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Sample records for independent practice associations

  1. Independent practice associations and physician-hospital organizations can improve care management for smaller practices.

    PubMed

    Casalino, Lawrence P; Wu, Frances M; Ryan, Andrew M; Copeland, Kennon; Rittenhouse, Diane R; Ramsay, Patricia P; Shortell, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    Pay-for-performance, public reporting, and accountable care organization programs place pressures on physicians to use health information technology and organized care management processes to improve the care they provide. But physician practices that are not large may lack the resources and size to implement such processes. We used data from a unique national survey of 1,164 practices with fewer than twenty physicians to provide the first information available on the extent to which independent practice associations (IPAs) and physician-hospital organizations (PHOs) might make it possible for these smaller practices to share resources to improve care. Nearly a quarter of the practices participated in an IPA or a PHO that accounted for a significant proportion of their patients. On average, practices participating in these organizations provided nearly three times as many care management processes for patients with chronic conditions as nonparticipating practices did (10.4 versus 3.8). Half of these processes were provided only by IPAs or PHOs. These organizations may provide a way for small and medium-size practices to systematically improve care and participate in accountable care organizations.

  2. Preparation for Independent Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Elsie

    1977-01-01

    Both students and faculties in nursing programs prefer more courses that would help nurses to become entrepreneurs in the practice of nursing. These courses should preferably be offered as electives or as a minor. (Author)

  3. State of the Diversity Practice in Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amada

    2015-01-01

    During the spring of 2014, the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) commissioned Insightlink Communications, a market research firm, to conduct the second survey on the state of the diversity practice in independent schools. The goals of the study included defining the roles played by diversity practitioners, their functions, and…

  4. Effective Practice in the Design of Directed Independent Learning Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Liz; Jones, Robert; Ottaway, James

    2015-01-01

    This study, commissioned by the HEA and the QAA focuses on directed independent learning practices in UK higher education. It investigates what stakeholders (including academic staff and students) have found to be the most effective practices in the inception, design, quality assurance and enhancement of directed independent learning and explores…

  5. Sandra L. Shullman: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice. The 2012 winner is Sandra L. Shullman for her outstanding contributions and leadership as an independent practitioner in the fields of counseling and consulting psychology. Through her…

  6. Introducing and Integrating Gifted Education into an Existing Independent School: An Analysis of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibben, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In this analysis of practice, I conduct a combination formative and summative program evaluation of an initiative introduced to serve gifted learners at The Ocean School (TOS), an independent, Pre-K-grade 8 day school located in a rural area of the West Coast. Using the best practices as articulated by the National Association of Gifted Children…

  7. Collection Development in Practice in an Independent School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altan, Susan

    1982-01-01

    Discusses collection development practices employed at two media centers of the Columbus School for Girls, an independent day school serving 605 students in grades K-12. Concepts highlighted are: philosophy of collection development, knowledge of school curriculum, interaction with faculty, familiarity with current and retrospective selection…

  8. Policies, Practices, and Composition of Governing Boards of Independent Colleges and Universities, 2010. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) surveyed higher education governing boards in the United States regarding board composition and selected policies and practices. AGB has conducted similar research since the mid-1980s. This report summarizes the data and examines trends for independent college and…

  9. 78 FR 77447 - California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation, Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2013), California Wind Energy Association and First Solar,...

  10. 27 CFR 10.52 - Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... buyer independence at risk. 10.52 Section 10.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk. The practice specified in this section is deemed to place trade buyer independence at risk within the description of exclusion in § 10.51: Industry...

  11. 27 CFR 10.52 - Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... buyer independence at risk. 10.52 Section 10.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk. The practice specified in this section is deemed to place trade buyer independence at risk within the description of exclusion in § 10.51: Industry...

  12. 27 CFR 10.52 - Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... buyer independence at risk. 10.52 Section 10.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk. The practice specified in this section is deemed to place trade buyer independence at risk within the description of exclusion in § 10.51: Industry...

  13. 27 CFR 10.52 - Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... buyer independence at risk. 10.52 Section 10.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk. The practice specified in this section is deemed to place trade buyer independence at risk within the description of exclusion in § 10.51: Industry...

  14. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Practices which put... which put retailer independence at risk. The practices specified in this section put retailer... practices that put retailer independence at risk. (a) The act by an industry member of resetting stock on...

  15. 27 CFR 10.52 - Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk. 10.52 Section 10.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk. The practice specified in this section is deemed...

  16. Independent Consulting and the American Evaluation Association: Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Deborah G.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG). The TIG goes back a joint meeting held in San Francisco in 1984 of the Evaluation Network (ENet) and the Evaluation Research Society (ERS), two years before the organizations merged to become the AEA. On the fringes…

  17. Independent association of glucocorticoids with damage accrual in SLE

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulos, Diane; Kandane-Rathnayake, Rangi; Raghunath, Sudha; Hoi, Alberta; Nikpour, Mandana; Morand, Eric F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors associated with damage accrual in a prospective cohort of patients with SLE. Methods Patients with SLE who attended the Lupus Clinic at Monash Health, Australia, between 2007 and 2013 were studied. Clinical variables included disease activity (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2K, SLEDAI-2K), time-adjusted mean SLEDAI, cumulative glucocorticoid dose and organ damage (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index (SDI)). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with damage accrual. Results A total of 162 patients were observed over a median (IQR) 3.6 (2.0–4.7) years. Seventy-five per cent (n=121) of patients received glucocorticoids. Damage accrual was significantly more frequent in glucocorticoid-exposed patients (42% vs 15%, p<0.01). Higher glucocorticoid exposure was independently associated with overall damage accrual after controlling for factors including ethnicity and disease activity and was significant at time-adjusted mean doses above 4.42 mg prednisolone/day; the OR of damage accrual in patients in the highest quartile of cumulative glucocorticoid exposure was over 10. Glucocorticoid exposure was independently associated with damage accrual in glucocorticoid-related and non-glucocorticoid related domains of the SDI. Conclusions Glucocorticoid use is independently associated with the accrual of damage in SLE, including in non-glucocorticoid related domains. PMID:27933196

  18. Antonio E. Puente: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Antonio E. Puente as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice. "For his decades of efforts to enhance the recognition of psychologists in providing health care services, through his work with the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) Panel to develop and maintain appropriate CPT codes for the breadth of professional practice; for his willingness to participate in litigation establishing the expertise of neuropsychologists to testify in court about their findings; for his tireless work in cross-cultural assessment relative to criminal trials; for his leadership of professional societies in clinical neuropsychology; for his promotion of legislation and policy at all levels of government; and for his countless other contributions to the enhancement of independent practice in psychology. Antonio Puente is a far-thinking visionary who freely shares his knowledge to improve the quality of psychological practice and the reimbursement system that attests to the worth of the profession. He is the very embodiment of the psychologist for whom this award is intended." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The independent association between diet quality and body composition.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Hébert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2014-05-12

    Excess body weight is associated with an imbalance between energy expenditure and dietary intake but evidence on the association between diet quality and body composition remains equivocal. Rather than relying on differences in diet quality between overweight/obese and normal weight adults, this study examined the association between the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and body fatness on a continuous scale, independent of physical activity (PA). Further the association between components of the HEI-2010 and risk for overweight/obesity was explored. 407 adults (27.6 ± 3.7 years) provided at least two 24-hour diet recalls over a period of 14 days, which were used to calculate the HEI-2010. Percent body fat (BF) was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and PA was determined via a multi-sensor device, worn over a period of 10 days. PA was a stronger contributor to the variability in BF than the HEI-2010 and the association between HEI-2010 and BF was significant only in men. Particularly a high consumption of protein, sodium and empty calories increased the risk for overweight/obesity. Adherence to dietary guidelines positively affects body fatness in men, independent of PA. In contrast to current dietary recommendations, the risk for overweight/obesity was increased with a higher protein intake.

  20. Independent learning among general practice trainees: an initial survey.

    PubMed

    Bligh, J G

    1992-11-01

    Self-directed learning is a natural way for adults to learn. Vocational training for general practice is a preparation for unsupervised clinical work that will be supported, in the main, by continuing medical education. This study uses the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale to investigate factors influencing readiness for such learning among a sample of general practice trainees. Three principal factors emerged from analysis: enjoyment and enthusiasm for learning; a positive self-concept as a learner and a factor suggesting the possibility of a 'reproducing' orientation to learning. These factors may reflect approaches to learning in general rather than these adopted for professional learning, but offer helpful pointers for the development of both vocational training and of continuing medical education.

  1. Strong independent association between obesity and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Movahed, M R; Lee, J Z; Lim, W Y; Hashemzadeh, M; Hashemzadeh, M

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and hypertension (HTN) are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Association between obesity and HTN has not been studied in a large populations following adjustment for comorbidities. The goal of this study was to evaluate any association between obesity and HTN after adjusting for baseline characteristics. We used ICD-9 codes for obesity and HTN from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) databases. Two randomly selected years, 1992 and 2002, were chosen from the databases as two independent samples. We used uni- and multivariable analysis to study any correlation between obesity and HTN. The 1992 database contained a total of 6,195,744 patients. HTN was present in 37.2 % of patients with obesity versus 12% of the control group (OR: 4.36, CI 4.30-4.42, P < 0.001). The 2002 database contained a total of 7,153,982 patients. HTN was present in 50.7% of patients with obesity versus 25.6% of the control group (OR: 2.98, CI 2.96-3.00, P < 0.001). Using multivariable analysis adjusting for gender, hyperlipidaemia, age, smoking, type 2 diabetes and chronic renal failure, obesity remained correlated with HTN in both years (1992: OR 2.69, CI 2.67-2.72, P < 0.001; 2002: OR 2.98, CI 2.96-3.00, P < 0.001). The presence of obesity was found to be strongly and independently associated with HTN. The cause of this correlation is not known warranting further investigation.

  2. Dicer independent small RNAs associate with telomeric heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fang; Li, Xiangzhi; Hiew, Samantha; Brady, Hugh; Liu, Yifan; Dou, Yali

    2009-01-01

    Small RNAs play important roles in the establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin structures. We show the presence of telomere specific small RNAs (tel-sRNAs) in mouse embryonic stem cells that are ∼24 nucleotides in length, Dicer-independent, and 2′-O-methylated at the 3′ terminus. The tel-sRNAs are asymmetric with specificity toward telomere G-rich strand, and evolutionarily conserved from protozoan to mammalian cells. Furthermore, tel-sRNAs are up-regulated in cells that carry null mutation of H3K4 methyltransferase MLL (Mll(−/−)) and down-regulated in cells that carry null mutations of histone H3K9 methyltransferase SUV39H (Suv39h1/h2(−/−)), suggesting that they are subject to epigenetic regulation. These results support that tel-sRNAs are heterochromatin associated pi-like small RNAs. PMID:19460867

  3. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice: Jeffrey E. Barnett

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Jeffrey E. Barnett, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice, is cited for outstanding, distinguished, and meritorious service in several areas of professional practice, especially professional ethics and psychotherapy treatment. Barnett has produced hundreds of high-quality publications,…

  4. Associative independence revisited: competition between conflicting associations can be resolved or even reversed in one trial.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel L; Lek, Isabel; Caplan, Jeremy B

    2017-04-01

    In one type of association-memory paradigm, after studying pairs of the form AB, AC, participants must recall both B and C in response to A. Counterintuitively, yet often replicated, recall probabilities of B and C are typically uncorrelated ("associative independence"). This face-value independence is now understood to reflect a negative correlation due to AB and AC competing, approximately offset by a positive correlation produced by subject- and item-variability. The outcome might vary with stimulus material; for noun-pairs, and with a single study trial per pair, AB and AC have been found to be positively correlated. We replicated the positive correlation between AB and AC for noun-pairs, but this did not differ from the correlation expected for independent memory tests, suggesting that for noun pairs, AB and AC are independent on average. In Experiment 2, participants instructed to form separate images for AB and AC again produced an independence pattern, but participants instructed to combine AB and AC into an integrative image produced a facilitation pattern. Thus, the relationship between AB and AC varies, and can be influenced by study strategy. Association-memory models may need to accommodate a diverse range of AB-AC relationships, and studies that build on AB/AC learning may need to consider whether AB/AC start out with a competitive, facilitatory or independent relationship.

  5. The Influences of Group and Independent General Practice on Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, E. M.

    1965-01-01

    When the practices of four general practitioners, members of multispecialist-general practitioner salaried groups (clinic doctors) were compared with those of four independent general practitioners (solo practitioners), it was noted that: group practice patients had more office laboratory investigation and greater in-hospital consultation and referral. On the other hand, independent practitioners' patients seemed to receive more personal attention from the doctor, a fuller explanation of diagnosis and treatment during office hours, more drug samples and more laboratory investigation in hospital. Group and independent practices are similar with respect to the rate of follow-up visits, the volume of preventive medicine, the number of radiographs and special procedures, the total number of drugs ordered, and the in-hospital formal written consultation rate and office consultation rate. The similarities between two types of practice may be a result of the interaction of group and independent practice in the same community. It is concluded that the team approach to medical care is not incompatible with independent practice. PMID:14323656

  6. Independent Origins of Yeast Associated with Coffee and Cacao Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Catherine L; Cromie, Gareth A; Garmendia-Torres, Cecilia; Sirr, Amy; Hays, Michelle; Field, Colburn; Jeffery, Eric W; Fay, Justin C; Dudley, Aimée M

    2016-04-04

    Modern transportation networks have facilitated the migration and mingling of previously isolated populations of plants, animals, and insects. Human activities can also influence the global distribution of microorganisms. The best-understood example is yeasts associated with winemaking. Humans began making wine in the Middle East over 9,000 years ago [1, 2]. Selecting favorable fermentation products created specialized strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3, 4] that were transported along with grapevines. Today, S. cerevisiae strains residing in vineyards around the world are genetically similar, and their population structure suggests a common origin that followed the path of human migration [3-7]. Like wine, coffee and cacao depend on microbial fermentation [8, 9] and have been globally dispersed by humans. Theobroma cacao originated in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of Colombia and Venezuela [10], was cultivated in Central America by Mesoamerican peoples, and was introduced to Europeans by Hernán Cortés in 1530 [11]. Coffea, native to Ethiopia, was disseminated by Arab traders throughout the Middle East and North Africa in the 6(th) century and was introduced to European consumers in the 17(th) century [12]. Here, we tested whether the yeasts associated with coffee and cacao are genetically similar, crop-specific populations or genetically diverse, geography-specific populations. Our results uncovered populations that, while defined by niche and geography, also bear signatures of admixture between major populations in events independent of the transport of the plants. Thus, human-associated fermentation and migration may have affected the distribution of yeast involved in the production of coffee and chocolate.

  7. The Association of Obesity with Walking Independent of Knee Pain: The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel K.; Neogi, Tuhina; Zhang, Yuqing; Felson, David; LaValley, Michael; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael; Lewis, Cora E.; Torner, James; Douglas Gross, K.

    2012-01-01

    Practice guidelines recommend addressing obesity for people with knee OA, however, the association of obesity with walking independent of pain is not known. We investigated this association within the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, a cohort of older adults who have or are at high risk of knee OA. Subjects wore a StepWatch to record steps taken over 7 days. We measured knee pain from a visual analogue scale and obesity by BMI. We examined the association of obesity with walking using linear regression adjusting for pain and covariates. Of 1788 subjects, the mean steps/day taken was 8872.9 ± 3543.4. Subjects with a BMI ≥35 took 3355 fewer steps per day independent of knee pain compared with those with a BMI ≤25 (95% CI −3899, −2811). BMI accounted for 9.7% of the variability of walking while knee pain accounted for 2.9%. BMI was associated with walking independent of knee pain. PMID:22645666

  8. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S.; Milham, Michael P.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status. PMID:25610779

  9. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, F Xavier; Quinn, Brian T; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the "reading network." Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same "double hit" of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status.

  10. Practical Work in Chemistry: Chemistry Students' Perceptions of Working Independently in a Less Organised Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, Robert James

    2010-01-01

    A study of chemistry students in an organic practical class, where they were required to work on their own, found considerable benefits in allowing them to work independently in a less organised environment. Although apprehensive at first, they soon gained a self-belief in their own abilities and were able to complete the course with minimal input…

  11. Retinal Information is Independently Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Vivian Yawei; Chan, Juliana Chung Ngor; Chung, Harriet; Ozaki, Risa; So, Wingyee; Luk, Andrea; Lam, Augustine; Lee, Jack; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association between a series of retinal information and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to evaluate whether this association is independent of traditional CVD risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients, we undertook an age-sex matched case-control study with 79 CVD cases and 150 non-CVD controls. All the participants underwent standardized physical examinations and retinal imaging. Retinal information was extracted from the retinal images using a semi-automatic computer program. Three stepwise logistic regression models were evaluated: model 1 with cardiovascular risk factors only; model 2 with retinal information only and model 3 with both cardiovascular risk factors and retinal information. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were used to compare the performances of different models. Results showed that the AUCs were 0.692 (95%CI: 0.622−0.761) and 0.661 (95%CI: 0.588−0.735) for model 1 and model 2, respectively. In addition, model 3 had an AUC of 0.775 (95%CI: 0.716−0.834). Compared to the previous two models, the AUC of model 3 increased significantly (p < 0.05 in both comparisons). In conclusion, retinal information is independently associated with CVD in type 2 diabetes. Further work is needed to validate the translational value of applying retinal imaging analysis into clinical practice. PMID:26754623

  12. Retinal Information is Independently Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Vivian Yawei; Chan, Juliana Chung Ngor; Chung, Harriet; Ozaki, Risa; So, Wingyee; Luk, Andrea; Lam, Augustine; Lee, Jack; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying

    2016-01-12

    To evaluate the association between a series of retinal information and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to evaluate whether this association is independent of traditional CVD risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients, we undertook an age-sex matched case-control study with 79 CVD cases and 150 non-CVD controls. All the participants underwent standardized physical examinations and retinal imaging. Retinal information was extracted from the retinal images using a semi-automatic computer program. Three stepwise logistic regression models were evaluated: model 1 with cardiovascular risk factors only; model 2 with retinal information only and model 3 with both cardiovascular risk factors and retinal information. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were used to compare the performances of different models. Results showed that the AUCs were 0.692 (95%CI: 0.622-0.761) and 0.661 (95%CI: 0.588-0.735) for model 1 and model 2, respectively. In addition, model 3 had an AUC of 0.775 (95%CI: 0.716-0.834). Compared to the previous two models, the AUC of model 3 increased significantly (p < 0.05 in both comparisons). In conclusion, retinal information is independently associated with CVD in type 2 diabetes. Further work is needed to validate the translational value of applying retinal imaging analysis into clinical practice.

  13. Decisions behind career choice for nurse practitioners: independent versus collaborative practice and motivational-needs behavior.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, S B; Corey, E H

    2000-09-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs) can take an active role in defining and establishing their careers. Prepared as advanced practice nurses with specific assessment skills, primary care NPs have the opportunity to become independent or collaborative practitioners. This report examines the published work in the area of practice choice and motivational-needs behavior. Interviews with collaborative and independent primary care NPs were conducted. Against the framework of well-established personality testing methods, open-ended interview questions were developed to elicit specific motivational-needs-based behavior characteristics. The motivational needs examined included the need for achievement, power, and affiliation. The interview findings were then synthesized using needs-based behavior theory. This new platform for role decision ultimately can prepare NPs to make informed career choices.

  14. Practice-based small group learning (PBSGL) for CPD: a pilot with general practice trainees to support the transition to independent practice.

    PubMed

    Rial, Jonathan; Scallan, Samantha

    2013-05-01

    The paper describes a small-scale enquiry with UK-based general practice specialty trainees (GPSTs) at the time of transition from training to independent practice. It aimed to identify whether they were supported in making this transition through attending practice-based small group learning (PBSGL) sessions. Participants in the study reported that the sessions helped them to consolidate their learning from their third year of training (GPST3), improved their ability to identify and use evidence in practice, and shifted the focus of their learning needs away from the two UK general practice postgraduate exams (applied Knowledge Test or aKT; and Clinical Skills assessment or CSa) and towards 'real world' practice. The two pilot groups have become established as means of peer support and continue to meet, with small changes in composition. The work has led to the wider roll out of PBSGL for newly qualified GPs across Wessex.

  15. Compliance of Health Care Workers with Hand Hygiene Practices: Independent Advantages of Overt and Covert Observers

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sung-Ching; Tien, Kuei-Lien; Hung, I-Chen; Lin, Yu-Jiun; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Wang, Ming-Jiuh; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Kunin, Calvin M.; Chen, Yee-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Background Evaluation and feedback of hand hygiene (HH) compliance are important elements of the WHO multimodal strategy for hospital infection control. Overt observation is recommended, but it may be confounded by Hawthorne effect. Covert observation offers the opportunity to decrease observer bias. In this study we conducted a one year hospital-wide HH promotion program that included medical students (MS) as covert observers. Methods HH compliance for the five WHO indications was determined by trained and validated observers. The overt observers consisted of eleven infection control nurses (ICNs) and two unit HH ambassadors (UAs) in each of 83 wards. The covert observers consisted of nine MS during their rotating clinical clerkships. Feedback was provided to department heads and staff each quarter. Results Of the 23,333 HH observations 76.0% were by MS, 5.3% by ICNs and 18.7% by UAs. The annual compliance rates were MS 44.1%, ICNs 74.4% and UAs 94.1%; P<0.001. The MS found significantly lower annual compliance rates for 4/5 HH indications compared to ICNs and UAs; P<0.05. The ICNs reported significantly improvement from the first to the fourth quarter; P<0.001. This was associated with feedback from the MS of very poor compliance by nurses during the first quarter. Conclusions Based on these findings we recommend a two-pronged approach to HH programs. The role of ICNs and UAs is to educate, serve as role models, establish, sustain good HH practices and provide direct feedback. The role of the covert observers is to measure compliance and provide independent feedback. PMID:23341991

  16. Influence of Parenting Practices on Eating Behaviors of Early Adolescents during Independent Eating Occasions: Implications for Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Reicks, Marla; Banna, Jinan; Cluskey, Mary; Gunther, Carolyn; Hongu, Nobuko; Richards, Rickelle; Topham, Glade; Wong, Siew Sun

    2015-10-22

    Among early adolescents (10-14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions.

  17. Influence of Parenting Practices on Eating Behaviors of Early Adolescents during Independent Eating Occasions: Implications for Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Reicks, Marla; Banna, Jinan; Cluskey, Mary; Gunther, Carolyn; Hongu, Nobuko; Richards, Rickelle; Topham, Glade; Wong, Siew Sun

    2015-01-01

    Among early adolescents (10–14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions. PMID:26506384

  18. Clinical quality is independently associated with favorable bond ratings.

    PubMed

    Haydar, Ziad; Nicewander, David; Convery, Paul; Black, Michael; Ballard, David

    2010-01-01

    The relation between clinical quality and bond rating for nonprofit hospitals has been proposed but never fully studied. We analyzed the relation between bond rating, clinical quality measures (The Joint Commission/Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services [CMS] core measures), and balance sheet and income statement financial measures of 236 hospitals across the United States that are rated by Moody's Investors Service and that reported clinical quality measures to CMS during the study period. We found a statistically significant relation between higher quality measures and more favorable bond ratings. This association remained significant after controlling for traditional financial parameters.

  19. Renal function is independently associated with circulating betatrophin

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Lukas; Schwarz, Franziska; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Schlueter, Nina; Brachs, Sebastian; Möhlig, Matthias; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Mai, Knut; Bobbert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Objective Betatrophin has been identified as a marker linking liver with beta cell function and lipid metabolism in murine models. Until now, the regulation of circulating betatrophin in humans is not entirely clear. We here analyzed the relation of betatrophin levels to phenotypes of the metabolic syndrome and speculated that renal function might influence circulating betatrophin levels and explain age-dependent changes of betatrophin. Subjects We analyzed blood samples from 535 individuals participating in the Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam study. Results In a crude analysis we found a positive correlation between betatrophin levels and HbA1c (r = 0.24; p < 0.001), fasting glucose (r = 0.20; p < 0.001) and triglycerides (r = 0.12; p = 0.007). Furthermore betatrophin was positively correlated with age (r = 0.47; p <0.001), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.17; p < 0.001), intima media thickness (r = 0.26; p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with CKD-EPI eGFR (r = -0.33; p < 0.001) as an estimate of renal function. Notably, eGFR remained highly associated with betatrophin after adjustment for age, waist circumference, gender, HbA1c and lipid parameters in a multivariate linear regression model (β = -0.197, p< 0.001). Conclusions Our data suggest that circulating levels of betatrophin depend on age, gender, waist circumference, total/HDL cholesterol ratio and renal function. Especially the association to eGFR highlights the importance for future studies to address renal function as possible influence on betatrophin regulation and consider eGFR as potential confounder when analyzing the role of betatrophin in humans. PMID:28257453

  20. Security of a practical semi-device-independent quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Chun; Li, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Similar to device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD), semi-device-independent quantum key distribution (SDI-QKD) provides secure key distribution without any assumptions about the internal workings of the QKD devices. The only assumption is that the dimension of the Hilbert space is bounded. But SDI-QKD can be implemented in a one-way prepare-and-measure configuration without entanglement compared with DI-QKD. We propose a practical SDI-QKD protocol with four preparation states and three measurement bases by considering the maximal violation of dimension witnesses and specific processes of a QKD protocol. Moreover, we prove the security of the SDI-QKD protocol against collective attacks based on the min-entropy and dimension witnesses. We also show a comparison of the secret key rate between the SDI-QKD protocol and the standard QKD.

  1. Making the decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution practically useful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi-Heng; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The relatively low key rate seems to be the major barrier to its practical use for the decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD). We present a four-intensity protocol for the decoy-state MDI-QKD that hugely raises the key rate, especially in the case in which the total data size is not large. Also, calculations show that our method makes it possible for secure private communication with fresh keys generated from MDI-QKD with a delay time of only a few seconds.

  2. Leading and Managing Today's Independent School: A Qualitative Analysis of the Skills and Practices of Experienced Heads of Independent Schools in the New York Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhel, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted in 2014 with 16 experienced heads of school in the New York metropolitan area. The study was designed to better understand the skills and practices that they view as critical to leading and managing independent schools. The data collected speak to each head's ability to manage the…

  3. An Approach to Life Skills Group Work with Youth in Transition to Independent Living: Theoretical, Practice, and Operational Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Terrence T.; Williams, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    Group work is fundamental to working with youth learning about independent living and in making the tough and challenging transition to independence. The authors, seasoned and experienced group workers and researchers with youth leaving the child welfare system, will present a conceptual framework and set of practices for helping youth gain those…

  4. Employee (Dis)Engagement: Learning from Nurses Who Left Organizational Jobs for Independent Practice.

    PubMed

    Stahlke Wall, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Employee engagement is of growing interest in healthcare organizations. Engaged employees give an extra measure of effort to contribute to organization goals, whereas disengaged employees withdraw, have lower performance and are more likely to leave their jobs. The aim of this ethnographic study was, in part, to explore the reasons why high-calibre nurses became disengaged from their work and opted to leave their hospital-based employment in favour of independent practice, as well as to consider the organizational conditions that influenced their desire to leave. The findings revealed that nurses left their hospital-based jobs because of health system change, job characteristics, working conditions and lack of respect, which relate closely to the antecedents of employee engagement. Employee engagement can be fostered through organizational support, trust-building management behaviour and transformational leadership.

  5. Relationships among moral distress, level of practice independence, and intent to leave of nurse practitioners in emergency departments: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Jennifer; Epstein, Elizabeth; Rovnyak, Virginia; Snyder, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research study were to investigate moral distress among emergency department (ED) nurse practitioners (NPs) and examine relationships between moral distress and level of practice independence as well as intent to leave a position. Moral distress has been studied regarding registered nurses and physicians (MDs) but less so in NPs. It is important to explore moral distress in NPs because they tread a unique path between nursing and physician roles. Moral distress may play a significant role in staff nurses' intention to leave practice, and level of practice independence is found to have a relationship with NPs' intention to leave. A convenience sample of ED NPs was obtained from a mailing list of a national nursing specialty organization, the Emergency Nurses Association. Using a correlational design, survey methods assessed moral distress with the Moral Distress Scale-Revised (MDS-R), level of practice independence with the Dempster Practice Behavior Scale, and intent to leave with self-report. Correlational and regression analyses of data were conducted to characterize moral distress among ED NPs and associations between moral distress, level of practice independence, and intent to leave. Results found ED NPs do experience moral distress with poor patient care results from inadequate staff communication and working with incompetent coworkers in their practice. The MDS-R was a significant predictor of intention to leave among respondents. This study is the first of its kind to explore moral distress in ED NPs. Results suggest moral distress influences ED NPs' intent to leave their position. Further studies are needed to explore the findings from this research and to formulate interventions to alleviate moral distress in ED NPs and improve retention in the clinical setting.

  6. Memory for Narrative and Expository Text: Independent Influences of Semantic Associations and Text Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael B. W.

    2005-01-01

    The author examined memory for text in terms of the independent influences of semantic knowledge associations and text organization. Semantic associations were operationalized as the semantic relatedness between individual text concepts and the text as a whole and assessed with latent semantic analysis. The author assessed text organization by…

  7. White matter hyperintensities are associated with visual search behavior independent of generalized slowing in aging

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Roach, Alexandra E.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental controversy is whether cognitive decline with advancing age can be entirely explained by decreased processing speed, or whether specific neural changes can elicit cognitive decline, independent of slowing. These hypotheses are anchored by studies of healthy older individuals where age is presumed the sole influence. Unfortunately, advancing age is also associated with asymptomatic brain white matter injury. We hypothesized that differences in white matter injury extent, manifest by MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH), mediate differences in visual attentional control in healthy aging, beyond processing speed differences. We tested young and cognitively healthy older adults on search tasks indexing speed and attentional control. Increasing age was associated with generally slowed performance. WMH was also associated with slowed search times independent of processing speed differences. Consistent with evidence attributing reduced network connectivity to WMH, these results conclusively demonstrate that clinically silent white matter injury contributes to slower search performance indicative of compromised cognitive control, independent of generalized slowing of processing speed. PMID:24183716

  8. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  9. Fitness but not weight status is associated with projected physical independence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Luis B; Cyrino, Edilson S; Santos, Leandro Dos; Ekelund, Ulf; Santos, Diana A

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and fitness have been associated with older adults' physical independence. We aimed to investigate the independent and combined associations of physical fitness and adiposity, assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with the projected ability for physical independence. A total of 3496 non-institutionalized older adults aged 65 and older (1167 male) were included in the analysis. BMI and WC were assessed and categorized according to established criteria. Physical fitness was evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test and individual test results were expressed as Z-scores. Projected ability for physical independence was assessed with the 12-item composite physical function scale. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for being physically dependent. A total of 30.1 % of participants were classified as at risk for losing physical independence at age 90 years. Combined fitness and fatness analysis demonstrated that unfit older adults had increased odds ratio for being physically dependent in all BMI categories (normal: OR = 9.5, 95 %CI = 6.5-13.8; overweight: OR = 6.0, 95 %CI = 4.3-8.3; obese: OR = 6.7, 95 %CI = 4.6-10.0) and all WC categories (normal: OR = 10.4, 95%CI = 6.5-16.8; middle: OR = 6.2, 95 %CI = 4.1-9.3; upper: OR = 7.0, 95 %CI = 4.8-10.0) compared to fit participants that were of normal weight and fit participants with normal WC, respectively. No increased odds ratio was observed for fit participants that had increased BMI or WC. In conclusion, projected physical independence may be enhanced by a normal weight, a normal WC, or an increased physical fitness. Adiposity measures were not associated with physical independence, whereas fitness is independently related to physical independence. Independent of their weight and WC status, unfit older adults are at increased risk for losing physical independence.

  10. Gaining independent prescriptive practice: one state's experience in adoption of the APRN Consensus Model.

    PubMed

    Madler, Billie Jo; Kalanek, Constance B; Rising, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are increasingly encouraged to be active participants in health policy. This article provides an exemplar of how nurse practitioners (NPs) in one state, North Dakota, used strategic policy actions to obtain independent prescriptive privileges. Consistent and clear communication among NPs and with key stakeholders, including legislators, contributed to a positive policy outcome. North Dakota nurse leaders in this initiative have shared their experiences with a variety of audiences including other state boards of nursing and NP organizations in states such as New York, South Dakota, and Louisiana. In addition, a webinar sponsored by the Center to Champion Nursing in America at AARP featured several of the North Dakota NP leaders, who shared their reflections of this experience and the strategies they used. Regulatory environments and public policies will continue to significantly influence the future of all nurses. This case study of one state can be useful to NPs and other nurses seeking meaningful policy change through laws or regulations with regard to scope of practice or other health policy issues.

  11. Impaired Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Function is Associated with Pediatric Hypertension Independent of Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Justin R.; O’Connell, Michael; Bosch, Tyler A.; Chow, Lisa; Rudser, Kyle D.; Dengel, Donald R.; Fox, Claudia K.; Steinberger, Julia; Kelly, Aaron S.

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined whether sympathetic nervous system activity influences hypertension status and systolic blood pressure (SBP) independent of adiposity in youth ranging from normal-weight to severe obesity. Methods We examined the association of heart rate variability (HRV) with hypertension status and SBP among youth (6-18 years old; n = 188; 103 female). Seated SBP was measured using an automated cuff. Pre-hypertension (SBP percentile≤90th-<95th) and hypertension (SBP percentile≤95th) were defined by age-, sex-, and height-norms. Autonomic nervous system activity was measured using HRV via SphygmoCorTM MM3 system and analyzed for time- and frequency-domains. Total body fat was measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Logistic regression models demonstrated lower values in each time-domain HRV measure and larger LF:HF ratio to be significantly associated with higher odds of being pre-hypertensive/hypertensive (11-47% higher odds) independent of total body fat (p<0.05). In linear regression analysis, lower time-domain, but not frequency-domain, HRV measures were significantly associated with higher SBP independent of total body fat (p<0.05). Conclusion These data suggest that impaired cardiac autonomic nervous system function, at rest, is associated with higher odds of being pre-hypertensive/hypertensive and higher SBP which may be independent of adiposity in youth. PMID:26389821

  12. Pathogen risk associated with farming practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 associated with the consumption of leafy greens has focused attention on routes of contamination of these commodities with bacterial foodborne pathogens. A summary of research activities at the Environmental Micorbial and Food Safety Laboratory have evaluated mechanism...

  13. Renal Function but Not Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is Independently Associated with Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowska, Katarzyna; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Schernthaner, Gerit H.; Brunner, Simon; Brix, Johanna M.; Aschauer, Stefan; Höllerl, Florian; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Guntram

    2011-01-01

    Background. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is associated with macrovascular disease and possibly with microangiopathy in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We tested the hypothesis that ADMA is related to diabetic retinopathy (DR) independently of macrovascular disease. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 127 T2DM patients selected to achieve equal distributions of patients with and without macrovascular disease in the groups with and without DR. Results. Patients with DR had increased ADMA, longer diabetes duration, and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). ADMA correlated with GFR (ρ = -0.35; P < .001), diabetes duration (ρ = 0.19; P = .048), and age (ρ = 0.19; P = .033). Logistic regression analysis revealed an association of ADMA with DR. After adjustment for macrovascular disease, this association remained significant (OR 1.48; 95% CI: 1.02–2.15; P = .039). Inclusion of GFR and T2DM duration into the model abolished this significant relationship. GFR remained the only independent predictor for DR. A 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 GFR decrease was associated with DR in a multivariate model (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.08–1.56; P = .006). Conclusions. These findings indicate an association between ADMA and DR in T2DM independent of macrovascular disease. This relationship is modified by GFR, the only parameter significantly related to DR in multivariate analysis. PMID:21629851

  14. Renal function but not asymmetric dimethylarginine is independently associated with retinopathy in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowska, Katarzyna; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Schernthaner, Gerit H; Brunner, Simon; Brix, Johanna M; Aschauer, Stefan; Höllerl, Florian; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Guntram

    2011-01-01

    Background. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is associated with macrovascular disease and possibly with microangiopathy in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We tested the hypothesis that ADMA is related to diabetic retinopathy (DR) independently of macrovascular disease. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 127 T2DM patients selected to achieve equal distributions of patients with and without macrovascular disease in the groups with and without DR. Results. Patients with DR had increased ADMA, longer diabetes duration, and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). ADMA correlated with GFR (ρ = -0.35; P < .001), diabetes duration (ρ = 0.19; P = .048), and age (ρ = 0.19; P = .033). Logistic regression analysis revealed an association of ADMA with DR. After adjustment for macrovascular disease, this association remained significant (OR 1.48; 95% CI: 1.02-2.15; P = .039). Inclusion of GFR and T2DM duration into the model abolished this significant relationship. GFR remained the only independent predictor for DR. A 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) GFR decrease was associated with DR in a multivariate model (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.08-1.56; P = .006). Conclusions. These findings indicate an association between ADMA and DR in T2DM independent of macrovascular disease. This relationship is modified by GFR, the only parameter significantly related to DR in multivariate analysis.

  15. Independent contractors versus employees: the costs and benefits for your practice.

    PubMed

    Buzogany, William A; Mueller, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Every business is interested in reducing costs. Payroll and employee benefit costs can be reduced through the use of independent contractors, because they are not employees to whom training, overtime wages, and benefits must be provided. Using the services of an independent contractor presents some disadvantages, however, as an independent contractor cannot be controlled and disciplined in the same fashion as an employee. There are a variety of tests applied under various statutes to determine whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor, and it is important to carefully analyze all of the facts of a given situation in light of these tests before entering into an independent contractor relationship. If you engage an individual as an independent contractor, and that individual is found to actually be an employee, your business may be subject to significant financial penalties.

  16. Increased dietary sodium is independently associated with greater mortality among prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Mc Causland, Finnian R; Waikar, Sushrut S; Brunelli, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Dietary sodium is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, hypervolemia, and mortality in hemodialysis patients; hence, sodium restriction is almost universally recommended. Since the evidence upon which to base these assumptions is limited, we undertook a post-hoc analysis of 1770 patients in the Hemodialysis Study with available dietary, clinical, and laboratory information. Within this cohort, 772 were men, 1113 black, and 786 diabetic, with a mean age of 58 years and a median dietary sodium intake of 2080 mg/day. After case-mix adjustment, linear regression modeling found that higher dietary sodium was associated with a greater ultrafiltration requirement, caloric and protein intake; sodium to calorie intake ratio was associated with a greater ultrafiltration requirement; and sodium to potassium ratio was associated with higher serum sodium. No indices were associated with the pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure. Cox regression modeling found that higher baseline dietary sodium and the ratio of sodium to calorie or potassium were each independently associated with greater all-cause mortality. No association between a prescribed dietary sodium restriction and mortality were found. Thus, higher reported dietary sodium intake is independently associated with greater mortality among prevalent hemodialysis patients. Randomized trials will be necessary to determine whether dietary sodium restriction improves survival.

  17. Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics Are Associated with Disability Independently of Vascular Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Devulapalli, Saravana; Shoirah, Hazem; Dhamoon, Mandip S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular risk factors may be associated with disability independently of vascular events. We examined whether the American Heart Association’s 7 ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics were independently associated with disability in a nationally representative cohort. Methods Adults age ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012 were included. Ideal CVH was calculated as a composite of 7 measures, each scored 0–2. Primary predictors were number of ideal CVH metrics and score of CVH metrics. The outcome was a dichotomous score from 20 activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADLs. Unadjusted and adjusted weighted logistic models estimated associations between ideal CVH and disability. The data were analyzed in 2015. Results Among 22692 participants, mean age was 46.9 years. Cardiac disease and stroke were present in 6.6% and 2.8%; 90.3% had poor physical activity and 89.9% poor diet. Among 3975 individuals with full CVH data, in fully adjusted models, OR for disability was 0.90 (95% CI 0.83–0.98) per point increase in ideal CVH score, and 0.84 (0.73–0.97) per additional number of ideal CVH metrics. Conclusions CVH metrics were strongly and significantly associated with reduced odds of disability independently of vascular and non-vascular conditions. Poorer CVH may cause subclinical vascular disease resulting in disability. PMID:26926808

  18. Relearning a context-shock association after forgetting is an NMDAr-independent process.

    PubMed

    Chan, Diana; Baker, Kathryn D; Richardson, Rick

    2015-09-01

    Infantile amnesia (i.e., the rapid rate of forgetting in young animals) is at least partially due to a memory retrieval, rather than a storage, failure as studies have shown that these engrams can continue to influence later behavior. For example, prior conditioning affects the neural mechanisms underlying future learning. In adult animals, the initial learning of a context-shock association depends upon N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors, but this conditioning renders subsequent learning to a similar context NMDAr-independent. In the present study, we examined whether this transition from NMDAr-dependent to NMDAr-independent context conditioning occurs even after infantile amnesia. Experiment 1 demonstrated that infant (i.e., postnatal day 17) rats acquire a context-shock association when trained with multiple shocks, as assessed by context freezing one day later. However, they exhibit significant forgetting of this association 10days later. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that even when animals had forgotten the initial learning experience, future conditioning to the same context was NMDAr-independent. There was evidence of a transition to NMDAr-independent context fear learning in animals exposed only to the foot shock in infancy (Experiment 3) or only to the context in infancy (Experiment 3 but not Experiment 2). These latter results suggest that animals do not have to be exposed to the entire conditioning procedure at postnatal day 17 to show a transition to NMDAr-independent context learning. These experiments add to a growing body of evidence that forgotten infant memories can continue to affect later behavior by demonstrating that prior experience alters the mechanisms of future learning.

  19. Independent evidence for an association between general cognitive ability and a genetic locus for educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Trampush, Joey W; Lencz, Todd; Knowles, Emma; Davies, Gail; Guha, Saurav; Pe'er, Itsik; Liewald, David C; Starr, John M; Djurovic, Srdjan; Melle, Ingrid; Sundet, Kjetil; Christoforou, Andrea; Reinvang, Ivar; Mukherjee, Semanti; DeRosse, Pamela; Lundervold, Astri; Steen, Vidar M; John, Majnu; Espeseth, Thomas; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Giegling, Ina; Konte, Bettina; Ikeda, Masashi; Roussos, Panos; Giakoumaki, Stella; Burdick, Katherine E; Payton, Antony; Ollier, William; Horan, Mike; Scult, Matthew; Dickinson, Dwight; Straub, Richard E; Donohoe, Gary; Morris, Derek; Corvin, Aiden; Gill, Michael; Hariri, Ahmad; Weinberger, Daniel R; Pendleton, Neil; Iwata, Nakao; Darvasi, Ariel; Bitsios, Panos; Rujescu, Dan; Lahti, Jari; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Keller, Matthew C; Andreassen, Ole A; Deary, Ian J; Glahn, David C; Malhotra, Anil K

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive deficits and reduced educational achievement are common in psychiatric illness; understanding the genetic basis of cognitive and educational deficits may be informative about the etiology of psychiatric disorders. A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported a genome-wide significant locus for years of education, which subsequently demonstrated association to general cognitive ability ("g") in overlapping cohorts. The current study was designed to test whether GWAS hits for educational attainment are involved in general cognitive ability in an independent, large-scale collection of cohorts. Using cohorts in the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT; up to 20,495 healthy individuals), we examined the relationship between g and variants associated with educational attainment. We next conducted meta-analyses with 24,189 individuals with neurocognitive data from the educational attainment studies, and then with 53,188 largely independent individuals from a recent GWAS of cognition. A SNP (rs1906252) located at chromosome 6q16.1, previously associated with years of schooling, was significantly associated with g (P = 1.47 × 10(-4) ) in COGENT. The first joint analysis of 43,381 non-overlapping individuals for this a priori-designated locus was strongly significant (P = 4.94 × 10(-7) ), and the second joint analysis of 68,159 non-overlapping individuals was even more robust (P = 1.65 × 10(-9) ). These results provide independent replication, in a large-scale dataset, of a genetic locus associated with cognitive function and education. As sample sizes grow, cognitive GWAS will identify increasing numbers of associated loci, as has been accomplished in other polygenic quantitative traits, which may be relevant to psychiatric illness.

  20. Independent Evidence for an Association between General Cognitive Ability and a Genetic Locus for Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Trampush, Joey W.; Lencz, Todd; Knowles, Emma; Davies, Gail; Guha, Saurav; Pe’er, Itsik; Liewald, David C.; Starr, John M.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Melle, Ingrid; Sundet, Kjetil; Christoforou, Andrea; Reinvang, Ivar; Mukherjee, Semanti; DeRosse, Pamela; Lundervold, Astri; Steen, Vidar M.; John, Majnu; Espeseth, Thomas; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Giegling, Ina; Konte, Bettina; Ikeda, Masashi; Roussos, Panos; Giakoumaki, Stella; Burdick, Katherine E.; Payton, Antony; Ollier, William; Horan, Mike; Scult, Matthew; Dickinson, Dwight; Straub, Richard E.; Donohoe, Gary; Morris, Derek; Corvin, Aiden; Gill, Michael; Hariri, Ahmad; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Pendleton, Neil; Iwata, Nakao; Darvasi, Ariel; Bitsios, Panos; Rujescu, Dan; Lahti, Jari; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Keller, Matthew C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Deary, Ian J.; Glahn, David C.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits and reduced educational achievement are common in psychiatric illness; understanding the genetic basis of cognitive and educational deficits may be informative about the etiology of psychiatric disorders. A recent, large genomewide association study (GWAS) reported a genome-wide significant locus for years of education, which subsequently demonstrated association to general cognitive ability (“g”) in overlapping cohorts. The current study was designed to test whether GWAS hits for educational attainment are involved in general cognitive ability in an independent, large-scale collection of cohorts. Using cohorts in the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT; up to 20,495 healthy individuals), we examined the relationship between g and variants associated with educational attainment. We next conducted meta-analyses with 24,189 individuals with neurocognitive data from the educational attainment studies, and then with 53,188 largely independent individuals from a recent GWAS of cognition. A SNP (rs1906252) located at chromosome 6q16.1, previously associated with years of schooling, was significantly associated with g (P = 1.47×10−4) in COGENT. The first joint analysis of 43,381 non-overlapping individuals for this a priori-designated locus was strongly significant (P = 4.94×10−7), and the second joint analysis of 68,159 non-overlapping individuals was even more robust (P = 1.65×10−9). These results provide independent replication, in a large-scale dataset, of a genetic locus associated with cognitive function and education. As sample sizes grow, cognitive GWAS will identify increasing numbers of associated loci, as has been accomplished in other polygenic quantitative traits, which may be relevant to psychiatric illness. PMID:25951819

  1. Abdominal Myosteatosis is Independently Associated to Hyperinsulinemia and Insulin Resistance among Older Men without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic, Iva; Cauley, Jane A.; Wang, Patty Y.; Holton, Kathleen F.; Lee, Christine G.; Sheu, Yahtyng; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Andrew R.; Lewis, Cora B.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Marshall, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    Design and Methods Skeletal muscle adipose tissue (AT) infiltration (myosteatosis) increases with aging and may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear if myosteatosis is associated to glucose and insulin homeostasis independent of total and central adiposity. We evaluated the association between intermuscular AT (IMAT) in the abdominal skeletal muscles (total, paraspinal and psoas) and fasting serum glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 393 non-diabetic Caucasian men aged 65+. Abdominal IMAT, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) AT (cm3) were measured by quantitative computed tomography at the L4-L5 intervertebral space. Results In age, study site, height and muscle volume adjusted regression analyses, total abdominal and psoas (but not paraspinal) IMAT were positively associated with glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR (all P < 0.003). The associations between total abdominal and psoas IMAT and insulin and HOMA-IR remained significant after further adjusting for lifestyle factors, as well as DXA total body fat, VAT or SAT in separate models (all P <0.009). Conclusions Our study indicates a previously unreported, independent association between abdominal myosteatosis and hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance among older Caucasian men. These associations may be specific for particular abdominal muscle depots, illustrating the potential importance of separately studying specific muscle groups. PMID:23408772

  2. Low Skeletal Muscle Mass in the Lower Limbs Is Independently Associated to Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Ro, Hee Joon; Chung, Sun G.; Kang, Si Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kim, Don-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It has been reported that low skeletal muscle mass correlates with knee osteoarthritis in obese individuals. This study aimed to investigate whether lower limb skeletal muscle mass is independently associated with knee osteoarthritis in the general population. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study used public data from the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects included 4924 community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years (821 subjects with knee osteoarthritis and 4,103 controls). Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was calculated from the appendicular skeletal muscle mass measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Independent effects of total and lower limb SMI values on knee osteoarthritis were determined using odds ratios (OR) adjusted for age, sex, obesity, total femur bone mineral density, serum vitamin D level, diabetes mellitus status, and physical activity on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The adjusted logistic regression model revealed that older age, female sex, and obesity were significantly associated with knee osteoarthritis. A higher serum vitamin D level was also positively correlated with knee osteoarthritis (OR, 1.015; 95% CI, 1.003–1.027; P = 0.010). Although total SMI was not significantly associated with knee osteoarthritis (OR, 0.976; 95% CI, 0.946–1.007; P = 0.127), a low lower limb SMI had an independent effect on knee osteoarthritis (OR, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.900–0.983; P = 0.006). Conclusions Low skeletal muscle mass in the lower limbs but not in the whole body was independently associated with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:27832208

  3. Survey of electronic veterinary medical record adoption and use by independent small animal veterinary medical practices in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Krone, Lauren M.; Brown, Catherine M.; Lindenmayer, Joann M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the proportion of independent small animal veterinary medical practices in Massachusetts that use electronic veterinary medical records (EVMRs), determine the purposes for which EVMRs are used, and identify perceived barriers to their use. Design Survey. Sample 100 veterinarians. Procedures 213 of 517 independent small animal veterinary practices operating in Massachusetts were randomly chosen for study recruitment. One veterinarian at each practice was invited by telephone to answer a hardcopy survey regarding practice demographics, medical records type (electronic, paper, or both), purposes of EVMR use, and perceived barriers to adoption. Surveys were mailed to the first 100 veterinarians who agreed to participate. Practices were categorized by record type and size (large [≥ 5 veterinarians], medium [3 to 4 veterinarians], or small [1 to 2 veterinarians]). Results 84 surveys were returned; overall response was 84 of 213 (39.4%). The EVMRs were used alone or together with paper records in 66 of 82 (80.5%) practices. Large and medium-sized practices were significantly more likely to use EVMRs combined with paper records than were small practices. The EVMRs were most commonly used for ensuring billing, automating reminders, providing cost estimates, scheduling, recording medical and surgical information, and tracking patient health. Least common uses were identifying emerging infectious diseases, research, and insurance. Eleven veterinarians in paper record–only practices indicated reluctance to change, anticipated technological problems, time constraints, and cost were barriers to EVMR use. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results indicated EVMRs were underutilized as a tool for tracking and improving population health and identifying emerging infectious diseases. Efforts to facilitate adoption of EVMRs for these purposes should be strengthened by the veterinary medical, human health, and public health professions. PMID:25029312

  4. Physical activity, social support, and depression: possible independent and indirect associations in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yoojin; Weikert, Madeline; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Sandroff, Brian; Motl, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the pattern of associations among physical activity, social support, mobility disability, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Persons (N = 218) with RRMS completed a battery of questionnaires that was sent and returned through the United States Postal Service (USPS). Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that physical activity and social support were both inversely associated with depressive symptoms (r's = -0.288 and -0.386, p ≤ 0.05, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that physical activity (β = -0.21, p = 0.002) and social support (β = -0.37, p = 0.0001) were independently associated with depressive symptoms. Path analysis confirmed that the associations between physical activity and social support with depressive symptoms were indirect via mobility disability and perceived stress. Collectively, the evidence indicates that physical activity and social support are independently and indirectly associated with depression via mobility disability and perceived stress in relapsing-remitting MS. This supports the design of interventions and programs that target physical activity and social support for reducing depressive symptoms among persons with MS.

  5. Independent Association of Muscular Strength and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Children.

    PubMed

    Melo, X; Santa-Clara, H; Santos, D A; Pimenta, N M; Minderico, C S; Fernhall, B; Sardinha, L B

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the influence of muscular strength on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in children, controlling for the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and central adiposity and to examine if differences among muscular strength tertiles translate to physiological differences. We assessed cIMT of the common carotid artery in 366 children between 11-12 years of age (191 girls). Measures included cIMT assessed with high-resolution ultrasonography, a maximal handgrip strength test, body fat mass and lean mass from DXA and CRF determined using a maximal cycle ergometer test. Association between muscular strength and cIMT adjusted for CRF and central adiposity, as measured by trunk fat, was tested with multiple linear regression analysis. Differences in risk factors among muscular strength groups were tested with ANOVA. The Muscular Strength Index (MSI) was inversely associated with cIMT independently of CRF and central adiposity (p<0.05). The low MSI group had the highest values of cIMT, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure and the lowest CRF (p<0.05). There was an inverse and independent association between muscular strength and cIMT. Low muscular strength was associated with higher levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children.

  6. Fostering Independent Learning: Practical Strategies to Promote Student Success. The Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Virginia Smith; Chickie-Wolfe, Louise A.; Eads, James B.

    2007-01-01

    Accessible, practical, and empowering, this book gives school professionals the tools to put students in charge of their own learning. Going beyond traditional "study skills" guides that focus on the mechanics of homework completion and test taking, the authors address the underlying psychological factors that influence academic success and…

  7. Localized hippocampus measures are associated with Alzheimer pathology and cognition independent of total hippocampal volume.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Owen; Xie, Jing; Fletcher, Evan; Singh, Baljeet; DeCarli, Charles

    2012-06-01

    Hippocampal injury in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological process is region-specific and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measures of localized hippocampus (HP) atrophy are known to detect region-specific changes associated with clinical AD, but it is unclear whether these measures provide information that is independent of that already provided by measures of total HP volume. Therefore, this study assessed the strength of association between localized HP atrophy measures and AD-related measures including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid beta and tau concentrations, and cognitive performance, in statistical models that also included total HP volume as a covariate. A computational technique termed localized components analysis (LoCA) was used to identify 7 independent patterns of HP atrophy among 390 semiautomatically delineated HP from baseline magnetic resonance imaging of participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Among cognitively normal participants, multiple measures of localized HP atrophy were significantly associated with CSF amyloid concentration, while total HP volume was not. In addition, among all participants, localized HP atrophy measures and total HP volume were both independently and additively associated with CSF tau concentration, performance on numerous neuropsychological tests, and discrimination between normal, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD clinical diagnostic groups. Together, these results suggest that regional measures of hippocampal atrophy provided by localized components analysis may be more sensitive than total HP volume to the effects of AD pathology burden among cognitively normal individuals and may provide information about HP regions whose deficits may have especially profound cognitive consequences throughout the AD clinical course.

  8. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study.

    PubMed

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-03-10

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes.

  9. Segment-Wise Genome-Wide Association Analysis Identifies a Candidate Region Associated with Schizophrenia in Three Independent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rietschel, Marcella; Mattheisen, Manuel; Breuer, René; Schulze, Thomas G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Levinson, Douglas; Shi, Jianxin; Gejman, Pablo V.; Cichon, Sven; Ophoff, Roel A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that variation in complex disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) is explained by a large number of genetic variants with small effect size (Odds Ratio∼1.05–1.1). The statistical power to detect these genetic variants in Genome Wide Association (GWA) studies with large numbers of cases and controls (∼15,000) is still low. As it will be difficult to further increase sample size, we decided to explore an alternative method for analyzing GWA data in a study of schizophrenia, dramatically reducing the number of statistical tests. The underlying hypothesis was that at least some of the genetic variants related to a common outcome are collocated in segments of chromosomes at a wider scale than single genes. Our approach was therefore to study the association between relatively large segments of DNA and disease status. An association test was performed for each SNP and the number of nominally significant tests in a segment was counted. We then performed a permutation-based binomial test to determine whether this region contained significantly more nominally significant SNPs than expected under the null hypothesis of no association, taking linkage into account. Genome Wide Association data of three independent schizophrenia case/control cohorts with European ancestry (Dutch, German, and US) using segments of DNA with variable length (2 to 32 Mbp) was analyzed. Using this approach we identified a region at chromosome 5q23.3-q31.3 (128–160 Mbp) that was significantly enriched with nominally associated SNPs in three independent case-control samples. We conclude that considering relatively wide segments of chromosomes may reveal reliable relationships between the genome and schizophrenia, suggesting novel methodological possibilities as well as raising theoretical questions. PMID:22723893

  10. Educational Dialogues and the Fostering of Pupils' Independence: The Practices of Two Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhorst, Daan; Wubbels, Theo; van Oers, Bert

    2010-01-01

    If the purpose of an educational system is to guide pupils towards achieving independence, then certain conditions about the design and conduct of that system must be met. In this paper, those conditions are formulated from a socio-cultural perspective on learning and development. This paper examines the extent to which those conditions were…

  11. An rtt109-independent role for vps75 in transcription-associated nucleosome dynamics.

    PubMed

    Selth, Luke A; Lorch, Yahli; Ocampo-Hafalla, Maria T; Mitter, Richard; Shales, Michael; Krogan, Nevan J; Kornberg, Roger D; Svejstrup, Jesper Q

    2009-08-01

    The histone chaperone Vps75 forms a complex with, and stimulates the activity of, the histone acetyltransferase Rtt109. However, Vps75 can also be isolated on its own and might therefore possess Rtt109-independent functions. Analysis of epistatic miniarray profiles showed that VPS75 genetically interacts with factors involved in transcription regulation whereas RTT109 clusters with genes linked to DNA replication/repair. Additional genetic and biochemical experiments revealed a close relationship between Vps75 and RNA polymerase II. Furthermore, Vps75 is recruited to activated genes in an Rtt109-independent manner, and its genome-wide association with genes correlates with transcription rate. Expression microarray analysis identified a number of genes whose normal expression depends on VPS75. Interestingly, histone H2B dynamics at some of these genes are consistent with a role for Vps75 in histone H2A/H2B eviction/deposition during transcription. Indeed, reconstitution of nucleosome disassembly using the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler Rsc and Vps75 revealed that these proteins can cooperate to remove H2A/H2B dimers from nucleosomes. These results indicate a role for Vps75 in nucleosome dynamics during transcription, and importantly, this function appears to be largely independent of Rtt109.

  12. Factors associated with medical student clinical reasoning and evidence based medicine practice

    PubMed Central

    Kamei, Robert; Chan, Kenneth; Goh, Sok-Hong; Ngee, Lek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the factors associated with medical students’ clinical reasoning (CR) use and evidence-based medicine (EBM) use in the clinical setting. Methods Our cross-sectional study surveyed 44 final-year medical students at an emerging academic medical center in Singapore. We queried the students’ EBM and CR value and experiences in the classroom and clinical settings. We compared this to their perceptions of supervisors’ value and experiences using t-tests. We developed measures of teaching culture and practice culture by combining relevant questions into summary scores. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to identify factors associated with the students’ CR and EBM clinical use. Results Eighty-nine percent of students responded (n=39). Students reported valuing CR (p=0.03) and EBM (p=0.001) more than their supervisors, but practiced these skills similarly (p=0.83; p=0.82). Clinical practice culture and classroom CR experience were independently associated with students’ CR clinical use (p=0.05; p=0.04), and classroom EBM experience was independently associated with students’ EBM clinical use (p=0.03). Clinical teaching culture was not associated with students’ CR and EBM clinical use. Conclusions Our study found that medical students’ classroom experience and the clinical practice culture influenced their CR and EBM use. The clinical teaching culture did not. These findings suggest that in order to increase student CR and EBM use, in addition to providing classroom experience, medical educators may need to change the hospital culture by encouraging supervisors to use these skills in their clinical practice. PMID:26547924

  13. REDUCED THALAMIC VOLUME IN PRETERM INFANTS IS ASSOCIATED WITH ABNORMAL WHITE MATTER METABOLISM INDEPENDENT OF INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Ceschin, Rafael C.; Choi, So Young; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Painter, Michael J.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Blüml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Methods Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23–36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Results Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and amongst the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. Conclusion These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. PMID:25666231

  14. Factors associated with practice decisions of Nebraska veterinarians regarding type of practice and community size.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, John A; Vogt, Rebecca J; Rupp, Gary P; Brodersen, Bruce W; Abel, Jeramie M; Wohlers, Arden R; Marx, David B

    2007-01-01

    Nebraska veterinary practitioners were surveyed to collect data about background characteristics and other factors related to veterinarians' decision to include or not include food animals in their practices and to practice in rural versus urban communities. Background characteristics that were significantly (p < or = 0.05) associated with choosing food-animal practice included growing up on a working farm or ranch; having parents who owned livestock; growing up in a town with a population of less than 10,000; majoring in animal science at university; being male; and having a primary interest, at the time of entering veterinary college, in food animal-exclusive or mixed-animal veterinary practice. The primary factor for choosing the community in which to practice was rural/urban lifestyle for rural veterinarians, while this factor was second for urban veterinarians. For all groups of veterinarians, the primary consideration in selecting their current practice was the species orientation of the practice. The primary reason for not choosing food-animal practice was better working conditions and lifestyle in companion-animal practice, followed by greater interest elsewhere.

  15. CD160-associated CD8 T-cell functional impairment is independent of PD-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Selena; Banga, Riddhima; Bellanger, Florence; Pellaton, Céline; Farina, Alex; Comte, Denis; Harari, Alexandre; Perreau, Matthieu

    2014-09-01

    Expression of co-inhibitory molecules is generally associated with T-cell dysfunction in chronic viral infections such as HIV or HCV. However, their relative contribution in the T-cell impairment remains unclear. In the present study, we have evaluated the impact of the expression of co-inhibitory molecules such as 2B4, PD-1 and CD160 on the functions of CD8 T-cells specific to influenza, EBV and CMV. We show that CD8 T-cell populations expressing CD160, but not PD-1, had reduced proliferation capacity and perforin expression, thus indicating that the functional impairment in CD160(+) CD8 T cells may be independent of PD-1 expression. The blockade of CD160/CD160-ligand interaction restored CD8 T-cell proliferation capacity, and the extent of restoration directly correlated with the ex vivo proportion of CD160(+) CD8 T cells suggesting that CD160 negatively regulates TCR-mediated signaling. Furthermore, CD160 expression was not up-regulated upon T-cell activation or proliferation as compared to PD-1. Taken together, these results provide evidence that CD160-associated CD8 T-cell functional impairment is independent of PD-1 expression.

  16. Curcumin induces p53-independent necrosis in H1299 cells via a mitochondria-associated pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Feie; Chen, Xi; Xu, Bing; Zhou, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Curcumin has been shown to have various therapeutic and/or adjuvant therapeutic effects on human cancers, as it inhibits cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through p53-dependent molecular pathways. However, numerous cancer cell types bear a mutant p53 gene, and whether curcumin has any therapeutic effects on p53-deficient/mutant cancer cells has remained elusive. The present study sought to determine whether curcumin exerts any anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects on the p53-deficient H1299 human lung cancer cell line via a p53-independent mechanism. An MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis indicated that curcumin significantly decreased cell proliferation and induced necrotic cell death. Western blot analysis of the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of H1299 cells as well as a fluorometric caspase assay indicated that curcumin-induced necrosis was mitochondria- and caspase-dependent, and resulted in cytochrome c release. Of note, this necrotic cell death was reduced following inhibition of B-cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl-2)‑associated X protein (Bax) or Bcl‑2 homologous antagonist killer (Bak) as well as overexpression of Bcl-2. In conclusion, the present study suggested that curcumin-induced necrotic cell death was mediated via a p53-independent molecular pathway, which was associated with Bax and Bak translocation, caspase activation and cytochrome c release.

  17. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sharp, Stephen J; Ambrosini, Gina L; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-03-14

    There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), particularly in boys (1·26; 95% CI 0·41, 2·16 v. girls: 0·26; 95% CI -0·34, 0·87), but not with %BF, FMI or weight status. In contrast, baseline SED, MPA or VPA were not associated with any of the outcomes. Change in DED was negatively associated with FMI (β for 1kJ/g increase: -0·86; 95% CI -1·59, -0·12) and %BF (-0·86; 95% CI -1·25, -0·11) but not WC (-0·27; 95% CI -1·02, 0·48). Change in SED, MPA and VPA did not predict adiposity at follow-up. In conclusion, activity intensity was not prospectively associated with adiposity, whereas the directions of associations with DED were inconsistent. To inform public health efforts, future studies should continue to analyse longitudinal data to further understand the independent role of different energy-balance behaviours in changes in adiposity in early adolescence.

  18. Are independent mobility and territorial range associated with park visitation among youth?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parks are important for providing opportunities for physical activity among youth. Apart from engaging in physical activity whilst visiting a park, active transportation (e.g. walking or cycling) to parks is potentially an additional source of physical activity. Previous research has shown that a major barrier to young people visiting parks is their inability to visit parks unaccompanied by an adult. It is not known; however, whether young people who have greater independent mobility and territorial range (ability to move around their neighbourhood alone or with friends, unaccompanied by an adult) are more likely to visit parks. This study examined park visitation and travel mode to parks and whether independent mobility and territorial range were associated with park visitation among youth living in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Methods In 2010–11, 311 youth aged 8–16 years self-reported their park use, active transport, independent mobility to parks, and territorial range. Logistic regression models determined the odds of park visitation (once per week or more) according to independent mobility and territorial range, adjusting for key covariates. Results Overall, 75% of participants reported visiting parks, and 37% visited their ‘usual’ park at least once per week. Of those who reported visiting parks, 87% travelled to the park they usually visited using active transport: 57% walked, 22% cycled, and 8% used a scooter/skateboard. Just 15% and 13% of youth regularly walked or cycled alone to parks/playgrounds respectively, and 25% and 19% regularly walked or cycled with friends or siblings (no adults) respectively. For the 84% who reported having parks/playgrounds within walking distance from home, those who regularly walked alone to parks (OR 3.61; CI=1.67, 7.80), and regularly walked (OR 2.27; CI=1.14, 4.55) or cycled (OR 3.38; CI=1.73, 6.62) with friends to parks, were significantly more likely to visit a park at least once per

  19. Does Moral Distress Differ Between California Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists in Independent Versus Medically Supervised Practice: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Dumouchel, Michael; Boytim, Michael; Gorman, Nicholas; Weismuller, Penny

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive study was to determine if moral distress levels differed between certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) working in medically supervised versus independent practice in California. A 63-question survey was administered to 1,190 California CRNAs. Moral distress was measured by the included Ethics Stress Scale. The response rate was 14.7%, yielding demographic and Ethics Stress scores for 175 respondents. Sixty-five participants answered an open-ended question about moral distress yielding qualitative data. Medically supervised CRNAs had a lower mean moral distress scores (176.8) versus independent practice CRNAs (187.8) (p = .002). Lower scores on the ESS indicate higher moral distress. Qualitative data demonstrated that CRNAs experienced moral distress in the following situations: when pressured to give anesthesia to unoptimized patients, when differences of opinion regarding anesthetic plans occurred, in dealing with end-of-life issues, when working with incompetent providers, and during interprofessional struggles between CRNAs and anesthesiologists. In order to reduce moral distress among CRNAs, implications for practice include increased administrative support, increased communication and reciprocated collegial respect between anesthesiologists and CRNAs, and CRNA representation on ethics committees.

  20. Poor physical fitness is independently associated with mild cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Han, J H; Jin, Y Y; Lee, I H; Hong, H R; Kang, H S

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical fitness and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly Koreans. This was a cross-sectional study that involved 134 men and 299 women aged 65 to 88 years. Six senior fitness tests were used as independent variables: 30 s chair stand for lower body strength, arm curl for upper body strength, chair-sit-and-reach for lower body flexibility, back scratch for upper body flexibility, 8-ft up-and-go for agility/dynamic balance, and 2-min walk for aerobic endurance. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Potential covariates such as age, education levels, blood lipids, and insulin resistance (IR) markers were also assessed. Compared to individuals without MMSE-based MCI, individuals with MMSE-based MCI had poor physical fitness based on the senior fitness test (SFT). There were significant positive trends observed for education level (p=0.001) and MMSE score (p<0.001) across incremental levels of physical fitness in this study population. Individuals with moderate (OR=0.341, p=0.006) and high (OR=0.271, p=0.007) physical fitness based on a composite score of the SFT measures were less likely to have MMSE-based MCI than individuals with low physical fitness (referent, OR=1). The strength of the association between moderate (OR=0.377, p=0.038) or high (OR=0.282, p=0.050) physical fitness and MMSE-based MCI was somewhat attenuated but remained statistically significant even after adjustment for the measured compounding factors. We found that poor physical fitness was independently associated with MMSE-based MCI in elderly Koreans.

  1. Independent-Trajectory Thermodynamic Integration: a practical guide to protein-drug binding free energy calculations using distributed computing.

    PubMed

    Lawrenz, Morgan; Baron, Riccardo; Wang, Yi; McCammon, J Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Independent-Trajectory Thermodynamic Integration (IT-TI) approach for free energy calculation with distributed computing is described. IT-TI utilizes diverse conformational sampling obtained from multiple, independent simulations to obtain more reliable free energy estimates compared to single TI predictions. The latter may significantly under- or over-estimate the binding free energy due to finite sampling. We exemplify the advantages of the IT-TI approach using two distinct cases of protein-ligand binding. In both cases, IT-TI yields distributions of absolute binding free energy estimates that are remarkably centered on the target experimental values. Alternative protocols for the practical and general application of IT-TI calculations are investigated. We highlight a protocol that maximizes predictive power and computational efficiency.

  2. Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) work practices report for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luca, Jackie

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to gain a better understanding of effective safety and health work practice controls for composite manufacturing operations, the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) Occupational Safety and Health Committee established a Composites Task Group. The group's task was to provide AIA members with recommendations for minimizing occupational exposure risk and to determine research needs and information gaps. The strategy included a review of toxicological information on composites, a review of member company experience and control methods, and interaction with other professional organizations who share an interest in composite work practices.

  3. Heralded-qubit amplifiers for practical device-independent quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Curty, Marcos; Moroder, Tobias

    2011-07-15

    Device-independent quantum key distribution does not need a precise quantum mechanical model of employed devices to guarantee security. Despite its beauty, it is still a very challenging experimental task. We compare a recent proposal by Gisin et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)] to close the detection loophole problem with that of a simpler quantum relay based on entanglement swapping with linear optics. Our full-mode analysis for both schemes confirms that, in contrast to recent beliefs, the second scheme can indeed provide a positive key rate which is even considerably higher than that of the first alternative. The resulting key rates and required detection efficiencies of approximately 95% for both schemes, however, strongly depend on the underlying security proof.

  4. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  5. The Independent Association of Hypertension with Cognitive Function Among Older Adults with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Brickman, Adam M.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; van Dulmen, Manfred; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective Hypertension is the most common comorbidity among heart failure (HF) patients and has been independently linked with cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment is prevalent among HF patients, though the extent to which hypertension contributes to cognitive function in this population is unclear. Methods 116 HF patients (31.0% women, 67.68 ± 11.16 years) completed neuropsychological testing and impedance cardiography. History of physician diagnosed hypertension, along with other medical characteristics, was ascertained through a review of participants’ medical charts. Results 69.8% of the HF patients had a diagnostic history of hypertension. After adjustment for demographic and medical characteristics (i.e., cardiac index, medication status, and resting blood pressure), hypertension was independently associated with attention/executive function/psychomotor speed (ΔF(1,103) = 10.85, ΔR2 = .07, p < .01) and motor functioning (ΔF(1,103) = 4.46, ΔR2 = .04, p < .05). HF patients with a diagnosed history of hypertension performed worse in these domains than those without such history. Conclusion The current findings indicate that diagnostic history of hypertension is an important contributor to cognitive impairment in HF. Hypertension frequently precedes HF and future studies should examine whether sustained hypertension compromises cerebral autoregulatory mechanisms to produce brain damage and exacerbate cognitive impairment in this population. PMID:23026535

  6. Platelet function tests, independent of platelet count, are associated with bleeding severity in ITP.

    PubMed

    Frelinger, Andrew L; Grace, Rachael F; Gerrits, Anja J; Berny-Lang, Michelle A; Brown, Travis; Carmichael, Sabrina L; Neufeld, Ellis J; Michelson, Alan D

    2015-08-13

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients with similarly low platelet counts differ in their tendency to bleed. To determine if differences in platelet function in ITP patients account for this variation in bleeding tendency, we conducted a single-center, cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with ITP. Bleeding severity (assessed by standardized bleeding score) and platelet function (assessed by whole blood flow cytometry) with and without agonist stimulation was evaluated in 57 ITP patients (median age, 9.9 years). After adjustment for platelet count, higher levels of thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP)-stimulated percent P-selectin- and activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa-positive platelets were significantly associated with a lower bleeding score, whereas higher levels of immature platelet fraction (IPF), TRAP-stimulated platelet surface CD42b, unstimulated platelet surface P-selectin, and platelet forward light scatter (FSC) were associated with a higher bleeding score. Thus, platelet function tests related to platelet age (IPF, FSC) and activation through the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) thrombin receptor (TRAP-stimulated P-selectin, activated GPIIb-IIIa, and CD42b), independent of platelet count, are associated with concurrent bleeding severity in ITP. These tests may be useful markers of future bleeding risk in ITP.

  7. Anomalous Self-Experiences and positive symptoms are independently associated with emotion processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cicero, David C; Klaunig, Mallory J; Trask, Christi L; Neis, Aaron M

    2016-10-01

    Social-cognitive models posit a role of Anomalous Self-Experiences (ASEs), disturbances in the subjective experience of the self, in the development and maintenance of psychosis. Theorists have suggested that ASEs may underlie the social-cognitive deficits that are common in people with schizophrenia. Positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and ASEs may interfere with the ability to perceive, use, understand, and manage emotions. In the current study, 45 people with schizophrenia and 28 healthy controls completed the Inventory of Psychotic-Like Anomalous Self-Experiences (IPASE), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and were rated on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Participants with schizophrenia had higher IPASE scores and lower MSCEIT scores than the comparison group. In a series of simultaneous regressions, ASEs, but not positive or negative symptoms, were associated with Total MSCEIT scores and the Using Emotions branch score. In contrast, positive symptoms, but not ASEs or negative symptoms were associated with Perceiving and Managing Emotions branches. Both ASEs and positive symptoms independently contributed to Emotional Experiencing scores. The severity of negative symptoms was not associated with deficits in any MSCEIT scores. These results suggest unique roles for ASEs and positive symptoms in emotion processing deficits in people with schizophrenia.

  8. The independent association of mean platelet volume with overall survival in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Qiang; Xiang, Lina; Xu, Hanyan; Fang, Fang; Xing, Chongyun; Liang, Bin; Yu, Kang; Feng, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the association between mean platelet volume (MPV) and prognosis in 62 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients. The associations between MPV and clinical characteristics were assessed. The log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate the effect of MPV on survival. A MPV value of 8.50 fl was considered to be the optimal cut-off value for prognosis. MPV was associated with IgA isotype (P=0.012), serum creatinine concentration > 176.8 μmol/L (P=0.025) and IgH rearrangement (P=0.008). The log-rank test demonstrated that patients with low MPV experienced a shorter overall survival (OS) (P=0.0397). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that low MPV was an independent prognostic factor for OS [hazard ratio (HR)=2.44, P=0.026]. Therefore, we demonstrated that low MPV predicted an unfavorable prognosis in patients with MM. PMID:27566590

  9. Independent associations between fatty acids and sleep quality among obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Papandreou, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids and sleep quality in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome after controlling for possible confounders. Sixty-three patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome based on overnight attended polysomnography were included. Gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Anthropometric measurements were carried out. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Saturated fatty acids were positively related to total sleep time, sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep. Significant positive associations were found between polyunsaturated fatty acids and sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep. Moreover, n-3 fatty acids were positively associated with sleep efficiency, slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. This study revealed independent associations between certain gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids and sleep quality after controlling for age, gender, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome indices and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale scores in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

  10. Brief Report: HIV Infection Is Associated With Worse Bone Material Properties, Independently of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Güerri-Fernández, Robert; Molina, Daniel; Villar-García, Judit; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Nogués, Xavier; González-Mena, Alicia; Guelar, Ana; Trenchs-Rodríguez, Marta; Herrera-Fernández, Sabina; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Knobel, Hernando

    2016-07-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected individuals has been documented in an increasing number of studies. However, it is not clear whether it is the infection itself or the treatment that causes bone impairment. Microindentation measures bone material strength (Bone Material Strength index) directly. We recruited 85 patients, 50 infected with HIV and 35 controls. Median Bone Material Strength index was 84.5 (interquartile range 83-87) in HIV-infected patients and 90 (88.5-93) in controls (P < 0.001). No significant differences in BMD between cases and controls at any of the sites examined (total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine). HIV infection is associated with bone damage, independently of BMD.

  11. Insulin-Mediated FFA Suppression Is Associated with Triglyceridemia and Insulin Sensitivity Independent of Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Nikki C.; Basu, Rita; Rizza, Robert A.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Khosla, Sundeep

    2012-01-01

    Context: A central/visceral fat distribution and excess free fatty acid (FFA) availability are associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. However, these two characteristics often coexist, making it difficult to detect the independent contributions of each. Whether FFA suppression is more closely linked to metabolic abnormalities is not clear. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between FFA suppression, body fat distribution, and fitness as contributors toward insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. Design: We measured systemic palmitate turnover using an iv infusion of [9,10-3H]palmitate; upper body sc adipose tissue (UBSQ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and a single-slice abdominal computed tomography scan; fitness with a graded exercise treadmill test; and insulin sensitivity with both the iv glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) (SIIVGTT) and mixed meal tolerance test (SIMeal). Setting: The study was conducted at a General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Baseline data were obtained from 140 elderly adults (age, 60–88 yr; 83 males) and 60 young adults (age, 18–31 yr; 31 males) who participated in a previously published trial assessing the effects of 2-yr supplementation of dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone on body composition, glucose metabolism, and bone density. Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures: We measured fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations, SIIVGTT, and SIMeal. Results: Using multivariate regression analysis, the strongest combined predictors of TG concentrations were VAT, postmeal nadir FFA concentrations, sex, and age. The best predictors of SIIVGTT were IVGTT nadir palmitate concentration, VAT, UBSQ fat, fitness, and age, whereas the best predictors of SIMeal were meal nadir palmitate concentration, UBSQ fat, fitness, and sex. Conclusions: FFA suppression is associated with both fasting TG concentrations and insulin

  12. Serum Level of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Is Independently Associated with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenhui; Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been described as a metabolic hormone critical for glucose and lipid metabolism. Previously, high levels of FGF21 were observed in patients with coronary heart disease and non-acute myocardial infarction (non-AMI). In this study, we investigated the changes in FGF21 levels in Chinese patients with AMI. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ELISA to measure circulating FGF21 levels in 55 AMI patients and 45 non-AMI control patients on the 1st day after syndrome onset. All patients were followed-up within 30 days. FGF21 levels in AMI patients were significantly higher than those in non-AMI controls (0.25 (0.16–0.34) vs. 0.14 (0.11–0.20) ng/mL, P < 0.001). FGF21 levels reached the maximum within approximately 24 h after the onset of AMI and remained at high for 7 days, and the FGF21 level (OR: 16.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.65–108.05; P = 0.003) was identified as an independent factor associated with the presence of AMI. On the 7th day, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in the patients who subsequently developed re-infarction within 30 days than in the patients who did not develop re-infarction (with vs. without re-infarction: 0.45 (0.22–0.64) vs. 0.21 (0.15–0.29) ng/mL, P = 0.014). Conclusions/Significance The level of serum FGF21 is independently associated with the presence of AMI in Chinese patients. High FGF21 levels might be related to the incidence of re-infarction within 30 days after onset. PMID:26091256

  13. Severity and Diurnal Improvement of Morning Stiffness Independently Associate with Tenosynovitis in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Takayuki; Yamagata, Mieko; Nakazawa, Takuya; Tanaka, Shigeru; Furuta, Shunsuke; Umibe, Takeshi; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Although morning stiffness has long been recognized as a characteristic feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), it is no more included in the 2010 ACR/EULAR Classification Criteria or in the current major instruments for evaluating disease activity of RA. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the independent value and the optimal measurement of morning stiffness by clarifying the associations between morning stiffness and synovial inflammation. Patients and methods We enrolled 76 consecutive RA patients who underwent musculoskeletal ultrasound examination and agreed to participate in the study. In addition to asking the duration of morning stiffness, we asked patients to complete a diagram which represents the time course of their morning stiffness in the dominant hand. Based on this diagram, we calculated the severity and the diurnal improvement of morning stiffness. We also determined the activity of intra-articular synovitis in 11 joints and tenosynovitis in 8 tendons/tendon compartments in the same hand by using power Doppler (PD) ultrasound with a semiquantitative score (0–3). Results For intra-articular synovitis, swollen/tender joint counts more strongly correlated with total PD scores (ρ = 0.379–0.561, p ≤ 0.001) than did any parameters of morning stiffness (ρ = 0.217–0.314, p = 0.006–0.021). For tenosynovitis, however, the severity on awakening and the improvement of morning stiffness more strongly correlated with total PD scores (ρ = 0.503–0.561, p < 0.001) than did swollen/tender joint counts (ρ = 0.276–0.388, p = 0.001–0.016). Multivariate analyses identified the severity on awakening and the improvement but not the duration of morning stiffness as factors that independently associate with the total tenosynovial PD score. Conclusions Our data demonstrate a pathophysiological link between morning stiffness and tenosynovitis and also give an insight into the optimal measurement of morning

  14. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices.

  15. Aurora-A Expression Is Independently Associated with Chromosomal Instability in Colorectal Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Yoshifumi; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Shima, Kaori; Irahara, Natsumi; Kure, Shoko; Toyoda, Saori; Kirkner, Gregory J; Goel, Ajay; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2009-01-01

    AURKA (the official symbol for Aurora-A, STK15, or BTAK) regulates the function of centrosomes, spindles, and kinetochores for proper mitotic progression. AURKA overexpression is observed in various cancers including colon cancer, and a link between AURKA and chromosomal instability (CIN) has been proposed. However, no study has comprehensively examined AURKA expression in relation to CIN or prognosis using a large number of tumors. Using 517 colorectal cancers in two prospective cohort studies, we detected AURKA overexpression (by immunohistochemistry) in 98 tumors (19%). We assessed other molecular events including loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 2p, 5q, 17q, and 18q, the CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP), and microsatellite instability (MSI). Prognostic significance of AURKA was evaluated by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier method. In both univariate and multivariate logistic regressions, AURKA overexpression was significantly associated with CIN (defined as the presence of LOH in any of the chromosomal segments; multivariate odds ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.40–6.29; P = .0045). In multivariate analysis, AURKA was associated with cyclin D1 expression (P = .010) and inversely with PIK3CA mutation (P=.014), fatty acid synthase expression (P=.028), and family history of colorectal cancer (P = .050), but not with sex, age, body mass index, tumor location, stage, CIMP, MSI, KRAS, BRAF, BMI, LINE-1 hypomethylation, p53, p21, β-catenin, or cyclooxygenase 2. AURKA was not significantly associated with clinical outcome or survival. In conclusion, AURKA overexpression is independently associated with CIN in colorectal cancer, supporting a potential role of Aurora kinase-A in colorectal carcinogenesis through genomic instability (rather than epigenomic instability). PMID:19412426

  16. Consistency of HLA associations between two independent measles vaccine cohorts: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Pankratz, V Shane; Vierkant, Robert A; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2012-03-09

    Associations between HLA genotypes and measles vaccine humoral and cellular immune responses were examined to better understand immunogenetic drivers of vaccine response. Two independent study cohorts of healthy schoolchildren were examined: cohort one, 346 children between 12 and 18 years of age; and cohort two, 388 children between 11 and 19 years of age. All received two age-appropriate doses of measles-containing vaccine. The purpose of this study was to identify and replicate associations between HLA genes and immune responses following measles vaccination found in our first cohort. Associations of comparable magnitudes and with similar p-values were observed between B*3503 (1st cohort p=0.01; 2nd cohort p=0.07), DQA1*0201 (1st cohort p=0.03; 2nd cohort p=0.03), DQB1*0303 (1st cohort p=0.10; 2 cohort p=0.02), DQB1*0602 (1st cohort p=0.07; 2nd cohort p=0.10), and DRB1*0701 (1st cohort p=0.03; 2nd cohort p=0.07) alleles and measles-specific antibody levels. Suggestive, yet consistent, associations were observed between the B7 (1st cohort p=0.01; 2nd cohort p=0.08) supertype and higher measles antibody levels in both cohorts. Also, in both cohorts, the B*0801 and DRB1*0301 alleles, C*0802 and DPA1*0202 alleles, and DRB1*1303 alleles displayed consistent associations with variations in IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10 secretion, respectively. This study emphasizes the importance of replicating HLA associations with measles vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses and increases confidence in the results. These data will inform strategies for functional studies and novel vaccine development, including epitope-based measles vaccines. This is the first HLA association replication study with measles vaccine-specific immune responses to date.

  17. Accounting for independent nondifferential misclassification does not increase certainty that an observed association is in the correct direction.

    PubMed

    Greenland, Sander; Gustafson, Paul

    2006-07-01

    Researchers sometimes argue that their exposure-measurement errors are independent of other errors and are nondifferential with respect to disease, resulting in estimation bias toward the null. Among well-known problems with such arguments are that independence and nondifferentiality are harder to satisfy than ordinarily appreciated (e.g., because of correlation of errors in questionnaire items, and because of uncontrolled covariate effects on error rates); small violations of independence or nondifferentiality may lead to bias away from the null; and, if exposure is polytomous, the bias produced by independent nondifferential error is not always toward the null. The authors add to this list by showing that, in a 2 x 2 table (for which independent nondifferential error produces bias toward the null), accounting for independent nondifferential error does not reduce the p value even though it increases the point estimate. Thus, such accounting should not increase certainty that an association is present.

  18. Emerging new practices in technology to support independent community access for people with intellectual and cognitive disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stock, Steven E; Davies, Daniel K; Wehmeyer, Michael L; Lachapelle, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The concept of community access is a multidimensional term, which may involve issues related to physical access, knowledge and information, power and control, relationships and communications, advocacy, participation and quality of life [21]. This paper discusses historical and emerging practices and interventions related to physical access to community and community based information for individuals with cognitive disabilities such as intellectual disability, autism or traumatic brain injury. While much societal attention has been paid to features of independent community access for populations such as individuals with hearing, vision or physical disabilities, less attention has focused on independent community access for people with intellectual and other significant cognitive disabilities. Attitudes and actions by families and professional service communities are often mixed for some individuals in this population. The somewhat limited research base in these areas is explored, including a case study review and results from several promising feasibility studies. The paper concludes with comments concerning future prospects and recommendations for improving independent community access for persons with significant cognitive disabilities.

  19. Membrane-association of mRNA decapping factors is independent of stress in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Huch, Susanne; Gommlich, Jessie; Muppavarapu, Mridula; Beckham, Carla; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the degradation of mRNA occurs on translating ribosomes or alternatively within RNA granules called P bodies, which are aggregates whose core constituents are mRNA decay proteins and RNA. In this study, we examined the mRNA decapping proteins, Dcp1, Dcp2, and Dhh1, using subcellular fractionation. We found that decapping factors co-sediment in the polysome fraction of a sucrose gradient and do not alter their behaviour with stress, inhibition of translation or inhibition of the P body formation. Importantly, their localisation to the polysome fraction is independent of the RNA, suggesting that these factors may be constitutively localised to the polysome. Conversely, polysomal and post-polysomal sedimentation of the decapping proteins was abolished with the addition of a detergent, which shifts the factors to the non-translating RNP fraction and is consistent with membrane association. Using a membrane flotation assay, we observed the mRNA decapping factors in the lower density fractions at the buoyant density of membrane-associated proteins. These observations provide further evidence that mRNA decapping factors interact with subcellular membranes, and we suggest a model in which the mRNA decapping factors interact with membranes to facilitate regulation of mRNA degradation. PMID:27146487

  20. APP independent and dependent effects on neurite outgrowth are modulated by the receptor associated protein (RAP).

    PubMed

    Billnitzer, Andrew J; Barskaya, Irina; Yin, Cailing; Perez, Ruth G

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its secreted form, sAPP, contribute to the development of neurons in hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Full-length APP binds the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), which stimulates APP endocytosis. LRP also contributes to neurite growth. Furthermore, the receptor associated protein (RAP) binds LRP in a manner that blocks APP-LRP interactions. To elucidate APP contributions to neurite growth for full-length APP and sAPP, we cultured wild type (WT) and APP knockout (KO) neurons in sAPPα and/or RAP and measured neurite outgrowth at 1 day in vitro. Our data reveal that WT neurons had less axonal outgrowth including less axon branching. RAP treatment potentiated the inhibitory effects of APP. KO neurons had significantly more outgrowth and branching, especially in response to RAP, effects which were also associated with ERK2 activation. Our results affirm a major inhibitory role by full-length APP on all aspects of axonal and dendritic outgrowth, and show that RAP-LRP binding stimulated axon growth independently of APP. These findings support a major role for APP as an inhibitor of neurite growth and reveal novel signaling functions for LRP that may be disrupted by Alzheimer's pathology or therapies aimed at APP processing.

  1. Multiple major disease-associated clones of Legionella pneumophila have emerged recently and independently.

    PubMed

    David, Sophia; Rusniok, Christophe; Mentasti, Massimo; Gomez-Valero, Laura; Harris, Simon R; Lechat, Pierre; Lees, John; Ginevra, Christophe; Glaser, Philippe; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Underwood, Anthony; Jarraud, Sophie; Harrison, Timothy G; Parkhill, Julian; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an environmental bacterium and the leading cause of Legionnaires' disease. Just five sequence types (ST), from more than 2000 currently described, cause nearly half of disease cases in northwest Europe. Here, we report the sequence and analyses of 364 L. pneumophila genomes, including 337 from the five disease-associated STs and 27 representative of the species diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the five STs have independent origins within a highly diverse species. The number of de novo mutations is extremely low with maximum pairwise single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ranging from 19 (ST47) to 127 (ST1), which suggests emergences within the last century. Isolates sampled geographically far apart differ by only a few SNPs, demonstrating rapid dissemination. These five STs have been recombining recently, leading to a shared pool of allelic variants potentially contributing to their increased disease propensity. The oldest clone, ST1, has spread globally; between 1940 and 2000, four new clones have emerged in Europe, which show long-distance, rapid dispersal. That a large proportion of clinical cases is caused by recently emerged and internationally dispersed clones, linked by convergent evolution, is surprising for an environmental bacterium traditionally considered to be an opportunistic pathogen. To simultaneously explain recent emergence, rapid spread and increased disease association, we hypothesize that these STs have adapted to new man-made environmental niches, which may be linked by human infection and transmission.

  2. Hypoglycemia Is Independently Associated with Multidimensional Impairment in Elderly Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pilotto, A.; Noale, M.; Maggi, S.; Addante, F.; Tiengo, A.; Perin, P. Cavallo; Rengo, G.; Crepaldi, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To identify the characteristics associated with multidimensional impairment, evaluated through the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), a validated predictive tool for mortality derived from a standardized Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA), in a cohort of elderly diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs. Methods and Results. The study population consisted of 1342 diabetic patients consecutively enrolled in 57 diabetes centers distributed throughout Italy, within the Metabolic Study. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), 65 years old or over, and treatment with oral antidiabetic medications. Data concerning DM duration, medications for DM taken during the 3-month period before inclusion in the study, number of hypoglycemic events, and complications of DM were collected. Multidimensional impairment was assessed using the MPI evaluating functional, cognitive, and nutritional status; risk of pressure sores; comorbidity; number of drugs taken; and cohabitation status. The mean age of participants was 73.3 ± 5.5 years, and the mean MPI score was 0.22 ± 0.13. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, female gender, hypoglycemic events, and hospitalization for glycemic decompensation were independently associated with a worse MPI score. Conclusion. Stratification of elderly diabetic patients using the MPI might help to identify those patients at highest risk who need better-tailored treatment. PMID:24689062

  3. A fast small-sample kernel independence test for microbiome community-level association analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiang; Plantinga, Anna; Zhao, Ni; Wu, Michael C

    2017-03-10

    To fully understand the role of microbiome in human health and diseases, researchers are increasingly interested in assessing the relationship between microbiome composition and host genomic data. The dimensionality of the data as well as complex relationships between microbiota and host genomics pose considerable challenges for analysis. In this article, we apply a kernel RV coefficient (KRV) test to evaluate the overall association between host gene expression and microbiome composition. The KRV statistic can capture nonlinear correlations and complex relationships among the individual data types and between gene expression and microbiome composition through measuring general dependency. Testing proceeds via a similar route as existing tests of the generalized RV coefficients and allows for rapid p-value calculation. Strategies to allow adjustment for confounding effects, which is crucial for avoiding misleading results, and to alleviate the problem of selecting the most favorable kernel are considered. Simulation studies show that KRV is useful in testing statistical independence with finite samples given the kernels are appropriately chosen, and can powerfully identify existing associations between microbiome composition and host genomic data while protecting type I error. We apply the KRV to a microbiome study examining the relationship between host transcriptome and microbiome composition within the context of inflammatory bowel disease and are able to derive new biological insights and provide formal inference on prior qualitative observations.

  4. Multiple major disease-associated clones of Legionella pneumophila have emerged recently and independently

    PubMed Central

    David, Sophia; Rusniok, Christophe; Mentasti, Massimo; Gomez-Valero, Laura; Harris, Simon R.; Lechat, Pierre; Lees, John; Ginevra, Christophe; Glaser, Philippe; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Underwood, Anthony; Jarraud, Sophie; Harrison, Timothy G.; Parkhill, Julian; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an environmental bacterium and the leading cause of Legionnaires’ disease. Just five sequence types (ST), from more than 2000 currently described, cause nearly half of disease cases in northwest Europe. Here, we report the sequence and analyses of 364 L. pneumophila genomes, including 337 from the five disease-associated STs and 27 representative of the species diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the five STs have independent origins within a highly diverse species. The number of de novo mutations is extremely low with maximum pairwise single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ranging from 19 (ST47) to 127 (ST1), which suggests emergences within the last century. Isolates sampled geographically far apart differ by only a few SNPs, demonstrating rapid dissemination. These five STs have been recombining recently, leading to a shared pool of allelic variants potentially contributing to their increased disease propensity. The oldest clone, ST1, has spread globally; between 1940 and 2000, four new clones have emerged in Europe, which show long-distance, rapid dispersal. That a large proportion of clinical cases is caused by recently emerged and internationally dispersed clones, linked by convergent evolution, is surprising for an environmental bacterium traditionally considered to be an opportunistic pathogen. To simultaneously explain recent emergence, rapid spread and increased disease association, we hypothesize that these STs have adapted to new man-made environmental niches, which may be linked by human infection and transmission. PMID:27662900

  5. Culture-independent identification of bacteria associated with ovine 'broken mouth' periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Marcello P; Jonsson, Nicholas; Bennett, David

    2013-10-25

    'Broken mouth' periodontitis (BMP) is a painful condition of sheep grazed on rough pasture and involves periodontal infection of the incisor teeth and progressive tooth loss. This can reduce the efficiency of grazing of sheep, which contributes to malnutrition, weight loss, systemic health problems, poor quality of life and early culling from flocks. Consequently, this condition is a major economic problem to sheep farmers. However, there are no treatment or control methods available. The aim of this study was to identify the bacteria associated with BMP and oral health in sheep. Swabs were collected from the gingival pockets of three sheep with BMP and from the gingival margin of three orally healthy (normal) sheep. Bacteria were identified using culture-independent (16S rRNA gene sequencing) methods. In the normal samples, 26 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Enterobacter hormaechei (21.3% of analysed clones) and Hafnia alvei (21.3%), with uncultured (4.4%) and novel (5.0%) phylotypes also being identified. For the BMP samples, 24 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Mannheimia ruminalis (28.4%) and Moraxella caprae (13.5%), with uncultured (2.6%) and novel (24.5%) phylotypes also being identified. In conclusion, a distinct microflora is associated with BMP and oral health in sheep and M. ruminalis may be involved in the aetiology of BMP.

  6. Association of Whole Blood Viscosity With Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Independent Association With Post-Breakfast Triglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Minato, Satomi; Takenouchi, Akiko; Uchida, Junko; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Kurata, Miki; Fukuo, Keisuke; Kazumi, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Background Associations of whole blood viscosity (WBV) with metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been extensively studied in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Intrapersonal means of 12 measurements of waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and those of six measurements of fasting and post-breakfast triglycerides (TG) during 12 months were calculated in a cohort of 168 patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on these means, MS was diagnosed according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria with the Asian definition of abdominal obesity. WBV was calculated from hematocrit and total serum protein concentrations by a validated formula. Results Diabetes patients with MS (n = 77) had higher WBV as compared to those without MS (6.38 ± 0.06 vs. 6.10 ± 0.07 cP, P = 0.004). As the number of MS components increased, WBV increased (component number 1: 6.12 ± 0.10, 2: 6.09 ± 0.10, 3: 6.37 ± 0.08, 4: 6.42 ± 0.10, 5: 6.30 ± 0.15 cP, P for trends = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that male gender, diastolic BP and post-breakfast TG were determinants of WBV independent of fasting TG, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (R2 = 0.258). Conclusions Both the presence of MS and the number of MS components were associated with higher WBV in patients with type 2 diabetes. Physicians need to perform a close follow-up of type 2 diabetes patients with MS on inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporters 2, which may increase stroke risk associated with an increase in hematocrit and therefore blood viscosity. Post-breakfast TG was an independent determinant of WBV. Elevated WBV may represent an important confounder of the relationship between MS, postprandial hyperlipidemia and elevated cardiovascular risk in this population. PMID:28270893

  7. Semantic association investigated with fMRI and independent component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Ki; Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Privitera, Michael D.; Holland, Scott K.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

    2010-01-01

    Semantic association, an essential element of human language, enables discourse and inference. Neuroimaging studies have revealed localization and lateralization of semantic circuitry making substantial contributions to cognitive neuroscience. However, due to methodological limitations, these investigations have only identified individual functional components rather than capturing the behavior of the entire network. To overcome these limitations, we have implemented group independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate the cognitive modules used by healthy adults performing fMRI semantic decision task. When compared to the results of a standard GLM analysis, ICA detected several additional brain regions subserving semantic decision. Eight task-related group ICA maps were identified including left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44/45), middle posterior temporal gyrus (BA39/22), angular gyrus/inferior parietal lobule (BA39/40), posterior cingulate (BA30), bilateral lingual gyrus (BA18/23), inferior frontal gyrus (L>R, BA47), hippocampus with parahippocampal gyrus (L>R, BA35/36) and anterior cingulate (BA32/24). While most of the components were represented bilaterally, we found a single, highly left-lateralized component that included the inferior frontal gyrus and the medial and superior temporal gyri, the angular and supramarginal gyri and the inferior parietal cortex. The presence of these spatially independent ICA components implies functional connectivity and can be equated with their modularity. These results are analyzed and presented in the framework of a biologically plausible theoretical model in preparation for similar analyses in patients with right- or left-hemispheric epilepsies. PMID:21296027

  8. Diabetes mellitus is independently associated with more severe cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I.; Kotagal, Vikas; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J.H.; Albin, Roger L.; Frey, Kirk A; Petrou, Myria

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in interactions between metabolic syndromes and neurodegeneration. Diabetes mellitus (DM) contributes to cognitive impairment in the elderly but its effect in Parkinson disease (PD) is not well studied. Objective To investigate effects of comorbid DM on cognition in PD independent from PD-specific primary neurodegenerations. Methods Cross-sectional study. Patients with PD (n=148; age 65.6±7.4 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage 2.4±0.6, with (n=15) and without (n=133) comorbid type II DM, underwent [11C]methyl-4-piperidinyl propionate (PMP) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) PET imaging to assess cortical cholinergic denervation, [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation, and neuropsychological assessments. A global cognitive Z-score was calculated based on normative data. Analysis of covariance was performed to determine cognitive differences between subjects with and without DM while controlling for nigrostriatal denervation, cortical cholinergic denervation, levodopa equivalent dose and education covariates. Results There were no significant differences in age, gender, Hoehn and Yahr stage or duration of disease between diabetic and non-diabetic PD subjects. There was a non-significant trend toward lower years of education in the diabetic PD subjects compared with non-diabetic PD subjects. PD diabetics had significantly lower mean (±SD) global cognitive Z-scores (−0.98±1.01) compared to the non-diabetics (−0.36±0.91; F=7.78, P=0.006) when controlling for covariate effects of education, striatal dopaminergic denervation, and cortical cholinergic denervation (total model F=8.39, P<0.0001). Conclusion Diabetes mellitus is independently associated with more severe cognitive impairment in PD likely through mechanisms other than diseasespecific neurodegenerations. PMID:25454317

  9. Latitude-independent Pc5 Geomagnetic Pulsations Associated With Field Line Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, S.; Kim, K.; Lee, D.; Cattell, C. A.; Andre, M.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.

    2004-12-01

    The latitude-independent Pc5 pulsations with a spectral peak at ˜2.8 mHz were observed with IMAGE and SAMNET magnetometer array in the morning sector (0700-1000 local time) on April 29 (Day 119), 2001. The spectral amplitude had a local peak at ˜67° geomagnetic latitude, where a sudden phase change of ˜180° appeared. A vortical equivalent ionospheric current structure centered at latitude between 67° and 71° was observed during the Pc5 pulsations and the rotational sense of the current vortex was reversed for one cycle of the pulsation. During the interval of the enhancement of the Pc5 pulsations, the POLAR spacecraft in the morning side crossed near the magnetic shell (L ˜ 8) corresponding to the latitude where the spectral amplitude was maximum, and observed ˜2.8 mHz pulsations in the radial electric field and compressional magnetic field components. Since the toroidal mode Alfvén waves in the magnetosphere are characterized by an electric field perturbation in the radial direction, the simultaneous presence of the pulsations in both components indicates that a field line resonance (FLR) was driven by compressional Pc5 pulsations. Using solar wind data, we conformed that the compressional Pc5 pulsations at POLAR occurred during an interval of enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. From the analysis of the ground magnetometer data and POLAR data, we suggest that latitude independent ground magnetic perturbations are caused by the vortical equivalent current generated by FLR-associated field-aligned currents.

  10. The associations of depression and hypertension with brain volumes: Independent or interactive?

    PubMed Central

    Meurs, Maaike; Groenewold, Nynke A.; Roest, Annelieke M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.; Veltman, Dick J.; van Tol, Marie-José; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Independent studies on major depressive disorder (MDD) and hypertension, suggest overlapping abnormalities in brain regions associated with emotional and autonomic processing. However, the unique and interactive effects of MDD and hypertension have never been studied in a single sample. Brain volume in these areas may be an explanatory link in the comorbidity between MDD and hypertension. Voxel-based morphometry was used to test for main effects of MDD (N = 152) and hypertension (N = 82) and their interactions on gray and white matter volumes. Voxel-wise results are reported at p < .05 FWE corrected for the spatial extent of the whole brain and a-priori regions of interest (ROIs: hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)). In addition, analyses on the extracted total volumes of our ROIs were performed. Interactive effects in the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) (pFWE = .01), cerebellum (pFWE = .01) and in the ACC total ROI volume (p = .02) were found. MDD in the presence, but not in the absence of hypertension was associated with lower volumes in the ACC and MCC, and with a trend towards larger gray matter volume in the cerebellum. No associations with white matter volumes were observed. Results suggest that the combination of MDD and hypertension has a unique effect on brain volumes in areas implicated in the regulation of emotional and autonomic functions. Brain volume in these regulatory areas may be an explanatory link in the comorbidity between hypertension and MDD. PMID:26106530

  11. Frailty is independently associated with increased hospitalisation days in patients on the liver transplant waitlist

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Marie; Poltavskiy, Eduard; Dodge, Jennifer L; Lai, Jennifer C

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the impact of physical frailty on risk of hospitalisation in cirrhotic patients on the liver transplant waitlist. METHODS Cirrhotics listed for liver transplantation at a single centre underwent frailty assessments using the Fried Frailty Index, consisting of grip strength, gait speed, exhaustion, weight loss, and physical activity. Clinical and biochemical data including MELD score as collected at the time of assessment. The primary outcome was number of hospitalised days per year; secondary outcomes included incidence of infection. Univariable and multivariable analysis was performed using negative binomial regression to associate baseline parameters including frailty with clinical outcomes and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS Of 587 cirrhotics, 64% were male, median age (interquartile range) was 60 (53-64) years and MELD score was 15 (12-18). Median Fried Frailty Index was 2 (1-3); 31.6% were classified as frail (fried frailty ≥ 3). During 12 mo of follow-up, 43% required at least 1 hospitalisation; 38% of which involved major infection. 107/184 (58%) frail and 142/399 (36%) non-frail patients were hospitalised at least once (P < 0.001). In univariable analysis, Fried Frailty Index was associated with total hospitalisation days per year (IRR = 1.51, 95%CI: 1.28-1.77; P ≤ 0.001), which remained significant on multivariable analysis after adjustment for MELD, albumin, and gender (IRR for frailty of 1.21, 95%CI: 1.02-1.44; P = 0.03). Incidence of infection was not influenced by frailty. CONCLUSION In cirrhotics on the liver transplant waitlist, physical frailty is a significant predictor of hospitalisation and total hospitalised days per year, independent of liver disease severity. PMID:28223735

  12. HDL-apolipoprotein A-I exchange is independently associated with cholesterol efflux capacity

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Mark S.; Ng, Kit F.; Irwin, Angela; Hong, Jaekyoung; Wu, Xing; Isquith, Daniel; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Prazen, Bryan; Gildengorin, Virginia; Oda, Michael N.; Vaisar, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    HDL is the primary mediator of cholesterol mobilization from the periphery to the liver via reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). A critical first step in this process is the uptake of cholesterol from lipid-loaded macrophages by HDL, a function of HDL inversely associated with prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the dynamic ability of HDL to undergo remodeling and exchange of apoA-I is an important and potentially rate-limiting aspect of RCT. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HDL-apoA-I exchange (HAE) and serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) efflux capacity. We compared HAE to the total and ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity of 77 subjects. We found that HAE was highly correlated with both total (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001) and ABCA1-specific (r = 0.47, P < 0.0001) efflux, and this relationship remained significant after adjustment for HDL-C or apoA-I. Multivariate models of sterol efflux capacity indicated that HAE accounted for approximately 25% of the model variance for both total and ABCA1-specific efflux. We conclude that the ability of HDL to exchange apoA-I and remodel, as measured by HAE, is a significant contributor to serum HDL efflux capacity, independent of HDL-C and apoA-I, indicating that HDL dynamics are an important factor in cholesterol efflux capacity and likely RCT. PMID:26254308

  13. Characterizing Behavioral and Brain Changes Associated with Practicing Reasoning Skills

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Miller Singley, Alison T.; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    We have reported previously that intensive preparation for a standardized test that taxes reasoning leads to changes in structural and functional connectivity within the frontoparietal network. Here, we investigated whether reasoning instruction transfers to improvement on unpracticed tests of reasoning, and whether these improvements are associated with changes in neural recruitment during reasoning task performance. We found behavioral evidence for transfer to a transitive inference task, but no evidence for transfer to a rule generation task. Across both tasks, we observed reduced lateral prefrontal activation in the trained group relative to the control group, consistent with other studies of practice-related changes in brain activation. In the transitive inference task, we observed enhanced suppression of task-negative, or default-mode, regions, consistent with work suggesting that better cognitive skills are associated with more efficient switching between networks. In the rule generation task, we found a pattern consistent with a training-related shift in the balance between phonological and visuospatial processing. Broadly, we discuss general methodological considerations related to the analysis and interpretation of training-related changes in brain activation. In summary, we present preliminary evidence for changes in brain activation associated with practice of high-level cognitive skills. PMID:26368278

  14. Characterizing Behavioral and Brain Changes Associated with Practicing Reasoning Skills.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Allyson P; Miller Singley, Alison T; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A

    2015-01-01

    We have reported previously that intensive preparation for a standardized test that taxes reasoning leads to changes in structural and functional connectivity within the frontoparietal network. Here, we investigated whether reasoning instruction transfers to improvement on unpracticed tests of reasoning, and whether these improvements are associated with changes in neural recruitment during reasoning task performance. We found behavioral evidence for transfer to a transitive inference task, but no evidence for transfer to a rule generation task. Across both tasks, we observed reduced lateral prefrontal activation in the trained group relative to the control group, consistent with other studies of practice-related changes in brain activation. In the transitive inference task, we observed enhanced suppression of task-negative, or default-mode, regions, consistent with work suggesting that better cognitive skills are associated with more efficient switching between networks. In the rule generation task, we found a pattern consistent with a training-related shift in the balance between phonological and visuospatial processing. Broadly, we discuss general methodological considerations related to the analysis and interpretation of training-related changes in brain activation. In summary, we present preliminary evidence for changes in brain activation associated with practice of high-level cognitive skills.

  15. Associations between positive parenting practices and child externalizing behavior in underserved Latino immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Holtrop, Kendal; McNeil Smith, Sharde'; Scott, Jenna C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined whether five specific parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, problem solving, and positive involvement) were associated with reduced child externalizing behaviors among a sample of Latino immigrant families. It utilized baseline data from 83 Latino couples with children participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted parenting intervention. Results reveal that monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, and problem solving each made independent contributions to the prediction of child externalizing behavior, although not all in the expected direction. Further analyses examining mothers and fathers separately suggest that mother-reported monitoring and father-reported discipline practices uniquely contributed to these findings. These results may have important implications for prevention and clinical intervention efforts with Latino immigrant families, including the cultural adaptation and implementation of parenting interventions with this underserved population.

  16. Associations between Positive Parenting Practices and Child Externalizing Behavior in Underserved Latino Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Holtrop, Kendal; Smith, Sharde' Mcneil; Scott, Jenna C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether five specific parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, problem solving, and positive involvement) were associated with reduced child externalizing behaviors among a sample of Latino immigrant families. It utilized baseline data from 83 Latino couples with children participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted parenting intervention. Results reveal that monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, and problem solving each made independent contributions to the prediction of child externalizing behavior, although not all in the expected direction. Further analyses examining mothers and fathers separately suggest that mother-reported monitoring and father-reported discipline practices uniquely contributed to these findings. These results may have important implications for prevention and clinical intervention efforts with Latino immigrant families, including the cultural adaptation and implementation of parenting interventions with this underserved population. PMID:25287585

  17. Spreading dilatation in rat mesenteric arteries associated with calcium-independent endothelial cell hyperpolarization.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hiromichi; Dora, Kim A; Spitaler, Michaela M; Garland, Chris J

    2004-05-01

    Both ACh and levcromakalim evoke smooth muscle cell hyperpolarization and associated relaxation in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. We investigated if they could evoke conducted vasodilatation along isolated arteries, whether this reflected spreading hyperpolarization and the possible mechanism involved. Focal micropipette application of either ACh, to stimulate endothelial cell muscarinic receptors, or levcromakalim, to activate smooth muscle K(ATP) channels, each evoked a local dilatation (88 +/- 14%, n= 6 and 92 +/- 6% reversal of phenylephrine-induced tone, n= 11, respectively) that rapidly spread upstream (at 1.5 mm 46 +/- 19%, n= 6 and 57 +/- 13%, n= 9) to dilate the entire isolated artery. The local dilatation to ACh was associated with a rise in endothelial cell [Ca(2+)](i) (F/F(t = 0)= 1.22 +/- 0.33, n= 14) which did not spread beyond 0.5 mm (F/F(t = 0)= 1.01 +/- 0.01, n= 14), while the local dilatation to levcromakalim was not associated with any change in endothelial cell [Ca(2+)](i). In contrast, ACh and levcromakalim both stimulated local (12.7 +/- 1.2 mV, n= 10 and 13.5 +/- 4.7 mV, n= 10) and spreading (at 2 mm: 3.0 +/- 1.1 mV, n= 5 and 4.1 +/- 0.7 mV, n= 5) smooth muscle hyperpolarization. The spread of hyperpolarization could be prevented by cutting the artery, so was not due to a diffusible agent. Both the spreading dilatation and hyperpolarization were endothelium dependent. The injection of propidium iodide into either endothelial or smooth muscle cells revealed extensive dye coupling between the endothelial cells, but limited coupling between the smooth muscle cells. Some evidence for heterocellular spread of dye was also evident. Together, these data show that vasodilatation can spread over significant distances in mesenteric resistance arteries, and suggest this reflects an effective coupling between the endothelial cells to facilitate [Ca(2+)](i)-independent spread of hyperpolarization.

  18. Barrier-Independent, Fitness-Associated Differences in Sofosbuvir Efficacy against Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Isabel; Sheldon, Julie; Moreno, Elena; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rice, Charles M.; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    Sofosbuvir displays a high phenotypic barrier to resistance, and it is a component of several combination therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. HCV fitness can be a determinant of decreased sensitivity to direct-acting antiviral agents such as telaprevir or daclatasvir, but fitness-dependent decreased drug sensitivity has not been established for drugs with a high phenotypic barrier to resistance. Low- and high-fitness HCV populations and biological clones derived from them were used to infect Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells. Sofosbuvir efficacy was analyzed by measuring virus progeny production during several passages and by selection of possible sofosbuvir resistance mutations determined by sequencing the NS5B-coding region of the resulting populations. Sofosbuvir exhibited reduced efficacy against high-fitness HCV populations, without the acquisition of sofosbuvir-specific resistance mutations. A reduced sofosbuvir efficacy, similar to that observed with the parental populations, was seen for high-fitness individual biological clones. In independently derived high-fitness HCV populations or clones passaged in the presence of sofosbuvir, M289L was selected as the only substitution in the viral polymerase NS5B. In no case was the sofosbuvir-specific resistance substitution S282T observed. High HCV fitness can lead to decreased sensitivity to sofosbuvir, without the acquisition of specific sofosbuvir resistance mutations. Thus, fitness-dependent drug sensitivity can operate with HCV inhibitors that display a high barrier to resistance. This mechanism may underlie treatment failures not associated with selection of sofosbuvir-specific resistance mutations, linked to in vivo fitness of pretreatment viral populations. PMID:27067341

  19. High Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Insectivorous Bats in Argentina: Presence of Several Independent Enzootics

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Carolina; Gury Dohmen, Federico; Beltran, Fernando; Martinez, Leila; Novaro, Laura; Russo, Susana; Palacios, Gustavo; Cisterna, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV) circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. It is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of RABV in Argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive Argentinean territory. Methods We studied the positivity rate of RABV detection in different areas of the country, and the antigenic and genetic diversity of 99 rabies virus (RABV) strains obtained from 14 species of insectivorous bats collected in Argentina between 1991 and 2008. Results Based on the analysis of bats received for RABV analysis by the National Rabies system of surveillance, the positivity rate of RABV in insectivorous bats ranged from 3.1 to 5.4%, depending on the geographic location. The findings were distributed among an extensive area of the Argentinean territory. The 99 strains of insectivorous bat-related sequences were divided into six distinct lineages associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, Myotis spp, Eptesicus spp, Histiotus montanus, Lasiurus blosseviilli and Lasiurus cinereus. Comparison with RABV sequences obtained from insectivorous bats of the Americas revealed co-circulation of similar genetic variants in several countries. Finally, inter-species transmission, mostly related with Lasiurus species, was demonstrated in 11.8% of the samples. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence of several independent enzootics of rabies in insectivorous bats of Argentina. This information is relevant to identify potential areas at risk for human and animal infection. PMID:22590657

  20. Premigration exposure to political violence among independent immigrants and its association with emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Cécile; Drapeau, Aline

    2004-12-01

    Although the distinction between independent immigrants and refugees has an impact on policy, services, and public opinion because it implies differences in resettlement needs, few recent studies have documented the validity of this assumption. In this population-based survey of recent migrants in Quebec (N = 1871), immigration status (refugee, independent, or sponsored immigrant) is examined in relation to premigration exposure to political violence and refugees' emotional distress, assessed with the SCL-25. A higher percentage of refugees reported exposure to political violence in their homeland, but the percentages of exposed independent (48%) and sponsored (42%) immigrants were unexpectedly high. Emotional distress was significantly higher among Chinese respondents who had witnessed acts of violence and in subjects from Arab countries who reported persecution. These results suggest that service providers and policy makers should not assume that independent immigrants have not been exposed to political violence before their migration.

  1. "Bundle" Practices and Ventilator-Associated Events: Not Enough.

    PubMed

    O'Horo, John C; Lan, Haitao; Thongprayoon, Charat; Schenck, Louis; Ahmed, Adil; Dziadzko, Mikhail

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Ventilator-associated events (VAEs) are nosocomial events correlated with length of stay, costs, and mortality. Current ventilator bundle practices target the older definition of ventilator-associated pneumonia and have not been systematically evaluated for their impact on VAEs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Tertiary medical center between January 2012 and August 2014. PARTICIPANTS All adult patients ventilated for at least 24 hours at our institution. INTERVENTIONS We conducted univariate analyses for compliance with each element; we focused on VAEs occurring within a 2-day window of failure to meet any ventilator bundle element. We used Cox proportional hazard models to assess the effect of stress ulcer prophylaxis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis, oral care, and sedation breaks on VAEs. We adjusted models for gender, age, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III scores. RESULTS Our cohort comprised 2,660 patients with 16,858 ventilator days and 77 VAEs. Adjusting for APACHE score and gender, only oral care was associated with a reduction in the risk of VAE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.77). The DVT prophylaxis and sedation breaks did not show any significant impact on VAEs. Stress ulcer prophylaxis trended toward an increased risk of VAE (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.00-2.56). CONCLUSION Although limited by a low baseline rate of VAEs, existing ventilator bundle practices do not appear to target VAEs well. Oral care is clearly important, but the impact of DVT prophylaxis, sedation breaks, and especially stress ulcer prophylaxis are questionable at best. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1453-1457.

  2. Fine-scale mapping of the 4q24 locus identifies two independent loci associated with breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xingyi; Long, Jirong; Zeng, Chenjie; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Ghoussaini, Maya; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Milne, Roger L.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Qiuyin; Beesley, Jonathan; Kar, Siddhartha P.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Blot, William; Bogdanova, Natalia; Bojesen, Stig E.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brinton, Louise; Broeks, Annegien; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Cai, Hui; Canisius, Sander; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Devilee, Peter; Droit, Arnaud; Dörk, Thilo; Fasching, Peter A.; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gaborieau, Valerie; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G.; Grip, Mervi; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Hartman, Mikael; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hopper, John L.; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Ito, Hidemi; Jakubowska, Anna; Johnson, Nichola; Kabisch, Maria; Kang, Daehee; Khan, Sofia; Knight, Julia A.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Lambrechts, Diether; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Matsuo, Keitaro; McLean, Catriona A.; Meindl, Alfons; Muir, Kenneth; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nord, Silje; Olson, Janet E.; Orr, Nick; Peterlongo, Paolo; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Rudolph, Anja; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Shen, Chen-Yang; Shi, Jiajun; Shrubsole, Martha J; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Teo, Soo Hwang; Thienpont, Bernard; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Tomlinson, Ian P.M.; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-chen; van den Ouweland, Ans; Wen, Wanqing; Winqvist, Robert; Wu, Anna; Yip, Cheng Har; Zamora, M. Pilar; Zheng, Ying; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Simard, Jacques; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background A recent association study identified a common variant (rs9790517) at 4q24 to be associated with breast cancer risk. Independent association signals and potential functional variants in this locus have not been explored. Methods We conducted a fine-mapping analysis in 55,540 breast cancer cases and 51,168 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Results Conditional analyses identified two independent association signals among women of European ancestry, represented by rs9790517 (conditional p = 2.51 × 10−4; OR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.02–1.07) and rs77928427 (p = 1.86 × 10−4; OR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.02–1.07). Functional annotation using data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project revealed two putative functional variants, rs62331150 and rs73838678 in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs9790517 (r2 ≥ 0.90) residing in the active promoter or enhancer, respectively, of the nearest gene, TET2. Both variants are located in DNase I hypersensitivity and transcription factor binding sites. Using data from both The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC), we showed that rs62331150 was associated with level of expression of TET2 in breast normal and tumor tissue. Conclusion Our study identified two independent association signals at 4q24 in relation to breast cancer risk and suggested that observed association in this locus may be mediated through the regulation of TET2. Impact Fine-mapping study with large sample size warranted for identification of independent loci for breast cancer risk. PMID:26354892

  3. How to Use the School Survey of Practices Associated with High Performance. REL 2016-162

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Phyllis; Yumoto, Futoshi; Abe, Yasuyo; Meyers, Coby; Wan, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    This report describes and explains how to use the School Survey of Practices Associated with High Performance, which measures the degree to which schools are engaging in practices associated with high performance. State education departments and school districts can use the survey results to identify and describe school practices associated with…

  4. Associations Between Ankle-Brachial Index and Cognitive Function: Results from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Newman, Anne B.; Sink, Kaycee; Gill, Thomas M.; King, Abby C.; Miller, Michael E.; Guralnik, Jack; Katula, Jeff; Church, Timothy; Manini, Todd; Reid, Kieran F.; McDermott, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and indicators of cognitive function DESIGN Randomized clinical trial (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial) SETTING Eight US academic centers PARTICIPANTS 1,601 adults (ages 70–89 years, sedentary, non-demented, and with functional limitations MEASUREMENTS Baseline ABI and interviewer- and computer-administered cognitive function assessments were obtained from which compared a physical activity intervention with a health education control. Cognitive function was re-assessed 24 months later (interviewer-administered) and 18 or 30 months later (computer-administered) and central adjudication was used to classify individuals as having mild cognitive impairment, probable dementia, or neither. RESULTS Lower ABI had a modest independent association poorer cognitive functioning at baseline (partial r=0.09; p<0.001). While, lower baseline ABI was not associated with overall changes in cognitive function test scores, it was associated with higher odds for two-year progression to a composite of either mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia (OR=2.60 per unit lower ABI; 95% confidence interval [1.06,6.37]). Across two years, changes in ABI were not associated with changes in cognitive function. CONCLUSION In an older cohort of non-demented sedentary individuals with functional limitations, lower baseline ABI was independently correlated with cognitive function and associated with greater 2-year risk for progression to mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia. PMID:25869993

  5. Controlling maternal feeding practices associated with decreased dieting behavior in sixth-grade children.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyung E; Appugliese, Danielle P; Prisco, Alicia; Kaciroti, Niko A; Corwyn, Robert F; Bradley, Robert H; Lumeng, Julie C

    2010-04-01

    Controlling maternal feeding practices have been linked to increased caloric intake, disinhibited eating, and obesity in children. Its relationship to child dieting behavior, however, is unknown. Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this study examined whether controlling feeding practices are associated with increased or decreased dieting behavior in children. Controlling maternal feeding practices were assessed in third grade with the question, "Do you let your child eat what he/she feels like eating?" Answers ranged from 1 to 4; higher scores were reverse-coded to indicate greater control. Child dieting behavior was assessed in sixth grade and dichotomized into "any dieting behaviors" vs "none." Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between controlling maternal feeding practices and dieting behavior and included the covariates of sex, race, maternal education, maternal weight status, child weight status in third grade, and change in body mass index z score between third and sixth grade. In sixth grade (n=776), 41.5% of children engaged in dieting behavior. In the multivariate analysis, greater maternal control over child eating predicted lower odds of child dieting in sixth grade (odds ratio=0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.64 to 0.97). There was no interaction between controlling maternal feeding practices and child's sex or baseline obesity status. Exerting more control over what a child eats in third grade may protect against future dieting behavior in children, independent of child's weight status or rate of weight gain. Further work is needed to better define which controlling feeding practices are beneficial for the child.

  6. 7 CFR 989.115 - Independent handler, major cooperative marketing association handler, and small cooperative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any handler who is not a cooperative marketing association of producers. (b) Major cooperative marketing association handler means any handler who is a cooperative marketing association of producers... nominations. (c) Small cooperative marketing association handler means any handler who is a...

  7. Complementary feeding practices and associated factors among HIV positive mothers in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haile, Demewoz; Belachew, Tefera; Berhanu, Getenesh; Setegn, Tesfaye; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess complementary feeding practices and associated factors among HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. An institutional based cross-sectional study with cluster random sampling technique was employed and all HIV exposed infants aged 6-17 months found in randomly selected health institutions in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia were included. A 24-hour dietary recall and 7-day quasi-food group frequency was used to assess complementary feeding practices. The prevalence of timely initiation of complementary feeding (6-8 months) was 42% [95% CI: (30-54%)]. Of all the HIV exposed infants aged 6-17 months, 40.7% had practiced bottle-feeding. About 65.6% and 53.3% of HIV exposed infants did not receive the recommended number of food groups and frequency of complementary feeding in the last 24 hours respectively. Pulse (plant protein) was consumed by only 22.5% of the infants while only 9.9% of the infants consumed animal source food in the last 24 hours. Presence of infant food prohibition (β = -0.342, P = 0.001) and age of the infant (β = 0.311, P = 0.001) were found to be an independent predictors of dietary diversity. Presence of infant food prohibition (β = -0.181, P = 0.02) and age of infant (β = 0.388, P < 0.001) were also the predictors of 24 hour meal frequency. Having lower educational status [AOR = (0.21, 95% CI (0.062-0.71)] was an independent negative predictor of bottle-feeding practice. Many of the complementary feeding practices like meal frequency; dietary diversity and bottle-feeding were sub-optimal. Nutrition education should be designed for improving complementary feeding practices of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Mothers with higher educational status should be also targeted for nutrition education especially on bottle feeding practice.

  8. Independent associations of circulating galectin-3 concentrations with aortic pulse wave velocity and wave reflection in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Libhaber, Elena; Woodiwiss, Angela J; Raymond, Andrew; Gomes, Monica; Maseko, Muzi J; Sareli, Pinhas; Norton, Gavin R

    2015-06-01

    Although the profibrotic inflammatory substance galectin-3 predicts outcomes in the general population, the mechanisms responsible for this effect are uncertain. We aimed to determine whether circulating galectin-3 concentrations are associated with carotid femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity and aortic reflective wave index (applanation tonometry and SphygmoCor software) in 966 randomly selected participants from a community sample. Galectin-3 concentrations were not independently associated with office (n=966) or 24-hour (n=661) systolic (P=0.88-0.92) or diastolic (P=0.65-0.94) blood pressure. In contrast, with adjustments for age, sex (in all participants), office or 24-hour mean arterial pressure (or systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure), pulse rate, body mass index, regular smoking, regular alcohol intake, total cholesterol concentrations, diabetes mellitus or an glycohemoglobin >6.1%, treatment for hypertension, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, galectin-3 was independently associated with aortic pulse wave velocity in all participants (partial r=0.15, P<0.0001) and reflective wave index in men (partial r=0.13, P<0.02). In 745 participants who had never received antihypertensive therapy, galectin-3 concentrations were similarly independently associated with pulse wave velocity in all participants (partial=0.16, P<0.0001) and reflective wave index in men (partial r=0.15, P<0.02). The blood pressure-independent relations between galectin-3 concentrations and aortic hemodynamics persisted with further adjustments for C-reactive protein concentrations (pulse wave velocity in all participants: partial r=0.14, P<0.0001; reflective wave index in men: partial r=0.12, P<0.05). In conclusion, despite a lack of independent association with brachial blood pressure, the profibrotic inflammatory substance galectin-3 may contribute toward adverse outcomes through an effect on aortic stiffness, an effect that cannot be attributed to general inflammatory

  9. Assessment of Learning Gains Associated with Independent Exam Analysis in Introductory Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Adrienne E.; Aguilar-Roca, Nancy M.; Tsai, Michelle; Wong, Matthew; Beaupre, Marin Moravec; O'Dowd, Diane K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of an independent postmidterm question analysis exercise on the ability of students to answer subsequent exam questions on the same topics. It was conducted in three sections (~400 students/section) of introductory biology. Graded midterms were returned electronically, and each student was assigned a subset of…

  10. Association of Mode of Locomotion and Independence in Locomotion With Long-Term Outcomes After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Krause, James; Carter, Rickey E; Brotherton, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: To explore the association of mode of locomotion (ambulation vs wheelchair use) and independence in locomotion (independent vs require assistance) with health, participation, and subjective well-being (SWB) after spinal cord injury (SCI). Research Design: Secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 2 rehabilitation hospitals in the Midwest and a specialty hospital in the southeastern United States. The 1,493 participants were a minimum of 18 years of age and had traumatic SCI of at least 1 year duration at enrollment. Main Outcome Measures: Three sets of outcome measures were used: SWB, participation, and health. SWB was measured by 8 scales and a measure of depressive symptoms, participation by 3 items, health by general health ratings, days in poor health, hospitalizations, and treatments. Results: Small but significant associations were observed between independence in locomotion and every outcome. Ambulation was associated with greater participation but a mixed pattern of favorable and unfavorable health and SWB outcomes. Supplemental analyses were conducted on those who ambulated but who were dependent on others to do so (n = 117), because this group reported poor outcomes in several areas. Individuals who were independent in wheelchair use reported substantially better outcomes than nonwheelchair users and those dependent on others in wheelchair use. Conclusions: Although ambulation is often a recovery goal, individuals with SCI who ambulate do not uniformly report better outcomes than wheelchair users, and those who depend on others for assistance with ambulation may experience a unique set of problems. PMID:19810625

  11. Independent and joint associations of physical activity and fitness with fibromyalgia symptoms and severity: The al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2016-09-12

    We examined independent and joint associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) with pain, fatigue and the overall impact of fibromyalgia in 386 fibromyalgia women aged 51.2 ± 7.6 years. Levels of PA (light, moderate and vigorous) and PF were measured with triaxial accelerometry and the Senior Fitness Test, respectively. We used the Short-Form health survey-36 pain sub-scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory to assess pain and multiple dimensions of fatigue, respectively. The impact of fibromyalgia was studied with the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Both, total PA and global PF were independently associated with pain pressure threshold, SF-36 pain, reduced activity, reduced motivation and FIQR total score (all, P ≤ 0.027). The associations between total PA and symptoms were weaker than those observed between global PF and symptoms. Overall, unfit patients with low PA showed a worse profile that fit patients with high PA (all, P ≤ 0.001). In summary, PA and PF are independently associated with pain, fatigue and the overall impact of fibromyalgia in women. Although PF presented greater associations with symptoms, the results suggest that both being physically active and keep adequate fitness levels might be convenient for fibromyalgia women.

  12. Is there an independent association between burnout and increased allostatic load? Testing the contribution of psychological distress and depression.

    PubMed

    Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Ahola, Kirsi; Virtanen, Marianna; Pirkola, Sami

    2016-08-01

    Burnout has been suggested to be related to depression. We examined the relationship between burnout and allostatic load, and whether this association is independent of psychological distress and depression. We measured burnout psychological distress, depression, and allostatic load in 3283 participants. Higher burnout (β = 0.06, p =0.003) and cynicism (β = 0.03, p = 0.031) and decreased professional efficacy (β = 0.03, p = 0.007) were related to higher allostatic load independent of age, sex, education, occupation and psychological distress. Depression, however, explained 60 percent of the association. Burnout is related to higher allostatic load, and this association partly overlaps with co-occurring depression.

  13. Association of waist circumference with impaired six-minute walk in type 2 diabetes mellitus is independent of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Hong; Nolan, Mark; Negishi, Kazuaki; Burgess, John; Marwick, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction has been associated with impaired exercise capacity in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this community-based study of 274 asymptomatic T2DM patients (71±4 years, 55% men) with preserved ejection fraction, a comprehensive resting echocardiogram was performed to gather sensitive systolic and diastolic function parameters (including speckle tracking echocardiography), and a standard six-minute walk test was performed. Tertiles of increasing waist circumference were associated with worsening walk distance. In this community-based study, we found an association of waist circumference with impaired exercise capacity, independent of age, gender, diabetes duration, insulin and angiotensin blockade, LV mass, systolic and diastolic function.

  14. Recurrent loss of CenH3 is associated with independent transitions to holocentricity in insects

    PubMed Central

    Drinnenberg, Ines A; deYoung, Dakota; Henikoff, Steven; Malik, Harmit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation in all eukaryotes relies on centromeres, the chromosomal sites that recruit kinetochore proteins and mediate spindle attachment during cell division. The centromeric histone H3 variant, CenH3, is the defining chromatin component of centromeres in most eukaryotes, including animals, fungi, plants, and protists. In this study, using detailed genomic and transcriptome analyses, we show that CenH3 was lost independently in at least four lineages of insects. Each of these lineages represents an independent transition from monocentricity (centromeric determinants localized to a single chromosomal region) to holocentricity (centromeric determinants extended over the entire chromosomal length) as ancient as 300 million years ago. Holocentric insects therefore contain a CenH3-independent centromere, different from almost all the other eukaryotes. We propose that ancient transitions to holocentricity in insects obviated the need to maintain CenH3, which is otherwise essential in most eukaryotes, including other holocentrics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03676.001 PMID:25247700

  15. Positive Parenting Practices Associated with Subsequent Childhood Weight Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avula, Rasmi; Gonzalez, Wendy; Shapiro, Cheri J.; Fram, Maryah S.; Beets, Michael W.; Jones, Sonya J.; Blake, Christine E.; Frongillo, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to identify positive parenting practices that set children on differential weight-trajectories. Parenting practices studied were cognitively stimulating activities, limit-setting, disciplinary practices, and parent warmth. Data from two U.S. national longitudinal data sets and linear and logistic regression were used to examine…

  16. Tooth wear: prevalence and associated factors in general practice patients

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Pashova, Hristina; Packard, J.D.; Zhou, Lingmei; Hilton, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of tooth wear and to investigate factors associated with tooth wear in patients from general practices in the Northwest United States. Methods Data on the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases during the previous year were collected in a survey with a systematic random sample of patients (n = 1530) visiting general dentists from the Northwest Practice-based REsearch Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT) (n = 80). Prevalence ratios (PRs) of moderate to severe occlusal and incisal tooth wear by patient characteristics were estimated using cluster-adjusted multiple binomial regression for adults (18+ years) and children/adolescents (3–17 years). Results For adults, the mean number of teeth with wear facets was 5.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.6–6.2] and 51% of the adults had four or more teeth with wear. Participants 45–64 and 65+ years old were 1.3 (95% CI = 1.1–1.6) and 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1–1.8) times as likely to have 4+ teeth with moderate to severe wear facets as participants 18–44 years old. Adult males had a 20% (PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1–1.4) higher prevalence of wear than adult females. Adults who were using, or had ever used occlusal splints had higher prevalence of tooth wear compared to those who never used such appliances (PR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0–1.5). Adults with any periodontal bone loss also had a 20% higher prevalence of wear than adults without periodontal disease (PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0–1.4). For children/adolescents, the mean number of teeth with moderate to severe wear facets was 1.6 (95% CI = 0.9–2.6) and 31% of the children had one or more teeth with wear facets. The adjusted prevalence ratio of tooth wear (1+ teeth with wear facets) for boys was 1.6 times as high (95% CI = 1.1–2.4) as compared with girls. The prevalence of wear for children 12+ years old was 50% (PR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3–0.8) lower than that of children <12 years old. Angle’s class II was associated

  17. The epigenetic clock and telomere length are independently associated with chronological age and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Marioni, Riccardo E; Harris, Sarah E; Shah, Sonia; McRae, Allan F; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Wray, Naomi R; Visscher, Peter M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Telomere length and DNA methylation have been proposed as biological clock measures that track chronological age. Whether they change in tandem, or contribute independently to the prediction of chronological age, is not known. Methods: We address these points using data from two Scottish cohorts: the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921) and 1936 (LBC1936). Telomere length and epigenetic clock estimates from DNA methylation were measured in 920 LBC1936 participants (ages 70, 73 and 76 years) and in 414 LBC1921 participants (ages 79, 87 and 90 years). Results: The epigenetic clock changed over time at roughly the same rate as chronological age in both cohorts. Telomere length decreased at 48–67 base pairs per year on average. Weak, non-significant correlations were found between epigenetic clock estimates and telomere length. Telomere length explained 6.6% of the variance in age in LBC1921, the epigenetic clock explained 10.0%, and combined they explained 17.3% (all P < 1 × 10−7). Corresponding figures for the LBC1936 cohort were 14.3%, 11.7% and 19.5% (all P < 1 × 10−12). In a combined cohorts analysis, the respective estimates were 2.8%, 28.5% and 29.5%. Also in a combined cohorts analysis, a one standard deviation increase in baseline epigenetic age was linked to a 22% increased mortality risk (P = 2.6 × 10−4) whereas, in the same model, a one standard deviation increase in baseline telomere length was independently linked to an 11% decreased mortality risk (P = 0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest that telomere length and epigenetic clock estimates are independent predictors of chronological age and mortality risk. PMID:27075770

  18. Waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese women.

    PubMed

    Shalev-Goldman, Einat; McGuire, K Ashlee; Ross, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent associations between physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), abdominal obesity and insulin action in obese women. We studied 141 abdominally obese women (waist circumference (WC): 106.4 ± 10.2 cm). PA duration (min/day) and intensity (counts/min) were obtained by accelerometry. CRF was measured using a treadmill. WC was measured at the iliac crest; abdominal adiposity was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Glucose and insulin measures were obtained during a 75-g, 2-h glucose tolerance test. The homeostasis model of assessment iHOMA2-IS was used to estimate insulin sensitivity. PA duration and intensity were not associated with glucose or insulin metabolism (p > 0.05). However, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) duration was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (p < 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (r = 0.27, p ≤ 0.01), whereas WC was associated with fasting insulin (r = 0.50, p < 0.01) and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.52, p ≤ 0.01). Following adjustment for CRF, MVPA, and age, WC remained associated with fasting glucose, insulin, 2-h glucose and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.44, p ≤ 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting glucose as well as 1- and 2-h glucose (r = 0.24, p < 0.01) after adjusting for WC, MVPA, and age. MVPA was not associated with glucose or insulin measures after control for CRF and WC (p > 0.05). Mediation analysis revealed that CRF and WC combined mediated the relationship between MVPA and both glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, among abdominally obese women, WC and CRF are independently associated with measures of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance and mediate the association between MVPA and insulin resistance.

  19. The case-only independence assumption: associations between genetic polymorphisms and smoking among controls in two population-based studies

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Olshan, Andrew F; North, Kari E; Poole, Charles L; Zeng, Donglin; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Keku, Tope O; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert; Millikan, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    The independence assumption for a case-only analysis of statistical interaction, i. e. that genetic (G) and environmental exposures (E) are not associated in the source population, is often checked in surrogate populations. Few studies have examined G-E association in empirical data, particularly in controls from population-based studies, the type of controls expected to provide the most valid surrogate estimates of G-E association. We used controls from two population-based case-control studies to evaluate G-E independence for 43 selected genetic polymorphisms and smoking behavior. The odds ratio (ORz) was used to estimate G-E association and, therefore, the magnitude of bias introduced into the case-only odds ratio (COR). Odds ratios of moderate magnitude [mmORz], defined as ORz≤0.7 or ORz≥1.4, were found at least one of the six smoking measures (ever, former, current, cig/day, years smoked, pack-years) for 45% and 59% of the SNPs examined in the control groups of two independently conducted North Carolina studies, respectively. Consequently, case-only estimates of G-E interaction in the context of a multiplicative benchmark would be biased for these SNPs and smoking measures. MmORzs were found more often for smoking amount than smoking status. We recommend that a stand-alone case-only study should only be conducted when G-E independence can be verified for each polymorphism and exposure metric with population-specific data. Our results suggest that ORz is specific to each underlying population rather than an estimate of a ‘universal’ ORz for that SNP and smoking measure. Further, misspecification of smoking is likely to introduce bias into the COR. PMID:23205185

  20. The case-only independence assumption: associations between genetic polymorphisms and smoking among controls in two population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Olshan, Andrew F; North, Kari E; Poole, Charles L; Zeng, Donglin; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Keku, Tope O; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert; Millikan, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    The independence assumption for a case-only analysis of statistical interaction, i. e. that genetic (G) and environmental exposures (E) are not associated in the source population, is often checked in surrogate populations. Few studies have examined G-E association in empirical data, particularly in controls from population-based studies, the type of controls expected to provide the most valid surrogate estimates of G-E association. We used controls from two population-based case-control studies to evaluate G-E independence for 43 selected genetic polymorphisms and smoking behavior. The odds ratio (OR(z)) was used to estimate G-E association and, therefore, the magnitude of bias introduced into the case-only odds ratio (COR). Odds ratios of moderate magnitude [mmOR(z)], defined as OR(z)≤0.7 or OR(z)≥1.4, were found at least one of the six smoking measures (ever, former, current, cig/day, years smoked, pack-years) for 45% and 59% of the SNPs examined in the control groups of two independently conducted North Carolina studies, respectively. Consequently, case-only estimates of G-E interaction in the context of a multiplicative benchmark would be biased for these SNPs and smoking measures. MmOR(z)s were found more often for smoking amount than smoking status. We recommend that a stand-alone case-only study should only be conducted when G-E independence can be verified for each polymorphism and exposure metric with population-specific data. Our results suggest that OR(z) is specific to each underlying population rather than an estimate of a 'universal' OR(z) for that SNP and smoking measure. Further, misspecification of smoking is likely to introduce bias into the COR.

  1. Brown adipose tissue triglyceride content is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity, independently of age and obesity.

    PubMed

    Raiko, J; Holstila, M; Virtanen, K A; Orava, J; Saunavaara, V; Niemi, T; Laine, J; Taittonen, M; Borra, R J H; Nuutila, P; Parkkola, R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can non-invasively assess triglyceride content in both supraclavicular fat depots and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) to determine whether these measurements correlate to metabolic variables. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were studied using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and (15)O-H2O PET perfusion during cold exposure, and (1)H-MRS at ambient temperature. Image-guided biopsies were collected from nine volunteers. The supraclavicular triglyceride content determined by (1)H-MRS varied between 60 and 91% [mean ± standard deviation (s.d.) 77 ± 10%]. It correlated positively with body mass index, waist circumference, subcutaneous and visceral fat masses and 8-year diabetes risk based on the Framingham risk score and inversely with HDL cholesterol and insulin sensitivity (M-value; euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp). Subcutaneous WAT had a significantly higher triglyceride content, 76-95% (mean ± s.d. 87 ± 5%; p = 0.0002). In conclusion, the triglyceride content in supraclavicular fat deposits measured by (1)H-MRS may be an independent marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity, independent of brown adipose tissue metabolic activation.

  2. Preserved levels of uninvolved immunoglobulins are independently associated with favorable outcome in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kastritis, E; Zagouri, F; Symeonidis, A; Roussou, M; Sioni, A; Pouli, A; Delimpasi, S; Katodritou, E; Michalis, E; Michael, M; Hatzimichael, E; Vassou, A; Repousis, P; Christophoridou, A; Kartasis, Z; Stefanoudaki, E; Megalakaki, C; Giannouli, S; Kyrtsonis, M-C; Konstantopoulos, K; Spyroupoulou-Vlachou, M; Terpos, E; Dimopoulos, M A

    2014-10-01

    Suppression of uninvolved immunoglobulins is common in multiple myeloma (MM) but the prognostic significance of this phenomenon has not been assessed. We evaluated the prognostic significance of the preservation of uninvolved immunoglobulins in 1755 consecutive, unselected, patients with newly diagnosed, symptomatic MM with pre-therapy immunoglobulin levels measured by nephelometry. Suppression of at least one uninvolved immunoglobulin was observed in 87% of patients and was more common in patients with immunoglobulin A myeloma, those aged over 65 years, in patients with advanced-International Staging System (ISS) stage, extensive-bone marrow infiltration, anemia, low platelet counts, high levels of serum M-monoclonal protein or renal dysfunction. Patients with preserved immunoglobulins had a better survival than patients with suppressed immunoglobulins (median survival 55 vs 41.5 months, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, preservation of uninvolved immunoglobulins was independently associated with better survival (hazard ratio: 0.781, 95% confidence interval: 0.618-0.987, P=0.039); irrespective of the treatment. In a subset of 500 patients, which were strictly followed for disease progression, preservation of uninvolved immunoglobulins was associated with a significantly longer progression-free survival (60 vs 25 months, P<0.001), independently of other common prognostic factors. In conclusion, preservation of uninvolved immunoglobulins in newly diagnosed patients with symptomatic MM was independently associated with long term disease control and improved survival.

  3. Serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels are independently associated with procollagen III N-terminal peptide in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Hyogo, Hideyuki; Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi; Maeda, Sayaka; Fukami, Kei; Ueda, Seiji; Okuda, Seiya; Nakahara, Takashi; Kimura, Yuki; Ishitobi, Tomokazu; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2014-02-01

    Although impaired synthesis and/or bioavailability of nitric oxide are considered to contribute to insulin resistance and the progression of liver disease in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, role of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, has not been examined. We examined retrospectively which anthropometric and metabolic parameters were independently associated with serum levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A total of 194 consecutive biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients with or without type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients were significantly higher, irrespective of the presence or absence of diabetes, than those in healthy control. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that decreased total protein and procollagen N-terminal peptide levels, markers of advanced liver disease and hepatic fibrosis, respectively, were independently associated with asymmetric dimethylarginine levels in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease subjects without diabetes, whereas soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products and density ratio of liver to spleen in computed tomography were independent correlates of asymmetric dimethylarginine in diabetic patients. The present study suggests that asymmetric dimethylarginine may be associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, especially subjects without diabetes.

  4. Sibling relationship quality moderates the associations between parental interventions and siblings' independent conflict strategies and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Holly E; Howe, Nina

    2009-08-01

    This study extends research on sibling conflict strategies and outcomes by examining unique and interactive associations with age, relative birth order, sibling relationship quality, and caregivers' interventions into conflict. Each of 62 sibling dyads (older sibling mean age = 8.39 years; younger sibling mean age = 6.06 years) discussed 1 recurring conflict alone (dyadic negotiation) and a 2nd conflict with their primary parental caregiver (triadic negotiation). Negotiations were coded for children's conflict strategies, outcomes, and caregiver interventions; each family member provided ratings of sibling relationship quality. Results revealed that age was associated with siblings' constructive strategies, particularly in the dyadic negotiation. With age controlled, younger siblings referred more frequently to their own perspective. Caregivers' future orientation in the triadic negotiation was associated with children's future orientation in the dyadic negotiation; however, this association was most evident when sibling relationship quality was high. Similarly, caregivers' past orientation was positively associated with dyadic compromise, especially when relationship quality was high. Results reveal the value of simultaneously considering associations among parental, affective, and developmental correlates of sibling conflict strategies.

  5. The Association between Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Practices about Developmentally Appropriate Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim Amin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether preschool teachers' self-reported beliefs could predict their self-reported practices about developmentally appropriate practices (DAP). A related purpose was to examine whether classroom size and teachers' experience are significant predictors of their self-reported beliefs and practices. A total…

  6. Housing conditions and management practices associated with neonatal lamb mortality in sheep flocks in Norway.

    PubMed

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Kielland, Camilla; Stubsjøen, Solveig Marie; Hektoen, Lisbeth; Waage, Steinar

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted in order to obtain information about sheep farms in Norway and to identify housing and management characteristics that were risk factors for neonatal mortality of lambs 0-5 days of age. A questionnaire was submitted to sheep farmers, who provided demographic data and information on sheep housing conditions and feeding and management practices. Our description of farms is based on the questionnaire responses received from 2260 farmers. Data on lamb mortality during the preceding lambing season were available for those flocks that were enrolled in the Norwegian Sheep Recording System. Some flocks where the number of lambing ewes was less than 20 or greater than 400 were excluded. The total number of flocks included in the analysis of neonatal mortality was 1125. An increase in the mean number of live-born lambs per ewe per flock was associated with increasing neonatal mortality. Factors independently associated with increased neonatal survival were continuous monitoring of the ewes during the lambing season, active support to ensure sufficient colostrum intake of the lambs, feeding a combination of grass silage and hay compared with grass silage alone, and supplying roughage at least twice per day versus only once. Increased survival was also observed in flocks where the farmer had at least 15 years of experience in sheep farming. Flocks in which the Spæl breed predominated had lower odds for neonatal deaths compared to flocks in which the Norwegian White breed predominated. In conclusion, measures in sheep flocks targeted at feeding practices during the indoor feeding period and management practice during lambing season would be expected to reduce neonatal lamb mortality.

  7. Blood lead, anemia, and short stature are independently associated with cognitive performance in Mexican school children.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Lopez, Patricia; Rosado, Jorge L; García Vargas, Gonzalo; Alatorre Rico, Javier; Ronquillo, Dolores; Cebrián, Mariano E; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2004-02-01

    Lead exposure and nutritional factors are both associated with cognitive performance. Lead toxicity and nutritional status are also associated with each other. We examined whether nutritional status variables account for part or all of the association between cognitive performance and lead exposure. First-grade children (n = 724) ages 6-8 y, attending Mexican public schools located in the vicinity of a metal foundry were asked to participate and 602 enrolled in the study. Blood lead, iron status, anemia, anthropometry, and cognitive function were assessed. Results from 7 standardized tests are presented here. The mean blood lead concentration was 11.5 +/- 6.1 micro g/dL (0.56 +/- 0.30 micro mol/L) and 50% of the children had concentrations >10 micro g/dL (0.48 micro mol/L). The prevalence of mild anemia (<124 g/L) was low (10%) and stunting (<2 SD) was nonexistent (2.3%). In bivariate analyses, lead was negatively associated with 4 cognitive tests and was also inversely correlated with iron status, height-for-age Z scores, and head circumference. In multivariate models, the association between lead and cognitive performance was not strongly affected by nutritional variables, suggesting that the relation of lead to cognition is not explained by lead's relation to iron deficiency anemia or growth retardation. In multivariate models, hemoglobin concentration was also positively associated with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Number Sequencing performance, whereas serum ferritin was negatively related to the Coding subscale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Revised Mexican Version (WISC-RM).

  8. Cross-platform comparison of independent datasets identifies an immune signature associated with improved survival in metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Lardone, Ricardo D.; Plaisier, Seema B.; Navarrete, Marian S.; Shamonki, Jaime M.; Jalas, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Platform and study differences in prognostic signatures from metastatic melanoma (MM) gene expression reports often hinder consensus arrival. We performed survival/outcome-based pairwise comparisons of three independent MM gene expression profiles using the threshold-free algorithm rank-rank hypergeometric overlap analysis (RRHO). We found statistically significant overlap for genes overexpressed in favorable outcome (FO) groups, but no overlap for poor outcome (PO) groups. This “favorable outcome signature” (FOS) of 228 genes coinciding on all three overlapping gene lists showed immune function predominated in FO MM. Surprisingly, specific cell signature-enrichment analysis showed B cell-associated genes enriched in FO MM, along with T cell-associated genes. Higher levels of B and T cells (p<0.05) and their relative proximity (p<0.05) were detected in FO-to-PO tumor comparisons from an independent MM patients cohort. Finally, expression of FOS in two independent Stage III MM tumor datasets correctly predicted clinical outcome in 12/14 and 44/70 patients using a weighted gene voting classifier (area under the curve values 0.96 and 0.75, respectively). This RRHO-based, cross-study analysis emphasizes the RRHO approach power, confirms T cells relevance for prolonged MM survival, supports a favorable role for B cells in anti-melanoma immunity, and suggests B cells potential as means of intervention in melanoma treatment. PMID:26883106

  9. Cardiac Signals Are Independently Associated with Temporal Discounting and Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Bowen J.; Crone, Damien L.; Bode, Stefan; Murawski, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac signals reflect the function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and have previously been associated with a range of self-regulatory behaviors such as emotion regulation and memory recall. It is unknown whether cardiac signals may also be associated with self-regulation in the temporal domain, in particular impulsivity. We assessed both decision impulsivity (temporal discounting, TD) and time perception impulsivity (duration reproduction, DR) in 120 participants while they underwent electrocardiography in order to test whether cardiac signals were related to these two aspects of impulsivity. We found that over the entire period of task performance, individuals with higher heart rates had a tendency toward lower discount rates, supporting previous research that has associated sympathetic responses with decreased impulsivity. We also found that low-frequency components of heart rate variability (HRV) were associated with a less accurate perception of time, suggesting that time perception may be modulated by ANS function. Overall, these findings constitute preliminary evidence that autonomic function plays an important role in both decision impulsivity and time perception. PMID:28174525

  10. Lack of replication for the myosin-18B association with mathematical ability in independent cohorts.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, K A; Fajutrao Valles, S F; Moll, K; Northstone, K; Ring, S; Pennell, C; Wang, C; Leavett, R; Hayiou-Thomas, M E; Thompson, P; Simpson, N H; Fisher, S E; Whitehouse, A J O; Snowling, M J; Newbury, D F; Paracchini, S

    2015-04-01

    Twin studies indicate that dyscalculia (or mathematical disability) is caused partly by a genetic component, which is yet to be understood at the molecular level. Recently, a coding variant (rs133885) in the myosin-18B gene was shown to be associated with mathematical abilities with a specific effect among children with dyslexia. This association represents one of the most significant genetic associations reported to date for mathematical abilities and the only one reaching genome-wide statistical significance. We conducted a replication study in different cohorts to assess the effect of rs133885 maths-related measures. The study was conducted primarily using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), (N = 3819). We tested additional cohorts including the York Cohort, the Specific Language Impairment Consortium (SLIC) cohort and the Raine Cohort, and stratified them for a definition of dyslexia whenever possible. We did not observe any associations between rs133885 in myosin-18B and mathematical abilities among individuals with dyslexia or in the general population. Our results suggest that the myosin-18B variant is unlikely to be a main factor contributing to mathematical abilities.

  11. Methamphetamine Use Is Independently Associated with Recent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Adolescent Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to…

  12. The Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism rs7412 Associates with Body Fatness Independently of Plasma Lipids in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, M. Teresa; Garcia-Sobreviela, Maria Pilar; Ledesma, Marta; Arbones-Mainar, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is polymorphic, encoding one of 3 common alleles (ε2, ε3, ε4) produced from combinations of 2 non-synonymous SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412). APOE plays an important role controlling plasma lipids but its association with adipocyte functionality and body fatness remains to be determined. Methods We analyzed fasting plasma lipids and genotyped the two main APOE-SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412), both located in the fourth exon of the APOE, in 4660 Caucasian middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. Results The rs7412 SNP, which determines the APOE2 isoform, was significantly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Girth (WG) in a multivariate model accounting for age, smoking status and plasma lipids. BMI and WG were highest in TT homozygotes and lowest in CC homozygotes. This effect was independent of the rs429358 SNP, which failed to show any association with the BMI and WG variables. The odds ratio of being obese (BMI>30) for individuals carrying the APOε2 allele, present in 14% of the cohort and defined by the rs7412 SNP, was also significant in this multivariate model, with an OR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01–1.59). Conclusions This study provides an evidence of a lipid-independent association between the APOE SNP rs7412 and body fatness surrogates, BMI and WG, in a large cohort of middle-aged males. PMID:25268647

  13. Office and ambulatory blood pressure are independently associated with albuminuria in older subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moran, Andrew; Palmas, Walter; Pickering, Thomas G; Schwartz, Joseph E; Field, Lesley; Weinstock, Ruth S; Shea, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Blood pressure strongly predicts microalbuminuria and later progression to renal failure in people with diabetes. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seems to be superior to office blood pressure in predicting progression to microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes. The associations of ambulatory blood pressure with office blood pressure and microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes remain unclear. We studied the association of office blood pressure taken with an automated device and ambulatory blood pressure with spot urine albumin:creatinine ratio in 1180 older people with type 2 diabetes participating in the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine Study. Office and awake systolic blood pressure were independently associated with albuminuria (P<0.001 for both) in a multivariate linear regression analysis that adjusted for age, gender, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, number of antihypertensive medications, and use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. Twelve percent of participants had well-controlled office blood pressure but not ambulatory blood pressure, whereas 14% had well-controlled ambulatory but not office blood pressure. The prevalence of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria in these subgroups was intermediate between those with well-controlled or uncontrolled blood pressure by both methods. We found, in a multiethnic group of older subjects with type 2 diabetes, that office systolic blood pressure and awake systolic ambulatory blood pressure exhibited independent associations with degree of albuminuria.

  14. Hypertension during Pregnancy is Associated with Coronary Artery Calcium Independent of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Rule, Andrew D.; Sheedy, Patrick F.; Turner, Stephen T.; Garovic, Vesna D.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hypertension during pregnancy (HDP) increases the risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD), but it is unknown whether this association is mediated by renal injury. Reduced renal function is both a complication of HDP and a risk factor for CHD. Methods Logistic regression models were fit to examine the association between a history of HDP and the presence and extent of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a measure of subclinical coronary artery atherosclerosis, in 498 women from the Epidemiology of Coronary Artery Calcification Study (mean age 63.3 ± 9.3 years). Results Fifty-two (10.4%) women reported a history of HDP. After adjusting for age at time of study participation, HDP was associated with increased serum creatinine later in life (p = 0.014). HDP was positively associated with the presence of CAC after adjusting for age at time of study participation (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.4). This association was slightly attenuated with adjustment for body size and blood pressure (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.9) but was not further attenuated with adjustment for serum creatinine and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.3). Results were similar for CAC extent. Conclusions HDP may increase a woman's risk of future CHD beyond traditional risk factors and renal function. Women with a history of HDP should be monitored for potential increased risk of CHD as they age. PMID:19785565

  15. Polycomb- and REST-associated histone deacetylases are independent pathways toward a mature neuronal phenotype

    PubMed Central

    McGann, James C; Oyer, Jon A; Garg, Saurabh; Yao, Huilan; Liu, Jun; Feng, Xin; Liao, Lujian; Yates, John R; Mandel, Gail

    2014-01-01

    The bivalent hypothesis posits that genes encoding developmental regulators required for early lineage decisions are poised in stem/progenitor cells by the balance between a repressor histone modification (H3K27me3), mediated by the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2), and an activator modification (H3K4me3). In this study, we test whether this mechanism applies equally to genes that are not required until terminal differentiation. We focus on the RE1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) because it is expressed highly in stem cells and is an established global repressor of terminal neuronal genes. Elucidation of the REST complex, and comparison of chromatin marks and gene expression levels in control and REST-deficient stem cells, shows that REST target genes are poised by a mechanism independent of Polycomb, even at promoters which bear the H3K27me3 mark. Specifically, genes under REST control are actively repressed in stem cells by a balance of the H3K4me3 mark and a repressor complex that relies on histone deacetylase activity. Thus, chromatin distinctions between pro-neural and terminal neuronal genes are established at the embryonic stem cell stage by two parallel, but distinct, repressor pathways. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04235.001 PMID:25250711

  16. Caffeine intake is independently associated with neuropsychological performance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Norman, Daniel; Bardwell, Wayne A; Loredo, Jose S; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Heaton, Robert K; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2008-08-01

    In healthy individuals, caffeine intake may improve performance on cognitive tests. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder that has been associated with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we investigated whether increased caffeine intake in untreated patients with OSA is linked to better cognitive performance. Forty-five untreated OSA patients underwent baseline polysomnography after completing a survey of 24-h caffeine intake. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, then demographically corrected T scores and a global deficit score (GDS) were calculated on these tests. Partial correlation analysis was performed to compare daily caffeine intake with GDS, after controlling for body mass index (BMI) and sleep apnea severity. Analysis of covariance was done to examine differences in daily caffeine intake between cognitively impaired (GDS >or= 0.5) and non-impaired (GDS < 0.5) individuals. Seven out of the 45 subjects met the criteria (GDS >or= 0.5) for cognitive impairment. There was a significant inverse association between caffeine intake and the GDS, both when controlling for BMI (r =or -0.331, p = 0.04) and when controlling for BMI and apnea severity (r =or-0.500, p = 0.002); those with less impairment consumed more caffeine. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that cognitively impaired individuals consumed one-sixth as much caffeine as non-impaired individuals (p < 0.05). In patients with moderately severe OSA, higher average daily caffeine intake was associated with less cognitive impairment.

  17. The Association of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Cerebral Gray Matter Volume Is Independent of Retinal Vascular Architecture and Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Moran, C.; Tapp, R. J.; Hughes, A. D.; Magnussen, C. G.; Blizzard, L.; Phan, T. G.; Beare, R.; Witt, N.; Venn, A.; Münch, G.; Amaratunge, B. C.; Srikanth, V.

    2016-01-01

    It is uncertain whether small vessel disease underlies the relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and brain atrophy. We aimed to study whether retinal vascular architecture, as a proxy for cerebral small vessel disease, may modify or mediate the associations of T2DM with brain volumes. In this cross-sectional study using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans and retinal photographs in 451 people with and without T2DM, we measured brain volumes, geometric measures of retinal vascular architecture, clinical retinopathy, and MRI cerebrovascular lesions. There were 270 people with (mean age 67.3 years) and 181 without T2DM (mean age 72.9 years). T2DM was associated with lower gray matter volume (p = 0.008). T2DM was associated with greater arteriolar diameter (p = 0.03) and optimality ratio (p = 0.04), but these associations were attenuated by adjustments for age and sex. Only optimality ratio was associated with lower gray matter volume (p = 0.03). The inclusion of retinal measures in regression models did not attenuate the association of T2DM with gray matter volume. The association of T2DM with lower gray matter volume was independent of retinal vascular architecture and clinical retinopathy. Retinal vascular measures or retinopathy may not be sufficiently sensitive to confirm a microvascular basis for T2DM-related brain atrophy. PMID:27314049

  18. Association of adiponectin and leptin with relative telomere length in seven independent cohorts including 11,448 participants.

    PubMed

    Broer, Linda; Raschenberger, Julia; Deelen, Joris; Mangino, Massimo; Codd, Veryan; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J M; Gieger, Christian; Haun, Margot; Henneman, Peter; Herder, Christian; Hovatta, Iiris; Laser, Annika; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kollerits, Barbara; Moilanen, Eeva; Oostra, Ben A; Paulweber, Bernhard; Quaye, Lydia; Rissanen, Aila; Roden, Michael; Surakka, Ida; Valdes, Ana M; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Thorand, Barbara; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Kaprio, Jaakko; Spector, Tim D; Slagboom, P Eline; Samani, Nilesh J; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors to accelerated age-related relative telomere length (RTL) shortening. Both conditions are strongly linked to leptin and adiponectin, the most prominent adipocyte-derived protein hormones. As high leptin levels and low levels of adiponectin have been implicated in inflammation, one expects adiponectin to be positively associated with RTL while leptin should be negatively associated. Within the ENGAGE consortium, we investigated the association of RTL with adiponectin and leptin in seven independent cohorts with a total of 11,448 participants. We performed partial correlation analysis on Z-transformed RTL and LN-transformed leptin/adiponectin, adjusting for age and sex. In extended models we adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Adiponectin showed a borderline significant association with RTL. This appeared to be determined by a single study and when the outlier study was removed, this association disappeared. The association between RTL and leptin was highly significant (r = -0.05; p = 1.81 × 10(-7)). Additional adjustment for BMI or CRP did not change the results. Sex-stratified analysis revealed no difference between men and women. Our study suggests that high leptin levels are associated with short RTL.

  19. Factors associated with the use of primary care services: the role of practice nurses.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Morris, Stephen

    2011-08-01

    Rising demand for and costs of health care have led to an increasing role of practice nurses in primary care in many countries, including the United Kingdom. Previous research has explored how practice nurse care differs from that provided by general practitioners (GPs) in terms of costs and health outcomes, and has highlighted the importance of matching skills and experience with roles and responsibilities. However, there has been little research to compare the characteristics of patients seen by GPs and practice nurses in primary care. We aim to investigate the factors associated with the use of practice nurse visits, and to compare these with the factors associated with GP use. We jointly model the use of practice nurse and GP visits using a bivariate probit regression model with a large set of covariates taken from two rounds of the Health Survey for England (2001, 2002). We find that practice nurse use is associated with age and gender, health, socioeconomic and supply variables. There are differences in the factors associated with practice nurse and GP use. Chronically ill patients are more likely to see a practice nurse, while acute ill health has a stronger association with the probability of seeing the GP. Practice nurse use is also correlated with a narrower range of health conditions compared with GP use. We also found differences between practice nurse and GP visits with respect to the association with economic activity, ethnic group, number of children, degree of urbanisation, and distance to practice.

  20. Independent association of HbA(1c) and incident cardiovascular disease in people without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert J; Appleton, Sarah L; Hill, Catherine L; Wilson, David H; Taylor, Anne W; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Gill, Tiffany K; Ruffin, Richard E

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have reported no association between elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) among women without diabetes. This study describes associations between HbA(1c) and new onset CVD in a representative adult population cohort. Assessment of participants in The North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS), a population study of randomly selected adults (age > or =18 years, n = 4,060), included measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose, and HbA(1c). A self-completed questionnaire assessed doctor-diagnosed diabetes, CVD and stroke, smoking status, and demographics. The cohort was followed for an average 3.5 years. Of the 2,913 adults free of diabetes at baseline and follow-up, 94 (3.5%) reported new onset coronary heart disease (CHD) and/or stroke. Compared with those with an HbA(1c) < or =5.0%, risk of new onset CVD was increased in those with HbA(1c) 5.4-5.6% (odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4, 4.6), and > or =5.7% (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.4), after adjustment for other risk factors. The association was stronger in women than men (P = 0.03), and attenuated to only a small degree by addition of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, BMI, waist circumference, or smoking to the model. Elevated HbA(1c) is related to new onset CVD over a relatively short follow-up period in both men and women without diabetes and who do not develop diabetes, after adjustment for other major risk factors. Unlike previous studies, this relationship was not substantially attenuated by other traditional risk factors.

  1. Non-Uniqueness in Dynamic Rate-Independent Non-Associated Plasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    TITLE CHANGES/DELETIONS/ADDITIONS, etc.) Z (Attach Sheet it more Snce rs RoqutreOl ZI .I- I-. O•: DNA OR OTHER GOVERNMENT CONTRACT NUMBER: CERTIFICATION...Associated Plasticity, C -DNA 001 -89-C-0052 PE - 6271514 6. AUTHOR(S) PR - RS TA - RB Ivan S. Sandier, Thomas A. Pucik (Logicon) WU - DHO90250 7. PERFORMING...sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency under RDT&E RMC Code B4662D RS RB 00087 SPWE 4400A 25904D. 1 .a. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b

  2. Longer leukocyte telomeres are associated with ultra-endurance exercise independent of cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; Nelson, Christopher P; O'Brien, Brendan J; Nankervis, Scott A; Denniff, Matthew; Harvey, Jack T; Marques, Francine Z; Codd, Veryan; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Samani, Nilesh J; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Charchar, Fadi J

    2013-01-01

    Telomere length is recognized as a marker of biological age, and shorter mean leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unclear whether repeated exposure to ultra-endurance aerobic exercise is beneficial or detrimental in the long-term and whether it attenuates biological aging. We quantified 67 ultra-marathon runners' and 56 apparently healthy males' leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) using real-time quantitative PCR. The ultra-marathon runners had 11% longer telomeres (T/S ratio) than controls (ultra-marathon runners: T/S ratio = 3.5±0.68, controls: T/S ratio = 3.1±0.41; β = 0.40, SE = 0.10, P = 1.4×10(-4)) in age-adjusted analysis. The difference remained statistically significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (P = 2.2×10(-4)). The magnitude of this association translates into 16.2±0.26 years difference in biological age and approximately 324-648bp difference in leukocyte telomere length between ultra-marathon runners and healthy controls. Neither traditional cardiovascular risk factors nor markers of inflammation/adhesion molecules explained the difference in leukocyte telomere length between ultra-marathon runners and controls. Taken together these data suggest that regular engagement in ultra-endurance aerobic exercise attenuates cellular aging.

  3. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in hospital nurse technicians and licensed practical nurses: associations with demographic factors

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Roberta F. C.; Sato, Tatiana O.; Foltran, Fabiana A.; Silva, Luciana C. C. B.; Coury, Helenice J. C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This cross-sectional study aimed at analyzing: 1. the main musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) presented by hospital nursing workers and; 2. personal, occupational, and health factors related to MSS among them. Method : Two questionnaires were filled in by 245 nurse technicians (NTs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) (response rate 95%) associated with direct patient care sectors from a hospital. These questionnaires were: the standardized version of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and one including questions on 15 demographic independent variables potentially related to outcomes from the NMQ. Univariate analyses and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify which variables would explain the occurrence of MSS in different body regions. Results: The low back (57%), shoulder (52%), and neck (48%) were identified as the most affected regions. The logistic regression analysis showed that low back symptoms in the last 12 months were significantly associated with LPN activities (OR=2.36; CI=1.24-4.5) and previous sick leave due to MSS (OR=5.97; CI=1.2-29.1). Smoking was significantly associated with symptoms in the low back (OR=2.77; CI=1.13-6.8) and thoracic spine (OR=2.37; CI=1.04-5.40). Physical exercise showed a protective effect on the cervical spine (OR=0.42; CI=0.23-0.77). Previous sick leave was significantly associated with pain in the knees (OR=4.24; CI=1.33-13.5) and in the upper limbs (OR=5.36; CI=1.07-26.7). Conclusions: The nursing workers who were evaluated presented a high prevalence of MSS. Previous history of sick leave was strongly associated with the presence of symptoms in various body regions. These results indicate the need for preventive programs in the hospital environment in order to control more severe MSS in nursing professionals. PMID:25054385

  4. Serum uric acid is independently and linearly associated with risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Qin; He, Chun-Mei; Chen, Ning; Wang, Dongmei; Shi, Xiulin; Liu, Yongwen; Zeng, Xin; Yan, Bing; Liu, Suhuan; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xiaoying; Li, Xuejun; Li, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the independent association and potential pathways between serum uric acid (SUA) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). 1365 community-living obese Chinese adults who received hepatic ultrasonography scanning were included. The prevalence rates of NAFLD were 71.5% for men and 53.8% for women. Compared with controls, NAFLD subjects showed significantly increased SUA levels (333.3 ± 84.9 v.s. 383.4 ± 93.7 μmol/L) and prevalence rate of hyperuricemia (HUA) (25.7% v.s. 47.3%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for insulin resistance (IR), components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and other potential confounders, elevated SUA is independently associated with increased risk of NAFLD, with the adjusted OR of 1.528–2.031 (p < 0.001). By using multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) modeling, the best FP transformation model shows that SUA was independently and linearly associated with risk of NAFLD. The one-pathway model by using structural equation modeling (SEM) about the relationships among SUA, IR, components of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD fits well (χ2 = 57.367, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.998; TLI = 0.992; and RMSEA = 0.048) and shows SUA might increase the risk of NAFLD directly besides of the indirect effects through increasing fasting insulin, blood pressure, triglyceride and decreasing HDL-C levels. Our results imply that elevated SUA may play an important role in NAFLD pathogenesis. PMID:27924915

  5. Is Childhood Socioeconomic Status Independently Associated with Adult BMI after Accounting for Adult and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is inversely associated with adult weight in high income countries. Whether the influence of childhood SES on adult weight is best described using a critical period model or an accumulation of risk model is not yet settled. This research tests whether childhood SES is associated with adult BMI and likelihood of obesity independent of adult socioeconomic status and neighborhood characteristics. Data on individual childhood and adult characteristics come from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 13,545). Data on neighborhood characteristics come from the 2000 Decennial Census and American Community Survey (2005–2009). In the fully adjusted models, perceived financial hardship before the age of sixteen and having a father who was unemployed are associated with higher BMI among males and, among females, paternal education remains associated with adult BMI. However, childhood SES is not associated with likelihood of obesity after fully adjusting for adult SES and neighborhood characteristics, suggesting that the direct effects of early childhood SES on BMI are small relative to the other factors associated with obesity in adulthood. PMID:28095430

  6. Objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration: independent and combined associations with adiposity in canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, J-P; Leduc, G; Boyer, C; Bélanger, P; LeBlanc, A G; Borghese, M M; Tremblay, M S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine independent and combined associations among objectively measured movement/non-movement behaviors (moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time and sleep duration) and adiposity indicators in a sample of Canadian children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 507 children aged 9–11 years from Ottawa, Canada. Movement/non-movement behaviors were assessed using an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer over 7 days (24-h protocol). Outcomes included percentage body fat (bioelectrical impedance) and waist-to-height ratio. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, maturity offset, fast food consumption, annual household income and highest level of parental education, MVPA was inversely and sedentary time positively associated with adiposity indicators, whereas sleep duration was not. However, only MVPA remained significantly associated with adiposity indicators after additional adjustment for the other movement/non-movement behaviors. Combined associations using tertiles of the three movement/non-movement behaviors showed that higher levels of MVPA were associated with lower adiposity indicators, irrespective of total sedentary time and sleep duration. Conclusions: Higher levels of MVPA were associated with lower adiposity in this sample of children regardless of sedentary time and sleep duration. Although correlational in nature, these findings suggest that future efforts of obesity reduction should focus more on increasing MVPA than on reducing sedentary time or increasing sleep duration to maximize the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:24911633

  7. Serum γ-glutamyltransferase level is associated with periodontal disease independent of drinking habits in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Morita, Toyoko; Yamazaki, Yoji; Fujiharu, Chika; Ishii, Takanori; Seto, Misae; Nishinoue, Norihide; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Kawato, Takayuki; Motohashi, Masafumi; Maeno, Masao

    2014-10-31

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Periodontal disease is a mild chronic inflammatory disease with systemic effects, and many studies have indicated an association between metabolic syndrome and periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between periodontitis and liver biochemical parameters according to alcohol drinking habits through a cross-sectional study based on data from Japanese people in occupational settings. Material and Methods The subjects were 1510 employees (1218 males, 292 females, mean age 50.4 years) who underwent dental and medical checkups in 2012. Associations between the presence of periodontal pockets and serum levels of liver biochemical parameters were assessed. Results Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were higher in subjects with than without periodontal pockets. Multiple logistic regression analysis (adjusting for age, gender, cigarette smoking, and alcohol drinking habits, and components of metabolic syndrome) with GGT or ALT as the dependent variable revealed that there was a significant association between periodontal pockets and GGT (odds ratio, OR=1.48), but not ALT. Similar associations were observed when an analysis was performed according to the presence or absence of alcohol drinking habits; the OR was higher in subjects without (OR=1.84) than with drinking habits (OR=1.41). Conclusions The presence of periodontal pockets was associated with serum levels of GGT, a liver biochemical parameter, in Japanese adults with no drinking habit, suggesting that periodontal disease is associated with liver function, independent of alcohol ingestion.

  8. PECAM-Independent Thioglycollate Peritonitis Is Associated With a Locus on Murine Chromosome 2

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Michael A.; Chew, Tina W.; Schenkel, Alan R.; Muller, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that knockout or inhibition of Platelet/Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (PECAM, CD31) in a number of murine strains results in impaired inflammatory responses, but that no such phenotype is seen in the C57BL/6 (B6) murine background. Methodology/Principal Findings We have undertaken a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping effort between FVB/n (FVB) and B6 mice deficient for PECAM to identify the gene or genes responsible for this unique feature of B6 mice. We have identified a locus on murine chromosome 2 at approximately 35.8 Mb that is strongly associated (LOD score = 9.0) with inflammatory responses in the absence of PECAM. Conclusions/Significance These data potentiate further study of the diapedesis machinery, as well as potential identification of new components of this machinery. As such, this study is an important step to better understanding the processes of inflammation. PMID:19180231

  9. The Dimension of Hyoid Bone Is Independently Associated with the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang Hyeon; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Cho, Hyung-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that the size of the hyoid bone itself may affect the severity of sleep apnea. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between hyoid bone dimensions and the severity of sleep apnea using computerized tomography (CT) axial images. Methods We retrospectively measured the hyoid bone in axial images of neck CTs and correlated these measurements with results of polysomnography in a total of 106 male patients. The new hyoid bone parameters studied in this study were as follows: distance between bilateral lesser horns (LH-d), distance between bilateral greater horns (GH-d), distance from the most anterior end of the hyoid arch to GH-d (AP), distance from the greater to the lesser horn on right and left sides (GH-LH), and the anterior angle between bilateral extensive lines from the greater to the lesser horn (H-angle). Data was analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, and Pearson correlation tests. Results We found a significant inverse correlation between the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and GH-d or AP. Neither the LH-d, GH-LH, nor H-angle were associated with the AHI. The patient group that met the criteria of both GH-d<45.4 and AP<33.4 demonstrated the most severe AHI. Conclusion The lateral width or antero-posterior length of hyoid bone was associated with AHI and predicted the severity of sleep apnea in male patients. This finding supports the role of expansion hyoidplasty for treatment of sleep apnea. Pre-operative consideration of these parameters may improve surgical outcomes in male patients with sleep apnea. PMID:24312562

  10. Endothelin receptor type B gene promoter hypermethylation in salivary rinses independently associates with risk of oral cavity cancer and premalignancy

    PubMed Central

    Pattani, Kavita Malhotra; Zhang, Zhe; Demokan, Semra; Glazer, Chad; Loyo, Myriam; Goodman, Steven; Sidransky, David; Bermudez, Francisco; Jean-Charles, Germain; McCaffrey, Thomas; Padhya, Tapan; Phelan, Joan; Spivakovsky, Silvia; Bowne, Helen Yoo; Goldberg, Judith D.; Rolnitzky, Linda; Robbins, Miriam; Kerr, A. Ross; Sirois, David; Califano, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) and kinesin family member 1A(KIF1A) are candidate tumor suppressor genes that are inactivated in cancers. In this study we evaluated promoter hypermethylation of EDNRB and KIF1A and their potential use for risk classification in prospectively collected salivary rinses from patients with premalignant/malignant oral cavity lesions. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR(Q-MSP) was performed analyzing methylation status of EDNRB and KIF1A in salivary rinses of 191 patients. We proceeded to determine the association of methylation status with histologic diagnosis and estimate classification accuracy. On univariate analysis, diagnosis of dysplasia/cancer was associated with age and KIF1A or EDNRB methylation. Methylation of EDNRB highly correlated with that of KIF1A(p<0.0001). On multivariable modeling, histologic diagnosis independently associated with EDNRB(p=0.0003) or KIF1A(p=0.027) methylation). A subset of patients analyzed (n=161) without prior biopsy proven malignancy received clinical risk classification based on examination. On univariate analysis, EDNRB and risk classification were associated with diagnosis of dysplasia/cancer, and remained significant on multivariate analysis (EDNRB:p=0.047, risk classification:p=0.008). Clinical risk classification identified dysplasia/cancer with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 58%. The sensitivity of clinical risk classification combined with EDNRB methylation improved to 75%. EDNRB methylation in salivary rinses was independently associated with histologic diagnosis of premalignancy and malignancy and may have potential in classifying patients at risk for oral premalignant and malignant lesions in settings without access to a skilled dental practitioner. This may also potentially identify patients with premalignant and malignant lesions that do not meet criteria for high clinical risk based on skilled dental examination. PMID:20798208

  11. Independent role for presynaptic FMRP revealed by an FMR1 missense mutation associated with intellectual disability and seizures.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Leila K; Deng, Pan-Yue; Hashimoto, Hideharu; Oh, Young Mi; Cho, Yongcheol; Poidevin, Mickael J; Suhl, Joshua A; Visootsak, Jeannie; Cavalli, Valeria; Jin, Peng; Cheng, Xiaodong; Warren, Stephen T; Klyachko, Vitaly A

    2015-01-27

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) results in intellectual disability (ID) most often caused by silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The resulting absence of fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMRP) leads to both pre- and postsynaptic defects, yet whether the pre- and postsynaptic functions of FMRP are independent and have distinct roles in FXS neuropathology remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate an independent presynaptic function for FMRP through the study of an ID patient with an FMR1 missense mutation. This mutation, c.413G > A (R138Q), preserves FMRP's canonical functions in RNA binding and translational regulation, which are traditionally associated with postsynaptic compartments. However, neuronally driven expression of the mutant FMRP is unable to rescue structural defects at the neuromuscular junction in fragile x mental retardation 1 (dfmr1)-deficient Drosophila, suggesting a presynaptic-specific impairment. Furthermore, mutant FMRP loses the ability to rescue presynaptic action potential (AP) broadening in Fmr1 KO mice. The R138Q mutation also disrupts FMRP's interaction with the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels that modulate AP width. These results reveal a presynaptic- and translation-independent function of FMRP that is linked to a specific subset of FXS phenotypes.

  12. Independent role for presynaptic FMRP revealed by an FMR1 missense mutation associated with intellectual disability and seizures

    PubMed Central

    Myrick, Leila K.; Deng, Pan-Yue; Hashimoto, Hideharu; Oh, Young Mi; Cho, Yongcheol; Poidevin, Mickael J.; Suhl, Joshua A.; Visootsak, Jeannie; Cavalli, Valeria; Jin, Peng; Cheng, Xiaodong; Warren, Stephen T.; Klyachko, Vitaly A.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) results in intellectual disability (ID) most often caused by silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The resulting absence of fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMRP) leads to both pre- and postsynaptic defects, yet whether the pre- and postsynaptic functions of FMRP are independent and have distinct roles in FXS neuropathology remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate an independent presynaptic function for FMRP through the study of an ID patient with an FMR1 missense mutation. This mutation, c.413G > A (R138Q), preserves FMRP’s canonical functions in RNA binding and translational regulation, which are traditionally associated with postsynaptic compartments. However, neuronally driven expression of the mutant FMRP is unable to rescue structural defects at the neuromuscular junction in fragile x mental retardation 1 (dfmr1)-deficient Drosophila, suggesting a presynaptic-specific impairment. Furthermore, mutant FMRP loses the ability to rescue presynaptic action potential (AP) broadening in Fmr1 KO mice. The R138Q mutation also disrupts FMRP’s interaction with the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels that modulate AP width. These results reveal a presynaptic- and translation-independent function of FMRP that is linked to a specific subset of FXS phenotypes. PMID:25561520

  13. Body Mass Changes Associated With Hyper-Gravity are Independent of Adrenal Derived Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Wang, Tommy J.; Baer, Lisa A.; Yuan, Fang; Fung, Cyra K.; Stein, T. Peter; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to hyper-gravity results in a number of metabolic changes associated with increases in catecholamines and corticosterone. These changes result in a loss of body and fat mass. To assess the role of hormones derived from the adrenal gland in the changes we studied sham operated (SO) and adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats exposed to hyper-gravity of 2 G for 14 days. Control groups at 1 G were also studied. Urinary epinephrine (EPI) and corticosterone (CORT) were reduced in ADX animals. In response to 2 G there was an increase in urinary EPI and CORT in SO rats, while levels were unchanged in ADX animals. Both groups of animals had similar increases in urinary norepinephrine levels. The reductions of body mass gain in response to 2 G were the same in both groups. The decrease in relative fat mass was greater in ADX. Energy intake and expenditure were not different between groups. In response of returning to 1 G for 24 hours and reexposure to hyper-gravity there were no differences between SO and ADX in the changes of food and water intake, body mass or activity. The changes in metabolism with exposure to hyper-gravity do not appear to require hormones derived from the adrenal gland. The increase in lypolysis and alterations body and fat mass appear to be modulated by sympathetically derived norepinehrine.

  14. Spectrin-dependent and -independent association of F-actin with the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C M; Foley, S F

    1980-08-01

    Binding of F-actin to spectrin-actin-depleted erythrocyte membrane inside-out vesicles was measured using [3H]F-actin. F-actin binding to vesicles at 25 degrees C was stimulated 5-10 fold by addition of spectrin dimers or tetramers to vesicles. Spectrin tetramer was twice as effective as dimer in stimulating actin binding, but neither tetramer nor dimer stimulated binding at 4 degrees C. The addition of purified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 to spectrin-reconstituted vesicles doubled their actin-binding capacity. Trypsinization of unreconstituted vesicles that contain < 10% of the spectrin but nearly all of the band 4.1, relative to ghosts, decreased their F-actin-binding capacity by 70%. Whereas little or none of the residual spectrin was affected by trypsinization, band 4.1 was significantly degraded. Our results show that spectrin can anchor actin filaments to the cytoplasmic surface of erythrocyte membranes and suggest that band 4.1 may be importantly involved in the association.

  15. Brain Activation Associated with Practiced Left Hand Mirror Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, T.; Arzouan, Y.; Karni, A.; Manor, D.

    2013-01-01

    Mirror writing occurs in healthy children, in various pathologies and occasionally in healthy adults. There are only scant experimental data on the underlying brain processes. Eight, right-handed, healthy young adults were scanned (BOLD-fMRI) before and after practicing left-hand mirror-writing (lh-MW) over seven sessions. They wrote dictated…

  16. High expression of PDGFR-β in prostate cancer stroma is independently associated with clinical and biochemical prostate cancer recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Nordby, Yngve; Richardsen, Elin; Rakaee, Mehrdad; Ness, Nora; Donnem, Tom; Patel, Hiten R. H.; Busund, Lill-Tove; Bremnes, Roy M.; Andersen, Sigve

    2017-01-01

    Due to a lack of sufficient diagnostic tools to predict aggressive disease, there is a significant overtreatment of patients with prostate cancer. Platelet derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) are key regulators of mesenchymal cells in the tumor microenvironment, and has been associated with unfavorable outcome in several other cancers. Herein, we aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of PDGFR-β and its ligands (PDGF-B and PDGF-D) in a multicenter prostatectomy cohort of 535 Norwegian patients. Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, the expression of ligands PDGF-B and PDGF-D and their corresponding receptor, PDGFR-β, was assessed in neoplastic tissue and tumor-associated stroma. PDGFR-β was expressed in benign and tumor associated stroma, but not in epithelium. High stromal expression of PDGFR-β was independently associated with clinical relapse (HR = 2.17, p = 0.010) and biochemical failure (HR = 1.58, p = 0.002). This large study highlights the prognostic importance of PDGFR-β expression, implicating its involvement in prostate cancer progression even in early stage disease. Hence, analyses of PDGFR-β may help distinguish which patients will benefit from radical treatment, and since PDGFR-β is associated with relapse and shorter survival, it mandates a focus as a therapeutic target. PMID:28233816

  17. Plasma homocysteine levels are independently associated with alterations of large artery stiffness in men but not in women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Li; Wu, Cai; Bai, Yong-Yi; Xiao, Wen-Kai; Feng, Dan; Ye, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the associations of the plasma homocysteine levels with the alterations in arterial stiffness in a community-based cohort. The gender differences in these associations were examined. Methods We evaluated the relationship between plasma homocysteine levels to three measures of vascular function [carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV), carotid-ankle PWV (CA-PWV) and heart rate corrected augmentation index (AI)] in 1680 participants (mean age: 61.5 years; 709 men, 971 women) from communities of Beijing, China. Results In univariate analysis, plasma homocysteine levels was positively related to the CF-PWV (r = 0.211, P < 0.0001) and CA-PWV (r = 0.148, P < 0.0001), whereas inversely associated with AI (r = −0.052, P = 0.016). In multiple linear regression models adjusting for covariants, plasma homocysteine remained positively related to the CF-PWV (standardized β = 0.065, P = 0.007) in total cases. When the groups of men and women were examined separately, plasma homocysteine remained positively associated with the CF-PWV (standardized β = 0.082, P = 0.023) in men, whereas the relations between homocysteine and any of the arterial stiffness indices were not further present in women. Conclusions In Chinese population, plasma homocysteine levels are independently associated with alterations of large artery stiffness in men but not in women. PMID:26089849

  18. Intensive practical lifestyle intervention improves endothelial function in metabolic syndrome independent of weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Beatriz G S; Polanczyk, Carisi A; Santos, Angela S B; Foppa, Murilo; Junges, Mauricio; Bonzanini, Laisa; Nicolaidis, Gabriela; Camey, Suzi; Lopes, André L; Sehl, Paulo; Duncan, Bruce B; Clausell, Nadine

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the metabolic and vascular effects of lifestyle interventions involving a healthy diet and either a moderate- or a high-intensity exercise regimen in nondiabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome. The effects of these interventions on flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and risk profiles were compared with a standard low-fat diet and engaging in daily walking (standard of care). Seventy-five healthy adults with metabolic syndrome (30-55 years old) were randomized to a 10,000-steps-a-day exercise program, a 3-times-a-week fitness (>75% peak VO(2)) program, or a 1-hour-walking-a-day program for 12 weeks. The first 2 interventions were combined with an accessible healthy, no-sugar diet; and the third was combined with a tailored low-fat diet. The outcomes, including FMD and risk factors, were examined at 12 weeks and at 1-year reassessment. Significant increase in FMD (mean difference = 1.51%, 95% confidence interval = 1.05%-3.017%, P = .0007) and decrease in arterial pressure (mean difference = 19.3 ± 2.3/-12.6 ± 1.8 mm Hg, P = .0001) were observed in all groups. However, the FMD changed most favorably in the high-intensity, low-sugar group (mean difference = 1.56%, 95% confidence interval = 0.1%-3.02%, P = .036). Significant improvements in body mass index, waist, insulin-like growth factor-1, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin, glucose, urinary albumin excretion, and lipid profiles occurred in all groups. Metabolic syndrome was resolved in 64%. One year later, weight loss (-9.1 ± 2.3 kg, P = .0001) and arterial pressure decrease (-18.5 ± 2.3/-12.3 ± 2.1 mm Hg, P = .0001) were maintained. Practical, health-centered diet combined with high-intensity exercise is associated with enhanced vascular protection. These data suggest that more intense exercise combined with a low-sugar diet modulates endothelium-dependent vasodilation.

  19. Pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure-variability is independently associated with all-cause mortality in incident haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Viknesh; Pasea, Laura; Ojha, Sanjay; Wilkinson, Ian B; Tomlinson, Laurie A

    2014-01-01

    Systolic blood pressure variability is an independent risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular events. Standard measures of blood pressure predict outcome poorly in haemodialysis patients. We investigated whether systolic blood pressure variability was associated with mortality in incident haemodialysis patients. We performed a longitudinal observational study of patients commencing haemodialysis between 2005 and 2011 in East Anglia, UK, excluding patients with cardiovascular events within 6 months of starting haemodialysis. The main exposure was variability independent of the mean (VIM) of systolic blood pressure from short-gap, pre-dialysis blood pressure readings between 3 and 6 months after commencing haemodialysis, and the outcome was all-cause mortality. Of 203 patients, 37 (18.2%) patients died during a mean follow-up of 2.0 (SD 1.3) years. The age and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.17) for a one-unit increase of VIM. This was not altered by adjustment for diabetes, prior cardiovascular disease and mean systolic blood pressure (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16). Patients with VIM of systolic blood pressure above the median were 2.4 (95% CI 1.17-4.74) times more likely to die during follow-up than those below the median. Results were similar for all measures of blood pressure variability and further adjustment for type of dialysis access, use of antihypertensives and absolute or variability of fluid intake did not alter these findings. Diastolic blood pressure variability showed no association with all cause mortality. Our study shows that variability of systolic blood pressure is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause mortality in incident haemodialysis patients. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism as this may form a therapeutic target or focus for management.

  20. TV viewing time is associated with increased all-cause mortality in Brazilian adults independent of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Turi, Bruna Camilo; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz; Ribeiro Lemes, Ítalo; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Lynch, Kyle Robinson; Asahi Mesquita, Camila Angélica; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2017-03-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between television (TV) viewing and all-cause mortality among Brazilian adults after six years of follow-up. This longitudinal study started in 2010 in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil, and involved 970 adults aged ≥ 50 years. Mortality was reported by relatives and confirmed in medical records of the Brazilian National Health System. Physical activity (PA) and TV viewing were assessed by the Baecke questionnaire. Health status, sociodemographic and behavioural covariates were considered as potential confounders. After six years of follow-up, 89 deaths were registered (9.2% [95%CI= 7.4% to 11%]). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with higher risk of mortality (p-value= 0.012). Deaths correlated significantly with age (rho= 0.188; p-value= 0.001), overall PA score (rho= -0.128; p-value= 0.001) and TV viewing (rho= 0.086; p-value= 0.007). Lower percentage of participants reported TV viewing time as often (16%) and very often (5.7%), but there was an association between higher TV viewing time ("often" and "very often" grouped together) and increased mortality after six years of follow-up (p-value= 0.006). The higher TV viewing time was associated with a 44.7% increase in all-cause mortality (HR= 1.447 [1.019 to 2.055]), independently of other potential confounders. In conclusion, the findings from this cohort study identified increased risk of mortality among adults with higher TV viewing time, independently of physical activity and other variables. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Real world navigation independence in the early blind correlates with differential brain activity associated with virtual navigation.

    PubMed

    Halko, Mark A; Connors, Erin C; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-06-01

    Navigating is a complex cognitive task that places high demands on spatial abilities, particularly in the absence of sight. Significant advances have been made in identifying the neural correlates associated with various aspects of this skill; however, how the brain is able to navigate in the absence of visual experience remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how neural network activity relates to the wide variability in navigational independence and skill in the blind population is also unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural correlates of audio-based navigation within a large scale, indoor virtual environment in early profoundly blind participants with differing levels of spatial navigation independence (assessed by the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale). Performing path integration tasks in the virtual environment was associated with activation within areas of a core network implicated in navigation. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scores and activation within right temporal parietal junction during the planning and execution phases of the task. These findings suggest that differential navigational ability in the blind may be related to the utilization of different brain network structures. Further characterization of the factors that influence network activity may have important implications regarding how this skill is taught in the blind community.

  2. Associating semantic grammars with the SNOMED: processing medical language and representing clinical facts into a language-independent frame.

    PubMed

    Do Amaral Marcio, B; Satomura, Y

    1995-01-01

    We describe one approach for natural language processing of medical texts that associates a semantic grammar with the SNOMED (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine). Our research hypothesis is that the combination of the nomenclature's declarative knowledge with a formal grammar would create a scientific sublanguage embedded with medical knowledge that could be used for analyzing and formatting medical texts. This combination permitted the abstraction of templates we call "semantic patterns." These patterns represent both linguistic and medical knowledge, packed into a hybrid information format. We analyzed manually case reports described in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) from 1985 to 1988 and extracted empirically a semantic grammar. Over 2,000 sentences were analyzed. About 160 structural semantic patterns were abstracted and included in the database of one parser. We tested the parser using reports from 1989 to 1990. Results show that this approach is efficient for processing, indexing, and structuring diverse parts of case reports narrative. The analyzed medical sentences are structured into a language-independent semantic frame format. We conclude that the association of semantic grammars with the SNOMED enabled the construction of a formal system for analysis and representation of clinical facts. The transformation of the structured information from its frame format into other representational schemes, like conceptual graphs, is straightforward. Another application includes the use of the formatted language-independent frame for telegraphic English-Japanese translations of medical sentences.

  3. Carotid Intima Media Thickness Is Independently Associated with Male Gender, Middle Age, and IGF-1 in Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hafez, Hala; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M; El-Baiomy, Azza A; El-Eshmawy, Mervat M

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. The effect of benign obesity on subclinical cardiovascular disease is still questionable. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and to evaluate its relation to age, sex, and IGF-1 in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects. Methods. A total of 75 MHO subjects and 80 age, and sex matched healthy nonobese control subjects were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and CIMT were assessed in all subjects. Results. MHO subjects had significantly higher CIMT and lower IGF-1 than healthy nonobese controls. Mean CIMT was significantly higher in MHO men age subgroup range from 30 to 50 years than in their age range matched (premenopausal) MHO women subgroup. In MHO subjects, CIMT was positively correlated with age, BMI, WC, SBP, HOMA-IR, TG, and LDL-C, and negatively correlated with IGF-1. Regression analysis revealed that middle age, male sex and IGF-1 remained independently associated with CIMT in MHO subjects. Conclusion. CIMT is elevated and IGF-1 is reduced in MHO subjects, and CIMT is independently associated with male gender, middle age, and IGF-1. Definition of healthy obesity may be broadened to include IMT measurement.

  4. Identification of predominant yeasts associated with artisan Mexican cocoa fermentations using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches.

    PubMed

    Arana-Sánchez, A; Segura-García, L E; Kirchmayr, M; Orozco-Ávila, I; Lugo-Cervantes, E; Gschaedler-Mathis, A

    2015-02-01

    The process of cocoa fermentation is a very important step for the generation or aromatic compounds, which are attributable to the metabolism of the microorganisms involved. There are some reports about this process and the identification of microorganisms; however, there are no reports identifying the yeasts involved in a Mexican cocoa fermentation process using molecular biology techniques, including restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The aim of this study was to identify the main yeast species associated with Mexican cocoa fermentations employing culture-dependent and -independent techniques achieving two samplings with a 1 year time difference at the same site. Isolation of the microorganisms was performed in situ. Molecular identification of yeast isolates was achieved by RFLP analysis and rDNA sequencing. Total DNA from the microorganisms on the cocoa beans was utilized for the DGGE analysis. Bands from the DGGE gels were excised and sequenced. Nineteen isolated yeasts were identified (al specie level), three of which had never before been associated with cocoa fermentations worldwide. The detected predominant yeast varied from one technique to another. Hanseniaspora sp. resulted dominant in DGGE however Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the principal isolated species. In conclusion, the culture-dependent and -independent techniques complement each other showing differences in the main yeasts involved in spontaneous cocoa fermentation, probably due to the physiological states of the viable but non culturable yeasts. Furthermore important differences between the species detected in the two samplings were detected.

  5. Carotid Intima Media Thickness Is Independently Associated with Male Gender, Middle Age, and IGF-1 in Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Hafez, Hala; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M.; El-Baiomy, Azza A.; El-Eshmawy, Mervat M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. The effect of benign obesity on subclinical cardiovascular disease is still questionable. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and to evaluate its relation to age, sex, and IGF-1 in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects. Methods. A total of 75 MHO subjects and 80 age, and sex matched healthy nonobese control subjects were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and CIMT were assessed in all subjects. Results. MHO subjects had significantly higher CIMT and lower IGF-1 than healthy nonobese controls. Mean CIMT was significantly higher in MHO men age subgroup range from 30 to 50 years than in their age range matched (premenopausal) MHO women subgroup. In MHO subjects, CIMT was positively correlated with age, BMI, WC, SBP, HOMA-IR, TG, and LDL-C, and negatively correlated with IGF-1. Regression analysis revealed that middle age, male sex and IGF-1 remained independently associated with CIMT in MHO subjects. Conclusion. CIMT is elevated and IGF-1 is reduced in MHO subjects, and CIMT is independently associated with male gender, middle age, and IGF-1. Definition of healthy obesity may be broadened to include IMT measurement. PMID:24616825

  6. Detection of Independent Associations of Plasma Lipidomic Parameters with Insulin Sensitivity Indices Using Data Mining Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Schuhmann, Kai; Xu, Aimin; Schulte, Klaus-Martin; Simeonovic, Charmaine J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Graessler, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Glucolipotoxicity is a major pathophysiological mechanism in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We aimed to detect subtle changes in the circulating lipid profile by shotgun lipidomics analyses and to associate them with four different insulin sensitivity indices. Methods The cross-sectional study comprised 90 men with a broad range of insulin sensitivity including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 33), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 32) and newly detected T2D (n = 25). Prior to oral glucose challenge plasma was obtained and quantitatively analyzed for 198 lipid molecular species from 13 different lipid classes including triacylglycerls (TAGs), phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen/ether (PC O-s), sphingomyelins (SMs), and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs). To identify a lipidomic signature of individual insulin sensitivity we applied three data mining approaches, namely least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Random Forests (RF) for the following insulin sensitivity indices: homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glucose insulin sensitivity index (GSI), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and disposition index (DI). The LASSO procedure offers a high prediction accuracy and and an easier interpretability than SVR and RF. Results After LASSO selection, the plasma lipidome explained 3% (DI) to maximal 53% (HOMA-IR) variability of the sensitivity indexes. Among the lipid species with the highest positive LASSO regression coefficient were TAG 54:2 (HOMA-IR), PC O- 32:0 (GSI), and SM 40:3:1 (ISI). The highest negative regression coefficient was obtained for LPC 22:5 (HOMA-IR), TAG 51:1 (GSI), and TAG 58:6 (ISI). Conclusion Although a substantial part of lipid molecular species showed a significant correlation with insulin sensitivity indices we were able to identify a limited number of lipid metabolites of particular importance based on the LASSO approach. These

  7. Independent association between socioeconomic indicators and macro- and micro-nutrient intake in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Guessous, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic differences in diet are rarely assessed with more than one indicator. We aimed to assess differences in macro- and micro-nutrient intake in both sexes according to education, income, and occupation. Methods We used data from validated food frequency questionnaire measured dietary intake in 5087 participants (2157 women) from yearly adult population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted from 2005 to 2012 in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland. We used two ANOVA models: age-adjusted and multivariable adjusted simultaneously for all three socioeconomic indicators. Results Low-education men consumed more calcium but less vitamin D than high-education men; low-income men consumed less total and animal protein (80.9±0.9 vs 84.0±0.6 g/d; 55.6±1.0 vs 59.5±0.7 g/d) and more total carbohydrates and sugars (246±2 vs 235±2 g/d; 108±2 vs 103±1 g/d) than high-income men. Occupation and diet showed no association. Low-education women consumed less vegetable protein (20.7±0.2 vs 21.6±0.2 g/d), fibre (15.7±0.3 vs 16.8±0.2 g/d), and carotene (4222±158 vs 4870±128 μg/d) than high-education women; low-income women consumed more total carbohydrates (206±2 vs 197±1 g/d) and less monounsaturated fat (27.7±0.4 vs 29.3±0.3 g/d) than high-income women. Finally, low-occupation women consumed more total energy (1792±27 vs 1714±15 kcal/d) and total carbohydrates (206±2 vs 200±1 g/d), but less saturated fat (23.0±0.3 vs 24.4±0.2 g/d), calcium (935±17 vs 997±10 mg/d) and vitamin D (2.5±0.1 vs 2.9±0.1 μg/d), than high-occupation women. Conclusion In Switzerland, the influence of socioeconomic factors on nutrient intake differs by sex; income and education, but not occupation, drive differences among men; among women, all three indicators seem to play a role. Interventions to reduce inequalities should consider the influence of education, income, and occupation in diet to be most effective. PMID:28369086

  8. Who practices yoga? A systematic review of demographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors associated with yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Park, Crystal L; Braun, Tosca; Siegel, Tamar

    2015-06-01

    Yoga has become increasingly popular in the US and around the world, yet because most yoga research is conducted as clinical trials or experiments, little is known about the characteristics and correlates of people who independently choose to practice yoga. We conducted a systematic review of this issue, identifying 55 studies and categorizing correlates of yoga practice into sociodemographics, psychosocial characteristics, and mental and physical well-being. Yoga use is greatest among women and those with higher socioeconomic status and appears favorably related to psychosocial factors such as coping and mindfulness. Yoga practice often relates to better subjective health and health behaviors but also with more distress and physical impairment. However, evidence is sparse and methodological limitations preclude drawing causal inferences. Nationally representative studies have minimally assessed yoga while studies with strong assessment of yoga practice (e.g., type, dose) are generally conducted with convenience samples. Almost all studies reviewed are cross-sectional and few control for potential confounding variables. We provide recommendations for future research to better understand the correlates of yoga practice.

  9. The association of punitive parenting practices and adolescent achievement.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sandra; Davis-Kean, Pamela E

    2015-12-01

    This article uses a nationally representative dataset to investigate the extent to which academic-related parenting practices and the home environment during middle childhood (ages 11-13) predict achievement in late adolescence (N = 486; age range: 16-18 years). Results from path analyses indicated that parental endorsement of punitive strategies (e.g., lecture, punish, restrict activities) in response to academic underperformance during middle school predict lower literacy and math achievement 5 years later. In contrast, more cognitively stimulating homes predict higher literacy and math achievement 5 years later. Parenting practices and the home environment indicators, however, did not predict changes in achievement. Socioeconomic and race and ethnicity differences in parenting were also found.

  10. Brain activation associated with practiced left hand mirror writing.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, T; Arzouan, Y; Karni, A; Manor, D

    2013-04-01

    Mirror writing occurs in healthy children, in various pathologies and occasionally in healthy adults. There are only scant experimental data on the underlying brain processes. Eight, right-handed, healthy young adults were scanned (BOLD-fMRI) before and after practicing left-hand mirror-writing (lh-MW) over seven sessions. They wrote dictated words, using either the right hand with regularly oriented writing or lh-MW. An MRI compatible stylus-point recording system was used and online visual feedback was provided. Practice resulted in increased speed and readability of lh-MW but the number of movement segments was unchanged. Post-training signal increases occurred in visual, right lateral and medial premotor areas, and in right anterior and posterior peri-sylvian areas corresponding to language areas. These results suggest that lh-MW may constitute a latent ability that can be reinstated by a relatively brief practice experience. Concurrently, right hemisphere language processing areas may emerge, reflecting perhaps a reduction in trans-hemispheric suppression.

  11. Grassland birds associated with agricultural riparian practices in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renfrew, R.B.; Ribic, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Rotational grazing has been proposed as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for minimizing runoff in Wisconsin agricultural riparian areas. The influence of this land management practice on grassland birds has not been evaluated in relation to more traditional agricultural land management systems in Midwestern riparian areas. This study compared the grassland bird community in riparian areas in Wisconsin that were rotationally grazed to 2 common land use practices along streams in Wisconsin: continuously grazed pastures and rowcrop fields with 10-m-wide ungrazed buffer strips located along the stream. We calculated total number of birds, the Berger-Parker Index of Dominance, and number of birds ha-1 for each site. Vegetation variables used were height-density, litter depth, and percent bare ground. Bird species richness, species dominance, and density did not differ among land use types. In contrast, grassland bird species of management concern [Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis Gmelin), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna L.), and Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus L.)] were found on continuous and rotational pastures but very rarely or never occurred on buffer strips. Contrary to previous research, however, rotationally grazed pastures did not support more of these species than continuously grazed pastures. Bird density was related to vegetation structure, with higher densities found on sites with deeper litter. Within the pasture land use types, there were no consistent differences between species richness and density near the stream (10 m).

  12. A practical guide to environmental association analysis in landscape genomics.

    PubMed

    Rellstab, Christian; Gugerli, Felix; Eckert, Andrew J; Hancock, Angela M; Holderegger, Rolf

    2015-09-01

    Landscape genomics is an emerging research field that aims to identify the environmental factors that shape adaptive genetic variation and the gene variants that drive local adaptation. Its development has been facilitated by next-generation sequencing, which allows for screening thousands to millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms in many individuals and populations at reasonable costs. In parallel, data sets describing environmental factors have greatly improved and increasingly become publicly accessible. Accordingly, numerous analytical methods for environmental association studies have been developed. Environmental association analysis identifies genetic variants associated with particular environmental factors and has the potential to uncover adaptive patterns that are not discovered by traditional tests for the detection of outlier loci based on population genetic differentiation. We review methods for conducting environmental association analysis including categorical tests, logistic regressions, matrix correlations, general linear models and mixed effects models. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches, provide a list of dedicated software packages and their specific properties, and stress the importance of incorporating neutral genetic structure in the analysis. We also touch on additional important aspects such as sampling design, environmental data preparation, pooled and reduced-representation sequencing, candidate-gene approaches, linearity of allele-environment associations and the combination of environmental association analyses with traditional outlier detection tests. We conclude by summarizing expected future directions in the field, such as the extension of statistical approaches, environmental association analysis for ecological gene annotation, and the need for replication and post hoc validation studies.

  13. Multiple independent variants at the TERT locus are associated with telomere length and risks of breast and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bojesen, Stig E; Pooley, Karen A; Johnatty, Sharon E; Beesley, Jonathan; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Edwards, Stacey L; Pickett, Hilda A; Shen, Howard C; Smart, Chanel E; Hillman, Kristine M; Mai, Phuong L; Lawrenson, Kate; Stutz, Michael D; Lu, Yi; Karevan, Rod; Woods, Nicholas; Johnston, Rebecca L; French, Juliet D; Chen, Xiaoqing; Weischer, Maren; Nielsen, Sune F; Maranian, Melanie J; Ghoussaini, Maya; Ahmed, Shahana; Baynes, Caroline; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Healey, Sue; Lush, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Françis; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Despierre, Evelyn; Risch, Harvey A; González-Neira, Anna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Pita, Guillermo; Doherty, Jennifer A; Álvarez, Nuria; Larson, Melissa C; Fridley, Brooke L; Schoof, Nils; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cicek, Mine S; Peto, Julian; Kalli, Kimberly R; Broeks, Annegien; Armasu, Sebastian M; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Braaf, Linde M; Winterhoff, Boris; Nevanlinna, Heli; Konecny, Gottfried E; Lambrechts, Diether; Rogmann, Lisa; Guénel, Pascal; Teoman, Attila; Milne, Roger L; Garcia, Joaquin J; Cox, Angela; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Hein, Rebecca; Sawyer, Elinor J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Andrulis, Irene L; Moysich, Kirsten B; Hopper, John L; Odunsi, Kunle; Lindblom, Annika; Giles, Graham G; Brenner, Hermann; Simard, Jacques; Lurie, Galina; Fasching, Peter A; Carney, Michael E; Radice, Paolo; Wilkens, Lynne R; Swerdlow, Anthony; Goodman, Marc T; Brauch, Hiltrud; García-Closas, Montserrat; Hillemanns, Peter; Winqvist, Robert; Dürst, Matthias; Devilee, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Butzow, Ralf; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Dörk, Thilo; Pelttari, Liisa M; Zheng, Wei; Leminen, Arto; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bunker, Clareann H; Kristensen, Vessela; Ness, Roberta B; Muir, Kenneth; Edwards, Robert; Meindl, Alfons; Heitz, Florian; Matsuo, Keitaro; du Bois, Andreas; Wu, Anna H; Harter, Philipp; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Hosono, Satoyo; Kang, Daehee; Nakanishi, Toru; Hartman, Mikael; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hamann, Ute; Karlan, Beth Y; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Gaborieau, Valerie; Jensen, Allan; Eccles, Diana; Høgdall, Estrid; Shen, Chen-Yang; Brown, Judith; Woo, Yin Ling; Shah, Mitul; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Luben, Robert; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Czene, Kamila; Vierkant, Robert A; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Levine, Douglas A; Rudolph, Anja; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Iversen, Edwin; Nickels, Stefan; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Silva, Isabel Dos Santos; Cramer, Daniel W; Gibson, Lorna; Terry, Kathryn L; Fletcher, Olivia; Vitonis, Allison F; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Poole, Elizabeth M; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Tworoger, Shelley S; Liu, Jianjun; Bandera, Elisa V; Li, Jingmei; Olson, Sara H; Humphreys, Keith; Orlow, Irene; Blomqvist, Carl; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Salvesen, Helga B; Muranen, Taru A; Wik, Elisabeth; Brouwers, Barbara; Krakstad, Camilla; Wauters, Els; Halle, Mari K; Wildiers, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Mulot, Claire; Aben, Katja K; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; van Altena, Anne M; Truong, Thérèse; Massuger, Leon F A G; Benitez, Javier; Pejovic, Tanja; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Hoatlin, Maureen; Zamora, M Pilar; Cook, Linda S; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Kelemen, Linda E; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Le, Nhu D; Sohn, Christof; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Cybulski, Cezary; Henderson, Brian E; Menkiszak, Janusz; Schumacher, Fredrick; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Marchand, Loic Le; Yang, Hannah P; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Knight, Julia A; Høgdall, Claus K; Apicella, Carmel; Gore, Martin; Tsimiklis, Helen; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Jager, Agnes; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Brown, Robert; Martens, John W M; Flanagan, James M; Kriege, Mieke; Paul, James; Margolin, Sara; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Severi, Gianluca; Whittemore, Alice S; Baglietto, Laura; McGuire, Valerie; Stegmaier, Christa; Sieh, Weiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Labrèche, France; Gao, Yu-Tang; Goldberg, Mark S; Yang, Gong; Dumont, Martine; McLaughlin, John R; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Phelan, Catherine M; Lux, Michael P; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Peissel, Bernard; Sellers, Thomas A; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Barile, Monica; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Jones, Michael; Ramus, Susan J; Orr, Nick; Menon, Usha; Pearce, Celeste L; Brüning, Thomas; Pike, Malcolm C; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Pylkäs, Katri; Bidzinski, Mariusz; Kauppila, Saila; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Long, Jirong; Shrubsole, Martha; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Ditsch, Nina; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Stram, Daniel O; van den Berg, David; Yip, Cheng Har; Ikram, M Kamran; Teh, Yew-Ching; Cai, Hui; Lu, Wei; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Noh, Dong-Young; Yoo, Keun-Young; Miao, Hui; Iau, Philip Tsau-Choong; Teo, Yik Ying; McKay, James; Shapiro, Charles; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Fountzilas, George; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Healey, Catherine S; Luccarini, Craig; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Peterlongo, Paolo; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F; Friedman, Eitan; Thomassen, Mads; Offit, Kenneth; Hansen, Thomas V O; Neuhausen, Susan L; Szabo, Csilla I; Blanco, Ignacio; Garber, Judy; Narod, Steven A; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Montagna, Marco; Olah, Edith; Godwin, Andrew K; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Goldgar, David E; Caldes, Trinidad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Tihomirova, Laima; Arun, Banu K; Campbell, Ian; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; van Asperen, Christi J; van Roozendaal, Kees E P; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Collée, J Margriet; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Hooning, Maartje J; Rookus, Matti A; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Os, Theo A M; Evans, D Gareth; Frost, Debra; Fineberg, Elena; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M John; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Ellis, Steve D; Cole, Trevor; Paillerets, Brigitte Bressac-de; Buecher, Bruno; Damiola, Francesca; Faivre, Laurence; Frenay, Marc; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Caron, Olivier; Giraud, Sophie; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Gronwald, Jacek; Byrski, Tomasz; Spurdle, Amanda B; Bonanni, Bernardo; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Giannini, Giuseppe; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Arnold, Norbert; Engel, Christoph; Deissler, Helmut; Rhiem, Kerstin; Niederacher, Dieter; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Sutter, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Borg, Åke; Melin, Beatrice; Rantala, Johanna; Soller, Maria; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Salani, Ritu; Kaulich, Daphne Gschwantler; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Paluch, Shani Shimon; Laitman, Yael; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Robson, Mark; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Foretova, Lenka; Savage, Sharon A; Lester, Jenny; Soucy, Penny; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Olswold, Curtis; Cunningham, Julie M; Slager, Susan; Pankratz, Vernon S; Dicks, Ed; Lakhani, Sunil R; Couch, Fergus J; Hall, Per; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Reddel, Roger R; Goode, Ellen L; Greene, Mark H; Easton, Douglas F; Berchuck, Andrew; Antoniou, Antonis C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    TERT-locus single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and leucocyte telomere measures are reportedly associated with risks of multiple cancers. Using the iCOGs chip, we analysed ~480 TERT-locus SNPs in breast (n=103,991), ovarian (n=39,774) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (11,705) cancer cases and controls. 53,724 participants have leucocyte telomere measures. Most associations cluster into three independent peaks. Peak 1 SNP rs2736108 minor allele associates with longer telomeres (P=5.8×10−7), reduced estrogen receptor negative (ER-negative) (P=1.0×10−8) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P=1.1×10−5) breast cancer risks, and altered promoter-assay signal. Peak 2 SNP rs7705526 minor allele associates with longer telomeres (P=2.3×10−14), increased low malignant potential ovarian cancer risk (P=1.3×10−15) and increased promoter activity. Peak 3 SNPs rs10069690 and rs2242652 minor alleles increase ER-negative (P=1.2×10−12) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P=1.6×10−14) breast and invasive ovarian (P=1.3×10−11) cancer risks, but not via altered telomere length. The cancer-risk alleles of rs2242652 and rs10069690 respectively increase silencing and generate a truncated TERT splice-variant. PMID:23535731

  14. In Systemic Sclerosis, Anxiety and Depression Assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale Are Independently Associated with Disability and Psychological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, Angela; Mikhaylova, Svetlana; Baccini, Marco; Lupi, Ilaria; Matucci Cerinic, Marco; Maddali Bongi, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV), hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening) and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening), global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT). Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (P = 0.001). HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (P < 0.05). By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (P < 0.001), RSES (P < 0.001), and MHISS total score (P = 0.016), together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (P = 0.006), COPE-NIV SA (P = 0.003), COPE-NIV SS (P = 0.008), FACIT-F (P = 0.022), and MHISS mouth opening (P = 0.029), explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms. PMID:23984376

  15. Estimated Aortic Stiffness is Independently Associated with Cardiac Baroreflex Sensitivity in Humans: Role of Aging and Habitual Endurance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Gary L.; Harris, Stephen A.; Seals, Douglas R.; Casey, Darren P.; Barlow, Patrick B.; Stauss, Harald M.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that differences in cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) would be independently associated with aortic stiffness and augmentation index (AI), clinical biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, among young sedentary and middle-aged/older sedentary and endurance-trained adults. A total of 36 healthy middle-aged/older (age 55-76 years, n=22 sedentary; n=14 endurance-trained) and 5 young sedentary (age 18-31 years) adults were included in a cross-sectional study. A subset of the middle-aged/older sedentary adults (n=12) completed an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention. Invasive brachial artery blood pressure waveforms were used to compute spontaneous cardiac BRS (via sequence technique) and estimated aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and AI (AI, via brachial-aortic transfer function and wave separation analysis). In the cross-sectional study, cardiac BRS was 71% lower in older compared with young sedentary adults (P<0.05), but only 40% lower in older adults who performed habitual endurance exercise (P=0.03). In a regression model that included age, sex, resting heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), body mass index and maximal exercise oxygen uptake, estimated aortic PWV (β±SE = −5.76 ± 2.01, P=0.01) was the strongest predictor of BRS (Model R2=0.59, P<0.001). The 8 week exercise intervention improved BRS by 38% (P=0.04) and this change in BRS was associated with improved aortic PWV (r=−0.65, P=0.044, adjusted for changes in MAP). Age- and endurance exercise-related differences in cardiac BRS are independently associated with corresponding alterations in aortic PWV among healthy adults, consistent with a mechanistic link between variations in the sensitivity of the baroreflex and aortic stiffness with age and exercise. PMID:26911535

  16. Independent associations of exposure to evening light and nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion with diabetes in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Junko; Ikada, Yoshito; Kurumatani, Norio

    2014-04-01

    Circadian misalignment between internal and environmental rhythms dysregulates glucose homeostasis because of disruption of the biological clock, and increases risk of diabetes. Although exposure to evening light and decreased melatonin secretion are both associated with the circadian misalignment, it remains unclear whether they are associated with diabetes. In this cross-sectional study on 513 elderly individuals (mean age, 72.7 years), we measured ambulatory light intensity during the 4 h prior to bedtime at 1-min intervals during two consecutive days and overnight urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion (UME) along with glucose metabolism. The median average intensity of evening light exposure and UME were 25.4 lux (interquartile range 17.5-37.6) and 6.6 μg (interquartile range 3.9-9.7), respectively. Both log-transformed average intensity of evening light exposure and log-transformed UME were significantly associated with diabetes in a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for covariates, including gender, body mass index, duration in bed, and night-time light exposure [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.64; p = 0.01; and adjusted OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.97; p = 0.04; respectively]. An increase in evening light exposure from 17.5 to 37.6 lux (25-75th percentiles) was associated with a 51.2% (95% CI, 8.2-111.4%) increase in prevalent diabetes, and an increase in UME from 3.9 to 9.7 μg (25-75th percentiles) was associated with a 32.0% (95% CI, 1.9-52.8%) decrease in prevalent diabetes. In conclusion, this study in elderly individuals demonstrated that evening light exposure in home settings and UME were significantly and independently associated with diabetes.

  17. Associations between motor timing, music practice, and intelligence studied in a large sample of twins.

    PubMed

    Ullén, Fredrik; Mosing, Miriam A; Madison, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Music performance depends critically on precise processing of time. A common model behavior in studies of motor timing is isochronous serial interval production (ISIP), that is, hand/finger movements with a regular beat. ISIP accuracy is related to both music practice and intelligence. Here we present a study of these associations in a large twin cohort, demonstrating that the effects of music practice and intelligence on motor timing are additive, with no significant multiplicative (interaction) effect. Furthermore, the association between music practice and motor timing was analyzed with the use of a co-twin control design using intrapair differences. These analyses revealed that the phenotypic association disappeared when all genetic and common environmental factors were controlled. This suggests that the observed association may not reflect a causal effect of music practice on ISIP performance but rather reflect common influences (e.g., genetic effects) on both outcomes. The relevance of these findings for models of practice and expert performance is discussed.

  18. Low SGK1 Expression in Human Adrenocortical Tumors Is Associated with ACTH-Independent Glucocorticoid Secretion and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Sbiera, Silviu; Leich, Ellen; Tissier, Frédérique; Steinhauer, Sonja; Deutschbein, Timo; Fassnacht, Martin; Allolio, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Context: Using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, we observed allelic loss of the gene for serum glucocorticoid (GC) kinase 1 (SGK1), a GC-responsive kinase involved in multiple cellular functions, in a subset of cortisol-secreting adenomas. Objective: Our objective was to analyze SGK1 expression in adrenocortical tumors and to further characterize its role in ACTH-independent cortisol secretion, tumor progression, and prognosis. Design and Setting: Gene expression levels of SGK1, SGK3, and CTNNB1 (coding for β-catenin) and protein expression levels of SGK1, nuclear β-catenin, and phosphorylated AKT were determined in adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenal glands. Patients: A total of 227 adrenocortical tumors (40 adenomas and 187 carcinomas) and 25 normal adrenal tissues were included. Among them, 62 frozen tumor samples were used for mRNA analysis and 203 tumors were investigated on tissue microarrays or full standard slides by immunohistochemistry. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated the relationship between SGK1 mRNA and/or protein levels and clinical parameters. Results: SGK1 mRNA levels were lower in cortisol-secreting than in nonsecreting tumors (P < 0.005). Nonsecreting neoplasias showed a significant correlation between SGK1 and CTNNB1 mRNA levels (P < 0.001; r = 0.57). Low SGK1 protein levels, but not nuclear β-catenin and phosphorylated AKT, were associated with poor overall survival in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (P < 0.005; hazard ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.24–3.24), independent of tumor stage and GC secretion. Conclusion: Low SGK1 expression is related to ACTH-independent cortisol secretion in adrenocortical tumors and is a new prognostic factor in adrenocortical carcinoma. PMID:23055545

  19. Biochemical hyperandrogenism is associated with metabolic syndrome independently of adiposity and insulin resistance in Romanian polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Albu, Alice; Radian, Serban; Fica, Simona; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether Romanian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to study the involvement of adiposity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in the pathogenesis of MetS in PCOS. A total of 398 PCOS patients and 126 controls were evaluated between January 2006 and December 2012. MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the correlations among variables of interest by grouping them in few components, and principal component (PCs) scores were saved and used as independent variables in logistic regression. The prevalence of MetS was higher among patients with PCOS (20.4 %) than in controls (11.1 %, p < 0.05). In PCOS patients, PCA extracted three PCs from the analyzed variables. First PC aggregated variables related to adiposity and insulin resistance, with factor loadings showing strong relationship between these parameters. The second PC included markers of hyperandrogenemia and was best represented by free androgen index (FAI) which correlated strongly and exclusively with this PC. The third component was best represented by hirsutism. Logistic regression analysis revealed that in PCOS patients, the first and the second PCs were independently associated with MetS, whereas the third component was not. Romanian PCOS patients have an increased risk for MetS; adiposity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia, but not hirsutism, are independent predictors of MetS presence. Our data also suggest that insulin resistance is only secondary to increased adiposity and FAI is a good marker of biochemical hyperandrogenism with little influences from the metabolic component.

  20. Cancer Survivors’ Health Worries and Associations with Lifestyle Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Lipkus, Isaac M.; Sloane, Richard; Kraus, William E.; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Peterson, Bercedis; Jones, Lee W.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined among recently diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors (N = 678) associations between worry about a future diagnosis of heart disease or cancer and hypothetical and actual adherence to exercise and dietary guidelines. Greater worry about future illness was reported under the hypothetical scenario of non-adherence to guidelines relative to the scenario of adherence. Worry about potential heart disease was associated with actual adherence to guidelines, whereas worry about a potential cancer diagnosis was not. Findings suggest that the motivational properties of worry should be considered when developing interventions to reduce heart disease risk among cancer survivors. PMID:18987083

  1. Variability of doublecortin-associated dendrite maturation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis is independent of the regulation of precursor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Plümpe, Tobias; Ehninger, Dan; Steiner, Barbara; Klempin, Friederike; Jessberger, Sebastian; Brandt, Moritz; Römer, Benedikt; Rodriguez, Gerardo Ramirez; Kronenberg, Golo; Kempermann, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Background In the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis most regulation takes place during the phase of doublecortin (DCX) expression, either as pro-proliferative effect on precursor cells or as survival-promoting effect on postmitotic cells. We here obtained quantitative data about the proliferative population and the dynamics of postmitotic dendrite development during the period of DCX expression. The question was, whether any indication could be obtained that the initiation of dendrite development is timely bound to the exit from the cell cycle. Alternatively, the temporal course of morphological maturation might be subject to additional regulatory events. Results We found that (1) 20% of the DCX population were precursor cells in cell cycle, whereas more than 70% were postmitotic, (2) the time span until newborn cells had reached the most mature stage associated with DCX expression varied between 3 days and several weeks, (3) positive or negative regulation of precursor cell proliferation did not alter the pattern and dynamics of dendrite development. Dendrite maturation was largely independent of close contacts to astrocytes. Conclusion These data imply that dendrite maturation of immature neurons is initiated at varying times after cell cycle exit, is variable in duration, and is controlled independently of the regulation of precursor cell proliferation. We conclude that in addition to the major regulatory events in cell proliferation and selective survival, additional micro-regulatory events influence the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:17105671

  2. Practical method for targeted disruption of cilia-related genes by using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology-independent knock-in system.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yohei; Michisaka, Saki; Nozaki, Shohei; Funabashi, Teruki; Hirano, Tomoaki; Takei, Ryota; Nakayama, Kazuhisa

    2017-02-08

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has revolutionized genome editing in virtually all organisms. Although the CRISPR/Cas9 system enables the targeted cleavage of genomic DNA, its use for gene knock-in remains challenging because levels of homologous recombination activity vary among various cells. In contrast, the efficiency of homology-independent DNA repair is relatively high in most cell types. Therefore, the utilization of a homology-independent repair mechanism is a possible alternative for efficient genome editing. Here, we constructed a donor knock-in vector optimized for the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and developed a practical system that enables efficient disruption of target genes by exploiting homology-independent repair. Using this practical knock-in system, we successfully disrupted genes encoding proteins involved ciliary protein trafficking, including IFT88 and IFT20, in hTERT-RPE1 cells, which have low homologous recombination activity. The most critical concern using the CRISPR/Cas9 system is off-target cleavage. To reduce the off-target cleavage frequency and to increase the versatility of our knock-in system, we further constructed a universal donor vector and an expression vector containing Cas9 with enhanced specificity and tandem sgRNA expression cassettes. We demonstrated that the second version of our system has improved usability.

  3. Lack of association between alcohol-dependence and D3 dopamine receptor gene in three independent samples

    SciTech Connect

    Gorwood, P.; Feingold, J.; Ades, J.

    1995-12-18

    Numerous studies on the involvement of dopamine receptors in the genetics of alcoholism focused on associations between a polymorphism of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene and alcohol dependence. However, the results of these studies are conflicting. Another receptor, the D3 dopamine receptor (DRD3), may be of additional interest since it is specifically located in the limbic area, and in particular in the nucleus accumbens which plays a significant role in the reward process of addiction behavior. We thus tested the association in three independent samples of alcoholic patients, with different origins and various inclusion criteria. No difference in the DRD3 gene polymorphism emerged between controls and alcoholic patients, regardless of their origin, inclusion criteria, or presence or absence of the DRD2 TaqI A1-allele. Despite the fact that more information could have been considered and that association studies provide limited information, there is good evidence that this DRD3 polymorphism does not play a major role in the genetic component of alcoholism. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Genome-wide association study of prostate-specific antigen levels identifies novel loci independent of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Passarelli, Michael N.; Graff, Rebecca E.; Emami, Nima C.; Sakoda, Lori C.; Jorgenson, Eric; Habel, Laurel A.; Shan, Jun; Ranatunga, Dilrini K.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Chao, Chun R.; Ghai, Nirupa R.; Aaronson, David; Presti, Joseph; Nordström, Tobias; Wang, Zhaoming; Berndt, Sonja I.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Mosley, Jonathan D.; Klein, Robert J.; Middha, Mridu; Lilja, Hans; Melander, Olle; Kvale, Mark N.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Witte, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels have been used for detection and surveillance of prostate cancer (PCa). However, factors other than PCa—such as genetics—can impact PSA. Here we present findings from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PSA in 28,503 Kaiser Permanente whites and 17,428 men from replication cohorts. We detect 40 genome-wide significant (P<5 × 10−8) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): 19 novel, 15 previously identified for PSA (14 of which were also PCa-associated), and 6 previously identified for PCa only. Further analysis incorporating PCa cases suggests that at least half of the 40 SNPs are PSA-associated independent of PCa. The 40 SNPs explain 9.5% of PSA variation in non-Hispanic whites, and the remaining GWAS SNPs explain an additional 31.7%; this percentage is higher in younger men, supporting the genetic basis of PSA levels. These findings provide important information about genetic markers for PSA that may improve PCa screening, thereby reducing over-diagnosis and over-treatment. PMID:28139693

  5. Associations between Otolaryngology Applicant Characteristics and Future Performance in Residency or Practice: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Sarah N; Laury, Adrienne M; Gray, Stacey T

    2017-03-01

    Objective This systematic review aims to evaluate which applicant characteristics available to an otolaryngology selection committee are associated with future performance in residency or practice. Data Sources PubMed, Scopus, ERIC, Health Business, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and SocINDEX. Review Methods Study eligibility was performed by 2 independent investigators in accordance with the PRISMA protocol (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses). Data obtained from each article included research questions, study design, predictors, outcomes, statistical analysis, and results/findings. Study bias was assessed with the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool. Results The initial search identified 439 abstracts. Six articles fulfilled all inclusion and exclusion criteria. All studies were retrospective cohort studies (level 4). Overall, the studies yielded relatively few criteria that correlated with residency success, with generally conflicting results. Most studies were found to have a high risk of bias. Conclusion Previous resident selection research has lacked a theoretical background, thus predisposing this work to inconsistent results and high risk of bias. The included studies provide historical insight into the predictors and criteria (eg, outcomes) previously deemed pertinent by the otolaryngology field. Additional research is needed, possibly integrating aspects of personnel selection, to engage in an evidence-based approach to identify highly qualified candidates who will succeed as future otolaryngologists.

  6. Two-stage association study in Chinese Han identifies two independent associations in CCR1/CCR3 locus as candidate for Behçet's disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shengping; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Fuzhen; Jiang, Zhengxuan; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2012-12-01

    Previous GWAS studies from Turkey suggested a potential risk locus at CCR1/CCR3 for Behçet's disease. However, this locus did not reach the GWAS significance threshold and has not yet been examined in other ethnic populations. The current study aimed to explore whether this locus was associated with Behçet's disease in Chinese Han and the functional role of the identified variants. A two-stage association study was performed in 653 patients and 1,685 controls using the iPLEX system. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the expression level of CCR1 and CCR3 genes. Haplotype analysis was used to construct the haplotype block. Logistic regression analysis was applied to calculate the independence of multiple associations. Bonferroni correction was applied to account for multiple testing. First stage analysis showed that ten SNPs, located in 3'UTR, 5'UTR in CCR1 or 5'UTR in CCR3, were significantly associated with Behçet's disease (P(c) = 0.018 to 1.3 × 10(-3)). The associations of six SNPs within this locus are independent after control for the genetic effect of rs17282391 using logistic regression analysis. Haplotype analysis identified three associated haplotypes: H3 (GTGAC), H6 (CCATTA) and H9 (CGA) (P(c) = 0.04 to 7.79 × 10(-4)). Three SNPs rs13084057, rs13092160 and rs13075270 showed consistent association in replication and combining studies (replication P(c) = 5.31 × 10(-5) to 1.44 × 10(-5); combining P(c) = 2.76 × 10(-7) to 6.50 × 10(-8)). Interestingly, eQTLs database reveals that SNP rs13092160 is eQTLs SNP, suggesting that this SNP is likely to be functional SNP that directly affects gene expression. The expression of CCR1 and CCR3 was increased in individuals with the CT genotype of rs13092160 (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found for the mRNA level of CCR1 and CCR3 between Behçet's patients and controls. These findings strongly indicate CCR1/CCR3 as a novel locus underlying Behçet's disease.

  7. Age-related telomere uncapping is associated with cellular senescence and inflammation independent of telomere shortening in human arteries.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Richard G; Ives, Stephen J; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, R Dirk; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2013-07-15

    Arterial telomere dysfunction may contribute to chronic arterial inflammation by inducing cellular senescence and subsequent senescence-associated inflammation. Although telomere shortening has been associated with arterial aging in humans, age-related telomere uncapping has not been described in non-cultured human tissues and may have substantial prognostic value. In skeletal muscle feed arteries from 104 younger, middle-aged, and older adults, we assessed the potential role of age-related telomere uncapping in arterial inflammation. Telomere uncapping, measured by p-histone γ-H2A.X (ser139) localized to telomeres (chromatin immunoprecipitation; ChIP), and telomeric repeat binding factor 2 bound to telomeres (ChIP) was greater in arteries from older adults compared with those from younger adults. There was greater tumor suppressor protein p53 (P53)/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (P21)-induced senescence, measured by P53 bound to P21 gene promoter (ChIP), and greater expression of P21, interleukin 8, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 mRNA (RT-PCR) in arteries from older adults compared with younger adults. Telomere uncapping was a highly influential covariate for the age-group difference in P53/P21-induced senescence. Despite progressive age-related telomere shortening in human arteries, mean telomere length was not associated with telomere uncapping or P53/P21-induced senescence. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that advancing age is associated with greater telomere uncapping in arteries, which is linked to P53/P21-induced senescence independent of telomere shortening.

  8. Are social organizational factors independently associated with a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection among urban adolescents and young adults?

    PubMed

    Jennings, Jacky M; Hensel, Devon J; Tanner, Amanda E; Reilly, Meredith L; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2014-10-01

    This study explored the relationship between the social organization of neighborhoods including informal social control and social cohesion and a current bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among adolescents and young adults in one U.S. urban setting. Data for the current study were collected from April 2004 to April 2007 in a cross-sectional household study. The target population included English-speaking, sexually-active persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years who resided in 486 neighborhoods. The study sample included 599 participants from 63 neighborhoods. A current bacterial STI was defined as diagnosis of a chlamydia and/or gonorrhea infection at the time of study participation. Participants reported on informal social control (i.e. scale comprised of 9 items) and social cohesion (i.e. scale comprised of 5 items) in their neighborhood. In a series of weighted multilevel logistic regression models stratified by gender, greater informal social control was significantly associated with a decreased odds of a current bacterial STI among females (AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34, 0.84) after controlling for individual social support and other factors. The association, while in a similar direction, was not significant for males (AOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.48, 1.12). Social cohesion was not significantly associated with a current bacterial STI among females (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.61, 1.19) and separately, males (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.67, 1.44). Greater individual social support was associated with an almost seven-fold increase in the odds of a bacterial STI among males (AOR 6.85, 95% CI 1.99, 23.53), a finding which is in contrast to our hypotheses. The findings suggest that neighborhood social organizational factors such as informal social control have an independent relationship with sexual health among U.S. urban youth. The causality of the relationship remains to be determined.

  9. Antagonizing the different stages of kappa opioid receptor activation selectively and independently attenuates acquisition and consolidation of associative memories.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ryan; Chau, Lily; Aijaz, Ali; Wu, Kevin; Galvez, Roberto

    2017-04-14

    Previous work from our laboratory has shown that nonspecific kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonism in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) can inhibit acquisition for the forebrain-dependent associative task, Whisker-Trace Eyeblink conditioning (WTEB). Although studies have demonstrated that KOR activation can alter stimuli salience, our studies controlled for these factors, demonstrating that KOR also plays a role in facilitating learning. KOR has two distinct phases of activation followed by internalization/downregulation, that each independently activate kinases and transcription factors known to mediate task acquisition and memory consolidation respectively. The current study demonstrated that antagonism of the initial phase of KOR activation in S1 via local injections of the g-protein inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX), blocked initial WTEB acquisition without affecting retention of the association. In contrast, KOR late phase antagonism in S1 via local injections of the GRK3-specific antagonist, guanidinonaltrindole (GNTI), blocked retention of the WTEB association without affecting task acquisition. Consistent with the known mechanism for KOR activation, KOR protein expression in S1 was found to be decreased following WTEB training, further supporting the involvement of neocortical KOR activation with learning. Prior studies have shown that task acquisition and memory consolidation are mediated by distinct molecular processes; however, little is known regarding a potential mechanism driving these processes. The current study suggests that neocortical KOR activation mediates activation of these processes with learning. This study provides the first evidence for a time- and learning-dependent property of neocortical KOR in facilitating acquisition and consolidation of associative memories, while elucidating an unexplored neocortical learning mechanism.

  10. Hypotension During Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure Is Independently Associated With 30-Day Mortality: Findings from ASCEND-HF

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyesh A.; Heizer, Gretchen; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Schulte, Phillip J.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Hasselblad, Vic; Mills, Roger M.; McMurray, John J.; Starling, Randall C.; Wilson Tang, W. H.; Califf, Robert M.; Hernandez, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Outcomes associated with episodes of hypotension while hospitalized are not well understood. Methods and Results Using data from ASCEND-HF, we assessed factors associated with inhospital hypotension and subsequent 30-day outcomes. Patients were classified as having symptomatic or asymptomatic hypotension. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with in-hospital hypotension, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between hypotension and 30-day outcomes. We also tested for treatment interaction with nesiritide on 30-day outcomes and the association between inhospital hypotension and renal function at hospital discharge. Overall, 1555/7141 (21.8%) patients had an episode of hypotension, of which 73.1% were asymptomatic and 26.9% were symptomatic. Factors strongly associated with in-hospital hypotension included randomization to nesiritide (odds ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.76–2.23; p<0.001), chronic metolazone therapy (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.60; p<0.001), and baseline orthopnea (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.13–1.52; p=0.001) or S3 gallop (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.06–1.40; p=0.006). In-hospital hypotension was associated with increased hazards of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% CI 1.57–2.61; p<0.001), 30-day heart failure (HF) hospitalization or mortality (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.34–1.86; p<0.001), and 30-day all-cause hospitalization or mortality (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.22–1.61; p<0.001). Nesiritide had no interaction on the relationship between hypotension and 30-day outcomes (interaction p=0.874 for death, p=0.908 for death/HF hospitalization, p=0.238 death/all-cause hospitalization). Conclusions Hypotension while hospitalized for acute decompensated HF is an independent risk factor for adverse 30-day outcomes, and its occurrence highlights the need for modified treatment strategies. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT

  11. The Film in Language Teaching Association (FILTA): A Multilingual Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrero, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the Film in Language Teaching Association (FILTA) project, a community of practice (CoP) whose main goals are first to engage language teachers in practical uses of film and audio-visual media in the second language classroom; second, to value the artistic features of cinema; and third, to encourage a dialogue between…

  12. Transformational and Transactional Leadership: Association With Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Leadership in organizations is important in shaping workers’ perceptions, responses to organizational change, and acceptance of innovations, such as evidence-based practices. Transformational leadership inspires and motivates followers, whereas transactional leadership is based more on reinforcement and exchanges. Studies have shown that in youth and family service organizations, mental health providers’ attitudes toward adopting an evidence-based practice are associated with organizational context and individual provider differences. The purpose of this study was to expand these findings by examining the association between leadership and mental health providers’ attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Methods Participants were 303 public-sector mental health service clinicians and case managers from 49 programs who were providing mental health services to children, adolescents, and their families. Data were gathered on providers’ characteristics, attitudes toward evidence-based practices, and perceptions of their supervisors’ leadership behaviors. Zero-order correlations and multilevel regression analyses were conducted that controlled for effects of service providers’ characteristics. Results Both transformational and transactional leadership were positively associated with providers’ having more positive attitudes toward adoption of evidence-based practice, and transformational leadership was negatively associated with providers’ perception of difference between the providers’ current practice and evidence-based practice. Conclusions Mental health service organizations may benefit from improving transformational and transactional supervisory leadership skills in preparation for implementing evidence-based practices. PMID:16870968

  13. 12 CFR 564.8 - Appraisal policies and practices of savings associations and subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal policies and practices of savings... OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.8 Appraisal policies and practices of savings associations and... underwriting used to support these transactions. An appraisal standard is one of several critical components...

  14. Career Mobility: Implementing the Ladder Concept in Associate Degree and Practical Nursing Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Donna Ketchum

    Designing a career ladder curriculum is not simply taking an existing practical nurse curriculum and an associate degree nursing curriculum and placing one after the other. The curriculum is designed to produce students who are competent practitioners as practical nurses at the end of the first level and then allow them to continue for an…

  15. Iterative sure independence screening EM-Bayesian LASSO algorithm for multi-locus genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Tamba, Cox Lwaka; Ni, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) entails examining a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a limited sample with hundreds of individuals, implying a variable selection problem in the high dimensional dataset. Although many single-locus GWAS approaches under polygenic background and population structure controls have been widely used, some significant loci fail to be detected. In this study, we used an iterative modified-sure independence screening (ISIS) approach in reducing the number of SNPs to a moderate size. Expectation-Maximization (EM)-Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (BLASSO) was used to estimate all the selected SNP effects for true quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) detection. This method is referred to as ISIS EM-BLASSO algorithm. Monte Carlo simulation studies validated the new method, which has the highest empirical power in QTN detection and the highest accuracy in QTN effect estimation, and it is the fastest, as compared with efficient mixed-model association (EMMA), smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD), fixed and random model circulating probability unification (FarmCPU), and multi-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model (mrMLM). To further demonstrate the new method, six flowering time traits in Arabidopsis thaliana were re-analyzed by four methods (New method, EMMA, FarmCPU, and mrMLM). As a result, the new method identified most previously reported genes. Therefore, the new method is a good alternative for multi-locus GWAS.

  16. Iterative sure independence screening EM-Bayesian LASSO algorithm for multi-locus genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Tamba, Cox Lwaka; Ni, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) entails examining a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a limited sample with hundreds of individuals, implying a variable selection problem in the high dimensional dataset. Although many single-locus GWAS approaches under polygenic background and population structure controls have been widely used, some significant loci fail to be detected. In this study, we used an iterative modified-sure independence screening (ISIS) approach in reducing the number of SNPs to a moderate size. Expectation-Maximization (EM)-Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (BLASSO) was used to estimate all the selected SNP effects for true quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) detection. This method is referred to as ISIS EM-BLASSO algorithm. Monte Carlo simulation studies validated the new method, which has the highest empirical power in QTN detection and the highest accuracy in QTN effect estimation, and it is the fastest, as compared with efficient mixed-model association (EMMA), smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD), fixed and random model circulating probability unification (FarmCPU), and multi-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model (mrMLM). To further demonstrate the new method, six flowering time traits in Arabidopsis thaliana were re-analyzed by four methods (New method, EMMA, FarmCPU, and mrMLM). As a result, the new method identified most previously reported genes. Therefore, the new method is a good alternative for multi-locus GWAS. PMID:28141824

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity Is Associated with Left Ventricular Mass Independent of Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pujante, Pedro; Abreu, Cristina; Moreno, Jose; Barrero, Eduardo Alegria; Azcarate, Pedro; Campo, Arantxa; Urrestarazu, Elena; Silva, Camilo; Maria, Jesus Gil; Tebar, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Salvador, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and left ventricular mass (LVM) in morbid obesity and the influence of gender, menopausal status, anthropometry, body composition, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk factors in this relationship. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Methods: Polysomnographic and echocardiographic studies were performed in a cohort of 242 patients (86 men, 100 premenopausal (PreM) and 56 postmenopausal (PostM) women), with grade II obesity and above (BMI: 43.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2) to investigate OSA and LVM respectively. Anthropometry, body composition, glucose tolerance, and blood pressure were also recorded. Results: OSA to different degrees was diagnosed in 76.2% of the patients (n: 166), its prevalence being 90.9% (n: 70) for men, and 76% (n: 38) and 63.8% (n: 58) for PostM and PreM women, respectively (p < 0.01). LVM excess was greatest for PostM women (90.2%), followed by men (81.9%) and PreM females (69.6%) (p < 0.01). LVM values increased in accordance to OSA severity (absence, 193.7 ± 6.9 g; mild, 192.6 ± 7.8 g; moderate, 240.5 ± 12.5 g; severe, 273.6 ± 14.6 g; p < 0.01). LVM magnitude correlated with the menopausal state, age, central adiposity, hypertension (HT), type 2 diabetes (DM), desaturation index (DI), and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (r = 0.41; p < 0.01). The relationship between LVM and AHI persisted in the multivariate analysis (β = 0.25; p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, gender, menopausal state, BMI, waist circumference, neck circumference, DI, fasting plasma glucose, DM, and HT. But if tobacco habits are included, the statistical difference disappears (β = 0.22; p = 0.06). Conclusions: Morbid obesity is frequently associated with abnormal LVM, particularly in patients with OSA; this association is independent of HT, BMI, body composition, and other clinical factors, supporting a direct role of OSA on LVM in morbid obesity. This suggests that OSA and LVM might be taken as

  18. Current Physical Activity Is Independently Associated With Cortical Bone Size and Bone Strength in Elderly Swedish Women.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Martin; Sundh, Daniel; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2017-03-01

    Physical activity is believed to have the greatest effect on the skeleton if exerted early in life, but whether or not possible benefits of physical activity on bone microstructure or geometry remain at old age has not been investigated in women. The aim of this study was to investigate if physical activity during skeletal growth and young adulthood or at old age was associated with cortical geometry and trabecular microarchitecture in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bone, and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in elderly women. In this population-based cross-sectional study 1013 women, 78.2 ± 1.6 (mean ± SD) years old, were included. Using high-resolution 3D pQCT (XtremeCT), cortical cross-sectional area (Ct.CSA), cortical thickness (Ct.Th), cortical periosteal perimeter (Ct.Pm), volumetric cortical bone density (D.Ct), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were measured at the distal (14% level) and ultra-distal tibia and radius, respectively. aBMD was assessed using DXA (Hologic Discovery A) of the spine and hip. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information about previous exercise and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) was used for current physical activity. A linear regression model (including levels of exercise during skeletal growth and young adulthood [10 to 30 years of age], PASE score, and covariates) revealed that level of current physical activity was independently associated with Ct.CSA (β = 0.18, p < 0.001) and Ct.Th (β = 0.15, p < 0.001) at the distal tibia, Tb.Th (β = 0.11, p < 0.001) and BV/TV (β = 0.10, p = 0.001) at the ultra-distal tibia, and total hip aBMD (β = 0.10, p < 0.001). Current physical activity was independently associated with cortical bone size, in terms of thicker cortex but not larger periosteal circumference, and higher bone strength at the distal

  19. Urinary Albumin Levels are Independently Associated with Renal Lesion Severity in Patients with Lupus Nephritis and Little or No Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jin; Zheng, Zhaohui; Li, Xueyi; Feng, Yuan; Leng, Nan; Wu, Zhenbiao; Zhu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) leads to renal lesions, which may be clinically silent in patients with little or no proteinuria. Early detection of these lesions may improve prognosis, but early markers are controversial. This study aimed to determine renal marker proteins associated with renal lesion severity in patients with lupus nephropathy (LN) and little or no proteinuria. Material/Methods Patients with LN and little or no proteinuria (<0.5 g/24 hours) (n=187) that underwent kidney biopsy were grouped according to: low severity (Class I or II; n=116) versus high severity (Class III, IV, or V; n=71). Disease status was determined according to the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). Renal marker proteins (serum β2-macroglobulin, urinary β2-macroglobulin, albumin, IgG, and α1-macroglobulin) were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results Compared with the low severity group, patients in the high severity group had higher urinary albumin (11.60±8.94 versus 7.08±10.07 μg/mL, p=0.008) and urinary IgG (13.21±9.35 versus 8.74±8.90 μg/mL, p=0.007) levels. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that urinary albumin (odds ratio (OR)=1.417, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.145–1.895, p=0.001) and SLEDAI (OR=2.004, 95% CI: 1.264–3.178, p=0.003) were independently associated with severe renal lesions in these patients. Using an optimal cutoff point of urinary albumin of 7.53 μg/mL resulted in 67% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the detection of high severity renal lesions. Conclusions Urinary albumin levels and SLEDAI were independently associated with histological severity of renal lesions in patients with LN and little or no proteinuria. These parameters could be used to help select patients for renal biopsy. PMID:28157833

  20. Presentation: Human and Ecological Health Impacts Associated with Water Reuse and Conservation Practices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation was given by Dr. James Johnson at the STAR Human and Ecological Health Impacts Associated with Water Reuse and Conservation Practices Kick-off Meeting and Webinar held on Oct. 26-27, 2016.

  1. The way we were: surgical practice at the dawn of the North Pacific Surgical Association.

    PubMed

    Carter, Preston L

    2014-05-01

    The North Pacific Surgical Association Historian's centennial lecture, with review of the geographic challenges for members of this society at the time of its founding and selected insights into surgical practices and philosophies of a century ago.

  2. Obesity-related dyslipidemia associated with FAAH, independent of insulin response, in multigenerational families of Northern European descent

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Sonnenberg, Gabriele E; Baye, Tesfaye Mersha; DeLaForest, Jack Ann; MacKinney, Erin; Hillard, Cecilia J; Kissebah, Ahmed H; Olivier, Michael; Wilke, Russell A

    2010-01-01

    homozygotes (p < 0.01, Family-Based Association Test). This SNP was not associated with insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response to intravenous glucose, glucose effectiveness or glucose disposition index. Conclusion Genetic variability in FAAH is associated with dyslipidemia, independent of insulin response. PMID:19958092

  3. Common and Low Frequency Variants in MERTK Are Independently Associated with Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility with Discordant Association Dependent upon HLA-DRB1*15:01 Status

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Michele D.; Fox, Andrew D.; Merlo, Daniel; Johnson, Laura J.; Giuffrida, Lauren; Calvert, Sarah E.; Akkermann, Rainer; Ma, Gerry Z. M.; Perera, Ashwyn A.; Gresle, Melissa M.; Laverick, Louise; Foo, Grace; Fabis-Pedrini, Marzena J.; Spelman, Timothy; Jordan, Margaret A.; Baxter, Alan G.; Foote, Simon; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kilpatrick, Trevor J.; Field, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The risk of developing MS is strongly influenced by genetic predisposition, and over 100 loci have been established as associated with susceptibility. However, the biologically relevant variants underlying disease risk have not been defined for the vast majority of these loci, limiting the power of these genetic studies to define new avenues of research for the development of MS therapeutics. It is therefore crucial that candidate MS susceptibility loci are carefully investigated to identify the biological mechanism linking genetic polymorphism at a given gene to the increased chance of developing MS. MERTK has been established as an MS susceptibility gene and is part of a family of receptor tyrosine kinases known to be involved in the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease. In this study we have refined the association of MERTK with MS risk to independent signals from both common and low frequency variants. One of the associated variants was also found to be linked with increased expression of MERTK in monocytes and higher expression of MERTK was associated with either increased or decreased risk of developing MS, dependent upon HLA-DRB1*15:01 status. This discordant association potentially extended beyond MS susceptibility to alterations in disease course in established MS. This study provides clear evidence that distinct polymorphisms within MERTK are associated with MS susceptibility, one of which has the potential to alter MERTK transcription, which in turn can alter both susceptibility and disease course in MS patients. PMID:26990204

  4. Predicting dietary intake among children classified as overweight or at risk for overweight: Independent and interactive effects of parenting practices and styles.

    PubMed

    Langer, Shelby L; Seburg, Elisabeth; JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Levy, Rona L

    2017-03-01

    Using baseline data from a randomized controlled pediatric obesity prevention trial, this study sought to examine general parenting style as a potential moderator of the association between feeding-specific parenting practices and child dietary intake. Four hundred and twenty-one parent-child dyads served as participants (49% girls and 93% mothers). Children were, on average, 6.6 years old and either overweight or at-risk for overweight (mean BMI percentile = 84.9). Data were collected in participants' homes. Study staff measured children's height and weight. Parents completed questionnaires designed to assess general parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and child feeding practices (restriction and monitoring). Child dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h recall system. Outcomes were daily servings of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and unhealthy snacks. Results were as follows: Permissive parenting was inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and parental monitoring was inversely associated with SSB consumption. There were no other main effects of parenting style or feeding practice on child dietary consumption. Authoritarian parenting moderated the association between restriction and SSB intake (a marginally significant effect after correcting for multiple comparisons). Restriction was inversely associated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was high but unassociated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was low. Findings indicate that the parenting practice of monitoring child dietary intake was associated with more healthful consumption regardless of parenting style; interventions may thus benefit from encouraging parental monitoring. The parenting strategy of restricting child dietary intake, in contrast, was associated with lower SSB intake in the context of higher parental authoritarianism but inconsequential in the context of lower parental authoritarianism. This exploratory

  5. "Inclusion in Practice": Programme Practices in Mainstream Preschool Classrooms and Associations with Context and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Fyssa, Aristea

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the extent to which teachers supported the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream classrooms and involved monitoring 52 mainstream preschool settings in Greece. The association between programme quality, context and teacher characteristics was also tested. Findings showed that the quality of inclusion ranged…

  6. An online practice and educational networking system for technical skills: learning experience in expert facilitated vs. independent learning communities.

    PubMed

    Rojas, David; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Weber, Bryce; Kapralos, Bill; Carnahan, Heather; Bägli, Darius J; Dubrowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the activities of trainees learning technical skills using an educational networking tool with and without expert facilitation. Medical students (participants) were video-recorded practicing suturing and knot tying techniques and the resulting videos were uploaded to an educational networking site. Participants were then divided into two groups (one group containing an expert facilitator while the other group did not) and encouraged to comment on the videos within their group. We monitored the number of logins and comments posted and all participants completed an exit survey. There were no differences between the activities the two groups (p = 0.387). We conclude that the presence of an expert within collaborative Internet environments in not necessary to promote interactivity amongst the learners.

  7. Serum IF1 concentration is independently associated to HDL levels and to coronary heart disease: the GENES study[S

    PubMed Central

    Genoux, Annelise; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Ferrières, Jean; Combes, Guillaume; Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Pons, Véronique; Laffargue, Muriel; Taraszkiewicz, Dorota; Carrié, Didier; Elbaz, Meyer; Perret, Bertrand; Martinez, Laurent O.

    2013-01-01

    HDL is strongly inversely related to cardiovascular risk. Hepatic HDL uptake is controlled by ecto-F1-ATPase activity, and potentially inhibited by mitochondrial inhibitor factor 1 (IF1). We recently found that IF1 is present in serum and correlates with HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Here, we have evaluated the relationship between circulating IF1 and plasma lipoproteins, and we determined whether IF1 concentration is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Serum IF1 was measured in 648 coronary patients ages 45–74 and in 669 matched male controls, in the context of a cross-sectional study on CHD. Cardiovascular risk factors were documented for each participant, including life-style habits and biological and clinical markers. In controls, multivariate analysis demonstrated that IF1 was independently positively associated with HDL-C and apoA-I (r = 0.27 and 0.28, respectively, P < 0.001) and negatively with triglycerides (r = −0.23, P < 0.001). Mean IF1 concentration was lower in CHD patients than in controls (0.43 mg/l and 0.53 mg/l, respectively, P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, following adjustments on cardiovascular risk factors or markers, IF1 was negatively related to CHD (P < 0.001). This relationship was maintained after adjustment for HDL-C or apoA-I. This study identifies IF1 as a new determinant of HDL-C that is inversely associated with CHD. PMID:23794714

  8. Class II histone deacetylases are associated with VHL-independent regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Qian, David Z; Kachhap, Sushant K; Collis, Spencer J; Verheul, Henk M W; Carducci, Michael A; Atadja, Peter; Pili, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) plays a critical role in transcriptional gene activation involved in tumor angiogenesis. A novel class of agents, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, has been shown to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and HIF-1 alpha protein expression. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the molecular link between HIF-1 alpha inhibition and HDAC inhibition. Treatment of the VHL-deficient human renal cell carcinoma cell line UMRC2 with the hydroxamic HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of HIF-1 alpha protein via a VHL-independent mechanism and reduction of HIF-1 alpha transcriptional activity. HIF-1 alpha inhibition by LAQ824 was associated with HIF-1 alpha acetylation and polyubiquitination. HIF-1 alpha immunoprecipitates contained HDAC activity. Then, we tested different classes of HDAC inhibitors with diverse inhibitory activity of class I versus class II HDACs and assessed their capability of targeting HIF-1 alpha. Hydroxamic acid derivatives with known activity against both class I and class II HDACs were effective in inhibiting HIF-1 alpha at low nanomolar concentrations. In contrast, valproic acid and trapoxin were able to inhibit HIF-1 alpha only at concentrations that are effective against class II HDACs. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that class II HDAC4 and HDAC6 were associated with HIF-1 alpha protein. Inhibition by small interfering RNA of HDAC4 and HDAC6 reduced HIF-1 alpha protein expression and transcriptional activity. Taken together, these results suggest that class II HDACs are associated with HIF-1 alpha stability and provide a rationale for targeting HIF-1 alpha with HDAC inhibitors against class II isozymes.

  9. Functional Diversity of Human Mitochondrial J-proteins Is Independent of Their Association with the Inner Membrane Presequence Translocase.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Devanjan; Srivastava, Shubhi; D'Silva, Patrick

    2016-08-12

    Mitochondrial J-proteins play a critical role in governing Hsp70 activity and, hence, are essential for organellar protein translocation and folding. In contrast to yeast, which has a single J-protein Pam18, humans involve two J-proteins, DnaJC15 and DnaJC19, associated with contrasting cellular phenotype, to transport proteins into the mitochondria. Mutation in DnaJC19 results in dilated cardiomyopathy and ataxia syndrome, whereas expression of DnaJC15 regulates the response of cancer cells to chemotherapy. In the present study we have comparatively assessed the biochemical properties of the J-protein paralogs in relation to their association with the import channel. Both DnaJC15 and DnaJC19 formed two distinct subcomplexes with Magmas at the import channel. Knockdown analysis suggested an essential role for Magmas and DnaJC19 in organellar protein translocation and mitochondria biogenesis, whereas DnaJC15 had dispensable supportive function. The J-proteins were found to have equal affinity for Magmas and could stimulate mitochondrial Hsp70 ATPase activity by equivalent levels. Interestingly, we observed that DnaJC15 exhibits bifunctional properties. At the translocation channel, it involves conserved interactions and mechanism to translocate the precursors into mitochondria. In addition to protein transport, DnaJC15 also showed a dual role in yeast where its expression elicited enhanced sensitivity of cells to cisplatin that required the presence of a functional J-domain. The amount of DnaJC15 expressed in the cell was directly proportional to the sensitivity of cells. Our analysis indicates that the differential cellular phenotype displayed by human mitochondrial J-proteins is independent of their activity and association with Magmas at the translocation channel.

  10. Factors associated with HCV risk practices in methadone-maintained patients: the importance of considering the couple in prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One important public health issue associated with opioid use today is the risk of hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Although methadone maintenance may help to decrease HCV-related risk practices, HCV risk behaviors persist and are strongly associated with specific substance use patterns, mental status and social context. The ANRS-Methaville study gave us the opportunity to better disentangle the different relationships between these various factors and HCV risk practices. Methods The ANRS-Methaville multisite randomized trial was designed to assess the feasibility of initiating methadone in primary care by comparing it with methadone initiation in specialized centers. This study recruited 195 participants initiating methadone maintenance and followed up for 12 months. Longitudinal data from this trial was used to acquire a greater understanding of HCV risk practices and their pattern of correlates in this population. We selected 176 patients who had data on HCV risk practices at M0 and M12, accounting for 312 visits. HCV risk practices were defined as follows: sharing needles or syringes, sharing drug paraphernalia, getting a tattoo or having a piercing in a non-professional context, sharing toiletry items. To identify factors associated with HCV risk practices, we performed a mixed logistic regression analysis. Results HCV risk practices were reported by 19% and 15% of participants at baseline and M12, respectively. After adjustment for age, cocaine use and alcohol dependence as well as suicidal risk, living in a couple with a non-drug user and in a couple with a drug user were both independent predictors of HCV risk practices (OR[CI95%] = 4.16 [1.42-12.12]; OR[CI95%] = 9.85 [3.13-31.06], respectively). Conclusions Identifying individuals at risk of HCV transmission during methadone treatment such as stimulant users, alcohol dependent individuals, and those at suicidal risk is necessary to optimize response to treatment. Innovative prevention

  11. Sequential sentinel SNP Regional Association Plots (SSS-RAP): an approach for testing independence of SNP association signals using meta-analysis data.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Gaunt, Tom R; Day, Ian N M

    2013-01-01

    Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) frequently incorporate meta-analysis within their framework. However, conditional analysis of individual-level data, which is an established approach for fine mapping of causal sites, is often precluded where only group-level summary data are available for analysis. Here, we present a numerical and graphical approach, "sequential sentinel SNP regional association plot" (SSS-RAP), which estimates regression coefficients (beta) with their standard errors using the meta-analysis summary results directly. Under an additive model, typical for genes with small effect, the effect for a sentinel SNP can be transformed to the predicted effect for a possibly dependent SNP through a 2×2 2-SNP haplotypes table. The approach assumes Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for test SNPs. SSS-RAP is available as a Web-tool (http://apps.biocompute.org.uk/sssrap/sssrap.cgi). To develop and illustrate SSS-RAP we analyzed lipid and ECG traits data from the British Women's Heart and Health Study (BWHHS), evaluated a meta-analysis for ECG trait and presented several simulations. We compared results with existing approaches such as model selection methods and conditional analysis. Generally findings were consistent. SSS-RAP represents a tool for testing independence of SNP association signals using meta-analysis data, and is also a convenient approach based on biological principles for fine mapping in group level summary data.

  12. The independent living donor advocate: a guidance document from the American Society of Transplantation's Living Donor Community of Practice (AST LDCOP).

    PubMed

    Hays, R E; LaPointe Rudow, D; Dew, M A; Taler, S J; Spicer, H; Mandelbrot, D A

    2015-02-01

    The independent living donor advocate (ILDA) serves a mandated and supportive role in the care of the living organ donor, yet qualifications and role requirements are not clearly defined. Guidance comes from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Conditions for Transplant Center Participation and interpretive guidelines, Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) Policy and CMS and OPTN site surveys, yet interpretation of regulations varies. Herein, the AST Living Donor Community of Practice (LDCOP) offers seven recommendations to clarify and optimize the ILDA role: (a) the ILDA must have a certain skill set rather than a specific profession, (b) the ILDA must be educated and demonstrate competence in core knowledge components, (c) the ILDA's primary role is to assess components of informed consent, (d) centers must develop a transparent system to define ILDA independence, (e) the ILDA should have a reporting structure outside the transplant center, (f) the ILDA's role should be integrated throughout the donor care continuum, (g) the ILDA role should include a narrow "veto power." We address controversies in ILDA implementation, and offer pathways to maximize benefits and minimize limitations of approaches that may each meet regulatory requirements but confer different practice benefits. We propose a research agenda to explore the impact of the ILDA.

  13. Induction of Hepatic Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 3 by Ethynylestradiol Is Independent of Cholestasis and Mediated by Estrogen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, María L.; Rigalli, Juan P.; Arias, Agostina; Villanueva, Silvina; Banchio, Claudia; Vore, Mary; Mottino, Aldo D.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance–associated protein 3 (Mrp3; Abcc3) expression and activity are up-regulated in rat liver after in vivo repeated administration of ethynylestradiol (EE), a cholestatic synthetic estrogen, whereas multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) is down-regulated. This study was undertaken to determine whether Mrp3 induction results from a direct effect of EE, independent of accumulation of any endogenous common Mrp2/Mrp3 substrates resulting from cholestasis and the potential mediation of estrogen receptor (ER). In in vivo studies, male rats were given a single, noncholestatic dose of EE (5 mg/kg s.c.), and basal bile flow and the biliary excretion rate of bile salts and glutathione were measured 5 hours later. This treatment increased Mrp3 mRNA by 4-fold, detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction, despite the absence of cholestasis. Primary culture of rat hepatocytes incubated with EE (1–10 µM) for 5 hours exhibited a 3-fold increase in Mrp3 mRNA (10 µM), consistent with in vivo findings. The increase in Mrp3 mRNA by EE was prevented by actinomycin D, indicating transcriptional regulation. When hepatocytes were incubated with an ER antagonist [7α,17β-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5-Pentafluoropentyl)sulfinyl]nonyl]estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol (ICI182/780), 1 µM], in addition to EE, induction of Mrp3 mRNA was abolished, implicating ER as a key mediator. EE induced an increase in ER-α phosphorylation at 30 minutes and expression of c-Jun, a well-known ER target gene, at 60 minutes, as detected by Western blotting of nuclear extracts. These increases were prevented by ICI182/780. In summary, EE increased the expression of hepatic Mrp3 transcriptionally and independently of any cholestatic manifestation and required participation of an ER, most likely ER-α, through its phosphorylation. PMID:23077105

  14. Food parenting practices and their association with child nutrition risk status: comparing mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Watterworth, Jessica Charlotte; Mackay, Joy Miranda; Buchholz, Andrea C; Darlington, Gerarda; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Ma, David W L; Haines, Jess

    2017-02-14

    In Canada, little is known about how food parenting practices are associated with young children's dietary intakes and no studies have examined food parenting practices of Canadian fathers. This study aimed to examine associations between food parenting practices and preschool-age children's nutrition risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 31 two-parent families; 31 mothers, 31 fathers and 40 preschool-age children. Parents completed an adapted version of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. We calculated children's nutrition risk using their NutriSTEP® score. To account for sibling association, we used generalized estimating equations, adjusting for child age, sex, household income, and parental BMI. Both mothers' and fathers' involvement of children in meal preparation were associated with lower child nutrition risk (mother β=-3.45, p=0.02; father β=-1.74, p=0.01), as were their healthy home environment scores (mother β=-8.36, p<0.001; father β=-2.69, p=0.04). Mothers' encouragement of balance and variety was associated with lower nutrition risk (β=-8.88, p=0.01), whereas mothers' use of food as a reward was associated with higher nutrition risk (β=4.67, p<0.001). Fathers' modeling of healthy behaviours was associated with lower nutrition risk (β=-2.21, p=0.01), whereas fathers' restriction for health (β=2.21, p=0.03) and pressure-to-eat scores (β=3.26, p=<0.001) were associated with higher nutrition risk. No associations were found between child nutrition status and parental emotion regulation, control, monitoring, nor restriction for weight. In conclusion, both mothers' and fathers' food parenting practices are associated with their children's nutrition status. Fathers should be included in food parenting practices interventions.

  15. Modifiable Practices Associated with Sudden Death among Hemodialysis Patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study

    PubMed Central

    Thumma, Jyothi; Fuller, Douglas S.; Tentori, Francesca; Li, Yun; Morgenstern, Hal; Mendelssohn, David; Tomo, Tadashi; Ethier, Jean; Port, Friedrich; Robinson, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Sudden death is common in hemodialysis patients, but whether modifiable practices affect the risk of sudden death remains unclear. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study analyzed 37,765 participants in 12 countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study to explore the association of the following practices with sudden death (due to cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, and/or hyperkalemia): treatment time [TT] <210 minutes, Kt/V <1.2, ultrafiltration volume >5.7% of postdialysis weight, low dialysate potassium [KD <3]), and prescription of Q wave/T wave interval–prolonging drugs. Cox regression was used to estimate effects on mortality, adjusting for potential confounders. An instrumental variable approach was used to further control for unmeasured patient-level confounding. Results There were 9046 deaths, 26% of which were sudden (crude mortality rate, 15.3/100 patient-years; median follow-up, 1.59 years). Associations with sudden death included hazard ratios of 1.13 for short TT, 1.15 for large ultrafiltration volume, and 1.10 for low Kt/V. Compared with KD ≥3 mEq/L, the sudden death rate was higher for KD ≤1.5 and KD=2–2.5 mEq/L. The instrumental variable approach yielded generally consistent findings. The sudden death rate was elevated for patients taking amiodarone, but not other Q wave/T wave interval–prolonging drugs. Conclusions This study identified modifiable dialysis practices associated with higher risk of sudden death, including short TT, large ultrafiltration volume, and low KD. Because KD <3 mEq/L is common and easy to change, KD tailoring may prevent some sudden deaths. This hypothesis merits testing in clinical trials. PMID:22403271

  16. Reduced Lung Function in a Chronic Asthma Model Is Associated with Prolonged Inflammation, but Independent of Peribronchial Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Doths, Sandra; Stroet, Anke; Schwarze, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background In asthma, mechanisms contributing to chronicity remain to be determined. Recent models of sensitisation with prolonged airway allergen challenges reproduce typical features of chronic asthma. However, the interplay between inflammation, structural changes and lung function is poorly understood. This study was performed to delineate functional, structural and immunological airway changes after cessation of long term challenges to elucidate factors contributing to the development of prolonged lung function changes. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice sensitised systemically were consecutively challenged intranasally with ovalbumin for two or eight weeks. After the end of challenges, lung function, airway inflammation, features of airway remodelling, local T-cell cytokines and systemic ovalbumin-specific antibodies were monitored. Long term challenges resulted in airway hyperresponsiveness lasting 2 weeks and reduced baseline lung function for 6 weeks after their cessation. In contrast, these changes resolved within one week after short term challenges. Prolonged transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)1 production and marked peribronchial fibrosis were only induced by long term challenges. Importantly, fibrosis became apparent only after the onset of lung function changes and outlasted them. Further, long term challenges led to prolonged and intense airway inflammation with marked lymphocytosis, but moderate eosinophilia, sustained IL-5 production and ovalbumin-specific IgG2a antibodies, the latter suggesting a Th1 component to the immune response. In contrast, following short term challenges airway inflammation was dominated by eosinophils and associated with a strong, but transient IL-13 response. Conclusions Prolonged lung function changes after long term allergen challenges seem to develop and resolve independently of the persistent peribronchial fibrosis. They are more closely associated with intense airway inflammation, marked lymphocytosis

  17. Microbiota-Independent Ameliorative Effects of Antibiotics on Spontaneous Th2-Associated Pathology of the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehee; Walsh, Matthew C; Kim, Kwang Soon; Hong, Sung-Wook; Lee, Junyoung; Yi, Jaeu; Rivas, Gloriany; Surh, Charles D; Choi, Yongwon

    2015-01-01

    We have previously generated a mouse model of spontaneous Th2-associated disease of the small intestine called TRAF6ΔDC, in which dendritic cell (DC)-intrinsic expression of the signaling mediator TRAF6 is ablated. Interestingly, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment ameliorates TRAF6ΔDC disease, implying a role for commensal microbiota in disease development. However, the relationship between the drug effects and commensal microbiota status remains to be formally demonstrated. To directly assess this relationship, we have now generated TRAF6ΔDC bone marrow chimera mice under germ-free (GF) conditions lacking commensal microbiota, and found, unexpectedly, that Th2-associated disease is actually exacerbated in GF TRAF6ΔDC mice compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) TRAF6ΔDC mice. At the same time, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment of GF TRAF6ΔDC mice has an ameliorative effect similar to that observed in antibiotics-treated SPF TRAF6ΔDC mice, implying a commensal microbiota-independent effect of broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. We further found that treatment of GF TRAF6ΔDC mice with broad-spectrum antibiotics increases Foxp3+ Treg populations in lymphoid organs and the small intestine, pointing to a possible mechanism by which treatment may directly exert an immunomodulatory effect. To investigate links between the exacerbated phenotype of the small intestines of GF TRAF6ΔDC mice and local microbiota, we performed microbiotic profiling of the luminal contents specifically within the small intestines of diseased TRAF6ΔDC mice, and, when compared to co-housed control mice, found significantly increased total bacterial content characterized by specific increases in Firmicutes Lactobacillus species. These data suggest a protective effect of Firmicutes Lactobacillus against the spontaneous Th2-related inflammation of the small intestine of the TRAF6ΔDC model, and may represent a potential mechanism for related disease phenotypes.

  18. The number of lymphoma-associated macrophages in tumor tissue is an independent prognostic factor in patients with follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Andjelic, Bosko; Mihaljevic, Biljana; Todorovic, Milena; Bila, Jelena; Jakovic, Ljubomir; Jovanovic, Maja Perunicic

    2012-01-01

    The clinical course of patients with follicular lymphoma is variable from a slowly progressive disease to a progressive disease with a survival time of approximately 1 year. Many prognostic models have been suggested to identify high-risk patients. Recent gene profiling analysis showed that the clinical behavior of follicular lymphoma is determined by the properties of the nonmalignant tumor microenvironment. We investigated the role of lymphoma-associated macrophages (LAMs) in tumor tissue in patients with newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma. The LAM was determined immunohistochemically in lymph node tissue sections by anti-CD68 PG-M1 and analyzed through high-power field (HPF) magnification intrafollicularly (IF) and extrafollicularly. In our study, the patients who had an IF LAM count equal to or more than 10/HPF had significantly shorter overall survival (P=0.018) and 3 years of progression-free survival (P=0.034) compared with patients with <10 LAM/HPF. Multivariate analysis indicated that IF LAM/HPF ≥ 10 and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status >1 are independent prognostic factors for a poor outcome.

  19. Angiotensin II accelerates mammary gland development independently of high blood pressure in pregnancy-associated hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Baasanjav, Altansarnai; Kwon, Chulwon; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Ishida, Junji; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is a vasopressor hormone that has critical roles in maintenance of normal blood pressure and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. We previously generated pregnancy-associated hypertensive (PAH) mice by mating female human angiotensinogen transgenic mice with male human renin transgenic mice. PAH mice exhibit hypertension in late pregnancy by overproducing AngII. A recent study demonstrated that angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor is expressed in mammary epithelial cells and its signaling is critical for mammary gland involution after weaning. However, the role of AngII-AT1 receptor signaling in the development of mammary gland during pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, to investigate the role of AngII-AT1 receptor signaling in mammary gland development during pregnancy, we analyzed the mammary gland of PAH mice. Histological and gene expression analyses revealed that lobuloalveolar development was accelerated with increased milk protein production and lipid accumulation in the mammary gland of PAH mice. Furthermore, AT1 receptor blocker treatment suppressed acceleration of mammary gland development in PAH mice, while the treatment of hydralazine, another antihypertensive drug, did not. These data suggest that AngII-AT1 receptor-induced signaling accelerates mammary gland development during pregnancy through hypertension-independent mechanism.

  20. Serum Chemerin Levels are Associated with Visceral Adiposity, Independent of Waist Circumference, in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Dae Young; Kang, Jun Goo; Lee, Seong Jin; Ihm, Sung Hee; Lee, Eun Jig; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Chemerin has been suggested to be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the relationship between visceral adiposity and chemerin levels remains unclear in subjects with T2DM. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum chemerin levels and visceral adiposity. Materials and Methods This study included 102 subjects newly diagnosed with T2DM. The relationships between serum chemerin levels and clinical and biochemical parameters were examined. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the predictable factors of serum chemerin levels. Results Serum chemerin levels showed significant positive correlations with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral fat thickness (VFT), insulin levels, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and levels of triglycerides (log-transformed) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, while showing significant negative correlations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After adjusting for BMI and WC, VFT showed a significant relationship with serum chemerin levels (r=0.222, p=0.027). Moreover, VFT was an independent predictive factor of serum chemerin levels (β=0.242, p=0.041). Conclusion We demonstrated that chemerin is linked to metabolic syndrome components. Moreover, serum chemerin levels were associated significantly with obesity, especially visceral adipose tissue, in subjects with T2DM. PMID:28120562

  1. Occurrence of deletions, associated with genetic instability in Streptomyces ambofaciens, is independent of the linearity of the chromosomal DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, G; Decaris, B; Leblond, P

    1997-01-01

    The chromosomal structures of mutant strains of Streptomyces ambofaciens which have arisen from genetic instability were investigated by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and probing with sequences cloned from the unstable region which maps near the ends of the linear chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal structures of seven mutant strains harboring large deletions were classified into three types. (i) Deletions internal to one chromosomal arm were characterized in two of the mutant strains. In these strains, a linear chromosomal structure was retained, as were parts of the terminal inverted repeats sequences (TIRs) and the proteins bound to them. (ii) Four of the mutants presented a deletion including all sequences from the TIRs. A junction fragment homologous to sequences originating from internal region of both arms was characterized. Consequently, the chromosomal DNA of these strains was deduced to be circularized. Furthermore, chromosomal stability was assessed in the progeny of these circular DNA mutants. Additional deletion events were detected in 11 mutants among the 13 strains isolated, demonstrating that circular chromosomes do not correspond to a stabilization of the chromosome structure and that the occurrence of deletion could be independent of the presence of chromosomal ends. (iii) A mutant with DNA amplification was shown to have a linear chromosome with a deletion of all sequences between the amplified region and the end of the chromosome. The other chromosomal arm remained unaffected by deletion and associated with protein. PMID:9226265

  2. Independent nonframeshift deletions in the MC1R gene are not associated with melanistic coat coloration in three mustelid lineages.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, T; Sato, J J; Shimada, T; Campbell, K L; Suzuki, H

    2005-01-01

    Sequence variation within the 5' flanking (about 240 bp) and exon regions (426 bp) of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene was examined to determine the potential role of this protein in the melanistic coat coloration of 17 mustelid species in four genera: Gulo (wolverines), Martes (martens), Mustela (weasels), and Meles (badgers). Members of the genera Mustela and Meles, together with Martes flavigula and Martes pennanti, were shown to have intact gene sequences. However, several "in frame" deletions of the MC1R gene region implicated in melanism of other species were detected within members of the genera Martes and Gulo. For instance, Gulo gulo possessed a 15 bp deletion in the second transmembrane domain coding region, while Martes americana, Martes melampus, Martes zibellina, and Martes martes shared a 45 bp deletion overlapping this area. In addition, Martes foina was found to possess a 10 bp insertion followed closely by a 28 bp deletion immediately downstream of the deletion found in other martens. Notably, none of these indels was associated with a melanistic phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that each of these nonrandomly distributed deletions arose independently during the evolution of this family. Specific indel-neighboring motifs appear to largely account for the biased and repeated occurrence of deletion events in the Martes/Gulo clade.

  3. Practice of Breast Cancer Early Diagnosis Methods among Women Living in Samsun, and Factors Associated with This Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aker, Servet; Öz, Hatice; Tunçel, Ebru Kaynar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess practice of breast cancer early diagnosis methods among women and the factors associated with this practice. Materials and Methods The population of this cross-sectional study consisted of 410,377 women over the age of 20, living within the administrative borders of Samsun province. Stratified systematic sampling was used in the selection of the 800-member sample. The Health Belief Model Scale, a questionnaire consisting of open and closed-ended questions, was used to elicit women’s demographic data and determine their awareness on early diagnostic techniques. The questionnaires were administered face-to-face by visiting individuals’ addresses. Results 80.5% of women had knowledge on breast self-examination (BSE). 12.6% of the women who were aware of BSE stated that they regularly performed BSE. 30.4% of women had clinical breast examination (CBE) by health personnel at least once, while 36.8% of women over 40 years of age obtained mammography at least once. Factors associated with women’s performance of BSE were age, having received education about breast health, perception of severity, barriers for BSE and self-efficacy. Factors affecting CBE included age, presence of history of breast cancer in a relative or friend, having received education about breast health; while factors associated with women’s undergoing mammography were identified as age, a family member with a history of breast cancer and barriers for mammography. Conclusion Determination of the factors associated with practice of breast cancer early diagnosis methods, and implementation of planned training programs based on these results is important in increasing compliance with these methods. PMID:28331705

  4. [Training of health professionals in breastfeeding and its association with knowledge, skills and practices].

    PubMed

    Jesus, Patricia Carvalho de; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Moraes, José Rodrigo de

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in the 15 hospitals with over 1000 deliveries/year in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to verify the association between training of health professionals in breastfeeding and professional knowledge, skills and practices. Interviews were staged with 215 health professionals, 48.4% working in Baby-Friendly Hospitals, by means of a questionnaire adapted from the revalidation instrument of the initiative. The three dichotomized outcomes were subjected to bivariate and multivariate analysis. Adjusted prevalence ratios were obtained by the Poisson regression model: 48.1% of the professionals had adequate knowledge, 58.9% adequate skills and 74.9% reported adequate practice. Theoretical and practical training ≥ 18 hours considered adequate (by 65.6% of the professionals) showed a significant association with professional knowledge (aPR = 1.575), skills (aPR = 1.530) and practices (aPR = 1.312). Less working experience was associated with less knowledge (aPR = 0.723), but with better practices (aPR = 1.183). Nursing staff reported better practices than physicians (aPR = 0.808) and other categories (aPR = 0.658). The study concludes that training contributes to improved breastfeeding knowledge, skills and practices that are essential for maternal and child care.

  5. Infant Adiposity is Independently Associated with a Maternal High Fat Diet but not Related to Niacin Intake: The Healthy Start Study.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Allison L B; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H; Norris, Jill M; Barbour, Linda A; Friedman, Jacob E; Dabelea, Dana

    2017-02-04

    Objectives Over-nutrition during pregnancy resulting from maternal obesity or an unhealthy diet can lead to excess infant adiposity at birth. Specific dietary macro- and micronutrients have been shown to increase fat cell development in both in-vitro and in-vivo models and may therefore link maternal diet to increased infant adiposity. We hypothesized that high maternal dietary niacin intake during pregnancy, especially in combination with a high-fat diet (HFD) would increase infant adiposity. Methods We included 1040 participants from a pre-birth cohort of mother-infant pairs. Maternal diet was assessed using multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. HFD was defined as ≥30% of calories from fat and ≥12% of fat calories from saturated fat. Neonatal body composition (% fat mass [%FM], fat mass [FM], fat-free mass [FFM]) was measured by PEAPOD. We used multivariate regression to assess the joint effect of maternal dietary niacin and maternal HFD on neonatal body composition. Results Dietary niacin was not associated with neonatal body composition, and maternal HFD did not modify this finding. However, maternal HFD was independently associated with %FM (β = 0.8 [0.1, 1.4]%, p < 0.01] and FM (β = 32.4 [6.7, 58.0] g, p < 0.01). Conclusions for Practice Our results suggest that a HFD during pregnancy may increase infant adiposity, therefore supporting the need for improved diet counseling of pregnant women at both the clinical and community levels.

  6. The Association between Meditation Practice and Job Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Koichiro; Nishimoto, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Minami; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that meditation practice has a positive impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning, which are related to job performance. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of individuals who practice meditation, and (3) examine the association between meditation practice and job performance. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and the characteristics of the persons practicing meditation; in Study 2, we examined the association between meditation practice and job performance. The outcome variables included work engagement, subjective job performance, and job satisfaction. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was used to assess work engagement, the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was used to measure subjective job performance, and a scale developed by the Japanese government was used to assess job satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used in Study 2. Demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were included as covariates in the analyses. The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were younger and had a higher education, higher household income, higher stress level, and lower body mass index than those who did not practice meditation. The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = 0.112, p < .001), subjective job performance (β = 0.116, p < .001), and job satisfaction (β = 0.079, p = .002), even after adjusting for covariates (β = 0.083, p < .001; β = 0.104, p < .001; β = 0.060, p = .015, respectively). The results indicate that meditation practice may positively influence job performance, including job satisfaction, subjective job performance

  7. The Association between Meditation Practice and Job Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Minami; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that meditation practice has a positive impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning, which are related to job performance. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of individuals who practice meditation, and (3) examine the association between meditation practice and job performance. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and the characteristics of the persons practicing meditation; in Study 2, we examined the association between meditation practice and job performance. The outcome variables included work engagement, subjective job performance, and job satisfaction. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was used to assess work engagement, the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was used to measure subjective job performance, and a scale developed by the Japanese government was used to assess job satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used in Study 2. Demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were included as covariates in the analyses. The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were younger and had a higher education, higher household income, higher stress level, and lower body mass index than those who did not practice meditation. The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = 0.112, p < .001), subjective job performance (β = 0.116, p < .001), and job satisfaction (β = 0.079, p = .002), even after adjusting for covariates (β = 0.083, p < .001; β = 0.104, p < .001; β = 0.060, p = .015, respectively). The results indicate that meditation practice may positively influence job performance, including job satisfaction, subjective job performance

  8. AORN guidance statement: safe on-call practices in perioperative practice settings. Association of periOperative Registered Nurses.

    PubMed

    2005-05-01

    Call staffing and the associated long work hours can be challenging for both perioperative staff members and the health care organization. A change in culture is needed to recognize exhaustion as an unacceptable risk to patients and perioperative personnel safety. Perioperative health care providers have a personal responsibility to arrive at work fully rested. Health care organizations have a responsibility to create work and call schedules that consider the effect of long work hours on patient safety as well as perioperative staff members' welfare. The development of standardized safe work hours and call practices should reflect current recommendations emerging from authoritative sources, legislation, and empirical data. Prolonged work periods without adequate rest may contribute to diminished performance by perioperative personnel, placing both patients and workers at risk. This guidance statement may assist managers and clinicians in developing policies and procedures for safe call practices.

  9. Associations between reading achievement and independent reading in early elementary school: a genetically informative cross-lagged study.

    PubMed

    Harlaar, Nicole; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee A; Dethorne, Laura S; Petrill, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    This study used a cross-lagged twin design to examine reading achievement and independent reading from 10 to 11 years (n = 436 twin pairs). Reading achievement at age 10 significantly predicted independent reading at age 11. The alternative path, from independent reading at age 10 to reading achievement at age 11, was not significant. Individual differences in reading achievement and independent reading at both ages were primarily due to genetic influences. Furthermore, individual differences in independent reading at age 11 partly reflected genetic influences on reading achievement at age 10. These findings suggest that genetic influences that contribute to individual differences in children's reading abilities also influence the extent to which children actively seek out and create opportunities to read.

  10. Executive function is independently associated with performances of balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke: implications for falls prevention

    PubMed Central

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Pang, Marco; Eng, Janice J

    2015-01-01

    Background Stroke survivors have a high incidence of falls. Impaired executive-controlled processes are frequent in stroke survivors and are associated with falls in this population. Better understanding of the independent association between executive-controlled processes and physiological fall risk (i.e. performances of balance and mobility) could enhance future interventions that aim to prevent falls and to promote an independent lifestyle among stroke survivors. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 63 adults who suffered a mild stroke >1 year prior to the study, aged > or =50 years. Results Cognitive flexibility was independently associated with performances of balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke, after accounting for age, quadriceps strength of the paretic side and current physical activity level. Conclusions Clinicians may need to consider cognitive function when assessing and treating impaired balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke. PMID:17143004

  11. Conduct disorder in females is associated with reduced corpus callosum structural integrity independent of comorbid disorders and exposure to maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, P; Savic, I; Sitnikov, R; Budhiraja, M; Liu, Y; Jokinen, J; Tiihonen, J; Hodgins, S

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral phenotype and genotype of conduct disorder (CD) differ in males and females. Abnormalities of white matter integrity have been reported among males with CD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Little is known about white matter integrity in females with CD. The present study aimed to determine whether abnormalities of white matter are present among young women who presented CD before the age of 15, and whether abnormalities are independent of the multiple comorbid disorders and experiences of maltreatment characterizing females with CD that may each in themselves be associated with alterations of the white matter. Three groups of women, aged on average 24 years, were scanned using diffusion tensor imaging and compared: 28 with prior CD, three of whom presented ASPD; a clinical comparison (CC) group of 15 women with no history of CD but with similar proportions who presented alcohol dependence, drug dependence, anxiety disorders, depression disorders and physical and sexual abuse as the CD group; and 24 healthy women. Whole-brain, tract-based spatial statistics were computed to investigate differences in fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity. Compared with healthy women, women with prior CD showed widespread reductions in axial diffusivity primarily in frontotemporal regions. After statistically adjusting for comorbid disorders and maltreatment, group differences in the corpus callosum body and genu (including forceps minor) remained significant. Compared with the CC group, women with CD showed reduced fractional anisotropy in the body and genu of the corpus callosum. No differences were detected between the CD and healthy women in the uncinate fasciculus. PMID:26784968

  12. Diversity of Termitomyces Associated with Fungus-Farming Termites Assessed by Cultural and Culture-Independent Methods

    PubMed Central

    Makonde, Huxley M.; Boga, Hamadi I.; Osiemo, Zipporah; Mwirichia, Romano; Stielow, J. Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. Methodology Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. Results and Conclusion Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs). However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is suggested to base the

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, independent of insulin use, is associated with an increased risk of cardiac complications after vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Bakker, E J; Valentijn, T M; van de Luijtgaarden, K M; Hoeks, S E; Voute, M T; Goncalves, F B; Verhagen, H J; Stolker, R J

    2013-09-01

    Previous reports on the prognostic value of diabetes mellitus for cardiac complications after vascular surgery show divergent results, especially in regards to the role of type 2 diabetes as a cardiac risk factor, which remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of type 2 diabetes on 30-day cardiac complications after vascular surgery. Patients undergoing elective vascular surgery between 2002 and 2011 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Previous diagnosis of type 1 and 2 diabetes and use of oral glucose-lowering medications and insulin were recorded. Patients with type 1 diabetes were excluded from the analysis. The main outcome parameter was cardiac complications, a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, severe arrhythmia and asymptomatic troponin release within 30 days of surgery. In multivariate analysis, corrections were made for comorbidities, demographics, medication use and surgical risk. Of 1462 patients, 329 (22.5%) patients had type 2 diabetes. Cardiac complications occurred in 155 (13.7%) patients without diabetes and in 68 (20.7%) with type 2 diabetes. In multivariate analysis, type 2 diabetes was associated with a significantly increased risk of 30-day cardiac complications (odds ratio 1.80; 95% confidence interval 1.25 to 2.60). Results were similar for type 2 diabetes patients managed with (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 3.37) and without (odds ratio 1.79; 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 2.70) insulin. Type 2 diabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiac complications after vascular surgery and should be treated as such in preoperative cardiac risk stratification.

  14. Emotional Eating Phenotype is Associated with Central Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding Independent of Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Bischoff, Allison N.; Gredysa, Danuta M.; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Al-Lozi, Amal; Pepino, Marta Y.; Klein, Samuel; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Black, Kevin J.; Hershey, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    PET studies have provided mixed evidence regarding central D2/D3 dopamine receptor binding and its relationship with obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI). Other aspects of obesity may be more tightly coupled to the dopaminergic system. We characterized obesity-associated behaviors and determined if these related to central D2 receptor (D2R) specific binding independent of BMI. Twenty-two obese and 17 normal-weight participants completed eating- and reward-related questionnaires and underwent PET scans using the D2R-selective and nondisplaceable radioligand (N-[11C]methyl)benperidol. Questionnaires were grouped by domain (eating related to emotion, eating related to reward, non-eating behavior motivated by reward or sensitivity to punishment). Normalized, summed scores for each domain were compared between obese and normal-weight groups and correlated with striatal and midbrain D2R binding. Compared to normal-weight individuals, the obese group self-reported higher rates of eating related to both emotion and reward (p < 0.001), greater sensitivity to punishment (p = 0.06), and lower non-food reward behavior (p < 0.01). Across normal-weight and obese participants, self-reported emotional eating and non-food reward behavior positively correlated with striatal (p < 0.05) and midbrain (p < 0.05) D2R binding, respectively. In conclusion, an emotional eating phenotype may reflect altered central D2R function better than other commonly used obesity-related measures such as BMI. PMID:26066863

  15. Emotional Eating Phenotype is Associated with Central Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding Independent of Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Sarah A; Bischoff, Allison N; Gredysa, Danuta M; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V; Koller, Jonathan M; Al-Lozi, Amal; Pepino, Marta Y; Klein, Samuel; Perlmutter, Joel S; Moerlein, Stephen M; Black, Kevin J; Hershey, Tamara

    2015-06-12

    PET studies have provided mixed evidence regarding central D2/D3 dopamine receptor binding and its relationship with obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI). Other aspects of obesity may be more tightly coupled to the dopaminergic system. We characterized obesity-associated behaviors and determined if these related to central D2 receptor (D2R) specific binding independent of BMI. Twenty-two obese and 17 normal-weight participants completed eating- and reward-related questionnaires and underwent PET scans using the D2R-selective and nondisplaceable radioligand (N-[(11)C]methyl)benperidol. Questionnaires were grouped by domain (eating related to emotion, eating related to reward, non-eating behavior motivated by reward or sensitivity to punishment). Normalized, summed scores for each domain were compared between obese and normal-weight groups and correlated with striatal and midbrain D2R binding. Compared to normal-weight individuals, the obese group self-reported higher rates of eating related to both emotion and reward (p<0.001), greater sensitivity to punishment (p=0.06), and lower non-food reward behavior (p<0.01). Across normal-weight and obese participants, self-reported emotional eating and non-food reward behavior positively correlated with striatal (p<0.05) and midbrain (p<0.05) D2R binding, respectively. In conclusion, an emotional eating phenotype may reflect altered central D2R function better than other commonly used obesity-related measures such as BMI.

  16. Implementation of a Positive Development, Evidence-Supported Practice for Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions: The Transition to Independence Process (TIP) Model.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Karyn; Clark, Hewitt B; Deschênes, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Transition into adulthood represents a particularly challenging period for youth and young adults with serious mental health conditions and related needs. The Transition to Independence Process (TIP) model is based on a positive development approach and has been demonstrated to be an evidence-supported practice for preparing emerging adults in their movement into employment/career, education, living situation, personal effectiveness/well-being, and community-life functioning--and to be responsive to their families. This article describes the TIP model from a positive youth development framework, its empirical underpinnings, and the fidelity and outcome tracking tools that have been developed for use with transition sites for implementation and sustainability. A research study on the fidelity tools showed their reliability and validity and a second study presents progress and outcome findings for youth and young adults at a new TIP model site. The implications of the TIP model and these findings are discussed.

  17. Comparing Drug-Disease Associations in Clinical Practice Guideline Recommendations and Drug Product Label Indications.

    PubMed

    Leung, Tiffany I; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and structured product labels (SPLs) are both intended to promote evidence-based medical practices and guide clinicians' prescribing decisions. However, it is unclear how well CPG recommendations about pharmacologic therapies for certain diseases match SPL indications for recommended drugs. In this study, we use publicly available data and text mining methods to examine drug-disease associations in CPG recommendations and SPL treatment indications for 15 common chronic conditions. Preliminary results suggest that there is a mismatch between guideline-recommended pharmacologic therapies and SPL indications. Conflicting or inconsistent recommendations and indications may complicate clinical decision making and implementation or measurement of best practices.

  18. Factors associated with nursing students' adherence to venous blood collection practice guidelines - A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Karin; Brulin, Christine; Grankvist, Kjell; Juthberg, Christina

    2017-03-01

    Venous blood specimen collection is a common procedure that nursing students perform during pre-registration courses, and training for such collections takes place on campus as well as at clinical placements. However, levels of adherence to practice guidelines are still suboptimal among both nursing students and healthcare staff. We aimed to explore nursing students' adherence to the Swedish national venous blood specimen collection practice guidelines regarding patient identification and test request management and how this adherence is related to clinical experience, capability beliefs, research use, and the perceived social climate in clinical contexts. A survey with a cross-sectional design was conducted among 305 nursing students at a medium-sized university in Sweden. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The survey showed that 82% of the students adhered to patient identification guideline practices and 80% to test request management practices. Factors associated with correct patient identification procedures were semester and frequency of research use. Factors associated with correct test request management were previous healthcare work experience, semester, and capability beliefs regarding academic abilities and evidence-based practice. We conclude that there is a need to develop educational tools to train students in research use and evidence-based practice in order to enhance guideline practice adherence and improve patient safety.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with menopause: a multi-ethnic, qualitative study in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Sandra; Teo, Stephanie Swee Hong; Dramusic, Vesna; Lee, Hwee Khim; Boughton, Maureen

    2014-05-01

    We explored knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with the menopause transition particular to women in the multi-ethnic cultural context of Singapore. Fifty-eight Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporean women participated in interviews that were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Women from all three ethnicities described an attitude of acceptance surrounding menopause and the changes associated with it. While they thought it was important to be informed, they did not seek out information about menopause and did not view health professionals as useful sources of information. Management practices were diverse and rarely involved accessing health professionals.

  20. Factors Associated with Use of Evidence-Based Practice Strategies in Usual Care Youth Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Haine, Rachel A.; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Zoffness, Rachel; Garland, Ann F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of how therapists providing usual care (UC) psychotherapy are using elements of treatment common to evidence-based practices (EBPs) for children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBPs) and to identify client and therapist characteristics that may be associated with EBP strategies directed toward children and those directed to their caregivers. Results indicate that certain child, family, and therapist characteristics are associated with use of EBP strategies; however, much of the variability in practice was not explained by the variables examined. These findings highlight the complexity of UC psychotherapy and provide directions for future research on implementation of EBPs in UC. PMID:19795204

  1. Association between Australian-Indian mothers' controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits.

    PubMed

    Jani, Rati; Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits. The secondary aim studied the relationship between controlling feeding practices and two proxy indicators of diet quality. Participants were 203 Australian-Indian mothers with children aged 1-5 years. Controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring) and children's appetite traits (food approach traits: food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, desire to drink, emotional overeating; food avoidance traits: satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and emotional undereating) were measured using self-reported, previously validated scales/questionnaires. Children's daily frequency of consumption of core and non-core foods was estimated using a 49-item list of foods eaten (yes/no) in the previous 24 hours as an indicator of diet quality. Higher pressure to eat was associated with higher scores for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and lower score for enjoyment of food. Higher restriction was related to higher scores for food responsiveness and emotional overeating. Higher monitoring was inversely associated with fussiness, slowness in eating, food responsiveness and emotional overeating and positively associated with enjoyment of food. Pressure to eat and monitoring were related to lower number of core and non-core foods consumed in the previous 24 hours, respectively. All associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal and child covariates (n = 152 due to missing data). In conclusion, pressure to eat was associated with higher food avoidance traits and lower consumption of core foods. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with higher food approach traits. In contrast, monitoring practices were related to lower food avoidance and food approach traits and lower non-core food consumption.

  2. Gangliosides and Nogo receptors independently mediate myelin-associated glycoprotein inhibition of neurite outgrowth in different nerve cells.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Niraj R; Lopez, Pablo H H; Vyas, Alka A; Schnaar, Ronald L

    2007-09-21

    In the injured nervous system, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) on residual myelin binds to receptors on axons, inhibits axon outgrowth, and limits functional recovery. Conflicting reports identify gangliosides (GD1a and GT1b) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Nogo receptors (NgRs) as exclusive axonal receptors for MAG. We used enzymes and pharmacological agents to distinguish the relative roles of gangliosides and NgRs in MAG-mediated inhibition of neurite outgrowth from three nerve cell types, dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs), cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), and hippocampal neurons. Primary rat neurons were cultured on control substrata and substrata adsorbed with full-length native MAG extracted from purified myelin. The receptors responsible for MAG inhibition of neurite outgrowth varied with nerve cell type. In DRGNs, most of the MAG inhibition was via NgRs, evidenced by reversal of inhibition by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), which cleaves glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors, or by NEP1-40, a peptide inhibitor of NgR. A smaller percentage of MAG inhibition of DRGN outgrowth was via gangliosides, evidenced by partial reversal by addition of sialidase to cleave GD1a and GT1b or by P4, an inhibitor of ganglioside biosynthesis. Combining either PI-PLC and sialidase or NEP1-40 and P4 was additive. In contrast to DRGNs, in CGNs MAG inhibition was exclusively via gangliosides, whereas inhibition of hippocampal neuron outgrowth was mostly reversed by sialidase or P4 and only modestly reversed by PI-PLC or NEP1-40 in a non-additive fashion. A soluble proteolytic fragment of native MAG, dMAG, also inhibited neurite outgrowth. In DRGNs, dMAG inhibition was exclusively NgR-dependent, whereas in CGNs it was exclusively ganglioside-dependent. An inhibitor of Rho kinase reversed MAG-mediated inhibition in all nerve cells, whereas a peptide inhibitor of the transducer p75(NTR) had cell-specific effects quantitatively similar to Ng

  3. Culture-independent techniques for rapid detection of bacteria associated with loss of chloramine residual in a drinking water system.

    PubMed

    Hoefel, Daniel; Monis, Paul T; Grooby, Warwick L; Andrews, Stuart; Saint, Christopher P

    2005-11-01

    Chloramination is often the disinfection regimen of choice for extended drinking water systems. However, this process is prone to instability due to the growth of nitrifying bacteria. This is the first study to use alternative approaches for rapid investigation of chloraminated drinking water system instability in which flow cytometric cell sorting of bacteria with intact membranes (membrane-intact fraction) (BacLight kit) or with active esterases (esterase-active fraction) (carboxyfluorescein diacetate) was combined with 16S rRNA gene-directed PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). No active bacteria were detected when water left the water treatment plant (WTP), but 12 km downstream the chloramine residual had diminished and the level of active bacteria in the bulk water had increased to more than 1 x 10(5) bacteria ml(-1). The bacterial diversity in the system was represented by six major DGGE bands for the membrane-intact fraction and 10 major DGGE bands for the esterase-active fraction. PCR targeting of the 16S rRNA gene of chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and subsequent DGGE and DNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of an active Nitrosospira-related species and Nitrosomonas cryotolerans in the system, but no AOB were detected in the associated WTP. The abundance of active AOB was then determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the amoA gene; 3.43 x 10(3) active AOB ml(-1) were detected in the membrane-intact fraction, and 1.40 x 10(4) active AOB ml(-1) were detected in the esterase-active fraction. These values were several orders of magnitude greater than the 2.5 AOB ml(-1) detected using a routine liquid most-probable-number assay. Culture-independent techniques described here, in combination with existing chemical indicators, should allow the water industry to obtain more comprehensive data with which to make informed decisions regarding remedial action that may be required either prior to or during an

  4. HPV-independent Differentiated Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (dVIN) is Associated With an Aggressive Clinical Course.

    PubMed

    McAlpine, Jessica N; Kim, So Youn; Akbari, Ardalan; Eshragh, Sima; Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Prigge, Elena S; Jordan, Suzanne; Singh, Naveena; Miller, Dianne M; Gilks, C Blake

    2017-03-17

    Differentiated vulvar intrapeithelial neoplasia (dVIN) is an human papillomavirus (HPV)-independent precursor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and the aim of this study was to better characterize its natural history. Cases of dVIN were identified from the pathology archives. Outcomes of patients with dVIN only, without associated invasive SCC, were compared with a cohort of patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL(VIN3)]. Eighteen patients diagnosed with dVIN with adjacent invasive SCC (SCC/dVIN) and 7 patients with dVIN only, without invasive carcinoma, were identified. Mean age in both cohorts was 75 yr. All lesions but 1 were unifocal. In 35% of SCC/dVIN cases the surgical resection margins were positive for SCC, with 75% and 60% having margins positive for dVIN in the SCC/dVIN and dVIN-only cohorts, respectively. In total, 23/25 women with dVIN only or dVIN/SCC, for whom there was follow-up information, experienced either progression to or recurrence of invasive SCC, respectively, at a median of 1.1 yr, including all but 1 case of dVIN only, where the median time of progression to invasive SCC was 1.9 yr. A total of 22/25 women died of disease with a median overall survival of 3.4 yr. The outcome (i.e. progression to invasive carcinoma) of patients with dVIN only was significantly worse than that of a comparison group of 18 patients with HSIL(VIN3) (progression-free survival log-rank, P<0.001; disease-specific survival, P=0.04; overall survival, P=0.01). Six of 7 patients with dVIN only developed invasive carcinoma on follow-up, compared with 0 of 18 patients with HSIL(VIN3). The diagnosis of dVIN indicates the presence of a high-risk human papillomavirus-negative precursor of invasive SCC. These patients are likely to progress to invasive carcinoma over a relatively short period, at which point their prognosis is guarded.

  5. Burden of diseases estimates associated to different red meat cooking practices.

    PubMed

    Berjia, Firew Lemma; Poulsen, Morten; Nauta, Maarten

    2014-04-01

    The burden of disease estimate has been performed for diseases attributable to nutritional deficiency, foodborne pathogens, the environment, infection and other factors. However, the burden of disease estimate attributable to different food processing practices has not been investigated before. The aim of this study is to compare the burden of disease estimate attributed to red meat consumption processed using different cooking practices. The red meat cooking practices were categorized into three: (A) barbecuing/grilling; (B) frying/broiling and (C) roasting/baking. The associated endpoints, affected population, intake and dose-response data are obtained by literature survey. The selected endpoints are four types of cancer: colorectal, prostate, breast and pancreatic. The burden of disease per cooking practice, endpoint, sex and age is estimated in the Danish population, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as a common health metric. The results reveal that the consumption of barbecued red meat is associated with the highest disease burden, followed by fried red meat and roasted red meat. The method used to quantify the difference in disease burden of different cooking practices can help to inform the consumer to make a choice on whether the benefit of a preferred cooking style is worth the associated health loss.

  6. 'Independence' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Independence' Panorama (QTVR)

    This is the Spirit 'Independence' panorama, acquired on martian days, or sols, 536 to 543 (July 6 to 13, 2005), from a position in the 'Columbia Hills' near the summit of 'Husband Hill.' The summit of 'Husband Hill' is the peak near the right side of this panorama and is about 100 meters (328 feet) away from the rover and about 30 meters (98 feet) higher in elevation. The rocky outcrops downhill and on the left side of this mosaic include 'Larry's Lookout' and 'Cumberland Ridge,' which Spirit explored in April, May, and June of 2005.

    The panorama spans 360 degrees and consists of 108 individual images, each acquired with five filters of the rover's panoramic camera. The approximate true color of the mosaic was generated using the camera's 750-, 530-, and 480-nanometer filters. During the 8 martian days, or sols, that it took to acquire this image, the lighting varied considerably, partly because of imaging at different times of sol, and partly because of small sol-to-sol variations in the dustiness of the atmosphere. These slight changes produced some image seams and rock shadows. These seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. However, it is often not possible or practical to smooth out such seams for regions of rock, soil, rover tracks or solar panels. Such is the nature of acquiring and assembling large panoramas from the rovers.

  7. Association Between Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing Practices and Community-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dantes, Raymund; Mu, Yi; Hicks, Lauri A.; Cohen, Jessica; Bamberg, Wendy; Beldavs, Zintars G.; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Farley, Monica M.; Holzbauer, Stacy; Meek, James; Phipps, Erin; Wilson, Lucy; Winston, Lisa G.; McDonald, L. Clifford; Lessa, Fernanda C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Antibiotic use predisposes patients to Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), and approximately 32% of these infections are community-associated (CA) CDI. The population-level impact of antibiotic use on adult CA-CDI rates is not well described. Methods. We used 2011 active population- and laboratory-based surveillance data from 9 US geographic locations to identify adult CA-CDI cases, defined as C difficile-positive stool specimens (by toxin or molecular assay) collected from outpatients or from patients ≤3 days after hospital admission. All patients were surveillance area residents and aged ≥20 years with no positive test ≤8 weeks prior and no overnight stay in a healthcare facility ≤12 weeks prior. Outpatient oral antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in 2010 were obtained from the IMS Health Xponent database. Regression models examined the association between outpatient antibiotic prescribing and adult CA-CDI rates. Methods. Healthcare providers prescribed 5.2 million courses of antibiotics among adults in the surveillance population in 2010, for an average of 0.73 per person. Across surveillance sites, antibiotic prescription rates (0.50–0.88 prescriptions per capita) and unadjusted CA-CDI rates (40.7–139.3 cases per 100 000 persons) varied. In regression modeling, reducing antibiotic prescribing rates by 10% among persons ≥20 years old was associated with a 17% (95% confidence interval, 6.0%–26.3%; P = .032) decrease in CA-CDI rates after adjusting for age, gender, race, and type of diagnostic assay. Reductions in prescribing penicillins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were associated with the greatest decreases in CA-CDI rates. Conclusions and Relevance. Community-associated CDI prevention should include reducing unnecessary outpatient antibiotic use. A modest reduction of 10% in outpatient antibiotic prescribing can have a disproportionate impact on reducing CA-CDI rates. PMID:26509182

  8. Private Higher Education: The Job Ahead, Volume 12. 1983 Annual Meeting Talks of the American Association of Presidents of Independent Colleges and Universities (Scottsdale, Arizona, December 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Presidents of Independent Colleges and Universities, Rockford, IL.

    Trends and issues in higher education are discussed in six papers from the 1983 annual meeting of the American Association of Presidents of Independent Colleges and Universities. In "Innovation Versus Reform in Higher Education" Alston Chase reviews trends, including citizenship instruction, the general education movement, a focus on science,…

  9. Associations Between Individual and Family Level Characteristics and Parenting Practices in Incarcerated African American Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Melvin N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent incarcerated) and family level (number of relationships that have borne children) characteristics were significantly associated with their parenting practices. Based on canonical correlation analysis, on function one, responsive parenting was positively associated with education level and negatively associated with both cumulative incarceration time and more numerous partner fertility. Restrictive parenting was negatively associated with education level and positively associated with both cumulative incarceration time and more numerous partner fertility. Function 2 capitalized on variance in the restrictive parenting predictor that was not utilized in function 1, and likely captured lack of opportunity to parent. On function 2, restrictive parenting was negatively associated with cumulative time spent incarcerated and more numerous partner fertility. In all, results suggest that prison-based education programs should be part of an overall response to incarcerated fathers. These results add to the growing body of research on incarcerated fathers and fragile families. PMID:19802371

  10. Associations among School Characteristics and Foodservice Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample of United States Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy food service offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Participants: Data from the 2006 School Health Policies…

  11. Appraising the Literature On Bathing Practices And Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention.

    PubMed

    Strouse, Abigail C

    2015-01-01

    As pressure for reduced catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA UTI) rates continues, health care organizations are challenged to find new methods for infection prevention. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the evidence regarding the impact of bathing practices, particularly non-basin bathing, on CAUTI prevention.

  12. Association for Specialists in Group Work: Best Practice Guidelines 2007 Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Valorie; Pender, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    The Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) supports the practice of ethical and effective group work through the publication of guiding principles in planning, performing and processing group work. Originally prepared, approved and published in 1998 (ASGW; Rapin and Keel), the current revision addresses changes in the American Counseling…

  13. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…

  14. The Association between Suicide Screening Practices and Attempts Requiring Emergency Care in Juvenile Justice Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Catherine A.; Dobrin, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide a national description of suicide screening practices in juvenile residential facilities and to examine their association with whether facilities experience a suicide attempt. Method: Multivariate modeling with data from the 2000 Juvenile Residential Facility Census (n = 3690 facilities). Results: Controlling for facility…

  15. Structural Changes after Videogame Practice Related to a Brain Network Associated with Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Quiroga, Ma. Angeles; Solana, Ana Beatriz; Burgaleta, Miguel; Roman, Francisco J.; Privado, Jesus; Escorial, Sergio; Martinez, Kenia; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Alfayate, Eva; Garcia, Felipe; Lepage, Claude; Hernandez-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Karama, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    Here gray and white matter changes after four weeks of videogame practice were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), cortical surface and cortical thickness indices, and white matter integrity computed from several projection, commissural, and association tracts relevant to cognition. Beginning with a sample of one hundred young…

  16. The Impact of Child Development Associate Training on the Beliefs and Practices of Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisner, Mary Jane; Lederberg, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of Child Development Associate (CDA) training on the beliefs and practices of early childhood teachers who did not have college degrees or early childhood college coursework. Preschool teachers who were enrolled in CDA classes (n = 76) and a comparison group of teachers (n = 50) completed two surveys of beliefs and…

  17. Association of spring pruning practices with severity of powdery mildew and downy mildew on hop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew and powdery mildew are important diseases of hop in the Pacific Northwest USA, and cultural practices may affect the severity of both diseases. The association of spring pruning quality and timing with severity of downy and powdery mildew from commercial hop yards in Oregon and Washingt...

  18. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  19. Association Between Pain and Functional Independence in Older Adults During and After Admission to Rehabilitation After an Acute Illness or Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Juan C.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Fung, Constance H.; Jouldjian, Stella; Josephson, Karen R.; Mitchell, Michael N.; Song, Yeonsu; Martin, Jennifer L.; Alessi, Cathy A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the association between pain and functional independence in older adults during and after admission to rehabilitation after an acute illness or injury. DESIGN Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING One community and one Veterans Affairs rehabilitation center. PARTICIPANTS Individuals aged 65 and older admitted for rehabilitation after an acute illness or injury (postacute rehabilitation) (N = 245; mean age 80.6, 72% male)). MEASUREMENTS Pain was assessed using the Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM, score 0–100). Functional independence was measured using the motor component of the Functional Independence Measure (mFIM, score 13–91). Both scores were obtained at admission; discharge; and 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-up. In bivariate analyses, discharge GPM and persistent pain (lasting >3 months) were evaluated as predictors of mFIM score at 9 months. Applying a multilevel modeling (MLM) approach, individual deviations in GPM scores were used to predict variations in mFIM. RESULTS At admission, 210 participants (87.9%) reported pain (16.3% mild (GPM<30); 49.3% moderate (GPM: 30–69); 22.1% severe (GPM>70)); 21.3% reported persistent pain after discharge. The bivariate analyses did not find statistically significant associations between discharge GPM or persistent pain and mFIM score at 9 months, but in the MLM analysis, deviations in GPM were significant predictors of deviations in mFIM score, suggesting that, when individuals experienced above-average levels of pain (GPM > their personal mean GPM), they also experienced worse functional independence (mFIM < their personal mean mFIM). CONCLUSION Twenty-one percent of older adults undergoing postacute rehabilitation reported persistent pain after discharge from rehabilitation. The bivariate analysis did not find association between pain and functional independence, but MLM analysis showed that, when participants experienced more pain than their average, they had less functional

  20. Independent Contributions of Mothers' and Fathers' Language and Literacy Practices: Associations with Children's Kindergarten Skills across Linguistically Diverse Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Jacqueline; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Home language and literacy inputs have been consistently linked with enhanced language and literacy skills among children. Most studies have focused on maternal inputs among monolingual populations. Though the proportion of American children growing up in primarily non-English-speaking homes is growing and the role of fathers in…

  1. An independent validation association study of carcass quality, shear force, intramuscular fat percentage and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content with gene markers in Australian lamb.

    PubMed

    Knight, Matthew I; Daetwyler, Hans D; Hayes, Ben J; Hayden, Matthew J; Ball, Alex J; Pethick, David W; McDonagh, Matthew B

    2014-02-01

    Previous association studies revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that explained the observed phenotypic variation for meat tenderness and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of Australian lamb. To confirm the validity of these associated SNPs at predicting meat tenderness and omega-3 PUFA content, an independent validation study was designed. The OvineSNP50 genotypes of these animals were used to impute the 192 SNP Meat Quality Research (MQR) panel genotypes on nearly 6200 animals from the Cooperative Research Centre for Sheep Industry Innovation Information Nucleus Flock and Sheep Genomics Falkiner Memorial Field Station flock. Association analysis revealed numerous SNP from the 192 SNP MQR panel that were associated with carcass quality - fat depth at the C-site and eye muscle depth; shear force at day 1 and day 5 after slaughter (SF1 and SF5); and omega-3 PUFA content at P<0.01. However, 1 SNP was independently validated for SF5 (i.e. CAST_101781475). The magnitude of the effect of each significant SNP and the relative allele frequencies across Merino-, Maternal- and Terminal-sired progeny was determined. The independently validated SNP for SF5 and the associated SNP with omega-3 PUFA content will accelerate efforts to improve these phenotypic traits in Australian lamb.

  2. Expanded Scopes Of Practice For Dental Hygienists Associated With Improved Oral Health Outcomes For Adults.

    PubMed

    Langelier, Margaret; Continelli, Tracey; Moore, Jean; Baker, Bridget; Surdu, Simona

    2016-12-01

    Dental hygienists are important members of the oral health care team, providing preventive and prophylactic services and oral health education. However, scope-of-practice parameters in some states limit their ability to provide needed services effectively. In 2001 we developed the Dental Hygiene Professional Practice Index, a numerical tool to measure the state-level professional practice environment for dental hygienists. We used the index to score state-level scopes of practice in all fifty states and the District of Columbia in 2001 and 2014. The mean composite score on the index increased from 43.5 in 2001 to 57.6 in 2014, on a 100-point scale. We also analyzed the association of each state's composite score with an oral health outcome: tooth extractions among the adult population because of decay or disease. After we controlled for individual- and state-level factors, we found in multilevel modeling that more autonomous dental hygienist scope of practice had a positive and significant association with population oral health in both 2001 and 2014.

  3. Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Molineri, Ana I; Signorini, Marcelo L; Cuatrín, Alejandra L; Canavesio, Vilma R; Neder, Verónica E; Russi, Norma B; Bonazza, Julio C; Calvinho, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC), proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC) and lipolytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC) (dependent or outcome variables). A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables) was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily) was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml) than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.

  4. Are food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices associated with adolescent disordered eating behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Katie A.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between parental pressure-to-eat and food restriction and adolescent disordered eating behaviors, within a sample of parent-adolescent pairs. Method Adolescents (N=2231) and their parents (N=3431) participated in two, coordinated, population-based studies designed to examine factors associated with weight and weight-related behaviors in adolescents. Results Overall, higher levels of pressure-to-eat or food restriction was significantly and positively associated with use of disordered eating behaviors among boys. For every one unit increase [Scale Range: 1-(low control) to 4 – (high control)] in mothers’ food restriction, boys were twice as likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors (p≤0.01). Examination of the association between food-related parenting practices and disordered eating behaviors among girls revealed fewer significant associations. However, analyses did reveal that for every one unit increase in mothers’ food restriction, girls were 1.33 times more likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors (p=0.04). Discussion Study findings provide evidence of an association between controlling food-related parenting practices and adolescent disordered eating behaviors, particularly in boys. Future longitudinal research is needed to establish directionality of observed associations. PMID:24105668

  5. Music practice is associated with development of working memory during childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Darki, Fahimeh; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-01-01

    Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however, the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM) during development. Subjects (n = 352) between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64) on two or three occasions, 2 years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002), processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027) and reasoning (Raven’s progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p < 0.001) across all three time points, after correcting for the effect of parental education and other after school activities. Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008), areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006) but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090). These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other after school activities. In conclusion, these results indicate that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence. PMID:24431997

  6. Associations between demographic characteristics and physical activity practices in Nevada schools.

    PubMed

    Monnat, Shannon M; Lounsbery, Monica A F; McKenzie, Thomas L; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2017-02-01

    Schools are important settings for not only providing and promoting children's physical activity (PA) but also for reducing PA disparities. We investigated associations between school-level demographic characteristics (racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition, urban-rural status, and student-to-teacher ratio) and 16 PA-promoting practices in 347 Nevada public elementary, middle, and high schools in 2014. We found that low-cost and easy-to-implement practices are most prevalent. There is relative demographic equity in ten of 16 PA practices and significant differences in six PA practices in Nevada schools. Schools with comparatively larger percentages of Black students are the most disadvantaged, as they have the fewest PA-supportive practices in place. Higher percent black was associated with lower odds of providing classroom activity breaks (AOR=0.632, 95% CI=0.453-0.881) and bike racks (AOR=0.60, 95% CI=0.362-0.996), greater odds of withholding recess/PE for disciplinary reasons (AOR=1.377, 95% CI=1.006-1.885), and lower odds of having recess supervisors who are trained to promote PA (AOR=0.583, 95% CI=0.374-0.909). Schools with greater percentages of Hispanic students have lower odds of providing before-school PA programs (AOR=0.867, 95% CI=0.761-0.987), whereas schools with greater percentages of low-SES students have greater odds of providing after-school PA programs (AOR=1.135, 95% CI=1.016-1.268). Higher student-to-teacher ratio was also associated with greater odds of providing after-school PA programs (AOR=1.135, 95% CI=1.016-1.268). Urban-rural status was unrelated to all PA practices.

  7. Music practice is associated with development of working memory during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Darki, Fahimeh; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-01-07

    Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however, the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM) during development. Subjects (n = 352) between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64) on two or three occasions, 2 years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002), processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027) and reasoning (Raven's progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p < 0.001) across all three time points, after correcting for the effect of parental education and other after school activities. Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008), areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006) but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090). These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other after school activities. In conclusion, these results indicate that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence.

  8. Statutory Reform is Associated with Improved Court Practice: Results of a Tri-State Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Moye, Jennifer; Wood, Erica; Edelstein, Barry; Wood, Stacey; Bower, Emily H.; Harrison, Julie A.; Armesto, Jorge C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates the impact of statutory reform in adult guardianship on court practice. Methods Case files for 298 cases of adult guardianship were reviewed in three states with varying degrees of statutory reform: MA (no reform), PA (major amendments in 1992), and CO (full re-enactment of statute per UGPPA in 2000). Five court practices associated with progressive statutory reform were studied: (1) diversion to less restrictive alternatives; (2) minimal and appropriate use of emergency procedures; (3) presence of the alleged incapacitated person at the hearing; (4) use of functional evaluation; (5) use of limited orders. Results CO more frequently utilized all five practices, whereas PA used diversion to less restrictive alternatives and less frequent emergency procedures, but not other practices. MA files rarely showed evidence for use of any of these reforms. Implications Statutory reform may improve court practice. More study of the effects of reform on court practices, and the vulnerable adults served by these courts, is needed. PMID:17506075

  9. Parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kajula, Lusajo J; Darling, Nancy; Kaaya, Sylvia F; De Vries, Hein

    2016-11-01

    Parenting styles and practices are suggested to be important predictors of adolescent sexual health, mostly in Europe and North America. Limited research has been conducted on these processes in Sub-Saharan Africa, which has different patterns of adolescent sexual behavior and family traditions. This study qualitatively explored parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Tanzania, with 12 adolescents and 12 parents of adolescents. The themes we identified from the data included parental monitoring, preventive, and punitive behaviors. Parents were reported to use mostly punitive behaviors to correct or prohibit sexual behavior; parents also set clear rules about appropriate sexual behavior (e.g., modesty and abstinence). Parents were also reported to closely monitor their adolescent children's friendships and sexual behavior to minimize sexual behavior. However, some parents also engaged in positive preventive practices aimed at protecting their adolescent children.

  10. Moderate activity and fitness, not sedentary time, are independently associated with cardio-metabolic risk in U.S. adults aged 18-49.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Jeroen H P M; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Koster, Annemarie

    2015-02-23

    This cross-sectional study is one of the first to examine and compare the independent associations of objectively measured sedentary time, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and fitness with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied 543 men and women (aged 18-49 years) from the NHANES 2003-2004 survey. Sedentary time and MVPA were measured by accelerometry. Fitness was assessed with a submaximal treadmill test. Cardio-metabolic risk factors included: waist circumference (WC), BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HDL- and non HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Sedentary time, MVPA and fitness were used as predictors for the cardio-metabolic outcomes in a multiple regression analysis. Standardized regression coefficients were computed. Results show that sedentary time was associated with HDL-cholesterol (β=-0.080, p=0.05) and TG (β=0.080, p=0.03). These results became non-significant after adjustment for MVPA and fitness. MVPA was associated with WC (β=-0.226), BMI (β=-0.239), TG (β=-0.108) and HDL-cholesterol (β=0.144) (all p<0.05). These results remained significant after adjustment for sedentary time and fitness. Fitness was associated with WC (β=-0.287), BMI (β=-0.266), systolic blood pressure (β=-0.159), TG (β=-0.092), and CRP (β=-0.130) (all p<0.05). After adjustment for sedentary time and MVPA these results remained significant. These differences in relative importance of sedentary time, MVPA and fitness on cardio-metabolic-risk are important in the design of prevention programs. In this population, the strength of the associations between MVPA and fitness with cardio-metabolic markers appeared to be similar; both MVPA and fitness showed independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors. In contrast, sedentary time showed no independent associations with cardio-metabolic risk after correction for fitness and MVPA.

  11. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  12. Factors associated with larval control practices in a dengue outbreak prone area.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Mariam; Selamat, Mohamad Ikhsan; Ismail, Zaliha

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the risk of dengue outbreak recurrence in a dengue outbreak prone area, the members of the community need to sustain certain behavior to prevent mosquito from breeding. Our study aims to identify the factors associated with larval control practices in this particular community. A cross-sectional study involves 322 respondents living in a dengue outbreak prone area who were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The level of knowledge about Aedes mosquitoes, dengue transmission, its symptoms, and personal preventive measures ranges from fair to good. The level of attitude towards preventive measures was high. However, reported level of personal larval control practices was low (33.2%). Our multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only those with a good level of attitude towards personal preventive measure and frequent attendance to health campaigns were significantly associated with the good larval control practices. We conclude that, in a dengue outbreak prone area, having a good attitude towards preventive measures and frequent participation in health campaigns are important factors to sustain practices on larval control.

  13. Association of acculturative stress, Islamic practices, and internalizing symptoms among Arab American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Anisa N; Pham, Andy V; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M; Yosai, Erin R

    2016-06-01

    Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first- and second-generation Muslim Arab American adolescents. Adolescents (n = 88) ages 11 to 18 completed measures related to acculturative stress, religious practices, internalizing symptoms, and general demographic information. Results of multiple regression analyses found that acculturative stress significantly predicted internalizing symptoms. Gender was found to moderate this association. No differences in the reported acculturative stress and internalizing symptoms were found between youth of different generational status (i.e., first- vs. second-generation). Finally, adolescents' organizational religious practices, but not their private religious practices, were found to be associated with lower acculturative stress. Implications are discussed related to how school psychologists can provide culturally responsive services to this population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Barriers and Facilitators Associated with Non-Surgical Treatment Use for Osteoarthritis Patients in Orthopaedic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hofstede, Stefanie N.; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J.; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P. M.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction International evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with (a combination of) non-surgical treatments, and using surgical intervention only if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatment options. Despite these recommendations, there are strong indications that non-surgical treatments are not optimally used in orthopaedic practice. To improve the adoption of non-surgical treatments, more insight is needed into barriers and facilitators of these treatments. Therefore, this study assessed which barriers and facilitators are associated with the use and prescription of different non-surgical treatments before hip and knee OA in orthopaedic practice among patients and orthopaedic surgeons in the Netherlands. Materials and Methods We performed two internet-based surveys among 172 orthopaedic surgeons and 174 OA patients. Univariate association and multivariable regression techniques are used to identify barriers and facilitators associated with the use of non-surgical treatments. Results Most barriers and facilitators among patients were associated with the use of physical therapy, lifestyle advice and dietary therapy. Among orthopaedic surgeons, most were associated with prescription of acetaminophen, dietary therapy and physical therapy. Examples of barriers and facilitators among patients included “People in my environment had positive experiences with a surgery” (facilitator for education about OA), and “Advice of people in my environment to keep on moving” (facilitator for lifestyle and dietary advice). For orthopaedic surgeons, examples were “Lack of knowledge about guideline” (barrier for lifestyle advice), “Agreements/ deliberations with primary care” and “Easy communication with a dietician” (facilitators for dietary therapy). Also the belief in the efficacy of these treatments was associated with increased prescription. Conclusions

  15. Cardiometabolic risk factors are associated with high urinary enterolactone concentration, independent of urinary enterodiol concentration and dietary fiber intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Cara L

    2014-09-01

    The study objective was to evaluate independent and interactive associations of dietary fiber intake and high urinary enterolignans with cardiometabolic risk factors. The analysis included 2260 adults (≥20 y of age) from the 2003-2010 NHANES. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate obesity and clinically defined cardiometabolic risk factors in relation to dietary fiber intake and urinary enterolignan concentrations. Three sets of models were created: 1) independent associations, 2) mutually adjusted associations, and 3) interactions. Models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, and energy intake. High concentrations were considered to be above the 90th percentile of urinary enterolignan concentrations. Increasing dietary fiber intake was associated with high blood pressure (P = 0.02) and low serum HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.03). High urinary enterodiol concentration was not associated with obesity or cardiometabolic risk factors. High urinary enterolactone concentration was inversely associated with obesity (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.66), abdominal obesity (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.87), high serum C-reactive protein (CRP; OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.74), high serum triglycerides (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.61), low serum HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.61), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.74). In mutually adjusted models, enterolactone associations observed in independent models remained similar, but associations for dietary fiber intake were attenuated, with the exception of blood pressure. In interaction models, there were 2 significant interactions: between high urinary enterodiol concentration and dietary fiber intake for high serum CRP (P = 0.04) and high plasma glucose (P = 0.04). Overall, being in the highest 10% of urinary enterolactone concentration was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, independent of dietary fiber intake and enterodiol concentration. Future studies are

  16. Practice guidelines for perioperative transesophageal echocardiography: recommendations of the Indian association of cardiovascular thoracic anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Kanchi; Tempe, Deepak; Chakravarthy, Murali; Shastry, Naman; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Tewari, Prabhat; Gadhinglajkar, Shrinivas V; Mehta, Yatin

    2013-01-01

    Transoesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) is now an integral part of practice of cardiac anaesthesiology. Advances in instrumentation and the information that can be obtained from the TEE examination has proceeded at a breath-taking pace since the introduction of this technology in the early 1980s. Recognizing the importance of TEE in the management of surgical patients, the American Societies of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and the Society of Cardiac Anesthesiologists, USA (SCA) published practice guidelines for the clinical application of perioperative TEE in 1996. On a similar pattern, Indian Association of Cardiac Anaesthesiologists (IACTA) has taken the task of putting forth guidelines for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to standardize practice across the country. This review assesses the risks and benefits of TEE for several indications or clinical scenarios. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses as well as current clinical practice guidelines published by various society practicing Cardiac Anaesthesia and cardiology . Based on the input received, it was determined that the most important parts of the TEE examination could be displayed in a set of 20 cross sectional imaging planes. These 20 cross sections would provide also the format for digital acquisition and storage of a comprehensive TEE examination. Because variability exists in the precise anatomic orientation between the heart and the esophagus in individual patients, an attempt was made to provide specific criteria based on identifiable anatomic landmarks to improve the reproducibility and consistency of image acquisition for each of the standard cross sections.

  17. Open Access to General Practice Was Associated with Burnout among General Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Vedsted, Peter; Sokolowski, Ineta; Olesen, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Walk-in open access in general practice may influence the general practitioner's (GP's) work, but very little research has been done on the consequences. In this study from Danish general practice, we compare the prevalence of burnout between GPs with a walk-in open access and those without. In a questionnaire study (2004), we approached all 458 active GPs in the county of Aarhus, Denmark, and 376 (82.8%) GPs returned the questionnaire. Walk-in open access was defined as at least 30 minutes every weekday where patients could attend practice without an appointment. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Analyses using logistic regression were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, job satisfaction, minutes per consultation, practice organisation, working hours, number of listed patients per GP, number of contacts per GP, continuing medical education- (CME-) activities, and clusters of GPs. In all, 8% of GPs had open access and the prevalence of burnout was 24%. GPs with walk-in open access were more likely to suffer from burnout. Having open access was associated with a 3-fold increased likelihood of burnout (OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.1-8.8, P = 0.035)). Although the design cannot establish causality, it is recommended to closely monitor possible negative consequences of open access in general practice.

  18. Translating Health Care–Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention Research into Practice via the Bladder Bundle

    PubMed Central

    Saint, Sanjay; Olmsted, Russell N.; Fakih, Mohamad G.; Kowalski, Christine P.; Watson, Sam R.; Sales, Anne E.; Krein, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Article-at-a-Glance Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), a frequent health care–associated infection (HAI), is a costly and common condition resulting in patient discomfort, activity restriction, and hospital discharge delays. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) no longer reimburses hospitals for the extra cost of caring for patients who develop CAUTI. The Michigan Health and Hospital Association (MHA) Keystone Center for Patient Safety & Quality has initiated a statewide initiative, MHA Keystone HAI, to help ameliorate the burden of disease associated with indwelling catheterization. In addition, a long-term research project is being conducted to evaluate the current initiative and to identify practical strategies to ensure the effective use of proven infection prevention and patient safety practices. Overview of the Bladder Bundle Initiative in Michigan: The bladder bundle as conceived by MHA Keystone HAI focuses on preventing CAUTI by optimizing the use of urinary catheters with a specific emphasis on continual assessment and catheter removal as soon as possible, especially for patients without a clear indication. Collaboration Between Researchers and State wide Patient Safety Organizations: A synergistic collaboration between patient safety researchers and a statewide patient safety organization is aimed at identifying effective strategies to move evidence from peer-reviewed literature to the bedside. Practical strategies that facilitate implementation of the bundle will be developed and tested using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Discussion: Simply disseminating scientific evidence is often ineffective in changing clinical practice. Therefore, learning how to implement these findings is critically important to promoting high-quality care and a safe health care environment. PMID:19769204

  19. Infant feeding practice and associated factors among HIV positive mothers in Debre Markos Referral Hospital East Gojam zone, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wakwoya, Elias Bekele; Zewudie, Tatek Abate; Gebresilasie, Kahsay Zenebe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dilemma posed between lifesaving benefit and risk of transmission through breast feeding complicates infant feedings among communities grossly affected by HIV/AIDS. According to the world health organization’s guideline which was revised in 2010, exclusive breast feeding and exclusive replacement feeding are the recommended infant feeding practices for HIV positive mothers. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors among HIV positive mothers in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia. Methods An institutional based cross sectional study was conducted from May to September 2013. A Randomly selected 260 HIV positive mothers were included. The data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed to check association and to control confounders. Results From a total of 260 HIV positive mothers, 85.8% of them were feeding their children based on the recommended feeding way of infant feeding practice with the remaining percentage 14.2% were practicing mixed feeding. In multivariate analysis mothers attending high school and above AOR = 5.3 [95% CI = 1.25-22.1], having antenatal care follow up AOR = 5.5 [95% CI = 1.5-20.16], being on anti-retro viral therapy AOR = 6.5 [95% CI = 1.88-22.51] and disclosure of HIV status AOR = 7.1 [95% CI = 1.26-39.76] were found to be independently associated with infant feeding practice. Conclusion This study revealed that large proportion of HIV positive mothers had followed the recommended infant feeding practice and significantly high number of mothers had practiced mixed feeding. Educating mothers, increasing ANC utilization, counseling mothers to start ART, encouraging and supporting mothers to disclose their HIV status were recommended. PMID:28154655

  20. Association between Clean Delivery Kit Use, Clean Delivery Practices, and Neonatal Survival: Pooled Analysis of Data from Three Sites in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Seward, Nadine; Osrin, David; Li, Leah; Costello, Anthony; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Morrison, Joanna; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Azad, Kishwar; Manandhar, Dharma; Prost, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Background Sepsis accounts for up to 15% of an estimated 3.3 million annual neonatal deaths globally. We used data collected from the control arms of three previously conducted cluster-randomised controlled trials in rural Bangladesh, India, and Nepal to examine the association between clean delivery kit use or clean delivery practices and neonatal mortality among home births. Methods and Findings Hierarchical, logistic regression models were used to explore the association between neonatal mortality and clean delivery kit use or clean delivery practices in 19,754 home births, controlling for confounders common to all study sites. We tested the association between kit use and neonatal mortality using a pooled dataset from all three sites and separately for each site. We then examined the association between individual clean delivery practices addressed in the contents of the kit (boiled blade and thread, plastic sheet, gloves, hand washing, and appropriate cord care) and neonatal mortality. Finally, we examined the combined association between mortality and four specific clean delivery practices (boiled blade and thread, hand washing, and plastic sheet). Using the pooled dataset, we found that kit use was associated with a relative reduction in neonatal mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.39–0.68). While use of a clean delivery kit was not always accompanied by clean delivery practices, using a plastic sheet during delivery, a boiled blade to cut the cord, a boiled thread to tie the cord, and antiseptic to clean the umbilicus were each significantly associated with relative reductions in mortality, independently of kit use. Each additional clean delivery practice used was associated with a 16% relative reduction in neonatal mortality (odds ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.77–0.92). Conclusions The appropriate use of a clean delivery kit or clean delivery practices is associated with relative reductions in neonatal mortality among home births in underserved, rural

  1. Associations Between Positive Body Image, Sexual Liberalism, and Unconventional Sexual Practices in U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Weis, Laura; Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-01-17

    While studies have documented robust relationships between body image and sexual health outcomes, few studies have looked beyond sexual functioning in women. Here, we hypothesized that more positive body image would be associated with greater sexual liberalism and more positive attitudes toward unconventional sexual practices. An online sample of 151 women and 164 men from the U.S. completed measures of sexual liberalism, attitudes toward unconventional sexual practices, and indices of positive body image (i.e., body appreciation, body acceptance by others, body image flexibility, and body pride), and provided their demographic details. Regression analyses indicated that, once the effects of sexual orientation, relationship status, age, and body mass index had been accounted for, higher body appreciation was significantly associated with greater sexual liberalism in women and men. Furthermore, higher body appreciation and body image flexibility were significantly associated with more positive attitudes toward unconventional sexual practices in women and men. These results may have implications for scholars working from a sex-positive perspective, particularly in terms of understanding the role body image plays in sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  2. Rocking bed and prolonged independence from nocturnal non-invasive ventilation in neurogenic respiratory failure associated with limb weakness

    PubMed Central

    Cormican, L; Higgins, S; Davidson, A; Howard, R; Williams, A

    2004-01-01

    A 40 year old mother of three with autosomal dominant scapuloperoneal muscular dystrophy presented with severe neurogenic respiratory failure requiring nocturnal non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Because of the development of profound proximal muscular weakness as a consequence of the progressive nature of her neurological disease, she eventually was unable to apply and remove the facial interface to set up her NIV circuit. She therefore became dependent on her children and carers to start and stop NIV during the night. A rocking bed was successfully employed as an alternative to nocturnal NIV. Ventilation was facilitated by the passive movement of the diaphragm as a consequence of the movement of the abdominal contents under the effect of gravity. Benefit was demonstrated objectively by pulse oximetry and subjectively by the improvement in the patient's symptomatology and continued independence at night. The ease of use of a rocking bed should be borne in mind when the necessity for nocturnal ventilatory support in neuromuscular disease results in the potential loss of independence for a patient. PMID:15192173

  3. Conditional independence mapping of DIGE data reveals PDIA3 protein species as key nodes associated with muscle aerobic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Burniston, Jatin G.; Kenyani, Jenna; Gray, Donna; Guadagnin, Eleonora; Jarman, Ian H.; Cobley, James N.; Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Chen, Yi-Wen; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Lisboa, Paulo J.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Profiling of protein species is important because gene polymorphisms, splice variations and post-translational modifications may combine and give rise to multiple protein species that have different effects on cellular function. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is one of the most robust methods for differential analysis of protein species, but bioinformatic interrogation is challenging because the consequences of changes in the abundance of individual protein species on cell function are unknown and cannot be predicted. We conducted DIGE of soleus muscle from male and female rats artificially selected as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively). In total 696 protein species were resolved and LC–MS/MS identified proteins in 337 spots. Forty protein species were differentially (P < 0.05, FDR < 10%) expressed between HCR and LCR and conditional independence mapping found distinct networks within these data, which brought insight beyond that achieved by functional annotation. Protein disulphide isomerase A3 emerged as a key node segregating with differences in aerobic capacity and unsupervised bibliometric analysis highlighted further links to signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which were confirmed by western blotting. Thus, conditional independence mapping is a useful technique for interrogating DIGE data that is capable of highlighting latent features. PMID:24769234

  4. Coding variants at hexa-allelic amino acid 13 of HLA-DRB1 explain independent SNP associations with follicular lymphoma risk.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jia Nee; Smedby, Karin E; Akers, Nicholas K; Berglund, Mattias; Irwan, Ishak D; Jia, Xiaoming; Li, Yi; Conde, Lucia; Darabi, Hatef; Bracci, Paige M; Melbye, Mads; Adami, Hans-Olov; Glimelius, Bengt; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Padyukov, Leonid; Humphreys, Keith; Enblad, Gunilla; Skibola, Christine F; de Bakker, Paul I W; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-07-11

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma represents a diverse group of blood malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL) is a common subtype. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region multiple independent SNPs that are significantly associated with FL risk. To dissect these signals and determine whether coding variants in HLA genes are responsible for the associations, we conducted imputation, HLA typing, and sequencing in three independent populations for a total of 689 cases and 2,446 controls. We identified a hexa-allelic amino acid polymorphism at position 13 of the HLA-DR beta chain that showed the strongest association with FL within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region (multiallelic p = 2.3 × 10⁻¹⁵). Out of six possible amino acids that occurred at that position within the population, we classified two as high risk (Tyr and Phe), two as low risk (Ser and Arg), and two as moderate risk (His and Gly). There was a 4.2-fold difference in risk (95% confidence interval = 2.9-6.1) between subjects carrying two alleles encoding high-risk amino acids and those carrying two alleles encoding low-risk amino acids (p = 1.01 × 10⁻¹⁴). This coding variant might explain the complex SNP associations identified by GWASs and suggests a common HLA-DR antigen-driven mechanism for the pathogenesis of FL and rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobic cultivation.

    PubMed

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M; Weightman, Andrew J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by "JW") was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

  6. Culture-Independent Analysis of Bacterial Fuel Contamination Provides Insight into the Level of Concordance with the Standard Industry Practice of Aerobic Cultivation ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M.; Weightman, Andrew J.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by “JW”) was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas. PMID:21602386

  7. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobis cultivation.

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Hill, G.; Hill, E.; Huse, S. M.; Weightman, A. J.; Mahenthiralingam, E.

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by 'JW') was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

  8. Early nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor max is associated with retinal ganglion cell death independent of caspase activity.

    PubMed

    Petrs-Silva, Hilda; de Freitas, Fabíola G; Linden, Rafael; Chiarini, Luciana B

    2004-02-01

    We examined the behavior of the transcription factor Max during retrograde neuronal degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. Using immunohistochemistry, we found a progressive redistribution of full-length Max from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and dendrites of the ganglion cells following axon damage. Then, the axotomized cells lose all their content of Max, while undergoing nuclear pyknosis and apoptotic cell death. After treatment of retinal explants with either anisomycin or thapsigargin, the rate of nuclear exclusion of Max accompanied the rate of cell death as modulated by either drug. Treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor abolished both TUNEL staining and immunoreactivity for activated caspase-3, but did not affect the subcellular redistribution of Max immunoreactivity after axotomy. The data show that nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor Max is an early event, which precedes and is independent of the activation of caspases, during apoptotic cell death in the central nervous system.

  9. Ligand-Independent Canonical Wnt Activity in Canine Mammary Tumor Cell Lines Associated with Aberrant LEF1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    van Wolferen, Monique E.; Rao, Nagesha A. S.; Grizelj, Juraj; Vince, Silvijo; Hellmen, Eva; Mol, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Pet dogs very frequently develop spontaneous mammary tumors and have been suggested as a good model organism for breast cancer research. In order to obtain an insight into underlying signaling mechanisms during canine mammary tumorigenesis, in this study we assessed the incidence and the mechanism of canonical Wnt activation in a panel of 12 canine mammary tumor cell lines. We show that a subset of canine mammary cell lines exhibit a moderate canonical Wnt activity that is dependent on Wnt ligands, similar to what has been described in human breast cancer cell lines. In addition, three of the tested canine mammary cell lines have a high canonical Wnt activity that is not responsive to inhibitors of Wnt ligand secretion. Tumor cell lines with highly active canonical Wnt signaling often carry mutations in key members of the Wnt signaling cascade. These cell lines, however, carry no mutations in the coding regions of intracellular Wnt pathway components (APC, β-catenin, GSK3β, CK1α and Axin1) and have a functional β-catenin destruction complex. Interestingly, however, the cell lines with high canonical Wnt activity specifically overexpress LEF1 mRNA and the knock-down of LEF1 significantly inhibits TCF-reporter activity. In addition, LEF1 is overexpressed in a subset of canine mammary carcinomas, implicating LEF1 in ligand-independent activation of canonical Wnt signaling in canine mammary tumors. We conclude that canonical Wnt activation may be a frequent event in canine mammary tumors both through Wnt ligand-dependent and novel ligand–independent mechanisms. PMID:24887235

  10. Current Practice Patterns Among Members of the American Urological Association for Male Genitourinary Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Gaither, Thomas W.; Awad, Mohannad A.; Alwaal, Amjad; Erickson, Bradley A.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the practice patterns of urologists who treat male genitourinary lichen sclerosus (MGU-LS) via a national web-based survey distributed to American Urological Association members. Methods A 20-question survey was collected from a random sample of American Urological Association members. Respondents answered questions on their practice patterns for MGU-LS diagnosis, treatment of symptomatic urethral stricture disease, surveillance, and follow-up. Results In total, 309 urologists completed the survey. The majority of respondents reported practicing more than 20+ years (37.5%) within an academic (31.7%) or group practice (31.1%) setting. The majority of respondents saw 3-5 men with MGU-LS per year (32.7%). The most common locations of MGU-LS involvement included the glans penis (66.2%), foreskin (26.3%), and/or the urethra (5.8%). Respondent first-line treatment for urethral stricture disease was direct visual internal urethrotomy (26.6%) and second-line treatment was referral to subspecialist (38.4%). After controlling for the number of patients evaluated with MGU-LS per year, those with reconstructive training were more likely to perform a primary urethroplasty for men with symptomatic urethral stricture disease (adjusted odds ratio 13.1, 95% confidence interval 5.1-33.8, P < .001). They were also more likely to counsel men on the associated penile cancer risks (adjusted odds ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval 1.7-12.5, P < .01). Conclusion Reconstructive urologists evaluate the most number of patients with MGU-LS and are more likely to perform primary urethroplasty for urethral stricture disease. Men with MGU-LS should be referred to a reconstructive urologist to understand the full gamut of treatment options. PMID:26948526

  11. Genes Associated With Alcohol Outcomes Show Enrichment of Effects With Broad Externalizing and Impulsivity Phenotypes in an Independent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Aliev, Fazil; Wetherill, Leah; Bierut, Laura; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Edenberg, Howard; Foroud, Tatiana; Dick, Danielle M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate evidence for association with a panel of genes previously associated with alcohol-related traits in a new sample of adolescent and young adult individuals (N = 2,128; 51% female) collected as part of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). We tested for association with phenotypes related to externalizing behavior, including diagnostic symptom counts for disorders on the externalizing spectrum (alcohol dependence, conduct disorder, adult antisocial personality disorder, and illicit drug dependence), and related behavioral/personality traits (Achenbach Externalizing, NEO Extraversion, NEO Conscientiousness, Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking, and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale) based on the substantial literature suggesting that these behaviors may be alternate manifestations of a shared genetic liability. Method: We tested for overall enrichment of the set of 215 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each of the phenotypes. We conducted secondary analyses comparing results for sensation seeking with results for the other phenotypes. Results: For all phenotypes, there was significant enrichment of association results (p < .05) compared with chance expectations. The greatest number of significant results was observed with the phenotype Sensation Seeking. Secondary analyses indicated that the number of SNPs yielding p < .05 with Sensation Seeking was significantly greater than that observed for each of the other phenotypes. Conclusions: We find evidence for enrichment of association results across a spectrum of externalizing phenotypes with a panel of candidate genes/SNPs selected based on previous suggestion of association with alcohol-related outcomes. In particular, we find significant enrichment of effects with sensation seeking, suggesting that this may be a particularly salient behavior associated with risk for alcohol-related problems. PMID:25486392

  12. Skin advanced glycation end products glucosepane and methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone are independently associated with long-term microvascular complication progression of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Genuth, Saul; Sun, Wanjie; Cleary, Patricia; Gao, Xiaoyu; Sell, David R; Lachin, John; Monnier, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Six skin collagen advanced glycation end products (AGEs) originally measured near to the time of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) closeout in 1993 may contribute to the "metabolic memory" phenomenon reported in the follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. We have now investigated whether the addition of four originally unavailable AGEs (i.e., glucosepane [GSPNE], hydroimidazolones of methylglyoxal [MG-H1] and glyoxal, and carboxyethyl-lysine) improves associations with incident retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy events during 13-17 years after DCCT. The complete 10-AGE panel is associated with three-step Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale worsening of retinopathy (P ≤ 0.002), independent of either mean DCCT or EDIC study A1C level. GSPNE and fructose-lysine (furosine [FUR]) correlate with retinopathy progression, independently of A1C level. The complete panel also correlates with microalbuminuria (P = 0.008) and FUR with nephropathy independently of A1C level (P ≤ 0.02). Neuropathy correlates with the complete panel despite adjustment for A1C level (P ≤ 0.005). MG-H1 and FUR are dominant, independent of A1C level (P < 0.0001), whereas A1C loses significance after adjustment for the AGEs. Overall, the added set of four AGEs enhances the association of the original panel with progression risk of retinopathy and neuropathy (P < 0.04) but not nephropathy, while GSPNE and MG-H1 emerge as the principal new risk factors. Skin AGEs are robust long-term markers of microvascular disease progression, emphasizing the importance of early and sustained implementation of intensive therapy.

  13. Ratio of fat to energy intake independently associated with the duration of diabetes and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Young-Seol; Cho, Mi-Ran; Choue, Ryowon

    2011-04-01

    The importance of dietary intake in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was emphasized. This study was performed to investigate the dietary intakes of Korean type 2 diabetes patients according to the treatment and duration of diabetes and to examine the relationships between their diet and serum lipid profiles. The subjects were 111 type 2 diabetic patients who were treated by medical nutrition therapy only, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), or insulin with medical nutrition therapy. Dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Comparisons according to treatment type were made using covariance analyses. General linear models identified the independent effects of the different treatments after covarying for age, duration of diabetes, and 2-way interactions. There were no significant differences in age and BMI but was in duration of diabetes according to treatment type in these subjects. Carbohydrate to energy ratio was higher in the OHA group (P < 0.05), whereas the fat to energy ratio was higher in the insulin group for males (P < 0.05). Carbohydrate (R(2) = 0.24, P = 0.005) and fat (R(2) = 0.26, P = 0.02) to energy ratios were independently associated with the duration of diabetes after covarying for age, sex, treatment, and 2-way interactions. The levels of triglyceride (TG; R(2) = 0.32, P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (TC) were associated independently with energy intake and the carbohydrate (R(2) = 0.15, P = 0.02) and fat (R(2) = 0.15, P = 0.01) to energy ratios, respectively. The concern that the independent association of dietary intake with either duration of diabetes or dietary factors affects blood lipid levels could suggest that specific dietary recommendations may work better for identifiable groups of diabetes patients.

  14. Independent and joint associations between multiple measures of the built and social environment and physical activity in a multi-ethnic urban community.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Amy; Mentz, Graciela; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Israel, Barbara A; Max, Paul; Zenk, Shannon N; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of a number of health outcomes, yet fewer than half of adults in the United States report recommended levels of physical activity. Analyses of structural characteristics of the built environment as correlates of physical activity have yielded mixed results. We examine associations between multiple aspects of urban neighborhood environments and physical activity in order to understand their independent and joint effects, with a focus on the extent to which the condition of the built environment and indicators of the social environment modify associations between structural characteristics and physical activity. We use data from a stratified, multi-stage proportional probability sample of 919 non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic adults in an urban community, observational data from their residential neighborhoods, and census data to examine independent and joint associations of structural characteristics (e.g., street network connectivity), their condition (e.g., sidewalk condition), and social environments (e.g., territoriality) with physical activity. Our findings suggest that sidewalk condition is associated with physical activity, above and beyond structural characteristics of the built environment. Associations between some structural characteristics of the built environment and physical activity were conditional upon street condition, physical deterioration, and the proportion of parks and playgrounds in good condition. We found modest support for the hypothesis that associations between structural characteristics and physical activity are modified by aspects of the social environment. Results presented here point to the value of and need for understanding and addressing the complexity of factors that contribute to the relationships between the built and social environments and physical activity, and in turn, obesity and co-morbidities. Bringing together urban planners, public health

  15. Rs4074134 near BDNF gene is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Han population independently of body mass index.

    PubMed

    Han, Xueyao; Luo, Yingying; Zhang, Xiuying; Lv, Chao; Sun, Xiuqin; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Xianghai; Cai, Xiaoling; Ren, Qian; Ji, Linong

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and family history are the most important predictors for type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) in the Chinese Han population. However, it is not known whether the genetic loci related to obesity are associated with the risk of developing T2DM in this population. The present case-control study evaluated the associations between five genetic loci for obesity and the pathogenesis of T2DM. The study included 1117 Chinese Han patients with T2DM, 1629 patients with pre-diabetes (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, IFG/IGT) and 1113 control subjects residing in Beijing. Five genetic loci including rs2815752 near NEGR1, rs10938397 near GNPDA2, rs4074134 near BDNF, rs17782313 near MC4R and rs1084753 near KCTD15 were genotyped. The results showed an association between rs4074134-BDNF minor allele and T2DM irrespective of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) (OR = 0.87; 95%CI: 0.77-0.99, P = 0.04). This SNP was also associated with pre-diabetes (OR = 0.87; 95%CI: 0.77-0.97, P = 0.01) independently of age, gender and BMI. No associations were found between diabetes or pre-diabetes and any of the other SNP loci studied. Genotype-phenotype association analysis (adjusting for age and gender) showed rs4074134-BDNF to be associated with BMI, waist circumference, fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, and HOMA-IR in subjects without T2DM. However, fasting and postprandial plasma glucose were the only significant factors after adjusting for BMI. These results suggest that the common variation of BDNF (rs4074134) is associated with T2DM independently of obesity in Chinese Han population. This variant also has an effect on plasma glucose concentration, BMI and insulin sensitivity.

  16. Pretreatment HIV Drug Resistance and HIV-1 Subtype C Are Independently Associated With Virologic Failure: Results From the Multinational PEARLS (ACTG A5175) Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Rami; Smeaton, Laura; Vardhanabhuti, Saran; Hudelson, Sarah E.; Wallis, Carol L.; Tripathy, Srikanth; Morgado, Mariza G.; Saravanan, Shanmugham; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Reitsma, Marissa; Hart, Stephen; Mellors, John W.; Halvas, Elias; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Kumwenda, Johnstone; La Rosa, Alberto; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Lama, Javier R.; Rassool, Mohammed; Santos, Breno R.; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Hakim, James; Flanigan, Timothy; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Campbell, Thomas B.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Evaluation of pretreatment HIV genotyping is needed globally to guide treatment programs. We examined the association of pretreatment (baseline) drug resistance and subtype with virologic failure in a multinational, randomized clinical trial that evaluated 3 antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens and included resource-limited setting sites. Methods. Pol genotyping was performed in a nested case-cohort study including 270 randomly sampled participants (subcohort), and 218 additional participants failing ART (case group). Failure was defined as confirmed viral load (VL) >1000 copies/mL. Cox proportional hazards models estimated resistance–failure association. Results. In the representative subcohort (261/270 participants with genotypes; 44% women; median age, 35 years; median CD4 cell count, 151 cells/µL; median VL, 5.0 log10 copies/mL; 58% non-B subtypes), baseline resistance occurred in 4.2%, evenly distributed among treatment arms and subtypes. In the subcohort and case groups combined (466/488 participants with genotypes), used to examine the association between resistance and treatment failure, baseline resistance occurred in 7.1% (9.4% with failure, 4.3% without). Baseline resistance was significantly associated with shorter time to virologic failure (hazard ratio [HR], 2.03; P = .035), and after adjusting for sex, treatment arm, sex–treatment arm interaction, pretreatment CD4 cell count, baseline VL, and subtype, was still independently associated (HR, 2.1; P = .05). Compared with subtype B, subtype C infection was associated with higher failure risk (HR, 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–2.35), whereas non-B/C subtype infection was associated with longer time to failure (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, .22–.98). Conclusions. In this global clinical trial, pretreatment resistance and HIV-1 subtype were independently associated with virologic failure. Pretreatment genotyping should be considered whenever feasible. Clinical Trials

  17. Risky sexual practice and associated factors among HIV positive adults attending anti-retroviral treatment clinic at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Risky sexual practice among people living with HIV/AIDS is a public health concern because of the risk of transmission of the virus to sero-discordant partner/s. There is also the risk of re-infection with new, drug resistant viral strains between sero-concordant partners. However, there is lack of information on risky sexual practices among HIV positive adults. Therefore, this study aimed to assess risky sexual practice and associated factors among adult HIV positive clients at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2015. Methods An institution based cross sectional study was conducted at Gondar University Referral Hospital from May to June 2015. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Using systematic random sampling technique, a total of 513 respondents were participated in this study. The data were entered into EPI info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. A P-value <0.05 was considered to determine the statistical significance of the association between factors (independent variables) and risky sexual practice. The Odds ratio was also used to determine the presence and the degree of association between the dependent and independent variables. Results A total of 513 respondents were participated in this study. The prevalence of risky sexual practices in the past three months was 38% (95% CI: 33.3%, 42.3%). Being in the age range of 18–29 years (AOR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.55, 4.47) and 30–39 years (AOR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.48, 3.53), being single (AOR = 6.32, 95%CI: 2.43, 16.44),being married (AOR = 6.06, 95% CI: 2.81, 13.07), having no child (AOR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.17, 5.72), and a CD4 count of greater than 500/mm3 were factors significantly associated with risky sexual practices. Conclusions A considerable number of HIV positive clients had risky sexual practices. It is strongly recommended that the Regional Health Bureau

  18. Practices of Dengue Fever Prevention and the Associated Factors among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is prevalent among Malaysia's indigenous peoples, known as the Orang Asli, and it poses a serious health threat to them. The study aims to look at the socio-demographic factors, health beliefs, and knowledge about dengue and its association to dengue prevention practices among Orang Asli communities in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 randomly selected Orang Asli villages from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia from April 2012 until February 2013. Results A total of 560 Orang Asli were interviewed and 505 completed the survey. Slightly above half of the participants (n = 280, 55.4%) had a total dengue prevention score of 51–100 (of a possible score of 0–100). Multivariate analysis findings showed dengue knowledge, perceived barriers to perform dengue prevention, fogging frequency, and perceived susceptibility to dengue fever as significant factors associated to dengue prevention practices. Participants with a lower dengue knowledge score (score 0–18) were less likely (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.44–0.92 vs. score 19–36, P = 0.015) to practice dengue prevention. Participants with low perceived barriers to prevent dengue (score of 1–5) were more likely (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.21–3.53, vs. score of 6–10, P = 0.008) to practice dengue prevention. Villages that were not fogged (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.24–0.99, P = 0.045) or rarely fogged (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.22–0.75, P = 0.004) had lower dengue prevention practices than villages that were fogged often. Participants with low perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue (score of 1–5) were less likely (OR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.33–0.89 vs. score of 6–10, P = 0.018) to practice dengue prevention measures. Conclusion Findings imply that educational and health programmes should focus on enhancing dengue knowledge and perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue and reducing perceived barriers to performing dengue prevention practices among the Orang Asli

  19. Management practices associated with presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk from Ohio dairy herds.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L B; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious mastitis pathogen affecting cows worldwide. Practices to control this organism have been advocated for decades, and identification of risk factors in individual herds is crucial in prevention and control of Staph. aureus. The objectives of this paper were to estimate prevalence of Staph. aureus in Ohio dairies and to determine a potential association of herd characteristics and management practices with isolation of Staph. aureus in bulk tank milk. A questionnaire about herd characteristics, milking procedures, udder health, mastitis control, and biosecurity practices was mailed to 780 dairy producers; the response rate for the survey was 49%. Staphylococcus aureus prevalence was 48, 64, and 69% when 1, 2, or 3 samples of bulk tank milk from each herd were considered, respectively. Herds practicing prestrip, pre- and postmilking teat dip, and using a single towel per cow as part of the milking routine as well as herds where owners were involved in milking were at significantly reduced odds for detection of Staph. aureus in their bulk tank milk.

  20. Posttraumatic Stress and Depression in the Nonoffending Caregivers of Sexually Abused Children: Associations with Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Swiecicki, Carole C.; Fritz, Darci R.; Stinnette, Jessica S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.

    2016-01-01

    Caregiver mental health is a known correlate of parenting practices, and recent research indicated that parental depression following childhood sexual abuse disclosure is associated with concurrent parenting difficulties. The present study extended this line of research by investigating posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression in a sample of caregivers (N=96) of children who experienced sexual abuse recruited from a Children’s Advocacy Center, as well as parenting practices reported by both caregivers and their children (Mean age = 10.79 years, SD = 3.29; 79% female). Twenty four percent of caregivers met criteria for presumptive clinical depression, clinically significant posttraumatic stress, or both. Results indicated elevated caregiver-reported inconsistent parenting in the context of clinically significant distress across symptom groups; children reported particularly elevated inconsistent parenting for caregivers with posttraumatic stress only. Caregiver depression was associated with low self-reported positive parenting and caregiver involvement, in addition to self-reported inconsistencies. Directions for future research are offered to further elucidate the relationships between caregiver mental health and parenting practices following childhood sexual abuse. PMID:26808966

  1. Posttraumatic Stress and Depression in the Nonoffending Caregivers of Sexually Abused Children: Associations With Parenting Practices.

    PubMed

    Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Swiecicki, Carole C; Fritz, Darci R; Stinnette, Jessica S; Hanson, Rochelle F

    2016-01-01

    Caregiver mental health is a known correlate of parenting practices, and recent research indicated that parental depression following childhood sexual abuse disclosure is associated with concurrent parenting difficulties. The present study extended this line of research by investigating posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression in a sample of caregivers (N = 96) of children who experienced sexual abuse recruited from a child advocacy center as well as parenting practices reported by both caregivers and their children (mean age = 10.79 years, SD = 3.29; 79% female). Twenty-four percent of caregivers met criteria for presumptive clinical depression, clinically significant posttraumatic stress, or both. Results indicated elevated caregiver-reported inconsistent parenting in the context of clinically significant distress across symptom groups; children reported particularly elevated inconsistent parenting for caregivers with posttraumatic stress only. Caregiver depression was associated with low self-reported positive parenting and caregiver involvement in addition to self-reported inconsistencies. Directions for future research are offered to further elucidate the relationships between caregiver mental health and parenting practices following childhood sexual abuse.

  2. 77 FR 60970 - New York Association of Public Power v. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, New York Independent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New York Association of Public Power v. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation... Respondent as listed in the Commission's list of Corporate Officials. Any person desiring to intervene or...

  3. An Analysis of Independent, Non-Academic Characteristics of Chinese and American Business Students Associated with Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.; Hignite, Michael A.; Moses, Duane R.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuation of their prior research which focused on the differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) levels between Chinese and American business students and the academic variables associated with those scores, the authors extend their efforts to investigate those personal (non-academic) characteristics of both American and Chinese business…

  4. Warm Fresh Whole Blood Is Independently Associated With Improved Survival for Patients With Combat-Related Traumatic Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    this phenomenon has not been clearly defined.53 The development of transfusion-associated graft versus host disease or any other immunologic disorder...screening tests of donated products for HIV, HCV and Hepatitis B, and pre- donation screening of potential donors (when possible) for routinely tested TTD’s

  5. Fibroblast miR-210 overexpression is independently associated with clinical failure in Prostate Cancer – a multicenter (in situ hybridization) study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Sigve; Richardsen, Elin; Moi, Line; Donnem, Tom; Nordby, Yngve; Ness, Nora; Holman, Marte Eilertsen; Bremnes, Roy M.; Busund, Lill-Tove

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for better prognostication in prostate cancer (PC). “The micromanager of hypoxia”, microRNA-210 (miR-210) is directly linked to hypoxia, is overexpressed in PC and has been implied in tumor cell-fibroblast crosstalk. We investigated the prognostic impact of miR-210 in tumor cells and fibroblasts in PC. Tumor and stromal samples from a multicenter PC cohort of 535 prostatectomy patients were inserted into tissue microarrays. To investigate the expression of miR-210, we used in situ hybridization and two pathologists semiquantitatively scored its expression. Overexpression of miR-210 in tumor cells was not associated to biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS, p = 0.85) or clinical failure-free survival (CFFS, p = 0.09). However, overexpression of miR-210 in fibroblasts was significantly associated to a poor CFFS (p = 0.001), but not BFFS (p = 0.232). This feature was validated in both cohorts. Overexpression of miR-210 was independently associated with a reduced CFFS (HR = 2.76, CI 95% 1.25–6.09, p = 0.012). Overexpression of miR-210 in fibroblasts is independently associated with a poor CFFS. This highlights the importance of fibroblasts and cellular compartment crosstalk in PC. miR-210 is a candidate prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target in PC. PMID:27824162

  6. Exploring the diabetogenicity of the HLA-B18-DR3 CEH: independent association with T1D genetic risk close to HLA-DOA.

    PubMed

    Santin, I; Castellanos-Rubio, A; Aransay, A M; Gutierrez, G; Gaztambide, S; Rica, I; Vicario, J L; Noble, J A; Castaño, L; Bilbao, J R

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify additional diabetes susceptibility markers in the MHC that could be responsible for the differential diabetogenicity of different HLA-DR3 CEHs. High-resolution SNP genotyping of the MHC was carried out in 15 type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients and 39 non-diabetic controls, homozygous for DR3-DQ2 and with one copy of the A(*)30-B(*)18-MICA(*)4-F1C30-DRB1(*)0301-DQB1(*)0201-DPB1(*)0202 HLA haplotype. Significantly associated SNPs were replicated in an independent sample of 554 T1D patients and 841 controls without HLA matching. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to show a functional effect of an associated SNP. Seven SNPs showed evidence of association in the initial discovery experiment. Upon replication, only rs419434 (upstream HLA-DOA gene) remained significant. A functional variant (rs432375) in complete LD with rs419434 was shown to affect USF-1 binding and could be responsible for the association signal in the region. We have identified a new susceptibility locus within the MHC with a modest contribution to T1D (OR=1.93; CI: 1.52-2.44; P=10(-8)) that is independent of HLA-DRB1 locus.

  7. Improvements on the purification of mannan-binding lectin and demonstration of its Ca(2+)-independent association with a C1s-like serine protease.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, S M; Chung, M C; Kon, O L; Thiel, S; Lee, S H; Lu, J

    1996-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), previously called 'mannan-binding protein' or MBP, is a plasma C-type lectin which, upon binding to carbohydrate structures on micro-organisms, activates the classical pathway of complement. Purification of MBL relies on its Ca(2+)-dependent affinity for carbohydrate, but existing methods are susceptible to contamination by anti-carbohydrate antibodies. In the present study a sequential-sugar-elution method has been developed which can achieve a preparation of virtually pure MBL and its associated serine protease (MBL-associated serine protease, MASP) by two steps of affinity chromatography. In further separation of MASP from MBL, it was found that activated MASP was associated with MBL independent of Ca2+. Since MBL was found to bind to underivatized Sepharose 4B, the MBL-MASP complex was purified using Sepharose 4B and protease inhibitors were included to purify the complex with MASP in its proenzyme form. Analysis of thus-purified MBL-MASP complex by gel filtration on a Sephacryl S-300 column at pH 7.8 showed that the proenzyme MASP was also associated with MBL independently of Ca2+, but that the complex could be disrupted at a low pH (5.0). Therefore the mechanism of MBL-MASP-mediated complement activation appears to be significantly different from the C1-mediated classical pathway. PMID:8912663

  8. Hyperlipidemia is associated with lower risk of poststroke mortality independent of statin use: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yeramaneni, Samrat; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Sucharew, Heidi; Alwell, Kathleen; Moomaw, Charles J; Flaherty, Matthew L; Woo, Daniel; Adeoye, Opeolu; Ferioli, Simona; de los Rios La Rosa, Felipe; Martini, Sharyl; Mackey, Jason; Khatri, Pooja; Kissela, Brett M; Khoury, Jane C

    2017-01-01

    Background Although statin therapy is associated with reduced stroke and mortality risk, some studies report that higher lipid levels are associated with improved outcomes following ischemic stroke. Aims We examined the association of hyperlipidemia (HLD) combined with statin therapy on all-cause mortality in stroke patients. Methods All stroke patients in the Greater Cincinnati Northern Kentucky region of ~1.3 million were identified using ICD-9 discharge codes in 2005 and 2010. Stroke patients with and without HLD were categorized based on their reported statin use at baseline or discharge into three groups: no-HLD/no-statins, HLD/no-statins, and HLD/on-statins. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of mortality at 30 days, 1 year, and 3 years poststroke. Results Overall, 77% (2953) of the 3813 ischemic stroke patients were diagnosed with HLD and 72% (n = 2123) of those patients were on statin medications. The mean age was 70.0 ± 14.6 years, 56% were women, and 21% were black. In adjusted analyses, the HLD/no-statins group showed 35% (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.46–0.92), 27% (aHR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.59–0.90), and 17% (aHR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70–0.97) reduced risk of mortality at 30 days, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively, poststroke, compared with no-HLD/no-statins group. The HLD/on-statins group showed an additional 17% significant survival benefit at 3 years poststroke compared with HLD/no-statins group. Conclusions A diagnosis of HLD in ischemic stroke patients is associated with reduced short- and long-term mortality, irrespective of statin use. Statin therapy is associated with significant, additional long-term survival benefit. PMID:27649737

  9. Hand Osteoarthritis Severity is Associated with Total Knee Joint Replacements Independently of BMI. The Ages-Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Helgi; Helgadottir, Gudrun P; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors associated with having total knee replacement due to osteoarthritis in the AGES-Reykjavik Study, a large population based study of elderly Icelanders. Methods: Information about total knee and hip joint replacements (TKR,THR) and hand OA (HOA) severity was available in 2195 males and 2975 females, mean age 76±6 years. The prevalence of TKR was 223 (4.3%) and THR 316 (6.1%). We performed a backwards binary logistic regression analysis of possible OA associated variables including age, gender, abdominal circumference, BMI, hs-CRP, cholesterol, statin use, bone mineral density of the spine, education and smoking history as well as HOA severity and the presence of THR. Results: Only three factors showed significant associations with TKR; BMI (p=3.5x10-17), HOA severity (p=2.9x10-8) and THR (p=0.0002). The highest quintile of BMI was associated with a fivefold risk of TKR compared with the lowest (8% vs 1.6%), and severe HOA had a 2.4 fold risk compared with those with no HOA (8% vs 3.3%). There was no statistical interaction between BMI and HOA. Thus, individuals with BMI<23.5 with no evidence of HOA had a prevalence of TKR of 1.1%, while those with BMI>30.3 and severe HOA had a prevalence of 13.4%. Conclusions: Hand and hip osteoarthritis in conjunction with BMI are strongly associated with the prevalence of TKR due to osteoarthritis. Together, BMI and HOA severity seem to contribute to the majority of the total TKR prevalence. While BMI has long been recognized as the major risk factor for TKR, the influence of osteoarthritis at other sites may have been underestimated. PMID:21552415

  10. Hibernation is associated with depression of T-cell independent humoral immune responses in the 13-lined ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Hjalmar R; Henning, Robert H; Kroese, Frans G M; Carey, Hannah V

    2013-03-01

    Mammalian hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism and body temperature (torpor), interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. The function of both the innate and adaptive immune system is suppressed during hibernation. In this study, we analyzed the humoral adaptive immune response to a T-cell independent (TI-2) and a T-cell dependent (TD) antigen. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels were immunized in summer or during hibernation with either a TI-2 or TD antigen on day 0 and day 14. Blood was drawn on day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Both types of antigens induced a significant rise in antibody titer in summer animals. Much to our surprise, however, only immunization with the TD antigen, and not with the TI-2 antigen induced a humoral response in hibernators. Flow cytometric analysis of CD4 (helper T-lymphocytes), CD8 (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes) and CD45RA (B-lymphocytes) in blood, spleen and lymph nodes ruled out massive apoptosis as explanation of the absent TI humoral response during hibernation. Rather, reduced TI-2 stimulation of B-lymphocytes, possibly due to lowered serum complement during torpor, may explain the reduced antibody production in response to a TI-2 antigen. These results demonstrate that hibernation diminishes the capacity to induce a TI-2 humoral immune response, while the capacity to induce a humoral response to a TD antigen is maintained.

  11. Activated ErbB3 Translocates to the Nucleus via Clathrin-independent Endocytosis, Which Is Associated with Proliferating Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Reif, Raymond; Adawy, Alshaimaa; Vartak, Nachiket; Schröder, Jutta; Günther, Georgia; Ghallab, Ahmed; Schmidt, Marcus; Schormann, Wiebke; Hengstler, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family (RTK) have been shown to be present in the nucleus of cells; however, the mechanisms underlying their trafficking to the nucleus, and their relevance once there are poorly understood. In the present study, we focus on the RTK ErbB3 and elucidate the mechanisms regulating its trafficking. We show that heregulin-stimulation induces trafficking of phosphorylated ErbB3 from the plasma membrane to the nucleus via a clathrin-independent mechanism. Nuclear import of ErbB3 occurs via importin β1, which drives the receptor through the nuclear pore complex. In the nucleus, ErbB3 interacts with transcription complexes, and thereby has a role in transcriptional regulation. Our results also demonstrate that ErbB3 nuclear localization is transient as it is exported out of the nucleus by the nuclear receptor protein crm-1. Analysis of normal, regenerating tissues, and tumors showed that ErbB3 nuclear translocation is a common event in proliferating tissues. PMID:26719328

  12. Event-Based Prospective Memory Is Independently Associated with Self-Report of Medication Management in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weinborn, Michael; Maxwell, Brenton R.; Gummery, Alice; Mo, Kevin; Ng, Amanda R. J.; Bucks, Romola S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for medication non-adherence in older adults is important in order to enhance screening and intervention efforts designed to improve medication-taking behavior and health outcomes. The current study sought to determine the unique contribution of prospective memory (i.e., “remembering to remember”) to successful self-reported medication management in older adults. Methods Sixty-five older adults with current medication prescriptions completed a comprehensive research evaluation of sociodemographic, psychiatric, and neurocognitive functioning, which included the Memory for Adherence to Medication Scale (MAMS), Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), and a performance-based measure of prospective memory that measured both semantically-related and semantically-unrelated cue-intention (i.e., when-what) pairings. Results A series of hierarchical regressions controlling for biopsychosocial, other neurocognitive, and medication-related factors showed that elevated complaints on the PM scale of the PRMQ and worse performance on an objective semantically-unrelated event-based prospective memory task were independent predictors of poorer medication adherence as measured by the MAMS. Conclusions Prospective memory plays an important role in self-report of successful medication management among older adults. Findings may have implications for screening for older individuals “at risk” of non-adherence, as well as the development of prospective memory-based interventions to improve medication adherence and, ultimately, long-term health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24410357

  13. The Growth Reduction Associated with Repressed Lignin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Is Independent of Flavonoids[C

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Weng, Jing-Ke; Chapple, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Defects in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis arising from deficiency in hydroxycinnamoyl CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) or p-coumaroyl shikimate 3′-hydroxylase (C3′H) lead to reduced lignin, hyperaccumulation of flavonoids, and growth inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was previously reported that flavonoid-mediated inhibition of auxin transport is responsible for growth reduction in HCT-RNA interference (RNAi) plants. This conclusion was based on the observation that simultaneous RNAi silencing of HCT and chalcone synthase (CHS), an enzyme essential for flavonoid biosynthesis, resulted in less severe dwarfing than silencing of HCT alone. In an attempt to extend these results using a C3′H mutant (ref8) and a CHS null mutant (tt4-2), we found that the growth phenotype of the ref8 tt4-2 double mutant, which lacks flavonoids, is indistinguishable from that of ref8. Moreover, using RNAi, we found that the relationship between HCT silencing and growth inhibition is identical in both the wild type and tt4-2. We conclude from these results that the growth inhibition observed in HCT-RNAi plants and the ref8 mutant is independent of flavonoids. Finally, we show that expression of a newly characterized gene bypassing HCT and C3′H partially restores both lignin biosynthesis and growth in HCT-RNAi plants, demonstrating that a biochemical pathway downstream of coniferaldehyde, probably lignification, is essential for normal plant growth. PMID:20511296

  14. Contractor-, steward-, and coworker-safety practice: associations with musculoskeletal pain and injury-related absence among construction apprentices

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Lauren M.; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper sought to assess organizational safety practices at three different levels of hierarchical workplace structure and to examine their association with injury outcomes among construction apprentices. Methods Using a cross-sectional sample of 1,775 construction apprentices, three measures of organizational safety practice were assessed: contractor-, steward-, and coworker-safety practice. Each safety practice measure was assessed using three similar questions (i.e., on-the-job safety commitment, following required or recommended safe work practices, and correcting unsafe work practices); the summed average of the responses ranged from 1 to 4, with a higher score indicating poorer safety practice. Outcome variables included the prevalence of four types of musculoskeletal pain (i.e., neck, shoulder, hand, and back pain) and injury-related absence. Results In adjusted analyses, contractor-safety practice was associated with both hand pain (OR: 1.27, 95 % CI: 1.04, 1.54) and back pain (OR: 1.40, 95 % CI: 1.17, 1.68); coworker-safety practice was related to back pain (OR: 1.42, 95 % CI: 1.18, 1.71) and injury-related absence (OR: 1.36, 95 % CI: 1.11, 1.67). In an analysis that included all three safety practice measures simultaneously, the association between coworker-safety practice and injury-related absence remained significant (OR: 1.68, 95 % CI: 1.20, 2.37), whereas all other associations became non-significant. Conclusions This study suggests that organizational safety practice, particularly coworker-safety practice, is associated with injury outcomes among construction apprentices. PMID:23748366

  15. Physical activity is independently associated with reduced mortality: 15-years follow-up of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    PubMed Central

    Kopperstad, Øyvind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with lower risk for non-communicable diseases and mortality. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between PA and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and the impact of other potentially contributing factors. Method Data from the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK, 1997–99) were linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. The study included 20,506 individuals born 1950–1957 and 2,225 born in 1925–1927 (baseline age 40–49 and 70–74). Based on self-report, individuals were grouped as habitually performing low intensity, short duration, low intensity, longer duration or high intensity PA. The hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality during follow-up were calculated. Measures of socioeconomic status, physical health, mental health, smoking and alcohol consumption were added separately and cumulatively to the model. Results PA was associated with lower all-cause mortality in both older (HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.67–0.84)) and younger individuals (HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.72–0.92)) (crude models, HR: risk associated with moving from low intensity, short duration to low intensity, longer duration PA, and from low intensity, longer duration to high intensity). Smoking, education, somatic diagnoses and mental health accounted for some of the association between physical activity and mortality, but a separate protective effect of PA remained in fully adjusted models for cardiovascular (HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.66–0.92)) and respiratory (HR 0.45 (95% CI 0.32–0.63) mortality (both age-groups together), as well as all-cause mortality in the older age group (HR 0.74, 95%CI 0.66–0.83). Conclusion Low intensity, longer duration and high intensity physical activity was associated with reduced all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, indicating that physical activity is beneficial also among older individuals, and that a moderate increase in PA can be beneficial. PMID

  16. Later Age at Onset of Independent Walking Is Associated with Lower Bone Strength at Fracture-Prone Sites in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Alex; Muthuri, Stella; Rittweger, Joern; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel

    2017-02-09

    Later age at onset of independent walking is associated with lower leg bone strength in childhood and adolescence. However it is unknown whether these associations persist into older age, or whether they are evident at axial (central) or upper limb sites. Therefore we examined walking age obtained at 2y and bone outcomes obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans at 60-64y in a nationally-representative cohort study of British people, the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. It was hypothesised that later walking age would be associated with lower bone strength at all sites. Later independent walking age was associated with lower height-adjusted hip (standardised regression coefficients with 95%CI) [-0.179(-0.251,-0.107)], spine [-0.157(-0.232,-0.082)] and distal radius [-0.159(-0.245,-0.073)] bone mineral content (BMC, indicating bone compressive strength) in men (all P < 0.001). Adjustment for covariates partially attenuated these associations, primarily due to lower lean mass and adolescent sporting ability in later walkers. These associations were also evident for a number of hip geometric parameters (including cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), indicating bone bending/torsional strength) assessed by Hip Structural Analysis (HSA) from DXA scans. Similar height-adjusted associations were also observed in women for several hip, spine and upper limb outcomes, although adjustment for fat or lean mass led to complete attenuation for most outcomes, with the exception of femoral shaft CSMI and spine bone area (BA). In conclusion, later independent walking age appears to have a lifelong association with bone strength across multiple skeletal sites in men. These effects may result from direct effects of early life loading on bone growth, and mediation by adult body composition. Results suggest that late walking age may represent a novel risk factor for subsequent low bone strength

  17. Regular-soda intake independent of weight status is associated with asthma among US high school students.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination.

  18. Mouse oviduct-specific glycoprotein is an egg-associated ZP3-independent sperm-adhesion ligand.

    PubMed

    Lyng, Robert; Shur, Barry D

    2009-11-01

    Mouse sperm-egg binding requires a multiplicity of receptor-ligand interactions, including an oviduct-derived, high molecular weight, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-binding glycoprotein that associates with the egg coat at ovulation. Herein, we report the purification and identification of this sperm-binding ligand. WGA-binding, high molecular weight glycoproteins isolated from hormonally primed mouse oviduct lysates competitively inhibit sperm-egg binding in vitro. Within this heterogeneous glycoprotein preparation, a distinct 220 kDa protein selectively binds to sperm surfaces, and was identified by sequence analysis as oviduct-specific glycoprotein (OGP). The sperm-binding activity of OGP was confirmed by the loss of sperm-binding following immunodepletion of OGP from oviduct lysates, and by the ability of both immunoprecipitated OGP and natively purified OGP to competitively inhibit sperm-egg binding. As expected, OGP is expressed by the secretory cells of the fimbriae and infundibulum; however, in contrast to previous reports, OGP is also associated with both the zona pellucida and the perivitelline space of mouse oocytes. Western blot analysis and lectin affinity chromatography demonstrate that whereas the bulk of OGP remains soluble in the ampullar fluid, distinct glycoforms associate with the cumulus matrix, zona pellucida and perivitelline space. The sperm-binding activity of OGP is carbohydrate-dependent and restricted to a relatively minor peanut agglutinin (PNA)-binding glycoform that preferentially associates with the sperm surface, zona pellucida and perivitelline space, relative to other more abundant glycoforms. Finally, pretreatment of two-cell embryos, which do not normally bind sperm, with PNA-binding OGP stimulates sperm binding.

  19. Understanding the independent and joint associations of the home and workplace built environments on cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Hoehner, Christine M; Allen, Peg; Barlow, Carolyn E; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Schootman, Mario

    2013-10-01

    This observational study examined the associations of built environment features around the home and workplace with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) based on a treadmill test and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). The study included 8,857 adults aged 20-88 years who completed a preventive medical examination in 2000-2007 while living in 12 Texas counties. Analyses examining workplace neighborhood characteristics included a subset of 4,734 participants. Built environment variables were derived around addresses by using geographic information systems. Models were adjusted for individual-level and census block group-level demographics and socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI (in CRF models), and all other home or workplace built environment variables. CRF was associated with higher intersection density, higher number of private exercise facilities around the home and workplace, larger area of vegetation around the home, and shorter distance to the closest city center. Aside from vegetation, these same built environment features around the home were also associated with BMI. Participants who lived and worked in neighborhoods in the lowest tertiles for intersection density and the number of private exercise facilities had lower CRF and higher BMI values than participants who lived and worked in higher tertiles for these variables. This study contributes new evidence to suggest that built environment features around homes and workplaces may affect health.

  20. Food addiction in children: Associations with obesity, parental food addiction and feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Burrows, T; Skinner, J; Joyner, M A; Palmieri, J; Vaughan, K; Gearhardt, A N

    2017-02-16

    Food addiction research in children is limited, and to date addictive-like eating behaviors within families have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to understand factors associated with addictive-like eating in children. The association between food addiction in children with obesity, parental food addiction, and parental feeding practices (i.e., restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring) was investigated. Parents/primary caregivers (aged≥18years) of children aged 5-12years, recruited and completed an online cross-sectional survey including demographics, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Parents, reporting on themselves and one of their children, were given a food addiction diagnosis and symptom score according to the YFAS predefined criteria. The total sample consisted of 150 parents/primary caregivers (48% male) and 150 children (51% male). Food addiction was found to be 12.0% in parents and 22.7% in children. In children, food addiction was significantly associated with higher child BMI z-scores. Children with higher food addiction symptoms had parents with higher food addiction scores. Parents of FA children reported significantly higher levels of Restriction and Pressure to eat feeding practices, but not Monitoring. Children with elevated YFAS-C scores may be at greater risk for eating-related issues.

  1. Differences between family practices in the associations of patient characteristics with health care experiences.

    PubMed

    Damman, Olga C; de Boer, Dolf; Hendriks, Michelle; Meuwissen, Liesbeth E; Rademakers, Jany; Delnoij, Diana M J; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2011-12-01

    When comparing health care providers, patient experience data are usually adjusted for case-mix associations to ensure fair comparisons. Previous studies in the United States showed that case-mix associations sometimes vary across health care providers. Such variation could indicate differential provider behavior for patient subgroups, in which case current adjustment techniques might be inappropriate. To see whether this variation is also apparent in a health care system different from the U.S. system, the authors analyzed Dutch patients' experiences with family practice care. Using multilevel random slope models, the associations between age, general health status, mental health status, education, sex, and ethnicity on one hand and reported experiences on the other hand were assessed across family practices. The authors found only five significant variances between case-mix coefficients, all for outcomes related to health care professionals' conduct. These findings correspond to previous U.S. findings, suggesting that the case-mix variations reported here and previously constitute a rather robust phenomenon.

  2. Clinical practice guidelines on cancer-associated thrombosis: a review on scope and methodology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Agnes Y Y; Peterson, Erica A; Wu, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Cancer-associated thrombosis is a well-recognized complication in patients with cancer. It imposes significant patient morbidity and anxiety, increases personal and societal financial burden, and is the second-leading cause of death in this population. There have been increasing research efforts to reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and optimize its treatment but the quality of evidence is diverse. To assist clinicians in providing care based on best-available evidence, many international and national organizations have issued clinical practice guidelines. Among these, the most highly cited resources include those developed by the American College of Chest Physicians, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology. Nationally-based guidelines have also been published by various groups, including the Italian Association of Medical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, the French National Federation of the League of Centers Against Cancer, and the British Committee for Standards in Haematology. This review will cover fundamental aspects of clinical practice guideline development and evaluation, summarize the scope and methodology of published guidelines on the management of cancer-associated thrombosis and assess the quality of selected, international guidelines using the validated Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool. Areas of consensus and uncertainties will be briefly highlighted.

  3. Results of the independent radiological verification survey at the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site, Fairfield, Ohio (FOH001)

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.E.; Murray, M.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site is located at 3550 Dixie Highway, Fairfield, Ohio. Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company produced hollow uranium slugs in a machine shop at the site in 1956. The work was performed for National Lead of Ohio in a contract with the Atomic Energy Commission to augment the capacity of the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald in the development of nuclear energy for defense-related projects. The current occupant of the building, Force Control, operates a multipurpose machine shop. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio. The survey was performed from February to May of 1995. The purpose of the survey was to verify that radioactivity from residues of {sup 238}U was remediated to a level below acceptable DOE guidelines levels.

  4. Hydrogen-peroxide producing lactobacilli are associated with lower levels of vaginal IL1β, independent of bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Caroline; Fredricks, David; Agnew, Kathy; Hitti, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing lactobacilli in the vagina is associated with decreased rates of preterm birth and HIV acquisition. We hypothesize that this is due to immunomodulatory effects of these species. Methods Concentrations of IL1β, IL6, IL8, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) were quantified from vaginal swabs from 4 groups of women: women with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV) by Nugent score, further stratified by detection of H2O2-producing lactobacilli by semi-quantitative culture. Ten quantitative PCR assays characterized presence and quantity of select Lactobacillus and BV-associated species in each group. Levels of immune markers and bacteria were compared between the four groups using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U or chi-square tests. Results Swabs from 110 women from four groups were included: 26 had a normal Nugent score (BV−), and no H2O2-producing lactobacilli detected(H2O2−), 47 were BV−, H2O2+, 27 BV+, H2O2− and 10 BV+, H2O2+. The groups were similar in age, marital status and reproductive history, but not ethnicity: the BV−, H2O2− group had more Caucasian participants(p = 0.02). In women with and without BV, IL1β was lower in the H2O2+ groups. HBD2 was lowest in BV+ H2O2− women and highest in BV−, H2O2−. SLPI was lower in women with BV, and did not differ by the presence of H2O2–producing lactobacilli. In regression analysis higher quantities of L. crispatus were associated with lower quantities of IL1β. Detection and quantity of BV-associated species by qPCR was significantly different between women with and without BV, but not between women with and without H2O2-producing lactobacilli within those groups. Conclusions The presence of H2O2-producing lactobacilli is associated with lower levels of some vaginal pro-inflammatory cytokines, even in women with BV. PMID:26222747

  5. Identification of bacteria associated with feline chronic gingivostomatitis using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    PubMed

    Dolieslager, Sanne M J; Riggio, Marcello P; Lennon, Alan; Lappin, David F; Johnston, Norman; Taylor, David; Bennett, David

    2011-02-24

    Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oral cavity that causes severe pain and distress. There are currently no specific treatment methods available and little is known regarding its aetiology, although bacteria are thought to play a major role. The purpose of this study was to identify the oral bacterial flora in normal and diseased cats. Oral swabs were obtained from the palatoglossal folds of eight cats (three normal and five FCGS) and were subjected to microbiological culture. Pasteurella pneumotropica and Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida were the most prevalent species identified by culture methods in the normal and FCGS samples, respectively. Bacteria were also identified using culture-independent methods (bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing). For the normal samples, 158 clones were analysed and 85 clones were sequenced. Capnocytophaga canimorsus (10.8% of clones analysed) was the predominant species. Uncultured species accounted for 8.2% of clones analysed, and 43.7% of clones analysed represented potentially novel species. For the FCGS samples, 253 clones were analysed and 91 clones were sequenced. The predominant species was P. multocida subsp. multocida (51.8% of clones analysed). Uncultured species accounted for 8.7% of clones analysed, and 4.7% of clones analysed represented potentially novel species. It is concluded that the oral flora in cats with FCGS appears to be less diverse than that found in normal cats. However, P. multocida subsp. multocida is found to be significantly more prevalent in FCGS than in normal cats and consequently may be of aetiological significance in this disease.

  6. Natural C-independent expression of restriction endonuclease in a C protein-associated restriction-modification system

    PubMed Central

    Rezulak, Monika; Borsuk, Izabela; Mruk, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Restriction–modification (R-M) systems are highly prevalent among bacteria and archaea, and appear to play crucial roles in modulating horizontal gene transfer and protection against phage. There is much to learn about these diverse enzymes systems, especially their regulation. Type II R-M systems specify two independent enzymes: a restriction endonuclease (REase) and protective DNA methyltransferase (MTase). Their activities need to be finely balanced in vivo. Some R-M systems rely on specialized transcription factors called C (controller) proteins. These proteins play a vital role in the temporal regulation of R-M gene expression, and function to indirectly modulate the horizontal transfer of their genes across the species. We report novel regulation of a C-responsive R-M system that involves a C protein of a poorly-studied structural class - C.Csp231I. Here, the C and REase genes share a bicistronic transcript, and some of the transcriptional auto-control features seen in other C-regulated R-M systems are conserved. However, separate tandem promoters drive most transcription of the REase gene, a distinctive property not seen in other tested C-linked R-M systems. Further, C protein only partially controls REase expression, yet plays a role in system stability and propagation. Consequently, high REase activity was observed after deletion of the entire C gene, and cells bearing the ΔC R-M system were outcompeted in mixed culture assays by those with the WT R-M system. Overall, our data reveal unexpected regulatory variation among R-M systems. PMID:26656489

  7. Independent Associations between Sedentary Time, Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Johan; Wijtzes, Anne; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Bourgois, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.26 and β = -0.43, both p<0.001, respectively). CRF explained 73% of the variance in the association between MVPA and clustered cardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.39, p<0.001). In conclusion, because of the mediating role of CRF, lifestyle-interventions need to be feasible yet challenging enough to lead to increases in CRF to improve someone’s cardio-metabolic health. PMID:27463377

  8. Associations of farm management practices with annual milk sales on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Shauna; VanLeeuwen, John; Shepelo, Getrude; Gitau, George Karuoya; Kamunde, Collins; Uehlinger, Fabienne; Wichtel, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Cows on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) in developing countries such as Kenya typically produce volumes of milk that are well below their genetic potential. An epidemiological study was conducted to determine reasons for this low milk production, including limited use of best management practices, such as suboptimal nutritional management. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study of 111 SDF was performed in Nyeri County, Kenya in June of 2013 determining the effect of cow factors, farmer demographics and farm management practices on the volume of milk sold per cow per year (kg milk sold/cow). In particular, the effect of feeding high protein fodder trees and other nutritional management practices were examined. Results: Approximatly 38% of farmers fed fodder trees, but such feeding was not associated with volume of milk sold per cow, likely due to the low number of fodder trees per farm. Volume of milk sold per cow was positively associated with feeding dairy meal during the month prior to calving, feeding purchased hay during the past year, deworming cows every 4 or more months (as opposed to more regularly), and having dairy farming as the main source of family income. Volume of milk sold per cow was negatively associated with a household size of >5 people and feeding Napier grass at >2 meters in height during the dry season. An interaction between gender of the principal farmer and feed shortages was noted; volume of milk sold per cow was lower when female farmers experienced feed shortages whereas milk sold per cow was unaffected when male farmers experienced feed shortages. Conclusions: These demographic and management risk factors should be considered by smallholder dairy farmers and their advisors when developing strategies to improve income from milk sales and animal-source food availability for the farming families. PMID:27047003

  9. Salam's independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    In his kind review of my biography of the Nobel laureate Abdus Salam (December 2008 pp45-46), John W Moffat wrongly claims that Salam had "independently thought of the idea of parity violation in weak interactions".

  10. Breastfeeding Practices During the First Month Postpartum and Associated Factors: Impact on Breastfeeding Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Wambach, Karen Ann; Mortazavi, Saideh Sadat; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of fluids to infants during the first days postpartum, which may be harmful to infant health, is a common practice in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to find the prevalence of breastfeeding practices using monthly dietary recall and factors associated with introduction of fluids during the first month of life and determine the effects of these supplementations on breastfeeding survival. Patients and Methods: This longitudinal study carried out in Shahroud, Iran from May 2011 to October 2013. Using convenient sampling strategy, 358 mothers in their third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled in the study and completed the questionnaires. Then the data regarding the introduction of fluids during first month postpartum was collected. We followed women monthly up to breastfeeding cessation. Kaplan-Meier and time-to-event methods were used to assess breastfeeding survival. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that determined breastfeeding practices at the first month postpartum. The Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of variables on breastfeeding survival. Results: The prevalence of exclusive, predominant, and partial breastfeeding during the first month postpartum were 33.1%, 58.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. Predominant breastfeeding was associated with the lack of breastfeeding experience (OR = 1.93; 95% CI [1.02 - 3.66]). Partial breastfeeding was associated with the maternal age ≥ 30 y (OR = 5.96; CI [1.66 - 21.37]), family income higher than the mean (OR = 3.39; 95% CI [1.17 - 9.81]), and breastfeeding difficulties score higher than mean (OR = 3.09; 95% CI [1.10 - 8.71]). The Cox regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding practices at the first month was associated with an increased risk for breastfeeding discontinuation. The hazard ratio of breastfeeding discontinuation for predominant and partial breastfeeding groups were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.51; P = 0.49) and 2

  11. The principles of quality-associated costing: derivation from clinical transfusion practice.

    PubMed

    Trenchard, P M; Dixon, R

    1997-01-01

    As clinical transfusion practice works towards achieving cost-effectiveness, prescribers of blood and its derivatives must be certain that the prices of such products are based on real manufacturing costs and not market forces. Using clinical cost-benefit analysis as the context for the costing and pricing of blood products, this article identifies the following two principles: (1) the product price must equal the product cost (the "price = cost" rule) and (2) the product cost must equal the real cost of product manufacture. In addition, the article describes a new method of blood product costing, quality-associated costing (QAC), that will enable valid cost-benefit analysis of blood products.

  12. Higher Dietary Acidity is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Iranian Women, Independent of Dietary Calcium Intake.

    PubMed

    Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Nosrat-Mirshekarlou, Elaheh; Karamati, Mohsen; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Findings of studies on the link between dietary acid-base balance and bone mass are relatively mixed. We examined the association between dietary acid-base balance and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of Iranian women, hypothesizing that a higher dietary acidity would be inversely associated with BMD, even when dietary calcium intake is adequate. In this cross-sectional study, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs of 151 postmenopausal women aged 50-85 years were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Renal net acid excretion (RNAE), an estimate of acid-base balance, was then calculated indirectly from the diet using the formulae of Remer (based on dietary intakes of protein, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium; RNAERemer) and Frassetto (based on dietary intakes of protein and potassium; RNAEFrassetto), and was energy adjusted by the residual method. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable adjusted means of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertiles of RNAERemer and RNAEFrassetto were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertiles (for RNAERemer: mean difference -0.084 g/cm2; P=0.007 and for RNAEFrassetto: mean difference -0.088 g/cm2; P=0.004). Similar results were observed in a subgroup analysis of subjects with dietary calcium intake of >800 mg/day. In conclusion, a higher RNAE (i. e. more dietary acidity), which is associated with greater intake of acid-generating foods and lower intake of alkali-generating foods, may be involved in deteriorating the bone health of postmenopausal Iranian women, even in the context of adequate dietary calcium intake.

  13. Cary Potter on Independent Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Cary

    1978-01-01

    Cary Potter was President of the National Association of Independent Schools from 1964-1978. As he leaves NAIS he gives his views on education, on independence, on the independent school, on public responsibility, on choice in a free society, on educational change, and on the need for collective action by independent schools. (Author/RK)

  14. Inadequate mito-biogenesis in primary dermal fibroblasts from old humans is associated with impairment of PGC1A-independent stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kalfalah, Faiza; Sobek, Stefan; Bornholz, Beatrice; Götz-Rösch, Christine; Tigges, Julia; Fritsche, Ellen; Krutmann, Jean; Köhrer, Karl; Deenen, René; Ohse, Sebastian; Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke; Boege, Fritz

    2014-08-01

    Extrinsic skin ageing converges on the dermis, a post-mitotic tissue compartment consisting of extracellular matrix and long-lived fibroblasts prone to damage accumulation and maladaptation. Aged human fibroblasts exhibit mitochondrial and nuclear dysfunctions, which may be a cause or consequence of ageing. We report on a systematic study of human dermal fibroblasts retrieved from female donors aged 20-67 years and analysed ex vivo at low population doubling precluding replicative senescence. According to gene set enrichment analysis of genome wide array data, the most prominent age-associated change of the transcriptome was decreased expression of mitochondrial genes. Consistent with that, mitochondrial content and cell proliferation declined with donor age. This was associated with upregulation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), increased mRNA levels of PPARγ-coactivator 1α (PGC1A) and decreased levels of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1. In the old cells the PGC1A-mediated mito-biogenetic response to direct AMPK-stimulation by AICAR was undiminished, while the PGC1A-independent mito-biogenetic response to starvation was attenuated and accompanied by increased ROS-production. In summary, these observations suggest an age-associated decline in PGC1A-independent mito-biogenesis, which is insufficiently compensated by upregulation of the AMPK/PGC1A-axis leading under baseline conditions to decreased mitochondrial content and reductive overload of residual respiratory capacity.

  15. RAF kinase inhibitor-independent constitutive activation of Yes-associated protein 1 promotes tumor progression in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S E; Lee, J U; Lee, M H; Ryu, M J; Kim, S J; Kim, Y K; Choi, M J; Kim, K S; Kim, J M; Kim, J W; Koh, Y W; Lim, D-S; Jo, Y S; Shong, M

    2013-01-01

    The transcription coactivator Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is regulated by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. However, the role of YAP1 in thyroid cancer, which is frequently associated with the BRAFV600E mutation, remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of YAP1 in thyroid cancer. YAP1 was overexpressed in papillary (PTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer, and nuclear YAP1 was more frequently detected in BRAFV600E (+) PTC. In the thyroid cancer cell lines TPC-1 and HTH7, which do not have the BRAFV600E mutation, YAP1 was cytosolic and inactive at high cell densities. In contrast, YAP1 was retained in the nucleus and its target genes were expressed in the thyroid cancer cells 8505C and K1, which harbor the BRAFV600E mutation, regardless of cell density. Furthermore, the nuclear activation of YAP1 in 8505C was not inhibited by RAF or MEK inhibitor. In vitro experiments, YAP1 silencing or overexpression affected migratory capacities of 8505C and TPC-1 cells. YAP1 knockdown resulted in marked decrease of tumor volume, invasion and distant metastasis in orthotopic tumor xenograft mouse models using the 8505C thyroid cancer cell line. Taken together, YAP1 is involved in the tumor progression of thyroid cancer and YAP1-mediated effects might not be affected by the currently used RAF kinase inhibitors. PMID:23857250

  16. Acute gouty arthritis complicated with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction is independently associated with short- and long-term adverse non-fatal cardiac events.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuan-Liang; Lee, Hsin-Fu; Chou, Shing-Hsien; Lin, Yen-Chen; Lin, Chia-Pin; Wang, Chun-Li; Chang, Chi-Jen; Hsu, Lung-An

    2014-01-01

    Large epidemiologic studies have associated gouty arthritis with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, there has been a lack of information regarding the outcomes for patients who have gout attacks during hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction. We reviewed the data of 444 consecutive patients who were admitted to our hospital between 2005 and 2008 due to acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The clinical outcomes were compared between patients with gout attack and those without. Of the 444, 48 patients with acute STEMI developed acute gouty arthritis during hospitalization. The multivariate analysis identified prior history of gout and estimated glomerular filtration rate as independent risk factors of gout attack for patients with acute STEMI (odds ratio (OR) 21.02, 95 % CI 2.96-149.26, p = 0.002; OR 0.92, 95 % CI 0.86-0.99, p = 0.035, respectively). The in-hospital mortality and duration of hospital stay did not differ significantly between the gouty group and the non-gouty group (controls). During a mean follow-up of 49 ± 28 months, all-cause mortality and stroke were similar for both groups. Multivariate Cox regression showed that gout attack was independently associated with short- and long-term adverse non-fatal cardiac events (hazard ratio (HR) 1.88, 95 % CI 1.09-3.24, p = 0.024; HR 1.82, 95 % CI 1.09-3.03, p = 0.022, respectively). Gout attack among patients hospitalized due to acute STEMI was independently associated with short-term and long-term rates of adverse non-fatal cardiac events.

  17. Plasma Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Level Is an Independent Predictor of High Thrombus Burden in Patients With Acute ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangqi; Zhang, Yingqiang; Wu, Zhiming; You, Wei; Liang, Fengshuo; Ye, Fei; Chen, Shaoliang

    2016-12-02

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent risk factor for plaque rupture and atherothrombotic events. However, the associations between serum Lp-PLA2 level and thrombus burden in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients remain unknown.We consecutively enrolled 351 STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Patients were assigned to a high thrombus burden (HTB) group (n = 230) and a low thrombus burden (LTB) group (n = 121). Baseline data were recorded during hospital admission. Plasma Lp-PLA2 concentration, coronary angiography results, and in-hospital mortality were measured. Plasma Lp-PLA2 level had a high correlation with thrombus burden score (TBS) before pPCI and it was found to be a significant independent predictor of HTB in STEMI patients (P < 0.05). Moreover, TBS, corrected thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count (cTFC), and plasma Lp-PLA2 level after pPCI in patients with HTB were significantly higher than those in patients with LTB (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, TIMI flow grade (TFG) and TIMI myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG) of HTB patients were markedly lower than those of LTB patients (P < 0.05). Additionally, correlations of plasma Lp-PLA2 level before pPCI with TFG before pPCI and TBS, cTFC, and TMPG after pPCI were modest (P < 0.05). However, the associations of plasma Lp-PLA2 level after pPCI with TFG, TBS, cTFC and TMPG were low (P < 0.05).These results demonstrated that the plasma Lp-PLA2 level before pPCI is an independent predictor of HTB in STEMI patients, resulting in modestly predicting blood flow and myocardial perfusion of the culprit artery.

  18. TRIM39 and RNF39 are associated with Behçet's disease independently of HLA-B∗51 and -A∗26.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Riho; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Tajima, Atsushi; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Shiina, Takashi; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Ohono, Shigeaki; Inoue, Ituro; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2010-10-29

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease and strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B∗51 and -A∗26. We examined whether other genetic factors may exist in HLA region by 135 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 384 pairs of Japanese BD patients and controls. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two novel susceptibility SNPs: rs9261365 near a ring finger protein (RNF) 39 and rs2074474 on exon 9 of tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) 39 independently of HLA-B∗51 and -A∗26 alleles. Our findings suggest that RNF39 and TRIM39 are involved in the etiology of BD.

  19. Cooperative coparenting moderates the association between parenting practices and children's prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Meghan B; Blandon, Alysia Y; Stifter, Cynthia A; Buss, Kristin A

    2013-06-01

    This study examined how aspects of the parenting and coparenting relationships relate to children's prosocial behavior in early childhood. Fifty-eight 2-parent families from a larger ongoing longitudinal study participated in this study. Mothers completed questionnaires that measured their use of inductive reasoning, as well as their children's prosocial behavior. Furthermore, parents and their children participated in 3 triadic interaction tasks that were coded to assess cooperative coparenting behavior. Results revealed that cooperative coparenting was positively associated with children's prosocial behavior. A significant interaction also emerged between maternal inductive reasoning and cooperative coparenting behavior. These findings underscore the important role of a cooperative coparenting subsystem in influencing children's emerging prosocial behavior, as well as highlight the association between positive parenting practices and children's prosocial development within the context of cooperative coparenting behaviors. This study demonstrates the utility of understanding family-level processes that contribute to children's prosocial development during early childhood.

  20. Hygiene practices and sexual activity associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Amiri, F N; Rooshan, M H; Ahmady, M H; Soliamani, M J

    2009-01-01

    A case-control study determined the association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with genital hygiene practices and sexual activity in pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Babol, Islamic Republic of Iran. A sample of 100 pregnant women with positive urine cultures (cases) were compared with 150 healthy pregnant women matched for age, social, economic and education status and parity (controls). Escherichia coli was the infecting organism in 83% of cases. Factors associated with UTI included sexual intercourse > or = 3 times per week (OR = 5.62), recent UTI (OR = 3.27), not washing genitals precoitus (OR = 2.16), not washing genitals postcoitus (OR = 2.89), not voiding urine postcoitus (OR = 8.62) and washing genitals from back to front (OR = 2.96).

  1. A novel mutation in the F5 gene (factor V Amsterdam) associated with bleeding independent of factor V procoagulant function.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Marisa L R; Bakhtiari, Kamran; Peter, Jorge; Marquart, J Arnoud; Meijers, Joost C M; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2015-03-12

    We investigated a small Dutch family with a bleeding diathesis, prolonged prothrombin, and activated partial thromboplastin times, in whom no classifying diagnosis was made. The 2 affected relatives had severely decreased in vitro thrombin generation, and levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) were strongly increased. To identify the genetic cause of the bleeding diathesis, we performed whole exome sequencing analysis of all living relatives. We found a novel gain-of-function mutation in the F5 gene (c.C2588G), which leads to an aberrant splicing of F5 and ultimately to a short factor V protein (missing 623 amino acids from the B domain), which we called factor V Amsterdam. Factor V Amsterdam binds to TFPI, prolonging its half-life and concentration. This is the second report of an association between a shorter form of factor V and increased TFPI levels, resulting in severely reduced thrombin generation and a bleeding tendency.

  2. Family History of Skin Cancer is Associated with Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma Independent of MC1R Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Nicholas L.; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.; Ferrucci, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual’s risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Materials and Methods Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. Results A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80–3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74–3.35). Conclusions Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90–7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. PMID:26381319

  3. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Maduka, C. V.; Igbokwe, I. O.; Atsanda, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = −0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with deep litter system. In conclusion, the chicken production system requires increased drive for excellent biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak. PMID:27200208

  4. Bone Marrow Lesions and Joint Effusion are Strongly and Independently Associated with Weight-Bearing Pain in Knee Osteoarthritis: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Lo, GH; McAlindon, TE; Niu, J; Zhang, Y; Beals, C; Dabrowski, C; Hellio Le Graverand, MP; Hunter, DJ

    2009-01-01

    Objective It is widely believed that there are multiple sources of pain at a tissue level in osteoarthritis (OA). MRIs provide a wealth of anatomic information and may allow identification of specific features associated with pain. We hypothesized that in knees with OA, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), synovitis, and effusion would be associated with weight-bearing and (less so with) non-weight-bearing pain independently. Methods In a cross-sectional study of persons with symptomatic knee OA using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions with maximal BML, effusion, and synovitis defined by Boston Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score as predictors, and knee pain using weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing Western Ontario and McMaster University OA Index pain questions as the outcome, we tested the association between MRI findings and knee symptoms Results 160 participants, mean age 61 (±9.9), mean BMI 30.3 (±4.7) and 50% female, stronger associations were seen with weight-bearing compared with non-weight-bearing knee pain with adjusted risk ratios (RRs) of weight-bearing knee pain, for increasing maximal BML scores of 1.0 (referent) (maximal BML = 0), 1.2, 1.9, and 2.0 (p for trend = 0.006). For effusion scores, adjusted ORs of knee pain were 1.0, 1.7, 2.0, and 2.6 (p for trend = 0.0004); and for synovitis scores, adjusted ORs were 1.0, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.9 (p for trend = 0.22). Conclusion Cross-sectionally, maximal BML and effusion scores are independently associated with weight-bearing and less so with non-weight-bearing knee pain, supporting the idea that pain in OA is multifactorial. These MRI features should be considered as possible new treatment targets in knee OA. PMID:19583959

  5. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

  6. Intra-annual variation of the association between agricultural best management practices and stream nutrient concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Nolan J T; Yates, Adam G

    2017-05-15

    Temporal variation may influence the ability of best management practices (BMPs) to mitigate the loss of agricultural pollutants to streams. Our goal was to assess variation in mitigation effects of BMPs by examining the associations between instream nutrient concentrations and the abundance and location of four structural BMPs over a hydrologic year. Water samples were collected monthly (Nov. 2013-Oct. 2014) in 15 headwater streams representing a gradient of BMP use in Southern Ontario, Canada. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models were used to associate two groups of collinear nutrient forms with the abundance and location of BMPs, antecedent precipitation and time of year. BMP metrics in PLS models were associated with instream concentrations of major phosphorus forms and ammonium throughout the year. In contrast, total nitrogen and nitrate-nitrite were only associated with BMPs during snowmelt. BMP metrics associated with reductions of phosphorus and ammonium included greater abundances of riparian buffers and manure storage structures, but not livestock restriction fences. Likewise, the abundance and location riparian vegetation in areas capturing more surface runoff were associated with decreased stream nitrogen concentrations during snowmelt. However, the amount of tile drainage was associated with increased nitrogen concentrations following snowmelt, as well as with greater phosphorus and ammonium concentrations throughout the year. Overall, our findings indicate that increasing the abundance of riparian buffers and manure storage structures may decrease instream nutrient concentrations in agricultural areas. Additionally, the implementation of these structural BMPs appear to be an effective year-round strategy to assist management objectives in reducing phosphorus concentrations in small agricultural streams and thus loadings to downstream tributaries. Further mitigation measures, such as managerial BMPs and controlled tile drainage, may be

  7. Factors associated with the intensification of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Antonio; Cáceres, Laura; Hernández-Beriaín, José Ángel; Francisco, Félix; Ojeda, Soledad; Talaverano, Sigrid; Nóvoa-Medina, Javier; Martín, José Adán; Delgado, Esmeralda; Trujillo, Elisa; Álvarez, Fátima; Magdalena, Laura; Rodríguez-Lozano, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the patterns of treatment adjustment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with active disease in routine clinical care. This was a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients with RA conducted in five hospitals. Activity scales (DAS28-ESR) and function (HAQ) were measured, as well as whether ultrasound was performed as part of the assessment. Treatment decision (no changes/reduction/intensification) and time to the next scheduled visit were the outcomes variables. Associated factors were analysed by multilevel regression models. A total of 343 patients were included (77 % women, mean age 57 years, mean RA duration 10 years), of whom 44 % were in remission by DAS28. Treatment was continued in 202 (59 %) patients, reduced in 57 (16 %), and intensified in 83 (24 %). In the 117 patients with active RA (DAS28 ≥ 3.2), treatment was intensified in 61 (52 %). Factors associated with treatment intensification were physician and patient VAS, and DAS28, but not the centre. In the multilevel regression analysis with intensification of treatment as dependent variable, the following factors were significantly associated: DAS28 [OR 3.67 (95 % CI 2.43-5.52)], patient VAS [OR 1.04 (95 % CI 1.01-1.08)], and have performed an ultrasound [OR 3.36 (95 % CI 1.47-7.68)]. Factors associated with time to the next scheduled visit (an average of 4.3 months) were patient and physician VAS, DAS28, and centre. In clinical practice, half of the patients with active RA maintain or reduce the treatment. The decision to intensify treatment in active RA as recommended by a treat-to-target strategy is complex in practice.

  8. Role of Metalloproteases in Vaccinia Virus Epitope Processing for Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)-independent Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-B7 Class I Antigen Presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Elena; García, Ruth; Mir, Carmen; Barriga, Alejandro; Lemonnier, François A.; Ramos, Manuel; López, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates the viral proteolytic peptides generated by the proteasome and other proteases in the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. There, they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, which are subsequently recognized by the CD8+ lymphocyte cellular response. However, individuals with nonfunctional TAP complexes or tumor or infected cells with blocked TAP molecules are able to present HLA class I ligands generated by TAP-independent processing pathways. Herein, using a TAP-independent polyclonal vaccinia virus-polyspecific CD8+ T cell line, two conserved vaccinia-derived TAP-independent HLA-B*0702 epitopes were identified. The presentation of these epitopes in normal cells occurs via complex antigen-processing pathways involving the proteasome and/or different subsets of metalloproteinases (amino-, carboxy-, and endoproteases), which were blocked in infected cells with specific chemical inhibitors. These data support the hypothesis that the abundant cellular proteolytic systems contribute to the supply of peptides recognized by the antiviral cellular immune response, thereby facilitating immunosurveillance. These data may explain why TAP-deficient individuals live normal life spans without any increased susceptibility to viral infections. PMID:22298786

  9. Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

    2012-05-01

    In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have

  10. Methodological issues in genetic association studies of inherited thrombophilia: original report of recent practice.

    PubMed

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Nikolac, Nora; Topic, Elizabeta

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this article are to evaluate the methodological quality of genetic association studies on the inherited thrombophilia published during 2003 to 2005, to identify the most common mistakes made by authors of those studies, and to examine if overall quality of the article correlates with the quality of the journal. Articles were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers using the checklist of 16 items. A total of 58 eligible studies were identified. Average total score was 7.59 +/- 1.96. Total article score did not correlate with the journal impact factor (r = 0.3971; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1547-0.5944, P = .002). Total score did not differ across years (P = .624). Finally, it is concluded that methodological quality of genetic association studies is not optimal, and it does not depend on the quality of the journal. Journals should adopt methodological criteria for reporting the genetic association studies, and editors should encourage authors to strictly adhere to those criteria.

  11. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    PubMed

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg

    2010-09-01

    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P < .001) as well as alterations in clinical protocols (84% vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume.

  12. Loving-Kindness Meditation practice associated with longer telomeres in women.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Elizabeth A; Chen, Maxine M; Orr, Esther; Metcalf, Christina A; Fischer, Laura E; Pollack, Mark H; De Vivo, Immaculata; Simon, Naomi M

    2013-08-01

    Relatively short telomere length may serve as a marker of accelerated aging, and shorter telomeres have been linked to chronic stress. Specific lifestyle behaviors that can mitigate the effects of stress might be associated with longer telomere lengths. Previous research suggests a link between behaviors that focus on the well-being of others, such as volunteering and caregiving, and overall health and longevity. We examined relative telomere length in a group of individuals experienced in Loving-Kindness Meditation (LKM), a practice derived from the Buddhist tradition which utilizes a focus on unselfish kindness and warmth towards all people, and control participants who had done no meditation. Blood was collected by venipuncture, and Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure relative telomere length (RTL) (Cawthon, 2002) in fifteen LKM practitioners and 22 control participants. There were no significant differences in age, gender, race, education, or exposure to trauma, but the control group had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of past depression. The LKM practitioners had longer RTL than controls at the trend level (p=.083); among women, the LKM practitioners had significantly longer RTL than controls, (p=.007), which remained significant even after controlling for BMI and past depression. Although limited by small sample size, these results offer the intriguing possibility that LKM practice, especially in women, might alter RTL, a biomarker associated with longevity.

  13. Vertical integration: hospital ownership of physician practices is associated with higher prices and spending.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    We examined the consequences of contractual or ownership relationships between hospitals and physician practices, often described as vertical integration. Such integration can reduce health spending and increase the quality of care by improving communication across care settings, but it can also increase providers' market power and facilitate the payment of what are effectively kickbacks for inappropriate referrals. We investigated the impact of vertical integration on hospital prices, volumes (admissions), and spending for privately insured patients. Using hospital claims from Truven Analytics MarketScan for the nonelderly privately insured in the period 2001-07, we constructed county-level indices of prices, volumes, and spending and adjusted them for enrollees' age and sex. We measured hospital-physician integration using information from the American Hospital Association on the types of relationships hospitals have with physicians. We found that an increase in the market share of hospitals with the tightest vertically integrated relationship with physicians--ownership of physician practices--was associated with higher hospital prices and spending. We found that an increase in contractual integration reduced the frequency of hospital admissions, but this effect was relatively small. Taken together, our results provide a mixed, although somewhat negative, picture of vertical integration from the perspective of the privately insured.

  14. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their

  15. Factors Associated with Tick Bite Preventive Practices among Farmworkers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Li Ping; Tay, Sun Tee; Bulgiba, Awang; Zandi, Keivan; Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Ong, Bee Lee; Jaafar, Tariq; Hassan Nizam, Quaza Nizamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Background Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers. Methods A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013 Results A total of 151 (72.2%) out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91) reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05) a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2) from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1) from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1) farms, (2) job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers), (3) perceived severity of tick bites, and (4) perceived barriers to tick bite prevention. Conclusions A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived

  16. Associations of infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann

    2011-09-01

    Picky eating behaviors are prevalent during childhood and are often linked to nutritional problems. However, information on the determinants of picky eating behaviors during infancy, when food acceptance patterns develop, is scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of infant feeding practices on the development of picky eating behaviors during preschool years. Baseline survey data from the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids (STRONG Kids) program were used for this retrospective data analysis. Primary caregiver-child dyads were recruited from child-care centers in Eastern Illinois between February and July of 2009. A total of 129 self-reported responses from mothers of preschool-aged children were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors. Children who were introduced to complementary foods before 6 months of age had 2.5 times higher odds of developing food neophobia and limited variety of foods (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 5.93 and 1.06 to 5.73, respectively). Children who were breastfed exclusively for 6 months had lower odds of developing a preference for specific food-preparation methods by 78% (95% CI: 19% to 94%), food rejection by 81% (95% CI: 31% to 94%), and food neophobia by 75% (95% CI: 11% to 93%). Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods after 6 months of age reduced the odds of picky eating during early childhood. This study documents an association between infant-feeding practices and the development of picky eating behaviors in early childhood.

  17. Human melanoma cells express FGFR/Src/Rho signaling that entails an adhesion-independent caveolin-1 membrane association.

    PubMed

    Fecchi, Katia; Travaglione, Sara; Spadaro, Francesca; Quattrini, Adriano; Parolini, Isabella; Piccaro, Giovanni; Raggi, Carla; Fabbri, Alessia; Felicetti, Federica; Carè, Alessandra; Fiorentini, Carla; Sargiacomo, Massimo

    2012-03-15

    Caveolae have been indicated as a center of cytoskeleton regulation for Src kinase/Rho GTPase signaling. In addition, Src recruitment on intact cortical actin cytoskeleton appears to be required for bFGF/FGFR signal activation. Recently, we established a relationship between caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression and cell migration in human malignant melanoma, constitutively activated by a bFGF autoregulatory loop. This work intends to investigate whether caveolae's asset, through bFGF/FGFR/c-Src/Rho signaling, could be related to melanoma cell anchorage. Accordingly, we revealed the existence of a FGFR/Src kinase pathway in Cav-1 enriched detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of Me665/1 metastatic melanoma cells, as confirmed by FGFR silencing. Moreover, we determined the expression and phosphorylation levels of Cav-1/Src/Erk signal pathway as a function of FGFR activation and cell density. A sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation was employed to monitor Cav-1 membrane association and buoyancy in Me665/1 cells treated for actin fragmentation or for altered phosphorylation signals. As a result, melanoma cells show remarkable resistance to Cav-1 disassembly, together with persisting cell signal activity, being Src and Cav-1 crucial modulators of Rho GTPases. In conclusion, our study primarily highlights, in a metastatic melanoma cell line expressing caveolin, the circumstances whereby caveola structural and functional endurance enables the FGFR/Src/Rho GTPases pathway to keep on cell progression.

  18. Observer trait anxiety is associated with response bias to patient facial pain expression independent of pain catastrophizing

    PubMed Central

    Rash, Joshua A; Prkachin, Kenneth M; Campbell, Tavis S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Top-down characteristics of an observer influence the detection and estimation of a sufferer’s pain. A comprehensive understanding of these characteristics is important because they influence observer helping behaviours and the sufferer’s experience of pain. OBJECTIVES: To examine the hypothesis that individuals who score high in trait anxiety would perceive more intense pain in others, as indicated by a larger negative response bias, and that this association would persist after adjusting for pain catastrophizing. METHODS: Healthy young adult participants (n=99; 50 male) watched videos containing excerpts of facial expressions taken from patients with shoulder pain and were asked to rate how much pain the patient was experiencing using an 11-point numerical rating scale. Sensitivity and response bias were calculated using signal detection methods. RESULTS: Trait anxiety was a predictor of response bias after statistically adjusting for pain catastrophizing and observer sex. More anxious individuals had a proclivity toward imputing greater pain to a sufferer. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals scoring higher on trait anxiety were more likely to impute pain to a sufferer. Anxious caregivers may be better able to respond with appropriate intervention once pain behaviour is detected, or they may exacerbate symptoms by engaging in excessive palliative care and solicitous behaviour. PMID:25299592

  19. Enhanced phospholipase C-gamma1 activity produced by association of independently expressed X and Y domain polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Horstman, D A; DeStefano, K; Carpenter, G

    1996-01-01

    The X and Y domains of phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma1, which are conserved in all mammalian phosphoinositide-specific PLC isoforms and are proposed to interact to form the catalytic site, have been expressed as individual hexahistidine-tagged fusion proteins in the baculovirus system. Following coinfection of insect cells with recombinant viruses, association of X and Y polypeptides was demonstrated in coprecipitation assays. When enzyme activity was examined, neither domain possessed catalytic activity when expressed alone; however, coexpression of the X and Y polypeptides produced a functional enzyme. This reconstituted phospholipase activity remained completely dependent on the presence of free Ca2+. The specific activity of the X:Y complex was significantly greater (20- to 100-fold) than that of holoPLC-gamma1 and was only moderately influenced by varying the concentration of substrate. The enzyme activities of holoPLC-gamma1 and the X:Y complex exhibited distinct pH optima. For holoPLC-gamma1 maximal activity was detected at pH 5.0, while activity of the X:Y complex was maximal at pH 7.2. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8755506

  20. Cimetidine-associated patent ductus arteriosus is mediated via a cytochrome P450 mechanism independent of H2 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Robert B; Shah, Lisa P; Poole, Stanley D; Ehinger, Noah J; Brown, Naoko; Shelton, Elaine L; Slaughter, James C; Baldwin, H Scott; Paria, Bibhash C; Reese, Jeff

    2013-06-01

    Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common problem in preterm infants. The antacid cimetidine is a potent antagonist of the H2 histamine receptor but it also inhibits certain cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), which may affect DA patency. We examined whether cimetidine contributes to PDA and is mediated by CYP inhibition rather than H2 blockade. Analysis of a clinical trial to prevent lung injury in premature infants revealed a significant association between cimetidine treatment and PDA. Cimetidine and ranitidine, both CYP inhibitors as well as H2 blockers, caused relaxation of the term and preterm mouse DA. CYP enzymes that are inhibited by cimetidine were expressed in DA subendothelial smooth muscle. The selective CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole induced greater DA relaxation than cimetidine, whereas famotidine and other H2 antagonists with less CYP inhibitory effects caused less dilation. Histamine receptors were developmentally regulated and localized in DA smooth muscle. However, cimetidine caused DA relaxation in histamine-deficient mice, consistent with CYP inhibition, not H2 antagonism, as the mechanism for PDA. Oxygen-induced DA constriction was inhibited by both cimetidine and famotidine. These studies show that antacids and other compounds with CYP inhibitory properties pose a significant and previously unrecognized risk for PDA in critically ill newborn infants.

  1. Information-seeking Behavior During Residency Is Associated With Quality of Theoretical Learning, Academic Career Achievements, and Evidence-based Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3–6; range, 1–10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33–4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09–4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01–3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46–11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the

  2. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Facilities and Hygiene Practices Associated with Diarrhea and Vomiting in Monastic Schools, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Emma R. N.; Agius, Paul A.; Veale, Hilary; Dorning, Karl; Hlang, Thein T.; Aung, Poe P.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.; Hellard, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal diseases are major contributors to mortality among children globally, causing one in 10 child deaths. Although most deaths are in children aged ≤ 5 years, the burden of disease in school-aged children is still considerable and contributes to high rates of school absenteeism. This study investigates behavioral and structural risk factors associated with diarrhea and/or vomiting among schoolchildren in Myanmar. Cross-sectional data from a school-based multistage cluster sample of grade 4 and 5 students were analyzed to explore water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities and hygiene-related practices of students in monastic schools in Myanmar. The outcome of interest was student self-reported diarrhea and/or vomiting in the past week. Random effects multinomial logistic regression models were used to explore correlates at the student and school level. A total of 2,082 students from 116 schools across eight states/regions were included. Of these, 11% (223) self-reported at least one episode of diarrhea only, 12% (253) at least one episode of vomiting only, and 12% (244) diarrhea and vomiting in the past week. Independent risk factors associated with the outcome included poor availability of handwash stations, no access to a septic tank toilet, inconsistent toilet use, and lower student grade. These findings highlight the importance of having an adequate number of handwash stations for students, the provision of septic tank toilets, and consistent toilet use. Future WASH programs need to target not only the provision of these WASH facilities but also their utilization, particularly among younger school-aged children. PMID:27325805

  3. Independent associations of polymorphisms in vitamin D binding protein (GC) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes with obesity and plasma 25OHD3 levels demonstrate sex dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Almesri, Norah; Das, Nagalla S; Ali, Muhallab E; Gumaa, Khalid; Giha, Hayder Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    We investigated a possible association between polymorphisms in vitamin D binding protein (GC) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes and obesity in Bahraini adults. For this purpose, 406 subjects with varying body mass indexes (BMIs) were selected. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms, 2 in the VDR gene (rs731236 TC and rs12721377 AG) and 4 in the GC gene (rs2282679 AC, rs4588 CA, rs7041 GT, and rs2298849 TC), were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that the rs7041 minor allele (G) and rare genotype (GG) were associated with higher BMI (p = 0.007 and p = 0.012, respectively), but they did not influence 25OHD3 levels. However, the minor alleles of rs2282679 (A) and rs4588 (C) were associated with low 25OHD3 plasma levels (p = 0.039 and p = 0.021, respectively), but not with BMI. Having categorized the subjects based on their sex, we found that (i) rs7041 GG associated with high BMI in females (p = 0.003), (ii) rs4588 CC associated with high BMI in females (p = 0.034) and low 25OHD3 levels in males (p = 0.009), and (iii) rs12721377 AA associated with low 25OHD3 levels in females (p = 0.039). Notably, none of the common haplotypes (6 in the GC gene and 3 in the VDR gene) were associated with BMI. Therefore, polymorphisms in the GC (rs2282679, rs4588, rs7041) and VDR (rs12721377) genes were independently associated with obesity and 25OHD3 levels with a clear sex dimorphism.

  4. HIV Infection Is Associated with Increased Fatty Infiltration of the Thigh Muscle with Aging Independent of Fat Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Sellmeyer, Deborah E.; Haberlen, Sabina A.; Margolick, Joseph; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Palella, Frank J.; Koletar, Susan L.; Lake, Jordan E.; Post, Wendy S.; Brown, Todd T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lower muscle density on computed tomography (CT) provides a measure of fatty infiltration of muscle, an aspect of muscle quality that has been associated with metabolic abnormalities, weakness, decreased mobility, and increased fracture risk in older adults. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between HIV serostatus, age, thigh muscle attenuation, and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Methods Mean CT-quantified Hounsfield units (HU) of the thigh muscle bundle and CSA were evaluated in 368 HIV-infected and 145 HIV-uninfected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) Cardiovascular Substudy using multivariable linear regression. Models all were adjusted for HIV serostatus, age, race, and body mass index (BMI); each model was further adjusted for covariates that differed by HIV serostatus, including insulin resistance, hepatitis C, malignancy, smoking, alcohol use, and self-reported limitation in physical activity. Results HIV-infected men had greater thigh muscle CSA (p<0.001) but lower muscle density (p<0.001) compared to HIV-uninfected men. Muscle density remained lower in HIV-infected men (p = 0.001) when abdominal visceral adiposity, and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue area were substituted for BMI in a multivariable model. Muscle density decreased by 0.16 HU per year (p<0.001) of increasing age among the HIV-infected men, but not in the HIV-uninfected men (HIV x age interaction -0.20 HU; p = 0.002). Conclusion HIV-infected men had lower thigh muscle density compared to HIV-uninfected men, and a more pronounced decline with increasing age, indicative of greater fatty infiltration. These findings suggest that lower muscle quality among HIV-infected persons may be a risk factor for impairments in physical function with aging. PMID:28060856

  5. Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Characterization of Microbial Assemblages Associated with High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Orphan, V. J.; Taylor, L. T.; Hafenbradl, D.; Delong, E. F.

    2000-01-01

    Recent investigations of oil reservoirs in a variety of locales have indicated that these habitats may harbor active thermophilic prokaryotic assemblages. In this study, we used both molecular and culture-based methods to characterize prokaryotic consortia associated with high-temperature, sulfur-rich oil reservoirs in California. Enrichment cultures designed for anaerobic thermophiles, both autotrophic and heterotrophic, were successful at temperatures ranging from 60 to 90°C. Heterotrophic enrichments from all sites yielded sheathed rods (Thermotogales), pleomorphic rods resembling Thermoanaerobacter, and Thermococcus-like isolates. The predominant autotrophic microorganisms recovered from inorganic enrichments using H2, acetate, and CO2 as energy and carbon sources were methanogens, including isolates closely related to Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, and Methanoculleus species. Two 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) libraries were generated from total community DNA collected from production wellheads, using either archaeal or universal oligonucleotide primer sets. Sequence analysis of the universal library indicated that a large percentage of clones were highly similar to known bacterial and archaeal isolates recovered from similar habitats. Represented genera in rDNA clone libraries included Thermoanaerobacter, Thermococcus, Desulfothiovibrio, Aminobacterium, Acidaminococcus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Desulfomicrobium. The archaeal library was dominated by methanogen-like rDNAs, with a lower percentage of clones belonging to the Thermococcales. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that sulfur-utilizing and methane-producing thermophilic microorganisms have a widespread distribution in oil reservoirs and the potential to actively participate in the biogeochemical transformation of carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur in situ. PMID:10653739

  6. Cellular tumorigenicity in nude mice. Test of associations among loss of cell-surface fibronectin, anchorage independence, and tumor-forming ability

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN; also called large external transformation-sensitive [LETS] protein or cell-surface protein [CSP]) is a large cell-surface glycoprotein that is frequently observed to be either absent or greatly reduced on the surfaces of malignant cells grown in vitro. Because FN may be a useful molecular marker of cellular malignancy, we have carried out an extensive screening to test the specific association among the degree of expression of FN, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity in the athymic nude mouse. A variety of diploid cell strains and established cell lines were tested for the expression of surface FN by indirect immunofluorescence using rabbit antisera against human cold insoluble globulin, rodent plasma FN, or chicken cell- surface FN. Concomitantly, the cells were assayed for tumor formation in nude mice and for the ability to form colonies in methylcellulose. Tumorigenic cells often showed very low surface fluorescence, confirming earlier reports. However, many highly tumorigenic fibroblast lines from several species stained strongly with all three antisera. In contrast, the anchorage-independent phenotype was nearly always associated with tumorigenicity in approximately 35 cell lines examined in this study. In another series of experiments, FN-positive but anchorage-independent cells were grown as tumors in nude mice and then reintroduced into culture. In five of the six tumor-derived cell lines, cell-surface FN was not significantly reduced; one such cell line showed very little surface FN. Our data thus indicate that the loss of cell-surface FN is not a necessary step in the process of malignant transformation and that the growth of FN-positive cells as tumors does not require a prior selection in vivo for FN-negative subpopulations. PMID:383723

  7. Tumour necrosis factor receptor I blockade shows that TNF-dependent and TNF-independent mechanisms synergise in TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, Lucy C; Stoop, A Allart; Negm, Ola H; Radford, Paul M; Tighe, Patrick J; Todd, Ian

    2015-10-01

    TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autoinflammatory disease involving recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation. It is associated with autosomal dominant mutations in TNF receptor superfamily 1A gene localised to exons encoding the ectodomain of the p55 TNF receptor, TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cell surface TNFR1 in TRAPS, and the contribution of TNF-dependent and TNF-independent mechanisms to the production of cytokines. HEK-293 and SK-HEP-1 cell lines were stably transfected with WT or TRAPS-associated variants of human TNF receptor superfamily 1A gene. An anti-TNFR1 single domain antibody (dAb), and an anti-TNFR1 mAb, bound to cell surface WT and variant TNFR1s. In HEK-293 cells transfected with death domain-inactivated (R347A) TNFR1, and in SK-HEP-1 cells transfected with normal (full-length) TNFR1, cytokine production stimulated in the absence of exogenous TNF by the presence of certain TNFR1 variants was not inhibited by the anti-TNFR1 dAb. In SK-Hep-1 cells, specific TRAPS mutations increased the level of cytokine response to TNF, compared to WT, and this augmented cytokine production was suppressed by the anti-TNFR1 dAb. Thus, TRAPS-associated variants of TNFR1 enhance cytokine production by a TNF-independent mechanism and by sensitising cells to a TNF-dependent stimulation. The TNF-dependent mechanism requires cell surface expression of TNFR1, as this is blocked by TNFR1-specific dAb.

  8. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? Meta-analysis of data from 169,551 Caucasian adults

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, S. S.; Zhao, J. H.; Chasman, D. I.; Fischer, K.; Qi, Q.; Smith, A. V.; Thinggaard, M.; Jarczok, M. N.; Nalls, M. A.; Trompet, S.; Timpson, N. J.; Schmidt, B.; Jackson, A. U.; Lyytikäinen, L. P.; Verweij, N.; Mueller-Nurasyid, M.; Vikström, M.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Wong, A.; Meidtner, K.; Middelberg, R. P.; Strawbridge, R. J.; Christiansen, L.; Kyvik, K. O.; Hamsten, A.; Jääskeläinen, T.; Tjønneland, A.; Eriksson, J. G.; Whitfield, J. B.; Boeing, H.; Hardy, R.; Vollenweider, P.; Leander, K.; Peters, A.; van der Harst, P.; Kumari, M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Meirhaeghe, A.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jöckel, K.-H.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Sattar, N.; Baumeister, S. E.; Smith, G. Davey; Casas, J. P.; Houston, D. K.; März, W.; Christensen, K.; Gudnason, V.; Hu, F. B.; Metspalu, A.; Ridker, P. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Loos, R. J. F.; Tiemeier, H.; Sonestedt, E.; Sørensen, T. I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m−2; 95% CI 0.28–0.32, P < 1 × 10−32), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68–0.84, P < 1 × 10−32) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m−2; 0.13–0.22, P = 1.0 × 10−13). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00–1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98–1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96–1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes. PMID:25752329

  9. STAT4 Associates with SLE Through Two Independent Effects that Correlate with Gene Expression and Act Additively with IRF5 to Increase Risk

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, Anna-Karin; Delgado-Vega, Angélica M.; Kozyrev, Sergey V.; Sánchez, Elena; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Eriksson, Niclas; Wojcik, Jerome; Reddy, Prasad Linga; Lima, Guadalupe; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Migliaresi, Sergio; Baca, Vicente; Orozco, Lorena; Witte, Torsten; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Abderrahim, Hadi; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Suárez, Ana; González-Escribano, Maria Francisca; Martin, Javier; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To confirm and define the genetic association of STAT4 and systemic lupus erythematosus, investigate the possibility of correlations with differential splicing and/or expression levels, and genetic interaction with IRF5. Methods 30 tag SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of Spanish cases and controls. SNPs surviving correction for multiple tests were genotyped in 5 new sets of cases and controls for replication. STAT4 cDNA was analyzed by 5’-RACE PCR and sequencing. Expression levels were measured by quantitative PCR. Results In the fine-mapping, four SNPs were significant after correction for multiple testing, with rs3821236 and rs3024866 as the strongest signals, followed by the previously associated rs7574865, and by rs1467199. Association was replicated in all cohorts. After conditional regression analyses, two major independent signals represented by SNPs rs3821236 and rs7574865, remained significant across the sets. These SNPs belong to separate haplotype blocks. High levels of STAT4 expression correlated with SNPs rs3821236, rs3024866 (both in the same haplotype block) and rs7574865 but not with other SNPs. We also detected transcription of alternative tissue-specific exons 1, indicating presence of tissue-specific promoters of potential importance in the expression of STAT4. No interaction with associated SNPs of IRF5 was observed using regression analysis. Conclusions These data confirm STAT4 as a susceptibility gene for SLE and suggest the presence of at least two functional variants affecting levels of STAT4. Our results also indicate that both genes STAT4 and IRF5 act additively to increase risk for SLE. PMID:19019891

  10. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? Meta-analysis of data from 169,551 Caucasian adults.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, E; Ängquist, L H; Mirza, S S; Zhao, J H; Chasman, D I; Fischer, K; Qi, Q; Smith, A V; Thinggaard, M; Jarczok, M N; Nalls, M A; Trompet, S; Timpson, N J; Schmidt, B; Jackson, A U; Lyytikäinen, L P; Verweij, N; Mueller-Nurasyid, M; Vikström, M; Marques-Vidal, P; Wong, A; Meidtner, K; Middelberg, R P; Strawbridge, R J; Christiansen, L; Kyvik, K O; Hamsten, A; Jääskeläinen, T; Tjønneland, A; Eriksson, J G; Whitfield, J B; Boeing, H; Hardy, R; Vollenweider, P; Leander, K; Peters, A; van der Harst, P; Kumari, M; Lehtimäki, T; Meirhaeghe, A; Tuomilehto, J; Jöckel, K-H; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Sattar, N; Baumeister, S E; Davey Smith, G; Casas, J P; Houston, D K; März, W; Christensen, K; Gudnason, V; Hu, F B; Metspalu, A; Ridker, P M; Wareham, N J; Loos, R J F; Tiemeier, H; Sonestedt, E; Sørensen, T I A

    2015-04-01

    Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m(-2) ; 95% CI 0.28-0.32, P < 1 × 10(-32) ), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68-0.84, P < 1 × 10(-32) ) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m(-2) ; 0.13-0.22, P = 1.0 × 10(-13) ). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00-1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98-1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96-1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes.

  11. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Charice S; Slaughter, Susan E; Jones, C Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S

    2015-06-30

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL.

  12. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Charice S.; Slaughter, Susan E.; Jones, C. Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S.

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life—Alzheimer’s Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL. PMID:27417776

  13. Vitamin D, d-dimer, Interferon γ, and sCD14 Levels are Independently Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Prospective, International Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Musselwhite, Laura W.; Andrade, Bruno B.; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Tierney, Ann; Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Pablo F.; Rupert, Adam; Lederman, Michael M.; Sanne, Ian; Sierra Madero, Juan G.; Sereti, Irini

    2016-01-01

    To determine the immunological profile most important for IRIS prediction, we evaluated 20 baseline plasma biomarkers in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled ART initiation trial in South Africa and Mexico to test whether maraviroc could prevent IRIS. Participants were classified prospectively as having IRIS within 6 months of ART initiation. Twenty plasma biomarkers were measured at study enrollment for 267 participants. Biomarkers were tested for predicting IRIS with adjustment for covariates chosen through forward stepwise selection. Sixty-two participants developed IRIS and of these 19 were tuberculosis (TB)-IRIS. Baseline levels of vitamin D and higher d-dimer, interferon gamma (IFNγ), and sCD14 were independently associated with risk of IRIS in multivariate analyses. TB-IRIS cases exhibited a distinct biosignature from IRIS related to other pathogens, with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), sCD14, IFNγ, and lower levels of Hb that could be captured by a composite risk score. Elevated markers of Type 1 T helper (Th1) response, monocyte activation, coagulation and low vitamin D were independently associated with IRIS risk. Interventions that decrease immune activation and increase vitamin D levels warrant further study. PMID:26981576

  14. Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in apparently healthy Japanese.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between leukocyte subtype counts and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Logistic regressions using hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia as a dependent variable and total leukocyte, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts as an independent variable were calculated adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), smoking, drinking, and physical activity in apparently healthy Japanese men (1,803) and women (1,150). The odds ratio (OR) of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for total leukocyte, eosinophil, and lymphocyte counts, the OR of hypertriglyceridemia for total leukocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and the OR of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were significant in men, and the OR of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, for lymphocyte count, and the OR of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for eosinophil count were significant in women. Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of hs-CRP in apparently healthy Japanese.

  15. The glu298asp polymorphism in the nitric oxide synthase 3 gene is associated with the risk of ischemic stroke in two large independent case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Berger, Klaus; Stögbauer, Florian; Stoll, Monika; Wellmann, Juergen; Huge, Andreas; Cheng, Suzanne; Kessler, Christof; John, Ulrich; Assmann, Gerd; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Funke, Harald

    2007-04-01

    The search for genes involved in the pathogenesis of stroke has been highlighted as a field of needs. We followed the concept, that stroke represents a complex genetic disorder, and analyzed the contribution of 106 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 63 candidate genes for cardiovascular diseases for the risk of stroke. We conducted two independent case-control studies in two different German regions and recruited a total of 1,901 hospitalized stroke cases and 1,747 regional population controls. The smaller of both studies was used as the replication study. Multiplex PCR in combination with allele-specific hybridization was used for genotype determination. Descriptive statistics, permutations and multivariable logistic regression were used in the analyses. After permutation testing 5 SNPs, located in the nitric oxide synthase 3, the alpha 2 integrin, the interleukin 13, the selectin P and the chemokine receptor 2 genes, had a significant allele difference between cases and controls in the larger study. For one of these SNPs, the glu298asp polymorphism in the nitric oxide synthase 3 gene, an association with ischemic stroke was replicated in the second study and also in a combined analysis of both studies. This association was independent of age, gender, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia in both studies. Using large sample sizes and a replication study approach, we found evidence for a role of a polymorphism in the nitric oxide synthase 3 gene in stroke onset.

  16. Practices, Attitudes, and Beliefs associated with Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use among Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Kristen; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Hardin, Steven; Knecht, Kathryn; Chen, C.S.; Montgomery, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients (40 – 83%) receiving conventional treatment and the complex relationship between the psychosocial factors that may contribute to or result from CAM use requires further understanding. We conducted a descriptive mixed-methods pilot study to understand CAM practices, attitudes and beliefs among cancer patients at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Methods This was the qualitative phase of the study and no hypotheses were set. Twenty-three face-to-face interviews were conducted and thematic coding was used to analyze 22 interview transcriptions. There were fourteen CAM users (64%) and eight non-users (36%). Findings The themes present among those who used CAM were: physicians viewed as one aspect of health care options, a holistic view on wellbeing, satisfaction with CAM use, and three key coping methods (confrontive, supportive, and optimistic) to confront cancer. Themes were not independent of each other. Two themes were present among nonusers; nonusers trusted their physician and were more likely to express evasive coping methods. Discussion Perceptions and behavioral patterns are complex predictors of CAM use. A better understanding of CAM, medical pluralism, and the perceptions of patients would help health care providers deliver a better quality of care. The promotion of integrative care may help health care providers better identify medical pluralism and would shift focus to patient-centered care. PMID:22313741

  17. Association between rheumatic diseases and cancer: results from a clinical practice cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Mattia; Boggio, Enrico; Sola, Daniele; Gibbin, Antonello; Gualerzi, Alessandro; Favretto, Serena; Guaschino, Giulia; Bonometti, Ramona; Pedrazzoli, Roberta; Pirisi, Mario; Sainaghi, Pier Paolo

    2017-02-08

    The association between cancer and immune-mediated rheumatic conditions is controversial, especially as far as polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is concerned. Furthermore, no clinical feature has been shown to be suggestive of a paraneoplastic rheumatic syndrome. With the present study, we aim to address both these issues. The study population comprised N = 1750 patients, including N = 100 with PMR, who attended our tertiary immuno-rheumatology clinic between January 1, 2005 and November 30, 2012. A rheumatic disease was deemed paraneoplastic if cancer had been diagnosed in the 2 years preceding or following its onset. The probability of a significant association between a specific rheumatic disease and cancer was evaluated by computing the odds ratio (OR): N = 702 patients with osteoarthritis serving as controls. Furthermore, clinical features distinguishing paraneoplastic rheumatic diseases were searched for by univariate and multivariate analysis. Sjogren's syndrome (SS) [OR 3.6 (CI 95% 1.7-7.5)], PMR (OR 5.1 CI 95% 2.9-8.9), dermatomyositis/polymyositis [OR 12.09 (CI 95% 2.6-55.8)] and vasculitis [OR 3.70 (CI 95% 1.81-7.52)] are associated with cancer. At multivariate analysis, older age is associated with cancer among SS patients (p = 0.03), while in the PMR group, older age, male gender, and ≥6 tender joints are independent predictors of paraneoplastic PMR (p < 0.0004). Cancer frequently either heralds or follows rheumatic manifestations, including PMR. Older age, male gender and a more extensive joint involvement should be considered red flags for paraneoplastic PMR.

  18. Will Large DSO-Managed Group Practices Be the Predominant Setting for Oral Health Care by 2025? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Large DSO-Managed Group Practices Will Be the Setting in Which the Majority of Oral Health Care Is Delivered by 2025 and Viewpoint 2: Increases in DSO-Managed Group Practices Will Be Offset by Models Allowing Dentists to Retain the Independence and Freedom of a Traditional Practice.

    PubMed

    Cole, James R; Dodge, William W; Findley, John S; Young, Stephen K; Horn, Bruce D; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L; Martin, Max M; Winder, Ronald L

    2015-05-01

    This Point/Counterpoint article discusses the transformation of dental practice from the traditional solo/small-group (partnership) model of the 1900s to large Dental Support Organizations (DSO) that support affiliated dental practices by providing nonclinical functions such as, but not limited to, accounting, human resources, marketing, and legal and practice management. Many feel that DSO-managed group practices (DMGPs) with employed providers will become the setting in which the majority of oral health care will be delivered in the future. Viewpoint 1 asserts that the traditional dental practice patterns of the past are shifting as many younger dentists gravitate toward employed positions in large group practices or the public sector. Although educational debt is relevant in predicting graduates' practice choices, other variables such as gender, race, and work-life balance play critical roles as well. Societal characteristics demonstrated by aging Gen Xers and those in the Millennial generation blend seamlessly with the opportunities DMGPs offer their employees. Viewpoint 2 contends the traditional model of dental care delivery-allowing entrepreneurial practitioners to make decisions in an autonomous setting-is changing but not to the degree nor as rapidly as Viewpoint 1 professes. Millennials entering the dental profession, with characteristics universally attributed to their generation, see value in the independence and flexibility that a traditional practice allows. Although DMGPs provide dentists one option for practice, several alternative delivery models offer current dentists and future dental school graduates many of the advantages of DMGPs while allowing them to maintain the independence and freedom a traditional practice provides.

  19. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the…

  20. The National Association of School Psychologists' Self-Assessment Tool for School Psychologists: Factor Structure and Relationship to the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Katie; Rossen, Eric; Charvat, Jeff; Meyer, Lauren; Tanner, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of School Psychologists' Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services (2010a), often referred to as the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model, describes the comprehensive range of professional skills and competencies available from school psychologists across 10 domains. The…

  1. Low levels of natural IgM antibodies against phosphorylcholine are independently associated with vascular remodeling in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gleissner, Christian A; Erbel, Christian; Haeussler, Julia; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Domschke, Gabriele; Linden, Fabian; Doesch, Andreas O; Conradson, Göran; Buss, Sebastian J; Hofmann, Nina P; Gitsioudis, Gitsios; Katus, Hugo A; Korosoglou, Grigorios

    2015-01-01

    Low anti-phosphorylcholine (PC) IgM plasma levels have been associated with increased incidence of adverse events in coronary artery disease (CAD). The underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that atheroprotection mediated by anti-PC IgM antibodies is associated with reduced vascular remodeling and therefore tested whether anti-PC IgM plasma levels independently predict vascular remodeling. In a prospective cross-sectional study, anti-PC IgM plasma levels were measured in 175 consecutive patients with suspected CAD undergoing cardiac computed tomography angiography. Plaque morphology was thoroughly analyzed. Vascular remodeling was defined by a change in the vessel diameter at the plaque site in comparison to the reference segment proximal to the lesion (reference diameter) of ≥10%. Mean age of the patients was 64.8 ± 10.7 years, 48.6% were female. In 98 patients CAD was diagnosed, 57 (58.2%) of which displayed non-obstructive CAD (stenosis <50%), whereas 41 (41.8%) exhibited obstructive CAD (stenosis ≥50%). In 34 of 98 (34.7%) CAD patients vascular remodeling was present. Mean anti-PC IgM levels did not differ between patients with and without CAD (70.8 ± 52.7 vs. 69.1 ± 55.1 U/mL). However, anti-PC IgM levels were significantly lower in CAD patients compared to those without vascular remodeling (46.6 ± 31.6 vs. 73.3 ± 58.5 U/mL, P = 0.024). Using multivariate logistic regression, anti-PC IgM plasma levels independently predicted coronary vascular remodeling (HR 0.322, 95% confidence interval 0.121-0.856, P = 0.023). In conclusion, low anti-PC IgM levels are independently associated with coronary vascular remodeling. These findings may represent the link between in vitro studies demonstrating atheroprotective effects of anti-PC IgM and clinical data demonstrating that low anti-PC IgM levels are associated with adverse outcome in CAD patients.

  2. Associations between family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in obese youth.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle; Bryant, William; Stephen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the associations among family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in a sample of severely obese youth referred to an outpatient pediatric endocrinology clinic. The sample consisted of 43 obese youth (body mass index > 95th percentile) aged 6-16 years (mean age = 12.67 years). Approximately 93% of families endorsed their religious faith as Christian or Catholic. Parents of youth were administered a demographic questionnaire, religiosity questionnaire, and the Child Behavior Checklist. Three multiple linear regression models were examined with body mass index percentile, Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Scale as outcome variables. A parent endorsing greater importance of religious faith in shaping family life was associated with lower child body mass index percentile (p < 0.05) in the present sample. Greater family attendance at religious services was associated with higher child body mass index percentile (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that church-based interventions may be one viable option for the delivery of lifestyle interventions in families of youth with severe obesity.

  3. Ghrelin is independently associated with anti-mullerian hormone levels in obese but not non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garin, Margaret C; Butts, Samantha F; Sarwer, David B; Allison, Kelly C; Senapati, Suneeta; Dokras, Anuja

    2017-03-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous appetite stimulant that may have a role in ovarian function. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have anovulation and frequently weight management issues; however the associations between ghrelin and hormonal markers in polycystic ovary syndrome have not been well studied. In order to characterize the association between total ghrelin levels and ovarian function and the possible modification of this relationship by obesity, we examined total ghrelin levels and anti-mullerian hormone, total testosterone, and insulin in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Total ghrelin levels were lower in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 45) compared to obese controls (n = 33) (p = 0.005), but similar in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 20) compared to non-obese controls (n = 21) (p = NS). In the obese polycystic ovary syndrome group, anti-mullerian hormone was associated with ghrelin levels independent of age, insulin, and total testosterone (p = 0.008). There was no association between total ghrelin and anti-mullerian hormone levels in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, non-obese controls, or obese controls (p = NS). Our results provide evidence for a potential relationship between ghrelin and ovarian function in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome that was not observed in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome or controls.

  4. p16 expression independent of human papillomavirus is associated with lower stage and longer disease-free survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Satgunaseelan, Laveniya; Virk, Sohaib A; Lum, Trina; Gao, Kan; Clark, Jonathan R; Gupta, Ruta

    2016-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the incidence of p16 expression, its association with human papillomavirus (HPV) and prognosis in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The role of p16 in OSCC is evaluated in 215 cases using tissue microarrays (TMAs). p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridisation were performed on TMAs following histopathology review of 215 patients with OSCC in the Sydney Head and Neck Cancer Institute database. Thirty-seven (17.2%) cases showed p16 expression without association with HPV. p16 expression significantly decreased with increasing pT category (p=0.002). p16 expression was associated with longer disease-specific survival on univariable analysis (p=0.044) but not on multivariable analysis adjusting for depth of invasion. Amongst patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy, patients with p16 expression had significantly longer disease-free and overall survival. p16 expression was seen in early stage OSCCs and was associated with better survival following surgery and radiotherapy. While not an independent predictor of survival, p16 may mediate its effects by contributing to reduced proliferative capacity, leading to smaller tumour size and lower invasive potential.

  5. Inter-participant variability in daily physical activity and sedentary time among male youth sport footballers: independent associations with indicators of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Participation in youth sport is assumed to promote and contribute towards more physically active lifestyles among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine inter-participant variability in objectively measured habitual physical activity (PA) behaviours and sedentary time among youth sport participants and their implications for health. One-hundred-and-eighteen male youth sport footballers (Mean ± s = 11.72 ± 1.60) wore a GT3X accelerometer for 7 days. Average daily PA [min · day(-1), in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and combined moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)] and sedentary time were calculated. Participants' body mass index adjusted for age and sex (BMI-standard deviation score), per cent body fat (BF%), waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Results revealed that variability in daily PA behaviours and sedentary time (min · day(-1)) was associated with BMI-standard deviation score [VPA (-), MVPA (-)], BF% [sedentary time (+), VPA (-), MVPA (-)], waist circumference [sedentary time (+), LPA (-)] and cardiorespiratory fitness [sedentary time (-), MPA (+), VPA (+), MVPA (+)]. Whilst sedentary time and MVPA were not related to health outcomes independent of one another, associations with markers of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness were stronger for sedentary time. Sedentary time was also significantly positively related to waist circumference independent of VPA. Results demonstrate inter-participant variability in habitual PA and sedentary time among youth sport participants which holds implications for their health. Thus, promoting PA and, in particular, reducing sedentary time may contribute towards the prevention of adverse health consequences associated with a physically inactive lifestyle for children and adolescents active in the youth sport context.

  6. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Grade in Primary Melanomas Is Independently Associated With Melanoma-Specific Survival in the Population-Based Genes, Environment and Melanoma Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Nancy E.; Busam, Klaus J.; From, Lynn; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B.; Gallagher, Richard P.; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Groben, Pamela A.; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S.; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Ollila, David W.; Wilcox, Homer; Begg, Colin B.; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although most hospital-based studies suggest more favorable survival with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) present in primary melanomas, it is uncertain whether TILs provide prognostic information beyond existing melanoma staging definitions. We addressed the issue in an international population-based study of patients with single and multiple primary melanomas. Patients and Methods On the basis of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, we conducted follow-up of 2,845 patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2003 with 3,330 invasive primary melanomas centrally reviewed for TIL grade (absent, nonbrisk, or brisk). The odds of TIL grades associated with clinicopathologic features and survival by TIL grade were examined. Results Independent predictors (P < .05) for nonbrisk TIL grade were site, histologic subtype, and Breslow thickness, and for brisk TIL grade, they were age, site, Breslow thickness, and radial growth phase. Nonbrisk and brisk TIL grades were each associated with lower American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage compared with TIL absence (Ptrend < .001). Death as a result of melanoma was 30% less with nonbrisk TIL grade (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0) and 50% less with brisk TIL grade (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9) relative to TIL absence, adjusted for age, sex, site, and AJCC tumor stage. Conclusion At the population level, higher TIL grade of primary melanoma is associated with a lower risk of death as a result of melanoma independently of tumor characteristics currently used for AJCC tumor stage. We conclude that TIL grade deserves further prospective investigation to determine whether it should be included in future AJCC staging revisions. PMID:24127443

  7. Higher Cognitive Function in Elderly Individuals with Previous Cataract Surgery: Cross-Sectional Association Independent of Visual Acuity in the HEIJO-KYO Cohort.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Kimie; Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Tone, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nishi, Tomo; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-06-01

    Cataract surgery improves visual acuity and drastically increases the capacity for light reception to the retina. Although previous studies suggested that both light exposure and visual acuity were associated with cognitive function, the relationships between cataract surgery, visual acuity, and cognitive function have not been evaluated in large populations. In this cross-sectional study, we measured cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination and best-corrected visual acuity in pseudophakic (previous cataract surgery) and phakic (no previous cataract surgery) elderly individuals. Of 945 participants (mean age 71.7 years), 166 (17.6%) had pseudophakia and 317 (33.5%) had impaired cognitive function (score ≤26). The pseudophakic group showed significantly better visual acuity than the phakic group (p = 0.003) and lower age-adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for cognitive impairment (OR 0.66; p = 0.038). Consistently, in multivariate logistic regression models, after adjusting for confounding factors, including visual acuity and socioeconomic status, ORs for cognitive impairment were significantly lower in the pseudophakic group than in the phakic group (OR 0.64; 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.96; p = 0.031). This association remained significant in sensitivity analysis, excluding participants with low cognitive score ≤23 (n = 36). In conclusion, in a general elderly population, prevalence of cognitive impairment was significantly lower in pseudophakic individuals independently of visual acuity. The association was also independent of several major causes of cognitive impairment such as aging, gender, obesity, socioeconomic status, hypertension, diabetes, sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and physical inactivity.

  8. The association of state law to breastfeeding practices in the US.

    PubMed

    Smith-Gagen, Julie; Hollen, Robin; Tashiro, Stephanie; Cook, Daniel M; Yang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the relationship between breastfeeding initiation and duration with laws supportive of breastfeeding enacted at the state level. We analyzed breastfeeding practices using the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We evaluated three measures of breastfeeding practices: Mother's reported breastfeeding initiation, a proxy report of infants ever being breastfeed, and a proxy report of infants being breastfeed for at least 6 months. Survey data were linked to eight laws supportive of breastfeeding enacted at the state level. The most robust laws associated with increased infant breastfeeding at 6 months were an enforcement provision for workplace pumping laws [OR (95 % CI) 2.0 (1.6, 2.6)] and a jury duty exemption for breastfeeding mothers [OR (95 % CI) 1.7 (1.3, 2.1)]. Having a private area in the workplace to express breast milk [OR (95 % CI) 1.3 (1.1, 1.7)] and having break time to breastfeed or pump [OR (95 % CI) 1.2 (1.0, 1.5)] were also important for infant breastfeeding at 6 months. This research responds to breastfeeding advocates' calls for evidence-based data to generate the necessary political action to enact legislation and laws to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. We identify the laws with the greatest potential to reach the Healthy People 2020 targets for breastfeeding initiation and duration.

  9. Composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in Hamadan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Koolivand, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Yunesian, Massoud; Omrani, Gasemali

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the components, composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in dental offices in Hamadan. A total of 28 offices, including ten general dentist offices, eight specialist dentist offices, five practical dentist offices and five denture maker offices were selected in a random way. Three samples from each selected type were taken and the waste was manually separated into 74 sub-fractions and each sub-fraction was weighed. The results showed that the total annual dental waste production in dental offices was 41947.43 kg. Domestic type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical and toxic waste constituted 71.15, 21.40, 7.26 and 0.18%, respectively of this amount. Only seven fractions including gypsum, latex gloves, nylon, dental impression material, used medicine ampoules, saliva-contaminated paper towels and saliva ejectors constituted about 80% of the waste. It was also indicated that there were no effective activity for waste minimization, separation, reuse and recycling in dental offices and the management of sharps, potentially infectious waste and other hazardous waste was poor.

  10. Practice patterns of rural family physicians based on the American Diabetes Association standards of care.

    PubMed

    Zoorob, R J; Mainous, A G

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine practice patterns of rural family physicians in the care of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus based on the standards of care of the American Diabetes Association (ADA). One hundred patient charts were randomly chosen, twenty for each physician, from the practices of five family physicians in rural Ohio. A standardized collection protocol was used, based upon the ADA recommendations. The charts were reviewed for compliance with the ADA parameters. The patients' records demonstrated 66% compliance with dietary counseling and 33% with counseling about exercise. Moreover, there was low compliance with physical examination guidelines. Specifically, 66% of the patients had fundoscopic examination and 64% had a complete foot examination done. With respect to the laboratory guidelines, 70% of the charts reviewed had a urinalysis ordered and 45% annual lipids measured. However, glycosylated hemoglobin was performed in only 15% of the patients. The results suggest that rural family physicians do not consistently follow the ADA standards of care.

  11. Microbial levels in Michigan apple cider and their association with manufacturing practices.

    PubMed

    Bobe, Gerd; Thede, Donna J; Ten Eyck, Toby A; Bourquini, Leslie D

    2007-05-01

    In recent decades, apple cider has been implicated in a series of outbreaks of foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to determine the presence and concentrations of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms in apple cider processed in Michigan and to evaluate the impact of thermal pasteurization, UV light radiation, and implementation of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plans on these microbes. Cider samples were obtained from Michigan mills between 1997 and 2004 and analyzed for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, generic E. coli, total coliforms, and aerobic bacteria. Neither E. coli O157:H7 nor Salmonella were detected in any tested cider samples, suggesting a very low frequency of pathogens in Michigan apple cider. The persistent and relatively high frequency of generic E. coli observed in samples obtained in all years indicates a continued risk of pathogen contamination in Michigan apple cider, especially when it is untreated. The use of thermal pasteurization or UV light radiation and reported implementation of HACCP plans were associated with lower frequency and counts of generic E. coli, total coliforms, and aerobic microorganisms. However, the relatively high counts of indicator organisms in some cider samples that were claimed to be treated according to these pathogen reduction measures indicates that some processors had inadequate practices, facilities, or equipment for pathogen reduction or did not consistently or adequately apply practices or pathogen-reduction equipment in an effective manner.

  12. Developing a Culture of Enquiry-Based, Independent Learning in a Research-Led Institution: Findings from a Survey of Pedagogic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLinden, Mike; Edwards, Corony

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports select findings from an institutional survey designed to support long-term strategic developments at a research-led institution in the UK. These developments include a revised Learning and Teaching Strategy that has at its core the promotion of a "cross-institutional culture of enquiry-based, independent learning". The…

  13. Understanding independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annan, James; Hargreaves, Julia

    2016-04-01

    In order to perform any Bayesian processing of a model ensemble, we need a prior over the ensemble members. In the case of multimodel ensembles such as CMIP, the historical approach of ``model democracy'' (i.e. equal weight for all models in the sample) is no longer credible (if it ever was) due to model duplication and inbreeding. The question of ``model independence'' is central to the question of prior weights. However, although this question has been repeatedly raised, it has not yet been satisfactorily addressed. Here I will discuss the issue of independence and present a theoretical foundation for understanding and analysing the ensemble in this context. I will also present some simple examples showing how these ideas may be applied and developed.

  14. Practices and Perceptions of Animal Contact and Associated Health Outcomes in Pregnant Women and New Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ankrom, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 33–45%) and 26% (95% CI: 21–31%), respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4%) in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%), and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%). Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopt certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers discussed these

  15. Previous gestational diabetes is independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness, similarly to metabolic syndrome – a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) face a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and, consequently, a higher cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to compare the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) from young women with pGDM to those with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to healthy controls (CG) to verify whether a past history of pGDM could be independently associated with increased cIMT. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed in two academic referral centers. Seventy-nine women with pGDM, 30 women with MS, and 60 CG aged between 18 and 47 years were enrolled. They all underwent physical examination and had blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), and triglycerides determined. The cIMT was measured by ultrasound in several carotid segments. The primary endpoint was cIMT and clinically relevant parameters included as predictors were: age, systolic blood pressure, waist, BMI, total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose, previous history of GDM as a whole group, previous history of GDM without MS, presence of DM, presence of MS, and parity. Results cIMT was significantly higher in pGDM when compared to CG in all sites of measurements (P < 0.05) except for the right common carotid. The pGDM women showed similar cIMT measurements to MS in all sites of measurements, except for the left carotid bifurcation, where it was significantly higher than MS (P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis which included classical cardiovascular risk factors and was adjusted for confounders, pGDM was shown to be independently associated with increased composite cIMT (P < 0.01). The pGDM without risk factors further showed similar cIMT to MS (P > 0.05) and an increased cIMT when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions Previous GDM was independently associated with increased composite cIMT in this young population, similarly to those with

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Elevated High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels Independent of Obesity: Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinkwan; Lee, Seok Jun; Choi, Kyung-Mee; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Lee, Seung Gwan; Shin, Chol

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) has been recognized as a common health problem, and increasing obesity rates have led to further remarkable increases in the prevalence of OSA, along with more prominent cardiovascular morbidities. Though previous studies have reported an independent relationship between elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels and OSA, the issue remains controversial owing to inadequate consideration of obesity and various confounding factors. So far, few population based studies of association between OSA and hsCRP levels have been published. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether OSA is associated with increased hsCRP levels independent of obesity in a large population-based study. A total of 1,835 subjects (968 men and 867 women) were selected from a larger cohort of the ongoing Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Overnight polysomnography was performed on each participant. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses, including analysis of lipid profiles and hsCRP levels. Based on anthropometric data, body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were calculated and fat mass (FM) were measured by means of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Mild OSA and moderate to severe OSA were defined by an AHI >5 and ≥15, respectively. The population was sub-divided into 3 groups based on the tertile cut-points for the distribution of hsCRP levels. The percentage of participants in the highest tertile of hsCRP increased dose-dependently according to the severity of OSA. After adjustment for potential confounders and obesity-related variables (BMI, WHR, and body fat) in a multiple logistic model, participants with moderate to severe OSA had 1.73-, 2.01-, and 1.61-fold greater risks of being in the highest tertile of hsCRP levels than participants with non-OSA, respectively. Interaction between obesity (BMI ≥25kg/m2) and the

  17. Arterial hypertension treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and glucocorticoids are independent risk factors associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Predrag; Stojanovski, Natasa

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence and severity of renal insufficiency in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to assess risk factors associated with reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in SSc patients. Seventy-three consecutive patients with SSc (67 women and 6 men), mean age 56.2 years, mean disease duration 6.7 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. GFR was measured by creatinine clearance (CCr) in all patients, as well as 24-h proteinuria. We assessed frequency and severity of renal insufficiency in our patients with SSc and estimated the association of renal insufficiency with age, disease duration, subtype of the disease, earlier diagnosed arterial hypertension, and medications for which we assumed to affect renal function-cytostatics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucocorticoids, ACE inhibitors, diuretics, and calcium channel blockers (CCB). Fifty-six out of 73 patients with SSc (76.7%) had reduced GFR (CCr lower than 90 ml/min), compared to 17/73 (23.3%) of patients with normal renal function. Mild renal insufficiency was noticed in 28/73 (38.4%), moderate in 21/73 (28.8%) and severe renal insufficiency in 5/73 (6.8%). End-stage renal disease (CCr < 15 ml/min) was found in 2/73 (2.7%) of patients. Using the univariate general linear statistical model, we have found that previously diagnosed arterial hypertension and treatment with glucocorticoids are independent risk factors for reduced GFR. On the other hand, age, disease duration, disease form, as well as antibodies (anticentromere antibodies-ACA and anti-topoisomerase I antibodies-ATA) were excluded as independent risk factors. Patients with SSc and arterial hypertension treated with CCB had significantly higher mean CCr than patients treated with diuretics (90.4 vs 53.5 ml/min, p = 0.03), or patients treated with ACE inhibitors (90.4 vs 41.7 ml/min, p = 0.001). Decreased GFR is common in SSc. Most of patients have mild or moderate renal insufficiency

  18. A Survey on Transport Management Practices Associated with Injuries and Health Problems in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Raidal, Sharanne L.; Hall, Evelyn; Knight, Peter; Celi, Pietro; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was conducted to determine associations between transport management and transport-related injuries and diseases in horses in Australia. The survey was composed of three sections: respondents’ demographic information, transport management strategies or procedures (before, during and after transportation) and transport diseases experienced in the previous two year period. Univariate and multivariate modelling was performed exploring associations between variables (respondents’ details and transport management strategies) and the following transport-related diseases as outcomes: traumatic injuries, diarrhoea, heat stroke, muscular problems, laminitis, transport pneumonia and colic. The survey generated 797 responses. Traumatic injuries were the most common transport-related problem, with a reported incidence of 45.0%. Younger respondents (<40 years old) caring for large numbers of horses (>30 in a week) were more likely to report transport-related injuries. Injury risk was also linked to the use of protections and tranquilizers prior to transport, and checking horses after the journey. Diarrhoea (20.0%) and heat stroke (10.5%) were reported more by amateur than professional horse carers. Increased risk of heat stroke was linked to the restriction of hay and water prior to transportation. Muscular problems (13.0%) appeared to be exacerbated when horse health was not assessed before journey; whilst the risk of laminitis (2.9%) was around three fold greater when post transport recovery strategies were not applied. Associations were made between transport pneumonia (9.2%) and duration of journey, and with activity (horses involved in racing at greater risk). No associations were seen between the incidence of colic (10.3%) and the variables examined. Study findings should be interpreted with caution as they represent participant perceptions and recall. Nevertheless, results support many current recommendations for safe transportation of horses. They

  19. Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

  20. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Safe Weight Loss and Maintenance Practices in Sport and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Turocy, Paula Sammarone; DePalma, Bernard F.; Horswill, Craig A.; Laquale, Kathleen M.; Martin, Thomas J.; Perry, Arlette C.; Somova, Marla J.; Utter, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To present athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance practices for athletes and active clients and to provide athletes, clients, coaches, and parents with safe guidelines that will allow athletes and clients to achieve and maintain weight and body composition goals. Background: Unsafe weight management practices can compromise athletic performance and negatively affect health. Athletes and clients often attempt to lose weight by not eating, limiting caloric or specific nutrients from the diet, engaging in pathogenic weight control behaviors, and restricting fluids. These people often respond to pressures of the sport or activity, coaches, peers, or parents by adopting negative body images and unsafe practices to maintain an ideal body composition for the activity. We provide athletic trainers with recommendations for safe weight loss and weight maintenance in sport and exercise. Although safe weight gain is also a concern for athletic trainers and their athletes and clients, that topic is outside the scope of this position statement. Recommendations: Athletic trainers are often the source of nutrition information for athletes and clients; therefore, they must have knowledge of proper nutrition, weight management practices, and methods to change body composition. Body composition assessments should be done in the most scientifically appropriate manner possible. Reasonable and individualized weight and body composition goals should be identified by appropriately trained health care personnel (eg, athletic trainers, registered dietitians, physicians). In keeping with the American Dietetics Association (ADA) preferred nomenclature, this document uses the terms registered dietitian or dietician when referring to a food and nutrition expert who has met the academic and professional requirements specified by the ADA's Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education. In some cases, a registered nutritionist may have

  1. Overweight perception: associations with weight control goals, attempts and practices among Chinese female college students

    PubMed Central

    Tanenbaum, Hilary C.; Felicitas, Jamie Q.; Li, Yawen; Tobias, Malaika; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim D.; Johnson, C. Anderson; Xie, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background Concurrent with the dramatic cultural and economic shifts occurring as Mainland China becomes increasingly “Westernized,” the weight perceptions, ideal body weight, and weight management goals and practices of Chinese females have also undergone significant changes. Objective To investigate relationships between overweight status, weight perception patterns, and weight management goals and practices in Chinese female college students. Design/Participants/Setting A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with data from 902 female subjects aged 18 to 25 years participating in the China Seven Cities Study, a health promotion and smoking prevention study conducted in Mainland China in 2003. Main Outcome Measures/ Statistical Analyses Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between overweight status, weight perception, specific weight management goals and practices, and current levels of vigorous-intensity physical activity and food consumption. Results Based on World Health Organization standards for Asian adults, 16.7% of college females were overweight or obese, although 50.8% considered themselves to be “too heavy.” Among participants perceiving themselves as overweight (n=458), 69.2% (n=371) were inaccurate, and did not meet criteria for overweight or obese. The percentage of participants attempting weight loss was 48.2%, and 33.1% wanted to maintain their current weight. Attempts to lose or maintain weight were related to actual and perceived weight status, but not to increased vigorous-intensity physical activity or fruit and vegetable intake, nor to decreased consumption of sweets, soda, Western fast foods and fried foods. Only 21.5% of participants desiring weight loss or maintenance reported using a combination of vigorous-intensity physical activity and a reduced fat and calorie diet, while 20.2% tried extreme methods such as fasting, using diet pills, vomiting, or smoking. Conclusions Our findings underscore the need to

  2. Global histone deacetylase enzymatic activity is an independent prognostic marker associated with a shorter overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Michaël; Crompot, Emerence; Meuleman, Nathalie; Mineur, Philippe; Dessars, Barbara; El Housni, Hakim; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence; Stamatopoulos, Basile

    2014-10-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) play a crucial role in transcriptional regulation and are often deregulated in many cancers. However, global HDAC enzymatic activity has never been investigated in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). We measured HDAC activity in protein extracts from CD19+ B-cells purified from 114 CLL patients with a median follow-up of 91 months (range: 11-376). HDAC activity was equivalent in CLL and normal B-cells but higher in patients who died during the study than in living patients (152.1 vs. 65.04 pmol; P = 0.0060). Furthermore, HDAC activity correlated with treatment-free survival (TFS; P = 0.0156) and overall survival (OS; P < 0.0001): patients with low HDAC activity (n = 75) had a median TFS and OS of 101 and > 376 months, respectively, whereas patients with high HDAC activity (n = 39) had a median TFS and OS of 47 and 137 months, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that HDAC activity is an independent predictor of OS (hazard ratio = 7.68; P = 0.0017). Finally, HDAC activity increased after B-cell receptor stimulation using IgM, suggesting a role for microenvironment stimuli (n = 10; P = 0.0371). In conclusion, high HDAC activity in CLL B-cells is associated with shorter TFS and OS and is an independent marker of OS, refining the use of other prognostic factors. This work provides a biological base for the use of HDAC inhibitors in CLL treatment.

  3. Phylogenic diversity and tissue specificity of fungal endophytes associated with the pharmaceutical plant, Stellera chamaejasme L. revealed by a cultivation-independent approach.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Dengxue; Li, Chunjie; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Zeng, Liming; Qin, Bo

    2015-10-01

    The fungal endophytes associated with medicinal plants have been demonstrated as a reservoir with novel natural products useful in medicine and agriculture. It is desirable to explore the species composition, diversity and tissue specificity of endophytic fungi that inhabit in different tissues of medicinal plants. In this study, a culture-independent survey of fungal diversity in the rhizosphere, leaves, stems and roots of a toxic medicinal plant, Stellera chamaejasme L., was conducted by sequence analysis of clone libraries of the partial internal transcribed spacer region. Altogether, 145 fungal OTUs (operational taxonomic units), represented by 464 sequences, were found in four samples, of these 109 OTUs (75.2 %) belonging to Ascomycota, 20 (13.8 %) to Basidiomycota, 14 (9.7 %) to Zygomycota, 1 (0.7 %) to Chytridiomycota, and 1 (0.7 %) to Glomeromycota. The richness and diversity of fungal communities were strongly influenced by plant tissue environments, and the roots are associated with a surprisingly rich endophyte community. The endophyte assemblages associated with S. chamaejasme were strongly shaped by plant tissue environments, and exhibited a certain degree of tissue specificity. Our results suggested that a wide variety of fungal assemblages inhabit in S. chamaejasme, and plant tissue environments conspicuously influence endophyte community structure.

  4. No independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to end-stage renal disease in a large screen for chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Rajnish; Peralta, Carmen A; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Li, Suying; Sachs, Michael; Shah, Anuja; Norris, Keith; Saab, Georges; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Kestenbaum, Bryan; McCullough, Peter A

    2013-11-01

    Whether higher serum phosphorus levels are associated with a higher risk for death and/or progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well established, and whether the association is confounded by access and barriers to care is unknown. To answer these questions, data of 10,672 individuals identified to have CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) from those participating in a community-based screening program were analyzed. Over a median follow-up of 2.3 years, there was no association between quartiles of serum phosphorus and all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio for serum phosphorus over 3.3 to 3.7, over 3.7 to 4.1, and over 4.1 mg/dl, respectively: 1.22 (0.95-1.56), 1.00 (0.76-1.32), and 1.00 (0.75-1.33); reference, serum phosphorus of 3.3 mg/dl and below). Individuals in the highest quartile for serum phosphorus had a significantly higher risk for progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (unadjusted hazards ratio, 6.72 (4.16-10.85)); however, the risk became nonsignificant on adjustment for potential confounders. There was no appreciable change in hazards ratio with inclusion of variables related to access and barriers to care. Additional analyses in subgroups based on 12 different variables yielded similar negative associations. Thus, in the largest cohort of individuals with early-stage CKD to date, we could not validate an independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to ESRD.

  5. A Systematic Review of Associations between Amount of Meditation Practice and Outcomes in Interventions Using the Four Immeasurables Meditations

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chio, Floria H. N.; Oei, Tian P. S.; Leung, Freedom Y. K.; Liu, Xiangping

    2017-01-01

    Interventions using the “Four Immeasurables Meditations” (FIM) are effective for various outcomes; however, whether increased meditation practice in these interventions leads to better results has not been well investigated. This systematic review included 22 FIM interventions that reported associations between the amount of meditation practice and its outcomes. Despite the heterogeneity in intervention components and outcome variables, there were generally few significant associations between amount of meditation practice and its outcomes. Specifically, only five studies reported that more than half of the calculated results were significant. In comparison with correlations between total amount of practice and overall outcomes, the short-term influence of meditation practice was evaluated in fewer studies; however, it had a better association with outcomes. More studies are required that address the underlying mechanisms that elucidate how meditation practice leads to outcome changes in daily life. In this study, two promising mechanisms with initial evidence were discussed. This review also summarized common methodological issues including a lack of experimental manipulation and inaccurate measuring of meditation practice. PMID:28220101

  6. A Systematic Review of Associations between Amount of Meditation Practice and Outcomes in Interventions Using the Four Immeasurables Meditations.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chio, Floria H N; Oei, Tian P S; Leung, Freedom Y K; Liu, Xiangping

    2017-01-01

    Interventions using the "Four Immeasurables Meditations" (FIM) are effective for various outcomes; however, whether increased meditation practice in these interventions leads to better results has not been well investigated. This systematic review included 22 FIM interventions that reported associations between the amount of meditation practice and its outcomes. Despite the heterogeneity in intervention components and outcome variables, there were generally few significant associations between amount of meditation practice and its outcomes. Specifically, only five studies reported that more than half of the calculated results were significant. In comparison with correlations between total amount of practice and overall outcomes, the short-term influence of meditation practice was evaluated in fewer studies; however, it had a better association with outcomes. More studies are required that address the underlying mechanisms that elucidate how meditation practice leads to outcome changes in daily life. In this study, two promising mechanisms with initial evidence were discussed. This review also summarized common methodological issues including a lack of experimental manipulation and inaccurate measuring of meditation practice.

  7. A Survey of American Chiropractic Association Members’ Experiences, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Practice in Integrated Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Bronston, Leo J.; Austin-McClellan, Lauren E.; Lisi, Anthony J.; Donovan, Kevin C.; Engle, Walter W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the self-report of experiences, attitudes, and perceived educational needs of American Chiropractic Association members regarding practice in integrated health care settings. Methods This was a descriptive observational study of the American Chiropractic Association members. Participants completed an electronic survey reporting their current participation and interest in chiropractic integrated practice. Results The survey was completed in 2011 by 1142 respondents, for a response rate of 11.8%. The majority of respondents (82.9%) did not currently practice in an integrated setting, whereas 17.1% did. Those practicing in various integrated medical settings reported delivering a range of diagnostic, therapeutic, and case management services. Participation in administrative and scholarly activities was less common. Respondents not practicing in integrated settings reported being interested in delivering a very similar array of clinical services. Doctors of chiropractic practicing in hospital or outpatient medical facilities reported frequent engagement in interprofessional collaboration. Both nonintegrated and integrated respondents reported very similar educational interests on a range of clinical topics. Conclusion The findings of this survey provide insight into the experiences, participation, and interests in integrated clinical practice for members of the American Chiropractic Association. PMID:26793034

  8. Homebirth and independent midwifery.

    PubMed

    Harris, G

    2000-07-01

    Why do women choose to give birth at home, and midwives to work independently, in a culture that does little to support this option? This article looks at the reasons childbearing women and midwives make these choices and the barriers to achieving them. The safety of the homebirth option is supported in reference to analysis of mortality and morbidity. Homebirth practices and level of success are compared in Australia and New Zealand (NZ), in particular, and The Netherlands, England and America. The success of popularity of homebirths is analysed in terms of socio-economic status. The current situation and challenges of independent midwifery in Darwin are described.

  9. Plasma Levels of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, n-Terminal Fragment of Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Calcidiol Are Independently Associated with the Complexity of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Reyes, Roberto; Franco-Peláez, Juan Antonio; Lorenzo, Óscar; González-Casaus, María Luisa; Pello, Ana María; Aceña, Álvaro; Carda, Rocío; Martín-Ventura, José Luis; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Martín-Mariscal, María Luisa; Martínez-Milla, Juan; Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; Piñero, Antonio; Navarro, Felipe; Egido, Jesús; Tuñón, José

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We investigated the relationship of the Syntax Score (SS) and coronary artery calcification (CAC), with plasma levels of biomarkers related to cardiovascular damage and mineral metabolism, as there is sparse information in this field. Methods We studied 270 patients with coronary disease that had an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) six months before. Calcidiol, fibroblast growth factor-23, parathormone, phosphate and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, galectin-3, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] levels, among other biomarkers, were determined. CAC was assessed by coronary angiogram as low-grade (0–1) and high-grade (2–3) calcification, measured with a semiquantitative scale ranging from 0 (none) to 3 (severe). For the SS study patients were divided in SS<14 and SS≥14. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results MCP-1 predicted independently the SS (RC = 1.73 [95%CI = 0.08–3.39]; p = 0.040), along with NT-proBNP (RC = 0.17 [95%CI = 0.05–0.28]; p = 0.004), male sex (RC = 4.15 [95%CI = 1.47–6.83]; p = 0.003), age (RC = 0.13 [95%CI = 0.02–0.24]; p = 0.020), hypertension (RC = 3.64, [95%CI = 0.77–6.50]; p = 0.013), hyperlipidemia (RC = 2.78, [95%CI = 0.28–5.29]; p = 0.030), and statins (RC = 6.12 [95%CI = 1.28–10.96]; p = 0.013). Low calcidiol predicted high-grade calcification independently (OR = 0.57 [95% CI = 0.36–0.90]; p = 0.013) along with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (OR = 0.38 [95%CI = 0.19–0.78]; p = 0.006), diabetes (OR = 2.35 [95%CI = 1.11–4.98]; p = 0.028) and age (OR = 1.37 [95%CI = 1.18–1.59]; p<0.001). During follow-up (1.79 [0.94–2.86] years), 27 patients developed ACS, stroke, or transient ischemic attack. A combined score using SS and CAC predicted independently the development of the outcome. Conclusions MCP-1 and NT-proBNP are independent predictors of SS, while low calcidiol plasma levels

  10. Differential brain shrinkage over 6 months shows limited association with cognitive practice.

    PubMed

    Raz, Naftali; Schmiedek, Florian; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövdén, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The brain shrinks with age, but the timing of this process and the extent of its malleability are unclear. We measured changes in regional brain volumes in younger (age 20-31) and older (age 65-80) adults twice over a 6 month period, and examined the association between changes in volume, history of hypertension, and cognitive training. Between two MRI scans, 49 participants underwent intensive practice in three cognitive domains for 100 consecutive days, whereas 23 control group members performed no laboratory cognitive tasks. Regional volumes of seven brain structures were measured manually and adjusted for intracranial volume. We observed significant mean shrinkage in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, the caudate nucleus, and the cerebellum, but no reliable mean change of the prefrontal white matter, orbital-frontal cortex, and the primary visual cortex. Individual differences in change were reliable in all regions. History of hypertension was associated with greater cerebellar shrinkage. The cerebellum was the only region in which significantly reduced shrinkage was apparent in the experimental group after completion of cognitive training. Thus, in healthy adults, differential brain shrinkage can be observed in a narrow time window, vascular risk may aggravate it, and intensive cognitive activity may have a limited effect on it.

  11. Clinical practice guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rotstein, Coleman; Evans, Gerald; Born, Abraham; Grossman, Ronald; Light, R Bruce; Magder, Sheldon; McTaggart, Barrie; Weiss, Karl; Zhanel, George G

    2008-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are important causes of morbidity and mortality, with mortality rates approaching 62%. HAP and VAP are the second most common cause of nosocomial infection overall, but are the most common cause documented in the intensive care unit setting. In addition, HAP and VAP produce the highest mortality associated with nosocomial infection. As a result, evidence-based guidelines were prepared detailing the epidemiology, microbial etiology, risk factors and clinical manifestations of HAP and VAP. Furthermore, an approach based on the available data, expert opinion and current practice for the provision of care within the Canadian health care system was used to determine risk stratification schemas to enable appropriate diagnosis, antimicrobial management and nonantimicrobial management of HAP and VAP. Finally, prevention and risk-reduction strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring these infections were collated. Future initiatives to enhance more rapid diagnosis and to effect better treatment for resistant pathogens are necessary to reduce morbidity and improve survival. PMID:19145262

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Factors Associated with Voluntary Blood Donation among University Students in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Elias, Elionora; Mauka, Wilhellmuss; Philemon, Rune N; Damian, Damian J; Mahande, Michael J; Msuya, Sia E

    2016-01-01

    Background. Understanding the knowledge and awareness of blood donation among potential blood donors in the population, like young people, and the associated attitudes and practices is important. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study whereby a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from the consenting participants. Results. A total of 422 participants were enrolled. Their mean age was 24.2 (SD 3.6) years. Of the 422, 30% have ever donated blood. 55% of those who had ever donated were repeated blood donors. Majority of the participants (93%) had positive attitudes towards blood donation and 88% were willing to donate in the future. Factors that were significantly associated with ever donating blood were male gender, knowing a person who has donated blood, knowledge of the amount of blood donated, willingness to donate in the future, and not expecting any postdonation reward. Discussion. High awareness, positive attitude, and high intention to donate in the future should be used to underscore the need to educate the young people on the value of blood donation in saving lives and to give them correct information on overall requirements for blood donation.

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Factors Associated with Voluntary Blood Donation among University Students in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Elionora; Philemon, Rune N.; Damian, Damian J.; Msuya, Sia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Understanding the knowledge and awareness of blood donation among potential blood donors in the population, like young people, and the associated attitudes and practices is important. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study whereby a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from the consenting participants. Results. A total of 422 participants were enrolled. Their mean age was 24.2 (SD 3.6) years. Of the 422, 30% have ever donated blood. 55% of those who had ever donated were repeated blood donors. Majority of the participants (93%) had positive attitudes towards blood donation and 88% were willing to donate in the future. Factors that were significantly associated with ever donating blood were male gender, knowing a person who has donated blood, knowledge of the amount of blood donated, willingness to donate in the future, and not expecting any postdonation reward. Discussion. High awareness, positive attitude, and high intention to donate in the future should be used to underscore the need to educate the young people on the value of blood donation in saving lives and to give them correct information on overall requirements for blood donation. PMID:28070449

  14. Serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is independently associated with cigarette smoking in non-diabetic healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subrata K; Mudi, Sonchita R; Mollah, Forhadul H; Bierhaus, Angelika; Arslan, M Iqbal

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to explore the relationship between serum levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and cigarette smoking in non-diabetic healthy subjects. A total of 98 non-diabetic, otherwise healthy male subjects were recruited. A fasting blood sample and medical history including detail history of cigarette smoking was collected. The serum sRAGE levels were found significantly higher (p=0.002) in cigarette smokers (1475±422 pg/ml, n=45) compared with non-smokers (1165±350 pg/ml, n=53). Moreover, among the cigarette smokers, serum sRAGE levels were found significantly correlated with number of cigarettes smoked per day (r=0.60, p<0.001). In bivariate analysis in the total population, sRAGE positively correlated with smoking habit (r=0.37, p=0.002) and negatively correlated with systolic (r=-0.32, p=0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.36, p=0.003). However, in stepwise multivariate linear regression model, sRAGE showed a significant independent association with smoking habit (b=0.32, p=0.007, R2=0.23). In conclusion, this study for the first time shows a significant elevation of serum sRAGE in cigarette smokers compared with non-smokers, a strong correlation between sRAGE and number of cigarettes smoked per day and an independent association of sRAGE with smoking habit in non-diabetic healthy subjects.

  15. Cancer Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Are Associated with Coagulopathy Causing Ischemic Stroke via Tissue Factor-Independent Way: The OASIS-CANCER Study

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Oh Young; Chung, Jong-Won; Lee, Mi Ji; Kim, Suk Jae; Cho, Yeon Hee; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Moon, Gyeong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer and stroke, which are known to be associated with one another, are the most common causes of death in the elderly. However, the pathomechanisms that lead to stroke in cancer patients are not well known. Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a role in cancer-associated thrombosis and tumor progression. Therefore, we hypothesized that cancer cell-derived EVs cause cancer-related coagulopathy resulting in ischemic stroke. Methods Serum levels of D-dimer and EVs expressing markers for cancer cells (epithelial cell adhesion molecule [CD326]), tissue factor (TF [CD142]), endothelial cells (CD31+CD42b-), and platelets (CD62P) were measured using flow cytometry in (a) 155 patients with ischemic stroke and active cancer (116 − cancer-related, 39 − conventional stroke mechanisms), (b) 25 patients with ischemic stroke without cancer, (c) 32 cancer patients without stroke, and (d) 101 healthy subjects. Results The levels of cancer cell-derived EVs correlated with the levels of D-dimer and TF+ EVs. The levels of cancer cell-derived EVs (CD326+ and CD326+CD142+) were higher in cancer-related stroke than in other groups (P<0.05 in all the cases). Path analysis showed that cancer cell-derived EVs are related to stroke via coagulopathy as measured by D-dimer levels. Poor correlation was observed between TF+ EV and D-dimer, and path analysis demonstrated that cancer cell-derived EVs may cause cancer-related coagulopathy independent of the levels of TF+ EVs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cancer cell-derived EVs mediate coagulopathy resulting in ischemic stroke via TF-independent mechanisms. PMID:27427978

  16. FOXP4 modulates tumor growth and independently associates with miR-138 in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tian; Li, Hong; Thakur, Asmitananda; Chen, Tianjun; Xue, Jing; Li, Dan; Chen, Mingwei

    2015-09-01

    Family of forkhead box transcription factors, including forkhead box P4 (FOXP4), plays an important role in oncogenesis. The current study is to evaluate the role of FOXP4 in regulating human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to evaluate the gene and protein expressions of FOXP4 in six NSCLC cell lines and 55 NSCLC patients. Lentivirus of small hairpin RNA (FOXP4-shRNA) was used to downregulate FOXP4 in NSCLC cell lines A549 and H1703 cells. Its effect on NSCLC growth, invasion, and cell cycle were evaluated by cell proliferation assay, migration assay, and cell cycle assay, respectively. Dual luciferase assay and Western blot were used to examine whether microRNA-138 (miR-138) was an upstream regulator of FOXP4. The dependence of FOXP4 on miR-138 associated signaling pathway was evaluated by ectopically overexpressing enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a known miR-138 target in NSCLC. FOXP4 was highly expressed in both NSCLC cell lines and NSCLC patients. FOXP4 downregulation by FOXP4-shRNA markedly reduced cancer cell growth and invasion, as well as induced cell cycle arrest in A549 and H1703 cells. MiR-138 was confirmed to be an upstream regulator of FOXP4 and directly regulated FOXP4 expression in A549 and H1703 cells. FOXP4 downregulation-mediated inhibition on cancer cell growth and invasion was independent on overexpressing EZH2, another direct target of miR-138 in NSCLC. Our data demonstrated that FOXP4 was a critical regulator in NSCLC and independently associated with miR-138 regulation.

  17. Prolonged Calorie Restriction Downregulates Skeletal Muscle mTORC1 Signaling Independent of Dietary Protein Intake and Associated microRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Lee M.; Rivas, Donato A.; Berrone, Maria; Ezzyat, Yassine; Young, Andrew J.; McClung, James P.; Fielding, Roger A.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    Short-term (5–10 days) calorie restriction (CR) downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), however, there is limited evidence to support this contention. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of prolonged CR and high protein diets on skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and expression of associated microRNA (miR). Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or calorie restricted (CR; 40%) adequate (10%, AIN-93M) or high (32%) protein milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle protein content was calculated from muscle homogenate protein concentrations expressed relative to fat-free mass to estimate protein content. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to determine mTORC1 signaling and mRNA and miR expression in fasted mixed gastrocnemius. Independent of dietary protein intake, muscle protein content was 38% lower (P < 0.05) in CR compared to AL. Phosphorylation and total Akt, mTOR, rpS6, and p70S6K were lower (P < 0.05) in CR vs. AL, and total rpS6 was associated with muscle protein content (r = 0.64, r2 = 0.36). Skeletal muscle miR expression was not altered by either energy or protein intake. This study provides evidence that chronic CR attenuates muscle protein content by downregulating mTORC1 signaling. This response is independent of skeletal muscle miR and dietary protein. PMID:27761114

  18. Early feeding practices and family structure: associations with overweight in children.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Monica

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this review is to examine two factors that may be associated with development of childhood overweight: early feeding, namely exclusive breastfeeding practices; family structure. Findings from the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study are presented in the context of the literature. IDEFICS is a multi-centre European study exploring the risks for overweight and obesity in children, which recruited 16,224 children aged 2-9 years from September 2007 to June 2008 at survey centres in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain. Among the IDEFICS sample, after controlling for confounders, exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months was protective of overweight (including obesity) when compared with children never exclusively breastfed (OR 0·73, 95% CI 0·63, 0·85). Family structure and number of siblings may also be associated with overweight. IDEFICS children without siblings were more likely (OR 1·52, 95% CI 1·34, 1·72) to be overweight than their peers with siblings when controlling for factors related to childhood overweight such as country, parental education, parental weight, maternal age, child's age, birth weight and gender. Both early feeding practices and family structure play a role in the future development of obesity. The impact of breastfeeding on future development of overweight is dependent upon the dose. Exclusive breastfeeding for the recommended 6 months appears to be protective of overweight. Family structure is also an important component and emerging research suggests only children are at increased risk for overweight in comparison with those with siblings. In European countries, approximately 22 million children are overweight. Early dietary exposures, genetic, environmental and social factors have all been proposed as potential causal factors. Two such factors include exclusive breastfeeding and the impact of being an only child. We

  19. Vitamin D status is associated with cardiometabolic markers in 8-11-year-old children, independently of body fat and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Damsgaard, Camilla T

    2015-11-28

    Vitamin D status has been associated</