT) than are participants who exhibit reduced levels of retrieval-induced forgetting. If the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses improves the ability to solve fixated RAT problems, then reducing the fixation caused by inappropriate responses should reduce the correlation between retrieval-induced forgetting and problem solving. We tested this hypothesis by inserting an incubation period between two 30-second problem-solving attempts: half of the participants were given an incubation period (distributed condition), half were not (continuous condition). In the continuous condition retrieval-induced forgetting correlated positively with problem-solving performance during both the initial and final 30 seconds of problem solving. In the distributed condition retrieval-induced forgetting only correlated with problem-solving performance during the first 30 seconds of problem solving. This finding suggests that incubation reduces the need for inhibition by reducing the extent to which problem solvers suffer fixation.

  15. Incubation temperature modifies neonatal thermoregulation in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Rachel M; Walguarnery, Justin W

    2007-08-01

    The thermal environment experienced during embryonic development can profoundly affect the phenotype, and potentially the fitness, of ectothermic animals. We examined the effect of incubation temperature on the thermal preferences of juveniles in the oviparous lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Temperature preference trials were conducted in a laboratory thermal gradient within 48 hr of hatching and after 22-27 days of maintenance in a common laboratory environment. Incubation temperature had a significant effect on the upper limit of the interquartile range (IQR) of temperatures selected by A. carolinensis within the first 2 days after hatching. Between the first and second trials, the IQR of selected temperatures decreased significantly and both the lower limit of the IQR and the median selected temperature increased significantly. This, along with a significant incubation temperature by time interaction in the upper limit of the IQR, resulted in a pattern of convergence in thermoregulation among treatment groups. The initial differences in selected temperatures, as well as the shift in selected temperatures between first and second trials, demonstrate plasticity in temperature selection. As a previous study failed to find environmentally induced plasticity in temperature selection in adult A. carolinensis, this study suggests that this type of plasticity is exclusive to the period of neonatal development.

  16. Embryonic developmental patterns and energy expenditure are affected by incubation temperature in wood ducks (Aix sponsa).

    PubMed

    DuRant, S E; Hopkins, W A; Hepp, G R

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in birds has demonstrated that incubation temperature influences a suite of traits important for hatchling development and survival. We explored a possible mechanism for the effects on hatchling quality by determining whether incubation temperature influences embryonic energy expenditure of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Because avian embryos are ectothermic, we hypothesized that eggs incubated at higher temperatures would have greater energy expenditure at any given day of incubation. However, because eggs incubated at lower temperatures take longer to hatch than embryos incubated at higher temperatures, we hypothesized that the former would expend more energy during incubation. We incubated eggs at three temperatures (35.0°, 35.9°, and 37.0°C) that fall within the range of temperatures of naturally incubated wood duck nests. We then measured the respiration of embryos every 3 d during incubation, immediately after ducks externally pipped, and immediately after hatching. As predicted, embryos incubated at the highest temperature had the highest metabolic rates on most days of incubation, and they exhibited faster rates of development. Yet, because of greater energy expended during the hatching process, embryos incubated at the lowest temperature expended 20%-37% more energy during incubation than did embryos incubated at the higher temperatures. Slower developmental rates and greater embryonic energy expenditure of embryos incubated at the lowest temperature could contribute to their poor physiological performance as ducklings compared with ducklings that hatch from eggs incubated at higher temperatures.

  17. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  18. Cot-nursing versus incubator care for preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter H; Flenady, Vicki

    2011-08-10

    Preterm infants are usually nursed in incubators, but cot-nursing may provide an alternative. While there may be benefits of nursing preterm infants in open cots, there may be potential risks such as nosocomial infection caused by more handling due to easier access. To assess effects of cot-nursing versus incubator care on temperature control and weight gain in preterm infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE, as well as previous reviews including cross references through November 2009. All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation in which infants receiving care in standard newborn cots were compared to infants managed in a conventional air heated incubator. The authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data for the primary outcomes of temperature control and weight gain. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed-effect model. Eleven potential studies were identified of which five, involving 247 infants, were included in this review. When compared to incubator care, cot-nursing resulted in no significant difference in mean body temperature (MD 0.02 degrees C; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.07, four trials), though the one trial that reported on episodes of hyperthermia found this to be statistically more common in the cot-nursing group (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09). There were no statistically significant differences in weight gain. In the cot-nursing group, fewer infants were breast fed on discharge (typical RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.14, three trials, 150 infants) and fewer infants died prior to hospital discharge (typical RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.25, four trials, 235 infants) but these results failed to reach statistical significance. The comparison of cot-nursing using a heated water-filled mattress

  19. Marine pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, D J

    2000-02-01

    Marine organisms have provided a large proportion of the bioactive natural products reported over the last 20 years, but none of these compounds have reached the pharmaceutical marketplace. This review describes current progress in the development of a selection of new antiinflammatory and anticancer agents, discusses some difficulties encountered during the development process and suggests how these difficulties may be overcome in the near future through applications of recent advances in biotechnology.

  20. Use of hydrogen peroxide during incubation of landlocked fall Chinook salmon eggs in vertical-flow incubators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, M.E.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Six different hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes were evaluated in a series of three trials with landlocked fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha eggs incubated in vertical-flow incubators. Six daily 15-min hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes (1,000 mg/L; 1,000 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation; 2,000 mg/L; 2,000 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation; 2,500 mg/L; and 2,500 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation) were compared with daily 15-min treatments of 1,667 mg/L of formalin. Mortality at egg eye-up and fry hatch and from eye-up to hatch was significantly greater in eggs receiving the 2,500-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatments throughout incubation and in those receiving 2,500 mg/L hydrogen peroxide with a decrease to 500 mg/L during blastopore formation than in either of the 1,000-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes or the formalin-treated eggs in the first trial. No significant differences in mortality were observed among any of the treatments in the subsequent two trials with maximum hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 2,000 mg/L. Fungal infestations were observed primarily in the incubation trays treated at either of the 1,000-mg/L hydrogen peroxide regimens, as well as in those trays whose treatment concentrations were dropped to 500 mg/L during blastopore formation. Infestations were not observed in any of the formalin-treated trays. If minor fungal infestation is acceptable, then daily hydrogen peroxide treatments of 1,000 mg/L for 15 min would probably provide adequate fungal control compared with formalin usage.

  1. The bright incubate at night: sexual dichromatism and adaptive incubation division in an open-nesting shorebird

    PubMed Central

    Ekanayake, Kasun B.; Weston, Michael A.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Maguire, Grainne S.; Endler, John A.; Küpper, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Ornamentation of parents poses a high risk for offspring because it reduces cryptic nest defence. Over a century ago, Wallace proposed that sexual dichromatism enhances crypsis of open-nesting females although subsequent studies found that dichromatism per se is not necessarily adaptive. We tested whether reduced female ornamentation in a sexually dichromatic species reduces the risk of clutch depredation and leads to adaptive parental roles in the red-capped plover Charadrius ruficapillus, a species with biparental incubation. Males had significantly brighter and redder head coloration than females. During daytime, when visually foraging predators are active, colour-matched model males incurred a higher risk of clutch depredation than females, whereas at night there was no difference in depredation risk between sexes. In turn, red-capped plovers maintained a strongly diurnal/nocturnal division of parental care during incubation, with males attending the nest largely at night when visual predators were inactive and females incubating during the day. We found support for Wallace's conclusion that reduced female ornamentation provides a selective advantage when reproductive success is threatened by visually foraging predators. We conclude that predators may alter their prey's parental care patterns and therefore may affect parental cooperation during care. PMID:25854884

  2. Cot-nursing versus incubator care for preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Gray, P H; Flenady, V

    2003-01-01

    An optimal thermal environment is desirable for preterm infants. These infants are usually nursed in incubators, but cot-nursing may provide an alternative. Measures to assist the maintenance of body temperature for smaller infants in open cots include extra clothing/bedding, warming up the nursery and heating the cot mattress. Recently a heated water-filled mattress has been developed to maintain the temperature of a cot-nursed preterm infant. While there may be benefits of nursing preterm infants in open cots, there may be potential risks such as nosocomial infection caused by more handling due to easier access. Among preterm infants allocated to cot-nursing vs incubator care in neonatal period, to assess effects on their temperature control and weight gain. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of electronic databases: Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials; Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Cochrane Library Issue 4 2001); MEDLINE (1966-2001); and CINAHL (1982-2001), previous reviews including cross references. All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation in which infants receiving care in standard newborn cots were compared to infants managed in a conventional air heated incubator. The authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data for the primary outcomes of temperature control and weight gain. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed effects model. Results are presented as relative risk (RR) for categorical data and mean difference (MD) and weighted mean differences (WMD) for data measured on a continuous scale. Nine potential studies were identified of which four, involving 173 babies, were included in this review. When compared to incubator care, cot-nursing resulted in a statistically significantly higher mean body temperature (MD 0.30 degrees C; 95% CI 0.10, 0.50, one trial) and a decrease in proportion of infants not breast feeding at hospital discharge (RR 0

  3. Assessment of radiant temperature in a closed incubator.

    PubMed

    Décima, Pauline; Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Pelletier, Amandine; Ghyselen, Laurent; Delanaud, Stéphane; Dégrugilliers, Loïc; Telliez, Frédéric; Bach, Véronique; Libert, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    In closed incubators, radiative heat loss (R) which is assessed from the mean radiant temperature (Tr) accounts for 40-60% of the neonate's total heat loss. In the absence of a benchmark method to calculate Tr--often considered to be the same as the air incubator temperature-errors could have a considerable impact on the thermal management of neonates. We compared Tr using two conventional methods (measurement with a black-globe thermometer and a radiative "view factor" approach) and two methods based on nude thermal manikins (a simple, schematic design from Wheldon and a multisegment, anthropometric device developed in our laboratory). By taking the Tr estimations for each method, we calculated metabolic heat production values by partitional calorimetry and then compared them with the values calculated from V(O2) and V(CO2) measured in 13 preterm neonates. Comparisons between the calculated and measured metabolic heat production values showed that the two conventional methods and Wheldon's manikin underestimated R, whereas when using the anthropomorphic thermal manikin, the simulated versus clinical difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a need for a safety standard for measuring TR in a closed incubator. This standard should also make available estimating equations for all avenues of the neonate's heat exchange considering the metabolic heat production and the modifying influence of the thermal insulation provided by the diaper and by the mattress. Although thermal manikins appear to be particularly appropriate for measuring Tr, the current lack of standardized procedures limits their widespread use.

  4. Ecophysiological Changes in Microbial Mats Incubated in a Greenhouse Collaboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad; DesMarais, David J.; GarciaPichel, Ferran; Hogan, Mary; Jahnke, Linda; Keller, Richard M.; Miller, Scott R.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial mats are modern examples of the earliest microbial communities known. Among the best studied are microbial mats growing in hypersaline ponds managed for the production of salt by Exportadora de Sal, S.A. de C.V., Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. In May, 2001, we collected mats from Ponds 4 and 5 in this system and returned them to Ames Research Center, where they have been maintained for a period of over nine months. We report here on both the ecophysiological changes occurring in the mats over that period of time as well as the facility in which they were incubated. Mats (approximately 1 sq. meter total area) were incubated in a greenhouse facility modified to provide the mats with natural levels of visible and ultraviolet radiation as well as constantly flowing, temperature-controlled water. Two replicated treatments were maintained, a 'high salinity' treatment (about 120 ppt) and a 'low salinity' treatment (about 90 ppt). Rates of net biological activity (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, trace gas production) in the mats were relatively constant over the several months, and were similar to rates of activity measured in the field. However, over the course of the incubation, mats in both treatments changed in physical appearance. The most obvious change was that mats in the higher salinity treatments developed a higher proportion of carotenoid pigments (relative to chlorophyll), resulting in a noticeably orange color in the high salinity mats. This trend is also seen in the natural salinity gradient present at the field site. Changes in the community composition of the mats, as assayed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), as well as biomarker compounds produced in the mats were also monitored. The degree to which the mats kept in the greenhouse changed from the originally collected mats, as well as differences between high and low salinity mats will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended

  5. Ecophysiological Changes in Microbial Mats Incubated in a Greenhouse Collaboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad; DesMarais, David J.; GarciaPichel, Ferran; Hogan, Mary; Jahnke, Linda; Keller, Richard M.; Miller, Scott R.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial mats are modern examples of the earliest microbial communities known. Among the best studied are microbial mats growing in hypersaline ponds managed for the production of salt by Exportadora de Sal, S.A. de C.V., Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. In May, 2001, we collected mats from Ponds 4 and 5 in this system and returned them to Ames Research Center, where they have been maintained for a period of over nine months. We report here on both the ecophysiological changes occurring in the mats over that period of time as well as the facility in which they were incubated. Mats (approximately 1 sq. meter total area) were incubated in a greenhouse facility modified to provide the mats with natural levels of visible and ultraviolet radiation as well as constantly flowing, temperature-controlled water. Two replicated treatments were maintained, a 'high salinity' treatment (about 120 ppt) and a 'low salinity' treatment (about 90 ppt). Rates of net biological activity (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, trace gas production) in the mats were relatively constant over the several months, and were similar to rates of activity measured in the field. However, over the course of the incubation, mats in both treatments changed in physical appearance. The most obvious change was that mats in the higher salinity treatments developed a higher proportion of carotenoid pigments (relative to chlorophyll), resulting in a noticeably orange color in the high salinity mats. This trend is also seen in the natural salinity gradient present at the field site. Changes in the community composition of the mats, as assayed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), as well as biomarker compounds produced in the mats were also monitored. The degree to which the mats kept in the greenhouse changed from the originally collected mats, as well as differences between high and low salinity mats will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended

  6. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  7. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the identification and assessment of external service providers to the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant to Arrowhead Center, New Mexico State University. This report contains 1) a summary of the services to be provided by NSTI; 2) organizational descriptions of external service providers; and 3) a comparison of NSTI services and services offered by external providers.

  8. Cellular Automata with network incubation in information technology diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseo, Renato; Guidolin, Mariangela

    2010-06-01

    Innovation diffusion of network goods determines direct network externalities that depress sales for long periods and delay full benefits. We model this effect through a multiplicative dynamic market potential driven by a latent individual threshold embedded in a special Cellular Automata representation. The corresponding mean field approximation of its aggregate version is a Riccati equation with a closed form solution. This allows the detection of a change-point time separating an incubation period from a subsequent take-off due to a collective threshold (critical mass). Weighted nonlinear least squares are the main inferential methodology. An application is analysed with reference to USA fax machine diffusion.

  9. Effects of high CO2 level during early incubation and late incubation in ovo dexamethasone injection on perinatal embryonic parameters and post-hatch growth of broilers.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, H; Tona, K; Bruggeman, V; Onagbesan, O; Decuypere, E

    2008-03-01

    1. A total of 1200 Cobb broiler breeder eggs were incubated under either standard conditions (C group) or high CO(2) levels (CO(2) group) during the first 10 d of incubation. The CO(2) level of the CO(2) incubator was attained gradually by a natural build-up of CO(2) due to air-tight closure of the incubator. From d 10 of incubation onwards, all eggs were incubated under standard incubation conditions. At d 18 of incubation, the eggs of both incubation groups (CO(2) and C group) were either injected with water-soluble dexamethasone (DEXA group) or with saline (0.9% NaCl; saline group) or were not injected (control). 2. Body weights, plasma hormonal concentrations (T(3), T(4) and corticosteroid) and glucose concentrations were measured regularly during the perinatal (at IP, internal pipping) and post-hatch period (at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-hatch). Additionally, hatchability and pattern of embryonic mortality were determined after hatch. 3. The results showed that high CO(2) levels during the first 10 d of incubation or dexamethasone injection at d 18 of incubation decreased embryo mortality, mainly because of a reduction in embryo malpositioning. However, a combination of a CO(2) incubation and a dexamethasone injection led to an increase in embryo mortality and therefore a decrease in hatchability. 4. Although dexamethasone injection at embryonic d 18 decreased body weight in the second week of the rearing period and CO(2) incubation increased body weight during the first 2 weeks of the rearing period, no consistent effect of both the incubation and injection treatments on body weight at slaughter age was observed.

  10. Effective Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium infantis encapsulation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) and flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) mucilage and soluble protein by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mariela; Oomah, B Dave; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina

    2017-02-01

    Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7.5:0.6:7.5%, w/w/w), respectively. These ternary blends protected the probiotics and enhanced their resistance to simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Probiotics encapsulated with the ternary blends incorporated in instant juice powder exhibited high viability (>9Log10CFU/g) after 45days refrigerated storage. Encapsulation with the ternary blends reduced particle size of the probiotic powders thereby offering additional functional benefits. Our results reveal that chia seed and flaxseed are excellent sources of probiotic encapsulating agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microencapsulation by spray drying of lemon essential oil: Evaluation of mixtures of mesquite gum-nopal mucilage as new wall materials.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Camargo, Stefani; Cruz-Olivares, Julian; Barragán-Huerta, Blanca E; Dublán-García, Octavio; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Pérez-Alonso, César

    2017-06-01

    Mesquite gum (MG) and nopal mucilage (NM) mixtures were used for microencapsulation of lemon essential oil (LEO) by spray drying. Emulsions of MG, NM and MG-NM mixtures (25-75, 50-50, 75-25) were evaluated according to the droplet size (1.49-9.16 μm), viscosity and zeta potential (-16.07 to -20.13 mV), and microcapsules were characterised in particle size (11.9-44.4 μm), morphology, volatile oil retention (VOR) (45.9-74.4%), encapsulation efficiency (EE) (70.9-90.6%), oxidative stability and thermal analysis. The higher concentration of MG led to smaller droplet sizes and lower viscosity in the emulsions, and smaller particle sizes with the highest VOR in microcapsules. The higher concentration of NM induced to higher viscosity in the emulsions, and larger particle sizes with the highest values of EE and oxidative stability in microcapsules. This work shows evidence that MG-NM mixtures can have synergic effect in desirable characteristics such as retention and shelf life extension of LEO in microcapsules.

  12. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    PubMed

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction optimization by response surface methodology of mucilage polysaccharide from the peel of Opuntia dillenii haw. fruits and their physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-Lu; Gao, Jie; Yin, Yan-Yan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2016-10-20

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technology of mucilage polysaccharide from the peel of Opuntia dillenii haw. fruits (OFPP), and the physicochemical characteristics of OFPP were also investigated. The three parameters were the ratio of water to raw material (30-40ml/g), microwave power (300-400W) and extraction time (120-180s). The results indicated that the yield of OFPP was 15.62±0.37% under the optimum extraction conditions. Compared with MAE, the OFPP yield by hot water extraction (HWE) was 13.36±0.71%. In addition, the rheological properties of OFPP were also explored. The OFPP obtained by HWE exhibited a lower viscosity compared with that by MAE. The FT-IR spectra analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that there were strong interactions between Ca(2+) and OFPP, which resulted in the high viscosity, different microstructure and thermal stability of OFPP.

  14. Ultrasonic extraction of pectin from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes after mucilage removal: Optimization of experimental conditions and evaluation of chemical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Bayar, Nadia; Bouallegue, Tahani; Achour, Mabrouka; Kriaa, Mouna; Bougatef, Ali; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2017-11-15

    Ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of pectin from Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) cladodes after mucilage removal was attempted using the response surface methodology. The process variables were optimized by the isovariant central composite design in order to improve the pectin extraction yield. The optimum condition obtained was: sonication time 70min, temperature 70°C, pH 1.5 and the water-material ratio 30ml/g. This condition was validated and the performance of experimental extraction was 18.14%±1.41%, which was closely linked to the predicted value (19.06%). Thus, UAE present a promising alternative to conventional extraction process thanks to its high efficiency which was achieved in less time and at lower temperatures. The pectin extracted by UAE from OFI cladodes (UAEPC) has a low degree of esterification, high uronic acid content, important functional properties and good anti-radical activity. These results are in favor of the use of UAEPC as potential additive in food industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The effect of ambient temperature, habitat quality and individual age on incubation behaviour and incubation feeding in a socially monogamous songbird.

    PubMed

    Amininasab, Seyed Mehdi; Kingma, Sjouke A; Birker, Martje; Hildenbrandt, Hanno; Komdeur, Jan

    Incubation is an important aspect of avian life history. The behaviour is energetically costly, and investment in incubation strategies within species, like female nest attentiveness and the feeding by the non-incubating partner during incubation, can therefore vary depending on environmental and individual characteristics. However, little is known about the combined effect of these characteristics. We investigated the importance of ambient temperature, habitat quality, and bird age on female incubation behaviour and male feeding of the incubating female (incubation feeding) in blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, a socially monogamous songbird. An increase in ambient temperature resulted in a higher nest temperature, and this enabled females to increase the time off the nest for self-maintenance activities. Probably as a consequence of this, an increase in ambient temperature was associated with fewer incubation feedings by the male. Moreover, in areas with more food available (more deciduous trees), females had shorter incubation recesses and males fed females less often. Additionally, males fed young females more, presumably to increase such females' investment in their eggs, which were colder on average (despite the length of recesses and female nest attentiveness being independent of female age). Male age did not affect incubation feeding rate. In conclusion, the patterns of incubation behaviour were related to both environmental and individual characteristics, and male incubation feeding was adjusted to females' need for food according these characteristics, which can facilitate new insights to the study of avian incubation energetics. Parents often invest a substantial amount of energy in raising offspring. How much they do so depends on several environmental factors and on the extent they cooperate to raise the offspring. In birds, males can feed incubating females, which may allow females to stay longer on the nest, which, in turn, may ultimately improve

  16. Marine Envenomation.

    PubMed

    Hornbeak, Kirsten B; Auerbach, Paul S

    2017-05-01

    Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. This article reviews common marine envenomations, exploring causative species, clinical presentation, and current treatment recommendations. Recommendations are included for cnidaria, sponges, bristle worms, crown-of-thorns starfish, sea urchins, venomous fish, stingrays, cone snails, stonefish, blue-ringed octopus, and sea snakes. Immediate and long-term treatment options and management of common sequelae are reviewed. Antivenom administration, treatment of anaphylaxis, and surgical indications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-power hybrid wireless network for monitoring infant incubators.

    PubMed

    Shin, D I; Shin, K H; Kim, I K; Park, K S; Lee, T S; Kim, S I; Lim, K S; Huh, S J

    2005-10-01

    We have created a pilot wireless network for the convenient monitoring of temperature and humidity of infant incubators. This system combines infrared and radio frequency (RF) communication in order to minimize the power consumption of slave devices, and we therefore call it a hybrid wireless network. The slave module installed in the infant incubator receives the calling signal from the host with an infrared receiver, and sends temperature and humidity data to the host with an RF transmitter. The power consumption of the host system is not critical, and hence it uses the maximum power of infrared transmission and continuously operating RF receiver. In our test implementation, we included four slave devices. The PC calls each slave device every second and then waits for 6 s, resulting in a total scan period of 10 s. Slave devices receive the calling signals and transmit three data values (temperature, moisture, and skin temperature); their power demand is 1 mW, and can run for about 1000 h on four AA-size nickel-hydride batteries.

  18. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  19. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  20. Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Degradation Modeled Through Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as is in the atmosphere, provides the main link between terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs, and fuels the microbial food web. The fate and removal of DOM is a result of several complex conditions and processes, including photodegradation, sorption/desorption, dominant vascular plant sources, and microbial abundance. In order to better constrain factors affecting microbial degradation, laboratory incubations were performed using Sacramento River water for microbial inoculums and vascular plant leachates. Four vascular plant sources were chosen based on their dominance in the Sacramento River Valley: gymnosperm needles from Pinus sabiniana (foothill pine), angiosperm dicot leaves from Quercus douglassi (blue oak), angiosperm monocot mixed annual grasses, and angiosperm monocot mixed Schoenoplectus acutus (tule) and Typha spp. (cattails). Three concentrations of microbial inoculum were used for each plant material, ranging from 0.2% to 10%. Degradation was monitored as a function of time using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-Vis absorbance, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and was compared across vascular plant type and inoculum concentration.

  1. [Genetical analysis on cross incubation of Beauveria bassiana].

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Ding, D; Wang, S; Li, Z

    2000-10-01

    Heterokaryon of Beauveria bassiana was formed during the cross incubation of two vegetative compatible strains with genetic markers of actidione resistance and 34 degrees C tolerance. The chromosome(s) or its fragment successive losses, recombination and segreation led to haploidization during the conidia formation period. After at least 4 generations of parasexual cycle, the genetic character of heterokayon could get to relative stable. Genetic marker and RAPD analysis indicated that the combinants showed the phenomenon of preferential selection of one parental type by unrandom chromosome lossing and the gene of the other parental strain was suppressed or lost completely. Different culture medium, in vivo or in vitro, and different mixture ratio of original strain spores could affect parasexual process and then the preferential selection. The results also demonstrated the heterosis effect of cross culture.

  2. Effects of methysergide on platelets incubated with reserpine

    PubMed Central

    Cumings, J. N.; Hilton, Barbara P.

    1971-01-01

    1. Platelets were incubated with methysergide and related compounds (2-bromo lysergic acid (BOL), ergotamine and methyl ergotamine) together with reserpine. 2. Methysergide inhibited the normal aggregation response of platelets to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) but did not affect the reduction in the 5HT content caused by reserpine, or the uptake of 5HT by the platelets. 3. BOL, ergotamine and methyl ergotamine behaved similarly. Methysergide had greater anti5HT potency than BOL, and methyl ergotamine had greater potency than ergotamine. 4. The use of platelets as a model for synaptic preparations is discussed. 5. The role of 5HT receptor sites on the platelet membrane and the significance of the results for migraine patients treated with methysergide are discussed. PMID:5116036

  3. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    PubMed

    Lacroux, Caroline; Simon, Stéphanie; Benestad, Sylvie L; Maillet, Séverine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Cassard, Hervé; Costes, Pierrette; Bergonier, Dominique; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Moldal, Torffin; Simmons, Hugh; Lantier, Frederic; Feraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc) accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  4. Incubator weaning in preterm infants and associated practice variation.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, R; Kirkby, S; Turenne, W; Greenspan, J

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship of weight of preterm infants when first placed into an open crib with days to full oral feedings, growth velocity and length of stay (LOS), and to identify unwarranted variation in incubator weaning after adjusting for severity indices. A retrospective study using the ParadigmHealth neonatal database from 2003 to 2006 reviewed incubator weaning to an open crib in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants from 22 to weeks gestation. Primary outcome measurements included days to full oral (PO) feeding, weight gain from open crib to discharge and length of stay. Models were severity adjusted. To understand hospital practice variation, we also used a regression model to estimate the weight at open crib for the top 10 volume hospitals. In all 2908 infants met the inclusion criteria for the study. Their mean weight at open crib was 1850 g. On average every additional 100 g an infant weighed at the open crib was associated with increased time to full PO feeding by 0.8 days, decreased weight gained per day by 1 gram and increased LOS by 0.9 days. For the top 10 volume hospitals, severity variables alone accounted for 9% of the variation in weight at open crib, whereas the hospital in which the baby was treated accounted for an additional 19% of the variation. Even after controlling for severity, significant practice variation exists in weaning to an open crib, leading to potential delays in achieving full-volume oral feeds, decreased growth velocity and prolonged LOS.

  5. Biparental incubation-scheduling: no experimental evidence for major energetic constraints

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Will; Rutten, Anne L.; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is energetically demanding, but it is debated whether these demands constrain incubation-scheduling (i.e., the length, constancy, and timing of incubation bouts) in cases where both parents incubate. Using 2 methods, we experimentally reduced the energetic demands of incubation in the semipalmated sandpiper, a biparental shorebird breeding in the harsh conditions of the high Arctic. First, we decreased the demands of incubation for 1 parent only by exchanging 1 of the 4 eggs for an artificial egg that heated up when the focal bird incubated. Second, we reanalyzed the data from the only published experimental study that has explicitly tested energetic constraints on incubation-scheduling in a biparentally incubating species (Cresswell et al. 2003). In this experiment, the energetic demands of incubation were decreased for both parents by insulating the nest cup. We expected that the treated birds, in both experiments, would change the length of their incubation bouts, if biparental incubation-scheduling is energetically constrained. However, we found no evidence that heating or insulation of the nest affected the length of incubation bouts: the combined effect of both experiments was an increase in bout length of 3.6min (95% CI: −33 to 40), which is equivalent to a 0.5% increase in the length of the average incubation bout. These results demonstrate that the observed biparental incubation-scheduling in semipalmated sandpipers is not primarily driven by energetic constraints and therefore by the state of the incubating bird, implying that we still do not understand the factors driving biparental incubation-scheduling. PMID:25713473

  6. Warm is better: incubation temperature influences apparent survival and recruitment of wood ducks (Aix sponsa).

    PubMed

    Hepp, Gary R; Kennamer, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Avian parents that physically incubate their eggs must balance demands of self-maintenance with providing the proper thermal environment for egg development. Low incubation temperatures can lengthen the incubation period and produce changes in neonate phenotype that may influence subsequent survival and reproduction. We artificially incubated wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs at three temperature regimes (low, 35.0; mid, 35.9; and high, 37.3°C) that are within the range of temperatures of naturally-incubated nests. We tested the effect of incubation temperature on duckling body composition, fledging success, the probability that females were recruited to the breeding population, and their subsequent reproductive success. Incubation period was inversely related to incubation temperature, and body mass and lipid mass for newly-hatched ducklings incubated at the lowest temperature were lower than for ducklings produced at higher temperatures. In 2008, ducklings (n = 412) were individually marked and broods (n = 38) containing ducklings from each temperature treatment were placed with wild foster mothers within 24 hrs of hatching. Ducklings incubated at the lowest temperature were less likely to fledge from nest sites than ducklings incubated at the higher temperatures. We recaptured female ducklings as adults when they were either prospecting for nest sites (n = 171; 2009-2011) or nesting (n = 527; 2009-2012). Female ducklings incubated at the lowest temperature were less likely to survive and be recruited to the breeding population than females incubated at higher temperatures. Reproductive success of surviving females also was greater for females that had been incubated at warmer temperatures. To our knowledge, this is the first avian study to link developmental conditions experienced by neonates during incubation with their survival and recruitment to the breeding population, and subsequent reproductive success. These results advance our understanding of

  7. Warm Is Better: Incubation Temperature Influences Apparent Survival and Recruitment of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa)

    PubMed Central

    Hepp, Gary R.; Kennamer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian parents that physically incubate their eggs must balance demands of self-maintenance with providing the proper thermal environment for egg development. Low incubation temperatures can lengthen the incubation period and produce changes in neonate phenotype that may influence subsequent survival and reproduction. We artificially incubated wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs at three temperature regimes (low, 35.0; mid, 35.9; and high, 37.3°C) that are within the range of temperatures of naturally-incubated nests. We tested the effect of incubation temperature on duckling body composition, fledging success, the probability that females were recruited to the breeding population, and their subsequent reproductive success. Incubation period was inversely related to incubation temperature, and body mass and lipid mass for newly-hatched ducklings incubated at the lowest temperature were lower than for ducklings produced at higher temperatures. In 2008, ducklings (n = 412) were individually marked and broods (n = 38) containing ducklings from each temperature treatment were placed with wild foster mothers within 24 hrs of hatching. Ducklings incubated at the lowest temperature were less likely to fledge from nest sites than ducklings incubated at the higher temperatures. We recaptured female ducklings as adults when they were either prospecting for nest sites (n = 171; 2009–2011) or nesting (n = 527; 2009–2012). Female ducklings incubated at the lowest temperature were less likely to survive and be recruited to the breeding population than females incubated at higher temperatures. Reproductive success of surviving females also was greater for females that had been incubated at warmer temperatures. To our knowledge, this is the first avian study to link developmental conditions experienced by neonates during incubation with their survival and recruitment to the breeding population, and subsequent reproductive success. These results advance our

  8. Biparental incubation-scheduling: no experimental evidence for major energetic constraints.

    PubMed

    Bulla, Martin; Cresswell, Will; Rutten, Anne L; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is energetically demanding, but it is debated whether these demands constrain incubation-scheduling (i.e., the length, constancy, and timing of incubation bouts) in cases where both parents incubate. Using 2 methods, we experimentally reduced the energetic demands of incubation in the semipalmated sandpiper, a biparental shorebird breeding in the harsh conditions of the high Arctic. First, we decreased the demands of incubation for 1 parent only by exchanging 1 of the 4 eggs for an artificial egg that heated up when the focal bird incubated. Second, we reanalyzed the data from the only published experimental study that has explicitly tested energetic constraints on incubation-scheduling in a biparentally incubating species (Cresswell et al. 2003). In this experiment, the energetic demands of incubation were decreased for both parents by insulating the nest cup. We expected that the treated birds, in both experiments, would change the length of their incubation bouts, if biparental incubation-scheduling is energetically constrained. However, we found no evidence that heating or insulation of the nest affected the length of incubation bouts: the combined effect of both experiments was an increase in bout length of 3.6min (95% CI: -33 to 40), which is equivalent to a 0.5% increase in the length of the average incubation bout. These results demonstrate that the observed biparental incubation-scheduling in semipalmated sandpipers is not primarily driven by energetic constraints and therefore by the state of the incubating bird, implying that we still do not understand the factors driving biparental incubation-scheduling.

  9. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC50, FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of quince seed mucilage edible films incorporated with oregano or thyme essential oil on shelf life extension of refrigerated rainbow trout fillets.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash; Khazaei, Naimeh

    2014-03-17

    The effects of quince seed mucilage film (QSMF) containing oregano (O) or thyme (T) essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during refrigerated storage (4°C) were evaluated over a period of 18days. Films were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. The control and the wrapped fillet samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (aerobic and psychrotrophic count, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae), chemical (TBA, TVB-N, TMA-N), and sensory characteristics. Bacteria grew most quickly in trout fillets stored in air, followed by those wrapped with QSMF and the lowest counts were in wrapped samples with QSMF+2%T. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and LAB counts were significantly lower in samples wrapped with QSMF+2%T. The lowest TBA value was obtained in fillets wrapped QSMF containing 2% oregano essential oil. The strong antioxidant activity of QSMF+2%O was related to the composition of oregano essential oil. The GC analysis of essential oil components revealed that carvacrol (81.85%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. TBA value varied for all treatments and remained lower than 2mg MDA/kg throughout storage. The formation of TVB-N, TMA-N increased with time of storage. TVB-N and TMA-N correlated well with the microbiological data, indicating that along with TVB-N, TMA-N may serve as a useful index for fillets spoilage. QSMF extended the microbial shelf life of rainbow trout fillets by 2days, whereas the QSMF+1%O, QSMF+1.5%O, QSMF+2%O, QSMF+1%T, QSMF+1.5%T and QSMF+2%T resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the trout fillets by 3, 5, 9, 6, 10 and 11days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A DELAYED-INCUBATION, MEMBRANE FILTER TEST FOR ENTEROCCI IN WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A delayed-incubation procedure for assessing bacterial water quality is useful when sampling in remote locations. Although a delayed incubation test for coliforms is available, we are unaware of any published reports of delayed-incubation procedures for enterococci, an EPA recomm...

  12. The see-saw a vertical-lift incubator designed for channel catfish egg masses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended in water that is agitated with rotating or oscillating paddles. We designed and tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Preliminary research in commercial hatcheries...

  13. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof by...

  14. A study of knowledge supernetworks and network robustness in different business incubators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing; Zhao, Liming

    2016-04-01

    As the most important intangible resource of the new generation of business incubators, knowledge has been studied extensively, particularly with respect to how it spreads among incubating firms through knowledge networks. However, these homogeneous networks do not adequately describe the heterogeneity of incubating firms in different types of business incubators. To solve the problem of heterogeneity, the notion of a knowledge supernetwork has been used both to construct a knowledge interaction model among incubating firms and to distinguish social network relationships from knowledge network relationships. The process of knowledge interaction and network evolution can then be simulated with a few rules for incubating firms regarding knowledge innovation/absorption, social network connection, and entry and exit, among other aspects. Knowledge and networks have been used as performance indicators to evaluate the evolution of knowledge supernetworks. Moreover, we study the robustness of incubating firms' social networks by employing four types of attack strategies. Based on our simulation results, we conclude that there have been significant knowledge interaction and network evolution among incubating firms on a periodic basis and that both specialized and diversified business incubators have every advantage necessary in terms of both knowledge and networks to cultivate start-up companies. As far as network robustness is concerned, there is no obvious difference between the two types of business incubators with respect to the stability of their network structures, but specialized business incubators have stronger network communication abilities than diversified business incubators.

  15. Soil respiration is not limited by reductions in microbial biomass during long-term soil incubations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Declining rates of soil respiration are reliably observed during long-term laboratory incubations, but the cause is uncertain. We explored different controls on soil respiration during long-term soil incubations. Following a 707 day incubation (30 C) of soils from cultivated and forested plots at Ke...

  16. Partly versus Completely out of Your Mind: Effects of Incubation and Distraction on Resolving Fixation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Nicholas; Smith, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Incubation has long been proposed as a mechanism in creative problem solving (Wallas, 1926). A new trial-by-trial method for observing incubation effects was used to compare the forgetting fixation hypothesis with the conscious work hypothesis. Two experiments examined the effects of incubation on initially unsolved Remote Associates Test (RAT)…

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A DELAYED-INCUBATION, MEMBRANE FILTER TEST FOR ENTEROCCI IN WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A delayed-incubation procedure for assessing bacterial water quality is useful when sampling in remote locations. Although a delayed incubation test for coliforms is available, we are unaware of any published reports of delayed-incubation procedures for enterococci, an EPA recomm...

  18. Fostering Entrepreneurship through Business Incubation: The Role and Prospects of Postsecondary Vocational-Technical Education. Report 1: Survey of Business Incubator Clients and Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Gantes, Victor M.; And Others

    A national survey examined the collective experiences of entrepreneurs, business incubator managers, and postsecondary institutions involved in educational and training strategies aimed at fostering entrepreneurship. The sample included incubators sponsored by universities (n=75), two-year colleges (n=25), and other sources (n=100). The survey…

  19. Marine antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment.

  20. Marine diatoms in polar and sub-polar environments and their application to Late Pleistocene paleoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Xavier

    2011-05-01

    Diatoms are one of the major phytoplankton groups in polar and sub-polar marine environments along with green algae and chrysophytes. Diatoms are composed of two components, a two-valve test made of amorphous silica and an organic cell encapsulated into the test. Mucilage covering the test and proteins embedded in the silica lattice of the test completes the organic pool of the diatoms. The preservation of these two components into deep-sea sediments allows for a large set of diatom-based proxies to infer past oceanographic and climatic changes in polar and sub-polar marine environments. Most diatom species in polar and sub-polar marine environments exhibit a narrow range of ecological preferences, especially in terms of sea-surface temperature and sea ice conditions. Preserved diatom assemblages in deep-sea sediments mirror the diatom assemblages in the phytoplankton. It is subsequently possible to extrapolate the relationships between diatom assemblages in surface sediments and modern parameters to down-core fossil assemblages to document past changes in sea-surface temperatures and sea ice conditions. Congruent analysis of biogenic silica and organic carbon and stable isotope ratios (O, Si in the silica matrix and C, N in the diatom-intrinsic organic matter) provides information on siliceous productivity, nutrient cycling and water mass circulation. Measurements of diatom biomarkers give complementary information on sea ice conditions and siliceous productivity.

  1. Excitation Emission Matrix Spectra (EEMS) of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Produced during Microbial Incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, N.; Nelson, N. B.; Parsons, R.

    2013-12-01

    The chromophoric or light-absorbing fraction of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is present ubiquitously in natural waters and has a significant impact on ocean biogeochemistry, affecting photosynthesis and primary production as well direct and indirect photochemical reactions (Siegel et al., 2002; Nelson et al., 2007). It has been largely researched in the past few decades, however the exact chemical composition remains unknown. Instrumental methods of analysis including simultaneous excitation-emission fluorescence spectra have allowed for further insight into source and chemical composition. While certain excitation-emission peaks have been associated with ';marine' sources, they have not been exclusively linked to bacterial production of CDOM (Coble, 1996; Zepp et al., 2004). In this study, ';grazer diluted' seawater samples (70% 0.2μm filtered water; 30% whole water) were collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea (31° 41' N; 64° 10' W) and incubated with an amendment of labile dissolved organic carbon (10μM C6H12O6), ammonium (1μM NH4Cl) and phosphate (0.1μM K2HPO4) to facilitate bacterial production. These substrates and concentrations have been previously shown to facilitate optimum bacterial and CDOM production (Nelson et al., 2004). Sample depths were chosen at 1m and 200m as water at these depths has been exposed to UV light (the Subtropical Mode Water at 200m has been subducted from the surface) and therefore has low initial concentrations of CDOM. After the samples were amended, they were incubated at in-situ temperatures in the dark for 72 hours, with bacteria counts, UV-Vis absorption and EEMS measurements taken at 6-8 hour intervals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were collected daily. For the surface water experiment specific bacteria populations were investigated using Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results showed a clear production of bacteria and production of CDOM, which

  2. Effects of sodium azide on the abundance of prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christian; Kerros, Marie-Emmanuelle; Weinbauer, Markus G

    2012-01-01

    Flow cytometry is set to become the standard method for enumerating prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples. However, the samples need to be flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen directly after aldehyde fixation. Because liquid nitrogen may not always be available, we tested the potential of sodium azide as a preservative for prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples as a possible alternative. For that we conducted incubation experiments with untreated and sodium azide treated marine water samples at 4°C and room temperature. The data indicate that sodium azide cannot be used to maintain marine samples used for the enumeration of prokaryotes and viruses.

  3. Metatranscriptomic insights into polyphosphate metabolism in marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Daniel S; Flood, Beverly E; Bailey, Jake V

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms can influence inorganic phosphate (Pi) in pore waters, and thus the saturation state of phosphatic minerals, by accumulating and hydrolyzing intracellular polyphosphate (poly-P). Here we used comparative metatranscriptomics to explore microbial poly-P utilization in marine sediments. Sulfidic marine sediments from methane seeps near Barbados and from the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) oxygen minimum zone were incubated under oxic and anoxic sulfidic conditions. Pi was sequestered under oxic conditions and liberated under anoxic conditions. Transcripts homologous to poly-P kinase type 2 (ppk2) were 6–22 × more abundant in metatranscriptomes from the anoxic incubations, suggesting that reversible poly-P degradation by Ppk2 may be an important metabolic response to anoxia by marine microorganisms. Overall, diverse taxa differentially expressed homologues of genes for poly-P degradation (ppk2 and exopolyphosphatase) under different incubation conditions. Sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms appeared to preferentially express genes for poly-P degradation under anoxic conditions, which may impact phosphorus cycling in a wide range of oxygen-depleted marine settings. PMID:26381585

  4. Effect of extraction-method, period of incubation and tidal emersion on the viability of haemocytes from oysters.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabiana T; Browne, Mark Anthony; Coleman, Ross A

    2013-09-15

    The impacts of pollution on marine organisms are often investigated using the viability of their haemocytes. Although this assay is routinely used in monitoring, field and laboratory experimentation, there has been less effort in further optimizing procedures to reduce artefacts and facilitate sampling over large geographic areas. Using the oyster Saccostrea glomerata as a model species, we investigated the effects of different techniques for extracting haemolymph, period of incubation with dye and emersion-time (e.g. tidal-state) on the viability of haemocytes. Collecting haemocytes with a syringe, through a drilled hole in the shell, increased the viability of haemocytes by almost 50%. While emersion-time and incubating haemocytes with the dye for up to 4 h did not affect viability. This simple in situ approach provides a less destructive method for extracting haemocytes, allowing their viability to be measured as part of large-scale experiments without jeopardizing the surrounding assemblage of animals and plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incubation temperature affects multiple measures of immunocompetence in young wood ducks (Aix Sponsa).

    PubMed

    DuRant, Sarah E; Hopkins, William A; Hawley, Dana M; Hepp, Gary R

    2012-02-23

    Parental effects play a vital role in shaping offspring phenotype. In birds, incubation behaviour is a critical parental effect because it influences the early developmental environment and can therefore have lifelong consequences for offspring phenotype. Recent studies that manipulated incubation temperature found effects on hatchling body composition, condition and growth, suggesting that incubation temperature could also affect energetically costly physiological processes of young birds that are important to survival (e.g. immune responses). We artificially incubated wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs at three biologically relevant temperatures. Following incubation, we used two immunoassays to measure acquired immune responses of ducklings. Ducklings incubated at the lowest temperature had reduced growth, body condition and responses to both of our immune challenges, compared with those from the higher temperatures. Our results show that incubation temperatures can be an important driver of phenotypic variation in avian populations.

  6. Incubation temperature affects multiple measures of immunocompetence in young wood ducks (Aix Sponsa)

    PubMed Central

    DuRant, Sarah E.; Hopkins, William A.; Hawley, Dana M.; Hepp, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Parental effects play a vital role in shaping offspring phenotype. In birds, incubation behaviour is a critical parental effect because it influences the early developmental environment and can therefore have lifelong consequences for offspring phenotype. Recent studies that manipulated incubation temperature found effects on hatchling body composition, condition and growth, suggesting that incubation temperature could also affect energetically costly physiological processes of young birds that are important to survival (e.g. immune responses). We artificially incubated wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs at three biologically relevant temperatures. Following incubation, we used two immunoassays to measure acquired immune responses of ducklings. Ducklings incubated at the lowest temperature had reduced growth, body condition and responses to both of our immune challenges, compared with those from the higher temperatures. Our results show that incubation temperatures can be an important driver of phenotypic variation in avian populations. PMID:21865246

  7. Experimental investigation on phase change materials as heating element for non-electric neonatal incubator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matahari, Rho Natta; Putra, Nandy; Ariantara, Bambang; Amin, Muhammad; Prawiro, Erwin

    2017-02-01

    High number of preterm births is one of the issues in improving health standard. The effort to help premature babies is hampered by high cost of NICU care in hospital. In addition, uneven distribution of electricity to remote area made it hard to operate the incubator. Utilization of phase change material beeswax to non-electricity incubator as heating element becomes alternative option to save premature babies. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the most efficient mass of beeswax according to Indonesian National Standard to earn over time and ideal temperature of incubator. Experiment was performed using prototype incubator, which utilizes natural convection phenomenon in the heating process of incubator. Utilization of fin is to accelerate heat distribution in the incubator. Result of experiment showed that the most efficient mass of PCM is 3 kg, which has 2.45 hours of running time for maintaining temperature of incubator in range of 32-36 °C.

  8. Effects of incubation at various 'room' temperatures on the sensitivity and specificity of Microstix-3.

    PubMed

    Akriotis, V J; Arbus, G S

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of room temperature incubation of Microstix-3 specimens to detect urinary tract infection was studied. This procedure, if successful, would allow home monitoring of patients and eliminate the need for an incubator. Four Microstix-3 strips were dipped into each of 1,241 urine specimens and incubated at 18, 22, 27 or 37 degree C. Results after incubation for 24 h at 27 degree C and after 48 h at 22 degree C were comparable to those after incubation for 18-24 h at 37 degree C. However, even after 72 h, incubation at 18 degree C did not produce results comparable to those obtained at 37 degree C. It appears that the incubator can be successfully eliminated at the higher temperatures tested if the limits of time outlined are observed.

  9. Marine birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Sanger, Gerald A.; Hood, Donald W.; Zimmerman, Steven T.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter we review existing knowledge of marine birds in the Gulf of Alaska. Three estuarine systems in the Gulf provide critical habitat for migratory shorebirds and waterfowl: 1) the Stikine River Delta, 2) Cook Inlet, and 3) the Copper River Delta. Over 20 million waterbirds are estimated to use the latter system during spring migration. Western sandpipers, dunlin, and northern pintails numerically dominate this migration. Breeding populations of shorebirds and waterfowl in the Gulf are small compared with those elsewhere in Alaska. Of those Gulf regions suitable for nesting waterfowl and shorebirds, the Copper River Delta is the most important. Species diversity and the number of shorebirds wintering in the Gulf are low; however, water- fowl wintering in the Gulf number at least in the low millions. These birds concentrated in sheltered, near-shore regions where their epibenthic and infaunal prey are accessible.Over nine million seabirds (twenty-six species) nest in the Gulf of Alaska at more than 800 sites. Seabird productivity varies markedly. Food availability seems to have a large influence on reproductive success, especially for surface-feeding species such as the black-legged kittiwake. Seabird densities are highest over shelf and shelf-break habitats during spring migration and in summer. Sooty and short-tailed shearwaters dominate the pelagic avifauna both numerically and in terms of biomass. Seabird densities are generally lower in winter than in summer as a result of both a southward migration of some species and offshore dispersal of others. A variety of prey species are used by seabirds in the Gulf; of these, capelin, sand lance, and euphausiids are of greatest importance. Trophically, seabirds in the Gulf range from near primary con- sumers to third-order carnivores, ingesting an estimated 1,120,000 mt during the 120-day summer period.

  10. Comparison and Recovery of Escherichia coli and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Water with a Chromogenic Medium Incubated at 41 and 44.5°C

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Jose L.; Soriano, Adela; Carbajo, Oscar; Amoros, Inmaculada; Garelick, Hemda

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5°C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5°C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41°C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41°C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters. PMID:10427079

  11. Effects of environmental factors on incubation patterns of Greater Sage-Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Delehanty, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Birds in which only one sex incubates the eggs are often faced with a direct conflict between foraging to meet metabolic needs and incubation. Knowledge of environmental and ecological factors that shape life-history strategies of incubation is limited. We used continuous videography to make precise measurements of female Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) incubation constancy (percentage of time spent at the nest in a 24-hour period) and recess duration. We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate incubation patterns in relation to grouse age, timing of incubation, raven abundance, microhabitat, weather, and food availability. Overall, sage-grouse females showed an incubation constancy of 96% and a distinctive bimodal distribution of brief incubation recesses that peaked at sunset and 30 min prior to sunrise. Grouse typically returned to their nests during low light conditions. Incubation constancy of yearlings was lower than that of adults, particularly in the later stages of incubation. Yearlings spent more time away from nests later in the morning and earlier in the evening compared to adults. Video images revealed that nearly all predation events by Common Ravens (Corvus corax), the most frequently recorded predator at sage-grouse nests, took place during mornings and evenings after sunrise and before sunset, respectively. These were the times of the day when sage-grouse typically returned from incubation recesses. Recess duration was negatively related to raven abundance. We found evidence that incubation constancy increased with greater visual obstruction, usually from vegetation, of nests. An understanding of how incubation patterns relate to environmental factors will help managers make decisions aimed at increasing productivity through successful incubation.

  12. Biparental incubation patterns in a high-Arctic breeding shorebird: how do pairs divide their duties?

    PubMed

    Bulla, Martin; Valcu, Mihai; Rutten, Anne L; Kempenaers, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In biparental species, parents may be in conflict over how much they invest into their offspring. To understand this conflict, parental care needs to be accurately measured, something rarely done. Here, we quantitatively describe the outcome of parental conflict in terms of quality, amount, and timing of incubation throughout the 21-day incubation period in a population of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) breeding under continuous daylight in the high Arctic. Incubation quality, measured by egg temperature and incubation constancy, showed no marked difference between the sexes. The amount of incubation, measured as length of incubation bouts, was on average 51min longer per bout for females (11.5h) than for males (10.7h), at first glance suggesting that females invested more than males. However, this difference may have been offset by sex differences in the timing of incubation; females were more often off nest during the warmer period of the day, when foraging conditions were presumably better. Overall, the daily timing of incubation shifted over the incubation period (e.g., for female incubation from evening-night to night-morning) and over the season, but varied considerably among pairs. At one extreme, pairs shared the amount of incubation equally, but one parent always incubated during the colder part of the day; at the other extreme, pairs shifted the start of incubation bouts between days so that each parent experienced similar conditions across the incubation period. Our results highlight how the simultaneous consideration of different aspects of care across time allows sex-specific investment to be more accurately quantified.

  13. Biparental incubation patterns in a high-Arctic breeding shorebird: how do pairs divide their duties?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In biparental species, parents may be in conflict over how much they invest into their offspring. To understand this conflict, parental care needs to be accurately measured, something rarely done. Here, we quantitatively describe the outcome of parental conflict in terms of quality, amount, and timing of incubation throughout the 21-day incubation period in a population of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) breeding under continuous daylight in the high Arctic. Incubation quality, measured by egg temperature and incubation constancy, showed no marked difference between the sexes. The amount of incubation, measured as length of incubation bouts, was on average 51min longer per bout for females (11.5h) than for males (10.7h), at first glance suggesting that females invested more than males. However, this difference may have been offset by sex differences in the timing of incubation; females were more often off nest during the warmer period of the day, when foraging conditions were presumably better. Overall, the daily timing of incubation shifted over the incubation period (e.g., for female incubation from evening–night to night–morning) and over the season, but varied considerably among pairs. At one extreme, pairs shared the amount of incubation equally, but one parent always incubated during the colder part of the day; at the other extreme, pairs shifted the start of incubation bouts between days so that each parent experienced similar conditions across the incubation period. Our results highlight how the simultaneous consideration of different aspects of care across time allows sex-specific investment to be more accurately quantified. PMID:24347997

  14. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3−) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3− addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3− and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  15. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3(-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3(-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3(-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time.

  16. Evaluating the accuracy of core incubations to determine benthic fluxes of 222Rn, 228Ra, and 224Ra, measured in core incubations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, C. I.; Hammond, D. E.; Schwartz, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Profiles of radioisotopes in bottom waters are often used to estimate vertical transport. However, horizontal transport often plays a role and may be difficult to evaluate. A boundary condition useful for constraining transport rates is to establish the isotope flux from benthic sediments. We tested a new method to estimate benthic fluxes of isotopes by incubating sediment cores from San Pedro Basin and measuring the changes in concentrations of 222Rn, 228Ra and 224Ra in the overlying water, over a six to seven day incubation period. These results have been compared to fluxes established by applying diffusion-reaction models to the sediment column, based on measuring isotope emanation from sediments, adsorption coefficients, and profiles of the parent isotopes in sediments. There was internal consistency (± 30%) between the core incubation measurement and the radon emanation flux calculated from diffusion-reaction models. The 224Ra flux measurements have been complicated by minor disturbances of cores during collection and the removal of its 228Th parent from core top water during incubation. The 228Ra measurements from San Pedro cores are still in progress, as they require a six month ingrowth period. Cores obtained from Cascadia Basin have also been incubated for two to four days. Incubation fluxes of 222Rn are consistent with the standing crop observed in bottom waters. Incubation fluxes of 228Ra are consistent with predictions from modeling solid phase profiles of radioisotopes in sediments.

  17. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    PubMed

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators.

  18. Effects of incubation temperature on growth and performance of the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus).

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robin M

    2008-10-01

    I evaluated the effect of incubation temperature on phenotypes of the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus. I chose this species for study because its large clutch size (30-40 eggs or more) allows replication within clutches both within and among experimental treatments. The major research objectives were (1) to assess the effect of constant low, moderate, and high temperatures on embryonic development, (2) to determine whether the best incubation temperature for embryonic development also produced the "best" hatchlings, and (3) to determine how a change in incubation temperature during mid-development would affect phenotype. To meet these objectives, I established five experimental temperature regimes and determined egg survival and incubation length and measured body size and shape, selected body temperatures, and locomotory performance of lizards at regular intervals from hatching to 90 d, or just before sexual maturity. Incubation temperature affected the length of incubation, egg survival, and body mass, but did not affect sprint speed or selected body temperature although selected body temperature affected growth in mass independently of treatment and clutch. Incubation at moderate temperatures provided the best conditions for both embryonic and post-hatching development. The highest incubation temperatures were disruptive to development; eggs had high mortality, developmental rate was low, and hatchlings grew slowly. Changes in temperature during incubation increased the among-clutch variance in incubation length relative to that of constant temperature treatments.

  19. Incubation temperature influences locomotor performance in young wood ducks (Aix sponsa).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Brittney Cole; Durant, Sarah Elizabeth; Hepp, Gary Richard; Hopkins, William Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Incubation temperature is an important maternal effect in birds that can influence numerous offspring traits. For example, ducklings from eggs incubated at lower temperatures have lower growth rates, protein content, and are in poorer body condition than ducklings from eggs incubated at higher temperatures. Based on these observations, we predicted that incubation temperature would indirectly influence performance through its direct effects on body size. Wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs were incubated at three ecologically relevant temperatures (35, 35.9, 37°C). After hatching, all ducklings were housed under identical conditions and were subjected to aquatic and terrestrial racing trials at 15 and 20 days posthatch (dph). Contrary to our prediction, incubation temperature did not influence most duckling body size parameters at 15 or 20 dph. However, incubation temperature did have a strong influence on locomotor performance independent of body size and body condition. Ducklings hatched from eggs incubated at the lowest temperature had significantly reduced maximum aquatic swim velocity than ducklings from higher temperatures. Maximum terrestrial sprint velocity followed a similar pattern, but did not differ statistically among incubation treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that slight changes in incubation temperature can directly affect locomotor performance in avian offspring and thus provide a significant source of phenotypic variation in natural wood duck populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  20. Incubation temperature effects on hatchling performance in the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Fisher, Leah R; Godfrey, Matthew H; Owens, David W

    2014-01-01

    Incubation temperature has significant developmental effects on oviparous animals, including affecting sexual differentiation for several species. Incubation temperature also affects traits that can influence survival, a theory that is verified in this study for the Northwest Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). We conducted controlled laboratory incubations and experiments to test for an effect of incubation temperature on performance of loggerhead hatchlings. Sixty-eight hatchlings were tested in 2011, and 31 in 2012, produced from eggs incubated at 11 different constant temperatures ranging from 27°C to 33°C. Following their emergence from the eggs, we tested righting response, crawling speed, and conducted a 24-hour long swim test. The results support previous studies on sea turtle hatchlings, with an effect of incubation temperature seen on survivorship, righting response time, crawling speed, change in crawl speed, and overall swim activity, and with hatchlings incubated at 27°C showing decreased locomotor abilities. No hatchlings survived to be tested in both years when incubated at 32°C and above. Differences in survivorship of hatchlings incubated at high temperatures are important in light of projected higher sand temperatures due to climate change, and could indicate increased mortality from incubation temperature effects.

  1. Incubation Temperature Effects on Hatchling Performance in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Leah R.; Godfrey, Matthew H.; Owens, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Incubation temperature has significant developmental effects on oviparous animals, including affecting sexual differentiation for several species. Incubation temperature also affects traits that can influence survival, a theory that is verified in this study for the Northwest Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). We conducted controlled laboratory incubations and experiments to test for an effect of incubation temperature on performance of loggerhead hatchlings. Sixty-eight hatchlings were tested in 2011, and 31 in 2012, produced from eggs incubated at 11 different constant temperatures ranging from 27°C to 33°C. Following their emergence from the eggs, we tested righting response, crawling speed, and conducted a 24-hour long swim test. The results support previous studies on sea turtle hatchlings, with an effect of incubation temperature seen on survivorship, righting response time, crawling speed, change in crawl speed, and overall swim activity, and with hatchlings incubated at 27°C showing decreased locomotor abilities. No hatchlings survived to be tested in both years when incubated at 32°C and above. Differences in survivorship of hatchlings incubated at high temperatures are important in light of projected higher sand temperatures due to climate change, and could indicate increased mortality from incubation temperature effects. PMID:25517114

  2. Characterizing the nutritional strategy of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Williams, T.D.; Kitaysky, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    We measured plasma concentrations of variables associated with lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, glycerol, triglyceride, and ??- hydroxybutyrate), protein metabolism (uric acid), and baseline corticosterone to characterize the nutritional state of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis and relate this to incubation constancy at two sites, Kuparuk and Teshekpuk, in northern Alaska. King eiders at both sites appeared to employ a partial-income incubation strategy, relying on both endogenous and exogenous energy resources. Females maintained high invariant levels of free fatty acids, ??-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol throughout incubation, indicating that fat reserves were a major energy source, and not completely depleted during incubation. Similarly, uric acid did not increase, suggesting effective protein sparing or protein ingestion and adequate lipid reserves throughout incubation. Baseline corticosterone and triglyceride levels increased during incubation, indicative of an increase in foraging during late stages of incubation. Incubating females at Kuparuk had higher triglyceride concentrations but also had higher ??-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than females at Teshekpuk. This dichotomy may reflect a short-term signal of feeding overlaying the longer-term signal of reliance on endogenous lipid reserves due to higher food intake yet higher metabolic costs at Kuparuk because of its colder environment. Incubation constancy was not correlated with plasma concentrations of lipid or protein metabolites. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  3. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  4. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  5. Frontiers of marine science.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J; Poloczanska, Elvira S

    2011-06-23

    On 9-13 October 2010 early career scientists from the UK and Australia across marine research fields were given the opportunity to come together in Perth, Australia to discuss the frontiers of marine research and exchange ideas.

  6. Enrichment of marine anammox bacteria in Hiroshima Bay sediments.

    PubMed

    Kindaichi, T; Awata, T; Tanabe, K; Ozaki, N; Ohashi, A

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) involves the microbiological oxidation of ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor and dinitrogen gas as the main product. The Scalindua species, an anammox genus that dominates natural habitats, plays an important role in catalysing the loss of nitrogen from marine environments. Until now, a few Scalindua species have been reported to be enriched from sea sediments. The objective of this study is to enrich marine anammox bacteria with coastal sediments in Hiroshima Bay as the inocula. The enrichment was achieved using a continuous upflow column reactor with synthetic sea water containing ammonium and nitrite. After 48 days of incubation, a simultaneous decrease in ammonium and nitrite was observed. A total nitrogen removal rate of 1.16 kg-N m(-3) day(-1) was attained after 306 days of incubation when the nitrogen loading rate was 1.32 kg-N m(-3) day(-1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequence similarity between the marine anammox-like bacteria in this reactor and the unidentified Candidatus Scalindua sp. was 96-98%. We successfully enriched marine anammox bacteria in the sediments of Hiroshima Bay by using synthetic sea water. Further studies are needed to investigate the characteristics of marine anammox bacteria, including optimal pH, temperature, and nitrogen loading rate.

  7. Temperature variations within and between incubators-a prospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Walker, Meredith W; Butler, Julia M; Higdon, H Lee; Boone, William R

    2013-12-01

    To determine if there is a temperature variation within and between incubators. This prospective, experimental trial with external controls was performed at an Assisted Reproductive Technology laboratory in a tertiary-care, university hospital. Temperature values were taken at various locations within and between incubators. Even though they were both set to 37.0 °C, the same make and model incubators had significantly different internal temperatures. Temperatures differed significantly among top, middle and bottom shelves and between fronts and backs of shelves. We found temperatures differed within and between our front-loading incubators. Thus, laboratory personnel should evaluate their incubators for temperature variations within and between incubators and, if temperatures differ significantly, develop a plan to deal with discrepancies.

  8. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  9. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  10. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  11. Evaluating propagation method performance over time with Bayesian updating: an application to incubator testing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, J. N.; Olsen, G.H.; Shafer, C. C.; Hartup, Barry K.; Urbanek, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In captive-rearing programs, small sample sizes can limit the quality of information on performance of propagation methods. Bayesian updating can be used to increase information on method performance over time. We demonstrate an application to incubator testing at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. A new type of incubator was purchased for use in the whooping crane (Grus americana) propagation program, which produces birds for release. We tested the new incubator for reliability, using sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) eggs as surrogates. We determined that the new incubator should result in hatching rates no more than 5% lower than the available incubators, with 95% confidence, before it would be used to incubate whooping crane eggs. In 2007, 5 healthy chicks hatched from 12 eggs in the new incubator, and 2 hatched from 5 in an available incubator, for a median posterior difference of <1%, but with a large 95% credible interval (-41%, 43%). In 2008, we implemented a double-blind evaluation method, where a veterinarian determined whether eggs produced chicks that, at hatching, had no apparent health problems that would impede future release. We used the 2007 estimates as priors in the 2008 analysis. In 2008, 7 normal chicks hatched from 15 eggs in the new incubator, and 11 hatched from 15 in an available incubator, for a median posterior difference of 19%, with 95% credible interval (-8%, 44%). The increased sample size has increased our understanding of incubator performance. While additional data will be collected, at this time the new incubator does not appear adequate for use with whooping crane eggs.

  12. Dislocation associated incubational domain formation in lightly gadolinium-doped ceria.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Peng; Mori, Toshiyuki; Ye, Fei; Ou, Ding Rong; Zou, Jin; Drennan, John

    2011-02-01

    Nanosized incubational domain was observed in 10 at.% gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Dislocations were extensively observed in 10 at.% GDC instead of heavily doped 25 at.% GDC. By Fast Fourier Transform and Inverse Fast Fourier Transform analysis, it was noticed that the incubational domain existing in 10 at.% GDC has different lattice spacing and orientation from the neighboring ceria matrix. Furthermore, dislocations were usually observed in the interface region between the incubational domain and the ceria matrix. Based on experimental results, the formation mechanism of dislocation associated incubational domain in lightly gadolinium-doped ceria is rationalized.

  13. Variation in incubation periods and egg metabolism in mallards: Intrinsic mechanisms to promote hatch synchrony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCluskie, Margaret C.; Flint, Paul L.; Sedinger, James S.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting incubation time and metabolic rates of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs incubated under constant environmental conditions. Time required to reach the star-pipped stage of hatch varied significantly among females, but not with laying sequence or egg size. Metabolic rate of eggs varied positively with position in the laying sequence and tended to vary among females. Metabolic rate did not vary with egg volume or incubation length. Our results indicate metabolic rate may act as one synchronization mechanism for hatch. The role of maternal effects in development time should be considered in subsequent studies of incubation time in ducks.

  14. Comparison of five incubation systems for rat liver slices using functional and viability parameters.

    PubMed

    Olinga, P; Groen, K; Hof, I H; De Kanter, R; Koster, H J; Leeman, W R; Rutten, A A; Van Twillert, K; Groothuis, G M

    1997-10-01

    Precision-cut liver slices are presently used for various research objects, e.g. to study metabolism, transport, and toxicity of xenobiotics. Various incubation systems are presently employed, but a systematic comparison between these incubation systems with respect to preservation of slice function has not been performed yet. Therefore, we started a comparative study to evaluate five of these systems: the shaken flask (an Erlenmeyer in a shaking water bath), the stirred-well (24-well culture plate equipped with grids and magnetic stirrers), rocker platform (6-well culture plate with Netwell insert rocked on a platform), the roller system (dynamic organ culture rolled on an insert in a glass vial), and the 6-well shaker (6-well culture plate in a shaking water bath). The liver slices were incubated in these incubation systems for 0.5, 1.5, and 24.5 h and subsequently subjected to viability and metabolic function tests. The viability of the incubated liver slices was evaluated by: potassium content, MTT assay, energy charge, histomorphology, and LDH leakage. Their metabolic functions were studied by determination of the metabolism of lidocaine, testosterone, and antipyrine. Up to 1.5 h of incubation all five incubation systems gave similar results with respect to viability and metabolic function of the liver slices. However, after 24 h, the shaken flask, the rocker platform, and the 6-well shaker incubation systems appeared to be superior to the stirred well and the roller incubation systems.

  15. Knowledge service decision making in business incubators based on the supernetwork model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing

    2017-08-01

    As valuable resources for incubating firms, knowledge resources have received gradually increasing attention from all types of business incubators, and business incubators use a variety of knowledge services to stimulate rapid growth in incubating firms. Based on previous research, we generalize the knowledge transfer and knowledge networking services of two main forms of knowledge services and further divide knowledge transfer services into knowledge depth services and knowledge breadth services. Then, we construct the business incubators' knowledge supernetwork model, describe the evolution mechanism among heterogeneous agents and utilize a simulation to explore the performance variance of different business incubators' knowledge services. The simulation results show that knowledge stock increases faster when business incubators are able to provide knowledge services to more incubating firms and that the degree of discrepancy in the knowledge stock increases during the process of knowledge growth. Further, knowledge transfer services lead to greater differences in the knowledge structure, while knowledge networking services lead to smaller differences. Regarding the two types of knowledge transfer services, knowledge depth services are more conducive to knowledge growth than knowledge breadth services, but knowledge depth services lead to greater gaps in knowledge stocks and greater differences in knowledge structures. Overall, it is optimal for business incubators to select a single knowledge service or portfolio strategy based on the amount of time and energy expended on the two types of knowledge services.

  16. Mind the wind: microclimate effects on incubation effort of an arctic seabird.

    PubMed

    Høyvik Hilde, Christoffer; Pélabon, Christophe; Guéry, Loreleï; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Descamps, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    The energetic costs of reproduction in birds strongly depend on the climate experienced during incubation. Climate change and increasing frequency of extreme weather events may severely affect these costs, especially for species incubating in extreme environments. In this 3-year study, we used an experimental approach to investigate the effects of microclimate and nest shelter on the incubation effort of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in a wild Arctic population. We added artificial shelters to a random selection of nesting females, and compared incubation effort, measured as body mass loss during incubation, between females with and without shelter. Nonsheltered females had a higher incubation effort than females with artificial shelters. In nonsheltered females, higher wind speeds increased the incubation effort, while artificially sheltered females experienced no effect of wind. Although increasing ambient temperatures tended to decrease incubation effort, this effect was negligible in the absence of wind. Humidity had no marked effect on incubation effort. This study clearly displays the direct effect of a climatic variable on an important aspect of avian life-history. By showing that increasing wind speed counteracts the energetic benefits of a rising ambient temperature, we were able to demonstrate that a climatic variable other than temperature may also affect wild populations and need to be taken into account when predicting the effects of climate change.

  17. Ecological, evolutionary, and conservation implications of incubation temperature-dependent phenotypes in birds.

    PubMed

    DuRant, Sarah E; Hopkins, William A; Hepp, Gary R; Walters, J R

    2013-05-01

    Incubation is a vital component of reproduction and parental care in birds. Maintaining temperatures within a narrow range is necessary for embryonic development and hatching of young, and exposure to both high and low temperatures can be lethal to embryos. Although it is widely recognized that temperature is important for hatching success, little is known about how variation in incubation temperature influences the post-hatching phenotypes of avian offspring. However, among reptiles it is well known that incubation temperature affects many phenotypic traits of offspring with implications for their future survival and reproduction. Although most birds, unlike reptiles, physically incubate their eggs, and thus behaviourally control nest temperatures, variation in temperature that influences embryonic development still occurs among nests within a population. Recent research in birds has primarily been limited to populations of megapodes and waterfowl; in each group, incubation temperature has substantial effects on hatchling phenotypic traits important for future development, survival, and reproduction. Such observations suggest that incubation temperature (and incubation behaviours of parents) is an important but underappreciated parental effect in birds and may represent a selective force instrumental in shaping avian reproductive ecology and life-history traits. However, much more research is needed to understand how pervasive phenotypic effects of incubation temperature are among birds, the sources of variation in incubation temperature, and how effects on phenotype arise. Such insights will not only provide foundational information regarding avian evolution and ecology, but also contribute to avian conservation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. Recent updates on incubation of drug craving: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Caprioli, Daniele; Marchant, Nathan J

    2015-09-01

    Cue-induced drug craving progressively increases after prolonged withdrawal from drug self-administration in laboratory animals, a behavioral phenomenon termed 'incubation of drug craving.' Studies over the years have revealed several important neural mechanisms contributing to incubation of drug craving. In this mini-review, we first discuss three excellent Addiction Biology publications on incubation of drug craving in both human and laboratory animals. We then review several key publications from the past year on behavioral and mechanistic findings related to incubation of drug craving. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup Aythya marila on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup Aythya marila on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. The goals of the study were to describe the incubation behaviour of Greater Scaup in terms of incubation constancy, recess frequency and recess length. The use of endogenous reserves by Greater Scaup was examined by determining weight loss over the incubation period. Further, intraspecific variation in incubation constancy was considered in terms of hypotheses regarding timing of reproduction. Constancy (% time on nest) averaged 59% during egg laying and increased to 83% during incubation. Patterns of daily incubation constancy varied among females, with no overall trend. Females took an average of 4.3 recesses per day, with an average length of 57 minutes. Body mass declined by 6.4 g day-1 and females initiating nests later tended to be lighter. These data suggest that while Greater Scaup utilise some stored reserves during incubation, they probably meet most of their energetic demands by foraging during incubation recesses. These data are not consistent with the hypothesis that females are initiating nests before adequate forage is available in the spring to meet the demands of egg production and maintenance. Thus, the observed delay in the onset of nesting by Greater Scaup, relative to other sympatric nesting species, does not appear to be related to inadequate forage to meet nutritional requirements.

  20. Noise at the neonatal intensive care unit and inside the incubator.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Eliana Moreira; Guinsburg, Ruth; Nabuco, Marco Antonio de Araujo; Kakehashi, Tereza Yoshiko

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to identify sound pressure level (SPL) at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and inside the incubator of a teaching hospital of a public university from São Paulo - SP, Brazil. SPL inside the NICU and the incubator were measured using four dosimeters in January/2010. SPL at the NICU varied from 52.6 dBA to 80.4 dBA and inside the incubator, from 45.4 dBA to 79.1 dBA. SPL both at the NICU and inside the incubator are above the recommended values, but levels were higher at the NICU than inside the incubator. Although there are some specific factors related to SPL inside the incubator, the NICU and incubator acoustic features present a system: an increase/decrease in SPL at the NICU usually tends to increase/decrease SPL inside the incubator. The study points to the need for simultaneous monitoring of SPL at the NICU and inside the incubator.

  1. Impact of incubator type on the yield of in vitro produced bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Avery, B; Greve, T

    1992-01-01

    Because of suboptimal in vitro production of bovine blastocysts a new incubator model (Mini) was tested against the traditional (Heraeus). The difference between their properties seemed only to be the volume of the incubator space. No difference was noted between the CO2 or the temperature, but the data clearly showed a highly significant increase of the blastocyst rates, 6% versus 51% in the Heraeus and the Mini incubator, respectively, calculated as blastocysts per cleaved embryos. It was concluded that the incubator type or model may be a very important part of the in vitro production of bovine embryos, although we were not able to pin point specific causes for this difference.

  2. Carotenoids in marine animals.

    PubMed

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-02-22

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  3. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  4. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  5. Role of Fe-Oxidizing Bacteria in Metal Bio-Corrosion in the Marine Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-30

    DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2008-31/03/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Fe-oxidizing bacteria in metal bio-corrosion in the marine...source, and that steel coupons incubated in natural seawater are rapidly colonized by these bacteria . This is the first demonstration these bacteria ...exist outside of marine hydrothermal vents. These bacteria are early colonizers of steel surfaces and through th&ir fomiatiori of a thick tiufilir

  6. A meta-analysis of experiments linking incubation conditions with subsequent leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Groves, Peter J; Muir, Wendy I

    2014-01-01

    A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line) observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie). Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4-6 and 13-15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16-18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, P<0.05). A model described 66% of the variation Latency-To-Lie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1-15) and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16-18) will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C) for maximum hatchability and chick growth.

  7. Effect of intensity of eggshell pigment and illuminated incubation on hatchability of brown eggs.

    PubMed

    Shafey, T M; Al-Batshan, H A; Ghannam, M M; Al-Ayed, M S

    2005-04-01

    The effects of intensity of brown eggshell pigment (light (LBP), medium (MBP) and dark (DBP)) and light intensity during incubation (low and high, 900 to 1380 and 1430 to 2080 lux, respectively) on eggshell characteristics, embryonic growth, hatchability traits, chick hatching weight and hatching time were investigated using eggs from a meat-type breeder (Hybro) flock at 32, 36 and 41 weeks of age in three trials. With eggs of similar weights the intensity of brown pigment was not associated with eggshell weight and thickness, and did not influence embryo weight and egg weight loss during incubation. The shade of brown pigment of eggs laid by young hens influenced the percentage hatchability (HP) of eggs incubated under light. Illuminated incubation improved HP of LBP eggs (compared with MBP and DBP eggs) from 32- and 36-week-old hens, but had no significant effect on HP of eggs from 41-week-old hens. Light intensity during incubation did not influence egg weight loss. High intensity of light during incubation reduced HP and increased early death percentage (EDP) in the LBP and MBP groups, and did not influence HP and EDP in the DBP group. Brown eggshell pigment and intensity of light during incubation did not influence hatching time. It is concluded that the shade of brown pigment, intensity of light during incubation and age of the breeder hens influenced the hatchability performance of embryos from brown eggs. Light during incubation improved the hatchability of embryos in light brown eggs laid by young hens and the shade of brown pigment of eggs laid by older hens did not influence hatchability under illuminated incubation. High intensity of light during incubation reduced hatchability of light and medium brown eggs, but not the dark brown eggs.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Experiments Linking Incubation Conditions with Subsequent Leg Weakness in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Peter J.; Muir, Wendy I.

    2014-01-01

    A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line) observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie). Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4–6 and 13–15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16–18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, P<0.05). A model described 66% of the variation Latency-To-Lie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1–15) and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16–18) will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C) for maximum hatchability and chick growth. PMID:25054636

  9. A Study of Business Incubators: Models, Best Practices, and Recommendations for NASA and Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide NASA-Kennedy Space Center with information and recommendations to support establishing one or more technology-based business incubators In Florida. The study involved assembling information about incubators: why they succeed, why they fail, how they are organized, and what services they provide. Consequently, this study focuses on widely-recognized "best practices," needed to establish successful technology- based business incubators. The findings are used to optimize the design and implementation of one or more technology-based business incubators to be established in Florida. Recommendations reflect both the essential characteristics of successful incubators and the optimal business demographics in Florida. Appendix A provides a fuller description of the objectives of the study. Technology-based business incubators are an increasing catalyst of new business development across the USi Incubators focus on providing entrepreneurs and small start-up firms with a wide array of support services necessary to bring forth new products and processes based on technologies developed in the nation's federal and private laboratories and universities. Appendix B provides extensive discussion of findings relative to technology- based business incubators.

  10. Effects of incubation temperatures on embryonic and larval survival in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Incubation temperature is commonly used by hatcheries to manipulate hatch date in salmonids including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Target dates for hatching often change during the incubation period and require a sudden adjustment in temperature. Although there are many studies charac...

  11. A Conceptual Development Framework for Management and Leadership Learning in the UK Incubator Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D. Hannon, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses attention upon a recent phenomenon promoted by public sector policy and government funding and adopted within the private sector as a vehicle for wealth creation, where wealth can mean the development of different forms of capital such as financial, intellectual and social. Incubators and incubation programmes have established themselves…

  12. Tenant Recruitment and Support Processes in Sustainability-Profiled Business Incubators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Natasha; Kanda, Wisdom

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment and support processes in sustainability-profiled incubators have received little research attention. The article addresses this knowledge gap in an empirical investigation of three sustainability-oriented incubators in Sweden, Finland and Germany. The data are based on interviews with managers, stakeholders and tenants in Green Tech…

  13. A rapid and cost effective method for soil carbon mineralization under static incubations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil incubations with subsequent measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) evolved are common soil assays to estimate C mineralization rates and active organic C. Two common methods used to detect CO2 in laboratory incubations are gas chromatography (GC) and alkali absorption followed by titration (NaOH)...

  14. A rapid and cost effective method for soil carbon mineralization under static incubations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil incubations with subsequent determination of carbon dioxide (CO2) are common soil assays used to estimate C mineralization rates and active organic C pools. Two common methods used to detect CO2 in laboratory incubations are gas chromatography (GC) and alkali absorption followed by titration (...

  15. Experimental evidence that keeping eggs dry is a mechanism for the antimicrobial effects of avian incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alba, Liliana; Oborn, Allison; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2010-12-01

    Avian incubation dramatically reduces the abundance and diversity of microbial assemblages on eggshells, and this effect has been hypothesized as an adaptive explanation for partial incubation, the bouts of incubation that some birds perform during the egg-laying period. However, the mechanisms for these antimicrobial effects are largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that microbial inhibition is partly achieved through removal of liquid water, which generally enhances microbial growth, from eggshells, and experimentally tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, we placed the first- and second-laid eggs of tree swallow ( Tachycineta bicolor) clutches in unincubated holding nests with either ambient or increased water on eggshells. Second, we added water to eggshells in naturally partially incubated nests. We compared microbial growth on shells during a 5-day experimental period and found that, as predicted, both unincubated groups had higher microbial growth than naturally partially incubated controls, and that only in the absence of incubation did wetted eggs have higher microbial growth than unwetted eggs. Thus, we have shown that water increases microbial growth on eggshells and that incubation nullifies these effects, suggesting that removal of water from egg surfaces is one proximate mechanism for the antimicrobial effects of incubation.

  16. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants... importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers and components...

  17. Effects of caffeine supplementation in post-thaw human semen over different incubation periods.

    PubMed

    Pariz, J R; Hallak, J

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of caffeine supplementation in post-cryopreservation human semen over different incubation periods. After collection by masturbation, 17 semen samples were analysed according to World Health Organization criteria, processed and cryopreserved with TEST-yolk buffer (1 : 1) in liquid nitrogen. After a thawing protocol, samples were incubated with 2 mm of caffeine for 0, 5, 15, 30 or 60 min, followed by analysis of motility and mitochondrial activity using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB). Mean variance analysis was performed, and P < 0.05 was the adopted significance threshold. Samples incubated for 15 min showed increased progressive motility compared to other periods of incubation, as well as a reduced percentage of immotile spermatozoa (P < 0.05). In samples incubated for 5 min, increased mitochondrial activity above 50% was observed (DABI and DABII). Although cryosurvival rates were low after the cryopreservation process, incubation with caffeine was associated with an increase in sperm motility, particularly 15-min incubation, suggesting that incubation with caffeine can be an important tool in patients with worsening seminal quality undergoing infertility treatment.

  18. Microbial infection affects egg viability and incubation behavior in a tropical passerine.

    Treesearch

    Mark I. Cook; Steven R. Beissinger; Gary A. Toranzos; Roberto A. Arendt Rodriguez

    2004-01-01

    Many avian species initiate incubation before clutch completion, which causes eggs to hatch asynchronously. This influences brood competitive dynamics and often results in nestling mortality. The prevailing hypotheses contend that parents incubate early because asynchronous hatching provides fitness benefits to parents or surviving offspring. An alternative idea is...

  19. Effect of Increased Egg Stocking Density in Existing and Experimental Catfish Incubators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in stationary wire mesh baskets suspended across metal troughs with flow-through water that is agitated and circulated between the baskets and around the eggs with rotating paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish e...

  20. The Contribution of University Business Incubators to New Knowledge-based Ventures: Evidence from Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Rosa; Grandi, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    University business incubators give businesses access to labs and equipment, scientific-technical knowledge, networks, and reputation. A study of incubators in Italy shows they do not resolve inadequate funding or lack of management and financial skills. However, the networking capacity can offset these problems. (Contains 25 notes/references.)…