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Sample records for indeksatsiya baz dannykh

  1. Targeting Low-Druggability Bromodomains: Fragment Based Screening and Inhibitor Design against the BAZ2B Bromodomain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bromodomains are epigenetic reader domains that have recently become popular targets. In contrast to BET bromodomains, which have proven druggable, bromodomains from other regions of the phylogenetic tree have shallower pockets. We describe successful targeting of the challenging BAZ2B bromodomain using biophysical fragment screening and structure-based optimization of high ligand-efficiency fragments into a novel series of low-micromolar inhibitors. Our results provide attractive leads for development of BAZ2B chemical probes and indicate the whole family may be tractable. PMID:24304323

  2. Targeting low-druggability bromodomains: fragment based screening and inhibitor design against the BAZ2B bromodomain.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Fleur M; Fedorov, Oleg; Chaikuad, Apirat; Philpott, Martin; Muniz, Joao R C; Felletar, Ildiko; von Delft, Frank; Heightman, Tom; Knapp, Stefan; Abell, Chris; Ciulli, Alessio

    2013-12-27

    Bromodomains are epigenetic reader domains that have recently become popular targets. In contrast to BET bromodomains, which have proven druggable, bromodomains from other regions of the phylogenetic tree have shallower pockets. We describe successful targeting of the challenging BAZ2B bromodomain using biophysical fragment screening and structure-based optimization of high ligand-efficiency fragments into a novel series of low-micromolar inhibitors. Our results provide attractive leads for development of BAZ2B chemical probes and indicate the whole family may be tractable.

  3. The polarity protein Baz forms a platform for the centrosome orientation during asymmetric stem cell division in the Drosophila male germline.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Mayu; Venkei, Zsolt G; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2015-03-20

    Many stem cells divide asymmetrically in order to balance self-renewal with differentiation. The essence of asymmetric cell division (ACD) is the polarization of cells and subsequent division, leading to unequal compartmentalization of cellular/extracellular components that confer distinct cell fates to daughter cells. Because precocious cell division before establishing cell polarity would lead to failure in ACD, these two processes must be tightly coupled; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In Drosophila male germline stem cells, ACD is prepared by stereotypical centrosome positioning. The centrosome orientation checkpoint (COC) further serves to ensure ACD by preventing mitosis upon centrosome misorientation. In this study, we show that Bazooka (Baz) provides a platform for the correct centrosome orientation and that Baz-centrosome association is the key event that is monitored by the COC. Our work provides a foundation for understanding how the correct cell polarity may be recognized by the cell to ensure productive ACD.

  4. Mouse BAZ1A (ACF1) is dispensable for double-strand break repair but is essential for averting improper gene expression during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dowdle, James A; Mehta, Monika; Kass, Elizabeth M; Vuong, Bao Q; Inagaki, Akiko; Egli, Dieter; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2013-11-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers control DNA access for transcription, recombination, and other processes. Acf1 (also known as BAZ1A in mammals) is a defining subunit of the conserved ISWI-family chromatin remodelers ACF and CHRAC, first purified over 15 years ago from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Much is known about biochemical properties of ACF and CHRAC, which move nucleosomes in vitro and in vivo to establish ordered chromatin arrays. Genetic studies in yeast, flies and cultured human cells clearly implicate these complexes in transcriptional repression via control of chromatin structures. RNAi experiments in transformed mammalian cells in culture also implicate ACF and CHRAC in DNA damage checkpoints and double-strand break repair. However, their essential in vivo roles in mammals are unknown. Here, we show that Baz1a-knockout mice are viable and able to repair developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks in the immune system and germ line, I-SceI endonuclease-induced breaks in primary fibroblasts via homologous recombination, and DNA damage from mitomycin C exposure in vivo. However, Baz1a deficiency causes male-specific sterility in accord with its high expression in male germ cells, where it displays dynamic, stage-specific patterns of chromosomal localization. Sterility is caused by pronounced defects in sperm development, most likely a consequence of massively perturbed gene expression in spermatocytes and round spermatids in the absence of BAZ1A: the normal spermiogenic transcription program is largely intact but more than 900 other genes are mis-regulated, primarily reflecting inappropriate up-regulation. We propose that large-scale changes in chromatin composition that occur during spermatogenesis create a window of vulnerability to promiscuous transcription changes, with an essential function of ACF and/or CHRAC chromatin remodeling activities being to safeguard against these alterations.

  5. Mouse BAZ1A (ACF1) Is Dispensable for Double-Strand Break Repair but Is Essential for Averting Improper Gene Expression during Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dowdle, James A.; Mehta, Monika; Kass, Elizabeth M.; Vuong, Bao Q.; Inagaki, Akiko; Egli, Dieter; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2013-01-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers control DNA access for transcription, recombination, and other processes. Acf1 (also known as BAZ1A in mammals) is a defining subunit of the conserved ISWI-family chromatin remodelers ACF and CHRAC, first purified over 15 years ago from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Much is known about biochemical properties of ACF and CHRAC, which move nucleosomes in vitro and in vivo to establish ordered chromatin arrays. Genetic studies in yeast, flies and cultured human cells clearly implicate these complexes in transcriptional repression via control of chromatin structures. RNAi experiments in transformed mammalian cells in culture also implicate ACF and CHRAC in DNA damage checkpoints and double-strand break repair. However, their essential in vivo roles in mammals are unknown. Here, we show that Baz1a-knockout mice are viable and able to repair developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks in the immune system and germ line, I-SceI endonuclease-induced breaks in primary fibroblasts via homologous recombination, and DNA damage from mitomycin C exposure in vivo. However, Baz1a deficiency causes male-specific sterility in accord with its high expression in male germ cells, where it displays dynamic, stage-specific patterns of chromosomal localization. Sterility is caused by pronounced defects in sperm development, most likely a consequence of massively perturbed gene expression in spermatocytes and round spermatids in the absence of BAZ1A: the normal spermiogenic transcription program is largely intact but more than 900 other genes are mis-regulated, primarily reflecting inappropriate up-regulation. We propose that large-scale changes in chromatin composition that occur during spermatogenesis create a window of vulnerability to promiscuous transcription changes, with an essential function of ACF and/or CHRAC chromatin remodeling activities being to safeguard against these alterations. PMID:24244200

  6. Automatizuotas hidrografijos kanalų išskyrimas lietuvos georeferencinio pagrindo duomenų bazėje

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryžanauskas, Audrius; Motiejauskas, Danas

    2010-01-01

    Vykdant georeferencinių duomenų bazės GDB10LT atnaujinimo darbus, linijiniai hidrografiniai objektai buvo skirstomi į tipus: upė, kanalas, griovys. Upės ir upeliai duomenų rinkinyje yra visi objektai, turintys pavadinimus. Kanalo ir griovio tipai išskiriami remiantis šių objektų apibrėžimu LR aplinkos ministro įsakyme. Duomenų prasme kanalų samparata buvo suformuluota kaip atkarpų, kuriomis galima sujungti du hidrografinius objektus, turinčius pavadinimus (upės, upeliai, ežerai), rinkinys. Tokių atkarpų išskyrimą atliekant rankiniu būdu, visoje Lietuvos teritorijoje reikalingos didelės darbo sąnaudos, be to, galima palikti klaidų dėl neatidumo, kurias sunku patikrinti. Kanalų išskyrimas atliktas automatizuotai, grindžiant grafų analize ir specifiniu tinklo jungumo skaičiavimo algoritmu. Buvo išskiriami potencialūs kanalų įtekėjimo į kitus telkinius ta\\vskai bei skaičiuojamos visos galimos jungtys tarp šių ta\\vskų - tai ir buvo ie\\vskomieji kanalai. Straipsnyje išsamiau aptariami su duomenų specifika ir grafų analize susiję klausimai, taip pat kanalų išskyrimo klausimai, padedantys identifikuoti duomenų kokybės problemas.

  7. The polarity protein Baz forms a platform for the centrosome orientation during asymmetric stem cell division in the Drosophila male germline

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Mayu; Venkei, Zsolt G; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2015-01-01

    Many stem cells divide asymmetrically in order to balance self-renewal with differentiation. The essence of asymmetric cell division (ACD) is the polarization of cells and subsequent division, leading to unequal compartmentalization of cellular/extracellular components that confer distinct cell fates to daughter cells. Because precocious cell division before establishing cell polarity would lead to failure in ACD, these two processes must be tightly coupled; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In Drosophila male germline stem cells, ACD is prepared by stereotypical centrosome positioning. The centrosome orientation checkpoint (COC) further serves to ensure ACD by preventing mitosis upon centrosome misorientation. In this study, we show that Bazooka (Baz) provides a platform for the correct centrosome orientation and that Baz-centrosome association is the key event that is monitored by the COC. Our work provides a foundation for understanding how the correct cell polarity may be recognized by the cell to ensure productive ACD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04960.001 PMID:25793442

  8. The PCP pathway regulates Baz planar distribution in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Aigouy, Benoit; Le Bivic, André

    2016-01-01

    The localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins along the Z-axis of epithelial cells is well understood while their distribution in the plane of the epithelium is poorly characterised. Here we provide a systematic description of the planar localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins in the Drosophila ommatidial epithelium. We show that the adherens junction proteins Shotgun and Armadillo, as well as the baso-lateral complexes, are bilateral, i.e. present on both sides of cell interfaces. In contrast, we report that other key adherens junction proteins, Bazooka and the myosin regulatory light chain (Spaghetti squash) are unilateral, i.e. present on one side of cell interfaces. Furthermore, we demonstrate that planar cell polarity (PCP) and not the apical determinants Crumbs and Par-6 control Bazooka unilaterality in cone cells. Altogether, our work unravels an unexpected organisation and combination of apico-basal, cytoskeletal and planar polarity proteins that is different on either side of cell-cell interfaces and unique for the different contacts of the same cell. PMID:27624969

  9. Claire Danes's Star-Body, Teen Female Viewers and the Pluralisation of Authorship in Baz Luhrmann's "William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keam, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Teaching William Shakespeare's canonical tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" to teenagers in the context of the English classroom in Australia is not a particularly new pedagogical practice. In the year 2008, when many teachers (particularly those with a feminist bent such as I) are intent on guiding their students to decipher the ideological…

  10. Bazooka/PAR3 is dispensable for polarity in Drosophila follicular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Jaffer; Tiwari, Manu D; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Krahn, Michael P; Wodarz, Andreas

    2015-03-13

    Apico-basal polarity is the defining characteristic of epithelial cells. In Drosophila, apical membrane identity is established and regulated through interactions between the highly conserved Par complex (Bazooka/Par3, atypical protein kinase C and Par6), and the Crumbs complex (Crumbs, Stardust and PATJ). It has been proposed that Bazooka operates at the top of a genetic hierarchy in the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity. However, there is still ambiguity over the correct sequence of events and cross-talk with other pathways during this process. In this study, we reassess this issue by comparing the phenotypes of the commonly used baz(4) and baz(815-8) alleles with those of the so far uncharacterized baz(XR11) and baz(EH747) null alleles in different Drosophila epithelia. While all these baz alleles display identical phenotypes during embryonic epithelial development, we observe strong discrepancies in the severity and penetrance of polarity defects in the follicular epithelium: polarity is mostly normal in baz(EH747) and baz(XR11) while baz(4) and baz(815) (-8) show loss of polarity, severe multilayering and loss of epithelial integrity throughout the clones. Further analysis reveals that the chromosomes carrying the baz(4) and baz(815-8) alleles may contain additional mutations that enhance the true baz loss-of-function phenotype in the follicular epithelium. This study clearly shows that Baz is dispensable for the regulation of polarity in the follicular epithelium, and that the requirement for key regulators of cell polarity is highly dependent on developmental context and cell type.

  11. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation.

  12. American ASTP prime crew participate in photography mission briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The three American ASTP prime crew astronauts participate in a photography mission briefing in bldg 5 with Dr. Farouk El-Baz (wearing face mask) during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) pre-flight activity at JSC. They are, left to right, Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; Dr. El-Baz; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot. Dr. El-Baz is with the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. The face mask is to protect the crewmen from possible exposure to disease prior to launch time.

  13. Influence of early life factors on body mass index trajectory during childhood: a population-based longitudinal analysis in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Barbara H; Villamor, Eduardo; Augusto, Rosângela A; Cardoso, Marly A

    2015-04-01

    Low- to middle-income countries may experience the occurrence of a dual burden of under and overnutrition. To better understand the overall progression of body mass index (BMI) during childhood, we estimated average BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ) growth curves in a population-based longitudinal study of 255 children living in the Brazilian Amazon. Children were aged 0.1-5.5 years at recruitment (2003). We collected data on socio-economic and maternal characteristics, children's birthweight and infant feeding practices. Child anthropometric measurements were taken in 2003, 2007 and 2009. BAZ differences among categories of exposure variables were calculated at 6 and 12 months, and 2, 7 and 10 years. At baseline, the mean (standard deviation) age was 2.6 (1.4) years; 12.9% were overweight and 3.9% thin. After adjustment, mean BAZ estimates were mostly negative. Boys were close to the median value for BAZ until 12 months, whereas girls were below the median (P=0.05). Children from households above the wealth median were 0.36 z- and 0.49 z-less underweight than poorer children at 7 and 10 years, respectively (P<0.01). Maternal BMI was positively associated with children's BAZ since 12 months old; BAZ in children from overweight mothers was higher by 0.69 compared with their counterparts at 10 years (P<0.01). Birthweight was positively related to BAZ up until 2 years (P=0.01). Socio-economic background and maternal nutritional status are important predictors of BAZ throughout childhood. Although excessive weight gain is a public health concern, it is critical to restrict inequities, while promoting healthier growth in developing countries.

  14. Subnuclear domain proteins in cancer cells support the functions of RUNX2 in the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seungchan; Quaresma, Alexandre J. C.; Nickerson, Jeffrey A.; Green, Karin M.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Imbalzano, Anthony N.; Martin-Buley, Lori A.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Janet L.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cancer cells exhibit modifications in nuclear architecture and transcriptional control. Tumor growth and metastasis are supported by RUNX family transcriptional scaffolding proteins, which mediate the assembly of nuclear-matrix-associated gene-regulatory hubs. We used proteomic analysis to identify RUNX2-dependent protein–protein interactions associated with the nuclear matrix in bone, breast and prostate tumor cell types and found that RUNX2 interacts with three distinct proteins that respond to DNA damage – RUVBL2, INTS3 and BAZ1B. Subnuclear foci containing these proteins change in intensity or number following UV irradiation. Furthermore, RUNX2, INTS3 and BAZ1B form UV-responsive complexes with the serine-139-phosphorylated isoform of H2AX (γH2AX). UV irradiation increases the interaction of BAZ1B with γH2AX and decreases histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation levels, which mark accessible chromatin. RUNX2 depletion prevents the BAZ1B–γH2AX interaction and attenuates loss of H3K9 and H3K56 acetylation. Our data are consistent with a model in which RUNX2 forms functional complexes with BAZ1B, RUVBL2 and INTS3 to mount an integrated response to DNA damage. This proposed cytoprotective function for RUNX2 in cancer cells might clarify its expression in chemotherapy-resistant and/or metastatic tumors. PMID:25609707

  15. Peptide binding properties of the three PDZ domains of Bazooka (Drosophila Par-3).

    PubMed

    Yu, Cao Guo; Tonikian, Raffi; Felsensteiner, Corinna; Jhingree, Jacquelyn R; Desveaux, Darrell; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Harris, Tony J C

    2014-01-01

    The Par complex is a conserved cell polarity regulator. Bazooka/Par-3 is scaffold for the complex and contains three PDZ domains in tandem. PDZ domains can act singly or synergistically to bind the C-termini of interacting proteins. Sequence comparisons among Drosophila Baz and its human and C. elegans Par-3 counterparts indicate a divergence of the peptide binding pocket of PDZ1 and greater conservation for the pockets of PDZ2 and PDZ3. However, it is unclear whether the domains from different species share peptide binding preferences, or if their tandem organization affects their peptide binding properties. To investigate these questions, we first used phage display screens to identify unique peptide binding profiles for each single PDZ domain of Baz. Comparisons with published phage display screens indicate that Baz and C. elegans PDZ2 bind to similar peptides, and that the peptide binding preferences of Baz PDZ3 are more similar to C. elegans versus human PDZ3. Next we quantified the peptide binding preferences of each Baz PDZ domain using single identified peptides in surface plasmon resonance assays. In these direct binding studies, each peptide had a binding preference for a single PDZ domain (although the peptide binding of PDZ2 was weakest and the least specific). PDZ1 and PDZ3 bound their peptides with dissociation constants in the nM range, whereas PDZ2-peptide binding was in the µM range. To test whether tandem PDZ domain organization affects peptide binding, we examined a fusion protein containing all three PDZ domains and their normal linker regions. The binding strengths of the PDZ-specific peptides to single PDZ domains and to the PDZ domain tandem were indistinguishable. Thus, the peptide binding pockets of each PDZ domain in Baz are not obviously affected by the presence of neighbouring PDZ domains, but act as isolated modules with specific in vitro peptide binding preferences.

  16. China’s Aircraft Carrier Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    nothing developed from them. Empresa Nacional Bazán, which merged with Astilleros Españoles S.A. (AESA) to form Navantia in 2000, reportedly attempted...acquisition and lengthy refurbishing seem to contradict the stated intention of its original buyer, Macao’s Agencia Turisticae Diversoes Chong Lot Limitada

  17. A stability-indicating HPLC method for the determination of bazedoxifene acetate and its related substances in active pharmaceutical ingredient.

    PubMed

    Visweswara Rao, Karri; Reddy, Kesareddy Padmaja; Kumari, Kondapaturu Siva; Srinivas, Mudigonda

    2013-03-01

    A simple, cost effective, stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the quantitative determination of bazedoxifene acetate (BAZ) drug substance in the presence of its impurities and degradation products. The method was developed using an X-terra RP-18, 150 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm column with a mobile phase containing solvent A, a mixture of 10 mM K(2)HPO(4) (pH 8.3) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 70:30 (v/v); and solvent B, a mixture of water and acetonitrile in the ratio 10:90 (v/v). The eluted compounds were monitored at 220 nm, and within a short run time of 18 min, BAZ and its impurities were satisfactorily separated with resolution more than 2.0. BAZ was subjected to stress degradation and found to be sensitive towards acidic, basic, oxidative, thermal and hydrolytic stress conditions and stable in photo degradation conditions. The degradation products were well resolved from BAZ peak and its impurities; the mass balance in each case was more than 99.5%, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity (correlation coefficient > 0.9994), limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy (recovery range 96.3 to 102.1%), precision (relative standard deviation < 2.8%) and robustness.

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Sociological Studies, No. 6, November-December 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-02

    Sikorskiy, N.M. Baz- henov, V.M. Bekhterev), forensic medicine specialists (P.G. Rozanov, F.K. Terekhovko, I.O. Zubov), jurists (A.F. Likhachev, Ye.N...institution." It is not easy to "rid oneself of the hypnosis of the stereotypes" of these ideas [Source 9, p 99]. Nonetheless, the authors who

  19. Sox10 contributes to the balance of fate choice in dorsal root ganglion progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Madelaine, Romain; Busolin, Giorgia; Nikaido, Masataka; Colanesi, Sarah; Camargo-Sosa, Karen; Toppo, Stefano; Blader, Patrick; Tiso, Natascia; Kelsh, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    The development of functional peripheral ganglia requires a balance of specification of both neuronal and glial components. In the developing dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), these components form from partially-restricted bipotent neuroglial precursors derived from the neural crest. Work in mouse and chick has identified several factors, including Delta/Notch signaling, required for specification of a balance of these components. We have previously shown in zebrafish that the Sry-related HMG domain transcription factor, Sox10, plays an unexpected, but crucial, role in sensory neuron fate specification in vivo. In the same study we described a novel Sox10 mutant allele, sox10baz1, in which sensory neuron numbers are elevated above those of wild-types. Here we investigate the origin of this neurogenic phenotype. We demonstrate that the supernumerary neurons are sensory neurons, and that enteric and sympathetic neurons are almost absent just as in classical sox10 null alleles; peripheral glial development is also severely abrogated in a manner similar to other sox10 mutant alleles. Examination of proliferation and apoptosis in the developing DRG reveals very low levels of both processes in wild-type and sox10baz1, excluding changes in the balance of these as an explanation for the overproduction of sensory neurons. Using chemical inhibition of Delta-Notch-Notch signaling we demonstrate that in embryonic zebrafish, as in mouse and chick, lateral inhibition during the phase of trunk DRG development is required to achieve a balance between glial and neuronal numbers. Importantly, however, we show that this mechanism is insufficient to explain quantitative aspects of the baz1 phenotype. The Sox10(baz1) protein shows a single amino acid substitution in the DNA binding HMG domain; structural analysis indicates that this change is likely to result in reduced flexibility in the HMG domain, consistent with sequence-specific modification of Sox10 binding to DNA. Unlike other Sox10

  20. Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

    2013-12-01

    Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction.

  1. Active Control of Flexible Space Structures Using the Nitinol Shape Memory Actuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    number) FIELD !GROUP SUBGROUP I Active Control, Nitinol Actuators, Space Structures 9. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block...number) Summarizes research progress in the feasibility demonstration of active vibration control using Nitinol shape memory actuators. Tests on...FLEXIBLE SPACE STRUCTURES USING NITINOL SHAPE MEMORY ACTUATORS FINAL REPORT FOR PHASE I SDIO CONTRACT #F49620-87-C-0035 0 BY DR. AMR M. BAZ KARIM R

  2. Functionally Graded Shape Memory Alloy Composites Optimized for Passive Vibration Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-20

    Nitinol , it is anticipated that the wire can only experience an incomplete hysteresis. 2.1. SMA wires in sleeves continuously bonded to the plate...Gilheany, J. 1995. Control of the natural frequencies of nitinol -reinforced composite beams, Journal of Sound and Vibrations, Vol. 185, 171-185. 3 Ro...J., and Baz, A., 1995. Nitinol -reinforced plates: Part III, Dynamic characteristics, Composites Engineering, Vol. 5, 91-106. 4 Epps, J and Chandra

  3. Egypt between the Superpowers: Continuity or Change in Egyptian Foreign Policy under Mubarak.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    placed the normalization process with Israel in cold storage. Moreover, the new Soviet ambassador to Cairo, 31 . - . . . . . .. . . . . . . Alexander ...extend- ed four day visit he met with Al-Baz, Boutros-Ghali, and Abdel Halim Badawi in discussing bilateral relations and the current Middle East...distorted and do not reflect the policies of the Egyptian government [Ref. 38]. On September 24, the new Soviet ambassador, Alexander Bolotogov

  4. Genetic Variants Associated with Lipid Profiles in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xuelian; Hong, Jing; Yang, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study was to identify lipid-related genetic variants in T2D patients of Han Chinese ancestry. Among 4,908 Chinese T2D patients who were not taking lipid-lowering medications, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes previously found to be associated with lipid traits in genome-wide association studies conducted in populations of European ancestry (ABCA1, GCKR, BAZ1B, TOMM40, DOCK7, HNF1A, and HNF4A) were genotyped. After adjusting for multiple covariates, SNPs in ABCA1, GCKR, BAZ1B, TOMM40, and HNF1A were identified as significantly associated with triglyceride levels in T2D patients (P < 0.05). The associations between the SNPs in ABCA1 (rs3890182), GCKR (rs780094), and BAZ1B (rs2240466) remained significant even after correction for multiple testing (P = 8.85×10−3, 7.88×10−7, and 2.03×10−6, respectively). BAZ1B (rs2240466) also was associated with the total cholesterol level (P = 4.75×10−2). In addition, SNP rs157580 in TOMM40 was associated with the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (P = 6.94×10−3). Our findings confirm that lipid-related genetic loci are associated with lipid profiles in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26252223

  5. AAPSilver System Performance Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    chosen for the four BPPs (Table 1) mirrored those of an earlier RDC study, to provide calculations that were comparable with earlier versions of...Public December 2012 APPENDIX A. NATIONAL GEODETIC SURVEY FORWARD OUTPUT FOR BPP ALPHA Output from FORWARD Ellipsoid : GRS80 / WGS84 (NAD83...Back azimuth BAZ = 210 0 1.2835 From North Ellipsoidal distance S = 91.4400 m Output from FORWARD Ellipsoid : GRS80

  6. Seismic detections of the 15 February 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor from the dense ChinArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Wang, Baoshan; Peng, Zhigang; Wang, Weitao

    2016-08-01

    ChinArray is a dense portable broadband seismic network to cover the entire continental China, and the Phase I is deployed along the north-south seismic belt in southwest China. In this study, we analyze seismic data recorded on the ChinArray following the February 15, 2013 Chelyabinsk (Russia) meteor. This was the largest known object entering the Earth's atmosphere since the 1908 Tunguska meteor. The seismic energy radiated from this event was recorded by seismic stations worldwide including the dense ChinArray that are more than 4000 km away. The weak signal from the meteor event was contaminated by a magnitude 5.8 Tonga earthquake occurred ~20 min earlier. To test the feasibility of detecting the weak seismic signals from the meteor event, we compute vespagram and perform F-K analysis to the surface-wave data. We identify a seismic phase with back azimuth (BAZ) of 329.7° and slowness of 34.73 s/deg, corresponding to the surface wave from the Russian meteor event (BAZ ~325.97°). The surface magnitude ( M S) of the meteor event is 3.94 ± 0.18. We also perform similar analysis on the data from the broadband array F-net in Japan, and find the BAZ of the surface waves to be 316.61°. With the different BAZs of ChinArray and F-net, we locate the Russian meteor event at 58.80°N, 58.72°E. The relatively large mislocation (~438 km as compared with 55.15°N, 61.41°E by others) may be a result of the bending propagation path of surface waves, which deviates from the great circle path. Our results suggest that the dense ChinArray and its subarrays could be used to detect weak signals at teleseismic distances.

  7. Combating Opium in Afghanistan. Strategic Forum, Number 224, November 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    at all levels of govern- ment must be prosecuted, sentenced, and incarcerated. Equally important is com - bating corruption. Afghanistan’s leaders...successfully extra- dited Haji Baz Mohammed to New York for prosecution, a move that sent a chill throughout the Afghan trafficking com - munity. A DEA...for themselves. The international com - munity can best contribute to this effort No. 224, November 2006 Strategic Forum from a purely economic

  8. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-12-23

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours.

  9. Magi Is Associated with the Par Complex and Functions Antagonistically with Bazooka to Regulate the Apical Polarity Complex.

    PubMed

    Padash Barmchi, Mojgan; Samarasekera, Gayathri; Gilbert, Mary; Auld, Vanessa J; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian MAGI proteins play important roles in the maintenance of adherens and tight junctions. The MAGI family of proteins contains modular domains such as WW and PDZ domains necessary for scaffolding of membrane receptors and intracellular signaling components. Loss of MAGI leads to reduced junction stability while overexpression of MAGI can lead to increased adhesion and stabilization of epithelial morphology. However, how Magi regulates junction assembly in epithelia is largely unknown. We investigated the single Drosophila homologue of Magi to study the in vivo role of Magi in epithelial development. Magi is localized at the adherens junction and forms a complex with the polarity proteins, Par3/Bazooka and aPKC. We generated a Magi null mutant and found that Magi null mutants were viable with no detectable morphological defects even though the Magi protein is highly conserved with vertebrate Magi homologues. However, overexpression of Magi resulted in the displacement of Baz/Par3 and aPKC and lead to an increase in the level of PIP3. Interestingly, we found that Magi and Baz functioned in an antagonistic manner to regulate the localization of the apical polarity complex. Maintaining the balance between the level of Magi and Baz is an important determinant of the levels and localization of apical polarity complex.

  10. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  11. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is inversely related to development of adiposity in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Wei; Villamor, Eduardo; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marin, Constanza; Baylin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Studies in adults indicate that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition may play a role in development of adiposity. Because adipocyte quantity is established between late childhood and early adolescence, understanding the impact of PUFAs on weight gain during the school-age years is crucial to developing effective interventions. Subjects/Methods We quantified N-3 and N-6 PUFAs in serum samples of 668 Colombian schoolchildren aged 5–12 years at the time of recruitment into a cohort study, using gas-liquid chromatography. Serum concentrations of N-3 (ALA, EPA, DHA) and N-6 PUFAs (LA, GLA, DGLA, AA) were determined as % total fatty acids. Children’s anthropometry was measured annually for a median of 30 months. We used mixed-effects models with restricted cubic splines to construct population body mass index-for-age z-score (BAZ) growth curves for age-and sex-specific quartiles of each PUFA. Results N-3 ALA was inversely related to BAZ gain after adjustment for sex, baseline age and weight status, and household socioeconomic level. Estimated BAZ change between 6 and 14 years among children in the highest quartile of ALA compared to those in the lowest quartile was 0.45 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.83) lower (P-trend=0.006). Conclusions N-3 ALA may be protective against weight gain in school-age children. Whether improvement in PUFA status reduces adiposity in pediatric populations deserves evaluation in randomized trials. PMID:25271016

  12. Effect of Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Catch-Up Growth within the First 24 Months among HIV-Infected Children in the IeDEA West African Pediatric Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R.; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Kouéta, Fla; Aka, Addi; Lawson-Evi, Koko; Dicko, Fatoumata; Kouakou, Kouadio; Pety, Touré; Renner, Lorna; Eboua, Tanoh; Coffie, Patrick A.; Desmonde, Sophie; Leroy, Valériane

    2015-01-01

    Background We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the IeDEA West African paediatric cohort (pWADA). Methods Malnutrition was defined at ART initiation (baseline) by a Z-score <-2 SD, according to three anthropometric indicators: Weight-for-age (WAZ) for underweight, Height-for-age (HAZ) for stunting, and Weight-for-Height/BMI-for-age (WHZ/BAZ) for wasting. Kaplan-Meier estimates for catch-up growth (Z-score ≥-2 SD) on ART, adjusted for gender, immunodeficiency and malnutrition at ART initiation, ART regimen, time period and country, were compared by age at ART initiation. Cox proportional hazards regression models determined predictors of catch-up growth on ART over 24 months. Results Between 2001 and 2012, 2004 HIV-infected children < 10 years of age were included. At ART initiation, 51% were underweight, 48% were stunted and 33% were wasted. The 24-month adjusted estimates for catch-up growth were 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 57;80), 61% (95%CI: 47;70), and 90% (95%CI: 76;95) for WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ/BAZ, respectively. Adjusted catch-up growth was more likely for children <5 years of age at ART initiation compared to children ≥5 years for WAZ, HAZ (P<0.001), and for WHZ/BAZ (P = 0.026). Conclusions Malnutrition among these children is an additional burden that has to be urgently managed. Despite a significant growth improvement after 24 months on ART, especially in children <5 years, a substantial proportion of children still never achieved catch-up growth. Nutritional care should be part of the global healthcare of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25955835

  13. Skim milk, whey, and casein increase body weight and whey and casein increase the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Jensen, Signe Marie; Trolle, Ellen; Larnkjær, Anni

    2012-12-01

    In adults, dietary protein seems to induce weight loss and dairy proteins may be insulinotropic. However, the effect of milk proteins in adolescents is unclear. The objective was to test whether milk and milk proteins reduce body weight, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment, plasma insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12-15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein/L. Before randomization, a subgroup of adolescents (n = 32) was studied for 12 wk before the intervention began as a pretest control group. The effects of the milk-based test drinks were compared with baseline (wk 0), the water group, and the pretest control group. Diet and physical activity were registered. Outcomes were BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZs), waist circumference, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and plasma C-peptide. We found no change in BAZ in the pretest control and water groups, whereas it was greater at 12 wk in the skim milk, whey, and casein groups compared with baseline and with the water and pretest control groups. The plasma C-peptide concentration increased from baseline to wk 12 in the whey and casein groups and increments were greater than in the pretest control (P < 0.02). There were no significant changes in plasma C-peptide in the skim milk or water group. These data suggest that high intakes of skim milk, whey, and casein increase BAZs in overweight adolescents and that whey and casein increase insulin secretion. Whether the effect on body weight is primary or secondary to the increased insulin secretion remains to be elucidated.

  14. Changes in household food insecurity are related to changes in BMI and diet quality among Michigan Head Start preschoolers in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erica C; Kasper, Nicole; Lumeng, Julie C; Brophy Herb, Holly E; Horodynski, Mildred A; Miller, Alison L; Contreras, Dawn; Peterson, Karen E

    2017-04-04

    Children living in households that have recently become food insecure may be particularly vulnerable to adverse weight and dietary changes, but longitudinal studies examining these associations are lacking. Using data from 501 Head Start preschoolers from Michigan (48% male) who were followed during one school year as a part of a randomized obesity prevention trial, we examined changes in children's adiposity indices and dietary quality according to changes in household food insecurity. Household food insecurity change status was categorized as persistently food secure, became food secure, persistently food insecure, or became food insecure. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate relative changes in BMI-for-age z scores (BAZ), triceps skinfolds-for-age z scores (TAZ), or diet quality (assessed with the 2010 Healthy Eating Index) over the school year according to food insecurity category. We found that girls from households that became food insecure over the year had a 0.21 unit higher gain in BAZ than girls from households that were persistently food secure, after adjustment for potential confounders (95% CI 0.02 to 0.39, P = 0.03). Girls from households that became food secure had improvements in dietary quality over the year compared to girls from persistently food insecure households (adjusted difference in Healthy Eating Index score change = 9.1 points; 95% CI 3.0 to 15.0; p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant associations with changes in TAZ. Among boys, there were no associations between changes in household food insecurity and changes in BAZ, TAZ, or dietary quality. In summary, we found that BMI and diet quality changes of Head Start preschool girls were correlated with short-term changes in household food insecurity. Continued research efforts should focus on identifying the most effective ways to promote the health of children in food insecure households, especially those who may have recently transitioned or are

  15. DNA damage response defect in Williams-Beuren syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guenat, David; Merla, Giuseppe; Deconinck, Eric; Borg, Christophe; Rohrlich, Pierre-Simon

    2017-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, no. OMIM 194050) is a rare multisystem genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 7q11.23 and characterized by cardiovascular malformations, mental retardation, and a specific facial dysmorphism. Recently, we reported that a series of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occurs in children with WBS and thus hypothesized that a predisposition to cancer may be associated with this genetic disorder. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the role played by three genes hemizygously deleted in WBS (RFC2, GTF2I and BAZ1B) in DNA damage response pathways. Cell proliferation, cell cycle analysis, γ-H2A.X induction, and expression of DNA damage response proteins were investigated upon exposure to genotoxic treatments in WBS patient-derived primary fibroblasts and in the 293T cell line treated with specific siRNAs targeting RFC2, GTF2I and BAZ1B. An impaired hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation of CHK1 was observed in the WBS cells. However, this defective DNA damage response was not associated with an increased sensitivity to genotoxic agents. In addition, depletion of RFC2, GTF2I and BAZ1B using specific siRNAs did not have a significant impact on the DNA damage response in 293T cells. Our results highlight that the ATR-dependent DNA damage response is impaired in WBS patient cells but is also dispensable for viability when these cells undergo a genotoxic stress. The mechanism by which the ATR pathway is impaired in WBS warrants elucidation through further investigation. PMID:28098859

  16. Planar Cell Polarity Breaks the Symmetry of PAR Protein Distribution prior to Mitosis in Drosophila Sensory Organ Precursor Cells.

    PubMed

    Besson, Charlotte; Bernard, Fred; Corson, Francis; Rouault, Hervé; Reynaud, Elodie; Keder, Alyona; Mazouni, Khalil; Schweisguth, François

    2015-04-20

    During development, cell-fate diversity can result from the unequal segregation of fate determinants at mitosis. Polarization of the mother cell is essential for asymmetric cell division (ACD). It often involves the formation of a cortical domain containing the PAR complex proteins Par3, Par6, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). In the fly notum, sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs) divide asymmetrically within the plane of the epithelium and along the body axis to generate two distinct cells. Fate asymmetry depends on the asymmetric localization of the PAR complex. In the absence of planar cell polarity (PCP), SOPs divide with a random planar orientation but still asymmetrically, showing that PCP is dispensable for PAR asymmetry at mitosis. To study when and how the PAR complex localizes asymmetrically, we have used a quantitative imaging approach to measure the planar polarization of the proteins Bazooka (Baz, fly Par3), Par6, and aPKC in living pupae. By using imaging of functional GFP-tagged proteins with image processing and computational modeling, we find that Baz, Par6, and aPKC become planar polarized prior to mitosis in a manner independent of the AuroraA kinase and that PCP is required for the planar polarization of Baz, Par6, and aPKC during interphase. This indicates that a "mitosis rescue" mechanism establishes asymmetry at mitosis in PCP mutants. This study therefore identifies PCP as the initial symmetry-breaking signal for the planar polarization of PAR proteins in asymmetrically dividing SOPs.

  17. Solution Techniques in Finite Element Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    CR 83.027 NAVAL CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY Port Hueneme, California Sponsored by NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND ___ SOLUTION TECHNIQUES IN...CATALOG NUMBER CR 83.027 A bA/Z3 SZ *4 TITLE fori SoobIt, S TYPE F REP RT II PERIOD COVERED SOLUTION TECHNIQUES IN FINITE ELEMENT Not 192in Jna98 ANALYSIS...elements; nonlinear algebraic equations; numierical solution methods 20 ABSTRACT (Contlinue mI e.se mde It nc..Ac.. Wd ordonhifI, by block .- abe,) ,A

  18. Comparison Between Acupuncture and Biofeedback as Adjunctive Treatments for Primary Insomnia Disorder.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsien-Te; Lin, Shang-Lun; Lin, Chi-Hung; Tzeng, Dong-Sheng

    2017-02-27

    Context • Insomnia affects from 5% to 35% of the general population worldwide. Primary insomnia disorder is the most frequently diagnosed, sleep-related disorder. Pharmacological treatments remain the most widely used treatments for insomnia. Nonpharmacological treatments for primary insomnia disorder have been found to be effective. Objective • This study intended to determine the appropriateness of acupuncture and biofeedback as adjuncts to medication for primary insomnia disorder. Design • The research team designed a randomized, controlled study. Setting • The study took place in a psychosomatic clinic at a regional general hospital in southern Taiwan. Participants • Participants were patients at the clinic with primary insomnia disorder who had never received prior hypnotic medication or alternative treatments. Intervention • All participants received 10 mg of zolpidem. The participants were divided into 3 groups: (1) acupuncture adjunctive to zolpidem (AAZ) group- 18 patients received 1 acupuncture session weekly; (2) biofeedback adjunctive to zolpidem (BAZ) group- 17 patients received 1 biofeedback session weekly; and (3) control (OZ) group-14 patients received only zolpidem. Patients visited the clinic 1 ×/wk for 4 wk, at baseline and on days 7, 14, and 21 of the intervention. Outcome Measures • The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to measure outcomes. Treatment success was defined as a final PSQI score of ≤5. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used for statistical analysis. Results • Using analysis of variance, the reduction in the PSQI scores were (1) 3.72 for the AAZ group, (2) 2.00 for the BAZ group, and (3) 2.29 for the OZ group (P = .28). The GEE analysis indicated no differences in the therapeutic effects among the 3 groups: P = .37 for the AAZ group vs the OZ group and P = .07 for the BAZ group vs the OZ group, when the PSQI of the OZ group was set to 0. The AAZ group had a significantly higher score than

  19. The Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of a School-Based Comprehensive Intervention Study on Childhood Obesity in China

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Liping; Xu, Haiquan; Liu, Ailing; van Raaij, Joop; Bemelmans, Wanda; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Du, Songming; Fang, Hongyun; Ma, Jun; Xu, Guifa; Li, Ying; Guo, Hongwei; Du, Lin; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    Background The dramatic rise of overweight and obesity among Chinese children has greatly affected the social economic development. However, no information on the cost-effectiveness of interventions in China is available. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost and the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention program for childhood obesity. We hypothesized the integrated intervention which combined nutrition education and physical activity (PA) is more cost-effective than the same intensity of single intervention. Methods And Findings: A multi-center randomized controlled trial conducted in six large cities during 2009-2010. A total of 8301 primary school students were categorized into five groups and followed one academic year. Nutrition intervention, PA intervention and their shared common control group were located in Beijing. The combined intervention and its’ control group were located in other 5 cities. In nutrition education group, ‘nutrition and health classes’ were given 6 times for the students, 2 times for the parents and 4 times for the teachers and health workers. "Happy 10" was carried out twice per day in PA group. The comprehensive intervention was a combination of nutrition and PA interventions. BMI and BAZ increment was 0.65 kg/m2 (SE 0.09) and 0.01 (SE 0.11) in the combined intervention, respectively, significantly lower than that in its’ control group (0.82±0.09 for BMI, 0.10±0.11 for BAZ). No significant difference were found neither in BMI nor in BAZ change between the PA intervention and its’ control, which is the same case in the nutrition intervention. The single intervention has a relative lower intervention costs compared with the combined intervention. Labor costs in Guangzhou, Shanghai and Jinan was higher compared to other cities. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $120.3 for BMI and $249.3 for BAZ in combined intervention, respectively. Conclusions The school-based integrated obesity intervention program

  20. Localization and Function of Pals1-associated Tight Junction Protein in Drosophila Is Regulated by Two Distinct Apical Complexes.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arnab; Sun, Rui; Krahn, Michael P

    2015-05-22

    The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) and its intracellular adaptor protein Pals1 (Stardust, Sdt in Drosophila) play a crucial role in the establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells in various organisms. In contrast, the multiple PDZ domain-containing protein Pals1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), which has been described to form a complex with Crb/Sdt, is not essential for apical basal polarity or for the stability of the Crb/Sdt complex in the Drosophila epidermis. Here we show that, in the embryonic epidermis, Sdt is essential for the correct subcellular localization of PATJ in differentiated epithelial cells but not during cellularization. Consistently, the L27 domain of PATJ is crucial for the correct localization and function of the protein. Our data further indicate that the four PDZ domains of PATJ function, to a large extent, in redundancy, regulating the function of the protein. Interestingly, the PATJ-Sdt heterodimer is not only recruited to the apical cell-cell contacts by binding to Crb but depends on functional Bazooka (Baz). However, biochemical experiments show that PATJ associates with both complexes, the Baz-Sdt and the Crb-Sdt complex, in the mature epithelium of the embryonic epidermis, suggesting a role of these two complexes for the function of PATJ during the development of Drosophila.

  1. Predicted reliability of aerospace electronics: Application of two advanced probabilistic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.

    Two advanced probabilistic design-for-reliability (PDfR) concepts are addressed and discussed in application to the prediction, quantification and assurance of the aerospace electronics reliability: 1) Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) model, which is an extension of the currently widely used Arrhenius model and, in combination with the exponential law of reliability, enables one to obtain a simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful formula for the evaluation of the probability of failure (PoF) of a material or a device after the given time in operation at the given temperature and under the given stress (not necessarily mechanical), and 2) Extreme Value Distribution (EVD) technique that can be used to assess the number of repetitive loadings that result in the material/device degradation and eventually lead to its failure by closing, in a step-wise fashion, the gap between the bearing capacity (stress-free activation energy) of the material or the device and the demand (loading). It is shown that the material degradation (aging, damage accumulation, flaw propagation, etc.) can be viewed, when BAZ model is considered, as a Markovian process, and that the BAZ model can be obtained as the ultimate steady-state solution to the well-known Fokker-Planck equation in the theory of Markovian processes. It is shown also that the BAZ model addresses the worst, but a reasonably conservative, situation. It is suggested therefore that the transient period preceding the condition addressed by the steady-state BAZ model need not be accounted for in engineering evaluations. However, when there is an interest in understanding the transient degradation process, the obtained solution to the Fokker-Planck equation can be used for this purpose. As to the EVD concept, it attributes the degradation process to the accumulation of damages caused by a train of repetitive high-level loadings, while loadings of levels that are considerably lower than their extreme values do not contribute

  2. Rapid Infancy Weight Gain and 7- to 9-year Childhood Obesity Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Dang, Shaonong; Zeng, Lingxia; Gao, Wenlong; Wang, Duolao; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Pei, Leilei; Li, Chao; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is increasing in developing countries. This study aimed to identify the association between rapid infancy weight gain and obesity risk among early school-age children. A total of 581 singletons (349 boys, 232 girls) whose mothers participated in an antenatal multiple micronutrient supplement trial in rural western China were followed from birth to between 7 and 9 years of age. Height and weight were measured at birth, 1.5 years, and between 7 and 9 years. At the 7- to 9-year time point, body composition was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multilevel mixed analysis was used to test the associations between rapid weight gain in infancy (from birth to age 1.5 years) and body size and composition or overweight/obesity among early school-age children. Overall, 31.2% (181 of 581) of the infants showed a weight-for-age Z score gain greater than 0.67 between birth and 1.5 years, indicating rapid weight gain. Approximately 5.7% (33 of 579) of the subjects were overweight (BMI-for-age Z scores [BAZ] >1 and ≤2) or obese (BAZ >2). Rapid infancy weight gain was associated with a higher BAZ (P < 0.001), mid-upper arm circumferences (P < 0.001), percentage body fat (P < 0.001), and fat mass index (P < 0.001) at 7 to 9 years of age after adjusting for biological and social economic factors, genetic factors, and perinatal and postnatal factors. These associations appeared to be independent of gender, economic status at early school age, and maternal nutritional status at enrollment. Rapid growers may have approximately 3 times the risk of being overweight/obese during the early school-age years (odds ratio = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.17–7.43, P = 0.022). Rapid infancy weight gain is a risk factor for being overweight/obesity among early school-age children in rural western China. We propose that social and biological determinants, such as economic status, physical activity, and feeding practice, should be targeted to prevent

  3. Rapid Infancy Weight Gain and 7- to 9-year Childhood Obesity Risk: A Prospective Cohort Study in Rural Western China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Dang, Shaonong; Zeng, Lingxia; Gao, Wenlong; Wang, Duolao; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Pei, Leilei; Li, Chao; Yan, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is increasing in developing countries. This study aimed to identify the association between rapid infancy weight gain and obesity risk among early school-age children. A total of 581 singletons (349 boys, 232 girls) whose mothers participated in an antenatal multiple micronutrient supplement trial in rural western China were followed from birth to between 7 and 9 years of age. Height and weight were measured at birth, 1.5 years, and between 7 and 9 years. At the 7- to 9-year time point, body composition was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multilevel mixed analysis was used to test the associations between rapid weight gain in infancy (from birth to age 1.5 years) and body size and composition or overweight/obesity among early school-age children. Overall, 31.2% (181 of 581) of the infants showed a weight-for-age Z score gain greater than 0.67 between birth and 1.5 years, indicating rapid weight gain. Approximately 5.7% (33 of 579) of the subjects were overweight (BMI-for-age Z scores [BAZ] >1 and ≤2) or obese (BAZ >2). Rapid infancy weight gain was associated with a higher BAZ (P < 0.001), mid-upper arm circumferences (P < 0.001), percentage body fat (P < 0.001), and fat mass index (P < 0.001) at 7 to 9 years of age after adjusting for biological and social economic factors, genetic factors, and perinatal and postnatal factors. These associations appeared to be independent of gender, economic status at early school age, and maternal nutritional status at enrollment. Rapid growers may have approximately 3 times the risk of being overweight/obese during the early school-age years (odds ratio = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.17-7.43, P = 0.022). Rapid infancy weight gain is a risk factor for being overweight/obesity among early school-age children in rural western China. We propose that social and biological determinants, such as economic status, physical activity, and feeding practice, should be targeted to prevent obesity.

  4. Participation in the Juntos Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Peru Is Associated with Changes in Child Anthropometric Status but Not Language Development or School Achievement1234

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Christopher T; Reynolds, Sarah A; Behrman, Jere R; Crookston, Benjamin T; Dearden, Kirk A; Escobal, Javier; Mani, Subha; Sánchez, Alan; Stein, Aryeh D; Fernald, Lia CH

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is unclear what effects a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program would have on child anthropometry, language development, or school achievement in the context of the nutrition transition experienced by many low- and middle-income countries. Objective: We estimated the association of participation in Peru’s Juntos CCT with anthropometry, language development, and school achievement among children aged 7–8 y. Methods: We used data from the Young Lives Study of a cohort born between 2001 and 2002. We estimated associations of the Juntos program with height-for-age z score (HAZ), body mass index–for–age z score (BAZ), stunting, and overweight at age 7–8 y separately for children participating in the program for ≥2 y (n = 169) and children participating for <2 y (n = 188). We then estimated associations with receptive vocabulary and grade achievement among children who had been assessed at age 4–6 y before enrollment in Juntos (n = 243). We identified control subjects using propensity score matching and conducted difference-in-differences comparisons. Results: Juntos participation was associated with increases in HAZ among boys participating for ≥2 y [average effect of treatment among the treated (ATT): 0.43; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.77; P = 0.01] and for boys participating for <2 y (ATT: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.80; P < 0.01). Among girls participating in the program for ≥2 y, BAZ declined (ATT: –0.60; 95% CI: –1.00, –0.21; P < 0.01) as did the prevalence of overweight (ATT: –22.0 percentage points; 95% CI: –42.5, –2.7 percentage points; P = 0.03). We observed no significant associations of Juntos participation with receptive vocabulary or grade attainment. Conclusions: CCT program participation in Peru was associated with better linear growth among boys and decreased BAZ among girls, highlighting that a large-scale poverty-alleviation intervention may influence anthropometric outcomes in the context of the nutrition transition. PMID

  5. Disrupting Acetyl-Lysine Recognition: Progress in the Development of Bromodomain Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Romero, F Anthony; Taylor, Alexander M; Crawford, Terry D; Tsui, Vickie; Côté, Alexandre; Magnuson, Steven

    2016-02-25

    Bromodomains, small protein modules that recognize acetylated lysine on histones, play a significant role in the epigenome, where they function as "readers" that ultimately determine the functional outcome of the post-translational modification. Because the initial discovery of selective BET inhibitors have helped define the role of that protein family in oncology and inflammation, BET bromodomains have continued to garner the most attention of any other bromodomain. More recently, non-BET bromodomain inhibitors that are potent and selective have been disclosed for ATAD2, CBP, BRD7/9, BRPF, BRPF/TRIM24, CECR2, SMARCA4, and BAZ2A/B. Such novel inhibitors can be used to probe the physiological function of these non-BET bromodomains and further understanding of their role in certain disease states. Here, we provide an update to the progress in identifying selective bromodomain inhibitors and their use as biological tools, as well as our perspective on the field.

  6. Isoxazole‐Derived Amino Acids are Bromodomain‐Binding Acetyl‐Lysine Mimics: Incorporation into Histone H4 Peptides and Histone H3

    PubMed Central

    Sekirnik (née Measures), Angelina R.; Hewings, David S.; Theodoulou, Natalie H.; Jursins, Lukass; Lewendon, Katie R.; Jennings, Laura E.; Rooney, Timothy P. C.; Heightman, Tom D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A range of isoxazole‐containing amino acids was synthesized that displaced acetyl‐lysine‐containing peptides from the BAZ2A, BRD4(1), and BRD9 bromodomains. Three of these amino acids were incorporated into a histone H4‐mimicking peptide and their affinity for BRD4(1) was assessed. Affinities of the isoxazole‐containing peptides are comparable to those of a hyperacetylated histone H4‐mimicking cognate peptide, and demonstrated a dependence on the position at which the unnatural residue was incorporated. An isoxazole‐based alkylating agent was developed to selectively alkylate cysteine residues in situ. Selective monoalkylation of a histone H4‐mimicking peptide, containing a lysine to cysteine residue substitution (K12C), resulted in acetyl‐lysine mimic incorporation, with high affinity for the BRD4 bromodomain. The same technology was used to alkylate a K18C mutant of histone H3. PMID:27264992

  7. A new concept for creating the basic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parzyński, Zenon

    2014-12-01

    A lot of changes have been made to the legislative regulations associated with geodesy during the implementation of the INSPIRE Directive in Poland (amongst others, the structure of databases). There have also been great changes concerning the basic map and the method of its creation and updating. A new concept for creating the basic map is presented in this article Dokonaliśmy wielu zmian w prawnych regulacjach dotyczących geodezji w trakcie implementacji Dyrektywy INSPIRE w Polsce (m.in. struktury baz danych). Bardzo duże zmiany objęły mapę zasadniczą i procedury jej tworzenia i uaktualniania. W artykule jest zaprezentowana nowa koncepcja tworzenia mapy zasadniczej.

  8. Coda Q Attenuation and Source Parameters Analysis in North East India Using Local Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohanty, W. K.; Earthquake Seismology

    2010-12-01

    Alok Kumar Mohapatra1* and William Kumar Mohanty1 *Corresponding author: alokgpiitkgp@gmail.com 1Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. Pin-721302 ABSTRACT In the present study, the quality factor of coda waves (Qc) and the source parameters has been estimated for the Northeastern India, using the digital data of ten local earthquakes from April 2001 to November 2002. Earthquakes with magnitude range from 3.8 to 4.9 have been taken into account. The time domain coda decay method of a single back scattering model is used to calculate frequency dependent values of Coda Q (Qc) where as, the source parameters like seismic moment(Mo), stress drop, source radius(r), radiant energy(Wo),and strain drop are estimated using displacement amplitude spectrum of body wave using Brune's model. The earthquakes with magnitude range 3.8 to 4.9 have been used for estimation Qc at six central frequencies 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz, 9.0 Hz, 12.0 Hz, and 18.0 Hz. In the present work, the Qc value of local earthquakes are estimated to understand the attenuation characteristic, source parameters and tectonic activity of the region. Based on a criteria of homogeneity in the geological characteristics and the constrains imposed by the distribution of available events the study region has been classified into three zones such as the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ), Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ), Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ). It follows the power law Qc= Qo (f/fo)n where, Qo is the quality factor at the reference frequency (1Hz) fo and n is the frequency parameter which varies from region to region. The mean values of Qc reveals a dependence on frequency, varying from 292.9 at 1.5 Hz to 4880.1 at 18 Hz. Average frequency dependent relationship Qc values obtained of the Northeastern India is 198 f 1.035, while this relationship varies from the region to region such as, Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ): Qc= 226 f 1.11, Bengal Alluvium

  9. Converted Ps amplitude variations on the dipping slab Moho beneath the Kii Peninsula, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Park, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Receiver function (RF) analysis is a very useful method to detect seismic velocity discontinuities beneath a seismic station. One can estimate the depth of interfaces using the delay time of Ps converted phases in RFs. One can also evaluate elastic properties at an interface from changes of Ps polarity and Ps amplitude. Ps amplitude depends primarily on the impedance contrast at an interface, but the variation of Ps amplitude on back azimuth (BAZ) of the incoming P wave is affected if the interface is dipping and/or anisotropic rock surrounds the interface. Moreover, variation in the incidence angle of incoming P waves also causes variation in Ps amplitude. Shiomi and Park (2009; AGU FM) defined 'standard amplitude' of a converted phase at a dipping interface beneath a station, based on back azimuth dependence of the Ps amplitude. They did not consider ray parameter dependence to the Ps amplitude evaluation, but it affects the accuracy of the standard amplitude estimate. In this study, we check ray parameter dependence, and apply the method to the stations in the Kii Peninsula, central Japan. We select earthquakes with high signal-to-noise ratio observed from October 2000 to August 2010 with magnitudes 6.0 or greater. Checking distribution of BAZs and incidence angles of teleseismic waveforms observed at each station, we confirm that 80% of the selected events are located to the south of stations. Ray parameters of 10% of the events are larger than 0.077. In the case of dipping interface, Ps amplitude variation with BAZ is larger for incoming P waves with larger ray parameters. Since events located in the west or northeast of stations are fewer than other directions, the contribution of events with large ray parameter is not small in these directions. These directions correspond to the dipping direction of the subducting Philippine Sea slab, thus the Ps amplitudes tend to become large. This means the Ps amplitude may be overestimated when we do not take ray

  10. Studies of new fused benzazepine as selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists using 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Shuwei; Xiao, Zhengtao; Ai, Chunzhi

    2011-02-18

    In recent years, great interest has been paid to the development of compounds with high selectivity for central dopamine (DA) D3 receptors, an interesting therapeutic target in the treatment of different neurological disorders. In the present work, based on a dataset of 110 collected benzazepine (BAZ) DA D3 antagonists with diverse kinds of structures, a variety of in silico modeling approaches, including comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) were carried out to reveal the requisite 3D structural features for activity. Our results show that both the receptor-based (Q(2) = 0.603, R(2) (ncv) = 0.829, R(2) (pre) = 0.690, SEE = 0.316, SEP = 0.406) and ligand-based 3D-QSAR models (Q(2) = 0.506, R(2) (ncv) =0.838, R(2) (pre) = 0.794, SEE = 0.316, SEP = 0.296) are reliable with proper predictive capacity. In addition, a combined analysis between the CoMFA, CoMSIA contour maps and MD results with a homology DA receptor model shows that: (1) ring-A, position-2 and R(3) substituent in ring-D are crucial in the design of antagonists with higher activity; (2) more bulky R(1) substituents (at position-2 of ring-A) of antagonists may well fit in the binding pocket; (3) hydrophobicity represented by MlogP is important for building satisfactory QSAR models; (4) key amino acids of the binding pocket are CYS101, ILE105, LEU106, VAL151, PHE175, PHE184, PRO254 and ALA251. To our best knowledge, this work is the first report on 3D-QSAR modeling of the new fused BAZs as DA D3 antagonists. These results might provide information for a better understanding of the mechanism of antagonism and thus be helpful in designing new potent DA D3 antagonists.

  11. Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Köttgen, Anna; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Krumsiek, Jan; Hundertmark, Claudia; Pistis, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Daniela; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Haller, Toomas; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Johnson, Andrew D; Kutalik, Zoltán; Smith, Albert V; Shi, Julia; Struchalin, Maksim; Middelberg, Rita P S; Brown, Morris J; Gaffo, Angelo L; Pirastu, Nicola; Li, Guo; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana; Huffman, Jennifer; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ayse; Feitosa, Mary F; Liu, Xuan; Malerba, Giovanni; Lopez, Lorna M; van der Harst, Pim; Li, Xinzhong; Kleber, Marcus E; Hicks, Andrew A; Nolte, Ilja M; Johansson, Asa; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Peden, John F; Dehghan, Abbas; Steri, Maristella; Tenesa, Albert; Lagou, Vasiliki; Salo, Perttu; Mangino, Massimo; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Woodward, Owen M; Okada, Yukinori; Tin, Adrienne; Müller, Christian; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Putku, Margus; Czamara, Darina; Kraft, Peter; Frogheri, Laura; Thun, Gian Andri; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; McArdle, Patrick; Shuldiner, Alan R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Helena; Schallert, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Devuyst, Olivier; Navarro, Pau; Kolcic, Ivana; Hastie, Nicholas; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Esko, Tõnu; Salumets, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Isaacs, Aaron; Kraja, Aldi; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Scott, Rodney J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Org, Elin; Viigimaa, Margus; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, Jeffrey E; Lupo, Antonio; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Lattka, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Theis, Fabian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Stolk, Ronald P; Kooner, Jaspal S; Zhang, Weihua; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Lucae, Susanne; Penninx, Brenda W; Smit, Johannes H; Curhan, Gary; Mudgal, Poorva; Plenge, Robert M; Portas, Laura; Persico, Ivana; Kirin, Mirna; Wilson, James F; Mateo Leach, Irene; van Gilst, Wiek H; Goel, Anuj; Ongen, Halit; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Cucca, Francesco; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Piras, Maria Grazia; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Ernst, Florian; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Prokopenko, Inga; Stumvoll, Michael; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Sala, Cinzia; Ridker, Paul M; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Hengstenberg, Christian; Nelson, Christopher P; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Singleton, Andrew B; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Zeller, Tanja; Burnier, Michel; Attia, John; Laan, Maris; Klopp, Norman; Hillege, Hans L; Kloiber, Stefan; Choi, Hyon; Pirastu, Mario; Tore, Silvia; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Völzke, Henry; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Parsa, Afshin; Schmidt, Reinhold; Whitfield, John B; Fornage, Myriam; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David S; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Metspalu, Andres; Loos, Ruth J F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Chambers, John C; März, Winfried; Pramstaller, Peter P; Snieder, Harold; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F; Navis, Gerjan; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Sanna, Serena; Schipf, Sabine; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tönjes, Anke; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Chasman, Daniel I; Raitakari, Olli; Kao, W H Linda; Ciullo, Marina; Fox, Caroline S; Caulfield, Mark; Bochud, Murielle; Gieger, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with serum urate concentrations (18 new regions in or near TRIM46, INHBB, SFMBT1, TMEM171, VEGFA, BAZ1B, PRKAG2, STC1, HNF4G, A1CF, ATXN2, UBE2Q2, IGF1R, NFAT5, MAF, HLF, ACVR1B-ACVRL1 and B3GNT4). Associations for many of the loci were of similar magnitude in individuals of non-European ancestry. We further characterized these loci for associations with gout, transcript expression and the fractional excretion of urate. Network analyses implicate the inhibins-activins signaling pathways and glucose metabolism in systemic urate control. New candidate genes for serum urate concentration highlight the importance of metabolic control of urate production and excretion, which may have implications for the treatment and prevention of gout.

  12. An atypical 7q11.23 deletion in a normal IQ Williams–Beuren syndrome patient

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Giovanni Battista; Howald, Cédric; Micale, Lucia; Biamino, Elisa; Augello, Bartolomeo; Fusco, Carmela; Turturo, Maria Giuseppina; Forzano, Serena; Reymond, Alexandre; Merla, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS; OMIM no. 194050) is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of 1.55 Mb on chromosome 7q11.23 spanning 28 genes. Haploinsufficiency of the ELN gene was shown to be responsible for supravalvular aortic stenosis and generalized arteriopathy, whereas LIMK1, CLIP2, GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I genes were suggested to be linked to the specific cognitive profile and craniofacial features. These insights for genotype–phenotype correlations came from the molecular and clinical analysis of patients with atypical deletions and mice models. Here we report a patient showing mild WBS physical phenotype and normal IQ, who carries a shorter 1 Mb atypical deletion. This rearrangement does not include the GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I genes and only partially the BAZ1B gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that hemizygosity of the GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I genes might be involved in the facial dysmorphisms and in the specific motor and cognitive deficits observed in WBS patients. PMID:19568270

  13. Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Dal Molin, Bárbara; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Methods: Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12–19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. Results: NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. PMID:26830602

  14. Space Age Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1985, the Egyptian Antiques Organization (EAO) asked Dr. Farouk El-Baz whether it would be possible to examine and sample the second chamber of the subterranean chamber carved in the bedrock near the Great Pyramid of Khufu in Giza, Egypt, without admitting people, air or contaminants. He felt it could by applying space technology to the task. The initial contact led to a two year project which he organized and headed a team, co-sponsored by EAO and the National Geographic Society (NGS), to apply space technology in an effort to examine and photograph the Giza Chamber. The NGS photographic division modified and tested a remotely controlled video system and a 35-millimeter camera, and developed a lighting system that would not elevate the chamber temperature. Still needed was a drill to cut through the limestone cap without using lubricants or cooling fluids that might contaminate the chamber, and an airlock that would admit the drill shaft and photo equipment but not the air. Bob Moores from Black & Decker Corporation tailored a new drill to the Giza exploration. The drill bit broke through into the chamber at a depth of 63 inches, a stainless steel tube was lowered through the airlock to take samples of the chamber air at several levels. The video camera sent images from the chamber revealing that there was a disassembled royal boat that had been there.

  15. Slmb antagonises the aPKC/Par-6 complex to control oocyte and epithelial polarity.

    PubMed

    Morais-de-Sá, Eurico; Mukherjee, Avik; Lowe, Nick; St Johnston, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    The Drosophila anterior-posterior axis is specified when the posterior follicle cells signal to polarise the oocyte, leading to the anterior/lateral localisation of the Par-6/aPKC complex and the posterior recruitment of Par-1, which induces a microtubule reorganisation that localises bicoid and oskar mRNAs. Here we show that oocyte polarity requires Slmb, the substrate specificity subunit of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins for degradation. The Par-6/aPKC complex is ectopically localised to the posterior of slmb mutant oocytes, and Par-1 and oskar mRNA are mislocalised. Slmb appears to play a related role in epithelial follicle cells, as large slmb mutant clones disrupt epithelial organisation, whereas small clones show an expansion of the apical domain, with increased accumulation of apical polarity factors at the apical cortex. The levels of aPKC and Par-6 are significantly increased in slmb mutants, whereas Baz is slightly reduced. Thus, Slmb may induce the polarisation of the anterior-posterior axis of the oocyte by targeting the Par-6/aPKC complex for degradation at the oocyte posterior. Consistent with this, overexpression of the aPKC antagonist Lgl strongly rescues the polarity defects of slmb mutant germline clones. The role of Slmb in oocyte polarity raises an intriguing parallel with C. elegans axis formation, in which PAR-2 excludes the anterior PAR complex from the posterior cortex to induce polarity, but its function can be substituted by overexpressing Lgl.

  16. Investigating the Targets of MIR-15a and MIR-16-1 in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Katy; Rudin, Claudius E.; Harries, Lorna W.

    2009-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that regulate the expression of multiple target genes. Deregulation of miRNAs is common in human tumorigenesis. The miRNAs, MIR-15a/16-1, at chromosome band 13q14 are down-regulated in the majority of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Methodology/Principal Findings We have measured the expression of MIR-15a/16-1, and 92 computationally-predicted MIR-15a/16-1 target genes in CLL patients and in normal controls. We identified 35 genes that are deregulated in CLL patients, 5 of which appear to be specific targets of the MIR-15a/16-1 cluster. These targets included 2 genes (BAZ2A and RNF41) that were significantly up-regulated (p<0.05) and 3 genes (RASSF5, MKK3 and LRIG1) that were significantly down-regulated (p<0.05) in CLL patients with down-regulated MIR-15a/16-1 expression. Significance The genes identified here as being subject to MIR-15a/16-1 regulation could represent direct or indirect targets of these miRNAs. Many of these are good biological candidates for involvement in tumorigenesis and as such, may be important in the aetiology of CLL. PMID:19779621

  17. Identification of a Sudden Cardiac Death Susceptibility Locus at 2q24.2 through Genome-Wide Association in European Ancestry Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Reinier, Kyndaron; Teodorescu, Carmen; Uy-Evanado, Audrey; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Kaikkonen, Kari S.; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Boucher, Gabrielle; Lagacé, Caroline; Moes, Anna; Zhao, XiaoQing; Kolodgie, Frank; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Marsman, Roos F.; Pazoki, Raha; Bardai, Abdennasser; Koster, Rudolph W.; Dehghan, Abbas; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Bhatnagar, Pallav; Post, Wendy; Hilton, Gina; Prineas, Ronald J.; Li, Man; Köttgen, Anna; Ehret, Georg; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Kao, W. H. Linda; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Siscovick, David S.; Burke, Greg L.; Marbán, Eduardo; Spooner, Peter M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Jui, Jonathan; Gunson, Karen; Kesäniemi, Y. Antero; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Virmani, Renu; Stricker, Bruno H. C. h.; Tan, Hanno L.; Albert, Christine M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Rioux, John D.; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Chugh, Sumeet S.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) continues to be one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, with an annual incidence estimated at 250,000–300,000 in the United States and with the vast majority occurring in the setting of coronary disease. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis in 1,283 SCD cases and >20,000 control individuals of European ancestry from 5 studies, with follow-up genotyping in up to 3,119 SCD cases and 11,146 controls from 11 European ancestry studies, and identify the BAZ2B locus as associated with SCD (P = 1.8×10−10). The risk allele, while ancestral, has a frequency of ∼1.4%, suggesting strong negative selection and increases risk for SCD by 1.92–fold per allele (95% CI 1.57–2.34). We also tested the role of 49 SNPs previously implicated in modulating electrocardiographic traits (QRS, QT, and RR intervals). Consistent with epidemiological studies showing increased risk of SCD with prolonged QRS/QT intervals, the interval-prolonging alleles are in aggregate associated with increased risk for SCD (P = 0.006). PMID:21738491

  18. [80 years of soial service in medicine].

    PubMed

    Hace 80 años, la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional, en voz de su director, Gustavo Baz Prada, hizo una propuesta que pronto se convirtió en realidad y finalmente en norma, la que desde entonces se conoce como SS. Esta iniciativa se vio como una manera para que los estudiantes de medicina del último año retribuyeran a la sociedad una parte de lo que esta invirtió en su educación, consolidaran su formación mediante la exposición a las realidades de todos los días en los medios más necesitados, se pusieran a prueba sobre sus verdaderas capacidades para atender pacientes y participaran en la solución de un problema de atención sanitaria que en ese entonces era mucho más apremiante que ahora. Unos años después, los recién egresados de otras licenciaturas (pasantes) también fueron incorporados a esta estrategia y, al fin, se reconoció formalmente como una responsabilidad de las instituciones educativas. Las aportaciones del SS a la salud de las personas y a la formación de los médicos han sido incuestionables, y la experiencia humana que ha representado para quienes lo han vivido ha dejado marcas indelebles.

  19. The effect of calabash chalk on some hematological parameters in female adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akpantah, Amabe Otoabasi; Ibok, Ofon Samuel; Ekong, Moses Bassey; Eluwa, Mokutima Amarachi; Ekanem, Theresa Bassey

    2010-09-05

    AMAÇ: Kalabaş tebeşiri, genellikle gebe ve diğer kadınlar tarafından keyfi olarak ve sabah bulantısını iyileştirmek için tüketilen, doğan oluşumlu bir mineraldir. Başta kurşun olmak üzere farklı toksik maddeler içerdiği raporlarda gösterilmiştir. Dolayısıyla bu çalışmada, bu taşın en yaygın iki preparatının bazı hematolojik parametreler üzerindeki etkisinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. YÖNTEMLER: Ortalama 100 g ağırlığında 24 yetişkin dişi Wistar sıçanı üç gruba (1, 2 ve 3) ayrılmıştır. Grup 1 kontrol grubu olup, hayvanlara distile su verilmiş ve grup 2 ve 3, 14 gün süreyle her biri 40 mg/kg tuzsuz (NSCC) ve tuzlu Kalabaş tebeşiri (SCC) ile birlikte oral besleme yoluyla tedavi edilmiştir.

  20. The extended AT-hook is a novel RNA binding motif.

    PubMed

    Filarsky, Michael; Zillner, Karina; Araya, Ingrid; Villar-Garea, Ana; Merkl, Rainer; Längst, Gernot; Németh, Attila

    2015-01-01

    The AT-hook has been defined as a DNA binding peptide motif that contains a glycine-arginine-proline (G-R-P) tripeptide core flanked by basic amino acids. Recent reports documented variations in the sequence of AT-hooks and revealed RNA binding activity of some canonical AT-hooks, suggesting a higher structural and functional variability of this protein domain than previously anticipated. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of the extended AT-hook peptide motif (eAT-hook), in which basic amino acids appear symmetrical mainly at a distance of 12-15 amino acids from the G-R-P core. We identified 80 human and 60 mouse eAT-hook proteins and biochemically characterized the eAT-hooks of Tip5/BAZ2A, PTOV1 and GPBP1. Microscale thermophoresis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal the nucleic acid binding features of this peptide motif, and show that eAT-hooks bind RNA with one order of magnitude higher affinity than DNA. In addition, cellular localization studies suggest a role for the N-terminal eAT-hook of PTOV1 in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. In summary, our findings classify the eAT-hook as a novel nucleic acid binding motif, which potentially mediates various RNA-dependent cellular processes.

  1. Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Köttgen, Anna; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Krumsiek, Jan; Hundertmark, Claudia; Pistis, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Daniela; O’Seaghdha, Conall M; Haller, Toomas; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Johnson, Andrew D; Kutalik, Zoltán; Smith, Albert V; Shi, Julia; Struchalin, Maksim; Middelberg, Rita P S; Brown, Morris J; Gaffo, Angelo L; Pirastu, Nicola; Li, Guo; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana; Huffman, Jennifer; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ayse; Feitosa, Mary F; Liu, Xuan; Malerba, Giovanni; Lopez, Lorna M; van der Harst, Pim; Li, Xinzhong; Kleber, Marcus E; Hicks, Andrew A; Nolte, Ilja M; Johansson, Asa; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Peden, John F; Dehghan, Abbas; Steri, Maristella; Tenesa, Albert; Lagou, Vasiliki; Salo, Perttu; Mangino, Massimo; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Woodward, Owen M; Okada, Yukinori; Tin, Adrienne; Müller, Christian; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Putku, Margus; Czamara, Darina; Kraft, Peter; Frogheri, Laura; Thun, Gian Andri; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; McArdle, Patrick; Shuldiner, Alan R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Helena; Schallert, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; D’Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Devuyst, Olivier; Navarro, Pau; Kolcic, Ivana; Hastie, Nicholas; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Esko, Tõnu; Salumets, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Isaacs, Aaron; Kraja, Aldi; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Scott, Rodney J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Org, Elin; Viigimaa, Margus; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, Jeffrey E; Lupo, Antonio; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Lattka, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Theis, Fabian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Study, LifeLines Cohort; Stolk, Ronald P; Kooner, Jaspal S; Zhang, Weihua; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Lucae, Susanne; Penninx, Brenda W; Smit, Johannes H; Curhan, Gary; Mudgal, Poorva; Plenge, Robert M; Portas, Laura; Persico, Ivana; Kirin, Mirna; Wilson, James F; Leach, Irene Mateo; van Gilst, Wiek H; Goel, Anuj; Ongen, Halit; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Cucca, Francesco; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Piras, Maria Grazia; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Ernst, Florian; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Prokopenko, Inga; Stumvoll, Michael; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Sala, Cinzia; Ridker, Paul M; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Hengstenberg, Christian; Nelson, Christopher P; Consortium, CARDIoGRAM; Consortium, DIAGRAM; Consortium, ICBP; Consortium, MAGIC; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Singleton, Andrew B; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Zeller, Tanja; Burnier, Michel; Attia, John; Laan, Maris; Klopp, Norman; Hillege, Hans L; Kloiber, Stefan; Choi, Hyon; Pirastu, Mario; Tore, Silvia; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Völzke, Henry; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Parsa, Afshin; Schmidt, Reinhold; Whitfield, John B; Fornage, Myriam; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David S; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Metspalu, Andres; Loos, Ruth J F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Chambers, John C; März, Winfried; Pramstaller, Peter P; Snieder, Harold; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F; Navis, Gerjan; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Sanna, Serena; Schipf, Sabine; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tönjes, Anke; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Chasman, Daniel I; Raitakari, Olli; Kao, W H Linda; Ciullo, Marina; Fox, Caroline S; Caulfield, Mark; Bochud, Murielle; Gieger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with serum urate concentrations (18 new regions in or near TRIM46, INHBB, SFMBT1, TMEM171, VEGFA, BAZ1B, PRKAG2, STC1, HNF4G, A1CF, ATXN2, UBE2Q2, IGF1R, NFAT5, MAF, HLF, ACVR1B-ACVRL1 and B3GNT4). Associations for many of the loci were of similar magnitude in individuals of non-European ancestry. We further characterized these loci for associations with gout, transcript expression and the fractional excretion of urate. Network analyses implicate the inhibins-activins signaling pathways and glucose metabolism in systemic urate control. New candidate genes for serum urate concentration highlight the importance of metabolic control of urate production and excretion, which may have implications for the treatment and prevention of gout. PMID:23263486

  2. Traditional coronary risk factors in healthy Turkish military personnel between 20 and 50 years old: focus on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Barçın, Cem; Kabul, Hasan Kutsi; Tapan, Serkan; Küçük, Uğur; Cöl, Meltem

    2013-09-01

    AMAÇ: Önceki çalışmalar Türk toplumunu, yüksek yoğunluklu lipoprotein kolesterolü (YYL-k) düşük seviyede seyreden toplumların tipik bir örneği olarak gösteriyordu. Ancak yeni bazı çalışmalar bu görüşün tersini desteklemektedir. Biz bu çalışmamızda genç-orta yaşlı profesyonel erkek askerlerde geleneksel kardiyovasküler risk faktörlerini, özellikle YYL-k düzeyleri üzerinde yoğunlaşarak araştırmayı hedefledik. YÖNTEMLER: Rutin sağlık kontrolü için hastaneye başvuran 20-50 (ortalama yaş: 35,3±6,9) yaş arası 820 erkek askeri personel bu gözlemsel ve enine-kesitli çalışmaya dahil edildi. Kan biyokimyası, arteriyal kan basıncı ve antropometrik ölçümler kayıt edildi. İstatistiksel analiz Kruskal-Wallis testi ve ANCOVA ile yapıldı.

  3. Evidence of young volcanic vents in the lunar maria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braden, S.; Robinson, M. S.; Stopar, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    from broad areas of mare basalt flows. Changes in extrusion rate and temperature commonly occur at vents, which could explain the IMPs' unique morphology. Furthermore, IMPs are often spatially associated with volcanic features such as mare domes (e.g., Cauchy 5), collapse calderas (e.g., Hyginus crater), and large pyroclastic deposits (e.g., Mare Vaporum). Multispectral analysis on a subset of the largest IMPs using combined Clementine UV-VIS data (950/750 nm ratio) and LROC Wide Angle Camera images (320/415 nm ratio) show that the uneven unit is consistent with a mare basalt composition. The multispectral data also suggest the presence of pyroclastic material in the area directly surrounding some of the IMPs, which is consistent with a vent hypothesis. Thus, the morphology, composition, and distribution of IMPs imply that lunar volcanic activity may be much younger than generally recognized. References: [1] Whitaker E. (1972) NASA SP-289. [2] Schultz P. H. (1976) Moon Morphology, 626 pp., Univ. of Texas. [3] Stooke P. J. (2012) LPSC 43, abst 1011. [4] Braden S. E. et al. (2013) LPSC 44, abst. 2843. [5] El-Baz, F. (1973) NASA SP-330. [6] Strain P. L. and El-Baz F. (1980) PLPSC 11, 2437-2446. [7] Schultz P. H. (2006) Nature, 444, 184-186. [8] Staid M. et al. (2011) LPSC 42, abst. 2499. [9] Garry W. B. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H31. [10] Robinson M. S. et al. (2010) LPSC 41, abst. 2592.

  4. Hematological Parameters in Severe Complicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria among Adults in Aden.

    PubMed

    Bakhubaira, Sawsan

    2013-12-01

    Amaç: Komplike ağır sıtmalı hastalarda bazı hematolojik parametrelerin klinik sonuç ile ilişkisinin incelenmesi. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Aden vilayetinde iki yıllık sürede (2010-2012) tanı alan 77 komplike ağır sıtma hastasını içine alan prospektif bir çalışma yapıldı. Bulgular: Ağır sıtmanın çeşitli komplikasyonlarında hemoglobin konsantrasyonları önemli ölçüde farklı idi, bununla birlikte trombosit ve lökosit sayıları bu farklılığı göstermedi. Yaş ortalaması ölen hastalar arasında büyüktü. Hematolojik parametreler, ölen ya da hayatta kalan hastalar arasında önemli derecede farklı değildi. Trombositopeni oranı %42,9 idi ve bunların %18,2’sinde sayı 50,0 x109/L’den küçüktü. Ancak hiçbirinde kanama gelişmedi. Sonuç: Bu çalışma ile, hematolojik değişikliklerin ağır sıtmada sık karşılaşılan komplikasyonlar olduğu fakat klinik sonuç ile ilişkili olmadığı sonucuna varılmıştır.

  5. A new way of setting rFSH deposit: a case of severe injection error in IVF/ICSI cycle ending with live birth.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Richard Bernhard; Ebner, Thomas; Shebl, Omar; Tews, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    Ciddi enjeksiyon hatası olan bir olgu sunuyoruz: Erkek faktörünün yol açtığı ikincil infertilitesi olan 25 yaşındaki bir kadın IVF/ICSI-ET programımıza alındı. Stimulasyon uzun protokol ile gerçekleştirildi ve over stimulasyonu, rFSH follitropin beta kullanılarak, menstrüel döngünün üçüncü günü başlatıldı. Günlük rFSH dozu şöyleydi: 900 IU-0 IU-0 IU-0 IU. Normal over yanıtı ve folikül büyümesi nedeniyle stimulasyona devam edildi, oosit kalitesinde bozulma ve OHSS semptomları yoktu. Blastokist transferini takiben sezaryenle doğum, kalıcı transvers duruş nedeniyle 37+5’inci gebelik haftasında önlenemez durumdaydı. Çeşitli hastaların uygun tedavisi için, tedavi uygulamasının doğru bir şekilde yapılmasını sağlayan, farklı stimulasyon protokollerine gerek duyulmaktadır. Enjeksiyon hataları durumunda, hormon düzeyleri ve folikül büyümesi süreci göz önüne alınarak, stimulasyon protokolünün sürdürülmesi bazı olgularda başarılabilir görünmektedir.

  6. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    TULU, Begna; TAYE, Solomon; ZENEBE, Yohannes; AMSALU, Eden

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6–18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4) an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni, E. histolytica/dispar, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, G. lambilia, T. trichiura, S. stercolaris, E. vermicularis, Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs (P<0.001) and (P=0.001), respectively. Conclusion: IPIs and its associated malnutrition remain a public health concern in Delo-Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important. PMID:28127367

  7. WSTF promotes proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells by inducing EMT via PI3K/Akt and IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jin; Zhang, Xu-Tao; Liu, Xin-Li; Fan, Lei; Li, Chen; Sun, Yang; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jian-Bo; Mei, Qi-Bing; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF), which is encoded by the BAZ1B gene, was first identified as a hemizygously deleted gene in patients with Williams syndrome. WSTF protein has been reported to be involved in transcription, replication, chromatin remodeling and DNA damage response, and also functions as a tyrosine protein kinase. However, the function of WSTF in cancer is not known. Here, we show that WSTF overexpression promotes proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells. WSTF overexpression also promotes tumor growth and invasive abilities of lung cancer cells in mouse xenograft models. cDNA microarray and subsequent qRT-PCR validation revealed that WSTF overexpression significantly upregulated the expression of EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition) marker fibronectin (FN1) and EMT-inducing genes Fos and CEACAM6. The changes of EMT markers including downregulated E-cadherin and upregulated N-cadherin and FN1 were further confirmed at both mRNA and protein levels upon WSTF overexpression, with typical morphological changes of EMT. Furthermore, WSTF activates both PI3K/Akt and IL-6/STAT3 oncogenic signaling pathways. Treatment with PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 or STAT3 inhibitor niclosamide reversed the effects of WSTF overexpression by inhibiting cell proliferation, migration and invasion, with decreased level of p-Akt, p-STAT3 and IL-6. ZSTK474 and niclosamide also reversed EMT markers and EMT-inducing proteins including Snail, Slug, Twist and CEACAM6 in WSTF-overexpressing A549 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WSTF may act as an oncoprotein in lung cancer to accelerate tumor aggressiveness by promoting EMT via activation of PI3K/Akt and IL-6/STAT3 pathways.

  8. Spatial analysis in a Markov random field framework: The case of burning oil wells in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezzani, Raymond J.; Al-Dousari, Ahmad

    This paper discusses a modeling approach for spatial-temporal prediction of environmental phenomena using classified satellite images. This research was prompted by the analysis of change and landscape redistribution of petroleum residues formed from the residue of the burning oil wells in Kuwait (1991). These surface residues have been termed ``tarcrete'' (El-Baz etal. 1994). The tarcrete forms a thick layer over sand and desert pavement covering a significant portion of south-central Kuwait. The purpose of this study is to develop a method that utilizes satellite images from different time steps to examine the rate-of-change of the oil residue deposits and determine where redistribution is are likely to occur. This problem exhibits general characteristics of environmental diffusion and dispersion phenomena so a theoretical framework for a general solution is sought. The use of a lagged-clique, Markov random field framework and entropy measures is deduced to be an effective solution to satisfy the criteria of determination of time-rate-of-change of the surface deposits and to forecast likely locations of redistribution of dispersed, aggraded residues. The method minimally requires image classification, the determination of time stationarity of classes and the measurement of the level of organization of the state-space information derived from the images. Analysis occurs at levels of both the individual pixels and the system to determine specific states and suites of states in space and time. Convergence of the observed landscape disorder with respect to an analytical maximum provide information on the total dispersion of the residual system.

  9. [Nutritional status of preschool children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Programs (JUNJI): assessment of the agreement among anthropometric indicators of obesity and central obesity].

    PubMed

    Gutiérez-Gómez, Yareni; Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo; Galván, Marcos; Corvalán, Camila

    2009-03-01

    Historically, the anthropometric assessment of nutritional welfare programs has been targeted to assess nutritional deficiencies based on weight-to-age and height-to-age indicators. Recently, given the increase on childhood obesity, it has been also recommended the measurement of indicators of obesity (i.e., weight-to-height) and central obesity (i.e., waist circumference). However, the agreement of these indicators in preschool children is unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) assess the nutritional status of children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Program (JUNJI); (2) assess the agreement between general and central obesity anthropometric measurements in these children. In 574 girls and 580 boys, 3.0 to 5.9 years old, we measured: weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and five skinfolds. We used the WHO 2006 growth standards to estimate Z-scores. We defined general obesity as WHZ or BAZ= 2, and central obesity as waist circumference > or =90 percentile of NHANES III. The participants were on average slightly shorter but considerably heavier and obese than the reference populations. Prevalence of general obesity was close to 16% with both indicators while prevalence of central obesity reached 15%. There was good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators (Kappa = 0.6-0.7). In summary, we found a high prevalence of obesity and central obesity among Chilean preschool children beneficiaries of a welfare program. At this age, there was a good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators. These results suggest that waist circumferences measurements should not be incorporated to the program.

  10. Plasma levels of the anti-coagulation protein C and the risk of ischaemic heart disease. A Mendelian randomisation study.

    PubMed

    Schooling, C Mary; Zhong, Yi

    2017-01-26

    Protein C is an environmentally modifiable anticoagulant, which protects against venous thrombosis, whether it also protects against ischaemic heart disease is unclear, based on observational studies and relatively small genetic studies. It was our study aim to clarify the role of protein C in ischaemic heart disease. The risk of coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction (CAD/MI) was assessed according to genetically predicted protein C in very large studies. Associations with lipids and diabetes were similarly assessed to rule out effects via traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Separate sample instrumental variable analysis with genetic instruments (Mendelian randomisation) was used to obtain an unconfounded estimate of the association of protein C (based on (rs867186 (PROCR), rs3746429 (EDEM2), rs7580658 (inter/PROC)) with CAD/MI in an extensively genotyped case (n=64374)-control (n=130681) study, CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. Associations with lipids and diabetes were similarly assessed using the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium Results (n=196,475) and the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis case (n=34,380)-control (n=114,981) study. Genetically predicted protein C was negatively associated with CAD/MI, odds ratio (OR) 0.85 µg/ml, 95 % confidence interval 0.80 to 0.90, but had no such negative association with lipids or diabetes. Results were similar for the SNP rs867186 functionally relevant to protein C, and including additional potentially pleiotropic SNPs (rs1260326 (GCKR), rs17145713 (BAZ1B) and rs4321325 (CYP27C1)). In conclusion, protein C may protect against CAD/MI. Whether environmental or dietary items that raise protein C protect against ischaemic cardiovascular disease by that mechanism should be investigated.

  11. [Attitudes and practices related to pregnancy and birth in a population from the State of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Zamudio-diaz, L; Barron-hernandez, J; Martinez-sanchez, C; Jimenez-ortiz, T; Suarez-tellez, M

    1988-01-01

    A project about attitudes and practices related to pregnancy and birth was presented by a team of doctors at the Gustavo Baz Hospital in the Municipality of Tlalnepantla and at the National Institute of Perinatology, both in Mexico. The objective of this study was to describe the concepts, the attitudes, and the practices concerning the reproductive process that women and their partners have, in order to use them as a basis for the elaboration of an educational program about reproduction, which will be applied at government Health Centers. 100 pregnant women attending these Health Centers, 1st level, Out-Patient, 2nd level, were selected; all these women had requested prenatal care. A questionaire was used, previously pilot tested, which consisted of 32 questions grouped in 7 areas; 1) General characteristics, 2) Background factors, 3) Reaction when pregnancy was known, 4) Participation of the male partner, 5) Preparation for the newborn, 6) Prenatal Control, and 7) Education about reproduction. The results showed a lack or little planning about the pregnancy preparation for the newborn, limited participation of the male partner, prenatal control initiated with more frequency in the 1st trimester of the pregnancy and a desire to receive information, principally about child care. 2 principal benefits will be derived from modifying the traditional behaviors that intervene in the health and reproduction of the couples studied: Greater responsibility and a positive attitude toward pregnancy, childbirth, puerperium, and child care on the part of the mother and her partner. A high rate of compliance in adhering to instructions from the team of health professionals, acceptance of therapeutic indications, and knowledge on the part of mother and partner will benefit the health of the mother and child diad. (author's)

  12. TEMEL ETİK KURAMLAR AÇISINDAN ADALET ve SAĞLIK HAKKI KAVRAMLARININ DEĞERLENDİRMESİ1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    2015-01-01

    Sağlık hakkı temel bir insan hakkıdır. Ancak günümüzde sağlık hakkının hayata geçmesi, sağlık sunumunda gereksinim duyulan kaynakların kısıtlı olması nedeniyle engeller ile karşılaşmaktadır. Ayrıca tıp alanındaki hızlı teknolojik ilerlemeler, tanı ve tedavi imkânlarının her geçen gün gelişmesine yol açmaktadır. Bu durum, sağlık hizmetlerinin sunumunu dağıtıcı adaletin bir süjesi haline getirmektedir. Adalet kavramının tanımlanabilmesi için öncelikle, birey ya da toplulukların bir şeye ilişkin hak talebinde bulunmalarının koşullarını tanımlanmalı daha sonra hak edilenin kim tarafından ve nasıl verileceğinin belirlenmelidir. Etik kuramlar, etik açıdan doğru eyleyebilmek için hangi dayanak noktalarından yola çıkarak hangi değerleri önceleyerek karar vermek gerektiği konusunda kendi paradigmalarını oluşturmuşlardır. Adalet ve sağlık hakkı gibi temel kavramlar, temel etik kuramlar tarafından, o kuramın bağlamı içinde değerlendirilmekte ve anlam kazanmaktadır. Sağlık hakkı bazı etik kuramlar tarafından insan varlığının doğal bir bileşeni olarak tanımlanırken, bazı etik kuramlar tarafından bağlamsal olarak kabul edilmekte bazıları tarafından ise reddedilmekte, adalet kavramı ve bağlantılı olarak adaletin materyal ve formal ilkeleri gibi kavramların içerikleri ve taşıdıkları değerler içinden bakılan etik kuramın paradigmasına bağlı olarak farklıklar içermektedir. Etik kuramların paradigmaları sadece kavramların tanımlanmasında değil, aynı zamanda pratik uygulamalarda da farklı yaklaşımları gerektirmektedir. Bu çalışmada, erdem etiği, faydacı etik kuram, ödev etiği, liberal etik kuram ve kommuniteryan etik kuramın adalet ve sağlık hakkını nasıl kavramsallaştırdıklarını ortaya konmaktır. Bu amaçla öncelikle her bir etik kuramın genel çerçevesi tanımlanmış ve bu çerçevenin çizdiği teorik paradigma i

  13. Women’s autonomy and men's involvement in child care and feeding as predictors of infant and young child anthropometric indices in coffee farming households of Jimma Zone, South West of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-01-01

    Background Most of child mortality and under nutrition in developing world were attributed to suboptimal childcare and feeding, which needs detailed investigation beyond the proximal factors. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing associations of women’s autonomy and men’s involvement with child anthropometric indices in cash crop livelihood areas of South West Ethiopia. Methods Multi-stage stratified sampling was used to select 749 farming households living in three coffee producing sub-districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Domains of women’s Autonomy were measured by a tool adapted from demographic health survey. A model for determination of paternal involvement in childcare was employed. Caring practices were assessed through the WHO Infant and young child feeding practice core indicators. Length and weight measurements were taken in duplicate using standard techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 21. A multivariable linear regression was used to predict weight for height Z-scores and length for age Z-scores after adjusting for various factors. Results The mean (sd) scores of weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WHZ) and BMI for age (BAZ) was -0.52(1.26), -0.73(1.43), -0.13(1.34) and -0.1(1.39) respectively. The results of multi variable linear regression analyses showed that WHZ scores of children of mothers who had autonomy of conducting big purchase were higher by 0.42 compared to children's whose mothers had not. In addition, a child whose father was involved in childcare and feeding had higher HAZ score by 0.1. Regarding age, as for every month increase in age of child, a 0.04 point decrease in HAZ score and a 0.01 point decrease in WHZ were noted. Similarly, a child living in food insecure households had lower HAZ score by 0.29 compared to child of food secured households. As family size increased by a person a WHZ score of a child is decreased by 0.08. WHZ and HAZ scores of male child was

  14. Next generation sequencing of Apis mellifera syriaca identifies genes for Varroa resistance and beneficial bee keeping traits.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Nizar; Mahmud Batainh, Ahmed; Suleiman Migdadi, Osama; Saini, Deepti; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Parameswaran, Sriram; Alhamuri, Zaid

    2016-08-01

    Apis mellifera syriaca exhibits a high degree of tolerance to pests and pathogens including varroa mites. This native honey bee subspecies of Jordan expresses behavioral adaptations to high temperature and dry seasons typical of the region. However, persistent honey bee imports of commercial breeder lines are endangering local honey bee population. This study reports the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to study the A. m. syriaca genome and to identify genetic factors possibly contributing toward mite resistance and other favorable traits. We obtained a total of 46.2 million raw reads by applying the NGS to sequence A. m. syriaca and used extensive bioinformatics approach to identify several candidate genes for Varroa mite resistance, behavioral and immune responses characteristic for these bees. As a part of characterizing the functional regulation of molecular genetic pathway, we have mapped the pathway genes potentially involved using information from Drosophila melanogaster and present possible functional changes implicated in responses to Varroa destructor mite infestation toward this. We performed in-depth functional annotation methods to identify ∼600 candidates that are relevant, genes involved in pathways such as microbial recognition and phagocytosis, peptidoglycan recognition protein family, Gram negative binding protein family, phagocytosis receptors, serpins, Toll signaling pathway, Imd pathway, Tnf, JAK-STAT and MAPK pathway, heamatopioesis and cellular response pathways, antiviral, RNAi pathway, stress factors, etc. were selected. Finally, we have cataloged function-specific polymorphisms between A. mellifera and A. m. syriaca that could give better understanding of varroa mite resistance mechanisms and assist in breeding. We have identified immune related embryonic development (Cactus, Relish, dorsal, Ank2, baz), Varroa hygiene (NorpA2, Zasp, LanA, gasp, impl3) and Varroa resistance (Pug, pcmt, elk, elf3-s10, Dscam2, Dhc64C, gro

  15. Morphotectonic aspects of active folding in Zagros Mountains (Fin, SE of Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roustaei, M.; Abbasi, M.

    2008-05-01

    Active deformation in Iran, structural province of Zagros is a result of the convergence between the Arabian & Eurasian plates. The Zagros Mountains in southern Iran are one of the seismically active region & is introduced as fold-thrust belt trending NW-SE within the Arabian plate. Fin lies in Hormozgan province; the south of Iran. The vastness is surrounded by central Iran in the north, High Zagros in the North West and west, Folded Zagros in the east, Makran in the south east and Persian Gulf in the south. The study area is determined by complex structures, alternation of folding, salt diapers and faulting. The surface geology mainly comprises Neogene; Marls, Conglomerate, Sandstones (Mishan, Aghajari, Bakhtiyari formations), old fans and alluvium as syncline that Shur River cuts its north limb and passes from the middle of core .The older formations( Ghachsaran, Rzak and Guri member) folded into prominent anticlines. The fold axes mostly follow the parallel trends .Folds trending are NW-SE (Tashkend anticline), NE-SW (Khur anticline), E-W (Guniz & Handun anticline) and the trend of axes Baz fold in the main part is E-W. Hormoz salt also outcrops in the cores of many whaleback anticlines. Thus, anticlines may be cored with evaporates, even though no salt is currently exposed at the surface. Reason of selecting this area as an example referred to active seismcity. Release of energy is gradually in every events, this seismic character cusses that there was not earthquake with high magnitude in the area but it can not be a role. Answer to the question concerning relationship between folding of the crust layer and faulting at depth is more difficult. There is 2 terms to describe this relationship; "detachment folds" and" forced folds". In this paper, we try to analysis of different satellite imagery; Aster, spot and digital elevation model with high resolution (10 m) in order to detect geomorphic indicators which can help us to find a relationship between faulting

  16. New Crater Counts for Mare Basalts in Mare Frigoris and Other Nearside Maria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2003-04-01

    Lunar mare basalts cover about 17% of the lunar surface, occur preferentially on the lunar nearside, and often fill the low-lying inner depressions of large impact basins and craters. Basalts in Mare Frigoris are special in that they occur in an area that is not clearly related to any unambiguously accepted impact structure. Mare Frigoris may be part of the large and very old Procellarum basin, but the existence of this basin is still debated. Mare basalts in Mare Frigoris are relatively homogeneous, low in titanium, have a bright albedo, and strong 1 µm- and prominent 2 µm-absorption bands. The thickness of these basalts has been estimated to be less than 500 m. Wilhelms found the basalts of eastern Mare Frigoris to be of Imbrian age and the basalts of central and western Frigoris (west of ~10deg E) to be Eratosthenian in age. Whitford-Stark proposed that the basalts in Mare Frigoris were emplaced by flood-style eruptions 3.2-3.6 b.y. ago. We report on crater counts for Mare Frigoris, Mare Nectaris, Mare Smythii, Mare Marginis, Mare Vaporum, Sinus Medii, and Palus Putredinis. We also determined ages for basalts exposed in the craters Schickard, Grimaldi, Crüger, Hubble, Joliot, Goddard, and two lava ponds south of the crater Endymion. Our crater counts let us conclude that (1) Mare Frigoris is mostly filled with Imbrian basalts but there are a few areas that are covered with Eratosthenian basalts, (2) these Eratosthenian basalts occur in few small-sized areas north of the crater Plato but are not connected with each other as shown by Wilhelms, (3) basalts in Mare Nectaris, Mare Vaporum, Sinus Medii and Palus Putredinis are Imbrian in age, (4) basalts in Mare Smythii are younger than in Mare Marginis, contrary to the geologic map of Wilhelms and El-Baz, (5) basaltic fills of the craters Goddard, Hubble, and Joliot are of Imbrian age, (6) there are no Eratosthenian basalts in the crater Schickard but basalts in the crater Grimaldi are Eratosthenian in age as

  17. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Nutritional Status in School-age Children from Rural Communities in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. Methodology A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Results Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7–14 years, mean 9.76±1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7–10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (p<0.001). Stunting was observed in 5.6% of children and it was associated with increasing age. Also, 2.2% of studied children were thin, 1.3% underweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ. Conclusions STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite

  18. Correlation of BACH1 and Hemoglobin E/Beta-Thalassemia Globin Expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tze Yan; Muniandy, Logeswaran; Teh, Lai Kuan; Abdullah, Maha; George, Elizabeth; Sathar, Jameela; Lai, Mei I

    2016-03-05

    Amaç: Hemoglobin E (HbE)/β-talaseminin çeşitli klinik fenotipleri klinisyenlerin hasta yönetimi esnasında zihinlerini karıştırmakla kalmamış, α- ve β-globin genotiplerinde bariz benzerlikler varken fenotiplerde farklılıklar bulunduğundan bilim insanlarının hassas eritrosit çevrenin muhafaza edilmesinde yer alan karmaşık mekanizmaları incelemelerine de ön ayak olmuştur. BTB ve CNC homoloji 1 (BACH1) proteininin eritroid hücrelerin son farklılaşması sırasında α- and β-globin gen transkripsiyonlarını ayarladığı bilinmektedir. HbE/β-talasemi hastalığındaki mutasyonlar ile her ne kadar ince ayar amaçlı ise de BACH1’in globin zincir dengesizliğini kompanse etmedeki rolünü inceledik. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Toplam 47 HbE/β-talasemi örneği gerçek zamanlı kantitatif polimeraz zincir reaksiyonu ile incelendi ve yaş, cinsiyet, eritrosit değişkenleri, globin gen sunumları ve bazı klinik veriler ile korele edildi. Bulgular: β-talasemi intermedia hastalarındaki BACH1 sunumu 2-log’a kadar farklılık göstermekteydi ve yaş; α-, β- ve γ-globin gen sunum düzeyleri; ve hem oksijenaz 1 proteini ile pozitif korelasyonu vardı. Ayrıca BACH1’in retikülosit düzeyi ile negatif korelasyonu vardı ve splenektomi ile anlamlı korelasyonu bulunmaktaydı. Sonuç: Bu çalışma hem HbE/β-talasemide bulunan oksidatif stresi hem de globin zincir dengesizliğini azaltmak için BACH1 sunumunun kompansasyon mekanizması olarak artabileceğini göstermiştir.

  19. Koncepcja resilience. Kluczowe pojęcia i wybrane zagadnienia

    PubMed Central

    Borucka, Anna; Ostaszewski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Streszczenie Celem niniejszej pracy jest przybliżenie kluczowych pojęć związanych koncepcją resilience. Ta koncepcja wyjaśnia fenomen pozytywnej adaptacji dzieci i młodzieży narażonych na duże ryzyko, przeciwności losu i/lub zdarzenia traumatyczne. Koncepcja resilience akcentuje znaczenie czynników i mechanizmów chroniących w wieku rozwojowym. Z tych przyczyn może być bardzo użyteczna dla rozwijania programów profilaktyki i promocji zdrowia psychicznego wśród dzieci i młodzieży. W niniejszym przeglądzie wykorzystano prace znaczących Autorów zajmujących się tą dziedziną m.in. M. Ruttera. N. Garmezy, E. Werner, S. Luthar, A. Sameroffa, K. Kumpfer, A. Masten, M. Zimmermana, D. Cicchetti. W przeglądzie uwzględniono ponad 20 artykułów i rozdziałów książkowych, które ukazały się w ostatnich 25 latach. Zostały one wybrane z elektronicznej bazy publikacji dostępnej na Uniwersytecie Michigan: elektronicznej bazy SAMSHA oraz z elektronicznych baz publikacji naukowych dostępnych w naszym kraju. W artykule przytoczono kilka definicji resilience, które wskazują na jej interaktywny i dynamiczny charakter. Uwzględniają one wzajemny wpływ czynników ryzyka i czynników chroniących (i ich interakcję) na zachowanie człowieka, jego kompetencje i zdrowie psychiczne. W pracy opisano podstawowe pojęcia związane z resilience: ryzyko, czynniki ryzyka, czynniki chroniące, pozytywną adaptację oraz teoretyczne modele i mechanizmy resilience. Przedstawiono różnice między mechanizmami ryzyka a mechanizmami chroniącymi. Zasygnalizowano też trudności związane z wykorzystaniem podstawowych pojęć resilience w badaniach empirycznych m.in. w określeniu wskaźników ryzyka, wyodrębnieniu grup ryzyka, określeniu wskaźników pozytywnej adaptacji. PMID:19301507

  20. Young Lunar Volcanic Features: How Did They Form?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, Catherine; Hayne, Paul O.; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Bandfield, Joshua; Ghent, Rebecca; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.

    2016-10-01

    Irregular mare patches (IMPs) on the Moon are younger than 100 Myr [1, 2], but their formation mechanism is unknown. Previous work has suggested caldera collapse [3], explosive outgassing [2], pyroclastic eruptions [4], basaltic lava flows [1, 5], and regolith drainage into graben [6]. Here we present observations from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner thermal radiometer of the four largest IMPs. These observations suggest that the surfaces of the IMPs are on average only slightly rockier than the surrounding regolith. The nighttime cooling curves of the IMPs and the surrounding regolith do not intersect, which suggests that there is no layering in the top 5-10 cm of the IMPs. We also measure the thermal inertia (parameterized through the "H-parameter" [7]) of the IMPs. We find that the thermal inertia of Sosigenes is higher than that of the surrounding regolith (probably due to mass wasting), the thermal inertia of Cauchy-5 and Maskelyne is not significantly different from the surrounding regolith, and the thermal inertia of the largest smooth mound in Ina is significantly lower than the surrounding regolith. Only some IMPs are in topographic depressions or associated with graben, so neither caldera collapse nor drainage into graben can explain the formation of all IMPs. It is unlikely that basaltic lava flows would lead to a thermal inertia lower than that of lunar regolith. Therefore, of the formation mechanisms proposed to date, pyroclastic eruptions or another type of explosive outgassing [e.g. 2] possibly accompanied by basaltic lava flows or drainage into graben best explain the available observations of IMPs.[1] Braden, S. et al. (2014) Nature Geo 7, 787-791. [2] Schultz, P. H. et al. (2006) Nature 444, 184-186. [3] El-Baz, F. (1973) Apollo 17: Preliminary Science Report 330, 30-13. [4] Carter, L. B. et al. (2013) LPSC 44, 2146. [5] Garry, W. B. et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H31. [6] Qiao, L. et al. (2002) LPSC 47, 2002. [7] Vasavada, A. R. et al

  1. Association of NOD2 and IL23R with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Veroushka; Guo, Xiuqing; Vendrell, Roberto; Haritunians, Talin; Klomhaus, Alexandra M.; Li, Dalin; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Torres, Esther A.; Taylor, Kent D.

    2014-01-01

    The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn’s disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 9×10−6) and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p = 3.8×10−4). The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and “local” continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 2×10−6). Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci. PMID:25259511

  2. Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation and Long Term Health Impact in Children in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, Tania; Ahmed, Sultan; Akhtar, Evana; Roy, Anjan Kumar; Haq, Md Ahsanul; Roy, Adity; Kippler, Maria; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Raqib, Rubhana

    2016-01-01

    Background Limited data is available on the role of prenatal nutritional status on the health of school-age children. We aimed to determine the impact of maternal micronutrient supplementation on the health status of Bangladeshi children. Methods Children (8.6–9.6 years; n = 540) were enrolled from a longitudinal mother-child cohort, where mothers were supplemented daily with either 30mg iron and 400μg folic acid (Fe30F), or 60mg iron and 400μg folic acid (Fe60F), or Fe30F including 15 micronutrients (MM), in rural Matlab. Blood was collected from children to determine the concentration of hemoglobin (Hb) and several micronutrients. Anthropometric and Hb data from these children were also available at 4.5 years of age and mothers at gestational week (GW) 14 and 30. Results MM supplementation significantly improved (p≤0.05) body mass index-for-age z-score (BAZ), but not Hb levels, in 9 years old children compared to the Fe30F group. MM supplementation also reduced markers of inflammation (p≤0.05). About 28%, 35% and 23% of the women were found to be anemic at GW14, GW30 and both time points, respectively. The prevalence of anemia was 5% and 15% in 4.5 and 9 years old children, respectively. The adjusted odds of having anemia in 9 year old children was 3-fold higher if their mothers were anemic at both GW14 and GW30 [Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.05; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.42, 6.14, P = 0.002] or even higher if they were also anemic at 4.5 years of age [OR = 5.92; 95% CI 2.64, 13.25; P<0.001]. Conclusion Maternal micronutrient supplementation imparted beneficial effects on child health. Anemia during pregnancy and early childhood are important risk factors for the occurrence of anemia in school-age children. PMID:27537051

  3. Pleiotropic genes for metabolic syndrome and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kraja, Aldi T; Chasman, Daniel I; North, Kari E; Reiner, Alexander P; Yanek, Lisa R; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Smith, Jennifer A; Dehghan, Abbas; Dupuis, Josée; Johnson, Andrew D; Feitosa, Mary F; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Chu, Audrey Y; Nolte, Ilja M; Dastani, Zari; Morris, Andrew; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Sun, Yan V; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Vaez, Ahmad; Lin, Honghuang; Ligthart, Symen; Marullo, Letizia; Rohde, Rebecca; Shao, Yaming; Ziegler, Mark A; Im, Hae Kyung; Schnabel, Renate B; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit E; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Stolk, Ronald P; Snieder, Harold; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Franco, Oscar H; Ikram, M Arfan; Richards, J Brent; Rotimi, Charles; Wilson, James G; Lange, Leslie; Ganesh, Santhi K; Nalls, Mike; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Pankow, James S; Coresh, Josef; Tang, Weihong; Linda Kao, W H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C; Ridker, Paul M; Becker, Diane M; Rotter, Jerome I; Kardia, Sharon L R; Loos, Ruth J F; Larson, Martin G; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Province, Michael A; Tracy, Russell; Voight, Benjamin F; Vaidya, Dhananjay; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Benjamin, Emelia J; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Prokopenko, Inga; Meigs, James B; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors, genetic variants exist that influence MetS and inflammatory markers forming a predisposing MetS genetic network. To test this hypothesis a staged approach was undertaken. (a) We analyzed 17 metabolic and inflammatory traits in more than 85,500 participants from 14 large epidemiological studies within the Cross Consortia Pleiotropy Group. Individuals classified with MetS (NCEP definition), versus those without, showed on average significantly different levels for most inflammatory markers studied. (b) Paired average correlations between 8 metabolic traits and 9 inflammatory markers from the same studies as above, estimated with two methods, and factor analyses on large simulated data, helped in identifying 8 combinations of traits for follow-up in meta-analyses, out of 130,305 possible combinations between metabolic traits and inflammatory markers studied. (c) We performed correlated meta-analyses for 8 metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664, PDXDC1, FTO, MC4R and TOMM40. Based on large data evidence, we conclude that inflammation is a feature of MetS and several gene variants show pleiotropic genetic

  4. The geovisualisation window of the temporal and spatial variability for Volunteered Geographic Information activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medynska-Gulij, Beata; Myszczuk, Miłosz

    2012-11-01

    panele jest wyeksponowana graficznie pojedyncza aktywnosc. Przetwarzanie danych odbyło sie w srodowisku open source, a technologia funkcjonowania aplikacji okna geowizualizacji bazowała na zastosowaniu asynchronicznych zapytan do serwera WWW oraz serwera baz danych co zapewnia sprawne "odswiezanie” poszczególnych paneli.

  5. To Bleed or Not to Bleed. A Prediction Based on Individual Gene Profiling Combined With Dose-Volume Histogram Shapes in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Valdagni, Riccardo Rancati, Tiziana; Ghilotti, Marco; Cozzarini, Cesare; Vavassori, Vittorio; Fellin, Gianni; Fiorino, Claudio; Girelli, Giuseppe; Barra, Salvina; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Pierotti, Marco Alessandro; Gariboldi, Manuela

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this work was to try to elucidate why, despite excellent rectal dose-volume histograms (DVHs), some patients treated for prostate cancer exhibit late rectal bleeding (LRB) and others with poor DVHs do not. Thirty-five genes involved in DNA repair/radiation response were analyzed in patients accrued in the AIROPROS 0101 trial, which investigated the correlation between LRB and dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients undergoing conformal radiotherapy with prescription doses higher than 70 Gy (minimum follow-up, 48 months) were selected: 10 patients in the low-risk group (rectal DVH with the percent volume of rectum receiving more than 70 Gy [V70Gy] < 20% and the percent volume of rectum receiving more than 50 Gy [V50Gy] < 55%) with Grade 2 or Grade 3 (G2-G3) LRB, 10 patients in the high-risk group (V70Gy > 25% and V50Gy > 60%) with G2-G3 LRB, and 10 patients in the high-risk group with no toxicity. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed on RNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained from Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized peripheral-blood mononucleated cells and on peripheral blood mononucleated cells. Interexpression levels were compared by using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Intergroup comparison showed many constitutive differences: nine genes were significantly down-regulated in the low-risk bleeder group vs. the high-risk bleeder and high-risk nonbleeder groups: AKR1B1 (p = 0.019), BAZ1B (p = 0.042), LSM7 (p = 0.0016), MRPL23 (p = 0.015), NUDT1 (p = 0.0031), PSMB4 (p = 0.079), PSMD1 (p = 0.062), SEC22L1 (p = 0.040), and UBB (p = 0.018). Four genes were significantly upregulated in the high-risk nonbleeder group than in the other groups: DDX17 (p = 0.048), DRAP1 (p = 0.0025), RAD23 (p = 0.015), and SRF (p = 0.024). For most of these genes, it was possible to establish a cut-off value that correctly classified most patients. Conclusions: The predictive value of sensitivity and

  6. Density Variations in Quartz As a Key for Deciphering Impact-Related Ultrasonic Sounding (Rajlich's Hypothesis)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestan, J.; Alvarez Polanco, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound is a form of mechanical energy with a frequency greater than ≈ 20 kHz (upper human hearing limit). It is used in many scientific as well as industrial fields. Most modern applications of ultrasound utilize sources which are either piezoelectric or magnetostrictive (Benwell et Bly 1987). A meteorite impact has been considered to be an ultrasound source during last years (Rajlich 2011). Rajlich (2014) is coming with a hypothesis that white planes made of microcavities in Bohemian quartz have their origin in an impact-related ultrasonic sounding. The Bohemian Massif has been considered to be one of the largest impact craters in whole of the world (Papagiannis et El-Baz 1988, Papagiannis 1989, Rajlich 2014). Rajlich's hypothesis implies a liquid behavior of quartz during the impact event. We state that then there have to exist planes of slightly higher density than their surroundings together with planes of microcavities. They should intersect each other without mutual influencing (as in a case of planes made of microcavities). Because physics of ultrasound during an impact event is a brand new and unknown field, we try to choose a simple way of its cognition. It is possible to take the sine wave and set 3 requirements. (1) There exist some surroundings of points of peak amplitudes. (2) These surroundings are of higher density (compression) or lower density (rarefaction) than the mean density of quartz. (3) The difference between the higher/lower and surrounding density is measurable. There was done an experimental study of Bohemian quartz using QCT bone densitometry at the Radiology Munich. Quartz with a size of ≈ 5 x 8 cm absorbed too much RTG radiation (kV 140, mAs 330), which made a picture of internal structure impossible. We propose another techniques and appeal to other scientists to face this challenge. If Bohemian quartz has a harmonically distributed density, we consider it to be a support for Rajlich's hypothesis. AcknowledgementsWe would like

  7. Gene-centric Association Signals for Lipids and Apolipoproteins Identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip

    PubMed Central

    Talmud, Philippa J.; Drenos, Fotios; Shah, Sonia; Shah, Tina; Palmen, Jutta; Verzilli, Claudio; Gaunt, Tom R.; Pallas, Jacky; Lovering, Ruth; Li, Kawah; Casas, Juan Pablo; Sofat, Reecha; Kumari, Meena; Rodriguez, Santiago; Johnson, Toby; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Dominiczak, Anna; Samani, Nilesh J.; Caulfield, Mark; Sever, Peter; Stanton, Alice; Shields, Denis C.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Melander, Olle; Hastie, Claire; Delles, Christian; Ebrahim, Shah; Marmot, Michael G.; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Day, Ian N.; Kivimaki, Mika; Whittaker, John; Humphries, Steve E.; Hingorani, Aroon D.

    2009-01-01

    Blood lipids are important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with both genetic and environmental determinants. The Whitehall II study (n = 5592) was genotyped with the gene-centric HumanCVD BeadChip (Illumina). We identified 195 SNPs in 16 genes/regions associated with 3 major lipid fractions and 2 apolipoprotein components at p < 10−5, with the associations being broadly concordant with prior genome-wide analysis. SNPs associated with LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were located in LDLR, PCSK9, APOB, CELSR2, HMGCR, CETP, the TOMM40-APOE-C1-C2-C4 cluster, and the APOA5-A4-C3-A1 cluster; SNPs associated with HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI were in CETP, LPL, LIPC, APOA5-A4-C3-A1, and ABCA1; and SNPs associated with triglycerides in GCKR, BAZ1B, MLXIPL, LPL, and APOA5-A4-C3-A1. For 48 SNPs in previously unreported loci that were significant at p < 10−4 in Whitehall II, in silico analysis including the British Women's Heart and Health Study, BRIGHT, ASCOT, and NORDIL studies (total n > 12,500) revealed previously unreported associations of SH2B3 (p < 2.2 × 10−6), BMPR2 (p < 2.3 × 10−7), BCL3/PVRL2 (flanking APOE; p < 4.4 × 10−8), and SMARCA4 (flanking LDLR; p < 2.5 × 10−7) with LDL cholesterol. Common alleles in these genes explained 6.1%–14.7% of the variance in the five lipid-related traits, and individuals at opposite tails of the additive allele score exhibited substantial differences in trait levels (e.g., >1 mmol/L in LDL cholesterol [∼1 SD of the trait distribution]). These data suggest that multiple common alleles of small effect can make important contributions to individual differences in blood lipids potentially relevant to the assessment of CVD risk. These genes provide further insights into lipid metabolism and the likely effects of modifying the encoded targets therapeutically. PMID:19913121

  8. Pleiotropic genes for metabolic syndrome and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kraja, Aldi T.; Chasman, Daniel I.; North, Kari E.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Dehghan, Abbas; Dupuis, Josée; Johnson, Andrew D.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Chu, Audrey Y.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Dastani, Zari; Morris, Andrew; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Sun, Yan V.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Vaez, Ahmad; Lin, Honghuang; Ligthart, Symen; Marullo, Letizia; Rohde, Rebecca; Shao, Yaming; Ziegler, Mark A.; Im, Hae Kyung; Schnabel, Renate B.; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Stolk, Ronald P.; Snieder, Harold; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Franco, Oscar H.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Richards, J. Brent; Rotimi, Charles; Wilson, James G.; Lange, Leslie; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Nalls, Mike; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Pankow, James S.; Coresh, Josef; Tang, Weihong; Kao, W.H. Linda; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Becker, Diane M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Larson, Martin G.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Province, Michael A.; Tracy, Russell; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; O’Donnell, Christopher; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Prokopenko, Inga; Meigs, James B.; Borecki, Ingrid B.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors, genetic variants exist that influence MetS and inflammatory markers forming a predisposing MetS genetic network. To test this hypothesis a staged approach was undertaken. (a) We analyzed 17 metabolic and inflammatory traits in more than 85,500 participants from 14 large epidemiological studies within the Cross Consortia Pleiotropy Group. Individuals classified with MetS (NCEP definition), versus those without, showed on average significantly different levels for most inflammatory markers studied. (b) Paired average correlations between 8 metabolic traits and 9 inflammatory markers from the same studies as above, estimated with two methods, and factor analyses on large simulated data, helped in identifying 8 combinations of traits for follow-up in meta-analyses, out of 130,305 possible combinations between metabolic traits and inflammatory markers studied. (c) We performed correlated meta-analyses for 8 metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664, PDXDC1, FTO, MC4R and TOMM40. Based on large data evidence, we conclude that inflammation is a feature of MetS and several gene variants show pleiotropic genetic

  9. Remote sensing of the hydrologic history of the eastern Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, T. G.; Blom, R. G.; Paillou, P.

    2010-12-01

    The eastern Sahara Desert has never been thoroughly mapped in terms of the landforms and subsurface signs of past climates conducive to human occupation. As part of ongoing work and through a new proposal to NASA, we are generating new maps of the paleohydrology, topography, geomorphology, and surficial deposits of the area and developing GIS-based models which use the data to pinpoint past resources and travel pathways. The maps we are generating will constitute a unique resource for exploration for water and archeological sites in the Gilf Kebir and other regions of NE Africa. That the Sahara was favorable for human habitation at times has long been known. With the remarkable paleo-landscape revealed by the L-band (25 cm) Shuttle Imaging Radar-A in 1981, it became clear that ancient humans concentrated along integrated drainage systems dubbed “radar rivers” by McCauley and colleagues. However SIR-A and subsequent long-wavelength radar coverage was limited and regional understanding of the drainage network has remained elusive. We are mapping the area with three sensors optimized for mapping and characterizing arid regions: The Japanese PALSAR L-band imaging radar, NASA’s SRTM, and ASTER. Together these sensors provide full coverage of the area allowing characterization and mapping of surface and subsurface landforms formed and modified by former wetter climates. In particular and following the work of Ghoneim, Robinson, El Baz and others, we are mapping the regional drainage network revealed by the radar images and applying modern analysis tools to the drainage basins and channels. These include drainage density, channel gradient vs. distance, and longitudinal and cross-channel topographic profiles. We use these quantities to estimate a stream’s past approach to equilibrium and this to infer balances between climate, tectonic uplift, and other changes in base level. Discovery over the last few years of large paleolakes (e.g. Mega Lake Chad, North Darfur

  10. Selected Properties of Flotation Tailings Wastes Deposited in the Gilów and Żelazny Most Waste Reservoirs Regarding Their Potential Environmental Management / Wybrane Właściwości Odpadów Poflotacyjnych Zdeponowanych W Zbiornikach Gilów I Żelazny Most W Aspekcie Możliwości Ich Zagospodarowania Przyrodniczego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Agnieszka; Śliwka, Małgorzata; Lis, Marcin

    2013-09-01

    Wastes originating from copper mining, particularly generated during the ore enrichment process constitute a considerable percentage of industrial wastes in Poland, which theoretically are supposed to provide a raw material base but remain wholly unmanaged. Wastes from copper flotation are deposited on the waste dumps which pose a significant eco-toxicological hazard. The paper discussed the results of analysis of selected post-floatation waste properties deposited in the Żelazny Most and Gilów reservoirs from the perspective of their environmental management. Odpady pochodzące z górnictwa miedzi, szczególnie powstające w procesie wzbogacania rudy, stanowią znaczny odsetek odpadów przemysłowych w naszym kraju, które teoretycznie zasilić mają bazę surowcową i w całości pozostają niezagospodarowane. Odpady z procesu flotacji miedzi są deponowane na składowiskach i stanowią zagrożeniem ekologicznym i ekotoksykologicznym dla środowiska przyrodniczego i człowieka. Niekorzystne oddziaływanie składowisk odpadów poflotacyjnych na środowisko to przede wszystkim deformacje terenu, zanieczyszczenia gleb zanieczyszczeń roślinności metalami ciężkimi, oraz zanieczyszczenie wód powierzchniowych i podziemnych. W artykule zostały omówione niektóre właściwości fizykochemiczne oraz ekotoksykologiczne odpadów poflotacyjnych deponowanych w zbiornikach Żelazny Most i Gilów pod kątem ich biologicznego zagospodarowania. Próbki pobranych osadów, po odpowiednim przygotowaniu, poddano ocenie wybranych parametrów fizycznych, analizie chemicznej oraz serii testów ekotoksykologicznych. Właściwości ekotoksykologiczne osadów oceniono przy użyciu baterii biotestów składającej się z dwóch biotestów pracujących na pięciu organizmach (tab. 1). W teście Phytotoxkit do pomiaru toksyczności osadu wykorzystano trzy rośliny: Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum i Sinapis alba. Mierzonym parametrem było zahamowanie kiełkowania nasion oraz d

  11. Crustal thickness variation beneath the Romanian seismic network from Rayleigh wave dispersion and receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan; Zaharia, Bogdan

    2014-05-01

    Variations in crustal thickness in Romania where determined by joint inversion of P wave receiver functions (RFs) and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion. We present new models of shear wave velocity structure of the crust beneath Romanian broad band stations. The data set consist in more than 500 teleseismic earthquake with epicentral distance between 30° and 95°, magnitude greater than 6 and a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 3 for the P-wave pulse. Most epicenters are situated along the northern Pacific Rim and arrive with backazimuths (BAZs) between 0° and 135° at the Romanian seismic network. We combine receiver functions with fundamental-mode of the Rayleigh wave group velocities to further constrain the shear-wave velocity structure.To extract the group velocities we applied the Multiple Filter Technique analysis to the vertical components of the earthquakes recordings. This technique allowed us to identify the Rayleigh wave fundamental mode and to compute the dispersion curves of the group velocities at periods between 10 and 150 s allowing us to resolve shear wave velocities to a depth of 100 km. The time-domain iterative deconvolution procedure of Ligorrıa and Ammon (1999) was employed to deconvolve the vertical component of the teleseismic P waveforms from the corresponding horizontal components and obtain radial and transverse receiver functions at each broadband station. The data are inverted using a joint, linearized inversion scheme (Hermann, 2002) which accounts for the relative influence of each set of observations, and allows a trade-off between fitting the observations, constructing a smooth model, and matching a priori constraints. The results show a thin crust for stations located inside the Pannonian basin (28-30 km) and a thicker crust for those in the East European Platform (36-40 km). The stations within the Southern and Central Carpathian Orogen are characterized by crustal depths of ~35 km. For stations located in the Northern

  12. The Association of HLA Class 1 and Class 2 Antigens with Multiple Myeloma in Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Sayad, Arezou; Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; Mehdizadeh, Mahshid; Roshandel, Elham; Abedinpour, Soheila; Hajifathali, Abbas

    2014-12-05

    Amaç: Multiple myeloma (MM), malign plazma hürelerinin klonal çoğalması ile karakterize bir B hücre neoplazisidir. Çeşitli çalışmaların sonuçlarına göre, bazı sınıf 1 ve 2 HLA genlerinin hastalığa yatkınlık sağladığına dair görüşler ortaya atılmıştır. Farklı popülasyonlarda yapılan çalışmalarda, farklı HLA sınıf 1 ve 2 allellerinin MM üzerine etkisi olduğu bildirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada, İranlı MM hastalarında HLA sınıf 1 ve sınıf 2 antijenlerinin birlikteliğini değerlendirdik. Gereç ve Yöntemler: HLA-Ready Gene ABDR kitleriyle tekli spesifik primer polimeraz zincir reaksiyonu yönteminin kullanıldığı bu olgu-kontrol genetiplendirme çalışmasında, hasta grubuna Taleghani Hastanesi kemik iliği nakli bölümünden seçilen 105 İranlı MM hastası ve 150 de kontrol olgusu dahil edilmiştir.Bulgular: Çalışma sonucunda, HLA-A*03 hasta grubunda %21 ve kontrol grubunda %12 bulunurken, HLA-B*18 ise hasta grubunda %11 ve kontrol grubunda %3 olarak saptanmıştır. MM hastalarının HLA-A*03 ve HLA-B*18 allele sahip olma oranı kontrol olgularıyla karşılaştırıldığında istatistiki olarak anlamlı olacak şekilde yüksek bulunmuştur (p=0,039, OR=2,057 ve p=0,013, OR=3,567, sırasıyla). Sonuç: Bizim bulgularımız, İran toplumunda HLA-A*03 ve HLA-B*18 allel varlığının istatistiki olarak anlamlı olacak şekilde MM’ye yatkınlık yarattığını ortaya koymaktadır. Bununla birlikte, diğer toplumlara bakıldığında adı geçen allellerin aynı sonucu doğurmadıkları görülmektedir. Farklı etnik gruplar arasındaki bu birlikteliği değerlendiren fazla sayıda çalışma olmadığı için, gelecek dönemlerde MM’li hastalarda HLA genlerinin birlikteliğinin sonuçlarını izah edebilecek daha ayrıntılı çalışmalara gereksinim vardır.

  13. New Criteria to Assess Seismic and Rock Burst Hazard in Coal Mines / Nowe Kryteria Dla Oceny Zagrożenia Sejsmicznego I Tąpaniami W Kopalniach Węgla Kamiennego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutke, Grzegorz; Dubiński, Józef; Lurka, Adam

    2015-09-01

    niektórych przypadkach również wypadki śmiertelne. Przedstawiono podstawowe parametry sejsmologiczne stosowane w kraju i w świecie do oceny zagrożenia sejsmicznego. Opisano podstawowe zasady metody kompleksowej oceny stanu zagrożenia tąpnięciem, w skład której wchodzi metoda sejsmologiczna bieżącej (pomiarowej) oceny stanu zagrożenia. Od wielu lat, wraz z ciągłym rozwojem bazy aparaturowej i możliwości w zakresie cyfrowej rejestracji sejsmogramów oraz przetwarzania i interpretacji danych pomiarowych wzrasta znaczenie metod sejsmicznych, które są dzisiaj powszechnie stosowane w polskich kopalniach zagrożonych tąpaniami. Ciągła obserwacja zjawisk sejsmicznych indukowanych w trakcie rozwoju procesu eksploatacji pokładów węgla umożliwiła, w oparciu o zgromadzoną bazę danych, opracowywanie nowych kryteriów zagrożenia sejsmicznego oraz zagrożenia tąpnięciem, które winny wyraźnie poprawić efektywność metody sejsmologii górniczej. W artykule przedstawiono nowe kryteria oceny stanu bieżącego zagrożenia tąpaniami zaproponowane do stosowania w polskich kopalniach węgla kamiennego, które prowadzą eksploatację systemem ścianowym. Kryteria te są oparte na wynikach ciągłej rejestracji sejsmologicznej, połączonej z bieżącą analizą zarejestrowanych wstrząsów i obliczaniem wybranych parametrów sejsmologicznych. Parametry te to położenie ognisk wstrząsów w stosunku do wyrobisk eksploatacyjnych, energia sejsmiczna wstrząsów, suma energii sejsmicznej wyzwolona na każde 5m postępu ściany eksploatacyjnej, wartość wagowanego parametru amplitudy prędkości drgań PPVW, moment sejsmiczny M0, indeks energii EI oraz parametr b rozkładu wstrząsów według relacji Gutenberga-Richtera. Wartości powyższych parametrów są określane dla każdej doby lub w przesuwających się co dobę oknach czasowych lub oknach zawierających określoną liczbę wstrząsów, a następnie porównywane, raz na dobę, z ich wartościami

  14. Ages of Lunar Light Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Howes van der Bogert, Carolyn; Thiessen, Fiona; Robinson, Mark

    2013-04-01

    light plains are necessary to corroborate this preliminary observation. In general, our new absolute model ages are similar to model ages derived for light plains north of Mare Frigoris (3.65-4.0 Ga) [6], light plains within the SPA basin (3.43-3.81 Ga) [7], and light plains in the surroundings of the Orientale and Imbrium basins (3.8-4.3 Ga) [8]. The ages are not only similar, but also show similar ranges. While our model ages vary by about 300 Ma, model ages of [6,7] exhibit ranges of ~350 Ma and ~380 Ma, respectively. Ages of [8] show a somewhat wider range of ~500 Ma. From this wide range in ages it has been concluded that a formation of the light plains by a single event (i.e., Orientale or Imbrium) is unlikely [6-8]. References: [1] Wilhelms and McCauley (1971), USGS I-703; [2] Stuart-Alexander (1978), USGS I-1047; [3] Wilhelms et al. (1979), USGS I-1162; [4] Scott et al. (1977), USGS I-1034; [5] Wilhelms and El-Baz (1977), USGS I-948; [6] Köhler et al. (2000), LPSC 31, #1822; [7] Thiessen et al. (2012), LPSC 43, #2060; [8] Neukum (1977b), Moon 17, 383-393.

  15. Visualization of Multidimensional Data in Purpose of Qualitative Classification of Various Types of Coal / Wizualizacja Wielowymiarowych Danych W Celu Klasyfikacji JAKOŚCIOWEJ RÓŻNYCH TYPÓW WĘGLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedoba, Tomasz; Jamróz, Dariusz

    2013-12-01

    węgla łącznie. Zdecydowano się na zastosowanie nowatorskich metod wizualizacji wielowymiarowych danych, którymi były metoda tuneli obserwacyjnych oraz metoda osi równoległych. Zasady i metodyka badań zostały przedstawione w podrozdziałach 2 i 3. Zastosowane metody umożliwiły uzyskanie wizualizacji siedmiowymiarowych danych opisujących węgiel. Za pomocą tych wizualizacji możliwe jest zaobserwowanie wyraźnego podziału przestrzeni cech pomiędzy badanymi typami węgla. Metody te umożliwiły spojrzenie na badane dane z różnych perspektyw, które pozwalają na stwierdzenie zasadniczych różnic badanych materiałów. Dla badanych węgli stwierdzono wyraźne takie różnice co świadczy o tym, że za pomocą proponowanych metod możliwa jest skuteczna identyfikacja typu węgla, jak również dokładniejsza analiza jego poszczególnych cech i identyfikacja np. klasy ziarnowej. Szczegółowe obrazy i ich interpretacja zostały przedstawione w rozdziale 3 i we wnioskach końcowych. Rysunki 3-5 obrazują różnice pomiędzy poszczególnymi typami węgla otrzymane metodą tuneli obserwacyjnych. Wyraźnie można rozgraniczyć próbki dotyczące poszczególnych węgli a tym samym możliwa jest identyfikacja typu węgla na podstawie wielowymiarowej analizy. Rysunki 6-7 pokazują zastosowanie innej metody wielowymiarowej, którą była metoda osi równoległych. Metoda ta okazała się być skuteczna do uzyskania informacji o konieczności przeskalowania poszczególnych cech, w celu uzyskania bardziejczytelnych rezultatów. Natomiast rysunek 10 pokazuje różnice otrzymane metodą tuneli obserwacyjnych pomiędzy charakterystykami konkretnych klas ziarnowych wybranego materiału, którym w tym przypadku był węgiel typu 31. Uzyskane wyniki i zastosowana metodyka są nowatorskie i stanowią bazę pod bardziej szczegółowe badania, biorące pod uwagę także inne charakterystyki węgli, w tym ich strukturę i teksturę. Za pomocą przedstawionych metod mo

  16. The Application of Coreless Inductors for Displacement Measurements in Laboratory Investigations of Rock Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurkowski, Janusz

    2014-12-01

    ści termicznej (rys. 7). Zmiany częstotliwości z czujnika referencyjnego są poprawkami do wskazań czujnika pomiarowego. Oba czujniki są naprzemiennie podłączane do tego samego generatora poprzez elektroniczny przełącznik (rys. 5). Zastosowanie jednego generatora powoduje, że poprawki te umożliwiają również praktycznie całkowitą eliminację błędu pomiaru ze względu na zmiany temperatury otoczenia i napięcia zasilania na generator i częstościomierz. Charakterystyka przetwornika długość-częstotliwość jest nieliniowa (rys. 3), co wynika z zależności między długością cewki czujnika, więc jej indukcyjnością, a częstotliwością rezonansową obwodu LC (1). Najdokładniej charakterystykę czujnika otrzymać można przez wzorcowanie. Uwzględnione są wtedy głównie pasożytnicze indukcyjności i pojemności połączeń, których wartości trudno obliczyć lub zmierzyć. W pomiarach należy dążyć, na ile to możliwe, do montowania krótkiego czujnika do długich próbek, w ten sposób zmiany długości badanego materiału będą większe, a krótszy czujnik dozna większego odkształcenia, więc czułość pomiaru będzie duża. Jednak zbyt krótki czujnik ma małą indukcyjność i wtedy jego czułość ograniczy indukcyjność połączeń (2). Opracowano dwa podstawowe typy takiego czujnika. Pierwszy, do pomiaru odkształceń liniowych, np. do pomiaru ściśliwości (rys. 2 i 6), o prostej cewce, który jest mocowany do próbki za pośrednictwem zaczepów przytwierdzonych do niej. W ten sposób czujnik nie kontaktuje się bezpośrednio z powierzchnią próbki, i odkształca się bez tarcia, co umożliwia precyzyjny pomiar, szczególnie przy obciążaniu cyklicznym. Bazę pomiarową można dostosowywać do długości próbki, mocując czujnik do zaczepów poprzez łączniki, uzyskując globalny pomiar odkształceń. Czujnik mierzy zmiany długości z rozdzielczością poniżej 1 μm, przy maksymalnych odkształceniach czujnika o kilkadziesi