Science.gov

Sample records for independent practice associations

  1. Independent practice associations and physician-hospital organizations can improve care management for smaller practices.

    PubMed

    Casalino, Lawrence P; Wu, Frances M; Ryan, Andrew M; Copeland, Kennon; Rittenhouse, Diane R; Ramsay, Patricia P; Shortell, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    Pay-for-performance, public reporting, and accountable care organization programs place pressures on physicians to use health information technology and organized care management processes to improve the care they provide. But physician practices that are not large may lack the resources and size to implement such processes. We used data from a unique national survey of 1,164 practices with fewer than twenty physicians to provide the first information available on the extent to which independent practice associations (IPAs) and physician-hospital organizations (PHOs) might make it possible for these smaller practices to share resources to improve care. Nearly a quarter of the practices participated in an IPA or a PHO that accounted for a significant proportion of their patients. On average, practices participating in these organizations provided nearly three times as many care management processes for patients with chronic conditions as nonparticipating practices did (10.4 versus 3.8). Half of these processes were provided only by IPAs or PHOs. These organizations may provide a way for small and medium-size practices to systematically improve care and participate in accountable care organizations. PMID:23918481

  2. Independent practice associations and physician-hospital organizations can improve care management for smaller practices.

    PubMed

    Casalino, Lawrence P; Wu, Frances M; Ryan, Andrew M; Copeland, Kennon; Rittenhouse, Diane R; Ramsay, Patricia P; Shortell, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    Pay-for-performance, public reporting, and accountable care organization programs place pressures on physicians to use health information technology and organized care management processes to improve the care they provide. But physician practices that are not large may lack the resources and size to implement such processes. We used data from a unique national survey of 1,164 practices with fewer than twenty physicians to provide the first information available on the extent to which independent practice associations (IPAs) and physician-hospital organizations (PHOs) might make it possible for these smaller practices to share resources to improve care. Nearly a quarter of the practices participated in an IPA or a PHO that accounted for a significant proportion of their patients. On average, practices participating in these organizations provided nearly three times as many care management processes for patients with chronic conditions as nonparticipating practices did (10.4 versus 3.8). Half of these processes were provided only by IPAs or PHOs. These organizations may provide a way for small and medium-size practices to systematically improve care and participate in accountable care organizations.

  3. Guide to good practices for independent verification

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Independent Verification, Chapter X of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing independent verification activities. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Independent Verification is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for coordinated independent verification activities to promote safe and efficient operations.

  4. State of the Diversity Practice in Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amada

    2015-01-01

    During the spring of 2014, the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) commissioned Insightlink Communications, a market research firm, to conduct the second survey on the state of the diversity practice in independent schools. The goals of the study included defining the roles played by diversity practitioners, their functions, and…

  5. Executive Dysfunction is Independently Associated with Reduced Functional Independence in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; van Dulmen, Manfred; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives To examine the independent association between executive function with instrumental activities of daily living and health behaviors in older adults with heart failure. Background Executive function is an important contributor to functional independence as it consists of cognitive processes needed for decision-making, planning, organizing, and behavioral monitoring. Impairment in this domain is common in heart failure patients and associated with reduced performance of instrumental activities of daily living in many medical and neurological populations. However, the contribution of executive functions to functional independence and healthy lifestyle choices in heart failure patients has not been fully examined. Design Cross-sectional analyses. Methods 175 heart failure patients completed a neuropsychological battery and echocardiogram. Participants also completed the Lawton-Brody instrumental activities of daily living scale and reported current cigarette use. Results Hierarchical regressions revealed reduced executive function was independently associated with worse instrumental activity of daily living performance with a specific association for decreased ability to manage medications. Partial correlations showed executive dysfunction was associated with current cigarette use. Conclusions Our findings suggest that executive dysfunction is associated with poorer functional independence and contributes to unhealthy behaviors in heart failure. Future studies should examine whether heart failure patients benefit from formal organization schemae (i.e., pill organizers) to maintain independence. Relevance to Clinical Practice Screening of executive function in heart failure patients may provide key insight into their ability to perform daily tasks, including management of treatment recommendations. PMID:23650879

  6. Effective Practice in the Design of Directed Independent Learning Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Liz; Jones, Robert; Ottaway, James

    2015-01-01

    This study, commissioned by the HEA and the QAA focuses on directed independent learning practices in UK higher education. It investigates what stakeholders (including academic staff and students) have found to be the most effective practices in the inception, design, quality assurance and enhancement of directed independent learning and explores…

  7. Decision-Making Practices of Trustees at Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Frances Clementine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine decision-making practices of trustees in good private, independent schools by studying and analyzing the structure of their governing boards, thus providing insight into their leadership practices. A multiple choice survey questionnaire and personal interviews were utilized to glean information from a sample…

  8. Sandra L. Shullman: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice. The 2012 winner is Sandra L. Shullman for her outstanding contributions and leadership as an independent practitioner in the fields of counseling and consulting psychology. Through her…

  9. Introducing and Integrating Gifted Education into an Existing Independent School: An Analysis of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibben, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In this analysis of practice, I conduct a combination formative and summative program evaluation of an initiative introduced to serve gifted learners at The Ocean School (TOS), an independent, Pre-K-grade 8 day school located in a rural area of the West Coast. Using the best practices as articulated by the National Association of Gifted Children…

  10. Collection Development in Practice in an Independent School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altan, Susan

    1982-01-01

    Discusses collection development practices employed at two media centers of the Columbus School for Girls, an independent day school serving 605 students in grades K-12. Concepts highlighted are: philosophy of collection development, knowledge of school curriculum, interaction with faculty, familiarity with current and retrospective selection…

  11. Independence as a practice issue in occupational therapy: the safety clause.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cherry; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Williamson, Peter; Manor, Debra; Whybrow, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    This article reports findings from interviews that explored the meanings occupational therapists attach to independence as a value and a therapeutic goal in interactions with elderly clients. Through a historical review of the literature, we trace the changing use of this term and identify two analytically distinct concepts associated with it: independence as self-reliance in activity and independence as autonomy, self-determination, or choice. We show how the latter has emerged in contemporary service contexts to represent an ideal of client-centered practice for persons with chronic disabilities, such as frail elderly clients. Using a "critical incident" interview approach with 12 Australian occupational therapists, we identified the therapists' explicit and implicit understandings of independence as a value concept and practice issue. Our findings suggest that a mismatch often exists between idealized and practice-based talk about independence and that therapists narrativize this opposition around what we call "the safety clause." That is, therapists invoke concerns about safety and duty of care as a caveat to implementing their independence ideals and justifying the retention of professional control. We identify key issues that therapists need to address if the rhetoric of independence-related client-centered practice is to be achieved in reality. PMID:12125826

  12. Promoting autonomy and independence for older people within nursing practice: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Davies, S; Laker, S; Ellis, L

    1997-08-01

    The principles of promoting autonomy and independence underpin many approaches to improving the quality of nursing care for older people in whatever setting, and are in line with wider developments in health care such as the Patient's Charter. However, these concepts require careful definition if nursing practices which might promote autonomy and independence are to be identified. Although the generalizability of the research-based literature in this field is limited by a focus upon older people in continuing-care settings, a review of the literature found a number of indicators associated with attempts to promote patient autonomy and independence. These were grouped into the following categories: systems of care delivery which promote comprehensive individualized assessment and multidisciplinary care planning; attempts to encourage patients/clients to participate in decisions about their care; patterns of communication which avoid exerting power and control over patients/clients and attempts to modify the environment to promote independence and minimize risk. It is suggested that the review identifies a number of principles for nursing practice which can be applied in a range of care settings in order to promote the autonomy and independence of older people.

  13. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... which put retailer independence at risk. The practices specified in this section put retailer... practices that put retailer independence at risk. (a) The act by an industry member of resetting stock on...

  14. Independent Consulting and the American Evaluation Association: Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Deborah G.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG). The TIG goes back a joint meeting held in San Francisco in 1984 of the Evaluation Network (ENet) and the Evaluation Research Society (ERS), two years before the organizations merged to become the AEA. On the fringes…

  15. [An opinion survey among French physicians in independent practice (Winter 2007-Spring 2008)].

    PubMed

    Doan, Bui Dang Ha; Lévy, Danièle; Teitelbaum, Juan; Allemand, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    In the French health care system, most of the ambulatory health services are provided by independent practitioners, GP's and specialists, paid on a fee-for-service basis. Nearly all French residents are enrolled in a public sickness insurance fund. The fund pays directly to the doctor (or reimburse to the patient) on the basis of a honorarium-scale, negotiated by the fund and the medical associations. The specialists working in a private hospital (called "clinique") are considered physicians in independent practice and paid on a fee-for-service basis, whereas the specialists working in public (or para-public) hospitals are salaried. In early 2008, approximately 60 percent of all the medical profession were in independent practice. Out of 100 independent practitioners, 52 declared that their workload was "normal" and 44 that their own was "too heavy". Only 2 percent declared that their workload was "insufficient". The survey showed no correlation between the number of independent physicians working in an area and the average workload of each of them. The competition among medical offices was rather low. At the time of the survey, the French health system was dominated by a wide feeling of medical workforce shortage. However, only one quarter of the independent physicians were convinced that shortage existed in their own area. Difficulties and problems arisen from the relationship with partners were mentioned by a great number of independent practitioners: exaggerate requests from the patients (mentioned by 62%), bureaucratic approaches from the sickness insurance fund (32%), working ties with the public or para-public hospitals (23%)...During the period 2005-2008, the proportion of practitioners having difficulties in their professional relations has increased, in particular among specialists. However, during the same period, there was a change in the mood of the medical profession. The proportion of independent physicians who estimated that their standards of

  16. Doing Independent Overseas Fieldwork 1: Practicalities and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an information guide about planning independent, human and physical geography fieldwork overseas and highlights potential problems that can occur. Includes a bibliography of essential information sources and addresses. (CMK)

  17. A Practical Assessment of Field Dependence/Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    This report summarizes research and development activity leading to the development of a new test of field-dependence/independence which was carried out with two related projects sponsored by the Graduate Record Examinations Board between September, 1974 and September, 1976. This new test is a group measure, which is machine scorable. In the first…

  18. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Practices which put retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.152 Practices which put retailer independence at risk....

  19. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Practices which put retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.152 Practices which put retailer independence at risk....

  20. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Practices which put retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.152 Practices which put retailer independence at risk....

  1. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Practices which put retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.152 Practices which put retailer independence at risk....

  2. A practical experience with independent verification and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Gerald; Mcgarry, Frank E.; Card, David N.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to reducing software cost and increasing reliability is the use of an independent verification and validation (IV & V) methodology. The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) applied the IV & V methodology to two medium-size flight dynamics software development projects. Then, to measure the effectiveness of the IV & V approach, the SEL compared these two projects with two similar past projects, using measures like productivity, reliability, and maintain ablilty. Results indicated that the use of the IV & V methodology did not help the overall process nor improve the product in these cases.

  3. Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Margaret E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the four planes of development and the periods of creation and crystallization within each plane. Identifies the type of independence that should be achieved by the end of the first two planes of development. Maintains that it is through individual work on the environment that one achieves independence. (KB)

  4. Functional independence of Taiwanese children with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Kao, Hsin-An; Hung, Han-Yang; Peng, Chun-Chih; Lee, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ming-Ren; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2012-12-01

    VACTERL association is a non-random association of birth defects, which may include anomalies of the vertebral column, limbs, kidneys, and heart; anal atresia; tracheoesophageal fistula; and esophageal atresia. The presence of two or more of the defects establishes the diagnosis. The aim of our study is to describe the functional independence of children with VACTERL association and compare the results to unaffected children. These results will enable clinicians to provide more realistic prognostic information to parents and families. We used the WeeFIM questionnaire to assess the functional skills of 23 patients who had been diagnosed with VACTERL association at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, from June 1994 to June 2009. The total WeeFIM scores and sub-scores for three domains (self-care, mobility, and cognition) correlated significantly with age (P < 0.01). The scores were generally within the same range as those of unaffected Chinese children, although our subjects had slightly inferior scores on six items, including bowel, chair transfer, stairs, expression, social interaction, and problem solving. In conclusion, the daily functional skills of Taiwanese children with VACTERL association were similar to those of unaffected children. PMID:23165933

  5. Cultural orientations, parental beliefs and practices, and latino adolescents' autonomy and independence.

    PubMed

    Roche, Kathleen M; Caughy, Margaret O; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Dittus, Patricia J; Franzini, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    Despite the salience of behavioral autonomy and independence to parent-child interactions during middle adolescence, little is known about parenting processes pertinent to youth autonomy development for Latino families. Among a diverse sample of 684 Latino-origin parent-adolescent dyads in Houston, Texas, this study examines how parents' cultural orientations are associated directly and indirectly, through parental beliefs, with parenting practices giving youth behavioral autonomy and independence. Informed by social domain theory, the study's parenting constructs pertain to youth behaviors in an "ambiguously personal" domain-activities that adolescents believe are up to youth to decide, but which parents might argue require parents' supervision, knowledge, and/or decision-making. Results for latent profile analyses of parents' cultural identity across various facets of acculturation indicate considerable cultural heterogeneity among Latino parents. Although 43% of parents have a Latino cultural orientation, others represent Spanish-speaking/bicultural (21%), bilingual/bicultural (15%), English-speaking/bicultural (15%), or US (6%) cultural orientations. Structural equation modeling results indicate that bilingual/bicultural, English-speaking/bicultural, and US-oriented parents report less emphasis on the legitimacy of parental authority and younger age expectations for youth to engage in independent behaviors than do Latino-oriented parents. Parental beliefs endorsing youth's behavioral independence and autonomy, in turn, are associated with less stringent parental rules (parental report), less parental supervision (parental and youth report), and more youth autonomy in decision-making (parental and youth report). Evidence thus supports the idea that the diverse cultural orientations of Latino parents in the US may result in considerable variations in parenting processes pertinent to Latino adolescents' development.

  6. Independent Origins of Yeast Associated with Coffee and Cacao Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Catherine L; Cromie, Gareth A; Garmendia-Torres, Cecilia; Sirr, Amy; Hays, Michelle; Field, Colburn; Jeffery, Eric W; Fay, Justin C; Dudley, Aimée M

    2016-04-01

    Modern transportation networks have facilitated the migration and mingling of previously isolated populations of plants, animals, and insects. Human activities can also influence the global distribution of microorganisms. The best-understood example is yeasts associated with winemaking. Humans began making wine in the Middle East over 9,000 years ago [1, 2]. Selecting favorable fermentation products created specialized strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3, 4] that were transported along with grapevines. Today, S. cerevisiae strains residing in vineyards around the world are genetically similar, and their population structure suggests a common origin that followed the path of human migration [3-7]. Like wine, coffee and cacao depend on microbial fermentation [8, 9] and have been globally dispersed by humans. Theobroma cacao originated in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of Colombia and Venezuela [10], was cultivated in Central America by Mesoamerican peoples, and was introduced to Europeans by Hernán Cortés in 1530 [11]. Coffea, native to Ethiopia, was disseminated by Arab traders throughout the Middle East and North Africa in the 6(th) century and was introduced to European consumers in the 17(th) century [12]. Here, we tested whether the yeasts associated with coffee and cacao are genetically similar, crop-specific populations or genetically diverse, geography-specific populations. Our results uncovered populations that, while defined by niche and geography, also bear signatures of admixture between major populations in events independent of the transport of the plants. Thus, human-associated fermentation and migration may have affected the distribution of yeast involved in the production of coffee and chocolate.

  7. Independent Origins of Yeast Associated with Coffee and Cacao Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Catherine L; Cromie, Gareth A; Garmendia-Torres, Cecilia; Sirr, Amy; Hays, Michelle; Field, Colburn; Jeffery, Eric W; Fay, Justin C; Dudley, Aimée M

    2016-04-01

    Modern transportation networks have facilitated the migration and mingling of previously isolated populations of plants, animals, and insects. Human activities can also influence the global distribution of microorganisms. The best-understood example is yeasts associated with winemaking. Humans began making wine in the Middle East over 9,000 years ago [1, 2]. Selecting favorable fermentation products created specialized strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3, 4] that were transported along with grapevines. Today, S. cerevisiae strains residing in vineyards around the world are genetically similar, and their population structure suggests a common origin that followed the path of human migration [3-7]. Like wine, coffee and cacao depend on microbial fermentation [8, 9] and have been globally dispersed by humans. Theobroma cacao originated in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of Colombia and Venezuela [10], was cultivated in Central America by Mesoamerican peoples, and was introduced to Europeans by Hernán Cortés in 1530 [11]. Coffea, native to Ethiopia, was disseminated by Arab traders throughout the Middle East and North Africa in the 6(th) century and was introduced to European consumers in the 17(th) century [12]. Here, we tested whether the yeasts associated with coffee and cacao are genetically similar, crop-specific populations or genetically diverse, geography-specific populations. Our results uncovered populations that, while defined by niche and geography, also bear signatures of admixture between major populations in events independent of the transport of the plants. Thus, human-associated fermentation and migration may have affected the distribution of yeast involved in the production of coffee and chocolate. PMID:27020745

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness associates with metabolic risk independent of central adiposity.

    PubMed

    Silva, G; Aires, L; Martins, C; Mota, J; Oliveira, J; Ribeiro, J C

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to analyze the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), waist circumference (WC) and metabolic risk in children and adolescents. Participants were 633 subjects (58.7% girls) ages 10-18 years. Metabolic risk score (MRS) was calculated from HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose and mean arterial pressure. MRS was dichotomized into low and high metabolic risk (HMRS). CRF was defined as the maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) estimated from the 20 m Shuttle Run Test. The first quartile of CRF was set as the low fitness group. The fourth quartile of WC was defined as high central adiposity. With adjustments for age, sex and WC, CRF was correlated with MRS (r=-0.095; p<0.05). WC was correlated with MRS (r=0.150; p<0.001) after adjustments for age, sex and CRF. Participants who had low fitness levels, presented higher levels of MRS (p<0.001) compared to those who were fit, even after adjustment for age, sex and WC. In comparison with subjects who were fit with normal central adiposity, an increased odds ratio (OR) for being at HMRS was found for participants who were of low fitness level with high central adiposity (OR=2.934; 95%CI= 1.690-5.092) and for those who were of low fitness with normal central adiposity (OR=2.234; 95%CI=1.116-4.279). Results suggest that CRF relates to MRS independently of central adiposity.

  9. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, F Xavier; Quinn, Brian T; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the "reading network." Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same "double hit" of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status.

  10. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S.; Milham, Michael P.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status. PMID:25610779

  11. See More, Do More, Teach More: Surgical Resident Autonomy and the Transition to Independent Practice.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Daniel A; Bynum, William E; Lillemoe, Keith D; Sachdeva, Ajit K

    2016-06-01

    The graduate medical education system is tasked with training competent and autonomous health care providers while also improving patient safety, delivering more efficient care, and cutting costs. Concerns about resident autonomy and preparation for independent and safe practice appear to be growing, and the field of surgery faces unique challenges in preparing graduates for independent practice. Multiple factors are contributing to an erosion of resident autonomy and decreased operative experience, including differing views of autonomy, financial forces, duty hours regulations, and diverse community health care needs. Identifying these barriers and developing solutions to overcome them are vital first steps in reversing the trend of diminishing autonomy in surgical residency training. This Commentary highlights the problem of decreasing autonomy, outlines specific threats to resident autonomy, and discusses potential solutions to mitigate their impact on the successful transition to independent practice.

  12. Extraction of practice-dependent and practice-independent finger movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Shinichi; Nakamura, Ayumi; Nagata, Noriko

    2014-08-01

    Extensive motor practice can reorganize movements of a redundant number of degrees of freedom (DOFs). Using principal component (PC) analysis, the present study characterized the movement reorganization of the hand that possesses a large number of DOFs during a course of practice. Five musically naïve individuals practiced to play a short sequence of melody with the left hand for four successive days, and their hand kinematics was measured using a motion capture system. The PC analysis of the hand joint kinematics identified two distinct patterns of movement, which accounted for more than 80% of the total variance of movements. The second PC but not the first PC changed through practice. A correlation analysis demonstrated that the PC sensitive to the practice was characterized by coupled movements across fingers in the same direction. A regression analysis identified a decrease in the contribution of this PC to the hand movement organization through practice, which indicates a reduction of the movement covariation across fingers and thus an enhancement of the individuated finger movements. The results implicate potential of PC analysis to extract practice-invariant and practice-dependent movement patterns distinctively in complex hand motor behaviors. PMID:24933539

  13. The Effect of iPad Use during Independent Practice for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the classroom, time on-task is critical because it is linked to learning and success. When off-task behaviors occur, substantial learning and instructional time may be lost. Many students with disabilities struggle with remaining on-task, particularly during independent practice periods. Strategies to increase time on-task during classroom…

  14. 7 CFR 989.115 - Independent handler, major cooperative marketing association handler, and small cooperative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... association handler, and small cooperative marketing association handler. 989.115 Section 989.115 Agriculture... marketing association handler, and small cooperative marketing association handler. (a) Independent handler means any handler who is not a cooperative marketing association of producers. (b) Major...

  15. Independent Subtilases Expansions in Fungi Associated with Animals

    PubMed Central

    Muszewska, Anna; Taylor, John W.; Szczesny, Pawel; Grynberg, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Many socially important fungi encode an elevated number of subtilisin-like serine proteases, which have been shown to be involved in fungal mutualisms with grasses and in parasitism of insects, nematodes, plants, other fungi, and mammalian skin. These proteins have endopeptidase activities and constitute a significant part of fungal secretomes. Here, we use comparative genomics to investigate the relationship between the quality and quantity of serine proteases and the ability of fungi to cause disease in invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Our screen of previously unexamined fungi allowed us to annotate and identify nearly 1000 subtilisin-containing proteins and to describe six new categories of serine proteases. Architectures of predicted proteases reveal novel combinations of subtilisin domains with other, co-occurring domains. Phylogenetic analysis of the most common clade of fungal proteases, proteinase K, showed that gene family size changed independently in fungi, pathogenic to invertebrates (Hypocreales) and vertebrates (Onygenales). Interestingly, simultaneous expansions in the S8 and S53 families of subtilases in a single fungal species are rare. Our analysis finds that closely related systemic human pathogens may not show the same gene family expansions, and that related pathogens and nonpathogens may show the same type of gene family expansion. Therefore, the number of proteases does not appear to relate to pathogenicity. Instead, we hypothesize that the number of fungal serine proteases in a species is related to the use of the animal as a food source, whether it is dead or alive. PMID:21727238

  16. Influence of Parenting Practices on Eating Behaviors of Early Adolescents during Independent Eating Occasions: Implications for Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Reicks, Marla; Banna, Jinan; Cluskey, Mary; Gunther, Carolyn; Hongu, Nobuko; Richards, Rickelle; Topham, Glade; Wong, Siew Sun

    2015-01-01

    Among early adolescents (10–14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions. PMID:26506384

  17. A journal club for peer mentorship: helping to navigate the transition to independent practice.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Thomas E; Rawal, Shail; Cram, Peter; Liu, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    The transition from residency to independent practice presents unique challenges for physicians. New attending physicians often have unmet learning needs in non-clinical domains. An attending physician is an independent medical practitioner, sometimes referred to as a staff physician or consultant. Peer mentorship has been explored as an alternative to traditional mentorship to meet the learning needs of new attendings. In this article, the authors describe how a journal club for general internal medicine fellowship graduates helped ease the transition by facilitating peer mentorship. Journal club members were asked to bring two things to each meeting: a practice-changing journal article, and a 'transition to practice' discussion topic such as a diagnostic dilemma, billing question, or a teaching challenge. Discussions fell into three broad categories that the authors have termed: trading war stories, measuring up, and navigating uncharted waters. It is likely that physicians have a strong need for peer mentorship in the first few years after the transition from residency, and a journal club or similar discussion group may be one way to fulfil this. PMID:27631332

  18. Climate Change Risk Management Consulting: The opportunity for an independent business practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccozzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Paper outlines the main questions to be addressed with reference to the actual demand of climate change risk management consulting, in the financial services. Moreover, the Project shall also try to investigate if the Catastrophe Modelling Industry can start and manage a business practice specialised on climate change risk exposures. In this context, the Paper aims at testing the possibility to build a sound business case, based upon typical MBA course analysis tools, such as PEST(LE), SWOT, etc. Specific references to the tools to be used and to other contribution from academic literature and general documentation are also discussed in the body of the Paper and listed at the end. The analysis shall also focus on the core competencies required for an independent climate change risk management consulting business practice, with the purpose to outline a valid definition of how to achieve competitive advantage in climate change risk management consulting.

  19. An independent sequential maximum likelihood approach to simultaneous track-to-track association and bias removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiong; Wang, Yuehuan; Yan, Xiaoyun; Liu, Dang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose an independent sequential maximum likelihood approach to address the joint track-to-track association and bias removal in multi-sensor information fusion systems. First, we enumerate all kinds of association situation following by estimating a bias for each association. Then we calculate the likelihood of each association after bias compensated. Finally we choose the maximum likelihood of all association situations as the association result and the corresponding bias estimation is the registration result. Considering the high false alarm and interference, we adopt the independent sequential association to calculate the likelihood. Simulation results show that our proposed method can give out the right association results and it can estimate the bias precisely simultaneously for small number of targets in multi-sensor fusion system.

  20. An Approach to Life Skills Group Work with Youth in Transition to Independent Living: Theoretical, Practice, and Operational Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Terrence T.; Williams, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    Group work is fundamental to working with youth learning about independent living and in making the tough and challenging transition to independence. The authors, seasoned and experienced group workers and researchers with youth leaving the child welfare system, will present a conceptual framework and set of practices for helping youth gain those…

  1. Employee (Dis)Engagement: Learning from Nurses Who Left Organizational Jobs for Independent Practice.

    PubMed

    Stahlke Wall, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Employee engagement is of growing interest in healthcare organizations. Engaged employees give an extra measure of effort to contribute to organization goals, whereas disengaged employees withdraw, have lower performance and are more likely to leave their jobs. The aim of this ethnographic study was, in part, to explore the reasons why high-calibre nurses became disengaged from their work and opted to leave their hospital-based employment in favour of independent practice, as well as to consider the organizational conditions that influenced their desire to leave. The findings revealed that nurses left their hospital-based jobs because of health system change, job characteristics, working conditions and lack of respect, which relate closely to the antecedents of employee engagement. Employee engagement can be fostered through organizational support, trust-building management behaviour and transformational leadership. PMID:26828836

  2. Relationships among moral distress, level of practice independence, and intent to leave of nurse practitioners in emergency departments: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Jennifer; Epstein, Elizabeth; Rovnyak, Virginia; Snyder, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research study were to investigate moral distress among emergency department (ED) nurse practitioners (NPs) and examine relationships between moral distress and level of practice independence as well as intent to leave a position. Moral distress has been studied regarding registered nurses and physicians (MDs) but less so in NPs. It is important to explore moral distress in NPs because they tread a unique path between nursing and physician roles. Moral distress may play a significant role in staff nurses' intention to leave practice, and level of practice independence is found to have a relationship with NPs' intention to leave. A convenience sample of ED NPs was obtained from a mailing list of a national nursing specialty organization, the Emergency Nurses Association. Using a correlational design, survey methods assessed moral distress with the Moral Distress Scale-Revised (MDS-R), level of practice independence with the Dempster Practice Behavior Scale, and intent to leave with self-report. Correlational and regression analyses of data were conducted to characterize moral distress among ED NPs and associations between moral distress, level of practice independence, and intent to leave. Results found ED NPs do experience moral distress with poor patient care results from inadequate staff communication and working with incompetent coworkers in their practice. The MDS-R was a significant predictor of intention to leave among respondents. This study is the first of its kind to explore moral distress in ED NPs. Results suggest moral distress influences ED NPs' intent to leave their position. Further studies are needed to explore the findings from this research and to formulate interventions to alleviate moral distress in ED NPs and improve retention in the clinical setting.

  3. Slimmer women's waist is associated with better erectile function in men independent of age.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that men generally rate slimmer women as more sexually attractive, consistent with the increased morbidity risks associated with even mild abdominal adiposity. To assess the association of women's waist size with a more tangible measure of perceived sexual attractiveness (as well as reward value for both sexes), we examined the association of women's age and waist circumference with an index of men's erectile function (IIEF-5 scores), frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), and sexual satisfaction in a representative sample of Czechs (699 men and 715 women) aged 35-65 years. Multivariate analyses indicated that better erectile function scores were independently associated with younger age of self and partner and women's slimmer waist. PVI frequency was independently associated with women's younger age and women's slimmer waist. Sexual satisfaction was independently associated with men's younger age and slimmer waist for both sexes. Better erectile function, greater PVI frequency, and greater sexual satisfaction were associated with women's slimmer waist, independently of both sexes' ages. Possible reasons for the waist effects were discussed, including women's abdominal body fat decreasing their own desire through neurohormonal mechanisms and decreasing their partner's desire through evolutionarily-related decreased sexual attractiveness. PMID:23264164

  4. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  5. A best practice in education and support services for independent living of intellectually disabled youth and adults in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Katz, Gregorio; Rangel-Eudave, Guillermina; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a best practice in the field of intellectual disability, a program for independent living offered by the Center for Integral Training and Development (CADI per its abbreviation in Spanish) for people with intellectual disability in Mexico. A detailed description of an effective program that fosters autonomy, social inclusion and high quality of life in people with intellectual disability is presented. The program encompasses four areas: a) a therapeutic academic area that teaches applied living skills; b) development of social skills; c) development of vocational skills, and d) skills for independent living. The program is divided into three levels: a) initiation to independent living, where clients develop basic abilities for autonomy, b) community integration and social independence, which provides clients with the skills necessary for social inclusion and economic independence, and c) practical and psychological support, which offers counseling for resolving psychological issues and enables subjects to maintain their autonomy.

  6. Lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in elderly Chinese people

    PubMed Central

    Saiken, Adake; Gu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma (CRA) recurrence in elderly Chinese people. Methods During the 5-year follow-up after the initial colonoscopy, participants aged >60 years with the diagnosis and removal of CRA underwent a complete surveillance colonoscopy, and 152 participants with CRA recurrence plus 152 participants free of recurrence were included in this analysis. Results Participants with CRA recurrence were more likely to consume less vegetables and fruits, and more red meats compared with the control group (P<0.05 for all). Lifestyle-related comorbidities, including hypertension and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), were more common in participants with CRA recurrence than in the control group (P<0.05 for all). In the multivariate analysis, pack-years of smoking were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; P<0.05). Eating less vegetables (OR: 099; P<0.05) and fruits (OR: 0.98; P<0.05) was identified as a statistically independent factor influencing CRA recurrence, as was eating more red meats (OR: 1.01; P<0.05). Hypertension was also found to be a factor independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 2.44; P<0.05). NAFLD had an independent association, with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 3.43; P<0.05). Conclusion Smoking cigarettes, high consumption of red meats, low intake of fruits and vegetables, and the presence of hypertension and NAFLD were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. This conclusion helps elderly Chinese people to make effective behavioral changes, such as smoking cessation, substitution of fruits and vegetables for red meats, and timely treatment of hypertension and NAFLD, to reduce CRA recurrence and colorectal cancer risk. PMID:27382263

  7. Fitness but not weight status is associated with projected physical independence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Luis B; Cyrino, Edilson S; Santos, Leandro Dos; Ekelund, Ulf; Santos, Diana A

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and fitness have been associated with older adults' physical independence. We aimed to investigate the independent and combined associations of physical fitness and adiposity, assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with the projected ability for physical independence. A total of 3496 non-institutionalized older adults aged 65 and older (1167 male) were included in the analysis. BMI and WC were assessed and categorized according to established criteria. Physical fitness was evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test and individual test results were expressed as Z-scores. Projected ability for physical independence was assessed with the 12-item composite physical function scale. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for being physically dependent. A total of 30.1 % of participants were classified as at risk for losing physical independence at age 90 years. Combined fitness and fatness analysis demonstrated that unfit older adults had increased odds ratio for being physically dependent in all BMI categories (normal: OR = 9.5, 95 %CI = 6.5-13.8; overweight: OR = 6.0, 95 %CI = 4.3-8.3; obese: OR = 6.7, 95 %CI = 4.6-10.0) and all WC categories (normal: OR = 10.4, 95%CI = 6.5-16.8; middle: OR = 6.2, 95 %CI = 4.1-9.3; upper: OR = 7.0, 95 %CI = 4.8-10.0) compared to fit participants that were of normal weight and fit participants with normal WC, respectively. No increased odds ratio was observed for fit participants that had increased BMI or WC. In conclusion, projected physical independence may be enhanced by a normal weight, a normal WC, or an increased physical fitness. Adiposity measures were not associated with physical independence, whereas fitness is independently related to physical independence. Independent of their weight and WC status, unfit older adults are at increased risk for losing physical independence.

  8. 78 FR 77447 - California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2013), California Wind Energy Association and First Solar,...

  9. Pathogen risk associated with farming practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 associated with the consumption of leafy greens has focused attention on routes of contamination of these commodities with bacterial foodborne pathogens. A summary of research activities at the Environmental Micorbial and Food Safety Laboratory have evaluated mechanism...

  10. Gaining independent prescriptive practice: one state's experience in adoption of the APRN Consensus Model.

    PubMed

    Madler, Billie Jo; Kalanek, Constance B; Rising, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are increasingly encouraged to be active participants in health policy. This article provides an exemplar of how nurse practitioners (NPs) in one state, North Dakota, used strategic policy actions to obtain independent prescriptive privileges. Consistent and clear communication among NPs and with key stakeholders, including legislators, contributed to a positive policy outcome. North Dakota nurse leaders in this initiative have shared their experiences with a variety of audiences including other state boards of nursing and NP organizations in states such as New York, South Dakota, and Louisiana. In addition, a webinar sponsored by the Center to Champion Nursing in America at AARP featured several of the North Dakota NP leaders, who shared their reflections of this experience and the strategies they used. Regulatory environments and public policies will continue to significantly influence the future of all nurses. This case study of one state can be useful to NPs and other nurses seeking meaningful policy change through laws or regulations with regard to scope of practice or other health policy issues. PMID:25542731

  11. Gaining independent prescriptive practice: one state's experience in adoption of the APRN Consensus Model.

    PubMed

    Madler, Billie Jo; Kalanek, Constance B; Rising, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are increasingly encouraged to be active participants in health policy. This article provides an exemplar of how nurse practitioners (NPs) in one state, North Dakota, used strategic policy actions to obtain independent prescriptive privileges. Consistent and clear communication among NPs and with key stakeholders, including legislators, contributed to a positive policy outcome. North Dakota nurse leaders in this initiative have shared their experiences with a variety of audiences including other state boards of nursing and NP organizations in states such as New York, South Dakota, and Louisiana. In addition, a webinar sponsored by the Center to Champion Nursing in America at AARP featured several of the North Dakota NP leaders, who shared their reflections of this experience and the strategies they used. Regulatory environments and public policies will continue to significantly influence the future of all nurses. This case study of one state can be useful to NPs and other nurses seeking meaningful policy change through laws or regulations with regard to scope of practice or other health policy issues.

  12. Can a Self-Directed Learner Be Independent, Autonomous and Interdependent?: Implications for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nah, Yoonkyeong

    1999-01-01

    Although adult education values independence and autonomy in self-directed learners, non-Western cultures value interdependence. Interviews with five Korean women leaders suggest that there is value in developing both independence and interdependence in adult learners. (SK)

  13. Cerebral Amyloid and Hypertension are Independently Associated with White Matter Lesions in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Scott, Julia A; Braskie, Meredith N; Tosun, Duygu; Thompson, Paul M; Weiner, Michael; DeCarli, Charles; Carmichael, Owen T

    2015-01-01

    In cognitively normal (CN) elderly individuals, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are commonly viewed as a marker of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). SVD is due to exposure to systemic vascular injury processes associated with highly prevalent vascular risk factors (VRFs) such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes. However, cerebral amyloid accumulation is also prevalent in this population and is associated with WMH accrual. Therefore, we examined the independent associations of amyloid burden and VRFs with WMH burden in CN elderly individuals with low to moderate vascular risk. Participants (n = 150) in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) received fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI at study entry. Total WMH volume was calculated from FLAIR images co-registered with structural MRI. Amyloid burden was determined by cerebrospinal fluid Aβ1-42 levels. Clinical histories of VRFs, as well as current measurements of vascular status, were recorded during a baseline clinical evaluation. We tested ridge regression models for independent associations and interactions of elevated blood pressure (BP) and amyloid to total WMH volume. We found that greater amyloid burden and a clinical history of hypertension were independently associated with greater WMH volume. In addition, elevated BP modified the association between amyloid and WMH, such that those with either current or past evidence of elevated BP had greater WMH volumes at a given burden of amyloid. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cerebral amyloid accumulation and VRFs are independently associated with clinically latent white matter damage represented by WMHs. The potential contribution of amyloid to WMHs should be further explored, even among elderly individuals without cognitive impairment and with limited VRF exposure. PMID:26648866

  14. Cerebral Amyloid and Hypertension are Independently Associated with White Matter Lesions in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Julia A.; Braskie, Meredith N.; Tosun, Duygu; Thompson, Paul M.; Weiner, Michael; DeCarli, Charles; Carmichael, Owen T.

    2015-01-01

    In cognitively normal (CN) elderly individuals, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are commonly viewed as a marker of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). SVD is due to exposure to systemic vascular injury processes associated with highly prevalent vascular risk factors (VRFs) such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes. However, cerebral amyloid accumulation is also prevalent in this population and is associated with WMH accrual. Therefore, we examined the independent associations of amyloid burden and VRFs with WMH burden in CN elderly individuals with low to moderate vascular risk. Participants (n = 150) in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) received fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI at study entry. Total WMH volume was calculated from FLAIR images co-registered with structural MRI. Amyloid burden was determined by cerebrospinal fluid Aβ1-42 levels. Clinical histories of VRFs, as well as current measurements of vascular status, were recorded during a baseline clinical evaluation. We tested ridge regression models for independent associations and interactions of elevated blood pressure (BP) and amyloid to total WMH volume. We found that greater amyloid burden and a clinical history of hypertension were independently associated with greater WMH volume. In addition, elevated BP modified the association between amyloid and WMH, such that those with either current or past evidence of elevated BP had greater WMH volumes at a given burden of amyloid. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cerebral amyloid accumulation and VRFs are independently associated with clinically latent white matter damage represented by WMHs. The potential contribution of amyloid to WMHs should be further explored, even among elderly individuals without cognitive impairment and with limited VRF exposure. PMID:26648866

  15. Translating Research into Classroom Practice: Workplace Independence for Students with Severe Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The article describes a process for use in high-school transition programs to promote student independence within the context of vocational training. Strategies described include: evaluating student independence in community-based settings, teaching student adaptability, and transferring control of student independence to work-related stimuli. A…

  16. Increased dietary sodium is independently associated with greater mortality among prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Mc Causland, Finnian R; Waikar, Sushrut S; Brunelli, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Dietary sodium is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, hypervolemia, and mortality in hemodialysis patients; hence, sodium restriction is almost universally recommended. Since the evidence upon which to base these assumptions is limited, we undertook a post-hoc analysis of 1770 patients in the Hemodialysis Study with available dietary, clinical, and laboratory information. Within this cohort, 772 were men, 1113 black, and 786 diabetic, with a mean age of 58 years and a median dietary sodium intake of 2080 mg/day. After case-mix adjustment, linear regression modeling found that higher dietary sodium was associated with a greater ultrafiltration requirement, caloric and protein intake; sodium to calorie intake ratio was associated with a greater ultrafiltration requirement; and sodium to potassium ratio was associated with higher serum sodium. No indices were associated with the pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure. Cox regression modeling found that higher baseline dietary sodium and the ratio of sodium to calorie or potassium were each independently associated with greater all-cause mortality. No association between a prescribed dietary sodium restriction and mortality were found. Thus, higher reported dietary sodium intake is independently associated with greater mortality among prevalent hemodialysis patients. Randomized trials will be necessary to determine whether dietary sodium restriction improves survival.

  17. Nucleus accumbens core neurons encode value-independent associations necessary for sensory preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Domenic H; Saddoris, Michael P; Carelli, Regina M

    2014-10-01

    Reinforcement-based learning models predict that the strength of association between cues and outcomes is driven by aspects of outcome value. However, animals routinely make associations between contingent stimuli in the world, even if those associations hold no value to the organism. At the neural level, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to encode associative information, but it is not known whether this encoding is specific for value-based information (consistent with reinforcement-based models) or if the NAc additionally plays a more general role in forming predictive associations, independent of outcome value. To test this, we employed a sensory preconditioning (SPC) task where rats initially (Preconditioning) received either contingent pairings of 2 neutral stimuli (e.g., tone [A] and light [X]; "Paired"), or random noncontingent presentations ("Unpaired"). After cue X was subsequently conditioned with food (First-Order Conditioning), the effect of preconditioning was assessed in Phase 3 (Test) by presentations of cue A alone. Electrophysiological recordings from the NAc core showed significant increases in phasic encoding for the stimuli in the Paired (but not Unpaired) condition as well as during test. Further, these effects were only seen in Paired rats that showed successful behavior during test (Good Learners), but not those who did not (Poor Learners) or Unpaired controls. These findings reveal a role for the NAc in the encoding of associative contingencies independent of value, and suggest that this structure also plays a more general role in forming associations necessary for predictive behavior.

  18. Nucleus accumbens core neurons encode value-independent associations necessary for sensory preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Domenic H; Saddoris, Michael P; Carelli, Regina M

    2014-10-01

    Reinforcement-based learning models predict that the strength of association between cues and outcomes is driven by aspects of outcome value. However, animals routinely make associations between contingent stimuli in the world, even if those associations hold no value to the organism. At the neural level, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to encode associative information, but it is not known whether this encoding is specific for value-based information (consistent with reinforcement-based models) or if the NAc additionally plays a more general role in forming predictive associations, independent of outcome value. To test this, we employed a sensory preconditioning (SPC) task where rats initially (Preconditioning) received either contingent pairings of 2 neutral stimuli (e.g., tone [A] and light [X]; "Paired"), or random noncontingent presentations ("Unpaired"). After cue X was subsequently conditioned with food (First-Order Conditioning), the effect of preconditioning was assessed in Phase 3 (Test) by presentations of cue A alone. Electrophysiological recordings from the NAc core showed significant increases in phasic encoding for the stimuli in the Paired (but not Unpaired) condition as well as during test. Further, these effects were only seen in Paired rats that showed successful behavior during test (Good Learners), but not those who did not (Poor Learners) or Unpaired controls. These findings reveal a role for the NAc in the encoding of associative contingencies independent of value, and suggest that this structure also plays a more general role in forming associations necessary for predictive behavior. PMID:25244086

  19. Chronic bronchitis is an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Young; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Park, Seoung Ju; Park, Yong Bum; Shin, Kyeong-Cheol; Na, Ju Ock; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Young Kyoon; Rhee, Chin Kook

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic bronchitis (CB) phenotype has been associated with poor quality of life and an increased risk of disease in patients with COPD. However, little information exists regarding the relationship between the CB phenotype and the COPD assessment test (CAT) score. The goal of this study was to reveal the different pattern of CAT scores between CB and non-CB patients. Moreover, we aimed to investigate whether the CB phenotype is an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups. Methods Data were obtained from the Korea COPD Subgroup Study cohort recruited from 46 centers in South Korea since April 2012. CB patients were defined as having a chronic cough and sputum for 3 months per year, for a period of 2 consecutive years. We investigated the pattern of CAT and subquestionnaire scores between CB and non-CB patients. We also analyzed the proportion of CB phenotypes in each Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage. Finally, we performed a logistic regression analysis to identify whether the CB phenotype was an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups. Results Of the 1,106 study patients, 11.5% of patients were found to have a CB phenotype. CB phenotypes were most common in GOLD III (GOLD 2006) and GOLD D (GOLD 2015) stages. CAT scores were significantly higher in CB patients not only in terms of the total score but also for each subquestionnaire. Logistic regression revealed that the CB phenotype is an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups. Conclusion The present study revealed that CB patients have higher CAT scores and subquestionnaire results compared to non-CB patients. Additionally, we demonstrated that the CB phenotype is an independently associated factor for both more symptom and high-risk groups. PMID:27382269

  20. Independent Evidence for an Association between General Cognitive Ability and a Genetic Locus for Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Trampush, Joey W.; Lencz, Todd; Knowles, Emma; Davies, Gail; Guha, Saurav; Pe’er, Itsik; Liewald, David C.; Starr, John M.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Melle, Ingrid; Sundet, Kjetil; Christoforou, Andrea; Reinvang, Ivar; Mukherjee, Semanti; DeRosse, Pamela; Lundervold, Astri; Steen, Vidar M.; John, Majnu; Espeseth, Thomas; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Giegling, Ina; Konte, Bettina; Ikeda, Masashi; Roussos, Panos; Giakoumaki, Stella; Burdick, Katherine E.; Payton, Antony; Ollier, William; Horan, Mike; Scult, Matthew; Dickinson, Dwight; Straub, Richard E.; Donohoe, Gary; Morris, Derek; Corvin, Aiden; Gill, Michael; Hariri, Ahmad; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Pendleton, Neil; Iwata, Nakao; Darvasi, Ariel; Bitsios, Panos; Rujescu, Dan; Lahti, Jari; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Keller, Matthew C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Deary, Ian J.; Glahn, David C.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits and reduced educational achievement are common in psychiatric illness; understanding the genetic basis of cognitive and educational deficits may be informative about the etiology of psychiatric disorders. A recent, large genomewide association study (GWAS) reported a genome-wide significant locus for years of education, which subsequently demonstrated association to general cognitive ability (“g”) in overlapping cohorts. The current study was designed to test whether GWAS hits for educational attainment are involved in general cognitive ability in an independent, large-scale collection of cohorts. Using cohorts in the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT; up to 20,495 healthy individuals), we examined the relationship between g and variants associated with educational attainment. We next conducted meta-analyses with 24,189 individuals with neurocognitive data from the educational attainment studies, and then with 53,188 largely independent individuals from a recent GWAS of cognition. A SNP (rs1906252) located at chromosome 6q16.1, previously associated with years of schooling, was significantly associated with g (P = 1.47×10−4) in COGENT. The first joint analysis of 43,381 non-overlapping individuals for this a priori-designated locus was strongly significant (P = 4.94×10−7), and the second joint analysis of 68,159 non-overlapping individuals was even more robust (P = 1.65×10−9). These results provide independent replication, in a large-scale dataset, of a genetic locus associated with cognitive function and education. As sample sizes grow, cognitive GWAS will identify increasing numbers of associated loci, as has been accomplished in other polygenic quantitative traits, which may be relevant to psychiatric illness. PMID:25951819

  1. Independent contractors versus employees: the costs and benefits for your practice.

    PubMed

    Buzogany, William A; Mueller, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Every business is interested in reducing costs. Payroll and employee benefit costs can be reduced through the use of independent contractors, because they are not employees to whom training, overtime wages, and benefits must be provided. Using the services of an independent contractor presents some disadvantages, however, as an independent contractor cannot be controlled and disciplined in the same fashion as an employee. There are a variety of tests applied under various statutes to determine whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor, and it is important to carefully analyze all of the facts of a given situation in light of these tests before entering into an independent contractor relationship. If you engage an individual as an independent contractor, and that individual is found to actually be an employee, your business may be subject to significant financial penalties. PMID:20695242

  2. Associative and spontaneous appraisal processes independently contribute to anger elicitation in daily life.

    PubMed

    Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Robinson, Michael D

    2010-04-01

    There has been a great deal of debate concerning the antecedents of anger, with appraisal theorists emphasizing the role of hostile interpretations and cognitive neo-associationistic theorists emphasizing the role of more basic associative processes. Recently, theorists have sought to reconcile these views by acknowledging the role of both associative and inferential processes, and the current investigation drew upon recent social-cognitive research to test this compromise. Individual differences in hostile inferences and associations were assessed in an implicit cognitive paradigm, and relevant outcomes were assessed in a daily diary protocol. Implicit hostile inferences predicted both anger and aggression in daily life, and such relationships were mediated by propensities toward hostile interpretations in daily life. Hostile associations also predicted anger in daily life, but this relationship proved to be independent of daily hostile interpretations. Results therefore support a model that acknowledges the role of both associative and appraisal processes in anger elicitation.

  3. How Does Independent Practice of Multiple-Criteria Text Influence the Reading Performance and Development of Second Graders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Jennifer P.; Allor, Jill H.; Roberts, J. Kyle

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of independent practice of multiple-criteria text that targeted high-frequency words, decodability, and meaningfulness. Second-grade students, including at-risk students, were randomly assigned within classroom to a treatment group that read multiple-criteria text ("n" = 34), or contrast group that read…

  4. Chronic joint pain in the lower body is associated with gait differences independent from radiographic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    de Kruijf, Marjolein; Verlinden, Vincentius J A; Huygen, Frank J P M; Hofman, Albert; van der Geest, Jos N; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Ikram, M Arfan; van Meurs, Joyce B J

    2015-09-01

    Gait is an important indicator of health. Chronic lower body pain may impair gait and lead to morbidity and mortality. We investigated the associations between lower body pain and gait in community-dwelling individuals, independent from osteoarthritis (OA). This population based cohort study included 2304 Rotterdam Study participants who underwent electronic walkway gait assessment. Thirty different variables resulting from gait assessment were summarized into seven gait domains using principle components analysis: i.e. Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace, Tandem, Turning, and Base of Support. Chronic lower body pain was assessed using pain drawings. OA was defined as a Kellgren & Lawrence score of 2 or higher on radiographs of the hip and/or knee. Linear regression analysis was used to study associations. Participants with chronic pain in the leg and hip, had lower Rhythm, Phases, and Pace, independent from OA. Additionally, we found unilateral pain to associate with larger gait asymmetry. No associations were found between chronic pain and the other gait domains, including gait variability. However, within individuals with hip pain, gait variability was higher in individuals with radiographic OA compared to those without OA. This is the first population based study showing chronic lower body pain associates with gait differences independent from OA. Participants with pain were found to walk with slower and smaller steps, longer double support and more asymmetry. Proper care and treatment of chronic pain could be a way of reducing gait problems and thereby fall risk and associated mortality. In addition, gait assessment may help identifying individuals with OA from those having pain due to other causes.

  5. Vitamin D is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise capacity: results of two independent cohorts of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kaul, A; Gläser, S; Hannemann, A; Schäper, C; Nauck, M; Felix, S B; Bollmann, T; Ewert, R; Friedrich, N

    2016-02-14

    Vitamin D has an important role in calcium homeostasis and is known to have various health-promoting effects. Moreover, potential interactions between vitamin D and physical activity have been suggested. This study aims to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and exercise capacity quantified by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). For this, 1377 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and 750 participants from the independent SHIP-TREND cohort were investigated. Standardised incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer were performed to assess exercise capacity by VO2 at anaerobic threshold, peakVO2, O2 pulse and peak power output. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay. In SHIP-1, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with all considered parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity. Subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (4th quartile) showed an up to 25% higher exercise capacity compared with subjects with low 25(OH)D levels (1st quartile). All associations were replicated in the independent SHIP-TREND cohort and were independent of age, sex, season and other interfering factors. In conclusion, significant positive associations between 25(OH)D and parameters of CPET were detected in two large cohorts of healthy adults.

  6. Eveningness is associated with higher risk-taking, independent of sex and personality.

    PubMed

    Ponzi, Davide; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario

    2014-12-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that eveningness is associated with higher risk-taking propensities across different domains of risk and that this association is not the result of sex differences or confounding covariation with particular personality traits. Study participants were 172 men and women between 20 and 40 years of age. Surveys assessed chronotype, domain-specific risk-taking and risk-perception, and Big Five personality dimensions. Eveningness was associated with greater general risk-taking in the specific domains of financial, ethical, and recreational decision making. Although risk-taking was associated with both risk perception and some personality dimensions, eveningness predicted risk-taking independent of these factors. Higher risk-taking propensities among evening types may be causally or functionally linked to their propensities for sensation- and novelty-seeking, impulsivity, and sexual promiscuity.

  7. Coefficient of glucose variation is independently associated with mortality in critically ill patients receiving intravenous insulin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both patient- and context-specific factors may explain the conflicting evidence regarding glucose control in critically ill patients. Blood glucose variability appears to correlate with mortality, but this variability may be an indicator of disease severity, rather than an independent predictor of mortality. We assessed blood glucose coefficient of variation as an independent predictor of mortality in the critically ill. Methods We used eProtocol-Insulin, an electronic protocol for managing intravenous insulin with explicit rules, high clinician compliance, and reproducibility. We studied critically ill patients from eight hospitals, excluding patients with diabetic ketoacidosis and patients supported with eProtocol-insulin for < 24 hours or with < 10 glucose measurements. Our primary clinical outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. We performed multivariable logistic regression, with covariates of age, gender, glucose coefficient of variation (standard deviation/mean), Charlson comorbidity score, acute physiology score, presence of diabetes, and occurrence of hypoglycemia < 60 mg/dL. Results We studied 6101 critically ill adults. Coefficient of variation was independently associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio 1.23 for every 10% increase, P < 0.001), even after adjustment for hypoglycemia, age, disease severity, and comorbidities. The association was higher in non-diabetics (OR = 1.37, P < 0.001) than in diabetics (OR 1.15, P = 0.001). Conclusions Blood glucose variability is associated with mortality and is independent of hypoglycemia, disease severity, and comorbidities. Future studies should evaluate blood glucose variability. PMID:24886864

  8. The Independent Association of a Short Cervix, Positive Fetal Fibronectin, Amniotic Fluid Sludge, and Cervical Funneling with Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Twin Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, Jessica; Booker, Whitney; Gupta, Simi; Lam-Rochlin, Jennifer; Rebarber, Andrei; Saltzman, Daniel H; Monteagudo, Ana; Fox, Nathan S

    2016-10-01

    Objective To estimate the independent association of a short cervical length (CL), positive fetal fibronectin (fFN), amniotic fluid (AF) sludge, and cervical funneling with spontaneous preterm birth in twin pregnancies. Methods Retrospective cohort study of twin pregnancies managed by a single maternal-fetal medicine practice from June 2005 to February 2014. All patients underwent transvaginal sonographic CL and fFN testing. We reviewed all images from the first CL at 22(0/7) to 25(6/7) weeks for the presence of (1) a short CL, which is defined as ≤25 mm, (2) AF sludge, and (3) cervical funneling, and also recorded (4) the fFN result from that time. Image reviewers were blinded to pregnancy outcomes. Patients with cerclage were excluded. Using logistic regression, we calculated the independent association between these four biomarkers and spontaneous preterm birth. Results A total of 635 patients with twin pregnancies were included. The markers independently associated with spontaneous preterm birth <35 weeks were short CL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 10.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.21-35.81), positive fFN (aOR: 3.25; 95% CI: 1.13-9.33), and AF sludge (aOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.04-4.27). Similarly, these three markers were independently associated with earlier gestational ages at delivery. Cervical funneling was not independently associated with spontaneous preterm birth <35 weeks nor gestational age at delivery. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth increased significantly with the number of positive biomarkers (short CL, positive fFN, and AF sludge). Conclusion In twin pregnancies, a short CL, positive fFN, and AF sludge are independently associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Cervical funneling is not independently associated with spontaneous preterm birth in twins.

  9. Deep resequencing of GWAS loci identifies independent rare variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Manuel A.; Beaudoin, Melissa; Gardet, Agnes; Stevens, Christine; Sharma, Yashoda; Zhang, Clarence K.; Boucher, Gabrielle; Ripke, Stephan; Ellinghaus, David; Burtt, Noel; Fennell, Tim; Kirby, Andrew; Latiano, Anna; Goyette, Philippe; Green, Todd; Halfvarson, Jonas; Haritunians, Talin; Korn, Joshua M.; Kuruvilla, Finny; Lagacé, Caroline; Neale, Benjamin; Lo, Ken Sin; Schumm, Phil; Törkvist, Leif; Dubinsky, Marla; Brant, Steven R.; Silverberg, Mark; Duerr, Richard H.; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Lettre, Guillaume; Franke, Andre; D’Amato, Mauro; McGovern, Dermot P.B.; Cho, Judy H.; Rioux, John D.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Daly, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    More than a thousand disease susceptibility loci have been identified via genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of common variants; however, the specific genes and full allelic spectrum of causal variants underlying these findings generally remain to be defined. We utilize pooled next-generation sequencing to study 56 genes in regions associated to Crohn’s Disease in 350 cases and 350 controls. Follow up genotyping of 70 rare and low-frequency protein-altering variants (MAF ~ .001-.05) in nine independent case-control series (16054 CD patients, 12153 UC patients, 17575 healthy controls) identifies four additional independent risk factors in NOD2, two additional protective variants in IL23R, a highly significant association to a novel, protective splice variant in CARD9 (p < 1e-16, OR ~ 0.29), as well as additional associations to coding variants in IL18RAP, CUL2, C1orf106, PTPN22 and MUC19. We extend the results of successful GWAS by providing novel, rare, and likely functional variants that will empower functional experiments and predictive models. PMID:21983784

  10. Hippocampal volume and cingulum bundle fractional anisotropy are independently associated with verbal memory in older adults.

    PubMed

    Ezzati, Ali; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Michael L; Zimmerman, Molly E; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of medial temporal lobe and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) volumetrics as well as fractional anisotropy of the cingulum angular bundle (CAB) and the cingulum cingulate gyrus (CCG) bundle to performance on measures of verbal memory in non-demented older adults. The participants were 100 non-demented adults over the age of 70 years from the Einstein Aging Study. Volumetric data were estimated from T1-weighted images. The entire cingulum was reconstructed using diffusion tensor MRI and probabilistic tractography. Association between verbal episodic memory and MRI measures including volume of hippocampus (HIP), entorhinal cortex (ERC), PCC and fractional anisotropy of CAB and CCG bundle were modeled using linear regression. Relationships between atrophy of these structures and regional cingulum fractional anisotropy were also explored. Decreased HIP volume on the left and decreased fractional anisotropy of left CAB were associated with lower memory performance. Volume changes in ERC, PCC and CCG disruption were not associated with memory performance. In regression models, left HIP volume and left CAB-FA were each independently associated with episodic memory. The results suggest that microstructural changes in the left CAB and decreased left HIP volume independently influence episodic memory performance in older adults without dementia. The importance of these findings in age and illness-related memory decline require additional exploration. PMID:26424564

  11. Independent Association of Muscular Strength and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Children.

    PubMed

    Melo, X; Santa-Clara, H; Santos, D A; Pimenta, N M; Minderico, C S; Fernhall, B; Sardinha, L B

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the influence of muscular strength on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in children, controlling for the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and central adiposity and to examine if differences among muscular strength tertiles translate to physiological differences. We assessed cIMT of the common carotid artery in 366 children between 11-12 years of age (191 girls). Measures included cIMT assessed with high-resolution ultrasonography, a maximal handgrip strength test, body fat mass and lean mass from DXA and CRF determined using a maximal cycle ergometer test. Association between muscular strength and cIMT adjusted for CRF and central adiposity, as measured by trunk fat, was tested with multiple linear regression analysis. Differences in risk factors among muscular strength groups were tested with ANOVA. The Muscular Strength Index (MSI) was inversely associated with cIMT independently of CRF and central adiposity (p<0.05). The low MSI group had the highest values of cIMT, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure and the lowest CRF (p<0.05). There was an inverse and independent association between muscular strength and cIMT. Low muscular strength was associated with higher levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children.

  12. Survey of electronic veterinary medical record adoption and use by independent small animal veterinary medical practices in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Krone, Lauren M.; Brown, Catherine M.; Lindenmayer, Joann M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the proportion of independent small animal veterinary medical practices in Massachusetts that use electronic veterinary medical records (EVMRs), determine the purposes for which EVMRs are used, and identify perceived barriers to their use. Design Survey. Sample 100 veterinarians. Procedures 213 of 517 independent small animal veterinary practices operating in Massachusetts were randomly chosen for study recruitment. One veterinarian at each practice was invited by telephone to answer a hardcopy survey regarding practice demographics, medical records type (electronic, paper, or both), purposes of EVMR use, and perceived barriers to adoption. Surveys were mailed to the first 100 veterinarians who agreed to participate. Practices were categorized by record type and size (large [≥ 5 veterinarians], medium [3 to 4 veterinarians], or small [1 to 2 veterinarians]). Results 84 surveys were returned; overall response was 84 of 213 (39.4%). The EVMRs were used alone or together with paper records in 66 of 82 (80.5%) practices. Large and medium-sized practices were significantly more likely to use EVMRs combined with paper records than were small practices. The EVMRs were most commonly used for ensuring billing, automating reminders, providing cost estimates, scheduling, recording medical and surgical information, and tracking patient health. Least common uses were identifying emerging infectious diseases, research, and insurance. Eleven veterinarians in paper record–only practices indicated reluctance to change, anticipated technological problems, time constraints, and cost were barriers to EVMR use. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results indicated EVMRs were underutilized as a tool for tracking and improving population health and identifying emerging infectious diseases. Efforts to facilitate adoption of EVMRs for these purposes should be strengthened by the veterinary medical, human health, and public health professions. PMID:25029312

  13. Interesting Times: Practice, Science, and Professional Associations in Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Critchfield, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    Neither practitioners nor scientists appear to be fully satisfied with the world's largest behavior-analytic membership organization. Each community appears to believe that initiatives that serve the other will undermine the association's capacity to serve their own needs. Historical examples suggest that such discord is predicted when practitioners and scientists cohabit the same association. This is true because all professional associations exist to address guild interests, and practice and science are different professions with different guild interests. No association, therefore, can succeed in being all things to all people. The solution is to assure that practice and science communities are well served by separate professional associations. I comment briefly on how this outcome might be promoted. PMID:22532750

  14. Recent incarceration independently associated with syringe sharing by injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Evan; Li, Kathy; Small, Will; Montaner, Julio S.; Schechter, Martin T.; Kerr, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few prospective studies are available on the relationship between incarceration and HIV risk among injection drug users (IDUs). The authors evaluated self-reported rates of syringe sharing and incarceration among a cohort of IDUs. METHODS: This study analyzed syringe lending by HIV-infected IDUs and syringe borrowing by HIV-negative IDUs among participants enrolled in the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS). Since serial measures for each individual were available, variables potentially associated with each outcome (syringe lending and borrowing) were evaluated using generalized estimating equations for binary outcomes. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 1,475 IDUs who were enrolled into the VIDUS cohort from May 1996 through May 2002. At baseline, 1,123 (76%) reported a history of incarceration since they first began injecting drugs. Of these individuals, 351 (31%) reported at baseline that they had injected drugs while incarcerated. Among 318 baseline HIV-infected IDUs, having been incarcerated in the six months prior to each interview remained independently associated with syringe lending during the same period (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06, 1.69; p=0.015). Similarly, among the 1,157 baseline HIV-negative IDUs, having been incarcerated in the six months prior to each interview remained independently associated with reporting syringe borrowing during the same period (adjusted OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.12, 1.44; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Incarceration was independently associated with risky needle sharing for HIV-infected and HIV-negative IDUs. This evidence of HIV risk behavior should reinforce public health concerns about the high rates of incarceration among IDUs. PMID:15842116

  15. Localized hippocampus measures are associated with Alzheimer pathology and cognition independent of total hippocampal volume.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Owen; Xie, Jing; Fletcher, Evan; Singh, Baljeet; DeCarli, Charles

    2012-06-01

    Hippocampal injury in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological process is region-specific and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measures of localized hippocampus (HP) atrophy are known to detect region-specific changes associated with clinical AD, but it is unclear whether these measures provide information that is independent of that already provided by measures of total HP volume. Therefore, this study assessed the strength of association between localized HP atrophy measures and AD-related measures including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid beta and tau concentrations, and cognitive performance, in statistical models that also included total HP volume as a covariate. A computational technique termed localized components analysis (LoCA) was used to identify 7 independent patterns of HP atrophy among 390 semiautomatically delineated HP from baseline magnetic resonance imaging of participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Among cognitively normal participants, multiple measures of localized HP atrophy were significantly associated with CSF amyloid concentration, while total HP volume was not. In addition, among all participants, localized HP atrophy measures and total HP volume were both independently and additively associated with CSF tau concentration, performance on numerous neuropsychological tests, and discrimination between normal, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD clinical diagnostic groups. Together, these results suggest that regional measures of hippocampal atrophy provided by localized components analysis may be more sensitive than total HP volume to the effects of AD pathology burden among cognitively normal individuals and may provide information about HP regions whose deficits may have especially profound cognitive consequences throughout the AD clinical course.

  16. DNA-based, culture-independent strategies for evaluating microbial communities in food-associated ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Giraffa, G; Neviani, E

    2001-07-20

    Culture-independent molecular techniques are now available to study microbial ecosystems. They are opening interesting perspectives to problems related to composition and population dynamics of microbial communities in various environmental niches (e.g., soil, water) and foods. In fermented food products, estimates of true microbial diversity is often difficult chiefly on account of the inability to cultivate most of the viable bacteria. The increasing knowledge of gene sequences and the concomitant development of new culture-independent molecular techniques are providing new and effective tools to compare the diversity of microbial communities and to monitor population dynamics in minimally disturbed samples. In this review, recent advances in these techniques are reported. Possible applications to food-associated microbial ecosystems are emphasised. PMID:11482566

  17. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. PMID:26978393

  18. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study.

    PubMed

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. PMID:26978393

  19. Segment-Wise Genome-Wide Association Analysis Identifies a Candidate Region Associated with Schizophrenia in Three Independent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rietschel, Marcella; Mattheisen, Manuel; Breuer, René; Schulze, Thomas G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Levinson, Douglas; Shi, Jianxin; Gejman, Pablo V.; Cichon, Sven; Ophoff, Roel A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that variation in complex disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) is explained by a large number of genetic variants with small effect size (Odds Ratio∼1.05–1.1). The statistical power to detect these genetic variants in Genome Wide Association (GWA) studies with large numbers of cases and controls (∼15,000) is still low. As it will be difficult to further increase sample size, we decided to explore an alternative method for analyzing GWA data in a study of schizophrenia, dramatically reducing the number of statistical tests. The underlying hypothesis was that at least some of the genetic variants related to a common outcome are collocated in segments of chromosomes at a wider scale than single genes. Our approach was therefore to study the association between relatively large segments of DNA and disease status. An association test was performed for each SNP and the number of nominally significant tests in a segment was counted. We then performed a permutation-based binomial test to determine whether this region contained significantly more nominally significant SNPs than expected under the null hypothesis of no association, taking linkage into account. Genome Wide Association data of three independent schizophrenia case/control cohorts with European ancestry (Dutch, German, and US) using segments of DNA with variable length (2 to 32 Mbp) was analyzed. Using this approach we identified a region at chromosome 5q23.3-q31.3 (128–160 Mbp) that was significantly enriched with nominally associated SNPs in three independent case-control samples. We conclude that considering relatively wide segments of chromosomes may reveal reliable relationships between the genome and schizophrenia, suggesting novel methodological possibilities as well as raising theoretical questions. PMID:22723893

  20. The independent association of anxiety with non-cardiac chest pain.

    PubMed

    Smeijers, Loes; van de Pas, Harm; Nyklicek, Ivan; Notten, Peter J; Pedersen, Susanne S; Kop, Willem J

    2014-01-01

    Non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) is common in clinical cardiology. Anxiety is an important factor in NCCP because of its role in the neurobehavioural processes of pain regulation. It is not well established that which specific anxiety symptoms are disproportionately elevated in NCCP and whether the association between anxiety and NCCP is independent of personality factors. Participants with NCCP (N = 46; mean age 44.9 ± 14.7; 67% women) were evaluated for anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory[STAI]), clinical measures and personality factors (negative affectivity and social inhibition measured by the Type D inventory). Item analysis was conducted for each of the anxiety symptoms. A healthy reference group was used for comparison purposes (N = 1233; mean age 55.2 ± 14.3; 50% women). Results showed that NCCP was associated with elevated anxiety levels (STAI ≥ 45) compared to the reference group (OR = 3.27, 95% CI = 1.68-6.36; p < .001). Item analyses revealed that all anxiety symptoms were associated with NCCP (median rho = .125, range .08-.18), particularly worry, tension and feeling frightened. Associations between anxiety and NCCP remained significant when adjusting for demographic, clinical and personality factors (OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.17-5.40). It is concluded that anxiety is strongly associated with NCCP. This association is not limited to physical anxiety symptoms and is independent of personality factors. PMID:24160441

  1. Rapid neocortical acquisition of long-term arbitrary associations independent of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Tali; Moscovitch, Morris; Gilboa, Asaf

    2011-01-18

    Anterograde amnesia following hippocampal damage involves the loss of the capacity to form new declarative memories but leaves nondeclarative memory processes intact. Current theories of declarative memory suggest the existence of two complementary memory systems: a hippocampal-based system that specializes in rapid acquisition of specific events and a neocortical system that slowly learns through environmental statistical regularities and requires the initial support of the hippocampal system. Contrary to this notion, we demonstrate a neurocognitive mechanism that enables rapid acquisition of novel arbitrary associations independently of the hippocampus. This mechanism has been dubbed "fast mapping" (FM) and is believed to support the rapid acquisition of vocabulary in children as young as 16 mo of age. We used FM to teach novel word-picture associations to four profoundly amnesic patients with hippocampal system damage. Patients were able to acquire arbitrary associations through FM normally, despite profound impairment on a matched standard associative memory task. Most importantly, they retained what they learned through FM after a week's delay, when they were around chance level on the standard task. By contrast, two patients with unilateral damage to the left polar temporal neocortex were impaired on FM, suggesting that this cortical region is critical for associative learning through FM. Left perirhinal and entorhinal cortices might also play a role in learning through FM. Contrary to current theories, these findings indicate that rapid acquisition of declarative-like (relational) memory can be accomplished independently of the hippocampus and that neocortical plasticity can be induced rapidly to support novel arbitrary associations.

  2. Fostering Independent Learning: Practical Strategies to Promote Student Success. The Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Virginia Smith; Chickie-Wolfe, Louise A.; Eads, James B.

    2007-01-01

    Accessible, practical, and empowering, this book gives school professionals the tools to put students in charge of their own learning. Going beyond traditional "study skills" guides that focus on the mechanics of homework completion and test taking, the authors address the underlying psychological factors that influence academic success and…

  3. Factors associated with medical student clinical reasoning and evidence based medicine practice

    PubMed Central

    Kamei, Robert; Chan, Kenneth; Goh, Sok-Hong; Ngee, Lek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the factors associated with medical students’ clinical reasoning (CR) use and evidence-based medicine (EBM) use in the clinical setting. Methods Our cross-sectional study surveyed 44 final-year medical students at an emerging academic medical center in Singapore. We queried the students’ EBM and CR value and experiences in the classroom and clinical settings. We compared this to their perceptions of supervisors’ value and experiences using t-tests. We developed measures of teaching culture and practice culture by combining relevant questions into summary scores. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to identify factors associated with the students’ CR and EBM clinical use. Results Eighty-nine percent of students responded (n=39). Students reported valuing CR (p=0.03) and EBM (p=0.001) more than their supervisors, but practiced these skills similarly (p=0.83; p=0.82). Clinical practice culture and classroom CR experience were independently associated with students’ CR clinical use (p=0.05; p=0.04), and classroom EBM experience was independently associated with students’ EBM clinical use (p=0.03). Clinical teaching culture was not associated with students’ CR and EBM clinical use. Conclusions Our study found that medical students’ classroom experience and the clinical practice culture influenced their CR and EBM use. The clinical teaching culture did not. These findings suggest that in order to increase student CR and EBM use, in addition to providing classroom experience, medical educators may need to change the hospital culture by encouraging supervisors to use these skills in their clinical practice. PMID:26547924

  4. Frame Analysis of the Self-Perceived Leadership Orientations of Headmasters of the Independent Schools Association of the Southwest, Southern Association of Independent Schools, and the Association of Independent Schools of Greater Washington Member Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roddy, Troy Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the self-perceived leadership orientations of headmasters of independent schools. This research expanded the current body of work that supports Bolman and Deal's (2003) multi-frame explanation that leaders use different orientations (frames) to understand their roles, clarify organizational situations, and make decisions. Using…

  5. OSTEOPONTIN AND INTERLEUKIN-8 EXPRESSION IS INDEPENDENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH PROSTATE CANCER RECURRENCE

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Daniel J.; Carmack, Adrienne J.K.; Lokeshwar, Vinata B.; Duncan, Robert C.; Soloway, Mark S.; Lokeshwar, Bal L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Lack of reliable biomarkers limits accurate prediction of PSA biochemical recurrence (disease progression) in prostate cancer (CaP). The two inflammatory chemokines, Osteopontin (OPN) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are associated with tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. We investigated whether OPN and IL-8 expression in CaP correlates with disease progression. Experimental Design Archival prostatectomy specimens (n = 103) were obtained from patients with minimum 72 month follow-up. OPN and IL-8 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and graded for intensity and the area. Association of OPN and IL-8 staining with biochemical recurrence was evaluated by univariate and multivariate models. Results In tumor cells, OPN and IL-8 staining was higher in the recurred group (203.2 ± 78.4; 181.1 ± 89.3) than in the non-recurred group (122.7 ± 76.6; 96.4 ± 85.6; p < 0.001). Higher OPN and IL-8 staining was also observed in benign areas adjacent to tumor in the recurred group, than in non-recurred group. In univariate analysis, except age, all pre- and post-operative parameters and OPN and IL-8 staining scores significantly associated with biochemical recurrence (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, margin status and OPN staining independently associated with biochemical recurrence within 72 months. OPN, either alone or with IL-8 and seminal vesicle invasion was a significant parameter in predicting biochemical recurrence within 24 months. OPN and IL-8 staining predicted recurrence with high sensitivity (75.5% 73.6%) and specificity (76%, 70.6%). Conclusion In prostatectomy specimens, OPN expression is independently associated with biochemical recurrence. Both OPN and IL-8 may be predictors of early disease progression. PMID:18593988

  6. Positive parenting practices associated with subsequent childhood weight change.

    PubMed

    Avula, Rasmi; Gonzalez, Wendy; Shapiro, Cheri J; Fram, Maryah S; Beets, Michael W; Jones, Sonya J; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to identify positive parenting practices that set children on differential weight-trajectories. Parenting practices studied were cognitively stimulating activities, limit-setting, disciplinary practices, and parent warmth. Data from two U.S. national longitudinal data sets and linear and logistic regression were used to examine association of initial parenting practices with subsequent change in body mass index (BMI) Z-score and being overweight, stratified by income and gender. Lower change in BMI Z-score and lower likelihood of being or becoming overweight occurred among girls if parents engaged in cognitively stimulating activities or set bedtime; among low-income girls if parents helped with art and set bedtime; among high-income girls if they participated in dance or music, parents talked about nature or visited a museum or library, or parents had rules about number of hours for watching television; among low-income boys if they participated in dance or parents built something with them or set bedtime; and among high-income boys if they participated in dance or music. Greater expression of warmth was associated with lower change in BMI Z-score. Parenting practices facilitating cognitive stimulation, setting limits, and expressing warmth are associated with lower likelihood of being or becoming overweight and can be promoted by healthcare professionals. PMID:22143321

  7. Naegleria fowleri amoebae express a membrane-associated calcium-independent phospholipase A(2).

    PubMed

    Barbour, S E; Marciano-Cabral, F

    2001-02-26

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba, is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Previous reports have demonstrated that N. fowleri expresses one or more forms of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and that a secreted form of this enzyme is involved in pathogenesis. However, the molecular nature of these phospholipases remains largely unknown. This study was initiated to determine whether N. fowleri expresses analogs of the well-characterized PLA(2)s that are expressed by mammalian macrophages. Amoeba cell homogenates contain a PLA(2) activity that hydrolyzes the substrate that is preferred by the 85 kDa calcium-dependent cytosolic PLA(2), cPLA(2). However, unlike the cPLA(2) enzyme in macrophages, this activity is largely calcium-independent, is constitutively associated with membranes and shows only a modest preference for phospholipids that contain arachidonate. The amoeba PLA(2) activity is sensitive to inhibitors that block the activities of cPLA(2)-alpha and the 80 kDa calcium-independent PLA(2), iPLA(2), that are expressed by mammalian cells. One of these compounds, methylarachidonyl fluorophosphonate, partially inhibits the constitutive release of [(3)H]arachidonic acid from pre-labeled amoebae. Together, these data suggest that N. fowleri expresses a constitutively active calcium-independent PLA(2) that may play a role in the basal phospholipid metabolism of these cells.

  8. Biochemical indices associated with meditation practice: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, M M

    1985-01-01

    Research findings on biochemical responsivity to meditation are reviewed. Although there are some contradictory and inconclusive outcomes, there is nevertheless sufficient evidence of interest to warrant further investigation of this area. However, in the meantime, there is no compelling basis to conclude that meditation practice is associated with special state or trait effects at the biochemical level.

  9. Anxiety Sensitivity and Aspects of Alexithymia Are Independently and Uniquely Associated with Posttraumatic Distress

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnik, Marc; Stewart, Sherry H.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Jaycox, Lisa H.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of adult survivors of physical trauma requiring hospitalization (N = 677), we examined the relationship of aspects of alexithymia and anxiety sensitivity to symptoms of posttraumatic distress (PTD). At the bivariate level, both aspects of alexithymia and anxiety sensitivity were positively associated with acute PTD symptomatology, but anxiety sensitivity was more strongly related to PTD symptoms. At the multivariate level, both anxiety sensitivity and aspects of alexithymia made unique and independent contributions to both total PTD symptoms and the majority of PTD symptom clusters. At the facet level, anxiety sensitivity Physical Concerns and Psychological Concerns, and the alexithymic dimension of Difficulty Identifying Feelings, were uniquely associated with acute PTD symptoms. Findings are discussed in terms of potential clinical implications. PMID:19301252

  10. Meteorological factors and El Niño Southern Oscillation are independently associated with dengue infections.

    PubMed

    Earnest, A; Tan, S B; Wilder-Smith, A

    2012-07-01

    Our objective was to determine the association between temperature, humidity, rainfall and dengue activity in Singapore, after taking into account lag periods as well as long-term climate variability such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). We used a Poisson model which allowed for autocorrelation and overdispersion in the data. We found weekly mean temperature and mean relative humidity as well as SOI to be significantly and independently associated with dengue notifications. There was an interaction effect by periods of dengue outbreaks, but periods where El Niño was present did not moderate the relationship between humidity and temperature with dengue notifications. Our results help to understand the temporal trends of dengue in Singapore, and further reinforce the findings that meteorological factors are important in the epidemiology of dengue.

  11. Practice Characteristics Associated with Patient-Specific Receipt of Dental Diagnostic Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Weems, Richard A; Litaker, Mark S; Shelton, Brent J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To quantify the role of practice characteristics in patient-specific receipt of dental diagnostic radiographic services. Data Source/Study Setting Florida Dental Care Study (FDCS). Study Design The FDCS was a 48-month prospective observational cohort study of community-dwelling adults. Participants' dentists were asked to complete a questionnaire about their practice characteristics. Data Collection/Extraction Methods In-person interviews and clinical examinations were conducted at baseline, 24, and 48 months, with 6-monthly telephone interviews in between. A single multivariate (four radiographic service outcomes) multivariable (multiple explanatory covariates) logistic regression was used to model service receipts. Principal Findings These practice characteristics were significantly associated with patient-specific receipt of radiographic services: number of different practices attended during follow-up; dentist's rating of how busy the practice was; typical waiting time for a new patient examination; practice size; percentage of patients that the dentist reported as interested in details about the condition of their mouths; percentage of African American patients in the practice; percentage of patients in the practice who do not have dental insurance; and dentist's agreement with a statement regarding whether patients should be dismissed from the practice. Effects had differential magnitudes and directions of effect, depending upon radiograph type. Conclusions Practice characteristics were significantly associated with patient-specific receipt of services. These effects were independent of patient-specific disease level and patient-specific sociodemographic characteristics, suggesting that practitioners do influence receipt of these diagnostic services. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that practitioners act in response to a mix of patients' interests, economic self-interests, and their own treatment preferences. PMID:16987308

  12. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Are Independently Associated with Weight in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Ok; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the relationship between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB) and body weight in Korean adolescents. Methods: This study used a nationally representative sample of 72,368 South Korean adolescents, aged 13 to 18 years. The study sample was categorized according to BMI as follows: underweight, body mass index (BMI) <18.5; normal weight, 18.5 ≤ BMI < 23.0; overweight, 23.0 ≤ BMI < 25.0; and obese, 25.0 ≤ BMI. An analysis was then performed to determine if meeting the recommended guidelines for PA frequency (5 times/week ≤) and amount of SB (<2 hours/day) was associated with weight category. Results: The percentage of normal weight adolescents was 54.3% while the percentages of underweight, overweight, and obese adolescents were 27.4%, 10.2%, and 8.1%, respectively. Significantly fewer underweight and obese adolescents met PA guidelines compared to normal weight adolescents. In addition, underweight, overweight, and obese adolescents had significantly higher SB scores. Conclusion: The present study indicates that in Korean adolescents, physical activity and sedentary behavior are independently associated with weight status. Overweight, obese and underweight Korean adolescents should all be independently monitored for management of health-related behaviors. PMID:26064854

  13. Evaluation of a Transition to Practice Program for Neurosurgery Residents: Creating a Safe Transition From Resident to Independent Practitioner

    PubMed Central

    Lister, J. Richard; Friedman, William A.; Murad, Gregory J.; Dow, Jamie; Lombard, Gwen J.

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2004, the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Florida implemented a major curriculum innovation called the Transition to Practice program. This program was established to prepare residents to more safely transition to the role of independent practitioner. Methods A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the program was conducted after its fifth year using online surveys and interviews. Study participants included Transition to Practice graduates, faculty, and current residents. Results Of the 26 respondents, 89% of faculty and all graduates were very satisfied with the program. Strengths identified included an independent yet mentored broad operative experience, the development of self-confidence, and a real sense of responsibility for patients. Medical billing and coding instruction and career mentoring were areas of the program that required additional attention. Conclusion Overall, this program is meeting the stated objectives and is well received by the graduates and faculty. Based on the results of this evaluation, curricular changes such as instructions in practice management and implementation of a career-mentoring program have occurred. The Transition to Practice program is a unique curricular response to change that other surgical specialties may find useful in addressing the current-day stresses on graduate medical education. PMID:21976085

  14. Are independent mobility and territorial range associated with park visitation among youth?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parks are important for providing opportunities for physical activity among youth. Apart from engaging in physical activity whilst visiting a park, active transportation (e.g. walking or cycling) to parks is potentially an additional source of physical activity. Previous research has shown that a major barrier to young people visiting parks is their inability to visit parks unaccompanied by an adult. It is not known; however, whether young people who have greater independent mobility and territorial range (ability to move around their neighbourhood alone or with friends, unaccompanied by an adult) are more likely to visit parks. This study examined park visitation and travel mode to parks and whether independent mobility and territorial range were associated with park visitation among youth living in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Methods In 2010–11, 311 youth aged 8–16 years self-reported their park use, active transport, independent mobility to parks, and territorial range. Logistic regression models determined the odds of park visitation (once per week or more) according to independent mobility and territorial range, adjusting for key covariates. Results Overall, 75% of participants reported visiting parks, and 37% visited their ‘usual’ park at least once per week. Of those who reported visiting parks, 87% travelled to the park they usually visited using active transport: 57% walked, 22% cycled, and 8% used a scooter/skateboard. Just 15% and 13% of youth regularly walked or cycled alone to parks/playgrounds respectively, and 25% and 19% regularly walked or cycled with friends or siblings (no adults) respectively. For the 84% who reported having parks/playgrounds within walking distance from home, those who regularly walked alone to parks (OR 3.61; CI=1.67, 7.80), and regularly walked (OR 2.27; CI=1.14, 4.55) or cycled (OR 3.38; CI=1.73, 6.62) with friends to parks, were significantly more likely to visit a park at least once per

  15. Serum testosterone levels in males are not associated with entrepreneurial behavior in two independent observational studies.

    PubMed

    van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Haring, Robin; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Frank H; Koellinger, Philipp D; Kohlmann, Thomas; Nauck, Matthias A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; van Rooij, Frank J A; Wallaschofski, Henri; Thurik, A Roy

    2013-07-01

    Previous research has suggested a positive association between testosterone (T) and entrepreneurial behavior in males. However, this evidence was found in a study with a small sample size and has not been replicated. In the present study, we aimed to verify this association using two large, independent, population-based samples of males. We tested the association of T with entrepreneurial behavior, operationalized as self-employment, using data from the Rotterdam Study (N=587) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (N=1697). Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the serum. Free testosterone (FT), non-SHBG-bound T (non-SHBG-T), and the TT/SHBG ratio were calculated and used as measures of bioactive serum T, in addition to TT adjusted for SHBG. Using logistic regression models, we found no significant associations between any of the serum T measures and self-employment in either of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study on the relationship between serum T and entrepreneurial behavior. PMID:23770427

  16. Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) work practices report for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luca, Jackie

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to gain a better understanding of effective safety and health work practice controls for composite manufacturing operations, the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) Occupational Safety and Health Committee established a Composites Task Group. The group's task was to provide AIA members with recommendations for minimizing occupational exposure risk and to determine research needs and information gaps. The strategy included a review of toxicological information on composites, a review of member company experience and control methods, and interaction with other professional organizations who share an interest in composite work practices.

  17. Poor physical fitness is independently associated with mild cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Han, J H; Jin, Y Y; Lee, I H; Hong, H R; Kang, H S

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical fitness and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly Koreans. This was a cross-sectional study that involved 134 men and 299 women aged 65 to 88 years. Six senior fitness tests were used as independent variables: 30 s chair stand for lower body strength, arm curl for upper body strength, chair-sit-and-reach for lower body flexibility, back scratch for upper body flexibility, 8-ft up-and-go for agility/dynamic balance, and 2-min walk for aerobic endurance. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Potential covariates such as age, education levels, blood lipids, and insulin resistance (IR) markers were also assessed. Compared to individuals without MMSE-based MCI, individuals with MMSE-based MCI had poor physical fitness based on the senior fitness test (SFT). There were significant positive trends observed for education level (p=0.001) and MMSE score (p<0.001) across incremental levels of physical fitness in this study population. Individuals with moderate (OR=0.341, p=0.006) and high (OR=0.271, p=0.007) physical fitness based on a composite score of the SFT measures were less likely to have MMSE-based MCI than individuals with low physical fitness (referent, OR=1). The strength of the association between moderate (OR=0.377, p=0.038) or high (OR=0.282, p=0.050) physical fitness and MMSE-based MCI was somewhat attenuated but remained statistically significant even after adjustment for the measured compounding factors. We found that poor physical fitness was independently associated with MMSE-based MCI in elderly Koreans. PMID:26985135

  18. Hyperhomocysteinemia as a metabolic disorder parameter is independently associated with the severity of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenggui; Yang, Yinzhong; Peng, Duanliang; Chen, Linong; Luo, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study the associations between hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and the severity of coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed metabolic parameters, anthropometric variables, and life style habits in 292 CHD patients of different categories, and 100 controlled non-CHD patients with chest pain symptoms who were hospitalized in the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, Chengdu, China between October 2013 and September 2014. Results: The prevalence of HHcy in CHD patients was 79.1%, while only 5% of non-CHD patients had elevated serum homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations. The prevalence of HHcy significantly increased from 5% in non-CHD controls to 66% in the stable angina pectoris (SAP) group, to 81.9% in the unstable angina pectoris group, and to 93.15% in the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) group (p<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HHcy was independently associated with CHD category (AMI versus SAP, odds ratio [6.38], 95% confidence interval; 1.18-34.46). The Hcy was negatively correlated with folic acid (r=-0.67, p<0.001) and vitamin B12 (r=-0.56, p<0.001). Of the CHD patients with HHcy, 51.1% had low folic acid and 42% had low vitamin B12, 7 or 5 times higher than that of CHD patients with normal-low Hcy concentrations (p<0.001). Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia is independently associated with the severity of CHD, and significantly correlated with low status of folic acid and vitamin B12 in CHD patients. PMID:26108589

  19. Independent associations between metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis: observations from the Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Karen; Lindsey, Jason B; Khera, Amit; De Lemos, James A; Ayers, Colby R; Goyal, Abhinav; Vega, Gloria L; Murphy, Sabina A; Grundy, Scott M; McGuire, Darren K

    2008-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been termed a "coronary disease equivalent", yet data suggest that only those DM subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are at increased coronary risk. Using data from the Dallas Heart Study, a large, probability-based population study, we assessed the individual and joint associations between MetS, DM and atherosclerosis, defined as coronary artery calcium (CAC) detected by electron-beam computerised tomography (EBCT) and abdominal aortic plaque (AAP) detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Among 2,735 participants, the median age was 44 years; 1,863 (68%) were non-white; 1,509 (55%) were women; 697 (25.5%) had MetS without DM; 53 (1.9%) had DM without MetS; and 246 (9.0%) had both DM and MetS. The prevalence of CAC increased from those with neither MetS nor DM (16.6%) to MetS only (24.0%) to DM only (30.2%) to both MetS and DM (44.7%) (ptrend <0.0001). The prevalence of CAC was higher in those with both DM and MetS versus either alone (p<0.0001). After adjustment, MetS and DM were each independently associated with CAC (odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1-1.8; OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5, respectively). Compared with the group without DM or MetS, those with both MetS and DM had the most CAC (adjusted OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.6-3.2). All analyses of AAP yielded qualitatively similar results. In conclusion, both MetS and DM are independently associated with an increased prevalence of atherosclerosis, with the highest observed prevalence in subjects with both DM and MetS. PMID:18537096

  20. Poor physical fitness is independently associated with mild cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Han, J H; Jin, Y Y; Lee, I H; Hong, H R; Kang, H S

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical fitness and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly Koreans. This was a cross-sectional study that involved 134 men and 299 women aged 65 to 88 years. Six senior fitness tests were used as independent variables: 30 s chair stand for lower body strength, arm curl for upper body strength, chair-sit-and-reach for lower body flexibility, back scratch for upper body flexibility, 8-ft up-and-go for agility/dynamic balance, and 2-min walk for aerobic endurance. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Potential covariates such as age, education levels, blood lipids, and insulin resistance (IR) markers were also assessed. Compared to individuals without MMSE-based MCI, individuals with MMSE-based MCI had poor physical fitness based on the senior fitness test (SFT). There were significant positive trends observed for education level (p=0.001) and MMSE score (p<0.001) across incremental levels of physical fitness in this study population. Individuals with moderate (OR=0.341, p=0.006) and high (OR=0.271, p=0.007) physical fitness based on a composite score of the SFT measures were less likely to have MMSE-based MCI than individuals with low physical fitness (referent, OR=1). The strength of the association between moderate (OR=0.377, p=0.038) or high (OR=0.282, p=0.050) physical fitness and MMSE-based MCI was somewhat attenuated but remained statistically significant even after adjustment for the measured compounding factors. We found that poor physical fitness was independently associated with MMSE-based MCI in elderly Koreans.

  1. Poor physical fitness is independently associated with mild cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SH; Han, JH; Jin, YY; Lee, IH; Hong, HR

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical fitness and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly Koreans. This was a cross-sectional study that involved 134 men and 299 women aged 65 to 88 years. Six senior fitness tests were used as independent variables: 30 s chair stand for lower body strength, arm curl for upper body strength, chair-sit-and-reach for lower body flexibility, back scratch for upper body flexibility, 8-ft up-and-go for agility/dynamic balance, and 2-min walk for aerobic endurance. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Potential covariates such as age, education levels, blood lipids, and insulin resistance (IR) markers were also assessed. Compared to individuals without MMSE-based MCI, individuals with MMSE-based MCI had poor physical fitness based on the senior fitness test (SFT). There were significant positive trends observed for education level (p=0.001) and MMSE score (p<0.001) across incremental levels of physical fitness in this study population. Individuals with moderate (OR=0.341, p=0.006) and high (OR=0.271, p=0.007) physical fitness based on a composite score of the SFT measures were less likely to have MMSE-based MCI than individuals with low physical fitness (referent, OR=1). The strength of the association between moderate (OR=0.377, p=0.038) or high (OR=0.282, p=0.050) physical fitness and MMSE-based MCI was somewhat attenuated but remained statistically significant even after adjustment for the measured compounding factors. We found that poor physical fitness was independently associated with MMSE-based MCI in elderly Koreans. PMID:26985135

  2. Rho-Associated Kinase Activity Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kajikawa, Masato; Noma, Kensuke; Nakashima, Ayumu; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Akimichi; Oda, Nozomu; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kihara, Yasuki; Aibara, Yoshiki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Sasaki, Shota; Kato, Masaya; Dote, Keigo; Goto, Chikara; Liao, James K.; Higashi, Yukihito

    2016-01-01

    Rho-associated kinases play an important role in a variety of cellular functions. Although Rho-associated kinase activity has been shown to be an independent predictor for future cardiovascular events in a general population, there is no information on Rho-associated kinase activity in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We evaluated leukocyte Rho-associated kinase activity by Western blot analysis in 73 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 73 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Rho-associated kinase activity within 2 hours of acute coronary syndrome onset was higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome than in the control subjects (0.95±0.55 versus 0.69±0.31; P<0.001). Rho-associated kinase activity promptly increased from 0.95±0.55 to 1.11±0.81 after 3 hours and reached a peak of 1.21±0.76 after 1 day (P=0.03 and P=0.03, respectively) and then gradually decreased to 0.83±0.52 after 7 days, 0.78±0.42 after 14 days, and 0.72±0.30 after 6 months (P=0.22, P=0.29, and P=0.12, respectively). During a median follow-up period of 50.8 months, 31 first major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and coronary revascularization) occurred. After adjustment for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and concomitant treatment with statins, increased Rho-associated kinase activity was associated with increasing risk of first major cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 4.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.98–11.34; P<0.001). These findings suggest that Rho-associated kinase activity is dramatically changed after acute coronary syndrome and that Rho-associated kinase activity could be a useful biomarker to predict cardiovascular events in Japanese patients with acute coronary syndrome. PMID:26283039

  3. Coordination changes associated with practice of a soccer kick.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D I; Sidaway, B

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in coordination associated with practice of a soccer kick. Video records were collected on 6 novice, right-footed soccer players prior to and after 20 regularly scheduled kicking practice sessions. Three experienced players were also videotaped for comparison. Movement of the right leg was digitized and analyzed using motion analysis software. As a result of practice, subjects were able to significantly increase the maximum resultant linear velocity of the foot, and these increases were accompanied by changes in the pattern of coordination underlying the movement. These changes were assessed qualitatively through the topological characteristics of the relative motions of the hip and knee and quantitatively through three different timing variables. The results provide some support for Bernstein's (1967) ideas on the acquisition of skilled behavior as well as for the two-stage model of motor learning proposed by Newell (1985).

  4. Multidrug-resistant TB and HIV in Thailand: overlapping, but not independently associated, risk factors.

    PubMed

    Akksilp, Somsak; Wattanaamornkiat, Wanpen; Kittikraisak, Wanitchaya; Nateniyom, Sriprapa; Rienthong, Somsak; Sirinak, Chawin; Ngamlert, Keerataya; Mankatittham, Wiroj; Sattayawuthipong, Wanchai; Sumnapun, Surin; Yamada, Norio; Monkongdee, Patama; Anuwatnonthakate, Amornrat; Burapat, Channawong; Wells, Charles D; Tappero, Jordan W; Varma, Jay K

    2009-09-01

    The HIV and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemics are closely linked. In Thailand as part of a sentinel surveillance system, we collected data prospectively about pulmonary TB cases treated in public clinics. A subset of HIV-infected TB patients identified through this system had additional data collected for a research study. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with MDR-TB. Of 10,428 TB patients, 2,376 (23%) were HIV-infected; 145 (1%) had MDR-TB. Of the MDR-TB cases, 52 (37%) were HIV-infected. Independent risk factors for MDR-TB included age 18-29 years old, male sex, and previous TB treatment, but not HIV infection. Among new patients, having an injection drug use history was a risk factor for MDR-TB. Of 539 HIV-infected TB patients in the research study, MDR-TB was diagnosed in 19 (4%); the only significant risk factors were previous TB treatment and previous hepatitis. In Thailand, HIV is common among MDR-TB patients, but is not an independent risk factor for MDR-TB. Populations at high risk for HIV-young adults, men, injection drug users - should be prioritized for drug susceptibility testing.

  5. Multi-drug resistant TB and HIV in Thailand: overlapping, but not independently associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Akksilp, Somsak; Wattanaamornkiat, Wanpen; Kittikraisak, Wanitchaya; Nateniyom, Sriprapa; Rienthong, Somsak; Sirinak, Chawin; Ngamlert, Keerataya; Mankatittham, Wiroj; Sattayawuthipong, Wanchai; Sumnapun, Surin; Yamada, Norio; Monkongdee, Patama; Anuwatnonthakate, Amornrat; Burapat, Channawong; Wells, Charles D; Tappero, Jordan W; Varma, Jay K

    2009-11-01

    The HIV and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemics are closely linked. In Thailand as part of a sentinel surveillance system, we collected data prospectively about pulmonary TB cases treated in public clinics. A subset of HIV-infected TB patients identified through this system had additional data collected for a research study. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with MDR-TB. Of 10,428 TB patients, 2,376 (23%) were HIV-infected; 145 (1%) had MDR-TB. Of the MDR-TB cases, 52 (37%) were HIV-infected. Independent risk factors for MDR-TB included age 18-29 years old, male sex, and previous TB treatment, but not HIV infection. Among new patients, having an injection drug use history was a risk factor for MDR-TB. Of 539 HIV-infected TB patients in the research study, MDR-TB was diagnosed in 19 (4%); the only significant risk factors were previous TB treatment and previous hepatitis. In Thailand, HIV is common among MDR-TB patients, but is not an independent risk factor for MDR-TB. Populations at high risk for HIV-young adults, men, injection drug users - should be prioritized for drug susceptibility testing.

  6. Does Moral Distress Differ Between California Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists in Independent Versus Medically Supervised Practice: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Dumouchel, Michael; Boytim, Michael; Gorman, Nicholas; Weismuller, Penny

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive study was to determine if moral distress levels differed between certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) working in medically supervised versus independent practice in California. A 63-question survey was administered to 1,190 California CRNAs. Moral distress was measured by the included Ethics Stress Scale. The response rate was 14.7%, yielding demographic and Ethics Stress scores for 175 respondents. Sixty-five participants answered an open-ended question about moral distress yielding qualitative data. Medically supervised CRNAs had a lower mean moral distress scores (176.8) versus independent practice CRNAs (187.8) (p = .002). Lower scores on the ESS indicate higher moral distress. Qualitative data demonstrated that CRNAs experienced moral distress in the following situations: when pressured to give anesthesia to unoptimized patients, when differences of opinion regarding anesthetic plans occurred, in dealing with end-of-life issues, when working with incompetent providers, and during interprofessional struggles between CRNAs and anesthesiologists. In order to reduce moral distress among CRNAs, implications for practice include increased administrative support, increased communication and reciprocated collegial respect between anesthesiologists and CRNAs, and CRNA representation on ethics committees.

  7. Anomalous Self-Experiences and positive symptoms are independently associated with emotion processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cicero, David C; Klaunig, Mallory J; Trask, Christi L; Neis, Aaron M

    2016-10-01

    Social-cognitive models posit a role of Anomalous Self-Experiences (ASEs), disturbances in the subjective experience of the self, in the development and maintenance of psychosis. Theorists have suggested that ASEs may underlie the social-cognitive deficits that are common in people with schizophrenia. Positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and ASEs may interfere with the ability to perceive, use, understand, and manage emotions. In the current study, 45 people with schizophrenia and 28 healthy controls completed the Inventory of Psychotic-Like Anomalous Self-Experiences (IPASE), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and were rated on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Participants with schizophrenia had higher IPASE scores and lower MSCEIT scores than the comparison group. In a series of simultaneous regressions, ASEs, but not positive or negative symptoms, were associated with Total MSCEIT scores and the Using Emotions branch score. In contrast, positive symptoms, but not ASEs or negative symptoms were associated with Perceiving and Managing Emotions branches. Both ASEs and positive symptoms independently contributed to Emotional Experiencing scores. The severity of negative symptoms was not associated with deficits in any MSCEIT scores. These results suggest unique roles for ASEs and positive symptoms in emotion processing deficits in people with schizophrenia. PMID:27562615

  8. Platelet function tests, independent of platelet count, are associated with bleeding severity in ITP.

    PubMed

    Frelinger, Andrew L; Grace, Rachael F; Gerrits, Anja J; Berny-Lang, Michelle A; Brown, Travis; Carmichael, Sabrina L; Neufeld, Ellis J; Michelson, Alan D

    2015-08-13

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients with similarly low platelet counts differ in their tendency to bleed. To determine if differences in platelet function in ITP patients account for this variation in bleeding tendency, we conducted a single-center, cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with ITP. Bleeding severity (assessed by standardized bleeding score) and platelet function (assessed by whole blood flow cytometry) with and without agonist stimulation was evaluated in 57 ITP patients (median age, 9.9 years). After adjustment for platelet count, higher levels of thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP)-stimulated percent P-selectin- and activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa-positive platelets were significantly associated with a lower bleeding score, whereas higher levels of immature platelet fraction (IPF), TRAP-stimulated platelet surface CD42b, unstimulated platelet surface P-selectin, and platelet forward light scatter (FSC) were associated with a higher bleeding score. Thus, platelet function tests related to platelet age (IPF, FSC) and activation through the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) thrombin receptor (TRAP-stimulated P-selectin, activated GPIIb-IIIa, and CD42b), independent of platelet count, are associated with concurrent bleeding severity in ITP. These tests may be useful markers of future bleeding risk in ITP.

  9. Coronary calcification and osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women are independent processes associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, B; Syed, I; Sevrukov, A; Barengolts, E

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether low bone mass is directly associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in men and postmenopausal women self-referred for evaluation of coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. Low bone mass was evaluated by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) using quantitative computerized tomography (QCT). Coronary atherosclerosis was evaluated by measurement of coronary calcium (CC) burden using electron beam computerized tomography (EBCT). Using a cross-sectional design, we tested the hypothesis that osteoporosis and coronary atherosclerosis are correlated, age-dependent processes. Study variables were BMD, CC scores, and other known risk factors for osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Qualifying for the study were 313 postmenopausal women and 167 men. Men had higher baseline CC scores and higher body mass indexes compared to women. In females, those patients with coronary calcification were older and had significantly lower BMD compared to those without calcification. In males, those patients with coronary calcification were older. By univariate correlation analysis, the degree of coronary calcification was inversely associated with BMD in postmenopausal women (P < 0.0001) but not in men. However, after controlling for age, this association was absent for both men and postmenopausal women. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis in women and men separately, age was the only significant predictor of positive CC status and low BMD. Our study suggests that in postmenopausal women and in men, after controlling for age, osteoporosis and coronary atherosclerosis are independent processes. PMID:16604285

  10. Independent associations between fatty acids and sleep quality among obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Papandreou, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids and sleep quality in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome after controlling for possible confounders. Sixty-three patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome based on overnight attended polysomnography were included. Gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Anthropometric measurements were carried out. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Saturated fatty acids were positively related to total sleep time, sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep. Significant positive associations were found between polyunsaturated fatty acids and sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep. Moreover, n-3 fatty acids were positively associated with sleep efficiency, slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. This study revealed independent associations between certain gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids and sleep quality after controlling for age, gender, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome indices and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale scores in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

  11. Platelet function tests, independent of platelet count, are associated with bleeding severity in ITP

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Rachael F.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Brown, Travis; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients with similarly low platelet counts differ in their tendency to bleed. To determine if differences in platelet function in ITP patients account for this variation in bleeding tendency, we conducted a single-center, cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with ITP. Bleeding severity (assessed by standardized bleeding score) and platelet function (assessed by whole blood flow cytometry) with and without agonist stimulation was evaluated in 57 ITP patients (median age, 9.9 years). After adjustment for platelet count, higher levels of thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP)-stimulated percent P-selectin- and activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa–positive platelets were significantly associated with a lower bleeding score, whereas higher levels of immature platelet fraction (IPF), TRAP-stimulated platelet surface CD42b, unstimulated platelet surface P-selectin, and platelet forward light scatter (FSC) were associated with a higher bleeding score. Thus, platelet function tests related to platelet age (IPF, FSC) and activation through the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) thrombin receptor (TRAP-stimulated P-selectin, activated GPIIb-IIIa, and CD42b), independent of platelet count, are associated with concurrent bleeding severity in ITP. These tests may be useful markers of future bleeding risk in ITP. PMID:26138687

  12. The Number of Stenotic Intracranial Arteries Is Independently Associated with Ischemic Stroke Severity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunhua; Wang, Wenming; Li, Xianglin; Zhang, Shuping; Li, Xuri; Tian, Geng; Bergquist, Jonas; Wang, Bin; Mi, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Background The severity of ischemic stroke symptoms varies among patients and is a critical determinant of patient outcome. To date, the association between the number of stenotic intracranial arteries and stroke severity remains unclear. Aims We aimed to investigate the association between the number of stenotic major intracranial arteries (NSMIA) and ischemic stroke severity, as well as the degree of stenosis and common stroke risk factors. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-confirmed ischemic stroke. Clinical stroke severity was measured using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The number of stenotic vessels was counted from the internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries, bilaterally. Results Eighty three patients were recruited from a single center and included in the study. NSMIA was significantly correlated with stroke severity (Pearson Correlation Coefficient = 0.485, P < 0.001), but not with the degree of stenosis (Pearson Correlation Coefficient = 0.01, P = 0.90). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that NSMIA was significantly associated with the NIHSS score after adjusting for stroke risk factors. The adjusted odds ratio (per lateral) was 2.092 (95% CI, 0.865 to 3.308, P = 0.001). The degree of stenosis was also significantly associated with the NIHSS score after adjusting for common risk factors. The odds ratio (per 10%) was 0.712 (95% CI, 0.202 to 1.223, P = 0.007). Conclusions The number of stenotic intracranial major arteries is associated with the severity of ischemic stroke independent of the degree of stenosis and other stroke risk factors. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been previosuly studied in great detail using DSA. Our data highlight the importance of examining all major arteries in stroke patients. PMID:27649086

  13. Inexpensive, serotype-independent protocol for native and bioengineered recombinant adeno-associated virus purification

    PubMed Central

    Arden, Erik; Metzger, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a valuable and often used gene therapy vector. With increased demand for highly purified virus comes the need for a standardized purification procedure that is applicable across many serotypes and includes bioengineered viruses. Currently cesium chloride banding or affinity chromatography are the predominate forms of purification. These approaches expose the final purified virus to toxic contaminants or are highly capsid dependent and may require significant optimization to isolate purified AAV. These methods may also limit crude viral lysate processing volume resulting in a significant loss of viral titer. To circumvent these issues, we have developed an AAV purification protocol independent of toxic compounds, supernatant volume and capsid moiety. This purification method standardizes virus purification across native serotype and bioengineered mosaic capsids. PMID:27294171

  14. Serum Level of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Is Independently Associated with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenhui; Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been described as a metabolic hormone critical for glucose and lipid metabolism. Previously, high levels of FGF21 were observed in patients with coronary heart disease and non-acute myocardial infarction (non-AMI). In this study, we investigated the changes in FGF21 levels in Chinese patients with AMI. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ELISA to measure circulating FGF21 levels in 55 AMI patients and 45 non-AMI control patients on the 1st day after syndrome onset. All patients were followed-up within 30 days. FGF21 levels in AMI patients were significantly higher than those in non-AMI controls (0.25 (0.16–0.34) vs. 0.14 (0.11–0.20) ng/mL, P < 0.001). FGF21 levels reached the maximum within approximately 24 h after the onset of AMI and remained at high for 7 days, and the FGF21 level (OR: 16.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.65–108.05; P = 0.003) was identified as an independent factor associated with the presence of AMI. On the 7th day, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in the patients who subsequently developed re-infarction within 30 days than in the patients who did not develop re-infarction (with vs. without re-infarction: 0.45 (0.22–0.64) vs. 0.21 (0.15–0.29) ng/mL, P = 0.014). Conclusions/Significance The level of serum FGF21 is independently associated with the presence of AMI in Chinese patients. High FGF21 levels might be related to the incidence of re-infarction within 30 days after onset. PMID:26091256

  15. Heralded-qubit amplifiers for practical device-independent quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Curty, Marcos; Moroder, Tobias

    2011-07-15

    Device-independent quantum key distribution does not need a precise quantum mechanical model of employed devices to guarantee security. Despite its beauty, it is still a very challenging experimental task. We compare a recent proposal by Gisin et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)] to close the detection loophole problem with that of a simpler quantum relay based on entanglement swapping with linear optics. Our full-mode analysis for both schemes confirms that, in contrast to recent beliefs, the second scheme can indeed provide a positive key rate which is even considerably higher than that of the first alternative. The resulting key rates and required detection efficiencies of approximately 95% for both schemes, however, strongly depend on the underlying security proof.

  16. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  17. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sharp, Stephen J; Ambrosini, Gina L; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-03-14

    There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), particularly in boys (1·26; 95% CI 0·41, 2·16 v. girls: 0·26; 95% CI -0·34, 0·87), but not with %BF, FMI or weight status. In contrast, baseline SED, MPA or VPA were not associated with any of the outcomes. Change in DED was negatively associated with FMI (β for 1kJ/g increase: -0·86; 95% CI -1·59, -0·12) and %BF (-0·86; 95% CI -1·25, -0·11) but not WC (-0·27; 95% CI -1·02, 0·48). Change in SED, MPA and VPA did not predict adiposity at follow-up. In conclusion, activity intensity was not prospectively associated with adiposity, whereas the directions of associations with DED were inconsistent. To inform public health efforts, future studies should continue to analyse longitudinal data to further understand the independent role of different energy-balance behaviours in changes in adiposity in early adolescence. PMID:26758859

  18. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices.

  19. Requirements for independent community-based quality assessment and accountability practices in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief activities.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Thomas D; Perrin, Paul; Burkle, Frederick M; Canny, William; Purdin, Susan; Lin, William; Sauer, Lauren

    2012-06-01

    During responses to disasters, the credibility of humanitarian agencies can be threatened by perceptions of poor quality of the responses. Many initiatives have been introduced over the last two decades to help address these issues and enhance the overall quality of humanitarian response, often with limited success. There remain important gaps and deficiencies in quality assurance efforts, including potential conflicts of interest. While many definitions for quality exist, a common component is that meeting the needs of the "beneficiary" or "client" is the ultimate determinant of quality. This paper examines the current status of assessment and accountability practices in the humanitarian response community, identifies gaps, and recommends timely, concise, and population-based assessments to elicit the perspective of quality performance and accountability to the affected populations. Direct and independent surveys of the disaster-affected population will help to redirect ongoing aid efforts, and generate more effective and comparable methods for assessing the quality of humanitarian practices and assistance activities.

  20. Repeated independent evolution of obligate pollination mutualism in the Phyllantheae-Epicephala association.

    PubMed

    Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2009-02-01

    The well-known fig-fig wasp and yucca-yucca moth mutualisms are classic examples of obligate mutualisms that have been shaped by millions of years of coevolution. Pollination systems involving obligate seed parasites are only expected to evolve under rare circumstances where their positive effects are not swamped by abundant co-pollinators and heavy costs resulting from seed destruction. Here, we show that, in Phyllantheae, specialization to pollination by Epicephala moths evolved at least five times, involving more than 500 Phyllantheae species in this obligate association. Active pollination behaviour evolved once in Epicephala, 10-20 Myr after the initial divergence of their host plants. The pollinating Epicephala moths thus radiated on an already-diverged host lineage and successively colonized new Phyllantheae hosts, thereby giving rise to repeated independent evolution of the specialized pollination system in Phyllantheae. The present evolutionary success of this association rests entirely upon active pollination by Epicephala, making this a distinct example of an evolutionary key innovation. Overall, our findings provide a clear empirical demonstration of how a combination of evolutionary innovation and partner shifts facilitates the spread of mutualism in a coevolving species interaction.

  1. Hypoglycemia Is Independently Associated with Multidimensional Impairment in Elderly Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pilotto, A.; Noale, M.; Maggi, S.; Addante, F.; Tiengo, A.; Perin, P. Cavallo; Rengo, G.; Crepaldi, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To identify the characteristics associated with multidimensional impairment, evaluated through the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), a validated predictive tool for mortality derived from a standardized Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA), in a cohort of elderly diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs. Methods and Results. The study population consisted of 1342 diabetic patients consecutively enrolled in 57 diabetes centers distributed throughout Italy, within the Metabolic Study. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), 65 years old or over, and treatment with oral antidiabetic medications. Data concerning DM duration, medications for DM taken during the 3-month period before inclusion in the study, number of hypoglycemic events, and complications of DM were collected. Multidimensional impairment was assessed using the MPI evaluating functional, cognitive, and nutritional status; risk of pressure sores; comorbidity; number of drugs taken; and cohabitation status. The mean age of participants was 73.3 ± 5.5 years, and the mean MPI score was 0.22 ± 0.13. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, female gender, hypoglycemic events, and hospitalization for glycemic decompensation were independently associated with a worse MPI score. Conclusion. Stratification of elderly diabetic patients using the MPI might help to identify those patients at highest risk who need better-tailored treatment. PMID:24689062

  2. Membrane-association of mRNA decapping factors is independent of stress in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Huch, Susanne; Gommlich, Jessie; Muppavarapu, Mridula; Beckham, Carla; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the degradation of mRNA occurs on translating ribosomes or alternatively within RNA granules called P bodies, which are aggregates whose core constituents are mRNA decay proteins and RNA. In this study, we examined the mRNA decapping proteins, Dcp1, Dcp2, and Dhh1, using subcellular fractionation. We found that decapping factors co-sediment in the polysome fraction of a sucrose gradient and do not alter their behaviour with stress, inhibition of translation or inhibition of the P body formation. Importantly, their localisation to the polysome fraction is independent of the RNA, suggesting that these factors may be constitutively localised to the polysome. Conversely, polysomal and post-polysomal sedimentation of the decapping proteins was abolished with the addition of a detergent, which shifts the factors to the non-translating RNP fraction and is consistent with membrane association. Using a membrane flotation assay, we observed the mRNA decapping factors in the lower density fractions at the buoyant density of membrane-associated proteins. These observations provide further evidence that mRNA decapping factors interact with subcellular membranes, and we suggest a model in which the mRNA decapping factors interact with membranes to facilitate regulation of mRNA degradation. PMID:27146487

  3. APP independent and dependent effects on neurite outgrowth are modulated by the receptor associated protein (RAP).

    PubMed

    Billnitzer, Andrew J; Barskaya, Irina; Yin, Cailing; Perez, Ruth G

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its secreted form, sAPP, contribute to the development of neurons in hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Full-length APP binds the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), which stimulates APP endocytosis. LRP also contributes to neurite growth. Furthermore, the receptor associated protein (RAP) binds LRP in a manner that blocks APP-LRP interactions. To elucidate APP contributions to neurite growth for full-length APP and sAPP, we cultured wild type (WT) and APP knockout (KO) neurons in sAPPα and/or RAP and measured neurite outgrowth at 1 day in vitro. Our data reveal that WT neurons had less axonal outgrowth including less axon branching. RAP treatment potentiated the inhibitory effects of APP. KO neurons had significantly more outgrowth and branching, especially in response to RAP, effects which were also associated with ERK2 activation. Our results affirm a major inhibitory role by full-length APP on all aspects of axonal and dendritic outgrowth, and show that RAP-LRP binding stimulated axon growth independently of APP. These findings support a major role for APP as an inhibitor of neurite growth and reveal novel signaling functions for LRP that may be disrupted by Alzheimer's pathology or therapies aimed at APP processing.

  4. Culture-independent identification of bacteria associated with ovine 'broken mouth' periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Marcello P; Jonsson, Nicholas; Bennett, David

    2013-10-25

    'Broken mouth' periodontitis (BMP) is a painful condition of sheep grazed on rough pasture and involves periodontal infection of the incisor teeth and progressive tooth loss. This can reduce the efficiency of grazing of sheep, which contributes to malnutrition, weight loss, systemic health problems, poor quality of life and early culling from flocks. Consequently, this condition is a major economic problem to sheep farmers. However, there are no treatment or control methods available. The aim of this study was to identify the bacteria associated with BMP and oral health in sheep. Swabs were collected from the gingival pockets of three sheep with BMP and from the gingival margin of three orally healthy (normal) sheep. Bacteria were identified using culture-independent (16S rRNA gene sequencing) methods. In the normal samples, 26 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Enterobacter hormaechei (21.3% of analysed clones) and Hafnia alvei (21.3%), with uncultured (4.4%) and novel (5.0%) phylotypes also being identified. For the BMP samples, 24 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Mannheimia ruminalis (28.4%) and Moraxella caprae (13.5%), with uncultured (2.6%) and novel (24.5%) phylotypes also being identified. In conclusion, a distinct microflora is associated with BMP and oral health in sheep and M. ruminalis may be involved in the aetiology of BMP. PMID:23928119

  5. Culture-independent identification of bacteria associated with ovine 'broken mouth' periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Marcello P; Jonsson, Nicholas; Bennett, David

    2013-10-25

    'Broken mouth' periodontitis (BMP) is a painful condition of sheep grazed on rough pasture and involves periodontal infection of the incisor teeth and progressive tooth loss. This can reduce the efficiency of grazing of sheep, which contributes to malnutrition, weight loss, systemic health problems, poor quality of life and early culling from flocks. Consequently, this condition is a major economic problem to sheep farmers. However, there are no treatment or control methods available. The aim of this study was to identify the bacteria associated with BMP and oral health in sheep. Swabs were collected from the gingival pockets of three sheep with BMP and from the gingival margin of three orally healthy (normal) sheep. Bacteria were identified using culture-independent (16S rRNA gene sequencing) methods. In the normal samples, 26 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Enterobacter hormaechei (21.3% of analysed clones) and Hafnia alvei (21.3%), with uncultured (4.4%) and novel (5.0%) phylotypes also being identified. For the BMP samples, 24 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Mannheimia ruminalis (28.4%) and Moraxella caprae (13.5%), with uncultured (2.6%) and novel (24.5%) phylotypes also being identified. In conclusion, a distinct microflora is associated with BMP and oral health in sheep and M. ruminalis may be involved in the aetiology of BMP.

  6. Semantic association investigated with fMRI and independent component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Ki; Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Privitera, Michael D.; Holland, Scott K.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

    2010-01-01

    Semantic association, an essential element of human language, enables discourse and inference. Neuroimaging studies have revealed localization and lateralization of semantic circuitry making substantial contributions to cognitive neuroscience. However, due to methodological limitations, these investigations have only identified individual functional components rather than capturing the behavior of the entire network. To overcome these limitations, we have implemented group independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate the cognitive modules used by healthy adults performing fMRI semantic decision task. When compared to the results of a standard GLM analysis, ICA detected several additional brain regions subserving semantic decision. Eight task-related group ICA maps were identified including left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44/45), middle posterior temporal gyrus (BA39/22), angular gyrus/inferior parietal lobule (BA39/40), posterior cingulate (BA30), bilateral lingual gyrus (BA18/23), inferior frontal gyrus (L>R, BA47), hippocampus with parahippocampal gyrus (L>R, BA35/36) and anterior cingulate (BA32/24). While most of the components were represented bilaterally, we found a single, highly left-lateralized component that included the inferior frontal gyrus and the medial and superior temporal gyri, the angular and supramarginal gyri and the inferior parietal cortex. The presence of these spatially independent ICA components implies functional connectivity and can be equated with their modularity. These results are analyzed and presented in the framework of a biologically plausible theoretical model in preparation for similar analyses in patients with right- or left-hemispheric epilepsies. PMID:21296027

  7. Diabetes mellitus is independently associated with more severe cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I.; Kotagal, Vikas; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J.H.; Albin, Roger L.; Frey, Kirk A; Petrou, Myria

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in interactions between metabolic syndromes and neurodegeneration. Diabetes mellitus (DM) contributes to cognitive impairment in the elderly but its effect in Parkinson disease (PD) is not well studied. Objective To investigate effects of comorbid DM on cognition in PD independent from PD-specific primary neurodegenerations. Methods Cross-sectional study. Patients with PD (n=148; age 65.6±7.4 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage 2.4±0.6, with (n=15) and without (n=133) comorbid type II DM, underwent [11C]methyl-4-piperidinyl propionate (PMP) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) PET imaging to assess cortical cholinergic denervation, [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation, and neuropsychological assessments. A global cognitive Z-score was calculated based on normative data. Analysis of covariance was performed to determine cognitive differences between subjects with and without DM while controlling for nigrostriatal denervation, cortical cholinergic denervation, levodopa equivalent dose and education covariates. Results There were no significant differences in age, gender, Hoehn and Yahr stage or duration of disease between diabetic and non-diabetic PD subjects. There was a non-significant trend toward lower years of education in the diabetic PD subjects compared with non-diabetic PD subjects. PD diabetics had significantly lower mean (±SD) global cognitive Z-scores (−0.98±1.01) compared to the non-diabetics (−0.36±0.91; F=7.78, P=0.006) when controlling for covariate effects of education, striatal dopaminergic denervation, and cortical cholinergic denervation (total model F=8.39, P<0.0001). Conclusion Diabetes mellitus is independently associated with more severe cognitive impairment in PD likely through mechanisms other than diseasespecific neurodegenerations. PMID:25454317

  8. The associations of depression and hypertension with brain volumes: Independent or interactive?

    PubMed

    Meurs, Maaike; Groenewold, Nynke A; Roest, Annelieke M; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dick J; van Tol, Marie-José; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Independent studies on major depressive disorder (MDD) and hypertension, suggest overlapping abnormalities in brain regions associated with emotional and autonomic processing. However, the unique and interactive effects of MDD and hypertension have never been studied in a single sample. Brain volume in these areas may be an explanatory link in the comorbidity between MDD and hypertension. Voxel-based morphometry was used to test for main effects of MDD (N = 152) and hypertension (N = 82) and their interactions on gray and white matter volumes. Voxel-wise results are reported at p < .05 FWE corrected for the spatial extent of the whole brain and a-priori regions of interest (ROIs: hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)). In addition, analyses on the extracted total volumes of our ROIs were performed. Interactive effects in the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) (p FWE = .01), cerebellum (p FWE = .01) and in the ACC total ROI volume (p = .02) were found. MDD in the presence, but not in the absence of hypertension was associated with lower volumes in the ACC and MCC, and with a trend towards larger gray matter volume in the cerebellum. No associations with white matter volumes were observed. Results suggest that the combination of MDD and hypertension has a unique effect on brain volumes in areas implicated in the regulation of emotional and autonomic functions. Brain volume in these regulatory areas may be an explanatory link in the comorbidity between hypertension and MDD. PMID:26106530

  9. The associations of depression and hypertension with brain volumes: Independent or interactive?

    PubMed Central

    Meurs, Maaike; Groenewold, Nynke A.; Roest, Annelieke M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.; Veltman, Dick J.; van Tol, Marie-José; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Independent studies on major depressive disorder (MDD) and hypertension, suggest overlapping abnormalities in brain regions associated with emotional and autonomic processing. However, the unique and interactive effects of MDD and hypertension have never been studied in a single sample. Brain volume in these areas may be an explanatory link in the comorbidity between MDD and hypertension. Voxel-based morphometry was used to test for main effects of MDD (N = 152) and hypertension (N = 82) and their interactions on gray and white matter volumes. Voxel-wise results are reported at p < .05 FWE corrected for the spatial extent of the whole brain and a-priori regions of interest (ROIs: hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)). In addition, analyses on the extracted total volumes of our ROIs were performed. Interactive effects in the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) (pFWE = .01), cerebellum (pFWE = .01) and in the ACC total ROI volume (p = .02) were found. MDD in the presence, but not in the absence of hypertension was associated with lower volumes in the ACC and MCC, and with a trend towards larger gray matter volume in the cerebellum. No associations with white matter volumes were observed. Results suggest that the combination of MDD and hypertension has a unique effect on brain volumes in areas implicated in the regulation of emotional and autonomic functions. Brain volume in these regulatory areas may be an explanatory link in the comorbidity between hypertension and MDD. PMID:26106530

  10. Suboptimal breastfeeding practices are associated with infant illness in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence supporting the importance of breastfeeding to child health, breastfeeding practices remain suboptimal in Vietnam. There is currently little evidence on the importance of breastfeeding in the prevention of morbidity during infancy in Vietnam. In order to provide country specific data for policy makers to support breastfeeding friendly policies and programs, analysis was undertaken on a cross-sectional dataset to investigate the association between breastfeeding practices and prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among infants aged 0–5 months. Methods Data on socio-demographic characteristics, infant feeding practices and prevalence of diarrhea and ARI were obtained from 6,068 mother-child dyads in 11 provinces of Vietnam in 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associations between breastfeeding practices and child illnesses. Results On average, the prevalence of diarrhea and ARI among infants 0–5 months was 5.3% and 24.5%, respectively. Though half of all infants were breastfed within one hour of birth, 73.3% were given prelacteal foods in the first three days after birth. Only 20.2% of children 0–5 months old were exclusively breastfed, while 32.4% were predominantly breastfed and 47.4% partially breastfed. After adjusting for confounders, early initiation of breastfeeding was associated with lower prevalence of diarrhea [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.74 (95% CI 0.58, 0.93)], while prelacteal feeding was associated with higher prevalence [AOR = 1.53 (95% CI 1.15, 2.03)]. Compared to infants who were exclusively breastfed, infants who were predominantly [AOR = 1.52 (95% CI 1.05, 2.21)] or partially breastfed [AOR = 1.55 (95% CI 1.07, 2.24)] were more likely to have diarrhea. Prelacteal feeding [AOR = 1.16 (95% CI 1.01, 1.33)] and partial breastfeeding [AOR relative to exclusive breastfeeding = 1.24 (95% CI 1.03, 1.48)] were associated with higher prevalence of

  11. Independent Association of Circulating Vitamin D Metabolites with Anemia Risk in Patients Scheduled for Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Tobias; Kuhn, Joachim; Gummert, Jan F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preoperative anemia is considered an independent risk factor of poor clinical outcome in cardiac surgical patients. Low vitamin D status may increase anemia risk. Methods We investigated 3,615 consecutive patients scheduled for cardiac surgery to determine the association between preoperative anemia (hemoglobin [Hb] <12.5 g/dL) and circulating levels of the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D). Results Of the study cohort, 27.8 % met the criteria for anemia. In patients with deficient 25OHD levels (<30 nmol/l) mean Hb concentrations were 0.5 g/dL lower than in patients with adequate 25OHD levels (50.0–125 nmol/l; P<0.001). Regarding 1,25(OH)2D, mean Hb concentrations were 1.2 g/dL lower in the lowest 1,25(OH)2D category (<40 pmol/l) than in the highest 1,25(OH)2D category (>70 pmol/l; P<0.001). In multivariable–adjusted logistic regression analyses, the odds ratios for anemia of the lowest categories of 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D were 1.48 (95%CI:1.19-1.83) and 2.35 (95%CI:1.86-2.97), compared with patients who had adequate 25OHD levels and 1,25(OH)2D values in the highest category, respectively. Anemia risk was greatest in patients with dual deficiency of 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D (multivariable-adjusted OR = 3.60 (95%CI:2.40-5.40). Prevalence of deficient 25OHD levels was highest in anemia of nutrient deficiency, whereas low 1,25(OH)2D levels were most frequent in anemia of chronic kidney disease. Conclusion This cross-sectional study demonstrates an independent inverse association between vitamin D status and anemia risk. If confirmed in clinical trials, preoperative administration of vitamin D or activated vitamin D (in case of chronic kidney disease) would be a promising strategy to prevent anemia in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. PMID:25885271

  12. Characterizing Behavioral and Brain Changes Associated with Practicing Reasoning Skills.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Allyson P; Miller Singley, Alison T; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A

    2015-01-01

    We have reported previously that intensive preparation for a standardized test that taxes reasoning leads to changes in structural and functional connectivity within the frontoparietal network. Here, we investigated whether reasoning instruction transfers to improvement on unpracticed tests of reasoning, and whether these improvements are associated with changes in neural recruitment during reasoning task performance. We found behavioral evidence for transfer to a transitive inference task, but no evidence for transfer to a rule generation task. Across both tasks, we observed reduced lateral prefrontal activation in the trained group relative to the control group, consistent with other studies of practice-related changes in brain activation. In the transitive inference task, we observed enhanced suppression of task-negative, or default-mode, regions, consistent with work suggesting that better cognitive skills are associated with more efficient switching between networks. In the rule generation task, we found a pattern consistent with a training-related shift in the balance between phonological and visuospatial processing. Broadly, we discuss general methodological considerations related to the analysis and interpretation of training-related changes in brain activation. In summary, we present preliminary evidence for changes in brain activation associated with practice of high-level cognitive skills. PMID:26368278

  13. REV-ERB-ALPHA circadian gene variant associates with obesity in two independent populations: Mediterranean and North American

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the solid connection between REV-ERB and obesity, the information about whether genetic variations at this locus may be associated with obesity traits is scarce. Therefore our objective was to study the association between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 and obesity in two independent populations. ...

  14. Triiodothyronine Levels Are Independently Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Euthyroid Middle-Aged Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an association between thyroid hormone levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among euthyroid individuals; however, there have been some inconsistencies between studies. Here, we evaluated the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and MetS in euthyroid middle-aged subjects in a large cohort. Methods A retrospective analysis of 13,496 euthyroid middle-aged subjects who participated in comprehensive health examinations was performed. Subjects were grouped according to thyroid stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), and T3-to-T4 ratio quartile categories. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) for MetS according to thyroid hormone quartiles using logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Of the study patients, 12% (n=1,664) had MetS. A higher T3 level and T3-to-T4 ratio were associated with unfavourable metabolic profiles, such as higher body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin, and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The proportion of participants with MetS increased across the T3 quartile categories (P for trend <0.001) and the T3-to-T4 ratio quartile categories (P for trend <0.001). The multi-variate-adjusted OR (95% confidence interval) for MetS in the highest T3 quartile group was 1.249 (1.020 to 1.529) compared to the lowest T3 quartile group, and that in the highest T3-to-T4 ratio quartile group was 1.458 (1.141 to 1.863) compared to the lowest T3-to-T4 ratio quartile group, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion Serum T3 levels and T3-to-T4 ratio are independently associated with MetS in euthyroid middle-aged subjects. Longitudinal studies are needed to define this association and its potential health implications. PMID:27184017

  15. Associations between Positive Parenting Practices and Child Externalizing Behavior in Underserved Latino Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Holtrop, Kendal; Smith, Sharde' Mcneil; Scott, Jenna C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether five specific parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, problem solving, and positive involvement) were associated with reduced child externalizing behaviors among a sample of Latino immigrant families. It utilized baseline data from 83 Latino couples with children participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted parenting intervention. Results reveal that monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, and problem solving each made independent contributions to the prediction of child externalizing behavior, although not all in the expected direction. Further analyses examining mothers and fathers separately suggest that mother-reported monitoring and father-reported discipline practices uniquely contributed to these findings. These results may have important implications for prevention and clinical intervention efforts with Latino immigrant families, including the cultural adaptation and implementation of parenting interventions with this underserved population. PMID:25287585

  16. Associations between positive parenting practices and child externalizing behavior in underserved Latino immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Holtrop, Kendal; McNeil Smith, Sharde'; Scott, Jenna C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined whether five specific parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, problem solving, and positive involvement) were associated with reduced child externalizing behaviors among a sample of Latino immigrant families. It utilized baseline data from 83 Latino couples with children participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted parenting intervention. Results reveal that monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, and problem solving each made independent contributions to the prediction of child externalizing behavior, although not all in the expected direction. Further analyses examining mothers and fathers separately suggest that mother-reported monitoring and father-reported discipline practices uniquely contributed to these findings. These results may have important implications for prevention and clinical intervention efforts with Latino immigrant families, including the cultural adaptation and implementation of parenting interventions with this underserved population.

  17. Ethylene-Dependent and -Independent Processes Associated with Floral Organ Abscission in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Sara E.; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2004-01-01

    Abscission is an important developmental process in the life cycle of the plant, regulating the detachment of organs from the main body of the plant. This mechanism can be initiated in response to environmental cues such as disease or pathogen, or it can be a programmed shedding of organs that no longer provide essential functions to the plant. We have identified five novel dab (delayed floral organ abscission) mutants (dab1-1, dab2-1, dab3-1, dab3-2, and dab3-3) in Arabidopsis. These mutants each display unique anatomical and physiological characteristics and are governed by three independent loci. Scanning electron microscopy shows delayed development of the flattened fracture plane in some mutants and irregular elongation in the cells of the fracture plane in other mutants. The anatomical observations are also supported by breakstrength measurements that show high breakstrength associated with broken cells, moderate levels for the flattened fracture plane, and low levels associated with the initial rounding of cells. In addition, observations on the expression patterns in the abscission zone of cell wall hydrolytic enzymes, chitinase and cellulose, show altered patterns in the mutants. Last, we have compared these mutants with the ethylene-insensitive mutants etr1-1 and ein2-1 to determine if ethylene is an essential component of the abscission process and find that although ethylene can accelerate abscission under many conditions, the perception of ethylene is not essential. The role of the dab genes and the ethylene response genes during the abscission process is discussed. PMID:14701913

  18. Galectin-3 Serum Levels Are Independently Associated With Microalbuminuria in Chronic Heart Failure Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Iacoviello, Massimo; Aspromonte, Nadia; Leone, Marta; Paradies, Valeria; Antoncecchi, Valeria; Valle, Roberto; Caldarola, Pasquale; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Gesualdo, Loreto; Serio, Francesca Di

    2015-01-01

    Background: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a novel biomarker reflecting inflammation status and fibrosis involving worsening of both cardiac and renal functions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Gal-3 serum levels and microalbuminuria in a group of chronic heart failure (CHF) outpatients. Patients and Methods: We enrolled CHF outpatients having stable clinical conditions and receiving conventional therapy. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, routine chemistry analysis, echocardiography, and evaluation of the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR). Results: Among the patients enrolled, 61 had microalbuminuria (UACR, 30-299) and 133 normoalbuminuria (UACR, < 30). Patients with normoalbuminuria showed significantly higher levels of Gal-3 than those without (19.9 ± 8.8 vs. 14.6 ± 5.5 ng/mL). The stepwise regression analysis indicated that Gal-3 was the first determinant of microalbuminuria (odds ratio [OR]: 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 - 1.14, P = 0.012), followed by diabetes (OR 2.14; 95% CI: 1.00 - 4.57; P = 0.049) and high central venous pressure (OR 2.80; 95% CI: 1.04 - 7.58; P= 0.042). Conclusions: Our findings indicate an independent association between Gal-3 levels and microalbuminuria, an early marker of altered renal function. This suggests the possible role of Gal-3 in the progression of cardiorenal syndrome in CHF outpatients. PMID:26870715

  19. HDL-apolipoprotein A-I exchange is independently associated with cholesterol efflux capacity

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Mark S.; Ng, Kit F.; Irwin, Angela; Hong, Jaekyoung; Wu, Xing; Isquith, Daniel; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Prazen, Bryan; Gildengorin, Virginia; Oda, Michael N.; Vaisar, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    HDL is the primary mediator of cholesterol mobilization from the periphery to the liver via reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). A critical first step in this process is the uptake of cholesterol from lipid-loaded macrophages by HDL, a function of HDL inversely associated with prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the dynamic ability of HDL to undergo remodeling and exchange of apoA-I is an important and potentially rate-limiting aspect of RCT. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HDL-apoA-I exchange (HAE) and serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) efflux capacity. We compared HAE to the total and ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity of 77 subjects. We found that HAE was highly correlated with both total (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001) and ABCA1-specific (r = 0.47, P < 0.0001) efflux, and this relationship remained significant after adjustment for HDL-C or apoA-I. Multivariate models of sterol efflux capacity indicated that HAE accounted for approximately 25% of the model variance for both total and ABCA1-specific efflux. We conclude that the ability of HDL to exchange apoA-I and remodel, as measured by HAE, is a significant contributor to serum HDL efflux capacity, independent of HDL-C and apoA-I, indicating that HDL dynamics are an important factor in cholesterol efflux capacity and likely RCT. PMID:26254308

  20. HDL-apolipoprotein A-I exchange is independently associated with cholesterol efflux capacity.

    PubMed

    Borja, Mark S; Ng, Kit F; Irwin, Angela; Hong, Jaekyoung; Wu, Xing; Isquith, Daniel; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Prazen, Bryan; Gildengorin, Virginia; Oda, Michael N; Vaisar, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    HDL is the primary mediator of cholesterol mobilization from the periphery to the liver via reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). A critical first step in this process is the uptake of cholesterol from lipid-loaded macrophages by HDL, a function of HDL inversely associated with prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the dynamic ability of HDL to undergo remodeling and exchange of apoA-I is an important and potentially rate-limiting aspect of RCT. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HDL-apoA-I exchange (HAE) and serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) efflux capacity. We compared HAE to the total and ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity of 77 subjects. We found that HAE was highly correlated with both total (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001) and ABCA1-specific (r = 0.47, P < 0.0001) efflux, and this relationship remained significant after adjustment for HDL-C or apoA-I. Multivariate models of sterol efflux capacity indicated that HAE accounted for approximately 25% of the model variance for both total and ABCA1-specific efflux. We conclude that the ability of HDL to exchange apoA-I and remodel, as measured by HAE, is a significant contributor to serum HDL efflux capacity, independent of HDL-C and apoA-I, indicating that HDL dynamics are an important factor in cholesterol efflux capacity and likely RCT.

  1. On the association between adolescent autonomy and psychosocial functioning: examining decisional independence from a self-determination theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Van Petegem, Stijn; Beyers, Wim; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we focus on the concept of adolescent autonomy and its relation with psychosocial functioning. Specifically, we aim to differentiate between 2 prevailing conceptualizations of autonomy, that is, (a) autonomy defined as independence versus dependence and (b) autonomy defined as self-endorsed versus controlled functioning. A 2nd goal is to examine the relative contribution of each autonomy operationalization in the prediction of adolescents' adjustment (i.e., well-being, problem behavior, and intimacy). Data were gathered in a sample of 707 Belgian adolescents. Using a newly developed questionnaire, we assessed both the degree of independent decision making per se and the self-endorsed versus controlled motives underlying both independent and dependent decision making. The degree of independent decision making could clearly be differentiated from the underlying motives for doing so. Moreover, independent decision making as such showed unique associations with more problem behavior. Further, as expected, self-endorsed motives for both independent and dependent decision making generally related to an adaptive pattern of psychosocial functioning, and controlled motives were associated with maladjustment. The discussion focuses on the difference between the 2 perspectives on autonomy and on the different meaning of the motives underlying independent, relative to dependent, decision making.

  2. Associations between Infant Feeding Practices and Length, Weight, and Disease in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Yarnoff, Benjamin O; Allaire, Benjamin T; Detzel, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding are well-known, but the relative detrimental impacts of other foods on infant health are unknown. Because infants in developing countries are fed a wide range of food, quantifying the burden of these diverse feeding practices on infant health is essential for public health policy. We used data from the Demographic Health Survey from 20 developing countries over multiple years to examine the independent association of six different types of food (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods) with five measures of infant health (length, weight, diarrhea, fever, and cough). We estimated associations with regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors with infant, mother, and household factors and community-year fixed effects. We used these estimates in a simulation model to quantify the burden of different combinations of food on infant health. We show that for an infant younger than 6 months old, following current guidelines and exclusively breastfeeding instead of giving the infant solid foods may increase length by 0.75 cm and weight by 0.25 kg and decrease diarrhea, fever, and cough prevalence by 8, 12, and 11%, respectively. We found that the burden on infant health of some feeding practices is less than others. Although all other feeding practices are associated with worse health outcomes than exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding supplemented with liquids has a lower burden on infant health than solid foods and infant formula has a lower burden than milk or non-milk liquids as measured by four of five health metrics. Providing specific quantified burden estimates of these practices can help inform public health policy related to infant feeding practices. PMID:24400267

  3. Associations between Infant Feeding Practices and Length, Weight, and Disease in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Yarnoff, Benjamin O; Allaire, Benjamin T; Detzel, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding are well-known, but the relative detrimental impacts of other foods on infant health are unknown. Because infants in developing countries are fed a wide range of food, quantifying the burden of these diverse feeding practices on infant health is essential for public health policy. We used data from the Demographic Health Survey from 20 developing countries over multiple years to examine the independent association of six different types of food (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods) with five measures of infant health (length, weight, diarrhea, fever, and cough). We estimated associations with regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors with infant, mother, and household factors and community-year fixed effects. We used these estimates in a simulation model to quantify the burden of different combinations of food on infant health. We show that for an infant younger than 6 months old, following current guidelines and exclusively breastfeeding instead of giving the infant solid foods may increase length by 0.75 cm and weight by 0.25 kg and decrease diarrhea, fever, and cough prevalence by 8, 12, and 11%, respectively. We found that the burden on infant health of some feeding practices is less than others. Although all other feeding practices are associated with worse health outcomes than exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding supplemented with liquids has a lower burden on infant health than solid foods and infant formula has a lower burden than milk or non-milk liquids as measured by four of five health metrics. Providing specific quantified burden estimates of these practices can help inform public health policy related to infant feeding practices.

  4. Parental Beliefs about Emotions Are Associated with Early Adolescents' Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her, Pa; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed linkages between parents' beliefs and their children's self-construals with 60 7th and 8th graders. Early adolescents completed an open-ended, Self-Guide Questionnaire and an independent and interdependent reaction-time measure. The self-guide responses were coded for independent and interdependent traits. Parents reported beliefs…

  5. Independent Association of Postdoctoral Training with Subsequent Careers in Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Nelson, David E; Izmirlian, Grant; Ross, Katherine H; Raue, Kimberley; Tsakraklides, Sophia; Miyaoka, Atsushi; Spiegelman, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career paths of alumni from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), a structured in-house postdoctoral training program of 3-4 years duration, and specifically what proportion of the alumni were currently performing cancer prevention-related activities. The analyses here included 119 CPFP alumni and 85 unsuccessful CPFP applicants, all of whom completed postdoctoral training between 1987-2011 and are currently employed. Postdoctoral training experiences and current career outcomes data were collected via online surveys. Differences between groups were assessed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test p-values and subsequent regression analyses adjusted for differences between the groups. Compared to 15.3% of unsuccessful CPFP applicants, 52.1% of CPFP alumni (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI): 1.91-13.0) were currently spending the majority of their time working in cancer prevention. Among those doing any cancer prevention-focused work, 54.3% of CPFP alumni spent the majority of their time performing cancer prevention research activities when compared to 25.5% of unsuccessful applicants (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.38-13.2). In addition to the independent effect of the NCI CPFP, scientific discipline, and employment sector were also associated with currently working in cancer prevention and involvement in cancer prevention research-related activities. These results from a structured postdoctoral training program are relevant not only to the cancer prevention community but also to those interested in evaluating alignment of postdoctoral training programs with available and desired career paths more broadly. PMID:26659381

  6. Independent Association of Postdoctoral Training with Subsequent Careers in Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Nelson, David E; Izmirlian, Grant; Ross, Katherine H; Raue, Kimberley; Tsakraklides, Sophia; Miyaoka, Atsushi; Spiegelman, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career paths of alumni from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), a structured in-house postdoctoral training program of 3-4 years duration, and specifically what proportion of the alumni were currently performing cancer prevention-related activities. The analyses here included 119 CPFP alumni and 85 unsuccessful CPFP applicants, all of whom completed postdoctoral training between 1987-2011 and are currently employed. Postdoctoral training experiences and current career outcomes data were collected via online surveys. Differences between groups were assessed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test p-values and subsequent regression analyses adjusted for differences between the groups. Compared to 15.3% of unsuccessful CPFP applicants, 52.1% of CPFP alumni (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI): 1.91-13.0) were currently spending the majority of their time working in cancer prevention. Among those doing any cancer prevention-focused work, 54.3% of CPFP alumni spent the majority of their time performing cancer prevention research activities when compared to 25.5% of unsuccessful applicants (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.38-13.2). In addition to the independent effect of the NCI CPFP, scientific discipline, and employment sector were also associated with currently working in cancer prevention and involvement in cancer prevention research-related activities. These results from a structured postdoctoral training program are relevant not only to the cancer prevention community but also to those interested in evaluating alignment of postdoctoral training programs with available and desired career paths more broadly.

  7. High Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Insectivorous Bats in Argentina: Presence of Several Independent Enzootics

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Carolina; Gury Dohmen, Federico; Beltran, Fernando; Martinez, Leila; Novaro, Laura; Russo, Susana; Palacios, Gustavo; Cisterna, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV) circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. It is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of RABV in Argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive Argentinean territory. Methods We studied the positivity rate of RABV detection in different areas of the country, and the antigenic and genetic diversity of 99 rabies virus (RABV) strains obtained from 14 species of insectivorous bats collected in Argentina between 1991 and 2008. Results Based on the analysis of bats received for RABV analysis by the National Rabies system of surveillance, the positivity rate of RABV in insectivorous bats ranged from 3.1 to 5.4%, depending on the geographic location. The findings were distributed among an extensive area of the Argentinean territory. The 99 strains of insectivorous bat-related sequences were divided into six distinct lineages associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, Myotis spp, Eptesicus spp, Histiotus montanus, Lasiurus blosseviilli and Lasiurus cinereus. Comparison with RABV sequences obtained from insectivorous bats of the Americas revealed co-circulation of similar genetic variants in several countries. Finally, inter-species transmission, mostly related with Lasiurus species, was demonstrated in 11.8% of the samples. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence of several independent enzootics of rabies in insectivorous bats of Argentina. This information is relevant to identify potential areas at risk for human and animal infection. PMID:22590657

  8. Glycated Albumin is Independently Associated With Arterial Stiffness in Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon Young; Park, Seung Kyo; Yun, Gi Young; Choi, Ah Ran; Lee, Jung Eun; Ha, Sung Kyu; Park, Hyeong Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glycated albumin (GA) exhibits atherogenic effects and increased serum GA levels are associated with the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. GA production also increases with aging, oxidative stress, and renal dysfunction. We performed this study to further ascertain the association between GA and arterial stiffness in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We enrolled 129 nondiabetic CKD patients. Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) using a volume plethysmographic instrument along with simultaneous measurements of GA. Insulin resistance was determined with the homeostatic model assessment. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using serum creatinine and cystatin C according to the CKD-EPI Creatinine-Cystatin C equation adjusted for age, sex, and race (eGFRcr-cys). Nondiabetic CKD patients with arterial stiffness (baPWV ≥1400 cm/s) showed higher GA levels than those without arterial stiffness (14.2 [8.7–20.2]% vs 13.0 [8.8–18.9]%, P = 0.004). In the subgroup analysis, the patients who had both a higher GA level and a lower eGFRcr-cys, showed the highest baPWV compared with patients with a higher GA or a lower GFR alone. By Spearman's correlation analysis, GA correlated significantly with baPWV (r = +0.291, P = 0.001) and fasting serum glucose level (r = +0.191, P = 0.030), whereas The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance did not show any significant correlation with baPWV. Systolic blood pressure (r = +0.401 P < 0.001), age (r = +0.574, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level (r = −0.317, P < 0.001), and eGFRcr-cys (r = −0.285, P = 0.002) had a significant correlation with baPWV. According to multivariable logistic regression analysis, higher GA and systolic blood pressure were the independent risk factors affecting arterial stiffness. Our results suggest

  9. Glycated Albumin is Independently Associated With Arterial Stiffness in Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoon Young; Park, Seung Kyo; Yun, Gi Young; Choi, Ah Ran; Lee, Jung Eun; Ha, Sung Kyu; Park, Hyeong Cheon

    2016-04-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) exhibits atherogenic effects and increased serum GA levels are associated with the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. GA production also increases with aging, oxidative stress, and renal dysfunction. We performed this study to further ascertain the association between GA and arterial stiffness in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We enrolled 129 nondiabetic CKD patients. Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) using a volume plethysmographic instrument along with simultaneous measurements of GA. Insulin resistance was determined with the homeostatic model assessment. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using serum creatinine and cystatin C according to the CKD-EPI Creatinine-Cystatin C equation adjusted for age, sex, and race (eGFRcr-cys). Nondiabetic CKD patients with arterial stiffness (baPWV ≥1400 cm/s) showed higher GA levels than those without arterial stiffness (14.2 [8.7-20.2]% vs 13.0 [8.8-18.9]%, P = 0.004). In the subgroup analysis, the patients who had both a higher GA level and a lower eGFRcr-cys, showed the highest baPWV compared with patients with a higher GA or a lower GFR alone. By Spearman's correlation analysis, GA correlated significantly with baPWV (r = +0.291, P = 0.001) and fasting serum glucose level (r = +0.191, P = 0.030), whereas The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance did not show any significant correlation with baPWV. Systolic blood pressure (r = +0.401 P < 0.001), age (r = +0.574, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level (r = -0.317, P < 0.001), and eGFRcr-cys (r = -0.285, P = 0.002) had a significant correlation with baPWV. According to multivariable logistic regression analysis, higher GA and systolic blood pressure were the independent risk factors affecting arterial stiffness. Our results suggest that serum GA is a

  10. Endovascular neurointervention success and complication rates in the first year of independent practice in a suburban hospital setup

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Context: Endovascular neurointervention (interventional neuroradiology) is a highly demanding science requiring deep understanding of disease, anatomy, clinical skills and manual dexterity, consequently with a long learning curve and thus posing significant challenges to a physician entering new into the competitive arena. Aim: To evaluate the procedural success, complications and outcome in the first year of independent endovascular neurointervention practice in a suburban hospital. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data of all diagnostic and therapeutic neurointerventional cases performed by the author between the period of January 02, 2012 and December 31, 2012. Results: A total of 61 procedures were performed. The performance success rate of the diagnostic procedures was 100% (38/38) and that of therapeutic procedures was 82.6% (19/23). The periprocedural complication rates were nil and 13%, respectively, for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The 3-month patient outcome for therapeutic procedures was good outcome (Modified Rankin Scale <2) in 87% cases (20/23), and poor outcome in 13% (2 dead and 1 debilitated with Modified Rankin Scale of 3). Conclusion: For a well-trained endovascular neurointerventionalist, the first year of practice had high procedural success rate and acceptable complication with patient outcome rates comparable to the existing literature. PMID:24741242

  11. Duration of general practice consultations: association with patient occupational and educational status.

    PubMed

    Wiggers, J H; Sanson-Fisher, R

    1997-04-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that the majority of health care visits are made to general practitioners, and that socio-economically disadvantaged individuals are significantly more likely to use such services. Relatively little is known, however, about the quality of general practice care provided to patients of different socio-economic status. The specific aims of the study were to determine whether an association existed between consultation duration and patient educational and occupational status, and if an association was evident, to determine the extent of association after taking into account a range of identified confounding variables and the effect of a clustered sample design. Consecutive consultations from a randomly selected sample of general practitioners were audiotaped and their durations measured electronically. Patient education and occupational status were obtained by questionnaire. Information concerning a range of additional patient, practitioner and consultation variables was also assessed in order to identify possible confounders of the association between consultation duration and patient occupational and educational status. No association was evident between consultation duration and level of patient educational qualification. Independent of identified confounding variables and the effect of a clustered sample design, general practitioners spent less time with those patients employed in unskilled occupations. Unskilled patients received 2.1 min or 21% less time per consultation than patients in professional occupations. The odds of patients in unskilled occupations receiving a long consultation (> 10 min) were 26% less than the odds of patients in professional occupations. The finding of an occupational status differential in the duration of general practice consultations suggests that socio-economically disadvantaged patients may not be receiving the health care they require. Further research is required to confirm these findings and to

  12. How to Use the School Survey of Practices Associated with High Performance. REL 2016-162

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Phyllis; Yumoto, Futoshi; Abe, Yasuyo; Meyers, Coby; Wan, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    This report describes and explains how to use the School Survey of Practices Associated with High Performance, which measures the degree to which schools are engaging in practices associated with high performance. State education departments and school districts can use the survey results to identify and describe school practices associated with…

  13. Fine-scale mapping of the 4q24 locus identifies two independent loci associated with breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xingyi; Long, Jirong; Zeng, Chenjie; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Ghoussaini, Maya; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Milne, Roger L.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Qiuyin; Beesley, Jonathan; Kar, Siddhartha P.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Blot, William; Bogdanova, Natalia; Bojesen, Stig E.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brinton, Louise; Broeks, Annegien; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Cai, Hui; Canisius, Sander; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Devilee, Peter; Droit, Arnaud; Dörk, Thilo; Fasching, Peter A.; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gaborieau, Valerie; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G.; Grip, Mervi; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Hartman, Mikael; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hopper, John L.; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Ito, Hidemi; Jakubowska, Anna; Johnson, Nichola; Kabisch, Maria; Kang, Daehee; Khan, Sofia; Knight, Julia A.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Lambrechts, Diether; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Matsuo, Keitaro; McLean, Catriona A.; Meindl, Alfons; Muir, Kenneth; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nord, Silje; Olson, Janet E.; Orr, Nick; Peterlongo, Paolo; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Rudolph, Anja; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Shen, Chen-Yang; Shi, Jiajun; Shrubsole, Martha J; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Teo, Soo Hwang; Thienpont, Bernard; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Tomlinson, Ian P.M.; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-chen; van den Ouweland, Ans; Wen, Wanqing; Winqvist, Robert; Wu, Anna; Yip, Cheng Har; Zamora, M. Pilar; Zheng, Ying; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Simard, Jacques; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background A recent association study identified a common variant (rs9790517) at 4q24 to be associated with breast cancer risk. Independent association signals and potential functional variants in this locus have not been explored. Methods We conducted a fine-mapping analysis in 55,540 breast cancer cases and 51,168 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Results Conditional analyses identified two independent association signals among women of European ancestry, represented by rs9790517 (conditional p = 2.51 × 10−4; OR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.02–1.07) and rs77928427 (p = 1.86 × 10−4; OR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.02–1.07). Functional annotation using data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project revealed two putative functional variants, rs62331150 and rs73838678 in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs9790517 (r2 ≥ 0.90) residing in the active promoter or enhancer, respectively, of the nearest gene, TET2. Both variants are located in DNase I hypersensitivity and transcription factor binding sites. Using data from both The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC), we showed that rs62331150 was associated with level of expression of TET2 in breast normal and tumor tissue. Conclusion Our study identified two independent association signals at 4q24 in relation to breast cancer risk and suggested that observed association in this locus may be mediated through the regulation of TET2. Impact Fine-mapping study with large sample size warranted for identification of independent loci for breast cancer risk. PMID:26354892

  14. Association between Increased Emergency Contraception Availability and Risky Sexual Practices

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Danielle N; Bradford, W David

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied whether increased emergency contraception availability for women over age 18 was associated with a higher probability of risky sexual practices. Data A total of 34,030 individual/year observations on 3,786 women aged 18 and older were extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 from October 1999 through November 2009. Study Design We modeled three binary outcome variables: any sexual activity; sexual activity with more than one partner; and any sex without a condom for women with multiple partners for women in states with state-level policy changes (prior to the 2006 FDA ruling) and for women in states subject to only the national policy change both jointly and separately. Findings We found different results when estimating the state and federal changes separately. The national change was associated with a reduction in the probability of sexual activity, a reduction in the likelihood of reporting multiple partnerships, and there was no relationship between the national policy change and unprotected sexual activity. There was no relationship between the probability of sexual activity or multiple partnerships for women in states with their own policy changes, but we did find that women in these states were more likely to report unprotected sex. PMID:25367046

  15. Associations Between Ankle-Brachial Index and Cognitive Function: Results from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Newman, Anne B.; Sink, Kaycee; Gill, Thomas M.; King, Abby C.; Miller, Michael E.; Guralnik, Jack; Katula, Jeff; Church, Timothy; Manini, Todd; Reid, Kieran F.; McDermott, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and indicators of cognitive function DESIGN Randomized clinical trial (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial) SETTING Eight US academic centers PARTICIPANTS 1,601 adults (ages 70–89 years, sedentary, non-demented, and with functional limitations MEASUREMENTS Baseline ABI and interviewer- and computer-administered cognitive function assessments were obtained from which compared a physical activity intervention with a health education control. Cognitive function was re-assessed 24 months later (interviewer-administered) and 18 or 30 months later (computer-administered) and central adjudication was used to classify individuals as having mild cognitive impairment, probable dementia, or neither. RESULTS Lower ABI had a modest independent association poorer cognitive functioning at baseline (partial r=0.09; p<0.001). While, lower baseline ABI was not associated with overall changes in cognitive function test scores, it was associated with higher odds for two-year progression to a composite of either mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia (OR=2.60 per unit lower ABI; 95% confidence interval [1.06,6.37]). Across two years, changes in ABI were not associated with changes in cognitive function. CONCLUSION In an older cohort of non-demented sedentary individuals with functional limitations, lower baseline ABI was independently correlated with cognitive function and associated with greater 2-year risk for progression to mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia. PMID:25869993

  16. Recurrent loss of CenH3 is associated with independent transitions to holocentricity in insects.

    PubMed

    Drinnenberg, Ines A; deYoung, Dakota; Henikoff, Steven; Malik, Harmit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation in all eukaryotes relies on centromeres, the chromosomal sites that recruit kinetochore proteins and mediate spindle attachment during cell division. The centromeric histone H3 variant, CenH3, is the defining chromatin component of centromeres in most eukaryotes, including animals, fungi, plants, and protists. In this study, using detailed genomic and transcriptome analyses, we show that CenH3 was lost independently in at least four lineages of insects. Each of these lineages represents an independent transition from monocentricity (centromeric determinants localized to a single chromosomal region) to holocentricity (centromeric determinants extended over the entire chromosomal length) as ancient as 300 million years ago. Holocentric insects therefore contain a CenH3-independent centromere, different from almost all the other eukaryotes. We propose that ancient transitions to holocentricity in insects obviated the need to maintain CenH3, which is otherwise essential in most eukaryotes, including other holocentrics.

  17. NEIGHBOURHOOD POVERTY, PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION AND CENTRAL ADIPOSITY IN THE USA: INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATIONS IN A REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Kwarteng, Jamila L; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela B; Israel, Barbara A; Shanks, Trina R; Perkins, Denise White

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the independent effects of neighbourhood context (i.e. neighbourhood poverty) and exposure to perceived discrimination in shaping risk of obesity over time. Weighted three-level hierarchical linear regression models for a continuous outcome were used to assess the independent effects of neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination on obesity over time in a sample of 157 non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adults in Detroit, USA, in 2002/2003 and 2007/2008. Independent associations were found between neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination with central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods with high concentrations of poverty were more likely to show increases in central adiposity compared with those in neighbourhoods with lower concentrations of poverty. In models adjusted for BMI, neighbourhood poverty at baseline was associated with a greater change in central adiposity among participants who lived in neighbourhoods in the second (B=3.79, p=0.025) and third (B=3.73, p=0.024) poverty quartiles, compared with those in the lowest poverty neighbourhoods. The results from models that included both neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination showed that both were associated with increased risk of increased central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods in the second (B=9.58, p<0.001), third (B=8.25, p=0.004) and fourth (B=7.66, p=0.030) quartiles of poverty were more likely to show greater increases in central adiposity over time, compared with those in the lowest poverty quartile, with mean discrimination at baseline independently and positively associated with increases in central adiposity over time (B=2.36, p=0.020). The results suggest that neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination are independently associated with a heightened risk of increase in central adiposity over time. Efforts to address persistent disparities in central adiposity in the USA should include strategies to

  18. Assessment of Learning Gains Associated with Independent Exam Analysis in Introductory Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Adrienne E.; Aguilar-Roca, Nancy M.; Tsai, Michelle; Wong, Matthew; Beaupre, Marin Moravec; O'Dowd, Diane K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of an independent postmidterm question analysis exercise on the ability of students to answer subsequent exam questions on the same topics. It was conducted in three sections (~400 students/section) of introductory biology. Graded midterms were returned electronically, and each student was assigned a subset of…

  19. Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Independent Associations With Body Composition Variables in Brazilian Children.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Araujo, Timoteo Leandro; Matsudo, Victor; Barreira, Tiago V; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Katzmarzyk, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the independent associations of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior, physical activity, and steps/day with body composition variables in Brazilian children. 485 children wore accelerometers for 7 days. Variables included time in sedentary behavior and different physical activity intensities (light, moderate, vigorous, or moderate-to-vigorous) and steps/day. Body fat percentage was measured using a bioelectrical impedance scale, and BMI was calculated. Children spent 55.7% of the awake portion of the day in sedentary behavior, 37.6% in light physical activity, 4.6% in moderate physical activity, and 1.9% in vigorous physical activity. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and steps/day were negatively associated with body composition (BMI and body fat percentage) variables, independent of sex and sedentary behavior. Beta values were higher for vigorous physical activity than moderate physical activity. Vigorous physical activity was negatively associated with BMI (β-.1425) and body fat percentage (β-.3082; p < .0001). In boys, there were significant negative associations between moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and steps/day with body composition, and in girls, there was only a negative association with vigorous physical activity, independent of sedentary behavior. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and steps/day (in boys), but especially vigorous physical activity (in boys and girls), are associated with body composition, independent of sedentary behavior. Sedentary behavior was not related with any of the body composition variables once adjusted for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  20. Positive Parenting Practices Associated with Subsequent Childhood Weight Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avula, Rasmi; Gonzalez, Wendy; Shapiro, Cheri J.; Fram, Maryah S.; Beets, Michael W.; Jones, Sonya J.; Blake, Christine E.; Frongillo, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to identify positive parenting practices that set children on differential weight-trajectories. Parenting practices studied were cognitively stimulating activities, limit-setting, disciplinary practices, and parent warmth. Data from two U.S. national longitudinal data sets and linear and logistic regression were used to examine…

  1. Does it matter whether the recipient of patient questionnaires in general practice is the general practitioner or an independent researcher? The REPLY randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Desborough, James A; Butters, Peter; Bhattacharya, Debi; Holland, Richard C; Wright, David J

    2008-01-01

    Background Self-administered questionnaires are becoming increasingly common in general practice. Much research has explored methods to increase response rates but comparatively few studies have explored the effect of questionnaire administration on reported answers. Methods The aim of this study was to determine the effect on responses of returning patient questionnaires to the respondents' medical practice or an independent researcher to questions relating to adherence and satisfaction with a GP consultation. One medical practice in Waveney primary care trust, Suffolk, England participated in this randomised trial. Patients over 18 years initiated on a new long-term medication during a consultation with a GP were randomly allocated to return a survey from their medical practice to either their medical practice or an independent researcher. The main outcome measures were self reported adherence, satisfaction with information about the newly prescribed medicine, the consultation and involvement in discussions. Results 274 (47%) patients responded to the questionnaire (45% medical practice, 48% independent researcher (95% CI -5 to 11%, p = 0.46)) and the groups appeared demographically comparable, although the high level of non-response limits the ability to assess this. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to total adherence or any of the satisfaction scales. Five (4%) patients reported altering doses of medication in the medical practice group compared with 18 (13%) in the researcher group (P = 0.009, Fisher's exact test). More patients in the medical practice group reported difficulties using their medication compared to the researcher group (46 (35%) v 30 (21%); p = 0.015, Fisher's exact test). Conclusion Postal satisfaction questionnaires do not appear to be affected by whether they are returned to the patient's own medical practice or an independent researcher. However, returning postal questionnaires relating to detailed

  2. Association of Adiposity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Exercise Practice with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Brazilian Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Maressa P.; Hallage, Tatiane; Gama, Mirnaluci Paulino Ribeiro; Goss, Fredric L.; Robertson, Robert; da Silva, Sergio G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diabetes incidence in people with advanced age is increasing at an alarming rate, and for this reason the screening of high-risk individuals such as elderly women is critically important. Objective: To analyze the association of adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise practice with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in elderly Brazilian women. Methods: Participated of this cross sectional study 1,059 elderly women (mean 69.5 yr; SD 6.1), who self-reported family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking status, hypertension, and T2D diagnosed previously by a physician. The following independent variables were assessed: exercise practice, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between each independent variable with T2D using adjusted-models. Results: T2D prevalence was 16%. General and central adiposity were directly associated with T2D, whereas cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely related with T2D. The joint effect of exercise practice and central adiposity showed that inactive women had higher odds ratio for T2D when compared with active ones, within the same WC group. Inactive women with WC ≥ 94.0 cm had an odds ratio of 5.8 (95%IC 1.3-25.3). Conclusions: A direct positive association was found between general and central adiposity, as well as an inverse relation between CRF and exercise practice with T2D. Elderly women who practice exercise regularly had lower odds for T2D. Health professionals should encourage individuals of all ages to engage on regular exercise practice, which could reduce body fatness and may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of T2D in older ages. PMID:18071583

  3. Coefficient of Variation of Coarsely Sampled Heart Rate Is Associated with Early Vasopressor Independence in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Samuel M.; Tate, M. Quinn; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Lanspa, Michael; Rondina, Matthew T.; Grissom, Colin K.; Mathews, V.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Determine whether variability of coarsely sample heart rate and blood pressure early in the course of severe sepsis and septic shock predicts successful resuscitation, defined as vasopressor independence at 24 hours after admission. Methods In an observational study of patients admitted with severe sepsis or septic shock from 2009 to 2011 to one of two ICUs at a tertiary-care hospital, in whom blood pressure was measured via an arterial catheter, we sampled heart rate and blood pressure every 30 seconds over the first six hours of ICU admission and calculated coefficient of variability of those measurements. Primary outcome was vasopressor independence at 24 hours; secondary outcome was 28-day mortality. Results We studied 165 patients, of which 97 (59%) achieved vasopressor independence at 24 hours. Overall 28-day mortality was 15%. Significant predictors of vasopressor independence at 24 hours included the coefficient of variation of heart rate, age, APACHE II, the number of increases in vasopressor dose, mean vasopressin dose, mean blood pressure, and time-pressure integral of mean blood pressure below 60mm Hg. Lower sampling frequencies (up to once every 5 minutes) did not affect the findings. Conclusions Increased variability of coarsely sampled heart rate was associated with vasopressor independence at 24 hours after controlling for possible confounders. Sampling frequencies of once in five minutes may be similar to once in 30 seconds. PMID:24578465

  4. Independent but Coordinated Trials: Insights from the Practice Based Opportunities for Weight Reduction (POWER) Trials Collaborative Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Clark, Jeanne M.; Emmons, Karen M.; Moore, Renee H.; Bennett, Gary G; Warner, Erica T.; Sarwer, Davis B.; Jerome, Gerald J; Miller, Edgar R; Volger, Sheri; Louis, Thomas A.; Wells, Barbara; Wadden, Thomas A.; Colditz, Graham A.; Appel, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) funded three institutions to conduct effectiveness trials of weight loss interventions in primary care settings. Unlike traditional multi-center clinical trials, each study was established as an independent trial with a distinct protocol. Still, efforts were made to coordinate and standardize several aspects of the trials. The three trials formed a collaborative group, the “Practice Based Opportunities for Weight Reduction (POWER) Trials Collaborative Research Group.” Purpose We describe the common and distinct features of the three trials, the key characteristics of the collaborative group, and the lessons learned from this novel organizational approach. Methods The Collaborative Research Group consists of three individual studies: “Be Fit, Be Well“(Washington University in St. Louis/Harvard University), “POWER Hopkins” (Johns Hopkins), and “POWER-UP” (University of Pennsylvania). There are a total of 15 participating clinics with ~1,100 participants. The common primary outcome is change in weight at 24 months of follow-up, but each protocol has trial-specific elements including different interventions and different secondary outcomes. A Resource Coordinating Unit at Johns Hopkins provides administrative support. Results The Collaborative Research Group established common components to facilitate potential cross-site comparisons. The main advantage of this approach is to develop and evaluate several interventions, when there is insufficient evidence to test one or two approaches, as would be done in a traditional multi-center trial. Limitations The challenges of the organizational design include the complex decision making process, the extent of potential data pooling, time intensive efforts to standardize reports, and the additional responsibilities of the DSMB to monitor three distinct protocols. Conclusions The POWER Trials Collaborative Research Group is a case study of an

  5. Waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese women.

    PubMed

    Shalev-Goldman, Einat; McGuire, K Ashlee; Ross, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent associations between physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), abdominal obesity and insulin action in obese women. We studied 141 abdominally obese women (waist circumference (WC): 106.4 ± 10.2 cm). PA duration (min/day) and intensity (counts/min) were obtained by accelerometry. CRF was measured using a treadmill. WC was measured at the iliac crest; abdominal adiposity was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Glucose and insulin measures were obtained during a 75-g, 2-h glucose tolerance test. The homeostasis model of assessment iHOMA2-IS was used to estimate insulin sensitivity. PA duration and intensity were not associated with glucose or insulin metabolism (p > 0.05). However, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) duration was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (p < 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (r = 0.27, p ≤ 0.01), whereas WC was associated with fasting insulin (r = 0.50, p < 0.01) and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.52, p ≤ 0.01). Following adjustment for CRF, MVPA, and age, WC remained associated with fasting glucose, insulin, 2-h glucose and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.44, p ≤ 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting glucose as well as 1- and 2-h glucose (r = 0.24, p < 0.01) after adjusting for WC, MVPA, and age. MVPA was not associated with glucose or insulin measures after control for CRF and WC (p > 0.05). Mediation analysis revealed that CRF and WC combined mediated the relationship between MVPA and both glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, among abdominally obese women, WC and CRF are independently associated with measures of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance and mediate the association between MVPA and insulin resistance.

  6. The epigenetic clock and telomere length are independently associated with chronological age and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Marioni, Riccardo E; Harris, Sarah E; Shah, Sonia; McRae, Allan F; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Wray, Naomi R; Visscher, Peter M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Telomere length and DNA methylation have been proposed as biological clock measures that track chronological age. Whether they change in tandem, or contribute independently to the prediction of chronological age, is not known. Methods: We address these points using data from two Scottish cohorts: the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921) and 1936 (LBC1936). Telomere length and epigenetic clock estimates from DNA methylation were measured in 920 LBC1936 participants (ages 70, 73 and 76 years) and in 414 LBC1921 participants (ages 79, 87 and 90 years). Results: The epigenetic clock changed over time at roughly the same rate as chronological age in both cohorts. Telomere length decreased at 48–67 base pairs per year on average. Weak, non-significant correlations were found between epigenetic clock estimates and telomere length. Telomere length explained 6.6% of the variance in age in LBC1921, the epigenetic clock explained 10.0%, and combined they explained 17.3% (all P < 1 × 10−7). Corresponding figures for the LBC1936 cohort were 14.3%, 11.7% and 19.5% (all P < 1 × 10−12). In a combined cohorts analysis, the respective estimates were 2.8%, 28.5% and 29.5%. Also in a combined cohorts analysis, a one standard deviation increase in baseline epigenetic age was linked to a 22% increased mortality risk (P = 2.6 × 10−4) whereas, in the same model, a one standard deviation increase in baseline telomere length was independently linked to an 11% decreased mortality risk (P = 0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest that telomere length and epigenetic clock estimates are independent predictors of chronological age and mortality risk. PMID:27075770

  7. The case-only independence assumption: associations between genetic polymorphisms and smoking among controls in two population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Olshan, Andrew F; North, Kari E; Poole, Charles L; Zeng, Donglin; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Keku, Tope O; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert; Millikan, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    The independence assumption for a case-only analysis of statistical interaction, i. e. that genetic (G) and environmental exposures (E) are not associated in the source population, is often checked in surrogate populations. Few studies have examined G-E association in empirical data, particularly in controls from population-based studies, the type of controls expected to provide the most valid surrogate estimates of G-E association. We used controls from two population-based case-control studies to evaluate G-E independence for 43 selected genetic polymorphisms and smoking behavior. The odds ratio (OR(z)) was used to estimate G-E association and, therefore, the magnitude of bias introduced into the case-only odds ratio (COR). Odds ratios of moderate magnitude [mmOR(z)], defined as OR(z)≤0.7 or OR(z)≥1.4, were found at least one of the six smoking measures (ever, former, current, cig/day, years smoked, pack-years) for 45% and 59% of the SNPs examined in the control groups of two independently conducted North Carolina studies, respectively. Consequently, case-only estimates of G-E interaction in the context of a multiplicative benchmark would be biased for these SNPs and smoking measures. MmOR(z)s were found more often for smoking amount than smoking status. We recommend that a stand-alone case-only study should only be conducted when G-E independence can be verified for each polymorphism and exposure metric with population-specific data. Our results suggest that OR(z) is specific to each underlying population rather than an estimate of a 'universal' OR(z) for that SNP and smoking measure. Further, misspecification of smoking is likely to introduce bias into the COR.

  8. The case-only independence assumption: associations between genetic polymorphisms and smoking among controls in two population-based studies

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Olshan, Andrew F; North, Kari E; Poole, Charles L; Zeng, Donglin; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Keku, Tope O; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert; Millikan, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    The independence assumption for a case-only analysis of statistical interaction, i. e. that genetic (G) and environmental exposures (E) are not associated in the source population, is often checked in surrogate populations. Few studies have examined G-E association in empirical data, particularly in controls from population-based studies, the type of controls expected to provide the most valid surrogate estimates of G-E association. We used controls from two population-based case-control studies to evaluate G-E independence for 43 selected genetic polymorphisms and smoking behavior. The odds ratio (ORz) was used to estimate G-E association and, therefore, the magnitude of bias introduced into the case-only odds ratio (COR). Odds ratios of moderate magnitude [mmORz], defined as ORz≤0.7 or ORz≥1.4, were found at least one of the six smoking measures (ever, former, current, cig/day, years smoked, pack-years) for 45% and 59% of the SNPs examined in the control groups of two independently conducted North Carolina studies, respectively. Consequently, case-only estimates of G-E interaction in the context of a multiplicative benchmark would be biased for these SNPs and smoking measures. MmORzs were found more often for smoking amount than smoking status. We recommend that a stand-alone case-only study should only be conducted when G-E independence can be verified for each polymorphism and exposure metric with population-specific data. Our results suggest that ORz is specific to each underlying population rather than an estimate of a ‘universal’ ORz for that SNP and smoking measure. Further, misspecification of smoking is likely to introduce bias into the COR. PMID:23205185

  9. Association between COMT Val158Met genotype and EEG alpha peak frequency tested in two independent cohorts.

    PubMed

    Veth, Cornelis P M; Arns, Martijn; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Talloen, Willem; Peeters, Pieter J; Gordon, Evian; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2014-09-30

    This study could not confirm the association between the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism (COMT) and electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha peak frequency (APF) in two independent cohorts of 187 (96 depressed and 91 healthy participants) and 413 healthy participants. If COMT and APF play a role in depression or antidepressant treatment response, they do not have a shared pathway. We emphasize the importance of publishing null-findings for obtaining more accurate overall estimates of genetic effects.

  10. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Independently Associated with Early Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mantovani, Alessandro; Pernigo, Matteo; Bergamini, Corinna; Bonapace, Stefano; Lipari, Paola; Pichiri, Isabella; Bertolini, Lorenzo; Valbusa, Filippo; Barbieri, Enrico; Zoppini, Giacomo; Bonora, Enzo; Targher, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in nondiabetic individuals. To date, there are very limited data on this topic in patients with type 2 diabetes and it remains uncertain whether NAFLD is independently associated with the presence of LVDD in this patient population. We performed a liver ultrasonography and trans-thoracic echocardiography (with speckle-tracking strain analysis) in 222 (156 men and 66 women) consecutive type 2 diabetic outpatients with no previous history of ischemic heart disease, chronic heart failure, valvular diseases and known hepatic diseases. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between NAFLD and the presence/severity of LVDD graded according to the current criteria of the American Society of Echocardiography, and to identify the variables that were independently associated with LVDD, which was included as the dependent variable. Patients with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD (n = 158; 71.2% of total) were more likely to be female, overweight/obese, and had longer diabetes duration, higher hemoglobin A1c and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) than those without NAFLD. Notably, they also had a remarkably greater prevalence of mild and/or moderate LVDD compared with those without NAFLD (71% vs. 33%; P<0.001). Age, hypertension, smoking, medication use, E/A ratio, LV volumes and mass were comparable between the two groups of patients. NAFLD was associated with a three-fold increased odds of mild and/or moderate LVDD after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, eGFR, LV mass index and ejection fraction (adjusted-odds ratio 3.08, 95%CI 1.5–6.4, P = 0.003). In conclusion, NAFLD is independently associated with early LVDD in type 2 diabetic patients with preserved systolic function. PMID:26252899

  11. Brown adipose tissue triglyceride content is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity, independently of age and obesity.

    PubMed

    Raiko, J; Holstila, M; Virtanen, K A; Orava, J; Saunavaara, V; Niemi, T; Laine, J; Taittonen, M; Borra, R J H; Nuutila, P; Parkkola, R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can non-invasively assess triglyceride content in both supraclavicular fat depots and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) to determine whether these measurements correlate to metabolic variables. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were studied using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and (15)O-H2O PET perfusion during cold exposure, and (1)H-MRS at ambient temperature. Image-guided biopsies were collected from nine volunteers. The supraclavicular triglyceride content determined by (1)H-MRS varied between 60 and 91% [mean ± standard deviation (s.d.) 77 ± 10%]. It correlated positively with body mass index, waist circumference, subcutaneous and visceral fat masses and 8-year diabetes risk based on the Framingham risk score and inversely with HDL cholesterol and insulin sensitivity (M-value; euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp). Subcutaneous WAT had a significantly higher triglyceride content, 76-95% (mean ± s.d. 87 ± 5%; p = 0.0002). In conclusion, the triglyceride content in supraclavicular fat deposits measured by (1)H-MRS may be an independent marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity, independent of brown adipose tissue metabolic activation. PMID:25586670

  12. A transcription-independent epigenetic mechanism is associated with antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Aresta-Branco, Francisco; Pimenta, Silvia; Figueiredo, Luisa M

    2016-04-20

    Antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei relies on periodic switching of variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs), which are transcribed monoallelically by RNA polymerase I from one of about 15 bloodstream expression sites (BES). Chromatin of the actively transcribed BES is depleted of nucleosomes, but it is unclear if this open conformation is a mere consequence of a high rate of transcription, or whether it is maintained by a transcription-independent mechanism. Using an inducible BES-silencing reporter strain, we observed that chromatin of the active BES remains open for at least 24 hours after blocking transcription. This conformation is independent of the cell-cycle stage, but dependent upon TDP1, a high mobility group box protein. For two days after BES silencing, we detected a transient and reversible derepression of several silent BESs within the population, suggesting that cells probe other BESs before commitment to one, which is complete by 48 hours. FACS sorting and subsequent subcloning confirmed that probing cells are switching intermediates capable of returning to the original BES, switch to the probed BES or to a different BES. We propose that regulation of BES chromatin structure is an epigenetic mechanism important for successful antigenic switching. PMID:26673706

  13. A transcription-independent epigenetic mechanism is associated with antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Aresta-Branco, Francisco; Pimenta, Silvia; Figueiredo, Luisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei relies on periodic switching of variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs), which are transcribed monoallelically by RNA polymerase I from one of about 15 bloodstream expression sites (BES). Chromatin of the actively transcribed BES is depleted of nucleosomes, but it is unclear if this open conformation is a mere consequence of a high rate of transcription, or whether it is maintained by a transcription-independent mechanism. Using an inducible BES-silencing reporter strain, we observed that chromatin of the active BES remains open for at least 24 hours after blocking transcription. This conformation is independent of the cell-cycle stage, but dependent upon TDP1, a high mobility group box protein. For two days after BES silencing, we detected a transient and reversible derepression of several silent BESs within the population, suggesting that cells probe other BESs before commitment to one, which is complete by 48 hours. FACS sorting and subsequent subcloning confirmed that probing cells are switching intermediates capable of returning to the original BES, switch to the probed BES or to a different BES. We propose that regulation of BES chromatin structure is an epigenetic mechanism important for successful antigenic switching. PMID:26673706

  14. Teaching Practices Associated with the Authoritative Proof Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Guershon; Rabin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    This Brief Report summarizes case studies of the classroom teaching practices of 2 algebra teachers. The data consist of videotaped classroom observations during 1 academic year. The study identifies and characterizes specific teaching practices that establish the norm that the teacher is the sole arbiter of mathematical correctness in the…

  15. Independent associations of childhood and current socioeconomic status with risk of self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis in a family-medicine cohort of North-Carolinians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with the prevalence of various forms of arthritis are well documented. Increasing evidence suggests that SES during childhood is a lasting determinant of health, but its association with the onset of arthritis remains unclear. Methods Cross-sectional data on 1276 participants originated from 22 family practices in North-Carolina, USA. We created 4-level (high, medium, low, lowest) current SES and childhood SES summary scores based on parental and participant education, occupation and homeownership. We investigated associations of individual SES characteristics, summary scores and SES trajectories (e.g. high/low) with self-reported arthritis in logistic regression models progressively adjusted for race and gender, age, then BMI, and clustered by family practice. Results We found evidence for independent associations of both childhood and current SES with the reporting of arthritis across our models. In covariate-adjusted models simultaneously including current and childhood SES, compared with high SES participants in the lowest childhood SES category (OR = 1.39 [95% CI = 1.04, 1.85]) and those in the low (OR = 1.66 [95% CI = 1.14, 2.42]) and lowest (OR = 2.08 [95% CI = 1.16, 3.74]) categories of current SES had significantly greater odds of having self-reported arthritis. Conclusions Current SES and childhood SES are both associated with the odds of reporting arthritis within this primary-care population, although the possibly superseding influence of existing circumstances must be noted. BMI was a likely mechanism in the association of childhood SES with arthritis onset, and research is needed to elucidate further pathways linking the socioeconomic environment across life-stages and the development of rheumatic diseases. PMID:24256740

  16. Clinical Social Work. State Laws Governing Independent Practice and Reimbursement of Services. Fact Sheet for the Honorable Daniel K. Inouye, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This fact sheet on state laws governing the independent practice and reimbursement of services for clinical social workers contains information from questionnaires sent to the state agencies responsible for health insurance regulations and Medicaid and licensing activities. Information on Ohio, the only state which did not respond, is not…

  17. Tumour expression of leptin is associated with chemotherapy resistance and therapy-independent prognosis in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Bain, G H; Collie-Duguid, E; Murray, G I; Gilbert, F J; Denison, A; Mckiddie, F; Ahearn, T; Fleming, I; Leeds, J; Phull, P; Park, K; Nanthakumaran, S; Grabsch, H I; Tan, P; Welch, A; Schweiger, L; Dahle-Smith, A; Urquhart, G; Finegan, M; Petty, R D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the main systemic therapy for gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma, but resistance to chemotherapy is common, resulting in ineffective and often toxic treatment for patients. Predictive biomarkers for chemotherapy response would increase the probability of successful therapy, but none are currently recommended for clinical use. We used global gene expression profiling of tumour biopsies to identify novel predictive biomarkers for cytotoxic chemotherapy. Methods: Tumour biopsies from patients (n=14) with TNM stage IB–IV gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas receiving platinum-based combination chemotherapy were used as a discovery cohort and profiled with Affymetrix ST1.0 Exon Genechips. An independent cohort of patients (n=154) treated with surgery with or without neoadjuvant platinum combination chemotherapy and gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines (n=22) were used for qualification of gene expression profiling results by immunohistochemistry. A cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cell line, AGS Cis5, and the oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell line, OE33, were used for in vitro validation investigations. Results: We identified 520 genes with differential expression (Mann–Whitney U, P<0.020) between radiological responding and nonresponding patients. Gene enrichment analysis (DAVID v6.7) was used on this list of 520 genes to identify pathways associated with response and identified the adipocytokine signalling pathway, with higher leptin mRNA associated with lack of radiological response (P=0.011). Similarly, in the independent cohort (n=154), higher leptin protein expression by immunohistochemistry in the tumour cells was associated with lack of histopathological response (P=0.007). Higher leptin protein expression by immunohistochemistry was also associated with improved survival in the absence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and patients with low leptin protein-expressing tumours had improved survival when treated by neoadjuvant

  18. Estimated GFR associates with cardiovascular risk factors independently of measured GFR.

    PubMed

    Mathisen, Ulla Dorte; Melsom, Toralf; Ingebretsen, Ole C; Jenssen, Trond; Njølstad, Inger; Solbu, Marit D; Toft, Ingrid; Eriksen, Bjørn O

    2011-05-01

    Estimation of the GFR (eGFR) using creatinine- or cystatin C-based equations is imperfect, especially when the true GFR is normal or near-normal. Modest reductions in eGFR from the normal range variably predict cardiovascular morbidity. If eGFR associates not only with measured GFR (mGFR) but also with cardiovascular risk factors, the effects of these non-GFR-related factors might bias the association between eGFR and outcome. To investigate these potential non-GFR-related associations between eGFR and cardiovascular risk factors, we measured GFR by iohexol clearance in a sample from the general population (age 50 to 62 years) without known cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or kidney disease. Even after adjustment for mGFR, eGFR associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors in multiple regression analyses. More risk factors influenced cystatin C-based eGFR than creatinine-based eGFR, adjusted for mGFR, and some of the risk factors exhibited nonlinear effects in generalized additive models (P<0.05). These results suggest that eGFR, calculated using standard creatinine- or cystatin C-based equations, partially depends on factors other than the true GFR. Thus, estimates of cardiovascular risk associated with small changes in eGFR must be interpreted with caution.

  19. The Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism rs7412 Associates with Body Fatness Independently of Plasma Lipids in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, M. Teresa; Garcia-Sobreviela, Maria Pilar; Ledesma, Marta; Arbones-Mainar, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is polymorphic, encoding one of 3 common alleles (ε2, ε3, ε4) produced from combinations of 2 non-synonymous SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412). APOE plays an important role controlling plasma lipids but its association with adipocyte functionality and body fatness remains to be determined. Methods We analyzed fasting plasma lipids and genotyped the two main APOE-SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412), both located in the fourth exon of the APOE, in 4660 Caucasian middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. Results The rs7412 SNP, which determines the APOE2 isoform, was significantly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Girth (WG) in a multivariate model accounting for age, smoking status and plasma lipids. BMI and WG were highest in TT homozygotes and lowest in CC homozygotes. This effect was independent of the rs429358 SNP, which failed to show any association with the BMI and WG variables. The odds ratio of being obese (BMI>30) for individuals carrying the APOε2 allele, present in 14% of the cohort and defined by the rs7412 SNP, was also significant in this multivariate model, with an OR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01–1.59). Conclusions This study provides an evidence of a lipid-independent association between the APOE SNP rs7412 and body fatness surrogates, BMI and WG, in a large cohort of middle-aged males. PMID:25268647

  20. Lack of replication for the myosin-18B association with mathematical ability in independent cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, K A; Fajutrao Valles, S F; Moll, K; Northstone, K; Ring, S; Pennell, C; Wang, C; Leavett, R; Hayiou-Thomas, M E; Thompson, P; Simpson, N H; Fisher, S E; Whitehouse, A J O; Snowling, M J; Newbury, D F; Paracchini, S

    2015-01-01

    Twin studies indicate that dyscalculia (or mathematical disability) is caused partly by a genetic component, which is yet to be understood at the molecular level. Recently, a coding variant (rs133885) in the myosin-18B gene was shown to be associated with mathematical abilities with a specific effect among children with dyslexia. This association represents one of the most significant genetic associations reported to date for mathematical abilities and the only one reaching genome-wide statistical significance. We conducted a replication study in different cohorts to assess the effect of rs133885 maths-related measures. The study was conducted primarily using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), (N = 3819). We tested additional cohorts including the York Cohort, the Specific Language Impairment Consortium (SLIC) cohort and the Raine Cohort, and stratified them for a definition of dyslexia whenever possible. We did not observe any associations between rs133885 in myosin-18B and mathematical abilities among individuals with dyslexia or in the general population. Our results suggest that the myosin-18B variant is unlikely to be a main factor contributing to mathematical abilities. PMID:25778778

  1. Lack of replication for the myosin-18B association with mathematical ability in independent cohorts.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, K A; Fajutrao Valles, S F; Moll, K; Northstone, K; Ring, S; Pennell, C; Wang, C; Leavett, R; Hayiou-Thomas, M E; Thompson, P; Simpson, N H; Fisher, S E; Whitehouse, A J O; Snowling, M J; Newbury, D F; Paracchini, S

    2015-04-01

    Twin studies indicate that dyscalculia (or mathematical disability) is caused partly by a genetic component, which is yet to be understood at the molecular level. Recently, a coding variant (rs133885) in the myosin-18B gene was shown to be associated with mathematical abilities with a specific effect among children with dyslexia. This association represents one of the most significant genetic associations reported to date for mathematical abilities and the only one reaching genome-wide statistical significance. We conducted a replication study in different cohorts to assess the effect of rs133885 maths-related measures. The study was conducted primarily using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), (N = 3819). We tested additional cohorts including the York Cohort, the Specific Language Impairment Consortium (SLIC) cohort and the Raine Cohort, and stratified them for a definition of dyslexia whenever possible. We did not observe any associations between rs133885 in myosin-18B and mathematical abilities among individuals with dyslexia or in the general population. Our results suggest that the myosin-18B variant is unlikely to be a main factor contributing to mathematical abilities. PMID:25778778

  2. Methamphetamine Use Is Independently Associated with Recent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Adolescent Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to…

  3. Blood Brain Barrier Disruption in Humans is Independently Associated with Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Taura L.; Latour, Lawrence L.; Lee, Kyung-Yul; Schaewe, Timothy J.; Luby, Marie; Chang, George S.; El-Zammar, Ziad; Alam, Shaista; Hallenbeck, John M.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Warach, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP’s) may play a role in blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption following ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that plasma concentrations of MMP-9 are associated with a marker of BBB disruption in patients evaluated for acute stroke. Methods Patients underwent MRI on presentation and approximately 24 hours later. The MRI marker, termed Hyperintense Acute reperfusion injuRy Marker (HARM), is gadolinium enhancement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI. Plasma MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was measured by ELISA. Logistic regression models tested for predictors of HARM on 24 hour follow-up scans separately for MMP-9 and the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio. Results For the 41 patients enrolled diagnoses were: acute ischemic cerebrovascular syndrome 33 (80.6%), intracerebral hemorrhage 6 (14.6%), stroke mimic 1 (2.4 %) and no stroke 1 (2.4%). HARM was present in 17 (41.5%) patients. In model 1, HARM was associated with baseline plasma MMP-9 concentration: odds ratio (OR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) =1.001-1.019), p=0.033. In model 2, HARM was associated with the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio: OR=4.94 (95% CI=1.27-19.14), p=0.021. Conclusions Baseline MMP-9 was a significant predictor of HARM at 24-hour follow-up, supporting the hypothesis that MMP-9 is associated with BBB disruption. If the association between MMP-9 and BBB disruption is confirmed in future studies, HARM may be a useful imaging marker to evaluate MMP-9 inhibition in ischemic stroke and other populations with BBB disruption. PMID:20035078

  4. Polycomb- and REST-associated histone deacetylases are independent pathways toward a mature neuronal phenotype

    PubMed Central

    McGann, James C; Oyer, Jon A; Garg, Saurabh; Yao, Huilan; Liu, Jun; Feng, Xin; Liao, Lujian; Yates, John R; Mandel, Gail

    2014-01-01

    The bivalent hypothesis posits that genes encoding developmental regulators required for early lineage decisions are poised in stem/progenitor cells by the balance between a repressor histone modification (H3K27me3), mediated by the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2), and an activator modification (H3K4me3). In this study, we test whether this mechanism applies equally to genes that are not required until terminal differentiation. We focus on the RE1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) because it is expressed highly in stem cells and is an established global repressor of terminal neuronal genes. Elucidation of the REST complex, and comparison of chromatin marks and gene expression levels in control and REST-deficient stem cells, shows that REST target genes are poised by a mechanism independent of Polycomb, even at promoters which bear the H3K27me3 mark. Specifically, genes under REST control are actively repressed in stem cells by a balance of the H3K4me3 mark and a repressor complex that relies on histone deacetylase activity. Thus, chromatin distinctions between pro-neural and terminal neuronal genes are established at the embryonic stem cell stage by two parallel, but distinct, repressor pathways. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04235.001 PMID:25250711

  5. Assessment of Learning Gains Associated with Independent Exam Analysis in Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    William, Adrienne E.; Aguilar-Roca, Nancy M.; Tsai, Michelle; Wong, Matthew; Beaupré, Marin Moravec; O’Dowd, Diane K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of an independent postmidterm question analysis exercise on the ability of students to answer subsequent exam questions on the same topics. It was conducted in three sections (∼400 students/section) of introductory biology. Graded midterms were returned electronically, and each student was assigned a subset of questions answered incorrectly by more than 40% of the class to analyze as homework. The majority of questions were at Bloom's application/analysis level; this exercise therefore emphasized learning at these higher levels of cognition. Students in each section answered final exam questions matched by topic to all homework questions, providing a within-class control group for each question. The percentage of students who correctly answered the matched final exam question was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the Topic Analysis versus Control Analysis group for seven of 19 questions. We identified two factors that influenced activity effectiveness: 1) similarity in topic emphasis of the midterm–final exam question pair and 2) quality of the completed analysis homework. Our data suggest that this easy-to-implement exercise will be useful in large-enrollment classes to help students develop self-regulated learning skills. Additional strategies to help introductory students gain a broader understanding of topic areas are discussed. PMID:22135369

  6. The Smc5-Smc6 heterodimer associates with DNA through several independent binding domains

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Marc-André; Dhanaraman, Thillaivillalan; D’Amours, Damien

    2015-01-01

    The Smc5-6 complex is required for the maintenance of genome integrity through its functions in DNA repair and chromosome biogenesis. However, the specific mode of action of Smc5 and Smc6 in these processes remains largely unknown. We previously showed that individual components of the Smc5-Smc6 complex bind strongly to DNA as monomers, despite the absence of a canonical DNA-binding domain (DBD) in these proteins. How heterodimerization of Smc5-6 affects its binding to DNA, and which parts of the SMC molecules confer DNA-binding activity is not known at present. To address this knowledge gap, we characterized the functional domains of the Smc5-6 heterodimer and identify two DBDs in each SMC molecule. The first DBD is located within the SMC hinge region and its adjacent coiled-coil arms, while the second is found in the conserved ATPase head domain. These DBDs can independently recapitulate the substrate preference of the full-length Smc5 and Smc6 proteins. We also show that heterodimerization of full-length proteins specifically increases the affinity of the resulting complex for double-stranded DNA substrates. Collectively, our findings provide critical insights into the structural requirements for effective binding of the Smc5-6 complex to DNA repair substrates in vitro and in live cells. PMID:25984708

  7. The Association of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Cerebral Gray Matter Volume Is Independent of Retinal Vascular Architecture and Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Moran, C.; Tapp, R. J.; Hughes, A. D.; Magnussen, C. G.; Blizzard, L.; Phan, T. G.; Beare, R.; Witt, N.; Venn, A.; Münch, G.; Amaratunge, B. C.; Srikanth, V.

    2016-01-01

    It is uncertain whether small vessel disease underlies the relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and brain atrophy. We aimed to study whether retinal vascular architecture, as a proxy for cerebral small vessel disease, may modify or mediate the associations of T2DM with brain volumes. In this cross-sectional study using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans and retinal photographs in 451 people with and without T2DM, we measured brain volumes, geometric measures of retinal vascular architecture, clinical retinopathy, and MRI cerebrovascular lesions. There were 270 people with (mean age 67.3 years) and 181 without T2DM (mean age 72.9 years). T2DM was associated with lower gray matter volume (p = 0.008). T2DM was associated with greater arteriolar diameter (p = 0.03) and optimality ratio (p = 0.04), but these associations were attenuated by adjustments for age and sex. Only optimality ratio was associated with lower gray matter volume (p = 0.03). The inclusion of retinal measures in regression models did not attenuate the association of T2DM with gray matter volume. The association of T2DM with lower gray matter volume was independent of retinal vascular architecture and clinical retinopathy. Retinal vascular measures or retinopathy may not be sufficiently sensitive to confirm a microvascular basis for T2DM-related brain atrophy. PMID:27314049

  8. The Association of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Cerebral Gray Matter Volume Is Independent of Retinal Vascular Architecture and Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Moran, C; Tapp, R J; Hughes, A D; Magnussen, C G; Blizzard, L; Phan, T G; Beare, R; Witt, N; Venn, A; Münch, G; Amaratunge, B C; Srikanth, V

    2016-01-01

    It is uncertain whether small vessel disease underlies the relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and brain atrophy. We aimed to study whether retinal vascular architecture, as a proxy for cerebral small vessel disease, may modify or mediate the associations of T2DM with brain volumes. In this cross-sectional study using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans and retinal photographs in 451 people with and without T2DM, we measured brain volumes, geometric measures of retinal vascular architecture, clinical retinopathy, and MRI cerebrovascular lesions. There were 270 people with (mean age 67.3 years) and 181 without T2DM (mean age 72.9 years). T2DM was associated with lower gray matter volume (p = 0.008). T2DM was associated with greater arteriolar diameter (p = 0.03) and optimality ratio (p = 0.04), but these associations were attenuated by adjustments for age and sex. Only optimality ratio was associated with lower gray matter volume (p = 0.03). The inclusion of retinal measures in regression models did not attenuate the association of T2DM with gray matter volume. The association of T2DM with lower gray matter volume was independent of retinal vascular architecture and clinical retinopathy. Retinal vascular measures or retinopathy may not be sufficiently sensitive to confirm a microvascular basis for T2DM-related brain atrophy. PMID:27314049

  9. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in hospital nurse technicians and licensed practical nurses: associations with demographic factors

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Roberta F. C.; Sato, Tatiana O.; Foltran, Fabiana A.; Silva, Luciana C. C. B.; Coury, Helenice J. C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This cross-sectional study aimed at analyzing: 1. the main musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) presented by hospital nursing workers and; 2. personal, occupational, and health factors related to MSS among them. Method : Two questionnaires were filled in by 245 nurse technicians (NTs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) (response rate 95%) associated with direct patient care sectors from a hospital. These questionnaires were: the standardized version of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and one including questions on 15 demographic independent variables potentially related to outcomes from the NMQ. Univariate analyses and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify which variables would explain the occurrence of MSS in different body regions. Results: The low back (57%), shoulder (52%), and neck (48%) were identified as the most affected regions. The logistic regression analysis showed that low back symptoms in the last 12 months were significantly associated with LPN activities (OR=2.36; CI=1.24-4.5) and previous sick leave due to MSS (OR=5.97; CI=1.2-29.1). Smoking was significantly associated with symptoms in the low back (OR=2.77; CI=1.13-6.8) and thoracic spine (OR=2.37; CI=1.04-5.40). Physical exercise showed a protective effect on the cervical spine (OR=0.42; CI=0.23-0.77). Previous sick leave was significantly associated with pain in the knees (OR=4.24; CI=1.33-13.5) and in the upper limbs (OR=5.36; CI=1.07-26.7). Conclusions: The nursing workers who were evaluated presented a high prevalence of MSS. Previous history of sick leave was strongly associated with the presence of symptoms in various body regions. These results indicate the need for preventive programs in the hospital environment in order to control more severe MSS in nursing professionals. PMID:25054385

  10. Systematic review of the association of mastication with food and nutrient intake in the independent elderly.

    PubMed

    Tada, Akio; Miura, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    Substantial number of elderly people suffer from poor mastication, which is considered to have a detrimental effect on their dietary habits. However, the association between mastication and diet is far from conclusive. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the association of mastication with food and nutrient intake in the community dwelling elderly. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scirus databases to obtain information on the epidemiological studies in this research area. The included publications were analyzed for study design, main conclusions, and strength of evidence. A comprehensive quality assessment of all the included studies (28 cross-sectional and 7 intervention studies) was performed. In 22 of the 28 cross-sectional studies, elderly persons with better mastication and dentition reported significantly higher consumption of foods and intake of some nutrients than those with poorer oral health; however, the remaining studies showed no such differences. Five of the 7 intervention studies with an intervention involving the provision of new prostheses did not show significant improvement in food and/or nutrient intake. These discrepant findings suggest that masticatory ability explains only part of the variance in food and nutrient intake of the elderly. Two intervention studies with the combination of prosthetic treatment and dietary intervention produced changes in intake of foods such as fruits and vegetables.

  11. Independent origins and incipient speciation among host-associated populations of Thielaviopsis ethacetica in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mbenoun, Michael; Wingfield, Michael J; Letsoalo, Teboho; Bihon, Wubetu; Wingfield, Brenda D; Roux, Jolanda

    2015-11-01

    Thielaviopsis ethacetica was recently reinstated as a distinct taxon using DNA phylogenies. It is widespread affecting several crop plants of global economic importance. In this study, microsatellite markers were developed and used in conjunction with sequence data to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of Th. ethacetica in Cameroon. A collection of 71 isolates from cacao, oil palm, and pineapple, supplemented with nine isolates from other countries were analysed. Four genetic groups were identified. Two of these were associated with oil palm in Cameroon and showed high genetic diversity, suggesting that they might represent an indigenous population of the pathogen. In contrast, the remaining two groups, associated with cacao and pineapple, had low genetic diversity and, most likely, represent introduced populations. There was no evidence of gene flow between these groups. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the tef1-α as well as the combined flanking regions of six microsatellite loci were consistent with population genetic analyses and suggested that Th. ethacetica is comprised of two divergent genetic lineages. PMID:26466872

  12. Brain Activation Associated with Practiced Left Hand Mirror Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, T.; Arzouan, Y.; Karni, A.; Manor, D.

    2013-01-01

    Mirror writing occurs in healthy children, in various pathologies and occasionally in healthy adults. There are only scant experimental data on the underlying brain processes. Eight, right-handed, healthy young adults were scanned (BOLD-fMRI) before and after practicing left-hand mirror-writing (lh-MW) over seven sessions. They wrote dictated…

  13. Association between light exposure at night and nighttime blood pressure in the elderly independent of nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Junko; Ikada, Yoshito; Kurumatani, Norio

    2014-07-01

    Circadian misalignment between internal and environmental rhythms dysregulates blood pressure (BP) variability because of disruption of the biological clock, resulting in increased nighttime BP. Although exposure to light-at-night is associated with the circadian misalignment, it remains unclear whether exposure to light-at-night in home settings is associated with nighttime BP. In this cross-sectional analysis of 528 elderly individuals (mean age: 72.8 years), we measured bedroom light intensity at 1-min intervals on two consecutive nights along with ambulatory BP, overnight urinary melatonin excretion and actigraphy. With regard to adjusted mean comparisons using analysis of covariance, the light-at-night group (average: ≥5 lux; n = 109) showed significantly higher nighttime systolic BP (SBP; adjusted mean: 120.8 vs. 116.5 mmHg, p = 0.01) and diastolic BP (70.1 vs. 67.1 mmHg, p < 0.01) compared with the Darker group (average: <5 lux; n = 419) independently of potential confounding factors including overnight urinary melatonin excretion and actigraphic sleep quality. We observed consistent associations between light-at-night and nighttime BP in different cutoff values for light-at-night intensity (i.e. 3 and 10 lux). In conclusion, exposure to light-at-night in home settings is significantly associated with increased nighttime BP in elderly individuals independently of overnight urinary melatonin excretion. A 4.3 mmHg increase in nighttime SBP is associated with a 6.1% increase in total mortality, which corresponds to approximately 10 000 annual excess deaths in Japanese elderly population.

  14. REV-ERB-ALPHA circadian gene variant associates with obesity in two independent populations: Mediterranean and North American

    PubMed Central

    Garaulet, Marta; Smith, Caren E.; Gomez-Abellán, Purificación; Ordovás-Montañés, María; Lee, Yu-Chi; Parnell, Laurence D.; Arnett, Donna K.; Ordovás, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Scope Despite the solid connection between REV-ERB and obesity, the information about whether genetic variations at this locus may be associated with obesity traits is scarce. Therefore our objective was to study the association between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 and obesity in two independent populations. Methods and results Participants were 2214 subjects from Spanish Mediterranean (n = 1404) and North American (n = 810) populations. Anthropometric, biochemical, dietary, and genotype analyses were performed. We found novel associations between the REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 genotype and obesity in two independent populations: in Spanish Mediterranean and North American groups, the frequency of the minor-allele-carriers (AA+ AG) was significantly lower in the “abdominally obese” group than in those of the “nonabdominally obese” group (p < 0.05). Minor allele carriers had lower probability of abdominal obesity than noncarriers, and the effect was of similar magnitude for both populations (OR ≈ 1.50). There were consistent associations between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 genotype and obesity-related traits (p < 0.05). Energy intake was not significantly associated with REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339. However, physical activity significantly differed by genotype. A significant interaction between the REV-ERB-ALPHA1 variant and monounsaturated-fatty-acids (MUFA) intake for obesity was also detected in the Mediterranean population. Conclusion This new discovery highlights the importance of REV-ERB-ALPHA1 in obesity and provides evidence for the connection between our biological clock and obesity-related traits. PMID:24173768

  15. Compliance with Prevention Practices and their Association with Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Philip; Furuya, E. Yoko; Edwards, Jeffrey; Dick, Andrew; Liu, Hangsheng; Herzig, Carolyn; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Stone, Patricia W.; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Bundles and checklists have been shown to decrease CLABSIs, but implementation of these practices and association with CLABSI rates have not been described nationally. We describe implementation and levels of compliance with prevention practices in a sample of US Neonatal ICUs and assess their association with CLABSI rates. Methods An online survey assessing infection prevention practices was sent to hospitals participating in National Healthcare Safety Network CLABSI surveillance in October 2011. Participating hospitals permitted access to their NICU CLABSI rates. Multivariable regressions were used to test the association between compliance with NICU specific CLABSI prevention practices and corresponding CLABSI rates. Results Overall, 190 Level II/III and Level III NICUs participated. The majority of NICUs had written policies (84%-93%) and monitored compliance with bundles and checklists (88% - 91%). Reporting ≥ 95% compliance for any of the practices ranged from 50%- 63%. Reporting ≥ 95% compliance with insertion checklist and assessment of daily line necessity were significantly associated with lower CLABSI rates (p<0.05). Conclusions Most NICUs in this national sample have instituted CLABSI prevention policies and monitor compliance, although reporting compliance ≥ 95% was suboptimal. Reporting ≥ 95% compliance with select CLABSI prevention practices was associated with lower CLABSI rates. Further studies should focus on identifying and improving compliance with effective CLABSI prevention practices in neonates. PMID:25087136

  16. Ikaros6 is associated with BCR-ABL1 and myeloid-associated antigens but indicates poor prognosis independently in Chinese adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Li, Chunrui; Xu, Danmei; Liu, Yanan; Ding, Xiaoyi; Shen, Kefeng; Zhou, Jianfeng; Xiao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Ikaros6 was specifically associated with clinical and genetic features of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and could be used for prediction of inferior survival. The present study aimed to further investigate the correlation between Ikaros6 and other prognostic factors, and to explore the novel prognosis prediction function by combining Ikaros6 and other factors in Chinese adult B-ALL. We examined the expression of Ikaros6 in 108 patients by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and confirmed the results by sequencing, gene scanning and real-time PCR. Ikaros6 was associated with BCR-ABL1 (P=0.010) and myeloid-associated antigens (P=0.009), but had an independent negative impact on survival. In multivariable Cox analysis, Ikaros6 was an independent prognostic marker for overall survival (P=0.013, HR=2.140), event-free survival (P=0.016, HR=1.972) and relapse-free survival (P=0.002, HR=3.636). This study indicated closed relation between BCR-ABL1, myeloid-associated antigens and Ikaros6.These three risk factors played an important role in evaluation of prognosis in Chinese adult B-ALL. Furthermore, Ikaros6 is more beneficial for the disease recurrence prediction. PMID:26309501

  17. Sedentary time and vigorous physical activity are independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in middle school youth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin B; Beets, Michael W; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Evenson, Kelly R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a diverse sample of youth. Participants were recruited from three middle schools and completed assessments of height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness, and wore an accelerometer for a minimum of four days. Hierarchical general linear models controlling for age, body mass index (BMI) percentile, and sex were used to evaluate the association of time (minutes per day) spent sedentary, and in moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity with cardiorespiratory fitness (i.e., heart rate response [beats per minute], dependent variable). Results indicated age (β = -0.16, P < 0.05), BMI percentile (β = 0.33, P <0.05), being male (β = 0.17, P < 0.05), sedentary time (β = 0.11, P <0.05), moderate (β = -0.03, P > 0.05) and vigorous (β = -0.22, P < 0.05) physical activity explained 29% of the variance in cardiorespiratory fitness. Evaluation of fitness among high sedentary/high vigorous, high sedentary/low vigorous, low sedentary/low vigorous, and low sedentary/high vigorous groups (defined by the median split) showed that high levels of vigorous activity removed the detrimental effect of high levels of sedentary time on cardiorespiratory fitness. These analyses suggest that the negative impact of sedentary time can be mitigated by engaging in vigorous activity.

  18. Body Mass Changes Associated With Hyper-Gravity are Independent of Adrenal Derived Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Wang, Tommy J.; Baer, Lisa A.; Yuan, Fang; Fung, Cyra K.; Stein, T. Peter; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to hyper-gravity results in a number of metabolic changes associated with increases in catecholamines and corticosterone. These changes result in a loss of body and fat mass. To assess the role of hormones derived from the adrenal gland in the changes we studied sham operated (SO) and adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats exposed to hyper-gravity of 2 G for 14 days. Control groups at 1 G were also studied. Urinary epinephrine (EPI) and corticosterone (CORT) were reduced in ADX animals. In response to 2 G there was an increase in urinary EPI and CORT in SO rats, while levels were unchanged in ADX animals. Both groups of animals had similar increases in urinary norepinephrine levels. The reductions of body mass gain in response to 2 G were the same in both groups. The decrease in relative fat mass was greater in ADX. Energy intake and expenditure were not different between groups. In response of returning to 1 G for 24 hours and reexposure to hyper-gravity there were no differences between SO and ADX in the changes of food and water intake, body mass or activity. The changes in metabolism with exposure to hyper-gravity do not appear to require hormones derived from the adrenal gland. The increase in lypolysis and alterations body and fat mass appear to be modulated by sympathetically derived norepinehrine.

  19. The association of punitive parenting practices and adolescent achievement.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sandra; Davis-Kean, Pamela E

    2015-12-01

    This article uses a nationally representative dataset to investigate the extent to which academic-related parenting practices and the home environment during middle childhood (ages 11-13) predict achievement in late adolescence (N = 486; age range: 16-18 years). Results from path analyses indicated that parental endorsement of punitive strategies (e.g., lecture, punish, restrict activities) in response to academic underperformance during middle school predict lower literacy and math achievement 5 years later. In contrast, more cognitively stimulating homes predict higher literacy and math achievement 5 years later. Parenting practices and the home environment indicators, however, did not predict changes in achievement. Socioeconomic and race and ethnicity differences in parenting were also found. PMID:26236958

  20. A practical guide to environmental association analysis in landscape genomics.

    PubMed

    Rellstab, Christian; Gugerli, Felix; Eckert, Andrew J; Hancock, Angela M; Holderegger, Rolf

    2015-09-01

    Landscape genomics is an emerging research field that aims to identify the environmental factors that shape adaptive genetic variation and the gene variants that drive local adaptation. Its development has been facilitated by next-generation sequencing, which allows for screening thousands to millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms in many individuals and populations at reasonable costs. In parallel, data sets describing environmental factors have greatly improved and increasingly become publicly accessible. Accordingly, numerous analytical methods for environmental association studies have been developed. Environmental association analysis identifies genetic variants associated with particular environmental factors and has the potential to uncover adaptive patterns that are not discovered by traditional tests for the detection of outlier loci based on population genetic differentiation. We review methods for conducting environmental association analysis including categorical tests, logistic regressions, matrix correlations, general linear models and mixed effects models. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches, provide a list of dedicated software packages and their specific properties, and stress the importance of incorporating neutral genetic structure in the analysis. We also touch on additional important aspects such as sampling design, environmental data preparation, pooled and reduced-representation sequencing, candidate-gene approaches, linearity of allele-environment associations and the combination of environmental association analyses with traditional outlier detection tests. We conclude by summarizing expected future directions in the field, such as the extension of statistical approaches, environmental association analysis for ecological gene annotation, and the need for replication and post hoc validation studies.

  1. Grassland birds associated with agricultural riparian practices in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renfrew, R.B.; Ribic, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Rotational grazing has been proposed as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for minimizing runoff in Wisconsin agricultural riparian areas. The influence of this land management practice on grassland birds has not been evaluated in relation to more traditional agricultural land management systems in Midwestern riparian areas. This study compared the grassland bird community in riparian areas in Wisconsin that were rotationally grazed to 2 common land use practices along streams in Wisconsin: continuously grazed pastures and rowcrop fields with 10-m-wide ungrazed buffer strips located along the stream. We calculated total number of birds, the Berger-Parker Index of Dominance, and number of birds ha-1 for each site. Vegetation variables used were height-density, litter depth, and percent bare ground. Bird species richness, species dominance, and density did not differ among land use types. In contrast, grassland bird species of management concern [Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis Gmelin), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna L.), and Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus L.)] were found on continuous and rotational pastures but very rarely or never occurred on buffer strips. Contrary to previous research, however, rotationally grazed pastures did not support more of these species than continuously grazed pastures. Bird density was related to vegetation structure, with higher densities found on sites with deeper litter. Within the pasture land use types, there were no consistent differences between species richness and density near the stream (10 m).

  2. The dopamine D4 receptor gene shows a gender-sensitive association with cognitive empathy: evidence from two independent samples.

    PubMed

    Uzefovsky, Florina; Shalev, Idan; Israel, Salomon; Edelman, Shany; Raz, Yael; Perach-Barzilay, Nufar; Mankuta, David; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Knafo, Ariel; Ebstein, Richard P

    2014-08-01

    Increasing evidence points to a role of dopaminergic pathways in modulating social behavior. Specifically, a polymorphic region in the third exon of the Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) has been associated with a host of social behaviors, often in an environment-sensitive manner. Empathy is thought to be an important motivator of prosocial behaviors and can be seen as multifaceted, combining cognitive empathy (CE) and emotional empathy (EE). In the current study, we analyzed the association between DRD4 and the 2 aspects of empathy, as well as the effect of gender on this association. In Study 1, a large sample of adult participants (N = 477) was inventoried for general empathy, CE, and EE and genotyped for the DRD4 exon 3 polymorphism. Women scored higher than men on all empathy measures and no main effect of genotype was observed. It is important that a significant interaction between genotype and gender emerged specifically for CE, with women carriers of the 7R-allele scoring higher than noncarriers, whereas in men 7R-carriers scored lower than -7R. Notably, these findings were replicated in an independently recruited sample (N = 121) in Study 2. The current report shows that the DRD4 exon3 polymorphism is associated with CE and the direction of the association is gender-sensitive. PMID:24866520

  3. Increased sensitivity to proactive interference in amnestic mild cognitive impairment is independent of associative and semantic impairment.

    PubMed

    Hanseeuw, Bernard Jimmy; Seron, Xavier; Ivanoiu, Adrian

    2010-03-01

    Episodic memory deficit is the hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). There is, however, an overlap in performance among patients with aMCI and elderly controls (EC). The memory deficit in aMCI therefore needs to be better characterized. Studies have shown that associative memory is selectively impaired in aMCI, and recent work suggested that aMCI may be hypersensitive to semantic proactive interference (PI). It is not known whether this increased PI is related to associative or semantic impairment. EC (n=44) and patients with aMCI (n=30) performed two tasks presenting a gradually increasing PI effect across four lists. One task used semantic cueing, the other phonological cueing. We controlled for associative memory by introducing it as a covariate and by matching our subjects for it. Patients with aMCI had a greater PI effect than EC matched for associative memory, regardless of the type of cueing. The increased PI effect in patients with aMCI is independent of their associative and semantic impairment. PMID:19906479

  4. The CDKL5 disorder is an independent clinical entity associated with early-onset encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Stephanie; Wilson, Meredith; Downs, Jenny; Williams, Simon; Murgia, Alessandra; Sartori, Stefano; Vecchi, Marilena; Ho, Gladys; Polli, Roberta; Psoni, Stavroula; Bao, Xinhua; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen; Christodoulou, John

    2013-01-01

    The clinical understanding of the CDKL5 disorder remains limited, with most information being derived from small patient groups seen at individual centres. This study uses a large international data collection to describe the clinical profile of the CDKL5 disorder and compare with Rett syndrome (RTT). Information on individuals with cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) mutations (n=86) and females with MECP2 mutations (n=920) was sourced from the InterRett database. Available photographs of CDKL5 patients were examined for dysmorphic features. The proportion of CDKL5 patients meeting the recent Neul criteria for atypical RTT was determined. Logistic regression and time-to-event analyses were used to compare the occurrence of Rett-like features in those with MECP2 and CDKL5 mutations. Most individuals with CDKL5 mutations had severe developmental delay from birth, seizure onset before the age of 3 months and similar non-dysmorphic features. Less than one-quarter met the criteria for early-onset seizure variant RTT. Seizures and sleep disturbances were more common than in those with MECP2 mutations whereas features of regression and spinal curvature were less common. The CDKL5 disorder presents with a distinct clinical profile and a subtle facial, limb and hand phenotype that may assist in differentiation from other early-onset encephalopathies. Although mutations in the CDKL5 gene have been described in association with the early-onset variant of RTT, in our study the majority did not meet these criteria. Therefore, the CDKL5 disorder should be considered separate to RTT, rather than another variant. PMID:22872100

  5. Who practices yoga? A systematic review of demographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors associated with yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Park, Crystal L; Braun, Tosca; Siegel, Tamar

    2015-06-01

    Yoga has become increasingly popular in the US and around the world, yet because most yoga research is conducted as clinical trials or experiments, little is known about the characteristics and correlates of people who independently choose to practice yoga. We conducted a systematic review of this issue, identifying 55 studies and categorizing correlates of yoga practice into sociodemographics, psychosocial characteristics, and mental and physical well-being. Yoga use is greatest among women and those with higher socioeconomic status and appears favorably related to psychosocial factors such as coping and mindfulness. Yoga practice often relates to better subjective health and health behaviors but also with more distress and physical impairment. However, evidence is sparse and methodological limitations preclude drawing causal inferences. Nationally representative studies have minimally assessed yoga while studies with strong assessment of yoga practice (e.g., type, dose) are generally conducted with convenience samples. Almost all studies reviewed are cross-sectional and few control for potential confounding variables. We provide recommendations for future research to better understand the correlates of yoga practice.

  6. Low Levels of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D are Independently Associated with the Risk of Bacterial Infection in Cirrhotic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Anty, Rodolphe; Tonohouan, M; Ferrari-Panaia, P; Piche, T; Pariente, A; Anstee, Q M; Gual, P; Tran, A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low levels of vitamin D are associated with a higher mortality in cirrhotic patients, but the role of this deficiency is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of vitamin D in cirrhotic patients with and without bacterial infection. METHODS: 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D was assessed by immunoassay in 88 patients hospitalized in our hepatology unit. RESULTS: The causes of cirrhosis were mainly alcohol (70%), hepatitis C (10%), or both (9%). Infections (n=38) mainly included bacteriemia (21%), urinary tract infections (24%), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (29%). A severe deficiency in vitamin D (<10 ng/ml) was observed in 56.8% of patients. Infections were more frequent in patients with a severe deficiency compared with the others (54 vs. 29%, P=0.02). A severe deficiency in vitamin D was a predictive factor of infection (odds ratio=5.44 (1.35–21.97), P=0.017) independently of the Child–Pugh score (odds ratio=2.09 (1.47–2.97) P=0.00004) and the C-reactive protein level (odds ratio=1.03 (1.002–1.052), P=0.03) in a logistic regression also including the alanine amino transferase (not significant). By a Cox regression analysis, only the presence of an infection was significantly associated with mortality (relative risk=3.24 (1.20–8.76), P=0.02) in a model also associating the Child–Pugh score (not significant) and the presence of a severe deficiency in vitamin D (not significant). CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of 25-OH vitamin D were independently associated with bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients. The impact of 25-OH vitamin D supplementation on the infection rate and death of cirrhotic patients should be assessed in randomized trials. PMID:24871371

  7. Real world navigation independence in the early blind correlates with differential brain activity associated with virtual navigation.

    PubMed

    Halko, Mark A; Connors, Erin C; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-06-01

    Navigating is a complex cognitive task that places high demands on spatial abilities, particularly in the absence of sight. Significant advances have been made in identifying the neural correlates associated with various aspects of this skill; however, how the brain is able to navigate in the absence of visual experience remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how neural network activity relates to the wide variability in navigational independence and skill in the blind population is also unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural correlates of audio-based navigation within a large scale, indoor virtual environment in early profoundly blind participants with differing levels of spatial navigation independence (assessed by the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale). Performing path integration tasks in the virtual environment was associated with activation within areas of a core network implicated in navigation. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scores and activation within right temporal parietal junction during the planning and execution phases of the task. These findings suggest that differential navigational ability in the blind may be related to the utilization of different brain network structures. Further characterization of the factors that influence network activity may have important implications regarding how this skill is taught in the blind community.

  8. Identification of predominant yeasts associated with artisan Mexican cocoa fermentations using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches.

    PubMed

    Arana-Sánchez, A; Segura-García, L E; Kirchmayr, M; Orozco-Ávila, I; Lugo-Cervantes, E; Gschaedler-Mathis, A

    2015-02-01

    The process of cocoa fermentation is a very important step for the generation or aromatic compounds, which are attributable to the metabolism of the microorganisms involved. There are some reports about this process and the identification of microorganisms; however, there are no reports identifying the yeasts involved in a Mexican cocoa fermentation process using molecular biology techniques, including restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The aim of this study was to identify the main yeast species associated with Mexican cocoa fermentations employing culture-dependent and -independent techniques achieving two samplings with a 1 year time difference at the same site. Isolation of the microorganisms was performed in situ. Molecular identification of yeast isolates was achieved by RFLP analysis and rDNA sequencing. Total DNA from the microorganisms on the cocoa beans was utilized for the DGGE analysis. Bands from the DGGE gels were excised and sequenced. Nineteen isolated yeasts were identified (al specie level), three of which had never before been associated with cocoa fermentations worldwide. The detected predominant yeast varied from one technique to another. Hanseniaspora sp. resulted dominant in DGGE however Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the principal isolated species. In conclusion, the culture-dependent and -independent techniques complement each other showing differences in the main yeasts involved in spontaneous cocoa fermentation, probably due to the physiological states of the viable but non culturable yeasts. Furthermore important differences between the species detected in the two samplings were detected.

  9. Identification of predominant yeasts associated with artisan Mexican cocoa fermentations using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches.

    PubMed

    Arana-Sánchez, A; Segura-García, L E; Kirchmayr, M; Orozco-Ávila, I; Lugo-Cervantes, E; Gschaedler-Mathis, A

    2015-02-01

    The process of cocoa fermentation is a very important step for the generation or aromatic compounds, which are attributable to the metabolism of the microorganisms involved. There are some reports about this process and the identification of microorganisms; however, there are no reports identifying the yeasts involved in a Mexican cocoa fermentation process using molecular biology techniques, including restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The aim of this study was to identify the main yeast species associated with Mexican cocoa fermentations employing culture-dependent and -independent techniques achieving two samplings with a 1 year time difference at the same site. Isolation of the microorganisms was performed in situ. Molecular identification of yeast isolates was achieved by RFLP analysis and rDNA sequencing. Total DNA from the microorganisms on the cocoa beans was utilized for the DGGE analysis. Bands from the DGGE gels were excised and sequenced. Nineteen isolated yeasts were identified (al specie level), three of which had never before been associated with cocoa fermentations worldwide. The detected predominant yeast varied from one technique to another. Hanseniaspora sp. resulted dominant in DGGE however Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the principal isolated species. In conclusion, the culture-dependent and -independent techniques complement each other showing differences in the main yeasts involved in spontaneous cocoa fermentation, probably due to the physiological states of the viable but non culturable yeasts. Furthermore important differences between the species detected in the two samplings were detected. PMID:25566818

  10. Detection of Independent Associations of Plasma Lipidomic Parameters with Insulin Sensitivity Indices Using Data Mining Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Schuhmann, Kai; Xu, Aimin; Schulte, Klaus-Martin; Simeonovic, Charmaine J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Graessler, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Glucolipotoxicity is a major pathophysiological mechanism in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We aimed to detect subtle changes in the circulating lipid profile by shotgun lipidomics analyses and to associate them with four different insulin sensitivity indices. Methods The cross-sectional study comprised 90 men with a broad range of insulin sensitivity including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 33), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 32) and newly detected T2D (n = 25). Prior to oral glucose challenge plasma was obtained and quantitatively analyzed for 198 lipid molecular species from 13 different lipid classes including triacylglycerls (TAGs), phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen/ether (PC O-s), sphingomyelins (SMs), and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs). To identify a lipidomic signature of individual insulin sensitivity we applied three data mining approaches, namely least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Random Forests (RF) for the following insulin sensitivity indices: homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glucose insulin sensitivity index (GSI), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and disposition index (DI). The LASSO procedure offers a high prediction accuracy and and an easier interpretability than SVR and RF. Results After LASSO selection, the plasma lipidome explained 3% (DI) to maximal 53% (HOMA-IR) variability of the sensitivity indexes. Among the lipid species with the highest positive LASSO regression coefficient were TAG 54:2 (HOMA-IR), PC O- 32:0 (GSI), and SM 40:3:1 (ISI). The highest negative regression coefficient was obtained for LPC 22:5 (HOMA-IR), TAG 51:1 (GSI), and TAG 58:6 (ISI). Conclusion Although a substantial part of lipid molecular species showed a significant correlation with insulin sensitivity indices we were able to identify a limited number of lipid metabolites of particular importance based on the LASSO approach. These

  11. 77 FR 60970 - New York Association of Public Power v. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, New York Independent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ..., New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Amendment to Complaint Take notice that on... 11, 2012, Complaint against Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and New York Independent System...

  12. 77 FR 61593 - New York Association of Public Power v. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, New York Independent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ..., New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Amendment to Complaint Take notice that on... Complaint against Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and New York Independent System Operator,...

  13. Low Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels Associate with Prediabetes in Chinese Men Independent of Total Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Zhu, Chunfang; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Cang, Zhen; Lu, Meng; Chen, Chi; Lin, Dongping; Lu, Yingli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The association ns between prediabetes and androgens have been rarely reported, especially in Chinese men. We aimed to investigate whether androgens were associated with the prevalence of prediabetes diagnosed with new American Diabetes Association criteria in Chinese men and then to assess which androgen value was the most relevant factor. Methods A total of 2654 men (52.6±13.4 years old) were selected. Serum total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and free testosterone (FT) were measured. Covariance analysis of different androgen values were performed in age subgroups. Multinomial logistic regression was used for the association of TT, SHBG and FT with prediabetes and diabetes, as well as prediabetes in age subgroups. Results According to ADA new criteria, normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 1405, 907 and 342 men, respectively. In covariance analysis, SHBG of prediabetes were found lower than that of normoglycemia but higher than that of diabetes (P <0.05). In multinomial logistic regression, serum TT and SHBG were inversely associated with prediabetes and diabetes. While, after full adjustment for age, residence area, economic status, waist circumference, metabolic factors, other two androgen values and HOMA-IR, only the associations of SHBG with prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes persisted statistically significant, especially in the elderly with prediabetes (all P for trend <0.05). Conclusions Serum androgen was inversely associated with prediabetes and diabetes in Chinese men. Low serum SHBG was the most relevant factor for prediabetes and diabetes. Whether it is an independent predictor for incident prediabetes in Chinese men needs further explorations. PMID:27583401

  14. Lack of association between interleukin-1 alpha rs1800587 polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease in two Independent European samples.

    PubMed

    Serretti, Alessandro; Olgiati, Paolo; Politis, Antonis; Malitas, Petros; Albani, Diego; Dusi, Sabrina; Polito, Letizia; De Mauro, Stefania; Zisaki, Aikaterini; Piperi, Christina; Liappas, Ioannis; Stamouli, Evangelia; Mailis, Antonis; Atti, Anna Rita; Morri, Monica; Ujkaj, Manjola; Batelli, Sara; Forloni, Gianluigi; Soldatos, Costantine R; Papadimitriou, George N; De Ronchi, Diana; Kalofoutis, Anastasios

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL1) can contribute to pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by promoting deposition of amyloid-beta in the brain. The gene encoding IL1 alpha (IL1A) has a common polymorphism in its 5' regulatory region (rs1800587) with possible functional effects. IL1A T/T genotype has been associated with AD but the overall effect is modest and negative studies have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the IL1A rs1800587 polymorphism with AD in two independent case-control groups from Greece (Athens) and Italy (Faenza and Granarolo). Preliminary results from the ongoing sample (110 patients with sporadic AD and 130 nonpsychiatric controls) showed no association between IL1A variants and AD, however C/T heterozygotes had more severe depression in AD (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia) compared to other genotypes (F = 4.56, d.f = 1, p = 0.037) after controlling for age, illness duration and cognitive impairment (MMSE). Despite the small sample size and the possibility of a false negative finding, our preliminary data support the hypothesis the IL1A rs1800587 variants are not associated with AD. The effect of the IL1A on depressive symptomatology warrants further investigations, however the lack of a gene-dose relationship would suggest a false positive.

  15. Multiple independent variants at the TERT locus are associated with telomere length and risks of breast and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bojesen, Stig E; Pooley, Karen A; Johnatty, Sharon E; Beesley, Jonathan; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Edwards, Stacey L; Pickett, Hilda A; Shen, Howard C; Smart, Chanel E; Hillman, Kristine M; Mai, Phuong L; Lawrenson, Kate; Stutz, Michael D; Lu, Yi; Karevan, Rod; Woods, Nicholas; Johnston, Rebecca L; French, Juliet D; Chen, Xiaoqing; Weischer, Maren; Nielsen, Sune F; Maranian, Melanie J; Ghoussaini, Maya; Ahmed, Shahana; Baynes, Caroline; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Healey, Sue; Lush, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Françis; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Despierre, Evelyn; Risch, Harvey A; González-Neira, Anna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Pita, Guillermo; Doherty, Jennifer A; Álvarez, Nuria; Larson, Melissa C; Fridley, Brooke L; Schoof, Nils; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cicek, Mine S; Peto, Julian; Kalli, Kimberly R; Broeks, Annegien; Armasu, Sebastian M; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Braaf, Linde M; Winterhoff, Boris; Nevanlinna, Heli; Konecny, Gottfried E; Lambrechts, Diether; Rogmann, Lisa; Guénel, Pascal; Teoman, Attila; Milne, Roger L; Garcia, Joaquin J; Cox, Angela; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Hein, Rebecca; Sawyer, Elinor J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Andrulis, Irene L; Moysich, Kirsten B; Hopper, John L; Odunsi, Kunle; Lindblom, Annika; Giles, Graham G; Brenner, Hermann; Simard, Jacques; Lurie, Galina; Fasching, Peter A; Carney, Michael E; Radice, Paolo; Wilkens, Lynne R; Swerdlow, Anthony; Goodman, Marc T; Brauch, Hiltrud; García-Closas, Montserrat; Hillemanns, Peter; Winqvist, Robert; Dürst, Matthias; Devilee, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Butzow, Ralf; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Dörk, Thilo; Pelttari, Liisa M; Zheng, Wei; Leminen, Arto; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bunker, Clareann H; Kristensen, Vessela; Ness, Roberta B; Muir, Kenneth; Edwards, Robert; Meindl, Alfons; Heitz, Florian; Matsuo, Keitaro; du Bois, Andreas; Wu, Anna H; Harter, Philipp; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Hosono, Satoyo; Kang, Daehee; Nakanishi, Toru; Hartman, Mikael; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hamann, Ute; Karlan, Beth Y; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Gaborieau, Valerie; Jensen, Allan; Eccles, Diana; Høgdall, Estrid; Shen, Chen-Yang; Brown, Judith; Woo, Yin Ling; Shah, Mitul; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Luben, Robert; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Czene, Kamila; Vierkant, Robert A; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Levine, Douglas A; Rudolph, Anja; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Iversen, Edwin; Nickels, Stefan; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Silva, Isabel Dos Santos; Cramer, Daniel W; Gibson, Lorna; Terry, Kathryn L; Fletcher, Olivia; Vitonis, Allison F; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Poole, Elizabeth M; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Tworoger, Shelley S; Liu, Jianjun; Bandera, Elisa V; Li, Jingmei; Olson, Sara H; Humphreys, Keith; Orlow, Irene; Blomqvist, Carl; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Salvesen, Helga B; Muranen, Taru A; Wik, Elisabeth; Brouwers, Barbara; Krakstad, Camilla; Wauters, Els; Halle, Mari K; Wildiers, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Mulot, Claire; Aben, Katja K; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; van Altena, Anne M; Truong, Thérèse; Massuger, Leon F A G; Benitez, Javier; Pejovic, Tanja; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Hoatlin, Maureen; Zamora, M Pilar; Cook, Linda S; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Kelemen, Linda E; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Le, Nhu D; Sohn, Christof; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Cybulski, Cezary; Henderson, Brian E; Menkiszak, Janusz; Schumacher, Fredrick; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Marchand, Loic Le; Yang, Hannah P; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Knight, Julia A; Høgdall, Claus K; Apicella, Carmel; Gore, Martin; Tsimiklis, Helen; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Jager, Agnes; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Brown, Robert; Martens, John W M; Flanagan, James M; Kriege, Mieke; Paul, James; Margolin, Sara; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Severi, Gianluca; Whittemore, Alice S; Baglietto, Laura; McGuire, Valerie; Stegmaier, Christa; Sieh, Weiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Labrèche, France; Gao, Yu-Tang; Goldberg, Mark S; Yang, Gong; Dumont, Martine; McLaughlin, John R; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Phelan, Catherine M; Lux, Michael P; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Peissel, Bernard; Sellers, Thomas A; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Barile, Monica; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Jones, Michael; Ramus, Susan J; Orr, Nick; Menon, Usha; Pearce, Celeste L; Brüning, Thomas; Pike, Malcolm C; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Pylkäs, Katri; Bidzinski, Mariusz; Kauppila, Saila; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Long, Jirong; Shrubsole, Martha; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Ditsch, Nina; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Stram, Daniel O; van den Berg, David; Yip, Cheng Har; Ikram, M Kamran; Teh, Yew-Ching; Cai, Hui; Lu, Wei; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Noh, Dong-Young; Yoo, Keun-Young; Miao, Hui; Iau, Philip Tsau-Choong; Teo, Yik Ying; McKay, James; Shapiro, Charles; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Fountzilas, George; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Healey, Catherine S; Luccarini, Craig; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Peterlongo, Paolo; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F; Friedman, Eitan; Thomassen, Mads; Offit, Kenneth; Hansen, Thomas V O; Neuhausen, Susan L; Szabo, Csilla I; Blanco, Ignacio; Garber, Judy; Narod, Steven A; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Montagna, Marco; Olah, Edith; Godwin, Andrew K; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Goldgar, David E; Caldes, Trinidad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Tihomirova, Laima; Arun, Banu K; Campbell, Ian; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; van Asperen, Christi J; van Roozendaal, Kees E P; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Collée, J Margriet; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Hooning, Maartje J; Rookus, Matti A; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Os, Theo A M; Evans, D Gareth; Frost, Debra; Fineberg, Elena; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M John; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Ellis, Steve D; Cole, Trevor; Paillerets, Brigitte Bressac-de; Buecher, Bruno; Damiola, Francesca; Faivre, Laurence; Frenay, Marc; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Caron, Olivier; Giraud, Sophie; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Gronwald, Jacek; Byrski, Tomasz; Spurdle, Amanda B; Bonanni, Bernardo; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Giannini, Giuseppe; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Arnold, Norbert; Engel, Christoph; Deissler, Helmut; Rhiem, Kerstin; Niederacher, Dieter; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Sutter, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Borg, Åke; Melin, Beatrice; Rantala, Johanna; Soller, Maria; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Salani, Ritu; Kaulich, Daphne Gschwantler; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Paluch, Shani Shimon; Laitman, Yael; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Robson, Mark; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Foretova, Lenka; Savage, Sharon A; Lester, Jenny; Soucy, Penny; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Olswold, Curtis; Cunningham, Julie M; Slager, Susan; Pankratz, Vernon S; Dicks, Ed; Lakhani, Sunil R; Couch, Fergus J; Hall, Per; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Reddel, Roger R; Goode, Ellen L; Greene, Mark H; Easton, Douglas F; Berchuck, Andrew; Antoniou, Antonis C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    TERT-locus single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and leucocyte telomere measures are reportedly associated with risks of multiple cancers. Using the iCOGs chip, we analysed ~480 TERT-locus SNPs in breast (n=103,991), ovarian (n=39,774) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (11,705) cancer cases and controls. 53,724 participants have leucocyte telomere measures. Most associations cluster into three independent peaks. Peak 1 SNP rs2736108 minor allele associates with longer telomeres (P=5.8×10−7), reduced estrogen receptor negative (ER-negative) (P=1.0×10−8) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P=1.1×10−5) breast cancer risks, and altered promoter-assay signal. Peak 2 SNP rs7705526 minor allele associates with longer telomeres (P=2.3×10−14), increased low malignant potential ovarian cancer risk (P=1.3×10−15) and increased promoter activity. Peak 3 SNPs rs10069690 and rs2242652 minor alleles increase ER-negative (P=1.2×10−12) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P=1.6×10−14) breast and invasive ovarian (P=1.3×10−11) cancer risks, but not via altered telomere length. The cancer-risk alleles of rs2242652 and rs10069690 respectively increase silencing and generate a truncated TERT splice-variant. PMID:23535731

  16. The Independent and Combined Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Obesity in Adults: NHANES 2003-06

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Carol A.; Mire, Emily; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the combined influence of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior on obesity in US adults. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on a nationally representative sample of 5,083 adults from the April 2003 and June 2005 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported TV time was divided into low, moderate, and high categories. Accelerometer-derived total sedentary and MVPA minutes divided into low, moderate, and high tertiles. The independent associations between MVPA, TV, and total sedentary time and obesity were examined using logistic regression. Participants were then cross tabulated into nine MVPA–sedentary behavior groups, and logistic regression was used to examine the combined influence of MVPA and sedentary behavior on the odds of being obese. Results MVPA was consistently inversely associated with obesity, regardless of sedentary behavior [odds ratio (OR) = 1.80-4.00]. There were inconsistent positive associations between TV time and risk of obesity in men, but not between total sedentary time and risk of obesity in either men or women. Conclusions Obesity was more strongly related to MVPA than either TV time or total sedentary time in US adults. Small differences in daily MVPA (5-10 min) were associated with relatively large differences in risk of obesity. PMID:23512825

  17. [Association between paracetamol exposure and asthma: update and practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Moral, L; Torres-Borrego, J; Korta Murua, J; Valverde-Molina, J; Pellegrini Belinchón, J; Praena-Crespo, M; Ortega Casanueva, C; Callén-Blecua, M T; Fernández-Llamazares, C M; Calvo Rey, C

    2013-09-01

    Asthma prevalence has increased over the last few decades, especially in developed countries, and possibly due to different reasons. An association between paracetamol use or exposure at different periods of life, including gestation and childhood, and asthma prevalence has been observed in the last few years. Causality can not be established from observational reports, due to the arguable presence of many confounding factors and biases. Randomised trials are needed to elucidate the nature of this association. The Spanish Paediatric societies subscribing to this paper consider that current evidence is insufficient to discourage the use of paracetamol during gestation or in children with or at risk of asthma.

  18. Cancer Survivors’ Health Worries and Associations with Lifestyle Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Lipkus, Isaac M.; Sloane, Richard; Kraus, William E.; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Peterson, Bercedis; Jones, Lee W.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined among recently diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors (N = 678) associations between worry about a future diagnosis of heart disease or cancer and hypothetical and actual adherence to exercise and dietary guidelines. Greater worry about future illness was reported under the hypothetical scenario of non-adherence to guidelines relative to the scenario of adherence. Worry about potential heart disease was associated with actual adherence to guidelines, whereas worry about a potential cancer diagnosis was not. Findings suggest that the motivational properties of worry should be considered when developing interventions to reduce heart disease risk among cancer survivors. PMID:18987083

  19. Associations between motor timing, music practice, and intelligence studied in a large sample of twins.

    PubMed

    Ullén, Fredrik; Mosing, Miriam A; Madison, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Music performance depends critically on precise processing of time. A common model behavior in studies of motor timing is isochronous serial interval production (ISIP), that is, hand/finger movements with a regular beat. ISIP accuracy is related to both music practice and intelligence. Here we present a study of these associations in a large twin cohort, demonstrating that the effects of music practice and intelligence on motor timing are additive, with no significant multiplicative (interaction) effect. Furthermore, the association between music practice and motor timing was analyzed with the use of a co-twin control design using intrapair differences. These analyses revealed that the phenotypic association disappeared when all genetic and common environmental factors were controlled. This suggests that the observed association may not reflect a causal effect of music practice on ISIP performance but rather reflect common influences (e.g., genetic effects) on both outcomes. The relevance of these findings for models of practice and expert performance is discussed.

  20. Moderate-intensity physical activity is independently associated with lower-extremity muscle power in older women.

    PubMed

    Straight, Chad R; Brady, Anne O; Evans, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle power is a salient determinant of physical function in older adults, but its relationship with habitual physical activity has not been well-characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the association between moderate-intensity physical activity and lower-extremity muscle power in community-dwelling older women. Older women (n = 96, mean age = 73.9 ± 5.6 years, mean body mass index = 26.5 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)) underwent assessments for body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and lower-extremity muscle power (watts) using the Nottingham power rig. The Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors questionnaire was used to estimate weekly caloric expenditure in moderate-intensity physical activity (kcals/wk). Linear regression indicated that moderate-intensity physical activity was independently related to muscle power (standardized β = 0.20, p = .03), and this relationship remained following adjustment for covariates. Analysis of covariance revealed that women in the highest tertile of volume of physical activity had significantly greater muscle power than those with the lowest volume (199.0 vs. 170.7 watts, p < .05). Moderate-intensity physical activity was independently associated with lower-extremity muscle power in older women. Future intervention trials should determine if increasing habitual physical activity is associated with improvements in lower-extremity muscle power in older women.

  1. Low Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Independent of Visceral Obesity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji A.; Eun, Chai Ryoung; Cho, Hyunjoo; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Sin Gon; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Yim, Hyung Joon; Shin, Chol; Kim, Nan Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independent of visceral obesity in Koreans and to examine whether the associations differ according to the presence of diabetes or insulin resistance. Research Design and Methods A total of 1081 adults were enrolled from a population-based cohort in Ansan city. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in all subjects. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Using computed tomography, NAFLD was diagnosed if the liver attenuation index (LAI, the difference between the mean hepatic and splenic attenuation) was <5 Hounsfield Units. Results In subjects with diabetes (n = 282), 25(OH)D levels were negatively associated with waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride levels, and visceral abdominal fat, and were positively associated with LAI after adjusting for age, sex, season, exercise, and vitamin supplementation. In subjects without diabetes, only triglyceride level was negatively associated with 25(OH)D. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for NAFLD increased sequentially across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D in subjects with diabetes even after adjusting for visceral fat [Q1 vs. Q4; OR for NAFLD 2.5 (95% CI:1.0–6.2)]. In contrast, no significant difference in OR was observed in subjects without diabetes. When we classified non-diabetic subjects by HOMA-IR, an increase in the OR for NAFLD across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D was observed in the high HOMA-IR (≥2.5) group [n = 207, Q1 vs. Q4; OR 3.8(1.4–10.3)], but not in the low HOMA-IR (<2.5) group [n = 592, OR 0.8 (0.3–1.9)]. Conclusions Low vitamin D status is closely associated with NAFLD, independent of visceral obesity in subjects with diabetes or insulin resistance. PMID:24130687

  2. High serum selenium levels are associated with increased risk for diabetes mellitus independent of central obesity and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chia-Wen; Chang, Hao-Hsiang; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Kuo, Chia-Sheng; Lee, Long-Teng; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Selenium is an essential micronutrient for human health. Although many observational and interventional studies have examined the associations between selenium and diabetes mellitus, the findings were inconclusive. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum selenium levels and prevalence of diabetes, and correlated the relationship to insulin resistance and central obesity. Research design and methods This was a hospital-based case–control study of 847 adults aged more than 40 years (diabetes: non-diabetes =1:2) in Northern Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and diabetes was examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results After adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, current drinking, and physical activity, the ORs (95% CI, p value) of having diabetes in the second (Q2), third (Q3), and fourth (Q4) selenium quartile groups were 1.24 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.98, p>0.05), 1.90 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.97, p<0.05), and 5.11 (95% CI 3.27 to 8.00, p<0.001), respectively, compared with the first (Q1) quartile group. Further adjustments for waist circumference and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) largely removed the association of serum selenium levels with diabetes but not in the highest quartile (compared with Q1, Q3: 1.57, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.70, Q4: 3.79, 95% CI 2.17 to 6.32). Conclusions We found that serum selenium levels were positively associated with prevalence of diabetes. This is the first human study to link insulin resistance and central obesity to the association between selenium and diabetes. Furthermore, the association between selenium and diabetes was independent of insulin resistance and central obesity at high serum selenium levels. The mechanism behind warrants further confirmation. PMID:27547419

  3. Relational Coordination and Organisational Social Capital Association with Characteristics of General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Søndergaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between RC and OSC, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type. RC was also found to be significantly positively associated with number of patients per staff. However, the low response rate must be taken into consideration when interpreting the self-reported results of this study. PMID:25045537

  4. Relational coordination and organisational social capital association with characteristics of general practice.

    PubMed

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Reventlow, Susanne; Søndergaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between RC and OSC, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type. RC was also found to be significantly positively associated with number of patients per staff. However, the low response rate must be taken into consideration when interpreting the self-reported results of this study.

  5. MDM2 Associates with Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 and Enhances Stemness-Promoting Chromatin Modifications Independent of p53.

    PubMed

    Wienken, Magdalena; Dickmanns, Antje; Nemajerova, Alice; Kramer, Daniela; Najafova, Zeynab; Weiss, Miriam; Karpiuk, Oleksandra; Kassem, Moustapha; Zhang, Yanping; Lozano, Guillermina; Johnsen, Steven A; Moll, Ute M; Zhang, Xin; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The MDM2 oncoprotein ubiquitinates and antagonizes p53 but may also carry out p53-independent functions. Here we report that MDM2 is required for the efficient generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from murine embryonic fibroblasts, in the absence of p53. Similarly, MDM2 depletion in the context of p53 deficiency also promoted the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and diminished clonogenic survival of cancer cells. Most of the MDM2-controlled genes also responded to the inactivation of the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2) and its catalytic component EZH2. MDM2 physically associated with EZH2 on chromatin, enhancing the trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 and the ubiquitination of histone 2A at lysine 119 (H2AK119) at its target genes. Removing MDM2 simultaneously with the H2AK119 E3 ligase Ring1B/RNF2 further induced these genes and synthetically arrested cell proliferation. In conclusion, MDM2 supports the Polycomb-mediated repression of lineage-specific genes, independent of p53. PMID:26748827

  6. Variability of doublecortin-associated dendrite maturation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis is independent of the regulation of precursor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Plümpe, Tobias; Ehninger, Dan; Steiner, Barbara; Klempin, Friederike; Jessberger, Sebastian; Brandt, Moritz; Römer, Benedikt; Rodriguez, Gerardo Ramirez; Kronenberg, Golo; Kempermann, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Background In the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis most regulation takes place during the phase of doublecortin (DCX) expression, either as pro-proliferative effect on precursor cells or as survival-promoting effect on postmitotic cells. We here obtained quantitative data about the proliferative population and the dynamics of postmitotic dendrite development during the period of DCX expression. The question was, whether any indication could be obtained that the initiation of dendrite development is timely bound to the exit from the cell cycle. Alternatively, the temporal course of morphological maturation might be subject to additional regulatory events. Results We found that (1) 20% of the DCX population were precursor cells in cell cycle, whereas more than 70% were postmitotic, (2) the time span until newborn cells had reached the most mature stage associated with DCX expression varied between 3 days and several weeks, (3) positive or negative regulation of precursor cell proliferation did not alter the pattern and dynamics of dendrite development. Dendrite maturation was largely independent of close contacts to astrocytes. Conclusion These data imply that dendrite maturation of immature neurons is initiated at varying times after cell cycle exit, is variable in duration, and is controlled independently of the regulation of precursor cell proliferation. We conclude that in addition to the major regulatory events in cell proliferation and selective survival, additional micro-regulatory events influence the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:17105671

  7. Lack of association between alcohol-dependence and D3 dopamine receptor gene in three independent samples

    SciTech Connect

    Gorwood, P.; Feingold, J.; Ades, J.

    1995-12-18

    Numerous studies on the involvement of dopamine receptors in the genetics of alcoholism focused on associations between a polymorphism of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene and alcohol dependence. However, the results of these studies are conflicting. Another receptor, the D3 dopamine receptor (DRD3), may be of additional interest since it is specifically located in the limbic area, and in particular in the nucleus accumbens which plays a significant role in the reward process of addiction behavior. We thus tested the association in three independent samples of alcoholic patients, with different origins and various inclusion criteria. No difference in the DRD3 gene polymorphism emerged between controls and alcoholic patients, regardless of their origin, inclusion criteria, or presence or absence of the DRD2 TaqI A1-allele. Despite the fact that more information could have been considered and that association studies provide limited information, there is good evidence that this DRD3 polymorphism does not play a major role in the genetic component of alcoholism. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Practice and Child Characteristics Associated with Influenza Vaccine Uptake in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Poehling, Katherine A.; Fairbrother, Gerry; Zhu, Yuwei; Donauer, Stephanie; Ambrose, Sandra; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Staat, Mary Allen; Prill, Mila M.; Finelli, Lyn; Allred, Norma J.; Bardenheier, Barbara; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine both practice and child characteristics and practice strategies associated with receipt of influenza vaccine in young children during the 2004–2005 influenza season, the first season for the universal influenza vaccination recommendation for all children aged 6–23 months. Methods Clinical and demographic data from randomly selected children aged 6–23 months were obtained by chart review from a community-based cohort study in three U.S. counties. The proportion of children vaccinated by April 5, 2005 in each practice was obtained. To assess practice characteristics and strategies, sampled practices received a self-administered practice survey. Practice and child characteristics predicting complete influenza vaccination were determined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Forty-six (88%) of 52 sampled practices completed the survey and permitted chart reviews. Of 2384 children aged 6–23 months who were studied, 27% were completely vaccinated. The proportion of children completely vaccinated varied widely among practices (0–71%). Most practices (87%) implemented ≥ 1 vaccination strategy (year-round discussion with parents about influenza vaccine, evening/weekend influenza vaccine clinics, standing orders, or saving a second dose for children who had received the first of two recommended doses). Complete influenza vaccination was associated with three practice characteristics-- suburban location, lower patient volume, and vaccination strategies of evening/weekend vaccine clinics; and with child characteristics of younger age, existing high-risk conditions, ≥ 6 well visits to the practice by age 3 years, and any practice visit from October through January. Conclusion Modifiable factors associated with increased influenza vaccination coverage include October-January practice visits and evening/weekend vaccine clinics. PMID:20819893

  9. Depression and Its Severity Are Strongly Associated with Both Storage and Voiding Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Independently of Prostate Volume.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su-Min; Suh, Beomseok; Jang, Soo Hyun; Jin, Ho Seong; Kim, Nakhyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Cho, Belong; Park, Jin-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Depression is related to various functional medical conditions. Its association with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is also expected. We evaluated whether depression and its severity are associated with LUTS when LUTS risk factors including prostate volume (PV) are taken into account in a large population of Korean men. Study subjects included 10,275 men who underwent routine health check-ups at the Healthcare System Gangnam Center of Seoul National University Hospital. Depression was assessed using Beck Depression Inventory-II and LUTS using international prostate symptom score. PV was measured using transrectal ultrasonography by a radiologist. Effect sizes of depression severity on total, storage, and voiding symptoms were assessed. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, mild, moderate and severe depression were associated with total (adjusted odds ratio: aOR = 2.99, 3.86 and 8.99; all P < 0.001), voiding (aOR = 3.04, 3.28 and 5.58; all P < 0.001) and storage symptoms (aOR = 2.43, 3.43 and 2.89; all P < 0.05) showing dose response relationships (all P trend < 0.001). In a subgroup analysis for participants with PV data (n = 1,925), mild and moderate-severe depression were also associated with LUTS (aOR = 3.29, 2.84; P < 0.001 and 0.018, respectively). In conclusion, depression and its severity are strongly associated with total, voiding, and storage symptoms independently of PV state. PMID:26539010

  10. HIF-1α-independent hypoxia-induced rapid PTK6 stabilization is associated with increased motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Pires, Isabel M; Blokland, Nina Jg; Broos, Agnieke Wt; Poujade, Flore-Anne; Senra, Joana M; Eccles, Suzanne A; Span, Paul N; Harvey, Amanda J; Hammond, Ester M

    2014-10-01

    PTK6/Brk is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in cancer. Here we demonstrate that cytosolic PTK6 is rapidly and robustly induced in response to hypoxic conditions in a HIF-1-independent manner. Furthermore, a proportion of hypoxic PTK6 subsequently re-localized to the cell membrane. We observed that the rapid stabilization of PTK6 is associated with a decrease in PTK6 ubiquitylation and we have identified c-Cbl as a putative PTK6 E3 ligase in normoxia. The consequences of hypoxia-induced PTK6 stabilization and subcellular re-localization to the plasma membrane include increased cell motility and invasion, suggesting PTK6 targeting as a therapeutic approach to reduce hypoxia-regulated metastatic potential. This could have particular significance for breast cancer patients with triple negative disease.

  11. Increased p-cresyl sulfate level is independently associated with poor outcomes in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Hung; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Liu, Min-Hui; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Huang, Yu-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Cheng; Lin, Jui-Fen

    2016-07-01

    Amino acid-derived metabolites, including protein-bound uremic toxins, may have prognostic value for patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), indoxyl sulfate (IS), and arginine metabolites provided prognostic values in addition to the traditional biomarker, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), in patients with HF. Chromatography mass spectrometry was performed to measure tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, PCS, IS, and asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in the plasma from 51 normal controls and 136 HF patients. Compared to the normal controls, PCS levels significantly increased in HF patients (p = 0.003). During the follow-up (2.3 ± 1.1 years), 35 (25.7 %) patients experienced a composite event of death or HF-related re-hospitalization. In univariable analysis, PCS, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), BNP, DMA/arginine ratio, and ADMA/arginine ratio were associated with a higher rate of composite events. In the multivariable analysis, PCS was the only independent predictor of composite events [hazard ratio (HR) 1.06 (per 10 μM), 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.11, p = 0.02]. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that a PCS level of ≥50 μM was significantly associated with a higher composite event rate than those with a PCS level of <50 μM (Log rank = 5.11, p = 0.024; HR 2.13, 95 % CI 1.09-4.16, p = 0.02). In conclusion, among protein-bound uremic toxins, eGFR, and DMA metabolites, increased PCS is the only independent predictor of HF-related events in patients with HF. A combination of PCS and BNP should better risk-stratify patients with HF.

  12. The 2-Minute Step Test is Independently Associated with Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Waechter, Donna; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Cognitive impairment is common in persons with heart failure (HF), and measures like the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) are known to correspond to level of impairment. The 2-minute step test (2MST) has been suggested as a more practical alternative to the 6MWT, though no study has examined whether it is associated with cognitive impairment in persons with HF. This study examined whether the 2MST is associated with cognitive function in older adults with HF. Methods Older adults with HF (N = 145; 68.97±9.31 years) completed the 2MST and a neuropsychological test battery that assessed function in multiple cognitive domains. Results Consistent with past work, HF patients exhibited high rates of cognitive impairment. Hierarchical regression analyses adjusting for demographic and medical characteistics found that the 2MST accounted for unique variance in global cognitive function (ΔR2 = .09, p < .001), executive function (ΔR2 = .03, p < .05), and language (ΔR2 = .10, p < .001). A trend emerged for attention (ΔR2 = .02, p = .09), Follow-up tests indicated that better 2MST performance was significantly correlated with better global, attention, executive, and language test performance. Conclusion The current results indicate that the 2MST is associated with cognitive function in older adults with HF. Further work is needed to clarify underlying mechanisms for this association and the value of implementing the 2MST during routine visits. PMID:22182711

  13. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Practice Management and for Preventive Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. The guidelines were developed by the Sections on Community and Preventive Dentistry and Practice Administration. (MLW)

  14. The way we were: surgical practice at the dawn of the North Pacific Surgical Association.

    PubMed

    Carter, Preston L

    2014-05-01

    The North Pacific Surgical Association Historian's centennial lecture, with review of the geographic challenges for members of this society at the time of its founding and selected insights into surgical practices and philosophies of a century ago.

  15. The Film in Language Teaching Association (FILTA): A Multilingual Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrero, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the Film in Language Teaching Association (FILTA) project, a community of practice (CoP) whose main goals are first to engage language teachers in practical uses of film and audio-visual media in the second language classroom; second, to value the artistic features of cinema; and third, to encourage a dialogue between…

  16. Transformational and Transactional Leadership: Association With Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Leadership in organizations is important in shaping workers’ perceptions, responses to organizational change, and acceptance of innovations, such as evidence-based practices. Transformational leadership inspires and motivates followers, whereas transactional leadership is based more on reinforcement and exchanges. Studies have shown that in youth and family service organizations, mental health providers’ attitudes toward adopting an evidence-based practice are associated with organizational context and individual provider differences. The purpose of this study was to expand these findings by examining the association between leadership and mental health providers’ attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Methods Participants were 303 public-sector mental health service clinicians and case managers from 49 programs who were providing mental health services to children, adolescents, and their families. Data were gathered on providers’ characteristics, attitudes toward evidence-based practices, and perceptions of their supervisors’ leadership behaviors. Zero-order correlations and multilevel regression analyses were conducted that controlled for effects of service providers’ characteristics. Results Both transformational and transactional leadership were positively associated with providers’ having more positive attitudes toward adoption of evidence-based practice, and transformational leadership was negatively associated with providers’ perception of difference between the providers’ current practice and evidence-based practice. Conclusions Mental health service organizations may benefit from improving transformational and transactional supervisory leadership skills in preparation for implementing evidence-based practices. PMID:16870968

  17. Multiple independent variants at the TERT locus are associated with telomere length and risks of breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bojesen, Stig E; Pooley, Karen A; Johnatty, Sharon E; Beesley, Jonathan; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Edwards, Stacey L; Pickett, Hilda A; Shen, Howard C; Smart, Chanel E; Hillman, Kristine M; Mai, Phuong L; Lawrenson, Kate; Stutz, Michael D; Lu, Yi; Karevan, Rod; Woods, Nicholas; Johnston, Rebecca L; French, Juliet D; Chen, Xiaoqing; Weischer, Maren; Nielsen, Sune F; Maranian, Melanie J; Ghoussaini, Maya; Ahmed, Shahana; Baynes, Caroline; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Healey, Sue; Lush, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Françis; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Despierre, Evelyn; Risch, Harvey A; González-Neira, Anna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Pita, Guillermo; Doherty, Jennifer A; Alvarez, Nuria; Larson, Melissa C; Fridley, Brooke L; Schoof, Nils; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cicek, Mine S; Peto, Julian; Kalli, Kimberly R; Broeks, Annegien; Armasu, Sebastian M; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Braaf, Linde M; Winterhoff, Boris; Nevanlinna, Heli; Konecny, Gottfried E; Lambrechts, Diether; Rogmann, Lisa; Guénel, Pascal; Teoman, Attila; Milne, Roger L; Garcia, Joaquin J; Cox, Angela; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Hein, Rebecca; Sawyer, Elinor J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Andrulis, Irene L; Moysich, Kirsten B; Hopper, John L; Odunsi, Kunle; Lindblom, Annika; Giles, Graham G; Brenner, Hermann; Simard, Jacques; Lurie, Galina; Fasching, Peter A; Carney, Michael E; Radice, Paolo; Wilkens, Lynne R; Swerdlow, Anthony; Goodman, Marc T; Brauch, Hiltrud; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hillemanns, Peter; Winqvist, Robert; Dürst, Matthias; Devilee, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Butzow, Ralf; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Dörk, Thilo; Pelttari, Liisa M; Zheng, Wei; Leminen, Arto; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bunker, Clareann H; Kristensen, Vessela; Ness, Roberta B; Muir, Kenneth; Edwards, Robert; Meindl, Alfons; Heitz, Florian; Matsuo, Keitaro; du Bois, Andreas; Wu, Anna H; Harter, Philipp; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Hosono, Satoyo; Kang, Daehee; Nakanishi, Toru; Hartman, Mikael; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hamann, Ute; Karlan, Beth Y; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Gaborieau, Valerie; Jensen, Allan; Eccles, Diana; Høgdall, Estrid; Shen, Chen-Yang; Brown, Judith; Woo, Yin Ling; Shah, Mitul; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Luben, Robert; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Czene, Kamila; Vierkant, Robert A; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Levine, Douglas A; Rudolph, Anja; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Iversen, Edwin; Nickels, Stefan; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Silva, Isabel Dos Santos; Cramer, Daniel W; Gibson, Lorna; Terry, Kathryn L; Fletcher, Olivia; Vitonis, Allison F; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Poole, Elizabeth M; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Tworoger, Shelley S; Liu, Jianjun; Bandera, Elisa V; Li, Jingmei; Olson, Sara H; Humphreys, Keith; Orlow, Irene; Blomqvist, Carl; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Salvesen, Helga B; Muranen, Taru A; Wik, Elisabeth; Brouwers, Barbara; Krakstad, Camilla; Wauters, Els; Halle, Mari K; Wildiers, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Mulot, Claire; Aben, Katja K; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Altena, Anne Mvan; Truong, Thérèse; Massuger, Leon F A G; Benitez, Javier; Pejovic, Tanja; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Hoatlin, Maureen; Zamora, M Pilar; Cook, Linda S; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Kelemen, Linda E; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Le, Nhu D; Sohn, Christof; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Cybulski, Cezary; Henderson, Brian E; Menkiszak, Janusz; Schumacher, Fredrick; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Le Marchand, Loic; Yang, Hannah P; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Knight, Julia A; Høgdall, Claus K; Apicella, Carmel; Gore, Martin; Tsimiklis, Helen; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Jager, Agnes; den Ouweland, Ans M Wvan; Brown, Robert; Martens, John W M; Flanagan, James M; Kriege, Mieke; Paul, James; Margolin, Sara; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Severi, Gianluca; Whittemore, Alice S; Baglietto, Laura; McGuire, Valerie; Stegmaier, Christa; Sieh, Weiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Labrèche, France; Gao, Yu-Tang; Goldberg, Mark S; Yang, Gong; Dumont, Martine; McLaughlin, John R; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Phelan, Catherine M; Lux, Michael P; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Peissel, Bernard; Sellers, Thomas A; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Barile, Monica; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Jones, Michael; Ramus, Susan J; Orr, Nick; Menon, Usha; Pearce, Celeste L; Brüning, Thomas; Pike, Malcolm C; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Pylkäs, Katri; Bidzinski, Mariusz; Kauppila, Saila; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Long, Jirong; Shrubsole, Martha; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Ditsch, Nina; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Stram, Daniel O; van den Berg, David; Yip, Cheng Har; Ikram, M Kamran; Teh, Yew-Ching; Cai, Hui; Lu, Wei; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Noh, Dong-Young; Yoo, Keun-Young; Miao, Hui; Iau, Philip Tsau-Choong; Teo, Yik Ying; McKay, James; Shapiro, Charles; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Fountzilas, George; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Healey, Catherine S; Luccarini, Craig; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Peterlongo, Paolo; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F; Friedman, Eitan; Thomassen, Mads; Offit, Kenneth; Hansen, Thomas V O; Neuhausen, Susan L; Szabo, Csilla I; Blanco, Ignacio; Garber, Judy; Narod, Steven A; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Montagna, Marco; Olah, Edith; Godwin, Andrew K; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Goldgar, David E; Caldes, Trinidad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Tihomirova, Laima; Arun, Banu K; Campbell, Ian; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; van Asperen, Christi J; van Roozendaal, Kees E P; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Collée, J Margriet; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Hooning, Maartje J; Rookus, Matti A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Os, Theo A Mvan; Evans, D Gareth; Frost, Debra; Fineberg, Elena; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M John; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Ellis, Steve D; Cole, Trevor; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Damiola, Francesca; Faivre, Laurence; Frenay, Marc; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Caron, Olivier; Giraud, Sophie; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Gronwald, Jacek; Byrski, Tomasz; Spurdle, Amanda B; Bonanni, Bernardo; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Giannini, Giuseppe; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Arnold, Norbert; Engel, Christoph; Deissler, Helmut; Rhiem, Kerstin; Niederacher, Dieter; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Sutter, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Borg, Ake; Melin, Beatrice; Rantala, Johanna; Soller, Maria; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Salani, Ritu; Kaulich, Daphne Gschwantler; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Paluch, Shani Shimon; Laitman, Yael; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Robson, Mark; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Foretova, Lenka; Savage, Sharon A; Lester, Jenny; Soucy, Penny; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Olswold, Curtis; Cunningham, Julie M; Slager, Susan; Pankratz, Vernon S; Dicks, Ed; Lakhani, Sunil R; Couch, Fergus J; Hall, Per; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Reddel, Roger R; Goode, Ellen L; Greene, Mark H; Easton, Douglas F; Berchuck, Andrew; Antoniou, Antonis C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M

    2013-04-01

    TERT-locus SNPs and leukocyte telomere measures are reportedly associated with risks of multiple cancers. Using the Illumina custom genotyping array iCOGs, we analyzed ∼480 SNPs at the TERT locus in breast (n = 103,991), ovarian (n = 39,774) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (n = 11,705) cancer cases and controls. Leukocyte telomere measurements were also available for 53,724 participants. Most associations cluster into three independent peaks. The minor allele at the peak 1 SNP rs2736108 associates with longer telomeres (P = 5.8 × 10(-7)), lower risks for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (P = 1.0 × 10(-8)) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P = 1.1 × 10(-5)) breast cancers and altered promoter assay signal. The minor allele at the peak 2 SNP rs7705526 associates with longer telomeres (P = 2.3 × 10(-14)), higher risk of low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer (P = 1.3 × 10(-15)) and greater promoter activity. The minor alleles at the peak 3 SNPs rs10069690 and rs2242652 increase ER-negative (P = 1.2 × 10(-12)) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P = 1.6 × 10(-14)) breast and invasive ovarian (P = 1.3 × 10(-11)) cancer risks but not via altered telomere length. The cancer risk alleles of rs2242652 and rs10069690, respectively, increase silencing and generate a truncated TERT splice variant. PMID:23535731

  18. Age-related telomere uncapping is associated with cellular senescence and inflammation independent of telomere shortening in human arteries.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Richard G; Ives, Stephen J; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, R Dirk; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2013-07-15

    Arterial telomere dysfunction may contribute to chronic arterial inflammation by inducing cellular senescence and subsequent senescence-associated inflammation. Although telomere shortening has been associated with arterial aging in humans, age-related telomere uncapping has not been described in non-cultured human tissues and may have substantial prognostic value. In skeletal muscle feed arteries from 104 younger, middle-aged, and older adults, we assessed the potential role of age-related telomere uncapping in arterial inflammation. Telomere uncapping, measured by p-histone γ-H2A.X (ser139) localized to telomeres (chromatin immunoprecipitation; ChIP), and telomeric repeat binding factor 2 bound to telomeres (ChIP) was greater in arteries from older adults compared with those from younger adults. There was greater tumor suppressor protein p53 (P53)/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (P21)-induced senescence, measured by P53 bound to P21 gene promoter (ChIP), and greater expression of P21, interleukin 8, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 mRNA (RT-PCR) in arteries from older adults compared with younger adults. Telomere uncapping was a highly influential covariate for the age-group difference in P53/P21-induced senescence. Despite progressive age-related telomere shortening in human arteries, mean telomere length was not associated with telomere uncapping or P53/P21-induced senescence. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that advancing age is associated with greater telomere uncapping in arteries, which is linked to P53/P21-induced senescence independent of telomere shortening.

  19. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is associated with a PDSS2 haplotype and, independently, with a decreased content of coenzyme Q10

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Cheryl A.; Peng, Min; An, Ping; McKenzie, Louise M.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Shi, Yuchen; Xie, Letian X.; Marbois, Beth N.; Clarke, Catherine F.; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and collapsing glomerulopathy are common causes of nephrotic syndrome. Variants in >20 genes, including genes critical for mitochondrial function, have been associated with these podocyte diseases. One such gene, PDSS2, is required for synthesis of the decaprenyl tail of coenzyme Q10 (Q10) in humans. The mouse gene Pdss2 is mutated in the kd/kd mouse model of collapsing glomerulopathy. We examined the hypothesis that human PDSS2 polymorphisms are associated with podocyte diseases. We genotyped 377 patients with primary FSGS or collapsing glomerulopathy, together with 900 controls, for 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the PDSS2 gene in a case-control study. Subjects included 247 African American (AA) and 130 European American (EA) patients and 641 AA and 259 EA controls. Among EAs, a pair of proxy SNPs was significantly associated with podocyte disease, and patients homozygous for one PDSS2 haplotype had a strongly increased risk for podocyte disease. By contrast, the distribution of PDSS2 genotypes and haplotypes was similar in AA patients and controls. Thus a PDSS2 haplotype, which has a frequency of 13% in the EA control population and a homozygote frequency of 1.2%, is associated with a significantly increased risk for FSGS and collapsing glomerulopathy in EAs. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from FSGS patients had significantly less Q10 than cell lines from controls; contrary to expectation, this finding was independent of PDSS2 haplotype. These results suggest that FSGS patients have Q10 deficiency and that this deficiency is manifested in patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines. PMID:23926186

  20. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein are associated with physical inactivity independent of obesity.

    PubMed

    Fischer, C P; Berntsen, A; Perstrup, L B; Eskildsen, P; Pedersen, B K

    2007-10-01

    It is recognized that the path from physical inactivity and obesity to lifestyle-related diseases involves low-grade inflammation, indicated by elevated plasma levels of inflammatory markers. Interestingly, contracting skeletal muscle is a major source of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) in response to acute exercise, but with a markedly lower response in trained subjects. As C-reactive protein (CRP) is induced by IL-6, we hypothesized that basal levels of IL-6 and CRP reflect the degree of regular physical activity when compared with other markers of inflammation associated with lifestyle-related morbidity. Fasting plasma/serum levels of IL-6, IL-18, CRP, tumur necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble TNF receptor II (sTNF-RII), and adiponectin were measured in healthy non-diabetic men and women (n=84). The amount of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was assessed by interview. Obesity was associated with elevated insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, IL-6, CRP, and adiponectin (all P<0.05). Importantly, physical inactivity was associated with elevated C-peptide (P=0.036), IL-6 (P=0.014), and CRP (P=0.007) independent of obesity, age, gender, and smoking. Furthermore, the LTPA score was inversely associated with IL-6 (P=0.017) and CRP (P=0.005), but with neither of the other markers. The results indicate that low levels of IL-6 and CRP - not IL-18, TNF-alpha, sTNF-RII, or adiponectin - reflect regular physical activity.

  1. "Inclusion in Practice": Programme Practices in Mainstream Preschool Classrooms and Associations with Context and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Fyssa, Aristea

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the extent to which teachers supported the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream classrooms and involved monitoring 52 mainstream preschool settings in Greece. The association between programme quality, context and teacher characteristics was also tested. Findings showed that the quality of inclusion ranged…

  2. Common and Low Frequency Variants in MERTK Are Independently Associated with Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility with Discordant Association Dependent upon HLA-DRB1*15:01 Status

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Michele D.; Fox, Andrew D.; Merlo, Daniel; Johnson, Laura J.; Giuffrida, Lauren; Calvert, Sarah E.; Akkermann, Rainer; Ma, Gerry Z. M.; Perera, Ashwyn A.; Gresle, Melissa M.; Laverick, Louise; Foo, Grace; Fabis-Pedrini, Marzena J.; Spelman, Timothy; Jordan, Margaret A.; Baxter, Alan G.; Foote, Simon; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kilpatrick, Trevor J.; Field, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The risk of developing MS is strongly influenced by genetic predisposition, and over 100 loci have been established as associated with susceptibility. However, the biologically relevant variants underlying disease risk have not been defined for the vast majority of these loci, limiting the power of these genetic studies to define new avenues of research for the development of MS therapeutics. It is therefore crucial that candidate MS susceptibility loci are carefully investigated to identify the biological mechanism linking genetic polymorphism at a given gene to the increased chance of developing MS. MERTK has been established as an MS susceptibility gene and is part of a family of receptor tyrosine kinases known to be involved in the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease. In this study we have refined the association of MERTK with MS risk to independent signals from both common and low frequency variants. One of the associated variants was also found to be linked with increased expression of MERTK in monocytes and higher expression of MERTK was associated with either increased or decreased risk of developing MS, dependent upon HLA-DRB1*15:01 status. This discordant association potentially extended beyond MS susceptibility to alterations in disease course in established MS. This study provides clear evidence that distinct polymorphisms within MERTK are associated with MS susceptibility, one of which has the potential to alter MERTK transcription, which in turn can alter both susceptibility and disease course in MS patients. PMID:26990204

  3. Common and Low Frequency Variants in MERTK Are Independently Associated with Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility with Discordant Association Dependent upon HLA-DRB1*15:01 Status.

    PubMed

    Binder, Michele D; Fox, Andrew D; Merlo, Daniel; Johnson, Laura J; Giuffrida, Lauren; Calvert, Sarah E; Akkermann, Rainer; Ma, Gerry Z M; Perera, Ashwyn A; Gresle, Melissa M; Laverick, Louise; Foo, Grace; Fabis-Pedrini, Marzena J; Spelman, Timothy; Jordan, Margaret A; Baxter, Alan G; Foote, Simon; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Field, Judith

    2016-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The risk of developing MS is strongly influenced by genetic predisposition, and over 100 loci have been established as associated with susceptibility. However, the biologically relevant variants underlying disease risk have not been defined for the vast majority of these loci, limiting the power of these genetic studies to define new avenues of research for the development of MS therapeutics. It is therefore crucial that candidate MS susceptibility loci are carefully investigated to identify the biological mechanism linking genetic polymorphism at a given gene to the increased chance of developing MS. MERTK has been established as an MS susceptibility gene and is part of a family of receptor tyrosine kinases known to be involved in the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease. In this study we have refined the association of MERTK with MS risk to independent signals from both common and low frequency variants. One of the associated variants was also found to be linked with increased expression of MERTK in monocytes and higher expression of MERTK was associated with either increased or decreased risk of developing MS, dependent upon HLA-DRB1*15:01 status. This discordant association potentially extended beyond MS susceptibility to alterations in disease course in established MS. This study provides clear evidence that distinct polymorphisms within MERTK are associated with MS susceptibility, one of which has the potential to alter MERTK transcription, which in turn can alter both susceptibility and disease course in MS patients. PMID:26990204

  4. Heparin rescues factor V Leiden–associated placental failure independent of anticoagulation in a murine high-risk pregnancy model

    PubMed Central

    An, Jianzhong; Waitara, Magarya S.; Bordas, Michelle; Arumugam, Vidhyalakshmi; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Petrich, Brian G.; Sinha, Uma; North, Paula E.

    2013-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is being tested as an experimental drug for improving pregnancy outcome in women with inherited thrombophilia and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, such as recurrent pregnancy loss. The role of thrombotic processes in these disorders remains unproven, and the issue of antithrombotic prophylaxis is intensely debated. Using a murine model of factor V Leiden–associated placental failure, we show that treatment of the mother with LMWH allows placental development to proceed and affords significant protection from fetal loss. Nonetheless, the therapeutic effect of LMWH is not replicated by anticoagulation; fondaparinux and a direct Xa inhibitor, C921-78, achieve anticoagulation similar to LMWH but produce little or no improvement in pregnancy outcome. Genetic attenuation of maternal platelet aggregation is similarly ineffective. In contrast, even a partial loss of thrombin sensitivity of maternal platelets protects pregnancies. Neonates born from these pregnancies are growth retarded, suggesting that placental function is only partially restored. The placentae are smaller but do not reveal any evidence of thrombosis. Our data demonstrate an anticoagulation-independent role of LMWH in protecting pregnancies and provide evidence against the involvement of thrombotic processes in thrombophilia-associated placental failure. Importantly, thrombin-mediated maternal platelet activation remains central in the mechanism of placental failure. PMID:23325830

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity Is Associated with Left Ventricular Mass Independent of Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pujante, Pedro; Abreu, Cristina; Moreno, Jose; Barrero, Eduardo Alegria; Azcarate, Pedro; Campo, Arantxa; Urrestarazu, Elena; Silva, Camilo; Maria, Jesus Gil; Tebar, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Salvador, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and left ventricular mass (LVM) in morbid obesity and the influence of gender, menopausal status, anthropometry, body composition, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk factors in this relationship. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Methods: Polysomnographic and echocardiographic studies were performed in a cohort of 242 patients (86 men, 100 premenopausal (PreM) and 56 postmenopausal (PostM) women), with grade II obesity and above (BMI: 43.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2) to investigate OSA and LVM respectively. Anthropometry, body composition, glucose tolerance, and blood pressure were also recorded. Results: OSA to different degrees was diagnosed in 76.2% of the patients (n: 166), its prevalence being 90.9% (n: 70) for men, and 76% (n: 38) and 63.8% (n: 58) for PostM and PreM women, respectively (p < 0.01). LVM excess was greatest for PostM women (90.2%), followed by men (81.9%) and PreM females (69.6%) (p < 0.01). LVM values increased in accordance to OSA severity (absence, 193.7 ± 6.9 g; mild, 192.6 ± 7.8 g; moderate, 240.5 ± 12.5 g; severe, 273.6 ± 14.6 g; p < 0.01). LVM magnitude correlated with the menopausal state, age, central adiposity, hypertension (HT), type 2 diabetes (DM), desaturation index (DI), and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (r = 0.41; p < 0.01). The relationship between LVM and AHI persisted in the multivariate analysis (β = 0.25; p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, gender, menopausal state, BMI, waist circumference, neck circumference, DI, fasting plasma glucose, DM, and HT. But if tobacco habits are included, the statistical difference disappears (β = 0.22; p = 0.06). Conclusions: Morbid obesity is frequently associated with abnormal LVM, particularly in patients with OSA; this association is independent of HT, BMI, body composition, and other clinical factors, supporting a direct role of OSA on LVM in morbid obesity. This suggests that OSA and LVM might be taken as

  6. Exercise during growth and young adulthood is independently associated with cortical bone size and strength in old Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Martin; Sundh, Daniel; Ohlsson, Claes; Karlsson, Magnus; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between exercise during youth and increased areal bone mineral density at old age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if exercise during growth was independently associated with greater cortical bone size and whole bone strength in weight-bearing bone in old men. The tibia and radius were measured using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) (XCT-2000; Stratec) at the diaphysis and high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) (XtremeCT; Scanco) at the metaphysis to obtain cortical bone geometry and finite element-derived bone strength in distal tibia and radius, in 597 men, 79.9 ± 3.4 (mean ± SD) years old. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about previous and current physical activity. In order to determine whether level of exercise during growth and young adulthood or level of current physical activity were independently associated with bone parameters in both tibia and radius, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) analyses were used. Adjusting for covariates and current physical activity, we found that men in the group with the highest level of exercise early in life (regular exercise at a competitive level) had higher tibial cortical cross-sectional area (CSA; 6.3%, p < 0.001) and periosteal circumference (PC; 1.6%, p = 0.011) at the diaphysis, and higher estimated bone strength (failure load: 7.5%, p < 0.001; and stiffness: 7.8%, p < 0.001) at the metaphysis than men in the subgroup with the lowest level of exercise during growth and young adulthood. Subjects in the group with the highest level of current physical activity had smaller tibial endosteal circumference (EC; 3.6%, p = 0.012) at the diaphysis than subjects with a lower current physical activity, when adjusting for covariates and level of exercise during growth and young adulthood. These findings indicate that exercise during growth can increase the cortical bone size via periosteal

  7. Obesity-related dyslipidemia associated with FAAH, independent of insulin response, in multigenerational families of Northern European descent

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Sonnenberg, Gabriele E; Baye, Tesfaye Mersha; DeLaForest, Jack Ann; MacKinney, Erin; Hillard, Cecilia J; Kissebah, Ahmed H; Olivier, Michael; Wilke, Russell A

    2010-01-01

    homozygotes (p < 0.01, Family-Based Association Test). This SNP was not associated with insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response to intravenous glucose, glucose effectiveness or glucose disposition index. Conclusion Genetic variability in FAAH is associated with dyslipidemia, independent of insulin response. PMID:19958092

  8. Associations between Reading Achievement and Independent Reading in Early Elementary School: A Genetically Informative Cross-Lagged Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee A.; DeThorne, Laura S.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a cross-lagged twin design to examine reading achievement and independent reading from 10 to 11 years (n = 436 twin pairs). Reading achievement at age 10 significantly predicted independent reading at age 11. The alternative path, from independent reading at age 10 to reading achievement at age 11, was not significant. Individual…

  9. Serum Levels of Growth Differentiation Factor 11 Are Independently Associated with Low Hemoglobin Values in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Kurokawa, Yuka; Fukami, Kei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Circulating levels of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) have been shown to decrease with age in several mammalian species, and supplementation of GDF11 by heterochronic parabiosis or systemic administration reverses age-related organ damage. However, there is some controversy about the pathophysiological role of GDF11 in aging-associated organ damage. Since aging process is accelerated in uremia, we compared serum levels of GDF11 in hemodialysis (HD) patients with those in age-matched healthy controls, and then determined the independent clinical correlates of GDF11 in HD subjects. Sixty-two maintenance HD patients (34 male and 28 female; mean age, 52.6 years; mean duration of HD, 7.7 months) were enrolled in the present study. Twenty-nine age-matched subjects were used as a control. GDF11 was measured by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Serum GDF11 levels in HD patients were significantly higher than those in controls (9.4 ± 5.1 pg/mL vs. 7.3 ± 5.9 pg/mL). A statistical significance was demonstrated between GDF11 and hemoglobin (inversely). Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that hemoglobin (p < 0.001) was a sole independent correlate of GDF11 levels in HD patients (R2 = 0.168). Our present study suggests that kinetics and regulation of circulating GDF11 may differ between normal physiological aging process and accelerated pathological aging conditions, such as uremia. Given that GDF11 has been shown to inhibit erythroid maturation in mice, elevation of GDF11 levels may be involved in erythropoietin-resistant anemia in HD patients. PMID:27298756

  10. Lysosome-associated protein transmembrane-4β-35 is a novel independent prognostic factor in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Man; Hu, Guohua

    2015-09-01

    The lysosome-associated protein transmembrane-4β-35 (LAPTM4B-35) protein has been indicated to be involved in solid tumors, while its role in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the LAPTM4B-35 protein expression and its clinical and prognostic role in SCLC patients. A total of 88 SCLC patients who underwent radical surgery between 2002 and 2010 were enrolled in the study. The level of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was detected from the fresh paired tumor specimens and adjacent normal tissues. The clinicopathological and survival data were collected. And the relationship between LAPTM4B-35 and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The prognostic value of LAPTM4B-35 for SCLC was investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. The LAPTM4B-35 was overexpressed significantly in SCLC cancer tissues. The elevated protein expression was correlated strongly with clinical stage (p = 0.012) and tumor recurrence (p = 0.023). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly worse in the patients with high LAPTM4B-35 level. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that high LAPTM4B-35 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) and DFS (p = 0.017 vs p = 0.011). LAPTM4B-35 overexpression was an independent factor in SCLC prognosis, which may be considered a potential useful marker in defining the SCLC prognosis.

  11. Altered levels of mitochondrial DNA are associated with female age, aneuploidy, and provide an independent measure of embryonic implantation potential.

    PubMed

    Fragouli, Elpida; Spath, Katharina; Alfarawati, Samer; Kaper, Fiona; Craig, Andrew; Michel, Claude-Edouard; Kokocinski, Felix; Cohen, Jacques; Munne, Santiago; Wells, Dagan

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria play a vital role in embryo development. They are the principal site of energy production and have various other critical cellular functions. Despite the importance of this organelle, little is known about the extent of variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) between individual human embryos prior to implantation. This study investigated the biological and clinical relevance of the quantity of mtDNA in 379 embryos. These were examined via a combination of microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH), quantitative PCR and next generation sequencing (NGS), providing information on chromosomal status, amount of mtDNA, and presence of mutations in the mitochondrial genome. The quantity of mtDNA was significantly higher in embryos from older women (P=0.003). Additionally, mtDNA levels were elevated in aneuploid embryos, independent of age (P=0.025). Assessment of clinical outcomes after transfer of euploid embryos to the uterus revealed that blastocysts that successfully implanted tended to contain lower mtDNA quantities than those failing to implant (P=0.007). Importantly, an mtDNA quantity threshold was established, above which implantation was never observed. Subsequently, the predictive value of this threshold was confirmed in an independent blinded prospective study, indicating that abnormal mtDNA levels are present in 30% of non-implanting euploid embryos, but are not seen in embryos forming a viable pregnancy. NGS did not reveal any increase in mutation in blastocysts with elevated mtDNA levels. The results of this study suggest that increased mtDNA may be related to elevated metabolism and are associated with reduced viability, a possibility consistent with the 'quiet embryo' hypothesis. Importantly, the findings suggest a potential role for mitochondria in female reproductive aging and the genesis of aneuploidy. Of clinical significance, we propose that mtDNA content represents a novel biomarker with potential value for in vitro fertilisation

  12. Difference between pre-operative and cardiopulmonary bypass mean arterial pressure is independently associated with early cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. However, its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that intra-operative mean arterial pressure (MAP) relative to pre-operative MAP would be an important predisposing factor for CSA-AKI. Methods We performed a prospective observational study of 157 consecutive high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The primary exposure was delta MAP, defined as the pre-operative MAP minus average MAP during CPB. Secondary exposure was CPB flow. The primary outcome was early CSA-AKI, defined by a minimum RIFLE class - RISK. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to explore for association between delta MAP and CSA-AKI. Results Mean (± SD) age was 65.9 ± 14.7 years, 70.1% were male, 47.8% had isolated coronary bypass graft (CABG) surgery, 24.2% had isolated valve surgery and 16.6% had combined procedures. Mean (± SD) pre-operative, intra-operative and delta MAP were 86.6 ± 13.2, 57.4 ± 5.0 and 29.4 ± 13.5 mmHg, respectively. Sixty-five patients (41%) developed CSA-AKI within in the first 24 hours post surgery. By multivariate logistic regression, a delta MAP≥26 mmHg (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95%CI, 1.3-6.1, p = 0.009) and CPB flow rate ≥54 mL/kg/min (OR, 0.2, 0.1-0.5, p < 0.001) were independently associated with CSA-AKI. Additional variables associated with CSA-AKI included use of a side-biting aortic clamp (OR, 3.0; 1.3-7.1, p = 0.012), and body mass index ≥25 (OR, 4.2; 1.6-11.2, p = 0.004). Conclusion A large delta MAP and lower CPB flow during cardiac surgery are independently associated with early post-operative CSA-AKI in high-risk patients. Delta MAP represents a potentially modifiable intra-operative factor for development of CSA-AKI that necessitates further inquiry. PMID:20825657

  13. Factors associated with HCV risk practices in methadone-maintained patients: the importance of considering the couple in prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One important public health issue associated with opioid use today is the risk of hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Although methadone maintenance may help to decrease HCV-related risk practices, HCV risk behaviors persist and are strongly associated with specific substance use patterns, mental status and social context. The ANRS-Methaville study gave us the opportunity to better disentangle the different relationships between these various factors and HCV risk practices. Methods The ANRS-Methaville multisite randomized trial was designed to assess the feasibility of initiating methadone in primary care by comparing it with methadone initiation in specialized centers. This study recruited 195 participants initiating methadone maintenance and followed up for 12 months. Longitudinal data from this trial was used to acquire a greater understanding of HCV risk practices and their pattern of correlates in this population. We selected 176 patients who had data on HCV risk practices at M0 and M12, accounting for 312 visits. HCV risk practices were defined as follows: sharing needles or syringes, sharing drug paraphernalia, getting a tattoo or having a piercing in a non-professional context, sharing toiletry items. To identify factors associated with HCV risk practices, we performed a mixed logistic regression analysis. Results HCV risk practices were reported by 19% and 15% of participants at baseline and M12, respectively. After adjustment for age, cocaine use and alcohol dependence as well as suicidal risk, living in a couple with a non-drug user and in a couple with a drug user were both independent predictors of HCV risk practices (OR[CI95%] = 4.16 [1.42-12.12]; OR[CI95%] = 9.85 [3.13-31.06], respectively). Conclusions Identifying individuals at risk of HCV transmission during methadone treatment such as stimulant users, alcohol dependent individuals, and those at suicidal risk is necessary to optimize response to treatment. Innovative prevention

  14. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Is Independently Inversely Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Healthy, Non-Obese Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ock, So Young; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Bu Kyung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Shim, Jee-Seon; Lee, Myung Ha; Yoon, Young Me

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in serum and insulin resistance in the healthy Korean population. Methods We conducted this cross-sectional analysis in 1,807 healthy Korean people (628 men and 1,179 women) aged 30 to 64 years in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiologic Research Center study. All participants were assessed for 25(OH)D, fasting glucose, and insulin levels, and completed a health examination and lifestyle questionnaire according to standard procedures. Insulin resistance was defined as the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance higher than the 75 percentile. Results Compared to those in the highest tertile (≥14.3 ng/mL), the odds ratio (OR) for insulin resistance was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.86) for the 1st tertile (<9.7 ng/mL) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.08 to 1.62) for the 2nd tertile (9.7 to 14.3 ng/mL) after adjusting for age, gender, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical exercise, season, and cohort. After stratification of the subjects by adiposity, these associations remained only in non-obese subjects (lowest tertile vs. highest tertile, multivariable OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.56). Conclusion Serum 25(OH)D has an independent inverse association with insulin resistance in the healthy, non-obese Korean population, even among people with vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:27535642

  15. Functional Diversity of Human Mitochondrial J-proteins Is Independent of Their Association with the Inner Membrane Presequence Translocase.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Devanjan; Srivastava, Shubhi; D'Silva, Patrick

    2016-08-12

    Mitochondrial J-proteins play a critical role in governing Hsp70 activity and, hence, are essential for organellar protein translocation and folding. In contrast to yeast, which has a single J-protein Pam18, humans involve two J-proteins, DnaJC15 and DnaJC19, associated with contrasting cellular phenotype, to transport proteins into the mitochondria. Mutation in DnaJC19 results in dilated cardiomyopathy and ataxia syndrome, whereas expression of DnaJC15 regulates the response of cancer cells to chemotherapy. In the present study we have comparatively assessed the biochemical properties of the J-protein paralogs in relation to their association with the import channel. Both DnaJC15 and DnaJC19 formed two distinct subcomplexes with Magmas at the import channel. Knockdown analysis suggested an essential role for Magmas and DnaJC19 in organellar protein translocation and mitochondria biogenesis, whereas DnaJC15 had dispensable supportive function. The J-proteins were found to have equal affinity for Magmas and could stimulate mitochondrial Hsp70 ATPase activity by equivalent levels. Interestingly, we observed that DnaJC15 exhibits bifunctional properties. At the translocation channel, it involves conserved interactions and mechanism to translocate the precursors into mitochondria. In addition to protein transport, DnaJC15 also showed a dual role in yeast where its expression elicited enhanced sensitivity of cells to cisplatin that required the presence of a functional J-domain. The amount of DnaJC15 expressed in the cell was directly proportional to the sensitivity of cells. Our analysis indicates that the differential cellular phenotype displayed by human mitochondrial J-proteins is independent of their activity and association with Magmas at the translocation channel.

  16. Soluble ICAM-1, Independent of IL-6, Is Associated with Prevalent Frailty in Community-Dwelling Elderly Taiwanese People

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Kung; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chou, Pesus

    2016-01-01

    Background Activation of inflammatory pathway with elevation of inflammatory biomarkers such as Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been considered a pathophysiological feature of frailty. In recent years, the association between Intercellular adhesive molecule -1 (ICAM-1) and vascular inflammatory was established. Provocation of inflammatory cascades from ICAM-1 is potential IL-6 related, although the association between the inflammatory process and frailty is little to known. The study was intended to evaluate the relationship between serum ICAM-1, IL-6 and frailty. Materials and Methods Data was derived from a representative national sampling cohort in Taiwan. The cross-sectional study included nine-hundred-forty-six community-dwelling people aged 53 and older. Frailty was defined as having three or more components (including, muscle shrinkage, slowness, weakness, exhaustion, and low activity) Serum IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels were measured using standard enzyme–linked immunosorbent assays. Results Soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels were stepwise increased in non-frail, pre-frail and frail elderly people (the median levels were 255 vs. 265 vs. 285 ng/ml, respectively p<0.001). A multivariate multinomial logistic regression, which was adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, BMI, and chronic disease number, was utilized to determine that the probability of being frail due to increased log (ICAM-1) and log (IL-6) standard deviation levels were 1.44 (95% CI 1.09–1.91) and 1.54 (95%CI 1.07–2.20), respectively. Conclusion sICAM-1 was significantly associated with frailty, independent of IL-6. This implied that leukocyte migration and inflammation cascade activation might contribute to frailty, in addition to monocyte/macrophage-mediated immuno-inflammation. PMID:27310835

  17. Sequential sentinel SNP Regional Association Plots (SSS-RAP): an approach for testing independence of SNP association signals using meta-analysis data.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Gaunt, Tom R; Day, Ian N M

    2013-01-01

    Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) frequently incorporate meta-analysis within their framework. However, conditional analysis of individual-level data, which is an established approach for fine mapping of causal sites, is often precluded where only group-level summary data are available for analysis. Here, we present a numerical and graphical approach, "sequential sentinel SNP regional association plot" (SSS-RAP), which estimates regression coefficients (beta) with their standard errors using the meta-analysis summary results directly. Under an additive model, typical for genes with small effect, the effect for a sentinel SNP can be transformed to the predicted effect for a possibly dependent SNP through a 2×2 2-SNP haplotypes table. The approach assumes Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for test SNPs. SSS-RAP is available as a Web-tool (http://apps.biocompute.org.uk/sssrap/sssrap.cgi). To develop and illustrate SSS-RAP we analyzed lipid and ECG traits data from the British Women's Heart and Health Study (BWHHS), evaluated a meta-analysis for ECG trait and presented several simulations. We compared results with existing approaches such as model selection methods and conditional analysis. Generally findings were consistent. SSS-RAP represents a tool for testing independence of SNP association signals using meta-analysis data, and is also a convenient approach based on biological principles for fine mapping in group level summary data.

  18. Induction of Hepatic Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 3 by Ethynylestradiol Is Independent of Cholestasis and Mediated by Estrogen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, María L.; Rigalli, Juan P.; Arias, Agostina; Villanueva, Silvina; Banchio, Claudia; Vore, Mary; Mottino, Aldo D.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance–associated protein 3 (Mrp3; Abcc3) expression and activity are up-regulated in rat liver after in vivo repeated administration of ethynylestradiol (EE), a cholestatic synthetic estrogen, whereas multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) is down-regulated. This study was undertaken to determine whether Mrp3 induction results from a direct effect of EE, independent of accumulation of any endogenous common Mrp2/Mrp3 substrates resulting from cholestasis and the potential mediation of estrogen receptor (ER). In in vivo studies, male rats were given a single, noncholestatic dose of EE (5 mg/kg s.c.), and basal bile flow and the biliary excretion rate of bile salts and glutathione were measured 5 hours later. This treatment increased Mrp3 mRNA by 4-fold, detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction, despite the absence of cholestasis. Primary culture of rat hepatocytes incubated with EE (1–10 µM) for 5 hours exhibited a 3-fold increase in Mrp3 mRNA (10 µM), consistent with in vivo findings. The increase in Mrp3 mRNA by EE was prevented by actinomycin D, indicating transcriptional regulation. When hepatocytes were incubated with an ER antagonist [7α,17β-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5-Pentafluoropentyl)sulfinyl]nonyl]estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol (ICI182/780), 1 µM], in addition to EE, induction of Mrp3 mRNA was abolished, implicating ER as a key mediator. EE induced an increase in ER-α phosphorylation at 30 minutes and expression of c-Jun, a well-known ER target gene, at 60 minutes, as detected by Western blotting of nuclear extracts. These increases were prevented by ICI182/780. In summary, EE increased the expression of hepatic Mrp3 transcriptionally and independently of any cholestatic manifestation and required participation of an ER, most likely ER-α, through its phosphorylation. PMID:23077105

  19. An online practice and educational networking system for technical skills: learning experience in expert facilitated vs. independent learning communities.

    PubMed

    Rojas, David; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Weber, Bryce; Kapralos, Bill; Carnahan, Heather; Bägli, Darius J; Dubrowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the activities of trainees learning technical skills using an educational networking tool with and without expert facilitation. Medical students (participants) were video-recorded practicing suturing and knot tying techniques and the resulting videos were uploaded to an educational networking site. Participants were then divided into two groups (one group containing an expert facilitator while the other group did not) and encouraged to comment on the videos within their group. We monitored the number of logins and comments posted and all participants completed an exit survey. There were no differences between the activities the two groups (p = 0.387). We conclude that the presence of an expert within collaborative Internet environments in not necessary to promote interactivity amongst the learners.

  20. Microbiota-Independent Ameliorative Effects of Antibiotics on Spontaneous Th2-Associated Pathology of the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehee; Walsh, Matthew C; Kim, Kwang Soon; Hong, Sung-Wook; Lee, Junyoung; Yi, Jaeu; Rivas, Gloriany; Surh, Charles D; Choi, Yongwon

    2015-01-01

    We have previously generated a mouse model of spontaneous Th2-associated disease of the small intestine called TRAF6ΔDC, in which dendritic cell (DC)-intrinsic expression of the signaling mediator TRAF6 is ablated. Interestingly, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment ameliorates TRAF6ΔDC disease, implying a role for commensal microbiota in disease development. However, the relationship between the drug effects and commensal microbiota status remains to be formally demonstrated. To directly assess this relationship, we have now generated TRAF6ΔDC bone marrow chimera mice under germ-free (GF) conditions lacking commensal microbiota, and found, unexpectedly, that Th2-associated disease is actually exacerbated in GF TRAF6ΔDC mice compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) TRAF6ΔDC mice. At the same time, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment of GF TRAF6ΔDC mice has an ameliorative effect similar to that observed in antibiotics-treated SPF TRAF6ΔDC mice, implying a commensal microbiota-independent effect of broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. We further found that treatment of GF TRAF6ΔDC mice with broad-spectrum antibiotics increases Foxp3+ Treg populations in lymphoid organs and the small intestine, pointing to a possible mechanism by which treatment may directly exert an immunomodulatory effect. To investigate links between the exacerbated phenotype of the small intestines of GF TRAF6ΔDC mice and local microbiota, we performed microbiotic profiling of the luminal contents specifically within the small intestines of diseased TRAF6ΔDC mice, and, when compared to co-housed control mice, found significantly increased total bacterial content characterized by specific increases in Firmicutes Lactobacillus species. These data suggest a protective effect of Firmicutes Lactobacillus against the spontaneous Th2-related inflammation of the small intestine of the TRAF6ΔDC model, and may represent a potential mechanism for related disease phenotypes.

  1. Angiotensin II accelerates mammary gland development independently of high blood pressure in pregnancy-associated hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Baasanjav, Altansarnai; Kwon, Chulwon; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Ishida, Junji; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is a vasopressor hormone that has critical roles in maintenance of normal blood pressure and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. We previously generated pregnancy-associated hypertensive (PAH) mice by mating female human angiotensinogen transgenic mice with male human renin transgenic mice. PAH mice exhibit hypertension in late pregnancy by overproducing AngII. A recent study demonstrated that angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor is expressed in mammary epithelial cells and its signaling is critical for mammary gland involution after weaning. However, the role of AngII-AT1 receptor signaling in the development of mammary gland during pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, to investigate the role of AngII-AT1 receptor signaling in mammary gland development during pregnancy, we analyzed the mammary gland of PAH mice. Histological and gene expression analyses revealed that lobuloalveolar development was accelerated with increased milk protein production and lipid accumulation in the mammary gland of PAH mice. Furthermore, AT1 receptor blocker treatment suppressed acceleration of mammary gland development in PAH mice, while the treatment of hydralazine, another antihypertensive drug, did not. These data suggest that AngII-AT1 receptor-induced signaling accelerates mammary gland development during pregnancy through hypertension-independent mechanism.

  2. Metabolic Reprogramming and Dependencies Associated with Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells Independent of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Program.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Esther; Marin de Mas, Igor; Zodda, Erika; Marin, Silvia; Morrish, Fionnuala; Selivanov, Vitaly; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Delowar, Hossain; Pons, Mònica; Izquierdo, Inés; Celià-Terrassa, Toni; de Atauri, Pedro; Centelles, Josep J; Hockenbery, David; Thomson, Timothy M; Cascante, Marta

    2016-05-01

    In solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSCs) can arise independently of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In spite of recent efforts, the metabolic reprogramming associated with CSC phenotypes uncoupled from EMT is poorly understood. Here, by using metabolomic and fluxomic approaches, we identify major metabolic profiles that differentiate metastatic prostate epithelial CSCs (e-CSCs) from non-CSCs expressing a stable EMT. We have found that the e-CSC program in our cellular model is characterized by a high plasticity in energy substrate metabolism, including an enhanced Warburg effect, a greater carbon and energy source flexibility driven by fatty acids and amino acid metabolism and an essential reliance on the proton buffering capacity conferred by glutamine metabolism. An analysis of transcriptomic data yielded a metabolic gene signature for our e-CSCs consistent with the metabolomics and fluxomics analyses that correlated with tumor progression and metastasis in prostate cancer and in 11 additional cancer types. Interestingly, an integrated metabolomics, fluxomics, and transcriptomics analysis allowed us to identify key metabolic players regulated at the post-transcriptional level, suggesting potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets to effectively forestall metastasis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1163-1176. PMID:27146024

  3. Loss of Fhit expression is associated with poorer survival in gastric cancer but is not an independent prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Bragantini, Emma; Barbi, Stefano; Beghelli, Stefania; Moore, Patrick S; de Manzoni, Giovanni; Roviello, Franco; Tomezzoli, Anna; Vindigni, Carla; Baffa, Raffaele; Scarpa, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have reported conflicting results regarding correlations of the loss of Fhit expression with clinicopathological parameters in gastric cancer. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of Fhit in 362 cases of sporadic advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. The series included 64 cases with microsatellite instability associated with defective mismatch repair genes. Fhit expression resulted absent in 72% of the tumors analyzed. Absence of Fhit expression was more frequent in cases with diffuse and mixed histotype compared to the intestinal histotype (P=0.009). Absence of Fhit expression also correlated with tumor stage (P<0.001), lymph node involvement (P<0.001), presence of distant metastasis (P=0.033), and increasing histological grade (P=0.005). Retained Fhit expression also correlated with microsatellite instability as 61% of instable tumors had lost Fhit expression compared to 74% of microsatellite stable cancers (P=0.050). While loss of Fhit correlates with poorer survival in univariate analysis, it is not an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis and is thus not of clinical utility.

  4. CFP1 interacts with DNMT1 independently of association with the Setd1 Histone H3K4 methyltransferase complexes.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Lee, Jeong-Heon; Skalnik, David G

    2008-10-01

    CXXC finger protein 1 (CFP1) is a component of the Setd1A and Setd1B methyltransferase complexes, localizes to euchromatic regions of the genome, and specifically binds unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in DNA. Murine embryos lacking CFP1 exhibit peri-implantation lethality, a developmental time that correlates with global epigenetic reprogramming. CFP1-deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells exhibit a 70% reduction in global cytosine methylation and a 60% decrease in maintenance DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) activity. DNMT1 protein level is reduced 50% in CFP1-deficient ES cells. Experiments were performed to investigate the role of CFP1 in regulating maintenance cytosine methylation. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal that endogenous DNMT1 and CFP1 interact in vivo. Protein regions required for the interaction between DNMT1 and CFP1 were mapped. Amino acids 169-493 and 970-1617 of DNMT1 are each sufficient for interaction with CFP1. Three regions spanning the CFP1 protein, amino acids 1-123, 103-367, and 361-656, are each sufficient for interaction with DNMT1. Interestingly, a single-point mutation (C375A) within CFP1 that abolishes the interaction with the Setd1A and Setd1B histone H3K4 methyltransferase complexes does not disrupt the interaction between CFP1 and DNMT1. This result indicates that CFP1 intersects the cytosine methylation machinery independently of its association with the Setd1 complexes. PMID:18680430

  5. Association of Autophagy in the Cell Death Mediated by Dihydrotestosterone in Autoreactive T Cells Independent of Antigenic Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ting; Anandhan, Annandurai; Massilamany, Chandirasegaran; Rajasekaran, Rajkumar A; Franco, Rodrigo; Reddy, Jay

    2015-12-01

    Gender disparity is well documented in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced with proteolipid protein (PLP) 139-151, in which female, but not male, SJL mice show a chronic relapsing-remitting paralysis. Furthermore, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) has been shown to ameliorate the severity of EAE, but the underlying mechanisms of its protective effects are unclear. Using major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II dextramers for PLP 139-151, we tested the hypothesis that DHT selectively modulates the expansion and functionalities of antigen-specific T cells. Unexpectedly, we noted that DHT induced cell death in antigen-specific, autoreactive T cells, but the effects were not selective, because both proliferating and non-proliferating cells were equally affected independent of antigenic stimulation. Furthermore, DHT-exposed PLP 139-151-specific T cells did not show any shift in cytokine production; rather, frequencies of cytokine-producing PLP-specific T cells were significantly reduced, irrespective of T helper (Th) 1, Th2, and Th17 subsets of cytokines. By evaluating cell death and autophagy pathways, we provide evidence for the induction of autophagy to be associated with cell death caused by DHT. Taken together, the data provide new insights into the role of DHT and indicate that cell death and autophagy contribute to the therapeutic effects of androgens in autoreactive T cells.

  6. Division of labor is associated with age-independent changes in ovarian activity in Pogonomyrmex californicus harvester ants.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Adam G; Johnson, Joshua; Hölldobler, Bert; Amdam, Gro V

    2013-04-01

    An age-independent division of labor can develop in both the reproductive (queen) and non-reproductive (worker) castes of Pogonomyrmex californicus harvester ants, and individuals develop biases for in-nest activities or external foraging. Additionally, ant ovaries normally atrophy in foragers compared to nest-biased workers (nurses). However, it is not clear whether these ovarian changes are due to changes in behavior or age, since foragers are typically older individuals. Here, we clarify this relationship in P. californicus queens and workers by comparing ovarian activity in same-aged ants that exhibit divergent behavioral biases. We found that foraging individuals had significantly reduced ovarian activity compared to their nest-biased counterparts, thereby linking changes in the ants' reproductive system to social task performance rather than to age. The general finding that ovarian physiology is associated with social insect behaviors is consistent with the hypothesis that reproductive physiology may have played an important role in the evolution of social insect behavior.

  7. The Association between Meditation Practice and Job Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Minami; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that meditation practice has a positive impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning, which are related to job performance. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of individuals who practice meditation, and (3) examine the association between meditation practice and job performance. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and the characteristics of the persons practicing meditation; in Study 2, we examined the association between meditation practice and job performance. The outcome variables included work engagement, subjective job performance, and job satisfaction. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was used to assess work engagement, the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was used to measure subjective job performance, and a scale developed by the Japanese government was used to assess job satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used in Study 2. Demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were included as covariates in the analyses. The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were younger and had a higher education, higher household income, higher stress level, and lower body mass index than those who did not practice meditation. The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = 0.112, p < .001), subjective job performance (β = 0.116, p < .001), and job satisfaction (β = 0.079, p = .002), even after adjusting for covariates (β = 0.083, p < .001; β = 0.104, p < .001; β = 0.060, p = .015, respectively). The results indicate that meditation practice may positively influence job performance, including job satisfaction, subjective job performance

  8. The Association between Meditation Practice and Job Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Koichiro; Nishimoto, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Minami; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that meditation practice has a positive impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning, which are related to job performance. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of individuals who practice meditation, and (3) examine the association between meditation practice and job performance. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and the characteristics of the persons practicing meditation; in Study 2, we examined the association between meditation practice and job performance. The outcome variables included work engagement, subjective job performance, and job satisfaction. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was used to assess work engagement, the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was used to measure subjective job performance, and a scale developed by the Japanese government was used to assess job satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used in Study 2. Demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were included as covariates in the analyses. The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were younger and had a higher education, higher household income, higher stress level, and lower body mass index than those who did not practice meditation. The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = 0.112, p < .001), subjective job performance (β = 0.116, p < .001), and job satisfaction (β = 0.079, p = .002), even after adjusting for covariates (β = 0.083, p < .001; β = 0.104, p < .001; β = 0.060, p = .015, respectively). The results indicate that meditation practice may positively influence job performance, including job satisfaction, subjective job performance

  9. Transferred DNA (T-DNA)-associated proteins of Agrobacterium tumefaciens are exported independently of virB.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Li, C M; Nester, E W

    2000-06-20

    The transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium to plant cells is mediated by a system which involves the virB operon of the Ti plasmid. We report that VirE2 and VirD2, two T-DNA-associated proteins, as well as VirF, a protein known to be secreted into plant cells, are present in the periplasm and supernatant fractions of growing cells of Agrobacterium as are VirJ and ChvE, two known periplasmic proteins. Two cytoplasmic proteins, Ros and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase, and a VirE2green fluorescent protein construct were not detected in the above fraction. Export of VirE2 into the culture supernatant did not require any Ti plasmid genes, except for VirE1, a specific chaperone for VirE2. The levels of the VirE2 and VirD2 proteins in the supernatant increased significantly when cells were grown at 19 degrees C as compared with 28 degrees C. When Agrobacterium expressed the oncogenic suppressive activity protein (Osa), VirE2 and VirF proteins could not be detected in the supernatant or the periplasm and the level of VirD2 was greatly reduced. However, oncogenic suppressive activity protein did not block the accumulation of VirJ and ChvE in the periplasm. Our data suggest that VirD2, VirE2, and VirF are transported across the cytoplasmic membrane by a specific pathway, independent of virB. Thus, transfer of the T-complex of Agrobacterium may take place in two steps, the first mediated by an unidentified pathway and the second by the virB system. PMID:10852952

  10. Conduct disorder in females is associated with reduced corpus callosum structural integrity independent of comorbid disorders and exposure to maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, P; Savic, I; Sitnikov, R; Budhiraja, M; Liu, Y; Jokinen, J; Tiihonen, J; Hodgins, S

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral phenotype and genotype of conduct disorder (CD) differ in males and females. Abnormalities of white matter integrity have been reported among males with CD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Little is known about white matter integrity in females with CD. The present study aimed to determine whether abnormalities of white matter are present among young women who presented CD before the age of 15, and whether abnormalities are independent of the multiple comorbid disorders and experiences of maltreatment characterizing females with CD that may each in themselves be associated with alterations of the white matter. Three groups of women, aged on average 24 years, were scanned using diffusion tensor imaging and compared: 28 with prior CD, three of whom presented ASPD; a clinical comparison (CC) group of 15 women with no history of CD but with similar proportions who presented alcohol dependence, drug dependence, anxiety disorders, depression disorders and physical and sexual abuse as the CD group; and 24 healthy women. Whole-brain, tract-based spatial statistics were computed to investigate differences in fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Compared with healthy women, women with prior CD showed widespread reductions in axial diffusivity primarily in frontotemporal regions. After statistically adjusting for comorbid disorders and maltreatment, group differences in the corpus callosum body and genu (including forceps minor) remained significant. Compared with the CC group, women with CD showed reduced fractional anisotropy in the body and genu of the corpus callosum. No differences were detected between the CD and healthy women in the uncinate fasciculus. PMID:26784968

  11. The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin associates with three independent proteins structurally related in different species.

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, M; Baribault, H; Kemler, R

    1989-01-01

    Uvomorulin belongs to the group of Ca2+-dependent cell adhesion molecules, which are integral membrane proteins with several structural features in common. In particular, the cytoplasmic part of these proteins is highly conserved in different species, suggesting a common biological function. To test this assumption we transfected a uvomorulin full-length cDNA into uvomorulin-negative mouse NIH 3T3 and L cells. Immunoprecipitations with anti-uvomorulin antibodies detected, in addition to uvomorulin, three independent proteins of 102, 88 and 80 kd which are of host origin and which form complexes with uvomorulin. Using cDNA constructs coding for uvomorulin with cytoplasmic or extracellular deletions it is shown that the 102, 88 and 80 kd proteins complex with the cytoplasmic domain of uvomorulin. Peptide pattern analysis revealed that these three proteins are identical in different mouse cells. When uvomorulin cDNA was introduced into cell lines from other species, such as human HeLa and avian fibroblasts, the expressed uvomorulin was also associated with endogenous 102, 88 and 80 kd proteins and, moreover, each of these proteins showed structural similarities to the respective mouse molecule. A panel of antibodies specific for known cytoplasmic proteins of mol. wts similar to those of the three proteins did not react with any of the described components. This suggests that the 102, 88 and 80 kd proteins constitute a new group of proteins for which we propose the nomenclature of catenin alpha, beta and gamma respectively. The characterization of these proteins provides a first molecular basis for a possible cytoplasmic anchorage of uvomorulin to the cytoskeleton. Images PMID:2788574

  12. Conduct disorder in females is associated with reduced corpus callosum structural integrity independent of comorbid disorders and exposure to maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Lindner, P; Savic, I; Sitnikov, R; Budhiraja, M; Liu, Y; Jokinen, J; Tiihonen, J; Hodgins, S

    2016-01-19

    The behavioral phenotype and genotype of conduct disorder (CD) differ in males and females. Abnormalities of white matter integrity have been reported among males with CD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Little is known about white matter integrity in females with CD. The present study aimed to determine whether abnormalities of white matter are present among young women who presented CD before the age of 15, and whether abnormalities are independent of the multiple comorbid disorders and experiences of maltreatment characterizing females with CD that may each in themselves be associated with alterations of the white matter. Three groups of women, aged on average 24 years, were scanned using diffusion tensor imaging and compared: 28 with prior CD, three of whom presented ASPD; a clinical comparison (CC) group of 15 women with no history of CD but with similar proportions who presented alcohol dependence, drug dependence, anxiety disorders, depression disorders and physical and sexual abuse as the CD group; and 24 healthy women. Whole-brain, tract-based spatial statistics were computed to investigate differences in fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Compared with healthy women, women with prior CD showed widespread reductions in axial diffusivity primarily in frontotemporal regions. After statistically adjusting for comorbid disorders and maltreatment, group differences in the corpus callosum body and genu (including forceps minor) remained significant. Compared with the CC group, women with CD showed reduced fractional anisotropy in the body and genu of the corpus callosum. No differences were detected between the CD and healthy women in the uncinate fasciculus.

  13. Diversity of Termitomyces Associated with Fungus-Farming Termites Assessed by Cultural and Culture-Independent Methods

    PubMed Central

    Makonde, Huxley M.; Boga, Hamadi I.; Osiemo, Zipporah; Mwirichia, Romano; Stielow, J. Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. Methodology Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. Results and Conclusion Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs). However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is suggested to base the

  14. Decision-making skills, role specificity, and deliberate practice in association football refereeing.

    PubMed

    Catteeuw, Peter; Helsen, Werner; Gilis, Bart; Wagemans, Johan

    2009-09-01

    In association football, two similar but arguably different refereeing roles are required, those of the referee and assistant referee. Role specificity was investigated with a foul play assessment task and an offside decision-making task. Deliberate practice was investigated to account for role-specific differences. First, role specificity was clearly observed. Second, years of officiating, hours of practice per week, and number of matches officiated were each positively correlated with skill. The results support role specificity in association football refereeing. Further research should help to create role-specific perception and decision-making training programmes both for referees and assistant referees. PMID:19714544

  15. Association between Australian-Indian mothers' controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits.

    PubMed

    Jani, Rati; Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits. The secondary aim studied the relationship between controlling feeding practices and two proxy indicators of diet quality. Participants were 203 Australian-Indian mothers with children aged 1-5 years. Controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring) and children's appetite traits (food approach traits: food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, desire to drink, emotional overeating; food avoidance traits: satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and emotional undereating) were measured using self-reported, previously validated scales/questionnaires. Children's daily frequency of consumption of core and non-core foods was estimated using a 49-item list of foods eaten (yes/no) in the previous 24 hours as an indicator of diet quality. Higher pressure to eat was associated with higher scores for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and lower score for enjoyment of food. Higher restriction was related to higher scores for food responsiveness and emotional overeating. Higher monitoring was inversely associated with fussiness, slowness in eating, food responsiveness and emotional overeating and positively associated with enjoyment of food. Pressure to eat and monitoring were related to lower number of core and non-core foods consumed in the previous 24 hours, respectively. All associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal and child covariates (n = 152 due to missing data). In conclusion, pressure to eat was associated with higher food avoidance traits and lower consumption of core foods. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with higher food approach traits. In contrast, monitoring practices were related to lower food avoidance and food approach traits and lower non-core food consumption.

  16. Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice: National Association of School Nurses.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) developed the Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice to reflect current school nurse practice. The Framework of practice was introduced in June 2015, and feedback was requested and obtained from practicing school nurses in a variety of ways. The final version of the Framework is introduced in this article. This article updates (and replaces) the articles in the July 2015 NASN School Nurse related to the Framework. Central to the Framework is student-centered nursing care that occurs within the context of the students' family and school community. Surrounding the student, family, and school community are the nonhierarchical, overlapping key principles of Care Coordination, Leadership, Quality Improvement, and Community/Public Health.These principles are surrounded by the fifth principle, Standards of Practice, which is foundational for evidence-based and clinically competent quality care. Each of these principles is further defined by practice components. Suggestions are provided regarding how the Framework can be used in a variety of settings to articulate and prioritize school nursing practice. The ultimate goal is to provide a resource to guide school nurses in their practice to help students be healthy, safe, and ready to learn. PMID:26739934

  17. Nurse telephone triage in out-of-hours GP practice: determinants of independent advice and return consultation

    PubMed Central

    Moll van Charante, Eric Peter; ter Riet, Gerben; Drost, Sara; van der Linden, Loes; Klazinga, Niek S; Bindels, Patrick JE

    2006-01-01

    Background Nowadays, nurses play a central role in telephone triage in Dutch out-of-hours primary care. The percentage of calls that is handled through nurse telephone advice alone (NTAA) appears to vary substantially between GP cooperatives. This study aims to explore which determinants are associated with NTAA and with subsequent return consultations to the GP. Methods For the ten most frequently presented problems, a two-week follow-up cohort study took place in one cooperative run by 25 GPs and 8 nurses, serving a population of 62,291 people. Random effects logistic regression analysis was used to study the determinants of NTAA and return consultation rates. The effect of NTAA on hospital referral rates was also studied as a proxy for severity of illness. Results The mean NTAA rate was 27.5% – ranging from 15.5% to 39.4% for the eight nurses. It was higher during the night (RR 1.63, CI 1.48–1.76) and lower with increasing age (RR 0.96, CI 0.93–0.99, per ten years) or when the patient presented >2 problems (RR 0.65; CI 0.51–0.83). Using cough as reference category, NTAA was highest for earache (RR 1.49; CI 1.18–1.78) and lowest for chest pain (RR 0.18; CI 0.06–0.47). After correction for differences in case mix, significant variation in NTAA between nurses remained (p < 0.001). Return consultations after NTAA were higher after nightly calls (RR 1.23; CI 1.04–1.40). During first return consultations, the hospital referral rate after NTAA was 1.5% versus 3.8% for non-NTAA (difference -2.2%; CI -4.0 to -0.5). Conclusion Important inter-nurse variability may indicate differences in perception on tasks and/or differences in skill to handle telephone calls alone. Future research should focus more on modifiable determinants of NTAA rates. PMID:17163984

  18. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Candidate Bacteria: Associations with BV and Behavioural Practices in Sexually-Experienced and Inexperienced Women

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, Christopher K.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Fehler, Glenda; Morton, Anna M.; Hocking, Jane S.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years several new fastidious bacteria have been identified that display a high specificity for BV; however no previous studies have comprehensively assessed the behavioural risk associations of these bacterial vaginosis-candidate organisms (BV-COs). Methods We examined the associations between 8 key previously described BV-COs and BV status established by Nugent's score (NS). We also examined the sexual practices associated with each BV-CO. We incorporated 2 study populations: 193 from a sexually-inexperienced university population and 146 from a highly sexually-active clinic population. Detailed behavioural data was collected by questionnaire and vaginal smears were scored by the Nugent method. Stored samples were tested by quantitative PCR assays for the 8 BV-COs: Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Leptotrichia spp., Megasphaera type I, Sneathia spp., and the Clostridia-like bacteria BVAB1, BVAB2 and BVAB3. Associations between BV-COs and BV and behaviours were examined by univariate and multivariable analyses. Results On univariate analysis, all BV-COs were more common in BV compared to normal flora. However, only Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were significantly independently associated with BV by multivariable analysis. Six of the eight BV-COs (Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, BVAB3, Sneathia, Leptotrichia and G. vaginalis) were rare or absent in sexually-unexposed women, and demonstrated increasing odds of detection with increasing levels of sexual activity and/or numbers of lifetime sexual partners. Only G. vaginalis and A. vaginae were commonly detected in sexually-unexposed women. Megasphaera type I was independently associated with women-who-have-sex-with women (WSW) and lifetime sexual partner numbers, while unprotected penile-vaginal-sex was associated with BVAB2 detection by multivariate analysis. Conclusions Four of eight key BV-COs were significantly associated with BV after adjusting for the presence of

  19. Association Between Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing Practices and Community-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dantes, Raymund; Mu, Yi; Hicks, Lauri A.; Cohen, Jessica; Bamberg, Wendy; Beldavs, Zintars G.; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Farley, Monica M.; Holzbauer, Stacy; Meek, James; Phipps, Erin; Wilson, Lucy; Winston, Lisa G.; McDonald, L. Clifford; Lessa, Fernanda C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Antibiotic use predisposes patients to Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), and approximately 32% of these infections are community-associated (CA) CDI. The population-level impact of antibiotic use on adult CA-CDI rates is not well described. Methods. We used 2011 active population- and laboratory-based surveillance data from 9 US geographic locations to identify adult CA-CDI cases, defined as C difficile-positive stool specimens (by toxin or molecular assay) collected from outpatients or from patients ≤3 days after hospital admission. All patients were surveillance area residents and aged ≥20 years with no positive test ≤8 weeks prior and no overnight stay in a healthcare facility ≤12 weeks prior. Outpatient oral antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in 2010 were obtained from the IMS Health Xponent database. Regression models examined the association between outpatient antibiotic prescribing and adult CA-CDI rates. Methods. Healthcare providers prescribed 5.2 million courses of antibiotics among adults in the surveillance population in 2010, for an average of 0.73 per person. Across surveillance sites, antibiotic prescription rates (0.50–0.88 prescriptions per capita) and unadjusted CA-CDI rates (40.7–139.3 cases per 100 000 persons) varied. In regression modeling, reducing antibiotic prescribing rates by 10% among persons ≥20 years old was associated with a 17% (95% confidence interval, 6.0%–26.3%; P = .032) decrease in CA-CDI rates after adjusting for age, gender, race, and type of diagnostic assay. Reductions in prescribing penicillins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were associated with the greatest decreases in CA-CDI rates. Conclusions and Relevance. Community-associated CDI prevention should include reducing unnecessary outpatient antibiotic use. A modest reduction of 10% in outpatient antibiotic prescribing can have a disproportionate impact on reducing CA-CDI rates. PMID:26509182

  20. Associations Between Individual and Family Level Characteristics and Parenting Practices in Incarcerated African American Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Melvin N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent incarcerated) and family level (number of relationships that have borne children) characteristics were significantly associated with their parenting practices. Based on canonical correlation analysis, on function one, responsive parenting was positively associated with education level and negatively associated with both cumulative incarceration time and more numerous partner fertility. Restrictive parenting was negatively associated with education level and positively associated with both cumulative incarceration time and more numerous partner fertility. Function 2 capitalized on variance in the restrictive parenting predictor that was not utilized in function 1, and likely captured lack of opportunity to parent. On function 2, restrictive parenting was negatively associated with cumulative time spent incarcerated and more numerous partner fertility. In all, results suggest that prison-based education programs should be part of an overall response to incarcerated fathers. These results add to the growing body of research on incarcerated fathers and fragile families. PMID:19802371

  1. Structural Changes after Videogame Practice Related to a Brain Network Associated with Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Quiroga, Ma. Angeles; Solana, Ana Beatriz; Burgaleta, Miguel; Roman, Francisco J.; Privado, Jesus; Escorial, Sergio; Martinez, Kenia; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Alfayate, Eva; Garcia, Felipe; Lepage, Claude; Hernandez-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Karama, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    Here gray and white matter changes after four weeks of videogame practice were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), cortical surface and cortical thickness indices, and white matter integrity computed from several projection, commissural, and association tracts relevant to cognition. Beginning with a sample of one hundred young…

  2. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on…

  3. 12 CFR 564.8 - Appraisal policies and practices of savings associations and subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appraisal is a critical component of the loan underwriting or real estate investment decision. Therefore... subsidiaries. (a) Introduction. The soundness of a savings association's mortgage loans and real estate... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisal policies and practices of...

  4. Association for Specialists in Group Work: Best Practice Guidelines 2007 Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Valorie; Pender, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    The Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) supports the practice of ethical and effective group work through the publication of guiding principles in planning, performing and processing group work. Originally prepared, approved and published in 1998 (ASGW; Rapin and Keel), the current revision addresses changes in the American Counseling…

  5. Characterizing Practices Associated with Functions in Middle School Textbooks: An Empirical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa, Vilma

    2004-01-01

    Exercises and problems about functions found in 24 middle-school textbooks from 15 countries were analysed using an adaptation of Balacheff's theory of conceptions and Biehler's notion of the prototypical domain of application of concepts in order to describe the practices associated with the notion of function. The analysis yielded five different…

  6. National Association of Diversity Officers in Higher Education Standards of Professional Practice for Chief Diversity Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Stanley, Christine A.; Lewis, William T., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    The National Association of Diversity Officers in Higher Education (NADOHE) have developed and approved Standards of Professional Practice for Chief Diversity Officers (CDOs). The standards established in this document are a formative advancement toward the increased professionalization of the CDO in institutions of higher education. These…

  7. Association Between Experienced Teachers' NOS Implementation and Reform-Based Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Clough, Michael P.; Olson, Joanne K.

    2013-11-01

    The assertion that general reform-based science teaching practices (GRBSTPs) can facilitate nature of science (NOS) instruction has been mentioned in the literature, but rigorous and transparent empirical substantiation for this claim has not been made. This investigation empirically demonstrates an association between thirteen experienced teachers' NOS implementation practices and their GRBSTPs. While effectively implementing GRBSTPs does not ensure the NOS will be taught, the findings show that these practices are associated with high levels of NOS instruction. In this study, teachers who implemented higher levels of reform-based practices were also observed to enact more instances of planned and spontaneous effective NOS instruction. Furthermore, these teachers were more likely to recognize and capitalize on NOS teaching opportunities when they unexpectedly arose in the context of their GRBSTPs. Just as NOS understanding must be assessed when determining factors associated with teachers' NOS implementation, teachers' GRBSTPs should also be empirically and transparently established to ensure they do not mask or confound other factors associated with NOS implementation.

  8. Associations among School Characteristics and Foodservice Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample of United States Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy food service offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Participants: Data from the 2006 School Health Policies…

  9. The Impact of Child Development Associate Training on the Beliefs and Practices of Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisner, Mary Jane; Lederberg, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of Child Development Associate (CDA) training on the beliefs and practices of early childhood teachers who did not have college degrees or early childhood college coursework. Preschool teachers who were enrolled in CDA classes (n = 76) and a comparison group of teachers (n = 50) completed two surveys of beliefs and…

  10. Association between Experienced Teachers' NOS Implementation and Reform-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Clough, Michael P.; Olson, Joanne K.

    2013-01-01

    The assertion that general reform-based science teaching practices (GRBSTPs) can facilitate nature of science (NOS) instruction has been mentioned in the literature, but rigorous and transparent empirical substantiation for this claim has not been made. This investigation empirically demonstrates an association between thirteen experienced…

  11. Genome wide signatures of positive selection: The comparison of independent samples and the identification of regions associated to traits

    PubMed Central

    Barendse, William; Harrison, Blair E; Bunch, Rowan J; Thomas, Merle B; Turner, Lex B

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of genome wide analyses of polymorphisms is to achieve a better understanding of the link between genotype and phenotype. Part of that goal is to understand the selective forces that have operated on a population. Results In this study we compared the signals of selection, identified through population divergence in the Bovine HapMap project, to those found in an independent sample of cattle from Australia. Evidence for population differentiation across the genome, as measured by FST, was highly correlated in the two data sets. Nevertheless, 40% of the variance in FST between the two studies was attributed to the differences in breed composition. Seventy six percent of the variance in FST was attributed to differences in SNP composition and density when the same breeds were compared. The difference between FST of adjacent loci increased rapidly with the increase in distance between SNP, reaching an asymptote after 20 kb. Using 129 SNP that have highly divergent FST values in both data sets, we identified 12 regions that had additive effects on the traits residual feed intake, beef yield or intramuscular fatness measured in the Australian sample. Four of these regions had effects on more than one trait. One of these regions includes the R3HDM1 gene, which is under selection in European humans. Conclusion Firstly, many different populations will be necessary for a full description of selective signatures across the genome, not just a small set of highly divergent populations. Secondly, it is necessary to use the same SNP when comparing the signatures of selection from one study to another. Thirdly, useful signatures of selection can be obtained where many of the groups have only minor genetic differences and may not be clearly separated in a principal component analysis. Fourthly, combining analyses of genome wide selection signatures and genome wide associations to traits helps to define the trait under selection or the population group in which

  12. Carotid intima media thickness is independently associated with urinary sodium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ustundag, Sedat; Yilmaz, Gulay; Sevinc, Can; Akpinar, Seval; Temizoz, Osman; Sut, Necdet; Ustundag, Ayten

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis-induced premature vascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The pathogenetic mechanism of atherosclerosis in patients with CKD has not been fully explained. Experimental studies have demonstrated that high dietary sodium intake not only increases circulatory volume and blood pressure, but also facilitates development of atherosclerosis by reducing production-bioavailability of nitric oxide due to oxidative stress and accordingly by enhancing endothelial and arterial stiffness. In this study, we investigated the relationship between sodium consumption and carotid artery intima-media thickness, which is the indicator of atherosclerosis, by determining daily urinary sodium excretion, which is a reliable indicator of sodium consumption, in our patient group. Our patient group included 193 patients with stage 2-4 non-diabetic CKD and without a history of atherosclerotic disease. We determined that 77% of our patients have been consuming more than 2  g of sodium per day, which is the upper limit of sodium consumption recommended for patients with CKD. We determined a positive linear correlation between carotid artery intima-media thickness and patient age (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p < 0.001), urinary sodium excretion (p < 0.001), body mass index (p = 0.002), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.002), hemoglobin (p = 0.030), triglycerides (p = 0.043), and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.049). We also found a negative linear correlation between carotid artery intima-media thickness and glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.008). We found that urinary sodium excretion is the determinant of intima-media thickness even if all factors associated with intima-media thickness are adjusted, and that intima-media thickness increases by 0.031 (0.004-0.059) mm per 2  g increase in daily sodium excretion, independent from overall factors (p = 0.025). Our results

  13. Beyond Core Indicators of Retention in HIV Care: Missed Clinic Visits Are Independently Associated With All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mugavero, Michael J.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Cole, Stephen R.; Geng, Elvin H.; Crane, Heidi M.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Mathews, W. Christopher; Napravnik, Sonia; Eron, Joseph J.; Moore, Richard D.; Keruly, Jeanne C.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Giordano, Thomas P.; Raper, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The continuum of care is at the forefront of the domestic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agenda, with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) recently releasing clinical core indicators. Core indicators for retention in care are calculated based on attended HIV care clinic visits. Beyond these retention core indicators, we evaluated the additional prognostic value of missed clinic visits for all-cause mortality. Methods. We conducted a multisite cohort study of 3672 antiretroviral-naive patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) during 2000–2010. Retention in care was measured by the IOM and DHHS core indicators (2 attended visits at defined intervals per 12-month period), and also as a count of missed primary HIV care visits (no show) during a 24-month measurement period following ART initiation. All-cause mortality was ascertained by query of the Social Security Death Index and/or National Death Index, with adjusted survival analyses starting at 24 months after ART initiation. Results. Among participants, 64% and 59% met the IOM and DHHS retention core indicators, respectively, at 24 months. Subsequently, 332 patients died during 16 102 person-years of follow-up. Failure to achieve the IOM and DHHS indicators through 24 months following ART initiation increased mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79–2.80 and HR = 2.36; 95% CI, 1.89–2.96, respectively). Among patients classified as retained by the IOM or DHHS clinical core indicators, >2 missed visits further increased mortality risk (HR = 3.61; 95% CI, 2.35–5.55 and HR = 3.62; 95% CI, 2.30–5.68, respectively). Conclusions. Beyond HIV retention core indicators, missed clinic visits were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Caution is warranted in relying solely upon retention in care core indicators for policy, clinical, and programmatic purposes. PMID:25091306

  14. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Athletic Trainers' Concussion-Management Practice Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kassandra C.; Jordan, Erin M.; Joyner, A. Barry; Burdette, G. Trey; Buckley, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: A cornerstone of the recent consensus statements on concussion is a multifaceted concussion-assessment program at baseline and postinjury and when tracking recovery. Earlier studies of athletic trainers' (ATs') practice patterns found limited use of multifaceted protocols; however, these authors typically grouped diverse athletic training settings together. Objective: To (1) describe the concussion-management practice patterns of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I ATs, (2) compare these practice patterns to earlier studies, and (3) objectively characterize the clinical examination. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Online survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 610 ATs from NCAA Division I institutions, for a response rate of 34.4%. Main Outcome Measure(s): The survey had 3 subsections: demographic questions related to the participant's experiences, concussion-assessment practice patterns, and concussion-recovery and return-to-participation practice patterns. Specific practice-pattern questions addressed balance, cognitive and mental status, neuropsychological testing, and self-reported symptoms. Finally, specific components of the clinical examination were examined. Results: We identified high rates of multifaceted assessments (ie, assessments using at least 3 techniques) during testing at baseline (71.2%), acute concussion assessment (79.2%), and return to participation (66.9%). The specific techniques used are provided along with their adherence with evidence-based practice findings. Respondents endorsed a diverse array of clinical examination techniques that often overlapped objective concussion-assessment protocols or were likely used to rule out associated potential conditions. Respondents were cognizant of the Third International Consensus Statement, the National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement, and the revised NCAA Sports Medicine Handbook recommendations. Conclusions: Athletic trainers in

  15. Factors associated with parental use of restrictive feeding practices to control their children's food intake.

    PubMed

    Gray, Wendy N; Janicke, David M; Wistedt, Kristin M; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need to identify risk factors that make parents more likely to restrict their child's food intake. Child weight and ethnicity, parent weight, parent body dissatisfaction, and parent concern of child weight were examined as correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices in a diverse sample of 191 youth (ages 7-17). Participants attending a pediatric outpatient visit completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (parent feeding practices and beliefs), the Figure Rating Scale (body dissatisfaction) and a demographic form. Parent BMI and child degree of overweight were calculated. Parent use of restrictive feeding practices was positively associated with parent BMI and was moderated by parent body dissatisfaction. Parent concern of child weight mediated the relationship between increasing child degree of overweight and parent use of restrictive feeding practices. There were no differences by child gender or ethnicity in parent use of restrictive feeding practices. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of assessing for underlying parent motivations for utilizing restrictive feeding practices and may help to identify and intervene with families at-risk for engaging in counterproductive weight control strategies. Continued identification of correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices is needed across child development and among individuals from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20633586

  16. Durability of Class I American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Clinical Practice Guideline Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Mark D.; Goldstein, Jennifer N.; Cirullo, Michael A.; Schwartz, J. Sanford

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Little is known regarding the durability of clinical practice guideline recommendations over time. OBJECTIVE To characterize variations in the durability of class I (“procedure/treatment should be performed/administered”) American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline recommendations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Textual analysis by 4 independent reviewers of 11 guidelines published between 1998 and 2007 and revised between 2006 and 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We abstracted all class I recommendations from the first of the 2 most recent versions of each guideline and identified corresponding recommendations in the subsequent version. We classified recommendations replaced by less determinate or contrary recommendations as having been downgraded or reversed; we classified recommendations for which no corresponding item could be identified as having been omitted. We tested for differences in the durability of recommendations according to guideline topic and underlying level of evidence using bivariable hypothesis tests and conditional logistic regression. RESULTS Of 619 index recommendations, 495 (80.0%; 95%CI, 76.6%–83.1%) were retained in the subsequent guideline version, 57 (9.2%; 95%CI, 7.0%–11.8%) were downgraded or reversed, and 67 (10.8%; 95%CI, 8.4%–13.3%) were omitted. The percentage of recommendations retained varied across guidelines from 15.4%(95%CI, 1.9%–45.4%) to 94.1%(95%CI, 80.3%–99.3%; P < .001). Among recommendations with available information on level of evidence, 90.5%(95%CI, 83.2%–95.3%) of recommendations supported by multiple randomized studies were retained, vs 81.0% (95%CI, 74.8%–86.3%) of recommendations supported by 1 randomized trial or observational data and 73.7%(95% CI, 65.8%–80.5%) of recommendations supported by opinion (P = .001). After accounting for guideline-level factors, the probability of being downgraded, reversed, or omitted was greater for

  17. National influences on catheter-associated bloodstream infection rates: practices among national surveillance networks participating in the European HELICS project.

    PubMed

    Hansen, S; Schwab, F; Behnke, M; Carsauw, H; Heczko, P; Klavs, I; Lyytikäinen, O; Palomar, M; Riesenfeld Orn, I; Savey, A; Szilagyi, E; Valinteliene, R; Fabry, J; Gastmeier, P

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate associations between organisational characteristics, routine practices and the incidence densities of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CVC-BSI rates) in European intensive care units (ICUs) as part of the HELICS project (Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance). Questionnaires were sent to ICUs participating in the national nosocomial infection surveillance networks in 2004. The national networks were asked for the CVC-BSI rates of the ICUs participating for the time period 2003--2004. Univariate and multivariate risk factor analyses were performed to identify which practices had the greatest impact on CVC-BSI rates. A total of 526 ICUs from 10 countries sent data on organisational characteristics and practices, demonstrating wide variation in care. CVC-BSI rates were also provided for 288 ICUs from five countries. This made it possible to include 1383444 patient days, 969897 CVC days and 1935 CVC-BSI cases in the analysis. Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that the categorical variables of country [odds ratio (OR) varying per country from OR: 2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-10.2; to OR: 12.8; 95% CI: 4.4-37.5; in reference to the country with the lowest CVC-BSI rates] and type of hospital 'university' (OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.02-4.25) were independent risk factors for high CVC-BSI rates. Substantial variation existed in CVC-BSI prevention activities, surveillance methods and estimated CVC-BSI rates among the European countries. Differences in cultural, social and legal perspectives as well as differences between healthcare systems are crucial in explaining these differences. PMID:18799236

  18. Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Molineri, Ana I; Signorini, Marcelo L; Cuatrín, Alejandra L; Canavesio, Vilma R; Neder, Verónica E; Russi, Norma B; Bonazza, Julio C; Calvinho, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC), proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC) and lipolytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC) (dependent or outcome variables). A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables) was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily) was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml) than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm. PMID:23102468

  19. Music practice is associated with development of working memory during childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Darki, Fahimeh; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-01-01

    Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however, the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM) during development. Subjects (n = 352) between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64) on two or three occasions, 2 years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002), processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027) and reasoning (Raven’s progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p < 0.001) across all three time points, after correcting for the effect of parental education and other after school activities. Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008), areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006) but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090). These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other after school activities. In conclusion, these results indicate that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence. PMID:24431997

  20. Music practice is associated with development of working memory during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Darki, Fahimeh; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-01-01

    Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however, the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM) during development. Subjects (n = 352) between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64) on two or three occasions, 2 years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002), processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027) and reasoning (Raven's progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p < 0.001) across all three time points, after correcting for the effect of parental education and other after school activities. Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008), areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006) but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090). These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other after school activities. In conclusion, these results indicate that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence.

  1. On the Association between Adolescent Autonomy and Psychosocial Functioning: Examining Decisional Independence from a Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Petegem, Stijn; Beyers, Wim; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we focus on the concept of adolescent autonomy and its relation with psychosocial functioning. Specifically, we aim to differentiate between 2 prevailing conceptualizations of autonomy, that is, (a) autonomy defined as independence versus dependence and (b) autonomy defined as self-endorsed versus controlled functioning. A…

  2. Association of maternal sleep practices with pre-eclampsia, low birth weight, and stillbirth among Ghanaian women

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Jocelynn T.; Anderson, Frank J.; Coleman, Jerry; Oppong, Samuel; Seffah, Joseph D.; Aikins, Alfred; O’Brien, Louise M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess sleep practices, and investigate their relationship with maternal and fetal outcomes, among pregnant Ghanaian women. Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, between June and July 2011, postpartum women were interviewed within 48 hours of delivery about sleep quality and practices during pregnancy. Interviews were coupled with a systematic review of participants’ medical charts for key outcomes including maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia, premature delivery, low birth weight, and stillbirth. Results Most women reported poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Snoring during pregnancy was independently associated with pre-eclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–8.5; P=0.007). The newborns of women who reported supine sleep during pregnancy were at increased risk of low birth weight (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.2–20.2; P=0.025) and stillbirth (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5–43.2; P=0.016). Low birth weight was found to mediate the relationship between supine sleep and stillbirth. Conclusion The present findings in an African population demonstrate that maternal sleep, a modifiable risk factor, has a significant role in pre-eclampsia, low birth weight, and subsequently stillbirth. PMID:23507553

  3. Independent Contributions of Mothers' and Fathers' Language and Literacy Practices: Associations with Children's Kindergarten Skills across Linguistically Diverse Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Jacqueline; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Home language and literacy inputs have been consistently linked with enhanced language and literacy skills among children. Most studies have focused on maternal inputs among monolingual populations. Though the proportion of American children growing up in primarily non-English-speaking homes is growing and the role of fathers in…

  4. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  5. Parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kajula, Lusajo J; Darling, Nancy; Kaaya, Sylvia F; De Vries, Hein

    2016-11-01

    Parenting styles and practices are suggested to be important predictors of adolescent sexual health, mostly in Europe and North America. Limited research has been conducted on these processes in Sub-Saharan Africa, which has different patterns of adolescent sexual behavior and family traditions. This study qualitatively explored parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Tanzania, with 12 adolescents and 12 parents of adolescents. The themes we identified from the data included parental monitoring, preventive, and punitive behaviors. Parents were reported to use mostly punitive behaviors to correct or prohibit sexual behavior; parents also set clear rules about appropriate sexual behavior (e.g., modesty and abstinence). Parents were also reported to closely monitor their adolescent children's friendships and sexual behavior to minimize sexual behavior. However, some parents also engaged in positive preventive practices aimed at protecting their adolescent children.

  6. Annual night visiting rates in 129 general practices in one family health services authority: association with patient and general practice characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, F A; Cook, D G; Hilton, S; Poloniecki, J; Hagen, A

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Rates of night visiting by general practitioners have increased steadily over the last 30 years and vary widely between general practices. AIM. An ecological study was carried out to examine night visiting rates by general practices in one family health services authority, and to determine the extent to which differences in night visiting rates between practices could be explained by patient and practice characteristics. METHOD. The study examined the variation in annual night visiting rates, based on night visit fees claimed between April 1993 and March 1994, among 129 general practices in Merton, Sutton and Wandsworth Family Health Services Authority, London. RESULTS. Practices' annual night visiting rates varied from three per 1000 to 75 per 1000 patients. The percentages of the practice population aged under five years and aged five to 14 years were both positively correlated with night visiting rates (r = 0.38 and r = 0.35, respectively), as were variables associated with social deprivation such as the estimated percentage of the practice population living in one-parent households (r = 0.24) and in households where the head of household was classified as unskilled (r = 0.20). The percentage of the practice population reporting chronic illness was also positively associated with night visiting rates (r = 0.26). The percentages of the practice population aged 35 to 44 years and 45 to 54 years were both negatively associated with night visiting rates (r = -0.34 and r = -0.31, respectively) as was the estimated list inflation for a practice (r = -0.31). There was no significant correlation between night visiting rates and the distance of the main practice surgery from the nearest hospital accident and emergency department. There was also no association between night visiting rates and permission to use a deputizing service. In a stepwise multiple regression model, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.56 with four factors (percentage of the

  7. Stimulation-dependent recruitment of cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha to EA.hy.926 endothelial cell membranes leads to calcium-independent association.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Seema; Smith, Jennifer; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Walker, John

    2004-01-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha (cPLA2-alpha) is a calcium-activated enzyme involved in agonist-induced arachidonic acid release. In endothelial cells, free arachidonic acid is predominantly converted into prostacyclin, a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet activation. As the rate-limiting step in prostacyclin production is the generation of free arachidonic acid by cPLA2-alpha, this enzyme has become an attractive pharmacological target and the focus of many studies. Following stimulation with calcium-mobilizing agonists, cPLA2-alpha translocates to intracellular phospholipid membranes via its C2 domain. In this study, the calcium-induced association of cPLA2-alpha with EA.hy.926 endothelial cell membranes was investigated. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence studies showed that following stimulation with histamine, thrombin or the calcium ionophore A23187, cPLA2-alpha relocated to intracellular membranes. Treatment of A23187-stimulated cells with EGTA or BAPTA-AM demonstrated that a substantial pool of cPLA2-alpha remained associated with membrane fractions in a calcium-independent manner. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy studies revealed that cells stimulated for periods of greater than 10 min showed a high proportion of calcium-independent membrane-associated cPLA2-alpha. Calcium-independent membrane association of cPLA2-alpha was not due to hydrophobic or cytoskeletal interactions. Finally, the recombinant C2 domain of cPLA2-alpha exhibited calcium-independent membrane binding to membranes isolated from A23187-stimulated cells but not those isolated from nonstimulated cells. These findings suggest that novel mechanisms involving accessory proteins at the target membrane play a role in the regulation of cPLA2-alpha. Such regulatory associations could enable the cell to discriminate between the varying levels of cytosolic calcium induced by different stimuli.

  8. Barriers and Facilitators Associated with Non-Surgical Treatment Use for Osteoarthritis Patients in Orthopaedic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hofstede, Stefanie N.; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J.; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P. M.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction International evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with (a combination of) non-surgical treatments, and using surgical intervention only if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatment options. Despite these recommendations, there are strong indications that non-surgical treatments are not optimally used in orthopaedic practice. To improve the adoption of non-surgical treatments, more insight is needed into barriers and facilitators of these treatments. Therefore, this study assessed which barriers and facilitators are associated with the use and prescription of different non-surgical treatments before hip and knee OA in orthopaedic practice among patients and orthopaedic surgeons in the Netherlands. Materials and Methods We performed two internet-based surveys among 172 orthopaedic surgeons and 174 OA patients. Univariate association and multivariable regression techniques are used to identify barriers and facilitators associated with the use of non-surgical treatments. Results Most barriers and facilitators among patients were associated with the use of physical therapy, lifestyle advice and dietary therapy. Among orthopaedic surgeons, most were associated with prescription of acetaminophen, dietary therapy and physical therapy. Examples of barriers and facilitators among patients included “People in my environment had positive experiences with a surgery” (facilitator for education about OA), and “Advice of people in my environment to keep on moving” (facilitator for lifestyle and dietary advice). For orthopaedic surgeons, examples were “Lack of knowledge about guideline” (barrier for lifestyle advice), “Agreements/ deliberations with primary care” and “Easy communication with a dietician” (facilitators for dietary therapy). Also the belief in the efficacy of these treatments was associated with increased prescription. Conclusions

  9. Association of acculturative stress, Islamic practices, and internalizing symptoms among Arab American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Anisa N; Pham, Andy V; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M; Yosai, Erin R

    2016-06-01

    Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first- and second-generation Muslim Arab American adolescents. Adolescents (n = 88) ages 11 to 18 completed measures related to acculturative stress, religious practices, internalizing symptoms, and general demographic information. Results of multiple regression analyses found that acculturative stress significantly predicted internalizing symptoms. Gender was found to moderate this association. No differences in the reported acculturative stress and internalizing symptoms were found between youth of different generational status (i.e., first- vs. second-generation). Finally, adolescents' organizational religious practices, but not their private religious practices, were found to be associated with lower acculturative stress. Implications are discussed related to how school psychologists can provide culturally responsive services to this population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243243

  10. Association of acculturative stress, Islamic practices, and internalizing symptoms among Arab American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Anisa N; Pham, Andy V; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M; Yosai, Erin R

    2016-06-01

    Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first- and second-generation Muslim Arab American adolescents. Adolescents (n = 88) ages 11 to 18 completed measures related to acculturative stress, religious practices, internalizing symptoms, and general demographic information. Results of multiple regression analyses found that acculturative stress significantly predicted internalizing symptoms. Gender was found to moderate this association. No differences in the reported acculturative stress and internalizing symptoms were found between youth of different generational status (i.e., first- vs. second-generation). Finally, adolescents' organizational religious practices, but not their private religious practices, were found to be associated with lower acculturative stress. Implications are discussed related to how school psychologists can provide culturally responsive services to this population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Factors Associated with Larval Control Practices in a Dengue Outbreak Prone Area

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad, Mariam; Selamat, Mohamad Ikhsan; Ismail, Zaliha

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the risk of dengue outbreak recurrence in a dengue outbreak prone area, the members of the community need to sustain certain behavior to prevent mosquito from breeding. Our study aims to identify the factors associated with larval control practices in this particular community. A cross-sectional study involves 322 respondents living in a dengue outbreak prone area who were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The level of knowledge about Aedes mosquitoes, dengue transmission, its symptoms, and personal preventive measures ranges from fair to good. The level of attitude towards preventive measures was high. However, reported level of personal larval control practices was low (33.2%). Our multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only those with a good level of attitude towards personal preventive measure and frequent attendance to health campaigns were significantly associated with the good larval control practices. We conclude that, in a dengue outbreak prone area, having a good attitude towards preventive measures and frequent participation in health campaigns are important factors to sustain practices on larval control. PMID:25309602

  12. Factors associated with tobacco smoking practices among middle-aged and older women in Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Colwell, Brian; Ahn, Sangnam; Ory, Marcia G

    2012-01-01

    This study examines middle-aged and older women's smoking practices and identifies factors associated with tobacco use and cessation in this population. Data of 593 women were analyzed from a seven-county random household sample in Texas. Sequential multinomial logistic regression compared associations with having never smoked, having quit smoking, and currently smoking. Compared to smokers, never smokers and past smokers were significantly more likely to be older, more educated, of better general health, and report past-year physician visits and fewer depressive symptoms. Mental health and smoking are interrelated, indicating the need for addressing depression in smoking-cessation efforts for aging women.

  13. Factors associated with oral hygiene practices among adults with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Hon K.; Hant, Faye N.; Hatfield, Corey; Summerlin, Lisa M.; Smith, Edwin A.; Silver, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with oral hygiene practices in adults with systemic sclerosis (SSc) METHODS In this cross-sectional study, 178 dentate adults with SSc received an oral examination which included measurement of oral aperture, assessment of manual dexterity to perform oral hygiene, as well as completion of the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and an oral health-related questionnaire. RESULTS Multivariable logistic regression modeling showed male, minority and high CES-D scores (i.e., clinically significant symptoms of depression) were associated with less likelihood of participants brushing teeth at least twice daily, but the presence of self-reported dry mouth symptoms increased the likelihood of toothbrushing. Having a dental visit in the past 12 months, and use of an adapted flossing or interdental cleaning device were significantly associated with daily dental flossing; however, having difficulty flossing teeth reduced the likelihood of daily flossing. CONCLUSIONS Overall, demographic variables were strongly associated with toothbrushing frequency, whereas, flossing self-efficacy and barriers were strongly associated with dental flossing frequency in adults with SSc. The results suggest that dental health professionals should take mental health into consideration when educating patients with SSc to improve their oral hygiene, and consider making referrals for patients exhibiting suspected clinically significant depressive symptoms to mental health professionals for further evaluation and treatment. In addition, an appropriate adapted flossing or interdental cleaning device should be recommended to increase dental flossing practices in this patient population. PMID:24128049

  14. Independent and opposite associations of hip and waist circumference with metabolic syndrome components and with inflammatory and atherothrombotic risk factors in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Paulo M; Barata, José T; Teixeira, Pedro J; Ross, Robert; Sardinha, Luís B

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown independent and opposite associations of hip circumference (HC) and waist circumference (WC) with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, no studies have simultaneously considered the independent contributions of both markers to metabolic proinflammatory and atherosclerotic risk factors. In this study, we examine the independent associations of WC and HC with metabolic syndrome and with proinflammatory and atherothrombotic features. Independent associations of thigh muscle and adipose tissue (AT) compartments with metabolic features were also studied. Abdominal and thigh muscle and AT distributions were assessed by computed tomography in 140 overweight and obese women (mean +/- SD: age, 38.3 +/- 0.5 years; body mass index, 30.4 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2)). Blood lipids and inflammatory and atherothrombotic markers were measured. For a given WC, a larger HC was inversely associated with fasting insulin (beta = -0.288, P = .008), hemoglobin A(1c) (beta = -0.246, P = .041), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations (beta = -0.241, P = .023). Contrarily, WC was related with an unfavorable metabolic profile. For a given WC, higher total thigh AT and total thigh subcutaneous AT masses were associated with lower hemoglobin A(1c) (beta = -0.244, P = .049; beta = -0.233, P = .049) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (beta = -0.252, P = .040; beta = -0.245, P = .037). In addition, total thigh AT was related with leptin (beta = 0.310, P = .012), whereas total thigh subcutaneous AT revealed opposite associations with fasting insulin concentrations (beta = -0.239, P = .034). Total thigh muscular tissue mass was related with lower plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (beta = -0.164, P = .049) and fibrinogen concentrations (beta = -0.222, P = .018). In conclusion, HC revealed independent and opposite associations with insulin resistance and atherothrombotic

  15. Vaginal Practices and Associations with Barrier Methods and Gel Use Among Sub-Saharan African Women Enrolled in an HIV Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Helen; Chidanyika, Agnes; De Bruyn, Guy; Padian, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Vaginal practices may interfere with the use and/or the effectiveness of female-initiated prevention methods. We investigated whether vaginal practices differed by randomization group in a phase III trial of the diaphragm with lubricant gel (MIRA) in Sub-Saharan Africa (n = 4925), and if they were associated with consistent use of study methods. At baseline, vaginal practices were commonly reported: vaginal washing (82.77%), wiping (56.47%) and insertion of dry or absorbent materials (20.58%). All three practices decreased during the trial. However, women in the intervention group were significantly more likely to report washing or wiping during follow-up compared to those in the control group. Additionally, washing, wiping, and insertion, were all independently and inversely associated with consistent diaphragm and gel use and with condom use as well, regardless of study arm. A better understanding of the socio-cultural context in which these practices are embedded could improve educational strategies to address these potentially modifiable behaviors, and may benefit future HIV prevention interventions of vaginal methods. PMID:20352318

  16. Vaginal practices and associations with barrier methods and gel use among Sub-Saharan African women enrolled in an HIV prevention trial.

    PubMed

    van der Straten, Ariane; Cheng, Helen; Chidanyika, Agnes; De Bruyn, Guy; Padian, Nancy

    2010-06-01

    Vaginal practices may interfere with the use and/or the effectiveness of female-initiated prevention methods. We investigated whether vaginal practices differed by randomization group in a phase III trial of the diaphragm with lubricant gel (MIRA) in Sub-Saharan Africa (n = 4925), and if they were associated with consistent use of study methods. At baseline, vaginal practices were commonly reported: vaginal washing (82.77%), wiping (56.47%) and insertion of dry or absorbent materials (20.58%). All three practices decreased during the trial. However, women in the intervention group were significantly more likely to report washing or wiping during follow-up compared to those in the control group. Additionally, washing, wiping, and insertion, were all independently and inversely associated with consistent diaphragm and gel use and with condom use as well, regardless of study arm. A better understanding of the socio-cultural context in which these practices are embedded could improve educational strategies to address these potentially modifiable behaviors, and may benefit future HIV prevention interventions of vaginal methods. PMID:20352318

  17. Progress towards practical device-independent quantum key distribution with spontaneous parametric down-conversion sources, on-off photodetectors, and entanglement swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-04-01

    Device-independent quantum key distribution (DIQKD) guarantees unconditional security of a secret key without making assumptions about the internal workings of the devices used for distribution. It does so using the loophole-free violation of a Bell's inequality. The primary challenge in realizing DIQKD in practice is the detection loophole problem that is inherent to photonic tests of Bell' s inequalities over lossy channels. We revisit the proposal of Curty and Moroder [Phys. Rev. A 84, 010304(R) (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.010304] to use a linear optics-based entanglement-swapping relay (ESR) to counter this problem. We consider realistic models for the entanglement sources and photodetectors: more precisely, (a) polarization-entangled states based on pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion sources with infinitely higher-order multiphoton components and multimode spectral structure, and (b) on-off photodetectors with nonunit efficiencies and nonzero dark-count probabilities. We show that the ESR-based scheme is robust against the above imperfections and enables positive key rates at distances much larger than what is possible otherwise.

  18. Independence Is.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Sharon

    This workbook is designed to help participants of the Independence Training Program (ITP) to achieve a definition of "independence." The program was developed for teenage girls. The process for developing the concept of independence consists of four steps. Step one instructs the participant to create an imaginary situation where she is completely…

  19. Association between pregnancy intention and optimal breastfeeding practices in the Philippines: a cross-sectional study1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of pregnancy intention on post-natal practices like breastfeeding is still poorly understood in the Philippines. In this light, this study aims to determine the association between pregnancy intention and optimal breastfeeding practices in the Philippines. Methods This is a cross-sectional study design using the 2003 Philippine National Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent association of pregnancy intention and optimal breastfeeding practices. The study includes 3,044 last-born children aged 6–36 months at the time of survey. Dead children were also included as long as their age of death satisfies the age criterion. Results Children born from mistimed pregnancies are more likely to have late breastfeeding initiation compared to children born from wanted pregnancies (OR = 1.44; 90%CI: 1.17-1.78). However, this occurs only among children belonging to households with low socio-economic status. Among children belonging to households with high socio-economic status, no significant effect of pregnancy intention on breastfeeding initiation was observed. Children born from unwanted pregnancies are less likely to have short breastfeeding duration (OR = 0.60; 90%CI: 0.48-0.76). However, this occurs only among children belonging to households with high socioeconomic status. No significant effect of pregnancy intention on breastfeeding duration was observed among children belonging to households with low socio-economic status. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that there are different effects of pregnancy intention on the two types of optimal breastfeeding practices examined. With regards to breastfeeding duration, it was found that among infants belonging to high SES, the odds of having short breastfeeding duration is lower among children born from unwanted pregnancies compared to children born from wanted one. Conversely, children belonging to low SES household, the

  20. Change in Body Fat Mass Is Independently Associated with Executive Functions in Older Women: A Secondary Analysis of a 12-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Elizabeth; Davis, Jennifer C.; Sharma, Devika; Chan, Alison; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the independent contribution of change in sub-total body fat and lean mass to cognitive performance, specifically the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution, in community-dwelling older women. Methods This secondary analysis included 114 women aged 65 to 75 years old. Participants were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training, twice-weekly resistance training, or twice-weekly balance and tone training. The primary outcome measure was the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution as assessed by the Stroop Test. Sub-total body fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to determine the independent association of change in both sub-total body fat and sub-total body lean mass with Stroop Test performance at trial completion. Results A multiple linear regression model showed reductions in sub-total body fat mass to be independently associated with better performance on the Stroop Test at trial completion after accounting for baseline Stroop performance, age, baseline global cognitive state, baseline number of comorbidities, baseline depression, and experimental group. The total variance explained was 39.5%; change in sub-total body fat mass explained 3.9% of the variance. Change in sub-total body lean mass was not independently associated with Stroop Test performance (P>0.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest that reductions in sub-total body fat mass – not sub-total lean mass – is associated with better performance of selective attention and conflict resolution. PMID:23308123

  1. Rocking bed and prolonged independence from nocturnal non-invasive ventilation in neurogenic respiratory failure associated with limb weakness

    PubMed Central

    Cormican, L; Higgins, S; Davidson, A; Howard, R; Williams, A

    2004-01-01

    A 40 year old mother of three with autosomal dominant scapuloperoneal muscular dystrophy presented with severe neurogenic respiratory failure requiring nocturnal non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Because of the development of profound proximal muscular weakness as a consequence of the progressive nature of her neurological disease, she eventually was unable to apply and remove the facial interface to set up her NIV circuit. She therefore became dependent on her children and carers to start and stop NIV during the night. A rocking bed was successfully employed as an alternative to nocturnal NIV. Ventilation was facilitated by the passive movement of the diaphragm as a consequence of the movement of the abdominal contents under the effect of gravity. Benefit was demonstrated objectively by pulse oximetry and subjectively by the improvement in the patient's symptomatology and continued independence at night. The ease of use of a rocking bed should be borne in mind when the necessity for nocturnal ventilatory support in neuromuscular disease results in the potential loss of independence for a patient. PMID:15192173

  2. Conditional independence mapping of DIGE data reveals PDIA3 protein species as key nodes associated with muscle aerobic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Burniston, Jatin G.; Kenyani, Jenna; Gray, Donna; Guadagnin, Eleonora; Jarman, Ian H.; Cobley, James N.; Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Chen, Yi-Wen; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Lisboa, Paulo J.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Profiling of protein species is important because gene polymorphisms, splice variations and post-translational modifications may combine and give rise to multiple protein species that have different effects on cellular function. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is one of the most robust methods for differential analysis of protein species, but bioinformatic interrogation is challenging because the consequences of changes in the abundance of individual protein species on cell function are unknown and cannot be predicted. We conducted DIGE of soleus muscle from male and female rats artificially selected as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively). In total 696 protein species were resolved and LC–MS/MS identified proteins in 337 spots. Forty protein species were differentially (P < 0.05, FDR < 10%) expressed between HCR and LCR and conditional independence mapping found distinct networks within these data, which brought insight beyond that achieved by functional annotation. Protein disulphide isomerase A3 emerged as a key node segregating with differences in aerobic capacity and unsupervised bibliometric analysis highlighted further links to signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which were confirmed by western blotting. Thus, conditional independence mapping is a useful technique for interrogating DIGE data that is capable of highlighting latent features. PMID:24769234

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Northern Tanzania: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Stanifer, John W.; Turner, Elizabeth L.; Egger, Joseph R.; Thielman, Nathan; Karia, Francis; Maro, Venance; Kilonzo, Kajiru; Patel, Uptal D.; Yeates, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a leading cause of death among adults in sub-Saharan Africa, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health threat. Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with NCDs is vital to informing optimal policy and public health responses in the region, but few community-based assessments have been performed for CKD. To address this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of adults in northern Tanzania using a validated instrument. Methods Between January and June 2014, we administered a structured survey to a random sample of adults from urban and rural communities. The validated instrument consisted of 25 items designed to measure knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with kidney disease. Participants were also screened for CKD, diabetes, hypertension, and human immunodeficiency virus. Results We enrolled 606 participants from 431 urban and rural households. Knowledge of the etiologies, symptoms, and treatments for kidney disease was low (mean score 3.28 out of 10; 95% CI 2.94, 3.63). There were no significant differences by CKD status. Living in an urban setting and level of education had the strongest independent associations with knowledge score. Attitudes were characterized by frequent concern about the health (27.3%; 20.2, 36.0%), economic (73.1%; 68.2, 77.5%), and social impact (25.4%; 18.6, 33.6%) of kidney disease. Practices included the use of traditional healers (15.2%; 9.1, 24.5%) and traditional medicines (33.8%; 25.0, 43.9%) for treatment of kidney disease as well as a willingness to engage with mobile-phone technology in CKD care (94.3%; 90.1, 96.8%). Conclusions Community-based adults in northern Tanzania have limited knowledge of kidney disease. However, there is a modest knowledge base upon which to build public health programs to expand awareness and understanding of CKD, but these programs must also consider the variety of means by which adults in this

  4. Current Practice Patterns Among Members of the American Urological Association for Male Genitourinary Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Gaither, Thomas W.; Awad, Mohannad A.; Alwaal, Amjad; Erickson, Bradley A.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the practice patterns of urologists who treat male genitourinary lichen sclerosus (MGU-LS) via a national web-based survey distributed to American Urological Association members. Methods A 20-question survey was collected from a random sample of American Urological Association members. Respondents answered questions on their practice patterns for MGU-LS diagnosis, treatment of symptomatic urethral stricture disease, surveillance, and follow-up. Results In total, 309 urologists completed the survey. The majority of respondents reported practicing more than 20+ years (37.5%) within an academic (31.7%) or group practice (31.1%) setting. The majority of respondents saw 3-5 men with MGU-LS per year (32.7%). The most common locations of MGU-LS involvement included the glans penis (66.2%), foreskin (26.3%), and/or the urethra (5.8%). Respondent first-line treatment for urethral stricture disease was direct visual internal urethrotomy (26.6%) and second-line treatment was referral to subspecialist (38.4%). After controlling for the number of patients evaluated with MGU-LS per year, those with reconstructive training were more likely to perform a primary urethroplasty for men with symptomatic urethral stricture disease (adjusted odds ratio 13.1, 95% confidence interval 5.1-33.8, P < .001). They were also more likely to counsel men on the associated penile cancer risks (adjusted odds ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval 1.7-12.5, P < .01). Conclusion Reconstructive urologists evaluate the most number of patients with MGU-LS and are more likely to perform primary urethroplasty for urethral stricture disease. Men with MGU-LS should be referred to a reconstructive urologist to understand the full gamut of treatment options. PMID:26948526

  5. Reduction in sodium intake is independently associated with improved blood pressure control in people with chronic kidney disease in primary care.

    PubMed

    Nerbass, Fabiana B; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; McIntyre, Natasha J; Shardlow, Adam; McIntyre, Christopher W; Taal, Maarten W

    2015-09-28

    Decreasing sodium intake has been associated with improvements in blood pressure (BP) and proteinuria, two important risk factors for CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. We aimed to investigate the role of sodium intake by examining the effect of changes in sodium intake over 1 year on BP and proteinuria in people with early stage CKD. From thirty-two general practices, 1607 patients with previous estimated glomerular filtration rate of 59-30 ml/min per 1.73 m² and mean age of 72.9 (sd 9.0) years were recruited. Clinical assessment, urine and serum biochemistry testing were performed at baseline and after 1 year. Sodium intake was estimated from early morning urine specimens using an equation validated for this study population. We found that compared with people who increased their sodium intake from ≤ 100 to >100 mmol/d over 1 year, people who decreased their intake from >100 to ≤ 100 mmol/d evidenced a greater decrease in all BP variables (Δmean arterial pressure (ΔMAP) = -7.44 (SD 10.1) v. -0.23 (SD 10.4) mmHg; P<0.001) as well as in pulse wave velocity (ΔPWV = -0.47 (SD 1.3) v. 0.08 (SD 1.88) m/s; P<0.05). Albuminuria improved only in albuminuric patients who decreased their sodium intake. BP improved in people who maintained low sodium intake at both times and in those with persistent high intake, but the number of anti-hypertensive increased only in the higher sodium intake group, and PWV improved only in participants with lower sodium intake. Decreasing sodium intake was an independent determinant of ΔMAP. Although more evidence is needed, our results support the benefits of reducing and maintaining sodium intake below 100 mmol/d (2.3-2.4 g/d) in people with early stages of CKD. PMID:26243465

  6. Coding Variants at Hexa-allelic Amino Acid 13 of HLA-DRB1 Explain Independent SNP Associations with Follicular Lymphoma Risk

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Jia Nee; Smedby, Karin E.; Akers, Nicholas K.; Berglund, Mattias; Irwan, Ishak D.; Jia, Xiaoming; Li, Yi; Conde, Lucia; Darabi, Hatef; Bracci, Paige M.; Melbye, Mads; Adami, Hans-Olov; Glimelius, Bengt; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Padyukov, Leonid; Humphreys, Keith; Enblad, Gunilla; Skibola, Christine F.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma represents a diverse group of blood malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL) is a common subtype. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region multiple independent SNPs that are significantly associated with FL risk. To dissect these signals and determine whether coding variants in HLA genes are responsible for the associations, we conducted imputation, HLA typing, and sequencing in three independent populations for a total of 689 cases and 2,446 controls. We identified a hexa-allelic amino acid polymorphism at position 13 of the HLA-DR beta chain that showed the strongest association with FL within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region (multiallelic p = 2.3 × 10−15). Out of six possible amino acids that occurred at that position within the population, we classified two as high risk (Tyr and Phe), two as low risk (Ser and Arg), and two as moderate risk (His and Gly). There was a 4.2-fold difference in risk (95% confidence interval = 2.9–6.1) between subjects carrying two alleles encoding high-risk amino acids and those carrying two alleles encoding low-risk amino acids (p = 1.01 × 10−14). This coding variant might explain the complex SNP associations identified by GWASs and suggests a common HLA-DR antigen-driven mechanism for the pathogenesis of FL and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23791106

  7. Coding variants at hexa-allelic amino acid 13 of HLA-DRB1 explain independent SNP associations with follicular lymphoma risk.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jia Nee; Smedby, Karin E; Akers, Nicholas K; Berglund, Mattias; Irwan, Ishak D; Jia, Xiaoming; Li, Yi; Conde, Lucia; Darabi, Hatef; Bracci, Paige M; Melbye, Mads; Adami, Hans-Olov; Glimelius, Bengt; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Padyukov, Leonid; Humphreys, Keith; Enblad, Gunilla; Skibola, Christine F; de Bakker, Paul I W; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-07-11

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma represents a diverse group of blood malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL) is a common subtype. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region multiple independent SNPs that are significantly associated with FL risk. To dissect these signals and determine whether coding variants in HLA genes are responsible for the associations, we conducted imputation, HLA typing, and sequencing in three independent populations for a total of 689 cases and 2,446 controls. We identified a hexa-allelic amino acid polymorphism at position 13 of the HLA-DR beta chain that showed the strongest association with FL within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region (multiallelic p = 2.3 × 10⁻¹⁵). Out of six possible amino acids that occurred at that position within the population, we classified two as high risk (Tyr and Phe), two as low risk (Ser and Arg), and two as moderate risk (His and Gly). There was a 4.2-fold difference in risk (95% confidence interval = 2.9-6.1) between subjects carrying two alleles encoding high-risk amino acids and those carrying two alleles encoding low-risk amino acids (p = 1.01 × 10⁻¹⁴). This coding variant might explain the complex SNP associations identified by GWASs and suggests a common HLA-DR antigen-driven mechanism for the pathogenesis of FL and rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  9. Practices of Dengue Fever Prevention and the Associated Factors among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is prevalent among Malaysia's indigenous peoples, known as the Orang Asli, and it poses a serious health threat to them. The study aims to look at the socio-demographic factors, health beliefs, and knowledge about dengue and its association to dengue prevention practices among Orang Asli communities in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 randomly selected Orang Asli villages from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia from April 2012 until February 2013. Results A total of 560 Orang Asli were interviewed and 505 completed the survey. Slightly above half of the participants (n = 280, 55.4%) had a total dengue prevention score of 51–100 (of a possible score of 0–100). Multivariate analysis findings showed dengue knowledge, perceived barriers to perform dengue prevention, fogging frequency, and perceived susceptibility to dengue fever as significant factors associated to dengue prevention practices. Participants with a lower dengue knowledge score (score 0–18) were less likely (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.44–0.92 vs. score 19–36, P = 0.015) to practice dengue prevention. Participants with low perceived barriers to prevent dengue (score of 1–5) were more likely (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.21–3.53, vs. score of 6–10, P = 0.008) to practice dengue prevention. Villages that were not fogged (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.24–0.99, P = 0.045) or rarely fogged (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.22–0.75, P = 0.004) had lower dengue prevention practices than villages that were fogged often. Participants with low perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue (score of 1–5) were less likely (OR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.33–0.89 vs. score of 6–10, P = 0.018) to practice dengue prevention measures. Conclusion Findings imply that educational and health programmes should focus on enhancing dengue knowledge and perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue and reducing perceived barriers to performing dengue prevention practices among the Orang Asli

  10. Healthcare-associated pathogens and nursing home policies and practices: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiqiu; Mukamel, Dana B; Huang, Susan S; Li, Yue; Temkin-Greener, Helena

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence of healthcare-associated pathogens and the infection control policies and practices in a national sample of nursing homes (NHs). METHODS In 2012, we conducted a national survey about the extent to which NHs follow suggested infection control practices with regard to 3 common healthcare-associated pathogens: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers, and their prevalence in NHs. We adapted a previously used and validated NH infection control survey, including questions on prevalence, admission and screening policies, contact precautions, decolonization, and cleaning practices. RESULTS A total of 1,002 surveys were returned. Of the responding NHs, 14.2% were less likely to accept residents with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with the principal reason being lack of single or cohort rooms. NHs do not routinely perform admission screening (96.4%) because it is not required by regulation (56.2%) and would not change care provision (30.7%). Isolation strategies vary substantially, with gloves being most commonly used. Most NHs (75.1%) do not decolonize carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but some (10.6%) decolonize more than 90% of residents. Despite no guidance on how resident rooms on contact precautions should be cleaned, 59.3% of NHs report enhanced cleaning for such rooms. CONCLUSION Overall, NHs tend to follow voluntary infection control guidelines only if doing so does not require substantial financial investment in new or dedicated staff or infrastructure. PMID:25797334

  11. Healthcare-associated pathogens and nursing home policies and practices: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiqiu; Mukamel, Dana B; Huang, Susan S; Li, Yue; Temkin-Greener, Helena

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence of healthcare-associated pathogens and the infection control policies and practices in a national sample of nursing homes (NHs). METHODS In 2012, we conducted a national survey about the extent to which NHs follow suggested infection control practices with regard to 3 common healthcare-associated pathogens: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers, and their prevalence in NHs. We adapted a previously used and validated NH infection control survey, including questions on prevalence, admission and screening policies, contact precautions, decolonization, and cleaning practices. RESULTS A total of 1,002 surveys were returned. Of the responding NHs, 14.2% were less likely to accept residents with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with the principal reason being lack of single or cohort rooms. NHs do not routinely perform admission screening (96.4%) because it is not required by regulation (56.2%) and would not change care provision (30.7%). Isolation strategies vary substantially, with gloves being most commonly used. Most NHs (75.1%) do not decolonize carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but some (10.6%) decolonize more than 90% of residents. Despite no guidance on how resident rooms on contact precautions should be cleaned, 59.3% of NHs report enhanced cleaning for such rooms. CONCLUSION Overall, NHs tend to follow voluntary infection control guidelines only if doing so does not require substantial financial investment in new or dedicated staff or infrastructure.

  12. Cerebral blood flow changes associated with different meditation practices and perceived depth of meditation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danny J J; Rao, Hengyi; Korczykowski, Marc; Wintering, Nancy; Pluta, John; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Newberg, Andrew B

    2011-01-30

    Our goal in this study was to advance the understanding of the neural pathways of meditation by addressing the cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses associated with two different meditation practices performed by the same individuals and how such changes related to the "stress" circuits in the brain. Ten experienced meditators performed two types of meditation, a "focused-based" practice and a "breath-based" practice. Subjects were scanned using perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a baseline state, both meditation states, and a post meditation baseline state. Using general linear model, we found that the frontal regions, anterior cingulate, limbic system and parietal lobes were affected during meditation and that there were different patterns of CBF between the two meditation states. We observed strong correlations between depth of meditation and neural activity in the left inferior forebrain areas including the insula, inferior frontal cortex, and temporal pole. There were persistent changes in the left anterior insula and the precentral gyrus even after meditation was stopped. This study revealed changes in the brain during two different meditation practices in the same individuals and that these changes correlated with the subjective experiences of the practitioners.

  13. Electrocortical activity and related phenomena associated with meditation practice: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, M M

    1984-11-01

    The state effects of meditation appear to include decreased electrocortical arousal. There is also evidence that meditators more readily demonstrate alpha and theta activity than nonmeditators, even when not meditating. It is not clear whether prospective meditators as a group already possessed this characteristic, or whether the state effects of meditation practice eventually generalize to become traits. However, certain individuals, namely the psychologically "healthy" and those with a capacity for relaxed absorbed attention, appear to be more favourably disposed to meditation. Meditators appear to show both stronger orienting and recovery responses to stressors while meditating than controls. Meditation practice may begin with left hemisphere type activity, which gives way to functioning more characteristic of the right hemisphere. However, it appears that during advanced meditation ("no thought") both left and right hemisphere activity are largely inhibited or suspended. Depending on the individual, inexperienced meditators may report sleep, hypnogogic reverie, trance or abreaction during practice. The evidence to date does not support the notion of unique state effects associated with the practice of meditation.

  14. Management practices associated with presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk from Ohio dairy herds.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L B; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious mastitis pathogen affecting cows worldwide. Practices to control this organism have been advocated for decades, and identification of risk factors in individual herds is crucial in prevention and control of Staph. aureus. The objectives of this paper were to estimate prevalence of Staph. aureus in Ohio dairies and to determine a potential association of herd characteristics and management practices with isolation of Staph. aureus in bulk tank milk. A questionnaire about herd characteristics, milking procedures, udder health, mastitis control, and biosecurity practices was mailed to 780 dairy producers; the response rate for the survey was 49%. Staphylococcus aureus prevalence was 48, 64, and 69% when 1, 2, or 3 samples of bulk tank milk from each herd were considered, respectively. Herds practicing prestrip, pre- and postmilking teat dip, and using a single towel per cow as part of the milking routine as well as herds where owners were involved in milking were at significantly reduced odds for detection of Staph. aureus in their bulk tank milk. PMID:26686713

  15. Genes Associated With Alcohol Outcomes Show Enrichment of Effects With Broad Externalizing and Impulsivity Phenotypes in an Independent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Aliev, Fazil; Wetherill, Leah; Bierut, Laura; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Edenberg, Howard; Foroud, Tatiana; Dick, Danielle M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate evidence for association with a panel of genes previously associated with alcohol-related traits in a new sample of adolescent and young adult individuals (N = 2,128; 51% female) collected as part of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). We tested for association with phenotypes related to externalizing behavior, including diagnostic symptom counts for disorders on the externalizing spectrum (alcohol dependence, conduct disorder, adult antisocial personality disorder, and illicit drug dependence), and related behavioral/personality traits (Achenbach Externalizing, NEO Extraversion, NEO Conscientiousness, Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking, and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale) based on the substantial literature suggesting that these behaviors may be alternate manifestations of a shared genetic liability. Method: We tested for overall enrichment of the set of 215 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each of the phenotypes. We conducted secondary analyses comparing results for sensation seeking with results for the other phenotypes. Results: For all phenotypes, there was significant enrichment of association results (p < .05) compared with chance expectations. The greatest number of significant results was observed with the phenotype Sensation Seeking. Secondary analyses indicated that the number of SNPs yielding p < .05 with Sensation Seeking was significantly greater than that observed for each of the other phenotypes. Conclusions: We find evidence for enrichment of association results across a spectrum of externalizing phenotypes with a panel of candidate genes/SNPs selected based on previous suggestion of association with alcohol-related outcomes. In particular, we find significant enrichment of effects with sensation seeking, suggesting that this may be a particularly salient behavior associated with risk for alcohol-related problems. PMID:25486392

  16. Ligand-independent canonical Wnt activity in canine mammary tumor cell lines associated with aberrant LEF1 expression.

    PubMed

    Gracanin, Ana; Timmermans-Sprang, Elpetra P M; van Wolferen, Monique E; Rao, Nagesha A S; Grizelj, Juraj; Vince, Silvijo; Hellmen, Eva; Mol, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    Pet dogs very frequently develop spontaneous mammary tumors and have been suggested as a good model organism for breast cancer research. In order to obtain an insight into underlying signaling mechanisms during canine mammary tumorigenesis, in this study we assessed the incidence and the mechanism of canonical Wnt activation in a panel of 12 canine mammary tumor cell lines. We show that a subset of canine mammary cell lines exhibit a moderate canonical Wnt activity that is dependent on Wnt ligands, similar to what has been described in human breast cancer cell lines. In addition, three of the tested canine mammary cell lines have a high canonical Wnt activity that is not responsive to inhibitors of Wnt ligand secretion. Tumor cell lines with highly active canonical Wnt signaling often carry mutations in key members of the Wnt signaling cascade. These cell lines, however, carry no mutations in the coding regions of intracellular Wnt pathway components (APC, β-catenin, GSK3β, CK1α and Axin1) and have a functional β-catenin destruction complex. Interestingly, however, the cell lines with high canonical Wnt activity specifically overexpress LEF1 mRNA and the knock-down of LEF1 significantly inhibits TCF-reporter activity. In addition, LEF1 is overexpressed in a subset of canine mammary carcinomas, implicating LEF1 in ligand-independent activation of canonical Wnt signaling in canine mammary tumors. We conclude that canonical Wnt activation may be a frequent event in canine mammary tumors both through Wnt ligand-dependent and novel ligand-independent mechanisms.

  17. Ligand-Independent Canonical Wnt Activity in Canine Mammary Tumor Cell Lines Associated with Aberrant LEF1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    van Wolferen, Monique E.; Rao, Nagesha A. S.; Grizelj, Juraj; Vince, Silvijo; Hellmen, Eva; Mol, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Pet dogs very frequently develop spontaneous mammary tumors and have been suggested as a good model organism for breast cancer research. In order to obtain an insight into underlying signaling mechanisms during canine mammary tumorigenesis, in this study we assessed the incidence and the mechanism of canonical Wnt activation in a panel of 12 canine mammary tumor cell lines. We show that a subset of canine mammary cell lines exhibit a moderate canonical Wnt activity that is dependent on Wnt ligands, similar to what has been described in human breast cancer cell lines. In addition, three of the tested canine mammary cell lines have a high canonical Wnt activity that is not responsive to inhibitors of Wnt ligand secretion. Tumor cell lines with highly active canonical Wnt signaling often carry mutations in key members of the Wnt signaling cascade. These cell lines, however, carry no mutations in the coding regions of intracellular Wnt pathway components (APC, β-catenin, GSK3β, CK1α and Axin1) and have a functional β-catenin destruction complex. Interestingly, however, the cell lines with high canonical Wnt activity specifically overexpress LEF1 mRNA and the knock-down of LEF1 significantly inhibits TCF-reporter activity. In addition, LEF1 is overexpressed in a subset of canine mammary carcinomas, implicating LEF1 in ligand-independent activation of canonical Wnt signaling in canine mammary tumors. We conclude that canonical Wnt activation may be a frequent event in canine mammary tumors both through Wnt ligand-dependent and novel ligand–independent mechanisms. PMID:24887235

  18. Ligand-independent canonical Wnt activity in canine mammary tumor cell lines associated with aberrant LEF1 expression.

    PubMed

    Gracanin, Ana; Timmermans-Sprang, Elpetra P M; van Wolferen, Monique E; Rao, Nagesha A S; Grizelj, Juraj; Vince, Silvijo; Hellmen, Eva; Mol, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    Pet dogs very frequently develop spontaneous mammary tumors and have been suggested as a good model organism for breast cancer research. In order to obtain an insight into underlying signaling mechanisms during canine mammary tumorigenesis, in this study we assessed the incidence and the mechanism of canonical Wnt activation in a panel of 12 canine mammary tumor cell lines. We show that a subset of canine mammary cell lines exhibit a moderate canonical Wnt activity that is dependent on Wnt ligands, similar to what has been described in human breast cancer cell lines. In addition, three of the tested canine mammary cell lines have a high canonical Wnt activity that is not responsive to inhibitors of Wnt ligand secretion. Tumor cell lines with highly active canonical Wnt signaling often carry mutations in key members of the Wnt signaling cascade. These cell lines, however, carry no mutations in the coding regions of intracellular Wnt pathway components (APC, β-catenin, GSK3β, CK1α and Axin1) and have a functional β-catenin destruction complex. Interestingly, however, the cell lines with high canonical Wnt activity specifically overexpress LEF1 mRNA and the knock-down of LEF1 significantly inhibits TCF-reporter activity. In addition, LEF1 is overexpressed in a subset of canine mammary carcinomas, implicating LEF1 in ligand-independent activation of canonical Wnt signaling in canine mammary tumors. We conclude that canonical Wnt activation may be a frequent event in canine mammary tumors both through Wnt ligand-dependent and novel ligand-independent mechanisms. PMID:24887235

  19. Multiple independent variants in 6q21-22 associated with susceptibility to celiac disease in the Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations

    PubMed Central

    Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Bevova, Marianna R; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Monsuur, Alienke; Koskinen, Lotta LE; Slot, Ruben van't; Mulder, Chris; Mearin, M Luisa; Korponay-Szabo, Ilma R; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle; Kere, Juha; Mäki, Markku; Wijmenga, Cisca; Saavalainen, Päivi

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is an inflammatory enteropathy caused by intolerance to gluten. Previous linkage studies in the Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations have revealed a locus on chromosome 6q21-22 conferring susceptibility to celiac disease. This locus has previously been implicated in susceptibility to other autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease and type 1 diabetes. We performed fine mapping on 446 independent individuals with celiac disease and 641 controls of Dutch origin, testing 872 tagging SNPs in a 22 Mb region of chromosome 6. The 12 most promising SNPs were followed up in 2071 individuals from 284 Finnish and 357 Hungarian celiac disease families to identify risk variants in this region. Multiple markers in the region were significantly associated with celiac disease in the Dutch material. Two SNPs, rs9391227 and rs4946111, were significantly associated with celiac disease in the Finnish population. The association to rs9391227 represents the strongest association signal found in the Finnish (P=0.003, OR 0.66) as well as the combined Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations (P=3.6 × 10−5, OR 0.76). The rs9391227 is situated downstream of the HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HACE1) gene and is contained within a region of strong linkage disequilibrium enclosing HACE1. Two additional, independent, susceptibility variants in the 6q21-22 region were also found in a meta-analysis of the three populations. The 6q21-22 region was confirmed as a celiac disease susceptibility locus and harbors multiple independent associations, some of which may implicate ubiquitin-pathways in celiac disease susceptibility. PMID:21326284

  20. Pretreatment HIV Drug Resistance and HIV-1 Subtype C Are Independently Associated With Virologic Failure: Results From the Multinational PEARLS (ACTG A5175) Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Rami; Smeaton, Laura; Vardhanabhuti, Saran; Hudelson, Sarah E.; Wallis, Carol L.; Tripathy, Srikanth; Morgado, Mariza G.; Saravanan, Shanmugham; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Reitsma, Marissa; Hart, Stephen; Mellors, John W.; Halvas, Elias; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Kumwenda, Johnstone; La Rosa, Alberto; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Lama, Javier R.; Rassool, Mohammed; Santos, Breno R.; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Hakim, James; Flanigan, Timothy; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Campbell, Thomas B.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Evaluation of pretreatment HIV genotyping is needed globally to guide treatment programs. We examined the association of pretreatment (baseline) drug resistance and subtype with virologic failure in a multinational, randomized clinical trial that evaluated 3 antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens and included resource-limited setting sites. Methods. Pol genotyping was performed in a nested case-cohort study including 270 randomly sampled participants (subcohort), and 218 additional participants failing ART (case group). Failure was defined as confirmed viral load (VL) >1000 copies/mL. Cox proportional hazards models estimated resistance–failure association. Results. In the representative subcohort (261/270 participants with genotypes; 44% women; median age, 35 years; median CD4 cell count, 151 cells/µL; median VL, 5.0 log10 copies/mL; 58% non-B subtypes), baseline resistance occurred in 4.2%, evenly distributed among treatment arms and subtypes. In the subcohort and case groups combined (466/488 participants with genotypes), used to examine the association between resistance and treatment failure, baseline resistance occurred in 7.1% (9.4% with failure, 4.3% without). Baseline resistance was significantly associated with shorter time to virologic failure (hazard ratio [HR], 2.03; P = .035), and after adjusting for sex, treatment arm, sex–treatment arm interaction, pretreatment CD4 cell count, baseline VL, and subtype, was still independently associated (HR, 2.1; P = .05). Compared with subtype B, subtype C infection was associated with higher failure risk (HR, 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–2.35), whereas non-B/C subtype infection was associated with longer time to failure (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, .22–.98). Conclusions. In this global clinical trial, pretreatment resistance and HIV-1 subtype were independently associated with virologic failure. Pretreatment genotyping should be considered whenever feasible. Clinical Trials

  1. Independent and joint associations between multiple measures of the built and social environment and physical activity in a multi-ethnic urban community.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Amy; Mentz, Graciela; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Israel, Barbara A; Max, Paul; Zenk, Shannon N; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of a number of health outcomes, yet fewer than half of adults in the United States report recommended levels of physical activity. Analyses of structural characteristics of the built environment as correlates of physical activity have yielded mixed results. We examine associations between multiple aspects of urban neighborhood environments and physical activity in order to understand their independent and joint effects, with a focus on the extent to which the condition of the built environment and indicators of the social environment modify associations between structural characteristics and physical activity. We use data from a stratified, multi-stage proportional probability sample of 919 non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic adults in an urban community, observational data from their residential neighborhoods, and census data to examine independent and joint associations of structural characteristics (e.g., street network connectivity), their condition (e.g., sidewalk condition), and social environments (e.g., territoriality) with physical activity. Our findings suggest that sidewalk condition is associated with physical activity, above and beyond structural characteristics of the built environment. Associations between some structural characteristics of the built environment and physical activity were conditional upon street condition, physical deterioration, and the proportion of parks and playgrounds in good condition. We found modest support for the hypothesis that associations between structural characteristics and physical activity are modified by aspects of the social environment. Results presented here point to the value of and need for understanding and addressing the complexity of factors that contribute to the relationships between the built and social environments and physical activity, and in turn, obesity and co-morbidities. Bringing together urban planners, public health

  2. Is the Association between Neighborhood Drug Prevalence and Marijuana use Independent of Peer Drug and Alcohol Norms? Results from a Household Survey of Urban Youth.

    PubMed

    Leifheit, Kathryn M; Parekh, Jenita; Matson, Pamela A; Moulton, Lawrence H; Ellen, Jonathan M; Jennings, Jacky M

    2015-08-01

    To inform policy debates surrounding marijuana decriminalization and add to our understanding of social and structural influences on youth drug use, we sought to determine whether there was an independent association between neighborhood drug prevalence and individual-level marijuana use after controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a household survey of 563 youth aged 15-24 in Baltimore, Maryland. The study population was 88 % African-American. Using gender-stratified, weighted, multilevel logistic regression, we tested whether neighborhood drug prevalence was associated with individual-level marijuana use after controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms. Bivariate analyses identified a significant association between high neighborhood drug prevalence and marijuana use among female youth (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.26, 2.47); the association was in a similar direction but not significant among male youth (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.85, 1.87). In multivariable regression controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms, high neighborhood drug prevalence remained significantly associated among female youth (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.27). Among male youth, the association was attenuated toward the null (AOR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.63, 1.45). In the multivariable model, peer drug and alcohol norms were significantly associated with individual-level marijuana use among female youth (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.17, 2.04) and male youth (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.65, 4.07). This work suggests that individual-level marijuana use among female youth is associated with neighborhood drug prevalence independent of peer norms. This finding may have important implications as the policy landscape around marijuana use changes.

  3. High level PHGDH expression in breast is predominantly associated with keratin 5-positive cell lineage independently of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gromova, Irina; Gromov, Pavel; Honma, Naoko; Kumar, Sudha; Rimm, David; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans; Moreira, José M A

    2015-10-01

    We have previously reported the 2D PAGE-based proteomic profiling of a prospective cohort of 78 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients, and the establishment of a cumulative TNBC protein database. Analysis of this database identified a number of proteins as being specifically overexpressed in TNBC samples. One such protein was D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh), a candidate oncogene. We analysed expression of Phgdh in normal and TNBC mammary tissue samples by 2D gel-based proteomics and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and show here that high-level expression of Phgdh in mammary epithelial cells is primarily associated with cell lineage, as we found that Phgdh expression was predominant in CK5-positive cells, normal as well as malignant, thus identifying an association of this protein with the basal phenotype. Quantitative IHC analysis of Phgdh expression in normal breast tissue showed high-level expression of Phgdh in normal CK5-positive mammary epithelial cells, indicating that expression of this protein was not associated with malignancy, but rather with cell lineage. However, proteomic profiling of Phgdh showed it to be expressed in two major protein forms, and that the ratio of expression between these variants was associated with malignancy. Overexpression of Phgdh in CK5-positive cell lineages, and differential protein isoform expression, was additionally found in other tissues and cancer types, suggesting that overexpression of Phgdh is generally associated with CK5 cells, and that oncogenic function may be determined by isoform expression.

  4. Sleep Apnea is Independently Associated with Peripheral Arterial Disease in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neomi; Allison, Matthew; Teng, Yanping; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Ramos, Alberto R.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Yaggi, H. Klar; Gallo, Linda C.; Redline, Susan; Kaplan, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sleep apnea (SA) has been linked with various forms of cardiovascular disease, but little is known about its association with peripheral artery disease (PAD) measured using the ankle- brachial index (ABI). This relationship was evaluated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Approach and Results We studied 8,367 HCHS/SOL participants who were 45 to 74 years of age. Sleep symptoms were examined with the self-reported Sleep Health Questionnaire. SA was assessed using an in-home sleep study. Systolic blood pressure was measured in all extremities to compute the ABI. PAD was defined as ABI < 0.90 in either leg. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to investigate the association between moderate-to-severe SA, defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15, and the presence of PAD. Analyses were adjusted for covariates. The prevalence of PAD was 4.7% (n=390). The mean AHI was significantly higher among adults with PAD compared to those without (11.1 vs. 8.6 events/hour, p=0.046). After adjusting for covariates, moderate-to-severe SA was associated with a 70% increase in the odds of PAD (odds ratio 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1 – 2.5, p=0.0152). This association was not modified by sex (p=0.8739). However, there was evidence that the association between moderate-to-severe SA and PAD varied by Hispanic/Latino background (p < 0.01). Specifically, the odds were stronger in Mexican (adjusted OR 2.9, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.2) and in Puerto Rican Americans (adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI: 0.97 – 4.2) than in other backgrounds. Conclusions Moderate-to-severe SA is associated with higher odds of PAD in Hispanic/Latino adults. PMID:25657310

  5. Evaluation of dietary practices of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Cole, Constance R; Salvaterra, George F; Davis, Joseph E; Borja, Marianne E; Powell, Loreen M; Dubbs, Elizabeth C; Bordi, Peter L

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the dietary practices of 28 football athletes on a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I team using 3-day diet records. Student athletes completed 3-day diet records at 2 individual points of time, when no training table was available. Diet records were evaluated and were compared with the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) data for the same ages and gender group. No differences in dietary practices of collegiate football athletes were observed when compared with data for the same ages and gender group culled from NHANES III. Inadequacies in energy intake for activity level were significant (p < 0.05). Influences of fad dieting trends were noted when the diets were mapped onto the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food guide pyramid. Changes in diet would be necessary to sustain the activity level of these athletes. PMID:16095395

  6. Evaluation of dietary practices of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Cole, Constance R; Salvaterra, George F; Davis, Joseph E; Borja, Marianne E; Powell, Loreen M; Dubbs, Elizabeth C; Bordi, Peter L

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the dietary practices of 28 football athletes on a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I team using 3-day diet records. Student athletes completed 3-day diet records at 2 individual points of time, when no training table was available. Diet records were evaluated and were compared with the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) data for the same ages and gender group. No differences in dietary practices of collegiate football athletes were observed when compared with data for the same ages and gender group culled from NHANES III. Inadequacies in energy intake for activity level were significant (p < 0.05). Influences of fad dieting trends were noted when the diets were mapped onto the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food guide pyramid. Changes in diet would be necessary to sustain the activity level of these athletes.

  7. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobis cultivation.

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Hill, G.; Hill, E.; Huse, S. M.; Weightman, A. J.; Mahenthiralingam, E.

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by 'JW') was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

  8. Culture-Independent Analysis of Bacterial Fuel Contamination Provides Insight into the Level of Concordance with the Standard Industry Practice of Aerobic Cultivation ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M.; Weightman, Andrew J.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by “JW”) was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas. PMID:21602386

  9. Maternal and Hospital Factors Associated with First-Time Mothers' Breastfeeding Practice: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzu-I; Huang, Shu-Her; Lee, Shoou-Yih D

    2015-01-01

    Continuity of breastfeeding is infrequent and indeterminate. Evidence is lacking regarding factors associated with breastfeeding at different postpartum time points. This prospective study investigated the change in, and correlates of, breastfeeding practices after delivery at a hospital and at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum among first-time mothers. We followed a cohort of 300 primiparous mothers of Taiwan who gave birth at two hospitals during 2010-2011. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine factors that were correlated with breastfeeding practices. In the study sample, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay was 66%; it declined to 37.5% at 1 month and 30.2% at 3 months postpartum. Only 17.1% of women reported continuing breastfeeding at 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding, rooming-in practice, and self-efficacy were significantly related to exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay. After discharge, health literacy, knowledge, intention, and self-efficacy were positively and significantly associated with breastfeeding exclusivity. Later initiation (hazard ratio=1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.05, 1.97), shorter intention (hazard ratio=1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.13, 1.68), and self-efficacy (hazard ratio=0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.96, 0.99) were important predictors of breastfeeding cessation within 6 months of delivery. Continuous breastfeeding practice for 6 months is challenging and difficult for new mothers. Results showed that factors related to breastfeeding varied over time after delivery. Interventions seeking to sustain breastfeeding should consider new mothers' needs and barriers at different times.

  10. High Pretreatment Plasma D-dimer Levels Are Associated With Poor Prognosis in Patients With Ovarian Cancer Independently of Venous Thromboembolism and Tumor Extension

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Manabu; Satoh, Toyomi; Matsumoto, Koji; Michikami, Hiroo; Nakamura, Yuko; Nakao, Sari; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Mamiko; Minaguchi, Takeo; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated plasma D-dimer (DD) is associated with decreased survival among patients with breast, lung, and colon cancers. The present study clarifies the prognostic significance of pretreatment plasma DD levels in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods We investigated pretreatment DD levels and other variables for overall survival using univariate and multivariate analyses in 134 consecutive patients with EOC stages II to IV who were initially treated between November 2004 and December 2010. Results The median follow-up period was 53 (7–106) months. Univariate analysis significantly associated elevated pretreatment DD (≥2.0 μg/mL) levels to poor 5-year overall survival rates irrespective of previously treated venous thromboembolism (72.2% vs 52.6%, P = 0.039). Cancer antigen 125 levels of 200 U/mL or higher (P = 0.011), distant metastases (P = 0.0004), residual tumors (P < 0.0001), and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III/IV (P = 0.0033) were also poor prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis independently associated DD levels of 2.0 μg/mL or higher (P = 0.041), distant metastases (P = 0.013), and residual tumors (P < 0.0001) with poor overall survival. Conclusions High pretreatment DD levels are associated with poor overall survival in patients with EOC independently of venous thromboembolism and tumor extension and might comprise a promising prognostic biomarker for patients with EOC. PMID:25756402

  11. An Analysis of Independent, Non-Academic Characteristics of Chinese and American Business Students Associated with Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.; Hignite, Michael A.; Moses, Duane R.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuation of their prior research which focused on the differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) levels between Chinese and American business students and the academic variables associated with those scores, the authors extend their efforts to investigate those personal (non-academic) characteristics of both American and Chinese business…

  12. Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Is Independently Associated with Reduced Postoperative Opioid Consumption in Bariatric Patients Suffering from Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Alparslan; You, Jing; Egan, Cameron; Fu, Alex; Khanna, Ashish; Eshraghi, Yashar; Ghosh, Raktim; Bose, Somnath; Qavi, Shahbaz; Arora, Lovkesh; Sessler, Daniel I.; Doufas, Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that recurrent nocturnal hypoxemia may affect pain response and/or the sensitivity to opioid analgesia. We tested the hypothesis that nocturnal hypoxemia, quantified by sleep time spent at an arterial saturation (SaO2) < 90% and minimum nocturnal SaO2 on polysomnography, are associated with decreased pain and reduced opioid consumption during the initial 72 postoperative hours in patients having laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Methods With Institutional Review Board approval, we examined the records of all patients who underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2010 and had an available nocturnal polysomnography study. We assessed the relationships between the time-weighted average of pain score and total opioid consumption during the initial 72 postoperative hours, and: (a) the percentage of total sleep time spent at SaO2 < 90%, (b) the minimum nocturnal SaO2, and (c) the number of apnea/hypopnea episodes per hour of sleep. We used multivariable regression models to adjust for both clinical and sleep-related confounders. Results Two hundred eighteen patients were included in the analysis. Percentage of total sleep time spent at SaO2 < 90% was inversely associated with total postoperative opioid consumption; a 5-%- absolute increase in the former would relatively decrease median opioid consumption by 16% (98.75% CI: 2% to 28%, P = 0.006). However, the percentage of total sleep time spent at SaO2 < 90% was not associated with pain. The minimum nocturnal SaO2 was associated neither with total postoperative opioid consumption nor with pain. In addition, neither pain nor total opioid consumption was significantly associated with the number of apnea/hypopnea episodes per hour of sleep. Conclusions Preoperative nocturnal intermittent hypoxia may enhance sensitivity to opioids. PMID:26010491

  13. Associations of farm management practices with annual milk sales on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Shauna; VanLeeuwen, John; Shepelo, Getrude; Gitau, George Karuoya; Kamunde, Collins; Uehlinger, Fabienne; Wichtel, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Cows on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) in developing countries such as Kenya typically produce volumes of milk that are well below their genetic potential. An epidemiological study was conducted to determine reasons for this low milk production, including limited use of best management practices, such as suboptimal nutritional management. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study of 111 SDF was performed in Nyeri County, Kenya in June of 2013 determining the effect of cow factors, farmer demographics and farm management practices on the volume of milk sold per cow per year (kg milk sold/cow). In particular, the effect of feeding high protein fodder trees and other nutritional management practices were examined. Results: Approximatly 38% of farmers fed fodder trees, but such feeding was not associated with volume of milk sold per cow, likely due to the low number of fodder trees per farm. Volume of milk sold per cow was positively associated with feeding dairy meal during the month prior to calving, feeding purchased hay during the past year, deworming cows every 4 or more months (as opposed to more regularly), and having dairy farming as the main source of family income. Volume of milk sold per cow was negatively associated with a household size of >5 people and feeding Napier grass at >2 meters in height during the dry season. An interaction between gender of the principal farmer and feed shortages was noted; volume of milk sold per cow was lower when female farmers experienced feed shortages whereas milk sold per cow was unaffected when male farmers experienced feed shortages. Conclusions: These demographic and management risk factors should be considered by smallholder dairy farmers and their advisors when developing strategies to improve income from milk sales and animal-source food availability for the farming families. PMID:27047003

  14. Activated ErbB3 Translocates to the Nucleus via Clathrin-independent Endocytosis, Which Is Associated with Proliferating Cells.

    PubMed

    Reif, Raymond; Adawy, Alshaimaa; Vartak, Nachiket; Schröder, Jutta; Günther, Georgia; Ghallab, Ahmed; Schmidt, Marcus; Schormann, Wiebke; Hengstler, Jan G

    2016-02-19

    Members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family (RTK) have been shown to be present in the nucleus of cells; however, the mechanisms underlying their trafficking to the nucleus, and their relevance once there are poorly understood. In the present study, we focus on the RTK ErbB3 and elucidate the mechanisms regulating its trafficking. We show that heregulin-stimulation induces trafficking of phosphorylated ErbB3 from the plasma membrane to the nucleus via a clathrin-independent mechanism. Nuclear import of ErbB3 occurs via importin β1, which drives the receptor through the nuclear pore complex. In the nucleus, ErbB3 interacts with transcription complexes, and thereby has a role in transcriptional regulation. Our results also demonstrate that ErbB3 nuclear localization is transient as it is exported out of the nucleus by the nuclear receptor protein crm-1. Analysis of normal, regenerating tissues, and tumors showed that ErbB3 nuclear translocation is a common event in proliferating tissues.

  15. Hibernation is associated with depression of T-cell independent humoral immune responses in the 13-lined ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Hjalmar R; Henning, Robert H; Kroese, Frans G M; Carey, Hannah V

    2013-03-01

    Mammalian hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism and body temperature (torpor), interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. The function of both the innate and adaptive immune system is suppressed during hibernation. In this study, we analyzed the humoral adaptive immune response to a T-cell independent (TI-2) and a T-cell dependent (TD) antigen. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels were immunized in summer or during hibernation with either a TI-2 or TD antigen on day 0 and day 14. Blood was drawn on day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Both types of antigens induced a significant rise in antibody titer in summer animals. Much to our surprise, however, only immunization with the TD antigen, and not with the TI-2 antigen induced a humoral response in hibernators. Flow cytometric analysis of CD4 (helper T-lymphocytes), CD8 (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes) and CD45RA (B-lymphocytes) in blood, spleen and lymph nodes ruled out massive apoptosis as explanation of the absent TI humoral response during hibernation. Rather, reduced TI-2 stimulation of B-lymphocytes, possibly due to lowered serum complement during torpor, may explain the reduced antibody production in response to a TI-2 antigen. These results demonstrate that hibernation diminishes the capacity to induce a TI-2 humoral immune response, while the capacity to induce a humoral response to a TD antigen is maintained.

  16. Activated ErbB3 Translocates to the Nucleus via Clathrin-independent Endocytosis, Which Is Associated with Proliferating Cells.

    PubMed

    Reif, Raymond; Adawy, Alshaimaa; Vartak, Nachiket; Schröder, Jutta; Günther, Georgia; Ghallab, Ahmed; Schmidt, Marcus; Schormann, Wiebke; Hengstler, Jan G

    2016-02-19

    Members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family (RTK) have been shown to be present in the nucleus of cells; however, the mechanisms underlying their trafficking to the nucleus, and their relevance once there are poorly understood. In the present study, we focus on the RTK ErbB3 and elucidate the mechanisms regulating its trafficking. We show that heregulin-stimulation induces trafficking of phosphorylated ErbB3 from the plasma membrane to the nucleus via a clathrin-independent mechanism. Nuclear import of ErbB3 occurs via importin β1, which drives the receptor through the nuclear pore complex. In the nucleus, ErbB3 interacts with transcription complexes, and thereby has a role in transcriptional regulation. Our results also demonstrate that ErbB3 nuclear localization is transient as it is exported out of the nucleus by the nuclear receptor protein crm-1. Analysis of normal, regenerating tissues, and tumors showed that ErbB3 nuclear translocation is a common event in proliferating tissues. PMID:26719328

  17. The Growth Reduction Associated with Repressed Lignin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Is Independent of Flavonoids[C

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Weng, Jing-Ke; Chapple, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Defects in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis arising from deficiency in hydroxycinnamoyl CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) or p-coumaroyl shikimate 3′-hydroxylase (C3′H) lead to reduced lignin, hyperaccumulation of flavonoids, and growth inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was previously reported that flavonoid-mediated inhibition of auxin transport is responsible for growth reduction in HCT-RNA interference (RNAi) plants. This conclusion was based on the observation that simultaneous RNAi silencing of HCT and chalcone synthase (CHS), an enzyme essential for flavonoid biosynthesis, resulted in less severe dwarfing than silencing of HCT alone. In an attempt to extend these results using a C3′H mutant (ref8) and a CHS null mutant (tt4-2), we found that the growth phenotype of the ref8 tt4-2 double mutant, which lacks flavonoids, is indistinguishable from that of ref8. Moreover, using RNAi, we found that the relationship between HCT silencing and growth inhibition is identical in both the wild type and tt4-2. We conclude from these results that the growth inhibition observed in HCT-RNAi plants and the ref8 mutant is independent of flavonoids. Finally, we show that expression of a newly characterized gene bypassing HCT and C3′H partially restores both lignin biosynthesis and growth in HCT-RNAi plants, demonstrating that a biochemical pathway downstream of coniferaldehyde, probably lignification, is essential for normal plant growth. PMID:20511296

  18. Association of FCRL3 Genetic Polymorphisms With Endometriosis-Related Infertility Risk: An Independent Study in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Guang; Wang, Surong; Zhang, Shiqian; Xie, Beibei

    2015-09-01

    The Fc receptor-like 3 (FCRL3) gene was reported to be linked to a variety of autoimmune diseases, including endometriosis-related infertility. However, this linkage has not been studied in Chinese population and there has been no meta-analysis on the interrelationship of FCRL3 gene and endometriosis-related infertility. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between FCRL3 genetic polymorphisms and the risk of endometriosis-related infertility in Han Chinese, and a further meta-analysis was conducted to confirm our results.Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7528684 [FCRL3_3], rs11264799 [FCRL3_4], rs945635 [FCRL3_5], and rs3761959 [FCRL3_6]) on FCRL3 gene were genotyped in a case-control cohort composed of 217 patients suffering from endometriosis-related infertility and 220 healthy controls using cleaved amplification polymorphism sequence-tagged sites (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, PCR-RFLP). Odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to evaluate the association quantitatively. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of previous studies including the present study was implemented through Stata 11.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX).We found an approximately 1.4-fold significantly increased frequency of the FCRL3_3 variant in women with endometriosis-related infertility over the controls (OR = 1.41 [95% CI = 1.08-1.84], P = 0.013). However, no significant difference was found between women with endometriosis-related infertility and controls for FCRL3_4, FCRL3_5, and FCRL3_6. Regardless of the symptoms and the revised classification of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (rASRM) stage of endometriosis, there was a significant association between FCRL3_3 variant and an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility. Meta-analysis of previous studies combined with the present study further confirmed the association between FCRL3_3 and the risk of endometriosis

  19. The principles of quality-associated costing: derivation from clinical transfusion practice.

    PubMed

    Trenchard, P M; Dixon, R

    1997-01-01

    As clinical transfusion practice works towards achieving cost-effectiveness, prescribers of blood and its derivatives must be certain that the prices of such products are based on real manufacturing costs and not market forces. Using clinical cost-benefit analysis as the context for the costing and pricing of blood products, this article identifies the following two principles: (1) the product price must equal the product cost (the "price = cost" rule) and (2) the product cost must equal the real cost of product manufacture. In addition, the article describes a new method of blood product costing, quality-associated costing (QAC), that will enable valid cost-benefit analysis of blood products.

  20. Regular-Soda Intake Independent of Weight Status Is Associated with Asthma among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M.; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio = 1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio = 1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination. PMID:23260727

  1. Regular-soda intake independent of weight status is associated with asthma among US high school students.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination.

  2. Understanding the independent and joint associations of the home and workplace built environments on cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Hoehner, Christine M; Allen, Peg; Barlow, Carolyn E; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Schootman, Mario

    2013-10-01

    This observational study examined the associations of built environment features around the home and workplace with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) based on a treadmill test and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). The study included 8,857 adults aged 20-88 years who completed a preventive medical examination in 2000-2007 while living in 12 Texas counties. Analyses examining workplace neighborhood characteristics included a subset of 4,734 participants. Built environment variables were derived around addresses by using geographic information systems. Models were adjusted for individual-level and census block group-level demographics and socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI (in CRF models), and all other home or workplace built environment variables. CRF was associated with higher intersection density, higher number of private exercise facilities around the home and workplace, larger area of vegetation around the home, and shorter distance to the closest city center. Aside from vegetation, these same built environment features around the home were also associated with BMI. Participants who lived and worked in neighborhoods in the lowest tertiles for intersection density and the number of private exercise facilities had lower CRF and higher BMI values than participants who lived and worked in higher tertiles for these variables. This study contributes new evidence to suggest that built environment features around homes and workplaces may affect health.

  3. Understanding the Independent and Joint Associations of the Home and Workplace Built Environments on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Allen, Peg; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.; Schootman, Mario

    2013-01-01

    This observational study examined the associations of built environment features around the home and workplace with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) based on a treadmill test and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2). The study included 8,857 adults aged 20–88 years who completed a preventive medical examination in 2000–2007 while living in 12 Texas counties. Analyses examining workplace neighborhood characteristics included a subset of 4,734 participants. Built environment variables were derived around addresses by using geographic information systems. Models were adjusted for individual-level and census block group–level demographics and socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI (in CRF models), and all other home or workplace built environment variables. CRF was associated with higher intersection density, higher number of private exercise facilities around the home and workplace, larger area of vegetation around the home, and shorter distance to the closest city center. Aside from vegetation, these same built environment features around the home were also associated with BMI. Participants who lived and worked in neighborhoods in the lowest tertiles for intersection density and the number of private exercise facilities had lower CRF and higher BMI values than participants who lived and worked in higher tertiles for these variables. This study contributes new evidence to suggest that built environment features around homes and workplaces may affect health. PMID:23942215

  4. Results of the independent radiological verification survey at the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site, Fairfield, Ohio (FOH001)

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.E.; Murray, M.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site is located at 3550 Dixie Highway, Fairfield, Ohio. Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company produced hollow uranium slugs in a machine shop at the site in 1956. The work was performed for National Lead of Ohio in a contract with the Atomic Energy Commission to augment the capacity of the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald in the development of nuclear energy for defense-related projects. The current occupant of the building, Force Control, operates a multipurpose machine shop. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio. The survey was performed from February to May of 1995. The purpose of the survey was to verify that radioactivity from residues of {sup 238}U was remediated to a level below acceptable DOE guidelines levels.

  5. Independent Associations between Sedentary Time, Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Johan; Wijtzes, Anne; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Bourgois, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.26 and β = -0.43, both p<0.001, respectively). CRF explained 73% of the variance in the association between MVPA and clustered cardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.39, p<0.001). In conclusion, because of the mediating role of CRF, lifestyle-interventions need to be feasible yet challenging enough to lead to increases in CRF to improve someone’s cardio-metabolic health. PMID:27463377

  6. Independent Associations between Sedentary Time, Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Knaeps, Sara; Lefevre, Johan; Wijtzes, Anne; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Bourgois, Jan G

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.26 and β = -0.43, both p<0.001, respectively). CRF explained 73% of the variance in the association between MVPA and clustered cardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.39, p<0.001). In conclusion, because of the mediating role of CRF, lifestyle-interventions need to be feasible yet challenging enough to lead to increases in CRF to improve someone's cardio-metabolic health. PMID:27463377

  7. Natural C-independent expression of restriction endonuclease in a C protein-associated restriction-modification system.

    PubMed

    Rezulak, Monika; Borsuk, Izabela; Mruk, Iwona

    2016-04-01

    Restriction-modification (R-M) systems are highly prevalent among bacteria and archaea, and appear to play crucial roles in modulating horizontal gene transfer and protection against phage. There is much to learn about these diverse enzymes systems, especially their regulation. Type II R-M systems specify two independent enzymes: a restriction endonuclease (REase) and protective DNA methyltransferase (MTase). Their activities need to be finely balanced in vivo Some R-M systems rely on specialized transcription factors called C (controller) proteins. These proteins play a vital role in the temporal regulation of R-M gene expression, and function to indirectly modulate the horizontal transfer of their genes across the species. We report novel regulation of a C-responsive R-M system that involves a C protein of a poorly-studied structural class - C.Csp231I. Here, the C and REase genes share a bicistronic transcript, and some of the transcriptional auto-control features seen in other C-regulated R-M systems are conserved. However, separate tandem promoters drive most transcription of the REase gene, a distinctive property not seen in other tested C-linked R-M systems. Further, C protein only partially controls REase expression, yet plays a role in system stability and propagation. Consequently, high REase activity was observed after deletion of the entire C gene, and cells bearing the ΔC R-M system were outcompeted in mixed culture assays by those with the WT R-M system. Overall, our data reveal unexpected regulatory variation among R-M systems.

  8. Natural C-independent expression of restriction endonuclease in a C protein-associated restriction-modification system

    PubMed Central

    Rezulak, Monika; Borsuk, Izabela; Mruk, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Restriction–modification (R-M) systems are highly prevalent among bacteria and archaea, and appear to play crucial roles in modulating horizontal gene transfer and protection against phage. There is much to learn about these diverse enzymes systems, especially their regulation. Type II R-M systems specify two independent enzymes: a restriction endonuclease (REase) and protective DNA methyltransferase (MTase). Their activities need to be finely balanced in vivo. Some R-M systems rely on specialized transcription factors called C (controller) proteins. These proteins play a vital role in the temporal regulation of R-M gene expression, and function to indirectly modulate the horizontal transfer of their genes across the species. We report novel regulation of a C-responsive R-M system that involves a C protein of a poorly-studied structural class - C.Csp231I. Here, the C and REase genes share a bicistronic transcript, and some of the transcriptional auto-control features seen in other C-regulated R-M systems are conserved. However, separate tandem promoters drive most transcription of the REase gene, a distinctive property not seen in other tested C-linked R-M systems. Further, C protein only partially controls REase expression, yet plays a role in system stability and propagation. Consequently, high REase activity was observed after deletion of the entire C gene, and cells bearing the ΔC R-M system were outcompeted in mixed culture assays by those with the WT R-M system. Overall, our data reveal unexpected regulatory variation among R-M systems. PMID:26656489

  9. Practical advice for avoidance of pain associated with insertion of intrauterine contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Bahamondes, Luis; Mansour, Diana; Fiala, Christian; Kaunitz, Andrew M; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Few studies in the scientific literature provide clear direction on the prevention or management of pain associated with intrauterine contraceptive (IUC) placement. Those that have been published have studied small numbers of women and fail to provide definitive conclusions. There are also no guidelines available detailing recognised standard approaches to this problem. The consensus recommendations in this review focus primarily on non-pharmacological and often non-evidence-based interventions. This review includes general considerations, practical recommendations for both routine and more difficult cases and guidance on the optimal choice of instruments. General considerations, including pre-insertion counselling, the setting for the procedure, the confidence and technique of the provider and the interplay between the provider and assistant, can influence women's level of anxiety and, in turn, influence their perception of pain and their overall experience. Further studies are required to refine the optimal strategy for managing pain associated with IUC insertion. PMID:24076534

  10. Diabetes management. Analysis of the American Diabetes Association's clinical practice recommendations.

    PubMed

    Strano-Paul, L; Phanumas, D

    2000-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes generally develops in persons older than age 45 and comprises more than 90% of the estimated 15 million diabetes cases identified in the United States. Due to the burgeoning population of older Americans and the increased prevalence of obesity and sedentariness, type 2 diabetes is nearing epidemic proportions. Tight glycemic control combined with good diet and regular exercise can reduce the incidence of complications associated with unchecked disease. To help physicians and patients achieve such objectives, the American Diabetes Association publishes clinical practice recommendations that propose the most effective methods for screening, diagnosis, and disease management. The position statements presenting the standard of care for treatment of diabetes are reviewed and critiqued from an evidence-based medicine perspective.

  11. Moderate Activity and Fitness, Not Sedentary Time, Are Independently Associated with Cardio-Metabolic Risk in U.S. Adults Aged 18–49

    PubMed Central

    van der Velde, Jeroen H. P. M.; Savelberg, Hans H. C. M.; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Koster, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study is one of the first to examine and compare the independent associations of objectively measured sedentary time, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and fitness with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied 543 men and women (aged 18–49 years) from the NHANES 2003–2004 survey. Sedentary time and MVPA were measured by accelerometry. Fitness was assessed with a submaximal treadmill test. Cardio-metabolic risk factors included: waist circumference (WC), BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HDL- and non HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Sedentary time, MVPA and fitness were used as predictors for the cardio-metabolic outcomes in a multiple regression analysis. Standardized regression coefficients were computed. Results show that sedentary time was associated with HDL-cholesterol (β = −0.080, p = 0.05) and TG (β = 0.080, p = 0.03). These results became non-significant after adjustment for MVPA and fitness. MVPA was associated with WC (β = −0.226), BMI (β = −0.239), TG (β = −0.108) and HDL-cholesterol (β = 0.144) (all p < 0.05). These results remained significant after adjustment for sedentary time and fitness. Fitness was associated with WC (β = −0.287), BMI (β = −0.266), systolic blood pressure (β = −0.159), TG (β = −0.092), and CRP (β = −0.130) (all p < 0.05). After adjustment for sedentary time and MVPA these results remained significant. These differences in relative importance of sedentary time, MVPA and fitness on cardio-metabolic-risk are important in the design of prevention programs. In this population, the strength of the associations between MVPA and fitness with cardio-metabolic markers appeared to be similar; both MVPA and fitness showed independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors. In contrast, sedentary time showed no independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk after correction for fitness and MVPA. PMID:25711356

  12. Higher Dietary Acidity is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Iranian Women, Independent of Dietary Calcium Intake.

    PubMed

    Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Nosrat-Mirshekarlou, Elaheh; Karamati, Mohsen; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Findings of studies on the link between dietary acid-base balance and bone mass are relatively mixed. We examined the association between dietary acid-base balance and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of Iranian women, hypothesizing that a higher dietary acidity would be inversely associated with BMD, even when dietary calcium intake is adequate. In this cross-sectional study, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs of 151 postmenopausal women aged 50-85 years were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Renal net acid excretion (RNAE), an estimate of acid-base balance, was then calculated indirectly from the diet using the formulae of Remer (based on dietary intakes of protein, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium; RNAERemer) and Frassetto (based on dietary intakes of protein and potassium; RNAEFrassetto), and was energy adjusted by the residual method. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable adjusted means of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertiles of RNAERemer and RNAEFrassetto were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertiles (for RNAERemer: mean difference -0.084 g/cm2; P=0.007 and for RNAEFrassetto: mean difference -0.088 g/cm2; P=0.004). Similar results were observed in a subgroup analysis of subjects with dietary calcium intake of >800 mg/day. In conclusion, a higher RNAE (i. e. more dietary acidity), which is associated with greater intake of acid-generating foods and lower intake of alkali-generating foods, may be involved in deteriorating the bone health of postmenopausal Iranian women, even in the context of adequate dietary calcium intake.

  13. Healthcare-Associated Pathogens and Nursing Home Policies and Practices: Results from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhiqiu; Mukamel, Dana B.; Huang, Susan S.; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Objectives State and federal recommendations for infection control/prevention (IC) in nursing homes (NHs) have become more frequent, but little is known about actual NH policies/practices. Design and setting In 2012, we conducted a national survey about the extent to which NHs follow suggested IC practices with regard to three common healthcare-associated pathogens: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile (C.diff), and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers, and their prevalence in NHs. We adapted a previously used and validated NH infection control survey, including questions on prevalence, admission and screening policies, contact precaution, decolonization, and cleaning practices. Results 1,002 surveys were returned. 14.2% of NHs are less likely to accept residents with MRSA, with principal reason being lack of single/cohort rooms. NHs do not routinely perform admission screening (96.4%) because it is not required by regulation (56.2%) and would not change care provision (30.7%). Isolation strategies vary substantially, with gloves being most commonly used. Most NHs (75.1%) do not decolonize MRSA carriers, but some (10.6%) decolonize over 90% of residents. Despite no guidance on how resident rooms on contact precautions should be cleaned, 59.3% of NHs report enhanced cleaning for such rooms. Conclusions Overall, NHs tend to follow voluntary infection control guidelines only if doing so does not require substantial financial investment in new/dedicated staff or infrastructure. PMID:25797334

  14. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Maduka, C. V.; Igbokwe, I. O.; Atsanda, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = −0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with deep litter system. In conclusion, the chicken production system requires increased drive for excellent biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak. PMID:27200208

  15. Dispensing Rates of Four Common Hearing Aid Product Features: Associations With Variations in Practice Among Audiologists

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Earl E.; Ricketts, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop and examine a list of potential variables that may account for variability in the dispensing rates of four common hearing aid features. A total of 29 potential variables were identified and placed into the following categories: (1) characteristics of the audiologist, (2) characteristics of the hearing aids dispensed by the audiologist, (3) characteristics of the audiologist's patient population, and (4) evidence-based practice grades of recommendation for each feature. The potentially associative variables then were examined using regression analyses from the responses of 257 audiologists to a dispensing practice survey. There was a direct relation between price and level of hearing aid technology with the frequency of dispensing product features. There was also a direct relation between the belief by the audiologist that a feature might benefit patients and the frequency of dispensing that feature. In general, the results suggested that personal differences among audiologists and the hearing aids audiologists choose to dispense are related more strongly to dispensing rates of product features than to differences in characteristics of the patient population served by audiologists. An additional finding indicated that evidence-based practice recommendations were inversely related to dispensing rates of product features. This finding, however, may not be the result of dispensing trends as much as hearing aid manufacturing trends. PMID:20457726

  16. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Maduka, C V; Igbokwe, I O; Atsanda, N N

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = -0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with deep litter system. In conclusion, the chicken production system requires increased drive for excellent biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak. PMID:27200208

  17. Characterization of the bacterial community associated with body wall lesions of Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea) using culture-independent methods.

    PubMed

    Becker, Pierre T; Gillan, David C; Eeckhaut, Igor

    2009-02-01

    The bacterial community associated with skin lesions of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla was investigated using 16S ribosomal RNA gene cloning and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). All clones were classified in the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) bacteria. Most of the Alphaproteobacteria were related to the Roseobacter lineage and to bacteria implicated in marine diseases. The majority of the Gammaproteobacteria were identified as Vibrio while CFB represented only 9% of the total clones. FISH analyses showed that Alphaproteobacteria, CFB bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria accounted respectively for 43%, 38% and 19% of the DAPI counts. The importance of the methods used is emphasized. PMID:19041326

  18. Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

    2012-05-01

    In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have

  19. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9% reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8% sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends, sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half IDUs reported unsafe injection practices, and our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs’ perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  20. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9 % reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8 % sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends or sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half the IDUs reported unsafe injection practices. Our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs' perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  1. Vertical integration: hospital ownership of physician practices is associated with higher prices and spending.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    We examined the consequences of contractual or ownership relationships between hospitals and physician practices, often described as vertical integration. Such integration can reduce health spending and increase the quality of care by improving communication across care settings, but it can also increase providers' market power and facilitate the payment of what are effectively kickbacks for inappropriate referrals. We investigated the impact of vertical integration on hospital prices, volumes (admissions), and spending for privately insured patients. Using hospital claims from Truven Analytics MarketScan for the nonelderly privately insured in the period 2001-07, we constructed county-level indices of prices, volumes, and spending and adjusted them for enrollees' age and sex. We measured hospital-physician integration using information from the American Hospital Association on the types of relationships hospitals have with physicians. We found that an increase in the market share of hospitals with the tightest vertically integrated relationship with physicians--ownership of physician practices--was associated with higher hospital prices and spending. We found that an increase in contractual integration reduced the frequency of hospital admissions, but this effect was relatively small. Taken together, our results provide a mixed, although somewhat negative, picture of vertical integration from the perspective of the privately insured. PMID:24799571

  2. Vertical integration: hospital ownership of physician practices is associated with higher prices and spending.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    We examined the consequences of contractual or ownership relationships between hospitals and physician practices, often described as vertical integration. Such integration can reduce health spending and increase the quality of care by improving communication across care settings, but it can also increase providers' market power and facilitate the payment of what are effectively kickbacks for inappropriate referrals. We investigated the impact of vertical integration on hospital prices, volumes (admissions), and spending for privately insured patients. Using hospital claims from Truven Analytics MarketScan for the nonelderly privately insured in the period 2001-07, we constructed county-level indices of prices, volumes, and spending and adjusted them for enrollees' age and sex. We measured hospital-physician integration using information from the American Hospital Association on the types of relationships hospitals have with physicians. We found that an increase in the market share of hospitals with the tightest vertically integrated relationship with physicians--ownership of physician practices--was associated with higher hospital prices and spending. We found that an increase in contractual integration reduced the frequency of hospital admissions, but this effect was relatively small. Taken together, our results provide a mixed, although somewhat negative, picture of vertical integration from the perspective of the privately insured.

  3. Modular glovebox connector and associated good practices for control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials.

    PubMed

    Hoover, M D; Mewhinney, C J; Newton, G J

    1999-01-01

    Design and associated good practices are described for a modular glovebox connector to improve control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials. The connector consists of an anodized aluminum circular port with a mating spacer, gaskets, and retaining rings for joining two parallel ends of commercially available or custom-manufactured glovebox enclosures. Use of the connector allows multiple gloveboxes to be quickly assembled or reconfigured in functional units. Connector dimensions can be scaled to meet operational requirements for access between gloveboxes. Options for construction materials are discussed, along with recommendations for installation of the connector in new or retrofitted systems. Associated good practices include application of surface coatings and caulking, use of disposable glovebags, and proper selection and protection of gasket and glove materials. Use of the connector at an inhalation toxicology research facility has reduced the time and expense required to reconfigure equipment for changing operational requirements, the dispersion of contamination during reconfigurations, and the need for decommissioning and disposal of contaminated enclosures.

  4. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for treatment of exercise-associated hyponatremia: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brad L; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Hoffman, Martin D; Rogers, Ian R; Rosner, Mitchell H

    2014-12-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is defined by a serum or plasma sodium concentration below the normal reference range of 135 mmol/L that occurs during or up to 24 hours after prolonged physical activity. It is reported to occur in individual physical activities or during organized endurance events conducted in austere environments in which medical care is limited and often not available, and patient evacuation to definitive care is often greatly delayed. Rapid recognition and appropriate treatment are essential in the severe form to ensure a positive outcome. Failure in this regard is a recognized cause of event-related fatality. In an effort to produce best practice guidelines for EAH in the austere environment, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel. The panel was charged with the development of evidence-based guidelines for management of EAH. Recommendations are made regarding the situations when sodium concentration can be assessed in the field and when these values are not known. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens for each parameter according to the methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original WMS Practice Guidelines for Treatment of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2013;24(3):228-240.

  5. Loving-Kindness Meditation practice associated with longer telomeres in women.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Elizabeth A; Chen, Maxine M; Orr, Esther; Metcalf, Christina A; Fischer, Laura E; Pollack, Mark H; De Vivo, Immaculata; Simon, Naomi M

    2013-08-01

    Relatively short telomere length may serve as a marker of accelerated aging, and shorter telomeres have been linked to chronic stress. Specific lifestyle behaviors that can mitigate the effects of stress might be associated with longer telomere lengths. Previous research suggests a link between behaviors that focus on the well-being of others, such as volunteering and caregiving, and overall health and longevity. We examined relative telomere length in a group of individuals experienced in Loving-Kindness Meditation (LKM), a practice derived from the Buddhist tradition which utilizes a focus on unselfish kindness and warmth towards all people, and control participants who had done no meditation. Blood was collected by venipuncture, and Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure relative telomere length (RTL) (Cawthon, 2002) in fifteen LKM practitioners and 22 control participants. There were no significant differences in age, gender, race, education, or exposure to trauma, but the control group had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of past depression. The LKM practitioners had longer RTL than controls at the trend level (p=.083); among women, the LKM practitioners had significantly longer RTL than controls, (p=.007), which remained significant even after controlling for BMI and past depression. Although limited by small sample size, these results offer the intriguing possibility that LKM practice, especially in women, might alter RTL, a biomarker associated with longevity. PMID:23602876

  6. Associations of infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann

    2011-09-01

    Picky eating behaviors are prevalent during childhood and are often linked to nutritional problems. However, information on the determinants of picky eating behaviors during infancy, when food acceptance patterns develop, is scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of infant feeding practices on the development of picky eating behaviors during preschool years. Baseline survey data from the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids (STRONG Kids) program were used for this retrospective data analysis. Primary caregiver-child dyads were recruited from child-care centers in Eastern Illinois between February and July of 2009. A total of 129 self-reported responses from mothers of preschool-aged children were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors. Children who were introduced to complementary foods before 6 months of age had 2.5 times higher odds of developing food neophobia and limited variety of foods (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 5.93 and 1.06 to 5.73, respectively). Children who were breastfed exclusively for 6 months had lower odds of developing a preference for specific food-preparation methods by 78% (95% CI: 19% to 94%), food rejection by 81% (95% CI: 31% to 94%), and food neophobia by 75% (95% CI: 11% to 93%). Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods after 6 months of age reduced the odds of picky eating during early childhood. This study documents an association between infant-feeding practices and the development of picky eating behaviors in early childhood.

  7. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their

  8. Factors Associated with Tick Bite Preventive Practices among Farmworkers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Li Ping; Tay, Sun Tee; Bulgiba, Awang; Zandi, Keivan; Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Ong, Bee Lee; Jaafar, Tariq; Hassan Nizam, Quaza Nizamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Background Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers. Methods A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013 Results A total of 151 (72.2%) out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91) reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05) a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2) from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1) from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1) farms, (2) job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers), (3) perceived severity of tick bites, and (4) perceived barriers to tick bite prevention. Conclusions A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived

  9. [Contact lens associated dry eye. Current study results and practical implementation].

    PubMed

    Khaireddin, R

    2013-06-01

    Contact lens-associated dry eye symptoms have mostly been therapeutically addressed using artificial tears containing hyaluronic acid to supplement tear film volume with often unsatisfactory results. However, the main reason for contact lens-associated dry eye is not the lack of tear fluid but the lack of tear film stability due to meibomian gland dysfunction leading to reduction of the lipid film of tears. This is associated with increased evaporation of the aqueous phase of tear fluid and a measurable hyperosmolarity of the residual "denatured" tear film. A subsequent inflammatory reaction of the ocular surface then leads to the vicious circle of dry eye. The aim of this review is to summarize current study results on this topic and to give practical advice on how to address dry eye symptoms in contact lens wearers more accurately. For most contact lens-associated dry eye symptoms a combined therapy with unpreserved artificial tears plus phospholipid-liposome eye spray yields the best results. In cases of additional signs of blepharitis the regular use of phospholipid-liposome solution for lid margin hygiene is beneficial.

  10. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

  11. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity. PMID:24892903

  12. Household food security is associated with infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kuntal K; Frongillo, Edward A; Alam, Dewan S; Arifeen, Shams E; Persson, Lars Ake; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2008-07-01

    Although household food security (HHFS) has been shown to affect diet, nutrition, and health of adults and also learning in children, no study has examined associations with infant feeding practices (IFP). We studied 1343 infants born between May 2002 and December 2003 in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab study to investigate the effect of HHFS on IFP in rural Bangladesh. We measured HHFS using a previously developed 11-item scale. Cumulative and current infant feeding scales were created from monthly infant feeding data for the age groups of 1-3, 1-6, 1-9, and 1-12 mo based on comparison to infant feeding recommendations. We used lagged, dynamic, and difference longitudinal regression models adjusting for various infant and maternal variables to examine the association between HHFS and changes in IFP, and Cox proportional hazards models to examine the influence of HHFS on the duration of breast-feeding and the time of introduction of complementary foods. Better HHFS status was associated with poor IFP during 3-6 mo but was associated with better IFP during 6-9 and 9-12 mo of age. Although better HHFS was not associated with the time of introduction of complementary foods, it was associated with the type of complementary foods given to the infants. Intervention programs to support proper IFP should target mothers in food-secure households when their babies are 3-6 mo old and also mothers in food-insecure households during the 2nd half of infancy. Our results provide strong evidence that HHFS influences IFP in rural Bangladesh.

  13. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Facilities and Hygiene Practices Associated with Diarrhea and Vomiting in Monastic Schools, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Emma R. N.; Agius, Paul A.; Veale, Hilary; Dorning, Karl; Hlang, Thein T.; Aung, Poe P.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.; Hellard, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal diseases are major contributors to mortality among children globally, causing one in 10 child deaths. Although most deaths are in children aged ≤ 5 years, the burden of disease in school-aged children is still considerable and contributes to high rates of school absenteeism. This study investigates behavioral and structural risk factors associated with diarrhea and/or vomiting among schoolchildren in Myanmar. Cross-sectional data from a school-based multistage cluster sample of grade 4 and 5 students were analyzed to explore water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities and hygiene-related practices of students in monastic schools in Myanmar. The outcome of interest was student self-reported diarrhea and/or vomiting in the past week. Random effects multinomial logistic regression models were used to explore correlates at the student and school level. A total of 2,082 students from 116 schools across eight states/regions were included. Of these, 11% (223) self-reported at least one episode of diarrhea only, 12% (253) at least one episode of vomiting only, and 12% (244) diarrhea and vomiting in the past week. Independent risk factors associated with the outcome included poor availability of handwash stations, no access to a septic tank toilet, inconsistent toilet use, and lower student grade. These findings highlight the importance of having an adequate number of handwash stations for students, the provision of septic tank toilets, and consistent toilet use. Future WASH programs need to target not only the provision of these WASH facilities but also their utilization, particularly among younger school-aged children. PMID:27325805

  14. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Facilities and Hygiene Practices Associated with Diarrhea and Vomiting in Monastic Schools, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Emma R N; Agius, Paul A; Veale, Hilary; Dorning, Karl; Hlang, Thein T; Aung, Poe P; Fowkes, Freya J I; Hellard, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal diseases are major contributors to mortality among children globally, causing one in 10 child deaths. Although most deaths are in children aged ≤ 5 years, the burden of disease in school-aged children is still considerable and contributes to high rates of school absenteeism. This study investigates behavioral and structural risk factors associated with diarrhea and/or vomiting among schoolchildren in Myanmar. Cross-sectional data from a school-based multistage cluster sample of grade 4 and 5 students were analyzed to explore water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities and hygiene-related practices of students in monastic schools in Myanmar. The outcome of interest was student self-reported diarrhea and/or vomiting in the past week. Random effects multinomial logistic regression models were used to explore correlates at the student and school level. A total of 2,082 students from 116 schools across eight states/regions were included. Of these, 11% (223) self-reported at least one episode of diarrhea only, 12% (253) at least one episode of vomiting only, and 12% (244) diarrhea and vomiting in the past week. Independent risk factors associated with the outcome included poor availability of handwash stations, no access to a septic tank toilet, inconsistent toilet use, and lower student grade. These findings highlight the importance of having an adequate number of handwash stations for students, the provision of septic tank toilets, and consistent toilet use. Future WASH programs need to target not only the provision of these WASH facilities but also their utilization, particularly among younger school-aged children. PMID:27325805

  15. Information-seeking Behavior During Residency Is Associated With Quality of Theoretical Learning, Academic Career Achievements, and Evidence-based Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3–6; range, 1–10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33–4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09–4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01–3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46–11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the

  16. Postpartum cultural practices are negatively associated with depressive symptoms among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tai, Chen-Jei; Wu, Tsai-Wei; Chiang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Li-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of researchers in this study were to examine acceptance and adherence to mainstream Taiwanese postpartum cultural practices and their association with postpartum depressive symptoms among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men. While the postpartum cultural practices in China are similar to mainstream Taiwanese practices, those of Vietnam differ from Taiwanese practices. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Taiwan from October 2007 through March 2008, and included190 immigrant mothers from China and Vietnam who had delivered a child within the past year. Immigrant mothers from China had higher levels of acceptance and adherence to mainstream Taiwanese postpartum cultural practices and a lower rate of postpartum depressive symptoms than immigrant mothers from Vietnam, but the association between adherence to "doing-the-month" practices and postpartum depressive symptoms did not vary significantly between Chinese and Vietnamese mothers. Adherence to these practices was negatively associated with postpartum depressive symptoms among immigrant mothers (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90-0.96) after adjustment for social support, duration between moving to Taiwan and delivery, and country of origin. Adherence to mainstream postpartum cultural practices was negatively associated with postpartum depressive symptoms for both Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant women married to Taiwanese men. PMID:22860702

  17. Postpartum cultural practices are negatively associated with depressive symptoms among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tai, Chen-Jei; Wu, Tsai-Wei; Chiang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Li-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of researchers in this study were to examine acceptance and adherence to mainstream Taiwanese postpartum cultural practices and their association with postpartum depressive symptoms among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men. While the postpartum cultural practices in China are similar to mainstream Taiwanese practices, those of Vietnam differ from Taiwanese practices. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Taiwan from October 2007 through March 2008, and included190 immigrant mothers from China and Vietnam who had delivered a child within the past year. Immigrant mothers from China had higher levels of acceptance and adherence to mainstream Taiwanese postpartum cultural practices and a lower rate of postpartum depressive symptoms than immigrant mothers from Vietnam, but the association between adherence to "doing-the-month" practices and postpartum depressive symptoms did not vary significantly between Chinese and Vietnamese mothers. Adherence to these practices was negatively associated with postpartum depressive symptoms among immigrant mothers (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90-0.96) after adjustment for social support, duration between moving to Taiwan and delivery, and country of origin. Adherence to mainstream postpartum cultural practices was negatively associated with postpartum depressive symptoms for both Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant women married to Taiwanese men.

  18. Cary Potter on Independent Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Cary

    1978-01-01

    Cary Potter was President of the National Association of Independent Schools from 1964-1978. As he leaves NAIS he gives his views on education, on independence, on the independent school, on public responsibility, on choice in a free society, on educational change, and on the need for collective action by independent schools. (Author/RK)

  19. Salam's independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    In his kind review of my biography of the Nobel laureate Abdus Salam (December 2008 pp45-46), John W Moffat wrongly claims that Salam had "independently thought of the idea of parity violation in weak interactions".

  20. Maintaining Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upah-Bant, Marilyn

    1978-01-01

    Describes the over-all business and production operation of the "Daily Illini" at the University of Illinois to show how this college publication has assumed the burdens and responsibilities of true independence. (GW)

  1. Tristetraprolin limits inflammatory cytokine production in tumor-associated macrophages in an mRNA decay independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Kratochvill, Franz; Gratz, Nina; Qualls, Joseph E.; Van De Velde, Lee-Ann; Chi, Hongbo; Kovarik, Pavel; Murray, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an inducible zinc finger AU-rich RNA binding protein essential for enforcing degradation of mRNAs encoding inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Most studies on TTP center on the connection between mRNA half-life and inflammatory output, because loss of TTP amplifies inflammation by increasing stability of AU-rich mRNAs. Here we focused on how TTP controls cytokine and chemokine production in the non-resolving inflammation of cancer using tissue-specific approaches. By contrast to model in vitro macrophage systems, we found constitutive TTP expression in late stage tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). However, TTP’s effects on AU-rich mRNA stability were negligible and limited by constitutive p38α MAP kinase activity which was the main driver of pro-inflammatory cytokine production in TAMs at the posttranscriptional level. Instead elimination of TTP caused excessive protein production of inflammatory mediators suggesting TTP-dependent translational suppression of AU-rich mRNAs. Manipulation of the p38α-TTP axis in macrophages has significant effects on the growth of tumors, and therefore represents a means to manipulate inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26183929

  2. Ofloxacin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated with efflux pump activity independent of resistance pattern and genotype.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaogang; Xu, Yuhui; Sun, Yong; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xuxia; Huang, Hairong; Li, Chuanyou

    2014-12-01

    Drug-resistance to ofloxacin (OFX) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is due to missense mutations in gyrA and other factors, such as alterations in the activity of drug efflux pumps. In this study, we identified 8 extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), 40 multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB), 38 polydrug resistant TB (PDR-TB), and 16 single OFX-resistant TB from 102 clinical isolates. We tested the effect of three efflux inhibitors, reserpine, verapamil, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), on changes in the OFX minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using Resazurin microtitre assay. These three inhibitors changed the MICs from 2- to 32-fold, with CCCP having the strongest effect. A total of 55%, 74%, and 83% of the tested isolates had changes in MIC of more than two-fold by reserpine, verapamil, and CCCP, respectively. The inhibitors led to similar fold-changes of OFX MICs in the XDR, MDR, PDR, and single OFX-resistant isolates. For each inhibitor, a higher resistance to OFX was associated with the greater efflux pump activity. There were no significant differences in the effect of efflux pump inhibitors upon Beijing and non-Beijing M. tuberculosis genotypes. Taken together, these results indicate that the efflux pump activity was greater in the isolates higher resistant to OFX and had similar effects on isolates with different drug resistant pattern, and had similar effects on Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes.

  3. Observer trait anxiety is associated with response bias to patient facial pain expression independent of pain catastrophizing

    PubMed Central

    Rash, Joshua A; Prkachin, Kenneth M; Campbell, Tavis S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Top-down characteristics of an observer influence the detection and estimation of a sufferer’s pain. A comprehensive understanding of these characteristics is important because they influence observer helping behaviours and the sufferer’s experience of pain. OBJECTIVES: To examine the hypothesis that individuals who score high in trait anxiety would perceive more intense pain in others, as indicated by a larger negative response bias, and that this association would persist after adjusting for pain catastrophizing. METHODS: Healthy young adult participants (n=99; 50 male) watched videos containing excerpts of facial expressions taken from patients with shoulder pain and were asked to rate how much pain the patient was experiencing using an 11-point numerical rating scale. Sensitivity and response bias were calculated using signal detection methods. RESULTS: Trait anxiety was a predictor of response bias after statistically adjusting for pain catastrophizing and observer sex. More anxious individuals had a proclivity toward imputing greater pain to a sufferer. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals scoring higher on trait anxiety were more likely to impute pain to a sufferer. Anxious caregivers may be better able to respond with appropriate intervention once pain behaviour is detected, or they may exacerbate symptoms by engaging in excessive palliative care and solicitous behaviour. PMID:25299592

  4. The National Association of School Psychologists' Self-Assessment Tool for School Psychologists: Factor Structure and Relationship to the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Katie; Rossen, Eric; Charvat, Jeff; Meyer, Lauren; Tanner, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of School Psychologists' Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services (2010a), often referred to as the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model, describes the comprehensive range of professional skills and competencies available from school psychologists across 10 domains. The…

  5. Independent associations of polymorphisms in vitamin D binding protein (GC) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes with obesity and plasma 25OHD3 levels demonstrate sex dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Almesri, Norah; Das, Nagalla S; Ali, Muhallab E; Gumaa, Khalid; Giha, Hayder Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    We investigated a possible association between polymorphisms in vitamin D binding protein (GC) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes and obesity in Bahraini adults. For this purpose, 406 subjects with varying body mass indexes (BMIs) were selected. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms, 2 in the VDR gene (rs731236 TC and rs12721377 AG) and 4 in the GC gene (rs2282679 AC, rs4588 CA, rs7041 GT, and rs2298849 TC), were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that the rs7041 minor allele (G) and rare genotype (GG) were associated with higher BMI (p = 0.007 and p = 0.012, respectively), but they did not influence 25OHD3 levels. However, the minor alleles of rs2282679 (A) and rs4588 (C) were associated with low 25OHD3 plasma levels (p = 0.039 and p = 0.021, respectively), but not with BMI. Having categorized the subjects based on their sex, we found that (i) rs7041 GG associated with high BMI in females (p = 0.003), (ii) rs4588 CC associated with high BMI in females (p = 0.034) and low 25OHD3 levels in males (p = 0.009), and (iii) rs12721377 AA associated with low 25OHD3 levels in females (p = 0.039). Notably, none of the common haplotypes (6 in the GC gene and 3 in the VDR gene) were associated with BMI. Therefore, polymorphisms in the GC (rs2282679, rs4588, rs7041) and VDR (rs12721377) genes were independently associated with obesity and 25OHD3 levels with a clear sex dimorphism.

  6. Assessing brain structural associations with working-memory related brain patterns in schizophrenia and healthy controls using linked independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Christine Lycke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Tønnesen, Siren; Agartz, Ingrid; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Westlye, Lars T

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a psychotic disorder with significant cognitive dysfunction. Abnormal brain activation during cognitive processing has been reported, both in task-positive and task-negative networks. Further, structural cortical and subcortical brain abnormalities have been documented, but little is known about how task-related brain activation is associated with brain anatomy in SZ compared to healthy controls (HC). Utilizing linked independent component analysis (LICA), a data-driven multimodal analysis approach, we investigated structure-function associations in a large sample of SZ (n = 96) and HC (n = 142). We tested for associations between task-positive (fronto-parietal) and task-negative (default-mode) brain networks derived from fMRI activation during an n-back working memory task, and brain structural measures of surface area, cortical thickness, and gray matter volume, and to what extent these associations differed in SZ compared to HC. A significant association (p < .05, corrected for multiple comparisons) was found between a component reflecting the task-positive fronto-parietal network and another component reflecting cortical thickness in fronto-temporal brain regions in SZ, indicating increased activation with increased thickness. Other structure-function associations across, between and within groups were generally moderate and significant at a nominal p-level only, with more numerous and stronger associations in SZ compared to HC. These results indicate a complex pattern of moderate associations between brain activation during cognitive processing and brain morphometry, and extend previous findings of fronto-temporal brain abnormalities in SZ by suggesting a coupling between cortical thickness of these brain regions and working memory-related brain activation. PMID:26509112

  7. AB272. Penile rehabilitation following radical prostatectomy: practice patterns among Japanese Urological Association members

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Kazuhito; Horie, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Objective A compromise in erectile function is commonly experienced after radical prostatectomy (RP). Despite the fact that the benefits are still unclear, penile rehabilitation after RP has become the standard of care for many urologists. Given the lack of definitive proof regarding the benefits, however, a standard program or optimal algorithm does not exist. Furthermore, financial, insurance, and cultural considerations might cause regional differences in the practice of penile rehabilitation. We sought to explore contemporary trends in penile rehabilitation practice patterns of Japanese Urological Association (JUA) members. We also review the epidemiology, rational and current literature on penile rehabilitation after RP. Methods The proprietary questionnaire was comprised of 35 questions that addressed practitioner demographic factors and current practice status regarding rehabilitation. The questionnaire was mailed to all the representatives of urology departments authorized by the JUA. Results 376 physicians completed the questionnaire, representing a response rate of 31%. Twenty percent of the responders were members of the Japanese Society for Sexual Medicine (JSSM), 10% had formal sexual medicine specialty training, 68% were urologic oncology specialists, and 91% performed RP. Of the responders, 47% were not aware of the concept of penile rehabilitation and 29% performed some form of rehabilitation. As part of the primary rehabilitation strategy, 97% used phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i), 8% used a vacuum device, 13% used intracavernosal injections, and 2% used intra-urethral prostaglandin. Twenty percent commenced rehabilitation immediately after urethral catheter removal, and 36% within the first three months after RP. 37%, 21%, and 18% ceased rehabilitation at ≤12, 13-18, and 19-24 months, respectively. With regard to the primary reason for not performing rehabilitation: 52% said they were not familiar with the concept; 22% said patients

  8. Seasonal variations in Clostridium difficile infections are associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus activity independently of antibiotic prescriptions: a time series analysis in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gilca, Rodica; Fortin, Elise; Frenette, Charles; Longtin, Yves; Gourdeau, Marie

    2012-02-01

    Seasonal variations in Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), with a higher incidence occurring during winter months, have been reported. Although winter epidemics of respiratory viruses may be temporally associated with an increase in CDAD morbidity, we hypothesized that this association is mainly due to increased antibiotic use for respiratory infections. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the two most frequent respiratory viruses (influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus [RSV]) and antibiotics prescribed for respiratory infections (fluoroquinolones and macrolides) on the CDAD incidence in hospitals in the province of Québec, Canada. A multivariable Box-Jenkins transfer function model was built to relate monthly CDAD incidence to the monthly percentage of positive tests for influenza virus and RSV and monthly fluoroquinolone and macrolide prescriptions over a 4-year period (January 2005 to December 2008). Analysis showed that temporal variations in CDAD incidence followed temporal variations for influenza virus (P = 0.043), RSV (P = 0.004), and macrolide prescription (P = 0.05) time series with an average delay of 1 month and fluoroquinolone prescription time series with an average delay of 2 months (P = 0.01). We conclude that influenza virus and RSV circulation is independently associated with CDAD incidence after controlling for fluoroquinolone and macrolide use. This association was observed at an aggregated level and may be indicative of other phenomena occurring during wintertime.

  9. Association of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Metabolic Syndrome Independently of Central Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kuen Cheh; Hung, Hui-Fang; Lu, Chia-Wen; Chang, Hao-Hsiang; Lee, Long-Teng; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging chronic liver disease that may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to determine the association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and NAFLD severity using semi-quantitative ultrasonography (US). A total of 614 participants were recruited from the community. NAFLD was evaluated according to the ultrasonographic Fatty Liver Indicator (US-FLI), which is a semi-quantitative liver ultrasound score. Insulin resistance was estimated with the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). NAFLD and MetS were found in 53.7 and 17.3% of the participants, respectively. Linear relationships were found between the severity of NAFLD and waist circumference, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL-C and blood pressure. After adjusting for confounding factors, i.e., body mass index and HOMA-IR, the odds ratios for MetS were 3.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5–8.83) for those with mild NAFLD and 9.4 (95% CI: 3.54–24.98) for those with moderate-to-severe NAFLD compared to those without NAFLD. The combination of the HOMA-IR and US-FLI scores better differentiated MetS than the HOMA-IR alone. In addition to obesity, the severity of NAFLD and the HOMA-IR both play important roles in MetS. Whether NAFLD is a component of MetS warrants further research. PMID:27246655

  10. Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Characterization of Microbial Assemblages Associated with High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Orphan, V. J.; Taylor, L. T.; Hafenbradl, D.; Delong, E. F.

    2000-01-01

    Recent investigations of oil reservoirs in a variety of locales have indicated that these habitats may harbor active thermophilic prokaryotic assemblages. In this study, we used both molecular and culture-based methods to characterize prokaryotic consortia associated with high-temperature, sulfur-rich oil reservoirs in California. Enrichment cultures designed for anaerobic thermophiles, both autotrophic and heterotrophic, were successful at temperatures ranging from 60 to 90°C. Heterotrophic enrichments from all sites yielded sheathed rods (Thermotogales), pleomorphic rods resembling Thermoanaerobacter, and Thermococcus-like isolates. The predominant autotrophic microorganisms recovered from inorganic enrichments using H2, acetate, and CO2 as energy and carbon sources were methanogens, including isolates closely related to Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, and Methanoculleus species. Two 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) libraries were generated from total community DNA collected from production wellheads, using either archaeal or universal oligonucleotide primer sets. Sequence analysis of the universal library indicated that a large percentage of clones were highly similar to known bacterial and archaeal isolates recovered from similar habitats. Represented genera in rDNA clone libraries included Thermoanaerobacter, Thermococcus, Desulfothiovibrio, Aminobacterium, Acidaminococcus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Desulfomicrobium. The archaeal library was dominated by methanogen-like rDNAs, with a lower percentage of clones belonging to the Thermococcales. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that sulfur-utilizing and methane-producing thermophilic microorganisms have a widespread distribution in oil reservoirs and the potential to actively participate in the biogeochemical transformation of carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur in situ. PMID:10653739

  11. Cellular tumorigenicity in nude mice. Test of associations among loss of cell-surface fibronectin, anchorage independence, and tumor-forming ability

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN; also called large external transformation-sensitive [LETS] protein or cell-surface protein [CSP]) is a large cell-surface glycoprotein that is frequently observed to be either absent or greatly reduced on the surfaces of malignant cells grown in vitro. Because FN may be a useful molecular marker of cellular malignancy, we have carried out an extensive screening to test the specific association among the degree of expression of FN, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity in the athymic nude mouse. A variety of diploid cell strains and established cell lines were tested for the expression of surface FN by indirect immunofluorescence using rabbit antisera against human cold insoluble globulin, rodent plasma FN, or chicken cell- surface FN. Concomitantly, the cells were assayed for tumor formation in nude mice and for the ability to form colonies in methylcellulose. Tumorigenic cells often showed very low surface fluorescence, confirming earlier reports. However, many highly tumorigenic fibroblast lines from several species stained strongly with all three antisera. In contrast, the anchorage-independent phenotype was nearly always associated with tumorigenicity in approximately 35 cell lines examined in this study. In another series of experiments, FN-positive but anchorage-independent cells were grown as tumors in nude mice and then reintroduced into culture. In five of the six tumor-derived cell lines, cell-surface FN was not significantly reduced; one such cell line showed very little surface FN. Our data thus indicate that the loss of cell-surface FN is not a necessary step in the process of malignant transformation and that the growth of FN-positive cells as tumors does not require a prior selection in vivo for FN-negative subpopulations. PMID:383723

  12. Association of the common FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism with type 2 diabetes, independent of obesity-related traits in a Vietnamese population.

    PubMed

    Binh, Tran Quang; Phuong, Pham Tran; Nhung, Bui Thi; Thoang, Dang Dinh; Lien, Ha Thi; Thanh, Duong Van

    2013-01-15

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disorder resulting from both genetic and environmental factors in its pathogenesis. A case-control study was designed with subjects recruited from a general population to investigate whether the association between T2D and the common T>A polymorphism (rs9939609) in fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is mediated by obesity-related measurements, considering the contribution of socio-economic status and lifestyle factors. The significant association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and T2D was first observed in the model unadjusted (OR per A allele=1.61, 95% CI=1.06-2.44, P=0.024). It remained consistently replicated in the final model after adjustments for sex, age, systolic blood pressure, socio-economic status, lifestyle factors, and obesity-related measurements (body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat percentage, and body adiposity index), showing an increased T2D risk with an additive effect of the alleles (ORs per A allele=1.80-1.92, 95% CI=1.09-3.19, P<0.05). The FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism, systolic blood pressure, and waist-hip ratio were the most significant independent predictors for T2D, in which the power of the adjusted prediction model was 0.769. In conclusion, the study suggested that the FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism was significantly associated with the increased risk of T2D, independent of obesity-related measurements in a Vietnamese population.

  13. STAT4 Associates with SLE Through Two Independent Effects that Correlate with Gene Expression and Act Additively with IRF5 to Increase Risk

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, Anna-Karin; Delgado-Vega, Angélica M.; Kozyrev, Sergey V.; Sánchez, Elena; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Eriksson, Niclas; Wojcik, Jerome; Reddy, Prasad Linga; Lima, Guadalupe; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Migliaresi, Sergio; Baca, Vicente; Orozco, Lorena; Witte, Torsten; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Abderrahim, Hadi; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Suárez, Ana; González-Escribano, Maria Francisca; Martin, Javier; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To confirm and define the genetic association of STAT4 and systemic lupus erythematosus, investigate the possibility of correlations with differential splicing and/or expression levels, and genetic interaction with IRF5. Methods 30 tag SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of Spanish cases and controls. SNPs surviving correction for multiple tests were genotyped in 5 new sets of cases and controls for replication. STAT4 cDNA was analyzed by 5’-RACE PCR and sequencing. Expression levels were measured by quantitative PCR. Results In the fine-mapping, four SNPs were significant after correction for multiple testing, with rs3821236 and rs3024866 as the strongest signals, followed by the previously associated rs7574865, and by rs1467199. Association was replicated in all cohorts. After conditional regression analyses, two major independent signals represented by SNPs rs3821236 and rs7574865, remained significant across the sets. These SNPs belong to separate haplotype blocks. High levels of STAT4 expression correlated with SNPs rs3821236, rs3024866 (both in the same haplotype block) and rs7574865 but not with other SNPs. We also detected transcription of alternative tissue-specific exons 1, indicating presence of tissue-specific promoters of potential importance in the expression of STAT4. No interaction with associated SNPs of IRF5 was observed using regression analysis. Conclusions These data confirm STAT4 as a susceptibility gene for SLE and suggest the presence of at least two functional variants affecting levels of STAT4. Our results also indicate that both genes STAT4 and IRF5 act additively to increase risk for SLE. PMID:19019891

  14. BMI-Associated Alleles Do Not Constitute Risk Alleles for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Independently of BMI: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Louwers, Yvonne V.; Rayner, Nigel W.; Herrera, Blanca M.; Stolk, Lisette; Groves, Christopher J.; Barber, Thomas M.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Franks, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) has a strong genetic background and the majority of patients with PCOS have elevated BMI levels. The aim of this study was to determine to which extent BMI-increasing alleles contribute to risk of PCOS when contemporaneous BMI is taken into consideration. Methods Patients with PCOS and controls were recruited from the United Kingdom (563 cases and 791 controls) and The Netherlands (510 cases and 2720 controls). Cases and controls were of similar BMI. SNPs mapping to 12 BMI-associated loci which have been extensively replicated across different ethnicities, i.e., BDNF, FAIM2, ETV5, FTO, GNPDA2, KCTD15, MC4R, MTCH2, NEGR1, SEC16B, SH2B1, and TMEM18, were studied in association with PCOS within each cohort using the additive genetic model followed by a combined analysis. A genetic allelic count risk score model was used to determine the risk of PCOS for individuals carrying increasing numbers of BMI-increasing alleles. Results None of the genetic variants, including FTO and MC4R, was associated with PCOS independently of BMI in the meta-analysis. Moreover, no differences were observed between cases and controls in the number of BMI-risk alleles present and no overall trend across the risk score groups was observed. Conclusion In this combined analysis of over 4,000 BMI-matched individuals from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, we observed no association of BMI risk alleles with PCOS independent of BMI. PMID:24498077

  15. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? Meta-analysis of data from 169,551 Caucasian adults

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, S. S.; Zhao, J. H.; Chasman, D. I.; Fischer, K.; Qi, Q.; Smith, A. V.; Thinggaard, M.; Jarczok, M. N.; Nalls, M. A.; Trompet, S.; Timpson, N. J.; Schmidt, B.; Jackson, A. U.; Lyytikäinen, L. P.; Verweij, N.; Mueller-Nurasyid, M.; Vikström, M.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Wong, A.; Meidtner, K.; Middelberg, R. P.; Strawbridge, R. J.; Christiansen, L.; Kyvik, K. O.; Hamsten, A.; Jääskeläinen, T.; Tjønneland, A.; Eriksson, J. G.; Whitfield, J. B.; Boeing, H.; Hardy, R.; Vollenweider, P.; Leander, K.; Peters, A.; van der Harst, P.; Kumari, M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Meirhaeghe, A.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jöckel, K.-H.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Sattar, N.; Baumeister, S. E.; Smith, G. Davey; Casas, J. P.; Houston, D. K.; März, W.; Christensen, K.; Gudnason, V.; Hu, F. B.; Metspalu, A.; Ridker, P. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Loos, R. J. F.; Tiemeier, H.; Sonestedt, E.; Sørensen, T. I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m−2; 95% CI 0.28–0.32, P < 1 × 10−32), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68–0.84, P < 1 × 10−32) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m−2; 0.13–0.22, P = 1.0 × 10−13). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00–1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98–1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96–1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes. PMID:25752329

  16. The accumulation of brain water-free sodium is associated with ischemic damage independent of the blood pressure in female rats.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Manabu; Kitazato, Keiko T; Yagi, Kenji; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Kurashiki, Yoshitaka; Matsushita, Nobuhisa; Kinouchi, Tomoya; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Satomi, Junichiro; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2015-08-01

    Estrogen deficiency worsens ischemic stroke outcomes. In ovariectomized (OVX(+)) rats fed a high-salt diet (HSD), an increase in the body Na(+)/water ratio, which characterizes water-free Na(+) accumulation, was associated with detrimental vascular effects independent of the blood pressure (BP). We hypothesized that an increase in brain water-free Na(+) accumulation is associated with ischemic brain damage in OVX(+)/HSD rats. To test our hypothesis we divided female Wistar rats into 4 groups, OVX(+) and OVX(-) rats fed HSD or a normal diet (ND), and subjected them to transient cerebral ischemia. The brain Na(+)/water ratio was increased even in OVX(+)/ND rats and augmented in OVX(+)/HSD rats. The increase in the brain Na(+)/water ratio was positively correlated with expansion of the cortical infarct volume without affecting the BP. Interestingly, OVX(+) was associated with the decreased expression of ATP1α3, a subtype of the Na(+) efflux pump. HSD increased the expression of brain Na(+) influx-related molecules and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). The pretreatment of OVX(+)/HSD rats with the MR antagonist eplerenone reduced brain water-free Na(+) accumulation, up-regulated ATP1α3, down-regulated MR, and reduced the cortical infarct volume. Our findings show that the increase in the brain Na(+)/water ratio elicited by estrogen deficiency or HSD is associated with ischemic brain damage BP-independently, suggesting the importance of regulating the accumulation of brain water-free Na(+). The up-regulation of ATP1α3 and the down-regulation of MR may provide a promising therapeutic strategy to attenuate ischemic brain damage in postmenopausal women.

  17. Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in apparently healthy Japanese.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between leukocyte subtype counts and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Logistic regressions using hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia as a dependent variable and total leukocyte, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts as an independent variable were calculated adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), smoking, drinking, and physical activity in apparently healthy Japanese men (1,803) and women (1,150). The odds ratio (OR) of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for total leukocyte, eosinophil, and lymphocyte counts, the OR of hypertriglyceridemia for total leukocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and the OR of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were significant in men, and the OR of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, for lymphocyte count, and the OR of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for eosinophil count were significant in women. Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of hs-CRP in apparently healthy Japanese. PMID:21655904

  18. Vitamin D, d-dimer, Interferon γ, and sCD14 Levels are Independently Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Prospective, International Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Musselwhite, Laura W.; Andrade, Bruno B.; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Tierney, Ann; Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Pablo F.; Rupert, Adam; Lederman, Michael M.; Sanne, Ian; Sierra Madero, Juan G.; Sereti, Irini

    2016-01-01

    To determine the immunological profile most important for IRIS prediction, we evaluated 20 baseline plasma biomarkers in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled ART initiation trial in South Africa and Mexico to test whether maraviroc could prevent IRIS. Participants were classified prospectively as having IRIS within 6 months of ART initiation. Twenty plasma biomarkers were measured at study enrollment for 267 participants. Biomarkers were tested for predicting IRIS with adjustment for covariates chosen through forward stepwise selection. Sixty-two participants developed IRIS and of these 19 were tuberculosis (TB)-IRIS. Baseline levels of vitamin D and higher d-dimer, interferon gamma (IFNγ), and sCD14 were independently associated with risk of IRIS in multivariate analyses. TB-IRIS cases exhibited a distinct biosignature from IRIS related to other pathogens, with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), sCD14, IFNγ, and lower levels of Hb that could be captured by a composite risk score. Elevated markers of Type 1 T helper (Th1) response, monocyte activation, coagulation and low vitamin D were independently associated with IRIS risk. Interventions that decrease immune activation and increase vitamin D levels warrant further study. PMID:26981576

  19. Genome-wide association studies in preterm birth: implications for the practicing obstetrician-gynaecologist.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Siobhan M; Christiaens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth has the highest mortality and morbidity of all pregnancy complications. The burden of preterm birth on public health worldwide is enormous, yet there are few effective means to prevent a preterm delivery. To date, much of its etiology is unexplained, but genetic predisposition is thought to play a major role. In the upcoming year, the international Preterm Birth Genome Project (PGP) consortium plans to publish a large genome wide association study in early preterm birth. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are designed to identify common genetic variants that influence health and disease. Despite the many challenges that are involved, GWAS can be an important discovery tool, revealing genetic variations that are associated with preterm birth. It is highly unlikely that findings of a GWAS can be directly translated into clinical practice in the short run. Nonetheless, it will help us to better understand the etiology of preterm birth and the GWAS results will generate new hypotheses for further research, thus enhancing our understanding of preterm birth and informing prevention efforts in the long run. PMID:23445776

  20. Genetic association analysis of 300 genes identifies a risk haplotype in SLC18A2 for post-traumatic stress disorder in two independent samples.

    PubMed

    Solovieff, Nadia; Roberts, Andrea L; Ratanatharathorn, Andrew; Haloosim, Michelle; De Vivo, Immaculata; King, Anthony P; Liberzon, Israel; Aiello, Allison; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek E; Galea, Sandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Purcell, Shaun M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-07-01

    The genetic architecture of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains poorly understood with the vast majority of genetic association studies reporting on single candidate genes. We conducted a large genetic study in trauma-exposed European-American women (N=2538; 845 PTSD cases, 1693 controls) by testing 3742 SNPs across more than 300 genes and conducting polygenic analyses using results from the Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Studies Consortium (PGC). We tested the association between each SNP and two measures of PTSD, a severity score and diagnosis. We found a significant association between PTSD (diagnosis) and SNPs (top SNP: rs363276, odds ratio (OR)=1.4, p=2.1E-05) in SLC18A2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2). A haplotype analysis of 9 SNPs in SLC18A2, including rs363276, identified a risk haplotype (CGGCGGAAG, p=0.0046), and the same risk haplotype was associated with PTSD in an independent cohort of trauma-exposed African-Americans (p=0.049; N=748, men and women). SLC18A2 is involved in transporting monoamines to synaptic vesicles and has been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression. Eight genes previously associated with PTSD had SNPs with nominally significant associations (p<0.05). The polygenic analyses suggested that there are SNPs in common between PTSD severity and bipolar disorder. Our data are consistent with a genetic architecture for PTSD that is highly polygenic, influenced by numerous SNPs with weak effects, and may overlap with mood disorders. Genome-wide studies with very large samples sizes are needed to detect these types of effects. PMID:24525708

  1. Genetic Association Analysis of 300 Genes Identifies a Risk Haplotype in SLC18A2 for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Two Independent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Solovieff, Nadia; Roberts, Andrea L; Ratanatharathorn, Andrew; Haloosim, Michelle; De Vivo, Immaculata; King, Anthony P; Liberzon, Israel; Aiello, Allison; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek E; Galea, Sandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Purcell, Shaun M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-01-01

    The genetic architecture of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains poorly understood with the vast majority of genetic association studies reporting on single candidate genes. We conducted a large genetic study in trauma-exposed European-American women (N=2538; 845 PTSD cases, 1693 controls) by testing 3742 SNPs across more than 300 genes and conducting polygenic analyses using results from the Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Studies Consortium (PGC). We tested the association between each SNP and two measures of PTSD, a severity score and diagnosis. We found a significant association between PTSD (diagnosis) and SNPs (top SNP: rs363276, odds ratio (OR)=1.4, p=2.1E-05) in SLC18A2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2). A haplotype analysis of 9 SNPs in SLC18A2, including rs363276, identified a risk haplotype (CGGCGGAAG, p=0.0046), and the same risk haplotype was associated with PTSD in an independent cohort of trauma-exposed African-Americans (p=0.049; N=748, men and women). SLC18A2 is involved in transporting monoamines to synaptic vesicles and has been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression. Eight genes previously associated with PTSD had SNPs with nominally significant associations (p<0.05). The polygenic analyses suggested that there are SNPs in common between PTSD severity and bipolar disorder. Our data are consistent with a genetic architecture for PTSD that is highly polygenic, influenced by numerous SNPs with weak effects, and may overlap with mood disorders. Genome-wide studies with very large samples sizes are needed to detect these types of effects. PMID:24525708

  2. Bidirectional associations between bedtime parenting and infant sleep: Parenting quality, parenting practices, and their interaction.

    PubMed

    Philbrook, Lauren E; Teti, Douglas M

    2016-06-01

    In keeping with transactional conceptualizations of infant sleep development (Sadeh, Tikotzky, & Scher, 2010), the present study was an examination of longitudinal, bidirectional linkages between bedtime parenting (through direct observations of parenting practices and quality) and infant sleep across the first 6 months postpartum. In doing so, we also drew from Darling and Steinberg's (1993) conceptual model to examine parenting quality as a moderator of linkages between specific bedtime practices and infant sleep. Multilevel model analyses revealed that the strongest increases in infant nighttime sleep across the first 6 months occurred among infants of mothers who engaged in low levels of nursing at bedtime. Within-person linkages between mothers' emotional availability (EA) at bedtime, infant distress, and infant sleep were found, such that at time points when mothers were more emotionally available, infants were less distressed and slept more throughout the night. Several moderating effects of maternal EA on linkages between parenting practices and infant sleep were obtained that were consistent with predictions from Darling and Steinberg (1993). Higher maternal EA in combination with less close contact at bedtime was associated with more infant sleep across the night on average, and higher EA in combination with fewer arousing bedtime activities predicted more rapid increases in infant sleep with age. Finally, there was evidence of infant-driven effects, as higher infant nighttime distress predicted lower EA at subsequent time points. Results showcased the complex, reciprocal interplay between parents and infants in the development of infant sleep patterns and parenting behavior during the first 6 months postpartum. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27010601

  3. Independent Association of Circulating Level of Chemerin With Functional and Early Morphological Vascular Changes in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bin; Zhao, Ming; Jiang, Weimin; Ma, Jian; Yang, Cuihua; Shao, Jiaqing; Gu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is growing evidence that chemerin, a novel adipokine elevated in obesity and metabolic syndromes, plays a crucial role in advanced atherosclerosis. This study aimed to determine the chemerin levels in diabetes and evaluate the effects of increased chemerin on early atherosclerosis. A total of 245 newly diagnosed diabetic patients and 148 age-matched, healthy, normal glucose tolerant (NGT) controls were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements and plasma parameters were examined, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, lipid profiles, inflammation markers, adipokines, and cell adhesion molecules. Vascular healthy was measured with brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Compared with NGT controls, plasma chemerin levels were higher in diabetic patients (P < 0.01) and higher chemerin level was an independent risk factor of occurrence of diabetes even after metabolic profiles were adjusted (odds ratio [OR] = 1.352, 95% CI: 1.181–1.543, P < 0.01). In patients with type 2 diabetes, chemerin was positively associated with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin, but not vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and P-selectin. We also explored that plasma chemerin level was negatively associated with brachial FMD and positively with carotid IMT. Chemerin also retained a strong association with ICAM-1, FMD, and IMT even after adjusted for age, sex, and other risk factors (ICAM-1: r = 0.150, P = 0.024; FMD: r = −0.126, P = 0.001; IMT: r = 0.325, P < 0.001). By multiple linear regression analysis, plasma chemerin levels were related to ICAM-1 even after adjustments for conventional cardiovascular risk factors (β = 0.192, P = 0.017). Moreover, logistic regression analysis showed that high chemerin level was an independent predictive variable for impaired endothelial function (OR = 1.066, 95% CI: 1.012–1.142, P = 0

  4. Composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in Hamadan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Koolivand, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Yunesian, Massoud; Omrani, Gasemali

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the components, composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in dental offices in Hamadan. A total of 28 offices, including ten general dentist offices, eight specialist dentist offices, five practical dentist offices and five denture maker offices were selected in a random way. Three samples from each selected type were taken and the waste was manually separated into 74 sub-fractions and each sub-fraction was weighed. The results showed that the total annual dental waste production in dental offices was 41947.43 kg. Domestic type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical and toxic waste constituted 71.15, 21.40, 7.26 and 0.18%, respectively of this amount. Only seven fractions including gypsum, latex gloves, nylon, dental impression material, used medicine ampoules, saliva-contaminated paper towels and saliva ejectors constituted about 80% of the waste. It was also indicated that there were no effective activity for waste minimization, separation, reuse and recycling in dental offices and the management of sharps, potentially infectious waste and other hazardous waste was poor.

  5. Composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in Hamadan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Koolivand, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Yunesian, Massoud; Omrani, Gasemali

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the components, composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in dental offices in Hamadan. A total of 28 offices, including ten general dentist offices, eight specialist dentist offices, five practical dentist offices and five denture maker offices were selected in a random way. Three samples from each selected type were taken and the waste was manually separated into 74 sub-fractions and each sub-fraction was weighed. The results showed that the total annual dental waste production in dental offices was 41947.43 kg. Domestic type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical and toxic waste constituted 71.15, 21.40, 7.26 and 0.18%, respectively of this amount. Only seven fractions including gypsum, latex gloves, nylon, dental impression material, used medicine ampoules, saliva-contaminated paper towels and saliva ejectors constituted about 80% of the waste. It was also indicated that there were no effective activity for waste minimization, separation, reuse and recycling in dental offices and the management of sharps, potentially infectious waste and other hazardous waste was poor. PMID:21746760

  6. The association of state law to breastfeeding practices in the US.

    PubMed

    Smith-Gagen, Julie; Hollen, Robin; Tashiro, Stephanie; Cook, Daniel M; Yang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the relationship between breastfeeding initiation and duration with laws supportive of breastfeeding enacted at the state level. We analyzed breastfeeding practices using the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We evaluated three measures of breastfeeding practices: Mother's reported breastfeeding initiation, a proxy report of infants ever being breastfeed, and a proxy report of infants being breastfeed for at least 6 months. Survey data were linked to eight laws supportive of breastfeeding enacted at the state level. The most robust laws associated with increased infant breastfeeding at 6 months were an enforcement provision for workplace pumping laws [OR (95 % CI) 2.0 (1.6, 2.6)] and a jury duty exemption for breastfeeding mothers [OR (95 % CI) 1.7 (1.3, 2.1)]. Having a private area in the workplace to express breast milk [OR (95 % CI) 1.3 (1.1, 1.7)] and having break time to breastfeed or pump [OR (95 % CI) 1.2 (1.0, 1.5)] were also important for infant breastfeeding at 6 months. This research responds to breastfeeding advocates' calls for evidence-based data to generate the necessary political action to enact legislation and laws to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. We identify the laws with the greatest potential to reach the Healthy People 2020 targets for breastfeeding initiation and duration.

  7. Practices and Perceptions of Animal Contact and Associated Health Outcomes in Pregnant Women and New Mothers.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ankrom, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 33-45%) and 26% (95% CI: 21-31%), respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4%) in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%), and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%). Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopt certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers discussed these

  8. Practices and Perceptions of Animal Contact and Associated Health Outcomes in Pregnant Women and New Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ankrom, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 33–45%) and 26% (95% CI: 21–31%), respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4%) in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%), and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%). Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopt certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers discussed these

  9. A Survey on Transport Management Practices Associated with Injuries and Health Problems in Horses.

    PubMed

    Padalino, Barbara; Raidal, Sharanne L; Hall, Evelyn; Knight, Peter; Celi, Pietro; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was conducted to determine associations between transport management and transport-related injuries and diseases in horses in Australia. The survey was composed of three sections: respondents' demographic information, transport management strategies or procedures (before, during and after transportation) and transport diseases experienced in the previous two year period. Univariate and multivariate modelling was performed exploring associations between variables (respondents' details and transport management strategies) and the following transport-related diseases as outcomes: traumatic injuries, diarrhoea, heat stroke, muscular problems, laminitis, transport pneumonia and colic. The survey generated 797 responses. Traumatic injuries were the most common transport-related problem, with a reported incidence of 45.0%. Younger respondents (<40 years old) caring for large numbers of horses (>30 in a week) were more likely to report transport-related injuries. Injury risk was also linked to the use of protections and tranquilizers prior to transport, and checking horses after the journey. Diarrhoea (20.0%) and heat stroke (10.5%) were reported more by amateur than professional horse carers. Increased risk of heat stroke was linked to the restriction of hay and water prior to transportation. Muscular problems (13.0%) appeared to be exacerbated when horse health was not assessed before journey; whilst the risk of laminitis (2.9%) was around three fold greater when post transport recovery strategies were not applied. Associations were made between transport pneumonia (9.2%) and duration of journey, and with activity (horses involved in racing at greater risk). No associations were seen between the incidence of colic (10.3%) and the variables examined. Study findings should be interpreted with caution as they represent participant perceptions and recall. Nevertheless, results support many current recommendations for safe transportation of horses. They also

  10. A Survey on Transport Management Practices Associated with Injuries and Health Problems in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Raidal, Sharanne L.; Hall, Evelyn; Knight, Peter; Celi, Pietro; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was conducted to determine associations between transport management and transport-related injuries and diseases in horses in Australia. The survey was composed of three sections: respondents’ demographic information, transport management strategies or procedures (before, during and after transportation) and transport diseases experienced in the previous two year period. Univariate and multivariate modelling was performed exploring associations between variables (respondents’ details and transport management strategies) and the following transport-related diseases as outcomes: traumatic injuries, diarrhoea, heat stroke, muscular problems, laminitis, transport pneumonia and colic. The survey generated 797 responses. Traumatic injuries were the most common transport-related problem, with a reported incidence of 45.0%. Younger respondents (<40 years old) caring for large numbers of horses (>30 in a week) were more likely to report transport-related injuries. Injury risk was also linked to the use of protections and tranquilizers prior to transport, and checking horses after the journey. Diarrhoea (20.0%) and heat stroke (10.5%) were reported more by amateur than professional horse carers. Increased risk of heat stroke was linked to the restriction of hay and water prior to transportation. Muscular problems (13.0%) appeared to be exacerbated when horse health was not assessed before journey; whilst the risk of laminitis (2.9%) was around three fold greater when post transport recovery strategies were not applied. Associations were made between transport pneumonia (9.2%) and duration of journey, and with activity (horses involved in racing at greater risk). No associations were seen between the incidence of colic (10.3%) and the variables examined. Study findings should be interpreted with caution as they represent participant perceptions and recall. Nevertheless, results support many current recommendations for safe transportation of horses. They

  11. Will Large DSO-Managed Group Practices Be the Predominant Setting for Oral Health Care by 2025? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Large DSO-Managed Group Practices Will Be the Setting in Which the Majority of Oral Health Care Is Delivered by 2025 and Viewpoint 2: Increases in DSO-Managed Group Practices Will Be Offset by Models Allowing Dentists to Retain the Independence and Freedom of a Traditional Practice.

    PubMed

    Cole, James R; Dodge, William W; Findley, John S; Young, Stephen K; Horn, Bruce D; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L; Martin, Max M; Winder, Ronald L

    2015-05-01

    This Point/Counterpoint article discusses the transformation of dental practice from the traditional solo/small-group (partnership) model of the 1900s to large Dental Support Organizations (DSO) that support affiliated dental practices by providing nonclinical functions such as, but not limited to, accounting, human resources, marketing, and legal and practice management. Many feel that DSO-managed group practices (DMGPs) with employed providers will become the setting in which the majority of oral health care will be delivered in the future. Viewpoint 1 asserts that the traditional dental practice patterns of the past are shifting as many younger dentists gravitate toward employed positions in large group practices or the public sector. Although educational debt is relevant in predicting graduates' practice choices, other variables such as gender, race, and work-life balance play critical roles as well. Societal characteristics demonstrated by aging Gen Xers and those in the Millennial generation blend seamlessly with the opportunities DMGPs offer their employees. Viewpoint 2 contends the traditional model of dental care delivery-allowing entrepreneurial practitioners to make decisions in an autonomous setting-is changing but not to the degree nor as rapidly as Viewpoint 1 professes. Millennials entering the dental profession, with characteristics universally attributed to their generation, see value in the independence and flexibility that a traditional practice allows. Although DMGPs provide dentists one option for practice, several alternative delivery models offer current dentists and future dental school graduates many of the advantages of DMGPs while allowing them to maintain the independence and freedom a traditional practice provides.

  12. Will Large DSO-Managed Group Practices Be the Predominant Setting for Oral Health Care by 2025? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Large DSO-Managed Group Practices Will Be the Setting in Which the Majority of Oral Health Care Is Delivered by 2025 and Viewpoint 2: Increases in DSO-Managed Group Practices Will Be Offset by Models Allowing Dentists to Retain the Independence and Freedom of a Traditional Practice.

    PubMed

    Cole, James R; Dodge, William W; Findley, John S; Young, Stephen K; Horn, Bruce D; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L; Martin, Max M; Winder, Ronald L

    2015-05-01

    This Point/Counterpoint article discusses the transformation of dental practice from the traditional solo/small-group (partnership) model of the 1900s to large Dental Support Organizations (DSO) that support affiliated dental practices by providing nonclinical functions such as, but not limited to, accounting, human resources, marketing, and legal and practice management. Many feel that DSO-managed group practices (DMGPs) with employed providers will become the setting in which the majority of oral health care will be delivered in the future. Viewpoint 1 asserts that the traditional dental practice patterns of the past are shifting as many younger dentists gravitate toward employed positions in large group practices or the public sector. Although educational debt is relevant in predicting graduates' practice choices, other variables such as gender, race, and work-life balance play critical roles as well. Societal characteristics demonstrated by aging Gen Xers and those in the Millennial generation blend seamlessly with the opportunities DMGPs offer their employees. Viewpoint 2 contends the traditional model of dental care delivery-allowing entrepreneurial practitioners to make decisions in an autonomous setting-is changing but not to the degree nor as rapidly as Viewpoint 1 professes. Millennials entering the dental profession, with characteristics universally attributed to their generation, see value in the independence and flexibility that a traditional practice allows. Although DMGPs provide dentists one option for practice, several alternative delivery models offer current dentists and future dental school graduates many of the advantages of DMGPs while allowing them to maintain the independence and freedom a traditional practice provides. PMID:25941139

  13. Inter-participant variability in daily physical activity and sedentary time among male youth sport footballers: independent associations with indicators of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Participation in youth sport is assumed to promote and contribute towards more physically active lifestyles among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine inter-participant variability in objectively measured habitual physical activity (PA) behaviours and sedentary time among youth sport participants and their implications for health. One-hundred-and-eighteen male youth sport footballers (Mean ± s = 11.72 ± 1.60) wore a GT3X accelerometer for 7 days. Average daily PA [min · day(-1), in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and combined moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)] and sedentary time were calculated. Participants' body mass index adjusted for age and sex (BMI-standard deviation score), per cent body fat (BF%), waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Results revealed that variability in daily PA behaviours and sedentary time (min · day(-1)) was associated with BMI-standard deviation score [VPA (-), MVPA (-)], BF% [sedentary time (+), VPA (-), MVPA (-)], waist circumference [sedentary time (+), LPA (-)] and cardiorespiratory fitness [sedentary time (-), MPA (+), VPA (+), MVPA (+)]. Whilst sedentary time and MVPA were not related to health outcomes independent of one another, associations with markers of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness were stronger for sedentary time. Sedentary time was also significantly positively related to waist circumference independent of VPA. Results demonstrate inter-participant variability in habitual PA and sedentary time among youth sport participants which holds implications for their health. Thus, promoting PA and, in particular, reducing sedentary time may contribute towards the prevention of adverse health consequences associated with a physically inactive lifestyle for children and adolescents active in the youth sport context.

  14. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Grade in Primary Melanomas Is Independently Associated With Melanoma-Specific Survival in the Population-Based Genes, Environment and Melanoma Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Nancy E.; Busam, Klaus J.; From, Lynn; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B.; Gallagher, Richard P.; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Groben, Pamela A.; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S.; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Ollila, David W.; Wilcox, Homer; Begg, Colin B.; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although most hospital-based studies suggest more favorable survival with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) present in primary melanomas, it is uncertain whether TILs provide prognostic information beyond existing melanoma staging definitions. We addressed the issue in an international population-based study of patients with single and multiple primary melanomas. Patients and Methods On the basis of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, we conducted follow-up of 2,845 patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2003 with 3,330 invasive primary melanomas centrally reviewed for TIL grade (absent, nonbrisk, or brisk). The odds of TIL grades associated with clinicopathologic features and survival by TIL grade were examined. Results Independent predictors (P < .05) for nonbrisk TIL grade were site, histologic subtype, and Breslow thickness, and for brisk TIL grade, they were age, site, Breslow thickness, and radial growth phase. Nonbrisk and brisk TIL grades were each associated with lower American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage compared with TIL absence (Ptrend < .001). Death as a result of melanoma was 30% less with nonbrisk TIL grade (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0) and 50% less with brisk TIL grade (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9) relative to TIL absence, adjusted for age, sex, site, and AJCC tumor stage. Conclusion At the population level, higher TIL grade of primary melanoma is associated with a lower risk of death as a result of melanoma independently of tumor characteristics currently used for AJCC tumor stage. We conclude that TIL grade deserves further prospective investigation to determine whether it should be included in future AJCC staging revisions. PMID:24127443

  15. Higher Cognitive Function in Elderly Individuals with Previous Cataract Surgery: Cross-Sectional Association Independent of Visual Acuity in the HEIJO-KYO Cohort.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Kimie; Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Tone, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nishi, Tomo; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-06-01

    Cataract surgery improves visual acuity and drastically increases the capacity for light reception to the retina. Although previous studies suggested that both light exposure and visual acuity were associated with cognitive function, the relationships between cataract surgery, visual acuity, and cognitive function have not been evaluated in large populations. In this cross-sectional study, we measured cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination and best-corrected visual acuity in pseudophakic (previous cataract surgery) and phakic (no previous cataract surgery) elderly individuals. Of 945 participants (mean age 71.7 years), 166 (17.6%) had pseudophakia and 317 (33.5%) had impaired cognitive function (score ≤26). The pseudophakic group showed significantly better visual acuity than the phakic group (p = 0.003) and lower age-adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for cognitive impairment (OR 0.66; p = 0.038). Consistently, in multivariate logistic regression models, after adjusting for confounding factors, including visual acuity and socioeconomic status, ORs for cognitive impairment were significantly lower in the pseudophakic group than in the phakic group (OR 0.64; 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.96; p = 0.031). This association remained significant in sensitivity analysis, excluding participants with low cognitive score ≤23 (n = 36). In conclusion, in a general elderly population, prevalence of cognitive impairment was significantly lower in pseudophakic individuals independently of visual acuity. The association was also independent of several major causes of cognitive impairment such as aging, gender, obesity, socioeconomic status, hypertension, diabetes, sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and physical inactivity.

  16. Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

  17. 31 CFR 10.25 - Practice by former government employees, their partners and their associates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice Before the Internal Revenue Service § 10.25 Practice by former government employees... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practice by former...

  18. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Safe Weight Loss and Maintenance Practices in Sport and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Turocy, Paula Sammarone; DePalma, Bernard F.; Horswill, Craig A.; Laquale, Kathleen M.; Martin, Thomas J.; Perry, Arlette C.; Somova, Marla J.; Utter, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. Background: Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes and clients often attempt to lose weight by not eating, limiting caloric or specific nutrients from the diet, engaging in pathogenic weight control behaviors, and restricting fluids. These people often respond to pressures of the sport or activity, coaches, peers, or parents by adopting negative body images and unsafe practices to maintain an ideal body composition for the activity. We provide athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance in sport and exercise. Although safe weight gain is also a concern for athletic trainers and their athletes and clients, that topic is outside the scope of this position statement. Recommendations: Athletic trainers are often the source of nutrition information for athletes and clients; therefore, they must have knowledge of proper nutrition, weight management practices, and methods to change body composition. Body composition assessments should be done in the most scientifically appropriate manner possible. Reasonable and individualized weight and body composition goals should be identified by appropriately trained health care personnel (eg, athletic trainers, registered dietitians, physicians). In keeping with the American Dietetics Association (ADA) preferred nomenclature, this document uses the terms registered dietitian or dietician when referring to a food and nutrition expert who has met the academic and professional requirements specified by the ADA's Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. In some cases, a registered nutritionist may have

  19. "You worked on your own, making your own decisions and coping on your own": midwifery knowledge, practice and independence in the workplace in Britain, 1936 to the early 1950s.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, M

    1999-01-01

    Midwifery knowledge is a complex entity-comprising of training and experiential elements-not fixed but mutable, both informed and altered by practice. This study uses oral history accounts to explore how midwives viewed themselves and how they interacted with widwifery knowledge in an attempt to gain a greater understanding of their power and independence in the workplace and, as a result, of their professional status. Midwifery knowledge cannot simply be defined as the technical skills taught in training; it was also shaped by the environment in which practice took place and midwife's relationships with women and with doctors. PMID:11624261

  20. An Evaluation of Web-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Managing Problems Associated with Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Michael W; Rooke, Sally E; Langton, Julia M; Gates, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance, and multiple treatment options and avenues exist for managing its use. There has been an increase in the development of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to improve standards of care in this area, many of which are disseminated online. However, little is known about the quality and accessibility of these online CPGs. Objective The purpose of study 1 was to determine the extent to which cannabis-related CPGs disseminated online adhere to established methodological standards. The purpose of study 2 was to determine if treatment providers are familiar with these guidelines and to assess their perceived quality of these guidelines. Methods Study 1 involved a systematic search using the Google Scholar search engine and the National Drugs Sector Information Service (NDSIS) website of the Alcohol and Other Drugs Council of Australia (ADCA) to identify CPGs disseminated online. To be included in the current study, CPGs needed to be free of charge and provide guidance on psychological interventions for reducing cannabis use. Four trained reviewers independently assessed the quality of the 7 identified guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool. Study 2 assessed 166 Australian cannabis-use treatment providers’ (mean age = 45.47 years, SD 12.14) familiarity with and opinions of these 7 guidelines using an online survey. Treatment providers were recruited using online advertisements that directed volunteers to a link to complete the survey, which was posted online for 6 months (January to June 2012). Primary study outcomes included quality scores and rates of guideline familiarity, guideline use, and discovery methods. Results Based on the AGREE II, the quality of CPGs varied considerably. Across different reporting domains, adherence to methodological standards ranged from 0% to 92%. Quality was lowest in the domains of rigor of development (50%), applicability (46

  1. Previous gestational diabetes is independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness, similarly to metabolic syndrome – a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) face a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and, consequently, a higher cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to compare the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) from young women with pGDM to those with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to healthy controls (CG) to verify whether a past history of pGDM could be independently associated with increased cIMT. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed in two academic referral centers. Seventy-nine women with pGDM, 30 women with MS, and 60 CG aged between 18 and 47 years were enrolled. They all underwent physical examination and had blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), and triglycerides determined. The cIMT was measured by ultrasound in several carotid segments. The primary endpoint was cIMT and clinically relevant parameters included as predictors were: age, systolic blood pressure, waist, BMI, total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose, previous history of GDM as a whole group, previous history of GDM without MS, presence of DM, presence of MS, and parity. Results cIMT was significantly higher in pGDM when compared to CG in all sites of measurements (P < 0.05) except for the right common carotid. The pGDM women showed similar cIMT measurements to MS in all sites of measurements, except for the left carotid bifurcation, where it was significantly higher than MS (P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis which included classical cardiovascular risk factors and was adjusted for confounders, pGDM was shown to be independently associated with increased composite cIMT (P < 0.01). The pGDM without risk factors further showed similar cIMT to MS (P > 0.05) and an increased cIMT when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions Previous GDM was independently associated with increased composite cIMT in this young population, similarly to those with

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Elevated High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels Independent of Obesity: Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinkwan; Lee, Seok Jun; Choi, Kyung-Mee; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Lee, Seung Gwan; Shin, Chol

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) has been recognized as a common health problem, and increasing obesity rates have led to further remarkable increases in the prevalence of OSA, along with more prominent cardiovascular morbidities. Though previous studies have reported an independent relationship between elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels and OSA, the issue remains controversial owing to inadequate consideration of obesity and various confounding factors. So far, few population based studies of association between OSA and hsCRP levels have been published. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether OSA is associated with increased hsCRP levels independent of obesity in a large population-based study. A total of 1,835 subjects (968 men and 867 women) were selected from a larger cohort of the ongoing Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Overnight polysomnography was performed on each participant. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses, including analysis of lipid profiles and hsCRP levels. Based on anthropometric data, body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were calculated and fat mass (FM) were measured by means of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Mild OSA and moderate to severe OSA were defined by an AHI >5 and ≥15, respectively. The population was sub-divided into 3 groups based on the tertile cut-points for the distribution of hsCRP levels. The percentage of participants in the highest tertile of hsCRP increased dose-dependently according to the severity of OSA. After adjustment for potential confounders and obesity-related variables (BMI, WHR, and body fat) in a multiple logistic model, participants with moderate to severe OSA had 1.73-, 2.01-, and 1.61-fold greater risks of being in the highest tertile of hsCRP levels than participants with non-OSA, respectively. Interaction between obesity (BMI ≥25kg/m2) and the

  3. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the Rehabilitation Act of…

  4. Clinical practice guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rotstein, Coleman; Evans, Gerald; Born, Abraham; Grossman, Ronald; Light, R Bruce; Magder, Sheldon; McTaggart, Barrie; Weiss, Karl; Zhanel, George G

    2008-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are important causes of morbidity and mortality, with mortality rates approaching 62%. HAP and VAP are the second most common cause of nosocomial infection overall, but are the most common cause documented in the intensive care unit setting. In addition, HAP and VAP produce the highest mortality associated with nosocomial infection. As a result, evidence-based guidelines were prepared detailing the epidemiology, microbial etiology, risk factors and clinical manifestations of HAP and VAP. Furthermore, an approach based on the available data, expert opinion and current practice for the provision of care within the Canadian health care system was used to determine risk stratification schemas to enable appropriate diagnosis, antimicrobial management and nonantimicrobial management of HAP and VAP. Finally, prevention and risk-reduction strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring these infections were collated. Future initiatives to enhance more rapid diagnosis and to effect better treatment for resistant pathogens are necessary to reduce morbidity and improve survival. PMID:19145262

  5. Differential brain shrinkage over 6 months shows limited association with cognitive practice.

    PubMed

    Raz, Naftali; Schmiedek, Florian; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövdén, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The brain shrinks with age, but the timing of this process and the extent of its malleability are unclear. We measured changes in regional brain volumes in younger (age 20-31) and older (age 65-80) adults twice over a 6 month period, and examined the association between changes in volume, history of hypertension, and cognitive training. Between two MRI scans, 49 participants underwent intensive practice in three cognitive domains for 100 consecutive days, whereas 23 control group members performed no laboratory cognitive tasks. Regional volumes of seven brain structures were measured manually and adjusted for intracranial volume. We observed significant mean shrinkage in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, the caudate nucleus, and the cerebellum, but no reliable mean change of the prefrontal white matter, orbital-frontal cortex, and the primary visual cortex. Individual differences in change were reliable in all regions. History of hypertension was associated with greater cerebellar shrinkage. The cerebellum was the only region in which significantly reduced shrinkage was apparent in the experimental group after completion of cognitive training. Thus, in healthy adults, differential brain shrinkage can be observed in a narrow time window, vascular risk may aggravate it, and intensive cognitive activity may have a limited effect on it.

  6. Associations between feedlot management practices and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-06-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between factors related to feedlot management and risk of BRD. In total, 35,131 animals in 170 pens (cohorts) inducted into 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow separate estimation of total and direct effects. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. The placement of pen water troughs such that they could be accessed by animals in adjoining pens was associated with markedly increased risk of BRD (OR 4.3, 95% credible interval: 1.4-10.3). Adding animals to pens over multiple days was associated with increased risk of BRD across all animals in those pens compared to placing all animals in the pen on a single day (total effect: OR 1.9, 95% credible interval: 1.2-2.8). The much attenuated direct effect indicated that this was primarily mediated via factors on indirect pathways so it may be possible to ameliorate the adverse effects of adding animals to pens over multiple days by altering exposure to these intervening factors (e.g. mixing history). In pens in which animals were added to the pen over multiple days, animals added ≥7 days (OR: 0.7, credible interval: 0.5-0.9) or 1-6 days (OR: 0.8, credible interval: 0.7-1.0) before the last animal was added were at modestly reduced risk of BRD compared to the animals that were added to the pen on the latest day. Further research is required to disentangle effects of cohort formation patterns at animal-level and higher levels on animal-level risk of BRD. Vaccination against Bovine herpesvirus 1 at feedlot entry was investigated but results were inconclusive and further research is required to evaluate vaccine efficacy. We conclude that there are practical interventions available to

  7. A Survey of American Chiropractic Association Members’ Experiences, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Practice in Integrated Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Bronston, Leo J.; Austin-McClellan, Lauren E.; Lisi, Anthony J.; Donovan, Kevin C.; Engle, Walter W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the self-report of experiences, attitudes, and perceived educational needs of American Chiropractic Association members regarding practice in integrated health care settings. Methods This was a descriptive observational study of the American Chiropractic Association members. Participants completed an electronic survey reporting their current participation and interest in chiropractic integrated practice. Results The survey was completed in 2011 by 1142 respondents, for a response rate of 11.8%. The majority of respondents (82.9%) did not currently practice in an integrated setting, whereas 17.1% did. Those practicing in various integrated medical settings reported delivering a range of diagnostic, therapeutic, and case management services. Participation in administrative and scholarly activities was less common. Respondents not practicing in integrated settings reported being interested in delivering a very similar array of clinical services. Doctors of chiropractic practicing in hospital or outpatient medical facilities reported frequent engagement in interprofessional collaboration. Both nonintegrated and integrated respondents reported very similar educational interests on a range of clinical topics. Conclusion The findings of this survey provide insight into the experiences, participation, and interests in integrated clinical practice for members of the American Chiropractic Association. PMID:26793034

  8. Global histone deacetylase enzymatic activity is an independent prognostic marker associated with a shorter overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Michaël; Crompot, Emerence; Meuleman, Nathalie; Mineur, Philippe; Dessars, Barbara; El Housni, Hakim; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence; Stamatopoulos, Basile

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) play a crucial role in transcriptional regulation and are often deregulated in many cancers. However, global HDAC enzymatic activity has never been investigated in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). We measured HDAC activity in protein extracts from CD19+ B-cells purified from 114 CLL patients with a median follow-up of 91 months (range: 11–376). HDAC activity was equivalent in CLL and normal B-cells but higher in patients who died during the study than in living patients (152.1 vs. 65.04 pmol; P = 0.0060). Furthermore, HDAC activity correlated with treatment-free survival (TFS; P = 0.0156) and overall survival (OS; P < 0.0001): patients with low HDAC activity (n = 75) had a median TFS and OS of 101 and >376 months, respectively, whereas patients with high HDAC activity (n = 39) had a median TFS and OS of 47 and 137 months, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that HDAC activity is an independent predictor of OS (hazard ratio = 7.68; P = 0.0017). Finally, HDAC activity increased after B-cell receptor stimulation using IgM, suggesting a role for microenvironment stimuli (n = 10; P = 0.0371). In conclusion, high HDAC activity in CLL B-cells is associated with shorter TFS and OS and is an independent marker of OS, refining the use of other prognostic factors. This work provides a biological base for the use of HDAC inhibitors in CLL treatment. PMID:25437053

  9. Practice Patterns and Outcomes Associated with Choice of Initial Vasopressor Therapy for Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Ashraf; Evans, Stephen R.; Walkey, Allan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Clinical guidelines recommend norepinephrine as initial vasopressor of choice for septic shock, with dopamine suggested as an alternative vasopressor in patients at low risk for arrhythmias. We sought to determine practice patterns and outcomes associated with vasopressor selection in a large, population-based cohort of patients with septic shock that allows for assessment of outcomes in clinically important subgroups. Design We performed a retrospective cohort study to determine factors associated with choice of dopamine as compared with norepinephrine as initial vasopressor for patients with septic shock. We used propensity score matching to compare risk of hospital mortality based on initial vasopressor. We performed multiple sensitivity analyses using alternative methods to address confounding and hospital-level clustering. We investigated interaction between vasopressor selection and mortality in clinical subgroups based on arrhythmia and cardiovascular risk. Setting Enhanced administrative data (Premier, Inc) from 502 US hospitals during years 2010–2013. Subjects 61,122 patients admitted with septic shock who received dopamine or norepinephrine as initial vasopressor during the first two days of hospitalization. Interventions None Measurements and Main Results Norepinephrine (77.6%) was the most frequently used initial vasopressor during septic shock. Dopamine was preferentially selected by cardiologists, in the Southern US, at non-teaching hospitals, for older patients with more cardiovascular comorbidities, and was used less frequently over time. Patients receiving dopamine experienced greater hospital mortality (propensity matched cohort: N=38,788, 25% vs 23.7%; OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.14). Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. Subgroup analyses showed no evidence for effect modification based on arrhythmia risk or underlying cardiovascular disease. Conclusions In a large population-based sample of patients with septic shock in the US

  10. Latino Parenting Practices: A Comparison of Parent and Child Reports of Parenting Practices and the Association with Gateway Dru