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Sample records for independent radiographic prognostic

  1. Prognostic and proliferative evaluation of ameloblastoma based on radiographic boundary.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Han, Bo; Li, Long-Jiang

    2012-03-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor with an aggressive biological behavior, and the surgical treatment frequently results in failure for the postoperative recurrence. The aim of this article was to investigate whether the proliferative ability and prognosis of ameloblastoma could be evaluated by the radiographic boundary. The ameloblastoma cases treated by the conservative therapy in our hospital between 1981 and 2001 were divided into three groups based on the nature of the radiographic borders of the lesions. The biologic behavior was evaluated by Ki-67 antibody immunohistochemically. Comparisons of prognosis and Ki-67 expression were carried out by statistic methods. There were 24 cases of well-defined edge with sclerosis (group I), 41 cases of well-defined edge without sclerosis (group II) and 32 cases of ill-defined edge (group III). The recurrent rates were 29.2% in group I, 43.9% in group II and 62.5% in group III (P<0.05). The cells in group III expressed the highest Ki-67 level (P<0.05). The radiographic boundary could be used as one of indicators in evaluating the proliferative ability of ameloblastoma and the patient's prognosis, which was consistent with Ki-67 expression.

  2. Prognostic Factors Toward Clinically Relevant Radiographic Progression in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tomohiro; Okada, Akitomo; Fukuda, Takaaki; Hidaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Tomonori; Ueki, Yukitaka; Kodera, Takao; Nakashima, Munetoshi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Honda, Seiyo; Horai, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Ryu; Okuno, Hiroshi; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Izumiyama, Tomomasa; Takai, Osamu; Miyashita, Taiichiro; Sato, Shuntaro; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Origuchi, Tomoki; Nakamura, Hideki; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice. We performed a multicenter prospective study in Japan of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD)-naive RA patients with moderate to high disease activity treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) at study entry. We longitudinally observed 408 patients for 1 year and assessed disease activity every 3 months. CRRP was defined as yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS) > 3.0 U. We also divided the cohort into 2 groups based on disease duration (<3 vs ≥3 years) and performed a subgroup analysis. CRRP was found in 10.3% of the patients. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: CRP at baseline (0.30 mg/dL increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.11), time-integrated Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) during the 1 year postbaseline (12.4-unit increase, 95%CI 1.17–2.59), RA typical erosion at baseline (95%CI 1.56–21.1), and the introduction of bDMARDs (95%CI 0.06–0.38). The subgroup analysis revealed that time-integrated DAS28-ESR is not a predictor whereas the introduction of bDMARDs is a significant protective factor for CRRP in RA patients with disease duration <3 years. We identified factors that could be used to predict the development of CRRP in RA patients treated with DMARDs. These variables appear to be different based on the RA patients’ disease durations. PMID:27124044

  3. Radiographer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of radiographer, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of radiographer. The following skill areas are covered in the…

  4. Prognostic radiographic factors in developmental dysplasia of the hip following Salter osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hsieh; Yang, Wen-E; Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Lee, Wei-Chun; Shih, Chun-Hsiung; Kuo, Ken N

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic parameters for evaluating hip development are altered by Salter osteotomy, and their prognostic value require further validation. A total of 63 patients who underwent open reduction and Salter osteotomy for unilateral hip dysplasia were evaluated with Severin classification 10.8 years later. The initial first-year postoperative acetabular index, c/b ratio, head-teardrop distance, and head coverage were compared with the final outcome of Severin classification. Greater c/b ratio was significantly associated with later Severin class III hip. Using receiver operating characteristics curve, a c/b ratio greater than 0.72 at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively can predict the possibility of a class III hip in 30 and 60% of patients, respectively.

  5. Prognostic nutritional index is an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Runcong; Yuan, Shuqiang; Chen, Shi; Chen, Xiaojiang; Chen, Yongming; Zhu, Baoyan; Qiu, Haibo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Peng, Junsheng; Chen, Yingbo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The predictive and prognostic role of prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination remains unclear. This study aims to explore the role of the PNI in predicting outcomes of gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination. Methods A total of 660 patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma with peritoneal metastasis between January 2000 and April 2014 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were retrospectively analyzed. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with peritoneal dissemination were analyzed. Results Compared with PNI-high group, PNI-low group was correlated with advanced age (P=0.036), worse performance status (P<0.001), higher frequency of ascites (P<0.001) and higher frequency of multisite distant metastasis (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that PNI-high group had a significantly longer median overall survival than PNI-low group (13.13 vs. 9.03 months, P<0.001). Multivariate survival analysis revealed that Borrmann type IV (P=0.014), presence of ascites (P=0.017) and lower PNI (P=0.041) were independent poor prognostic factors, and palliative surgery (P<0.001) and first-line chemotherapy (P<0.001) were good prognostic factors. For patients receiving palliative surgery, the postoperative morbidity rates in the PNI-low group and PNI-high group were 9.1% and 9.9%, respectively (P=0.797). The postoperative mortality rate was not significantly different between PNI-low and PNI-high groups (2.3% vs. 0.9%, P=0.362). Conclusions PNI is a useful and practical tool for evaluating the nutritional status of gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination, and is an independent prognostic factor for these patients. PMID:28174485

  6. Infarct volume after glioblastoma surgery as an independent prognostic factor

    PubMed Central

    Bette, Stefanie; Wiestler, Benedikt; Kaesmacher, Johannes; Huber, Thomas; Gerhardt, Julia; Barz, Melanie; Delbridge, Claire; Ryang, Yu-Mi; Ringel, Florian; Zimmer, Claus; Meyer, Bernhard; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Kirschke, Jan S.; Gempt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative ischemia is associated with reduced functional independence measured by karnofsky performance score (KPS), which correlates well with overall survival. Other studies suggest that postoperative hypoxia might initiate infiltrative tumor growth. Therefore, aim of this study was to analyze the impact of infarct volume on overall survival and progression free survival (PFS) of glioblastoma patients. 251 patients with surgery for a newly diagnosed glioblastoma (WHO IV) were retrospectively assessed. Pre- and postoperative KPS, date of death/last follow-up and histopathological markers were recorded. Pre- and postoperative tumor volume and the volume of postoperative infarction were manually segmented. A significant correlation of infarct volume with postoperative KPS decrease (P = 0.001) was observed. Infarct volume showed a significant impact on overall survival (P = 0.014), but not on PFS (P = 0.112) in univariate analysis. This effect increased in the subgroup of patients with near-total tumor resection (> 90%) (overall survival: P = 0.006, PFS: P = 0.066). Infarct volume remained as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in multivariate analysis (HR 1.013 [1.000–1.026], P = 0.042) including other prognostic factors (age, extent of resection, postoperative KPS). Postoperative infarct volume significantly correlates as an independent factor with overall survival after glioblastoma surgery. Besides the influence of perioperative infarction on postoperative KPS, postoperative hypoxia might also have an effect on tumor biology initiating infiltrative growth and therefore impaired survival. PMID:27566556

  7. Symptoms at diagnosis as independent prognostic factors in retroperitoneal liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Satoru; Kume, Haruki; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Teppei; Kakutani, Shigenori; Takeshima, Yuta; Miyazaki, Hideyo; Suzuki, Motofumi; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Tohru; Ishikawa, Akira; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Homma, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    The prognostic factors of retroperitoneal liposarcoma have yet to be clearly determined due to its rarity, whereas the prognostic value of symptoms at diagnosis has never been evaluated to date. In this context, we reviewed 24 consecutive patients with primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma who underwent surgical resection with curative intent at our institution. The Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to estimate progression-free survival (PFS; primary endpoint) and sarcoma-specific survival (SSS; secondary endpoint). The effect of various clinicopathological factors, including symptoms at diagnosis, on these two endpoints was assessed with a Cox proportional hazards model. During the study period, 11 patients (45.8%) developed recurrence after the initial surgery and 8 (33.3%) succumbed to retroperitoneal liposarcoma, with a median follow-up of 64 months. A total of 16 patients (66.7%) had symptoms at diagnosis, while the remaining 8 (33.3%) were diagnosed incidentally. The symptoms were palpability of the tumor (n=8); abdominal pain/fullness (n=3); flank pain/fullness (n=2); lower extremity pain (n=1); testicular pain due to varicocele (n=1); and discomfort on urination (n=1). Patients with symptoms at diagnosis were significantly more likely to develop recurrence (log-rank test, P=0.0196) and were also more likely to succumb to sarcoma (P=0.0778) compared with asymptomatic patients. On the multivariate analysis, symptoms at diagnosis and dedifferentiated components were independent predictors of poor PFS, while positive surgical margins were predictors of poor SSS. Given that symptoms at diagnosis are easily accessible for physicians, they may prove to be useful additional prognostic factors for primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma.

  8. Independent prognostic value of peritoneal immunocytodiagnosis in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Benevolo, M; Mariani, L; Vocaturo, G; Vasselli, S; Natali, P G; Mottolese, M

    2000-02-01

    Among the clinical parameters that play a pivotal role in predicting the outcome of patients with endometrial carcinoma, intraperitoneal microscopic dissemination represents an important cause of recurrences. To date, peritoneal cytology has been incorporated into the current surgical staging system (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics 88), although its predictive value remains a controversial issue. In this study the authors investigated the possibility of applying immunocytochemistry (ICC) to the diagnosis of peritoneal washing (PW) aimed at improving conventional cytology and verifying the prognostic value of peritoneal malignant cells. The authors analyzed 182 PWs sampled from endometrial cancer patients. The ICC analysis was performed using two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs)--AR-3 and B72.3--that in combination recognize more than 95% of endometrial carcinomas. The presence of peritoneal-free cancer cells was identified morphologically in 27 of 182 lavages (14.8%) and ICC in 50 of 182 (27.5%), with a significant improvement (p <0.0001). Five-year survival analysis, comparing results of ICC and cytodiagnosis, demonstrated a significant decrease of disease-free survival in patients with peritoneal microscopic disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that ICC diagnosis of PWs is an independent prognostic factor. Data indicate that the use of selected MAbs allows one to identify cytologically false-negative cases, providing results that are highly predictive of a worse clinical outcome.

  9. Baseline serum MMP-3 levels in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis are still independently predictive of radiographic progression in a longitudinal observational cohort at 8 years follow up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction At present, there is no reliable tool for predicting disease outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We previously demonstrated an association between specific baseline biomarkers/clinical measures including matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and 2-year radiographic progression in patients with RA. This study further evaluates the predictive capability of these baseline variables with outcome extended over 8-years. Methods Fifty-eight of the original cohort (n = 118) had radiographic progression from baseline to mean 8.2-years determined using the van der Heijde modified Sharp method. The contribution of each predictor variable towards radiographic progression was assessed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Traditional factors (including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), and rheumatoid factor) and biomarkers of tissue destruction (including MMP-3, C-telopeptide of type II collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1) measured at baseline were associated with radiographic progression at endpoint. Multivariate logistic regression identified anti-CCP seropositivity [OR 9.29, 95%CI: 2.29-37.64], baseline elevated MMP-3 [OR 8.25, 95%CI: 2.54-26.78] and baseline radiographic damage [OR 5.83, 95%CI: 1.88-18.10] as the strongest independent predictors of radiographic progression. A model incorporating these variables had a predictive accuracy of 0.87, assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Conclusion In our cohort with onset of RA symptoms < 2-years, multivariate analysis identified anti-CCP status and baseline MMP-3 as the strongest independent predictors of radiographic disease outcome at 8.2-years. This finding suggests determination of baseline MMP-3, in conjunction with traditional serologic markers, may provide additional prognostic information for patients with RA. Furthermore

  10. Baseline serum interleukin-34 levels independently predict radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sung Hae; Choi, Byoong Yong; Choi, Jungbum; Yoo, Jong Jin; Ha, You-Jung; Cho, Hyon Joung; Kang, Eun Ha; Song, Yeong Wook; Lee, Yun Jong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our observational study was to investigate the clinical significance of interleukin (IL)-34, a novel osteoclastogenic cytokine, for predicting structural damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Serum IL-34 levels were measured in 100 RA patients, 36 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and 59 gender- and age-matched healthy individuals using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also measured IL-34 concentrations in synovial fluid (SF) samples from 18 RA patients and 19 osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Progression of structural damage was assessed in 81 patients with RA by plain radiographs using the modified Sharp/van der Heijde score (SHS) at baseline and after an average 1.6-year follow-up period. Serum IL-34 levels were significantly higher in patients with RA (p < 0.001) or AS (p < 0.001) than in healthy controls. SF IL-34 levels were also significantly higher in RA patients than in OA patients (p < 0.001). In RA, serum IL-34 levels were associated with rheumatoid factor positivity (p = 0.01), current smoking (p < 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.01), and C-reactive protein levels (p < 0.01), but not with disease activity score 28. ΔSHS/year was positively correlated with serum IL-34 levels (r = 0.443, p < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, serum IL-34 level was an independent risk factor for radiographic progression. These results suggest that IL-34, a novel osteoclastogenic cytokine, plays a role in RA-associated joint damage and is a potential biomarker for predicting subsequent radiographic progression in patients with RA.

  11. Methylation of serum SST gene is an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanqun; Chew, Min Hoe; Tham, Chee Kian; Tang, Choong Leong; Ong, Simon YK; Zhao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for accurate prognostication for colorectal cancer (CRC). This study sought to assess prognostic potentials of methylation targets in the serum of CRC patients. A total of 165 CRC patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Promoter methylation levels of seven genes in pre-operative sera and matched tumor tissues were evaluated by quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Kaplan-Meier test, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for survival analyses. After a median follow-up of 56 months, 43 patients (28.7%) experienced tumor recurrence. In univariate survival analyses, serum methylation levels of SST and MAL were significantly predictive of cancer-specific death (P<0.005 for both). The former was also a significant predictor for tumor recurrence (P=0.007). Independent prognostic effects of serum methylation levels of SST were revealed by multivariate Cox regression model (P=0.031 and P=0.003 for cancer death and recurrence, respectively). When focusing on stage II and III patients, prognostication with serum methylated SST remained significant. Methylated SST detected in all serum samples can be traced back to the matched primary tumor tissues. We believe that methylated SST detected in the pre-operative sera of CRC patients appear to be a novel promising prognostic marker and probably can be auxiliary to tumor staging system and serum carcinoembryonic antigen towards better risk stratification. PMID:27725914

  12. Tumor budding is an independent adverse prognostic factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kate; Li-Chang, Hector H; Kalloger, Steven E; Peixoto, Renata D; Webber, Douglas L; Owen, David A; Driman, David K; Kirsch, Richard; Serra, Stefano; Scudamore, Charles H; Renouf, Daniel J; Schaeffer, David F

    2015-04-01

    Tumor budding is a well-established adverse prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. However, the significance and diagnostic reproducibility of budding in pancreatic carcinoma requires further study. We aimed to assess the prognostic significance of tumor budding in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, determine its relationship with other clinicopathologic features, and assess interobserver variability in its diagnosis. Tumor budding was assessed in 192 archival cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections; tumor buds were defined as single cells or nonglandular clusters composed of <5 cells. The presence of budding was determined through assessment of all tumor-containing slides, and associations with clinicopathologic features and outcomes were analyzed. Six gastrointestinal pathologists participated in an interobserver variability study of 120 images of consecutive tumor slides stained with H&E and cytokeratin. Budding was present in 168 of 192 cases and was associated with decreased overall survival (P=0.001). On multivariable analysis, tumor budding was prognostically significantly independent of stage, grade, tumor size, nodal status, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion. There was substantial agreement among pathologists in assessing the presence of tumor budding using both H&E (K=0.63) and cytokeratin (K=0.63) stains. The presence of tumor budding is an independent adverse prognostic factor in pancreatic ductal carcinoma. The assessment of budding with H&E is reliable and could be used to better risk stratify patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  13. Scaling digital radiographs for templating in total hip arthroplasty using conventional acetate templates independent of calibration markers.

    PubMed

    Brew, Christopher J; Simpson, Philip M; Whitehouse, Sarah L; Donnelly, William; Crawford, Ross W; Hubble, Matthew J W

    2012-04-01

    We describe a scaling method for templating digital radiographs using conventional acetate templates independent of template magnification without the need for a calibration marker. The mean magnification factor for the radiology department was determined (119.8%; range, 117%-123.4%). This fixed magnification factor was used to scale the radiographs by the method described. Thirty-two femoral heads on postoperative total hip arthroplasty radiographs were then measured and compared with the actual size. The mean absolute accuracy was within 0.5% of actual head size (range, 0%-3%) with a mean absolute difference of 0.16 mm (range, 0-1 mm; SD, 0.26 mm). Intraclass correlation coefficient showed excellent reliability for both interobserver and intraobserver measurements with intraclass correlation coefficient scores of 0.993 (95% CI, 0.988-0.996) for interobserver measurements and intraobserver measurements ranging between 0.990 and 0.993 (95% CI, 0.980-0.997).

  14. Serum YKL-40: a new independent prognostic marker for skeletal complications in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mylin, Anne K; Abildgaard, Niels; Johansen, Julia S; Heickendorff, Lene; Kreiner, Svend; Waage, Anders; Turesson, Ingemar; Gimsing, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a time of increasing treatment options for multiple myeloma bone disease, risk factors predicting progression need to be elucidated. This study investigated the value of serum YKL-40, previously shown to be associated with radiographic progression of bone destruction, as a predictor for time to clinical progression, i.e. skeletal-related events (SREs), in 230 newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma receiving intravenous bisphosphonates. Serum concentrations of YKL-40 and biochemical bone markers (CTX-MMP, CTX-I, PINP) were measured at diagnosis. Patients were evaluated every third month for SRE and at 9 and 24 months for radiographic progression. Elevated serum YKL-40 was seen in 47% of patients and associated with high-risk disease (International Staging System stage III; p < 0.001), increased bone resorption (serum CTX/MMP; p < 0.001) and early radiographic progression at 9 months (p = 0.01). Serum YKL-40 together with serum CTX-MMP/PINP ratio and World Health Organization status were independent predictors of time to first SRE.

  15. Hypoxia inducible BHLHB2 is a novel and independent prognostic marker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weibin; Reiser-Erkan, Carolin; Michalski, Christoph W.; Raggi, Matthias C.; Quan, Liao; Yupei, Zhao; Friess, Helmut; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Joerg

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} The expression and function of BHLHB2 (DEC1/SHARP2) in pancreatic cancer is unknown. {yields} Hypoxia and serum starvation induces BHLHB2 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. {yields} BHLHB2 inhibition in pancreatic cancer cell line SU86.86 increases ED50 of gemcitabine 2.8-fold. {yields} BHLHB2 is an independent prognostic factor in multivariable cox analysis with a hazard ratio of 2:4. -- Abstract: Aims: The cyclic adenosine monophosphate-inducible basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain containing class-B2 transcriptional factor BHLHB2 is differentially expressed in a number of human malignancies. In the present study, the expression, regulation, functions and prognostic impact of BHLHB2 in pancreatic cancer were investigated. Methods: Expression analyses were carried out in tissues of the normal pancreas (n = 10) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 77) as well as in eight pancreatic cancer cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR, semiquantitative immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot analyses. In vitro functional experiments were conducted using siRNA transfection, hypoxia, serum starvation, apoptosis induction with gemcitabine and actinomycin-D, and invasion assays. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were determined in a multivariable analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: BHLHB2 mRNA and protein expressions were strongly induced by hypoxia and by serum starvation in pancreatic cancer cell lines. BHLHB2 silencing with RNAi had no significant effects on growth and invasion but increased apoptosis resistance against gemcitabine by reducing caspace-3 cleavage. In BHLHB2 silenced cells the ED50 of gemcitabine increased from 13.95 {+-} 1.353 to 38.70 {+-} 5.262 nM (p < 0.05). Ex vivo, the weak/absent nuclear staining in normal pancreatic ducts and acinar cells was replaced by moderate to strong nuclear/cytoplasmic staining in PanIN lesions and pancreatic cancer

  16. Systematic analysis of tumour cell-extracellular matrix adhesion identifies independent prognostic factors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jocelyn P.; Natrajan, Rachael C.; Yuan, Yinyin; Tan, Aik-Choon; Huang, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Tumour cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions are fundamental for discrete steps in breast cancer progression. In particular, cancer cell adhesion to ECM proteins present in the microenvironment is critical for accelerating tumour growth and facilitating metastatic spread. To assess the utility of tumour cell-ECM adhesion as a means for discovering prognostic factors in breast cancer survival, here we perform a systematic phenotypic screen and characterise the adhesion properties of a panel of human HER2 amplified breast cancer cell lines across six ECM proteins commonly deregulated in breast cancer. We determine a gene expression signature that defines a subset of cell lines displaying impaired adhesion to laminin. Cells with impaired laminin adhesion showed an enrichment in genes associated with cell motility and molecular pathways linked to cytokine signalling and inflammation. Evaluation of this gene set in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) cohort of 1,964 patients identifies the F12 and STC2 genes as independent prognostic factors for overall survival in breast cancer. Our study demonstrates the potential of in vitro cell adhesion screens as a novel approach for identifying prognostic factors for disease outcome. PMID:27556857

  17. Validation and Recalibration of Two Multivariable Prognostic Models for Survival and Independence in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Teece, Lucy; Dennis, Martin S.; Roffe, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various prognostic models have been developed for acute stroke, including one based on age and five binary variables (‘six simple variables’ model; SSVMod) and one based on age plus scores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSSMod). The aims of this study were to externally validate and recalibrate these models, and to compare their predictive ability in relation to both survival and independence. Methods Data from a large clinical trial of oxygen therapy (n = 8003) were used to determine the discrimination and calibration of the models, using C-statistics, calibration plots, and Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics. Methods of recalibration in the large and logistic recalibration were used to update the models. Results For discrimination, both models functioned better for survival (C-statistics between .802 and .837) than for independence (C-statistics between .725 and .735). Both models showed slight shortcomings with regard to calibration, over-predicting survival and under-predicting independence; the NIHSSMod performed slightly better than the SSVMod. For the most part, there were only minor differences between ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Logistic recalibration successfully updated the models for a clinical trial population. Conclusions Both prognostic models performed well overall in a clinical trial population. The choice between them is probably better based on clinical and practical considerations than on statistical considerations. PMID:27227988

  18. Deletion of 8p is an independent prognostic parameter in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Galal, Rami; Möller-Koop, Christina; Barrow, Phillipp; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Jacobsen, Frank; Hinsch, Andrea; Wittmer, Corinna; Steurer, Stefan; Krech, Till; Büscheck, Franziska; Clauditz, Till Sebastian; Beyer, Burkhard; Wilczak, Waldemar; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Minner, Sarah; Schlomm, Thorsten; Sauter, Guido; Simon, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Deletion of chromosome 8p is the second most frequent genomic alteration in prostate cancer. To better understand its clinical significance, 8p deletion was analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization on a prostate cancer tissue microarray. 8p deletion was found in 2,581 of 7,017 cancers (36.8%), and was linked to unfavorable tumor phenotype. 8p deletion increased from 29.5% in 4,456 pT2 and 47.8% in 1,598 pT3a to 53.0% in 931 pT3b-pT4 cancers (P < 0,0001). Deletions of 8p were detected in 25.5% of 1,653 Gleason ≤ 3 + 3, 36.6% of 3,880 Gleason 3 + 4, 50.2% of 1,090 Gleason 4 + 3, and 51.1% of 354 Gleason ≥ 4 + 4 tumors (P < 0,0001). 8p deletions were strongly linked to biochemical recurrence (P < 0.0001) independently from established pre- and postoperative prognostic factors (P = 0.0100). However, analysis of morphologically defined subgroups revealed, that 8p deletion lacked prognostic significance in subgroups with very good (Gleason ≤ 3 + 3, 3 + 4 with ≤ 5% Gleason 4) or very poor prognosis (pT3b, Gleason ≥ 8, pN1). 8p deletions were markedly more frequent in cancers with (53.5%) than without PTEN deletions (36.4%; P < 0,0001) and were slightly more frequent in ERG-positive (40.9%) than in ERG-negative cancers (34.7%, P < 0.0001) due to the association with the ERG-associated PTEN deletion. Cancers with 8p/PTEN co-deletions had a strikingly worse prognosis than cancers with deletion of PTEN or 8p alone (P ≤ 0.0003). In summary, 8p deletion is an independent prognostic parameter in prostate cancer that may act synergistically with PTEN deletions. Even statistically independent prognostic biomarkers like 8p may have limited clinical impact in morphologically well defined high or low risk cancers. PMID:27880722

  19. Expression of FGFR1 is an independent prognostic factor in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chee Leong; Thike, Aye Aye; Tan, Sie Yong Jane; Chua, Pei Jou; Bay, Boon Huat; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2015-05-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are clinically aggressive tumors with limited treatment options. We examined the clinicopathological associations and prognostic implications of FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression in TNBCs. Tissue microarrays constructed from TNBCs were immunostained with FGFR1 and FGFR2, and scored by intensity and percentage of tumor cells stained per intensity for each subcellular compartment, which were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and survival. Cell migration following siRNA-mediated silencing of the FGFR1 gene in TNBC cell lines was also performed. 714 cases were informative for FGFR1 and FGFR2 immunostaining. Thresholds were defined as at least 1 % of cells stained and H-score of 100 or more. Proportions positive by each threshold were, respectively, 89.9 %, 7.1 % for FGFR1 (cytoplasm); 36.8 %, 7.8 % for FGFR2 (cytoplasm); and 33.5 %, 5.2 % for FGFR2 (membrane). Significant associations included FGFR1 and FGFR2 immunostaining for lobular subtype, FGFR2 immunostaining with lower grade, and more basal-like cancers with H-scores of 100 or more FGFR1 immunostaining. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed FGFR1 expression in TNBCs to be independently prognostic for overall survival (OS) at both thresholds. Cases completely negative (less than 1 % staining) for FGFR1 immunostaining showed improved OS, while those with H-score of 100 or more immunostaining had the worst OS. Cell line studies revealed up-regulation of the FGFR1 gene in the MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T TNBC cells, and specific knockdown of FGFR1 expression significantly reduced cell migration in MDA-MB-231 cell line. In conclusion, FGFR1 expression in TNBCs is independently prognostic of OS, and H-score of 100 or more FGFR1 immunostaining may define tumors that have treatment potential via FGFR signaling inhibition.

  20. Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George; Orchard, Marcos E.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge discovery, statistical learning, and more specifically an understanding of the system evolution in time when it undergoes undesirable fault conditions, are critical for an adequate implementation of successful prognostic systems. Prognosis may be understood as the generation of long-term predictions describing the evolution in time of a particular signal of interest or fault indicator, with the purpose of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a failing component/subsystem. Predictions are made using a thorough understanding of the underlying processes and factor in the anticipated future usage.

  1. Genome-wide profiling of papillary thyroid cancer identifies MUC1 as an independent prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Wreesmann, Volkert B; Sieczka, Elizabeth M; Socci, Nicholas D; Hezel, Michael; Belbin, Thomas J; Childs, Geoffrey; Patel, Snehal G; Patel, Kepal N; Tallini, Giovanni; Prystowsky, Michael; Shaha, Ashok R; Kraus, Dennis; Shah, Jatin P; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Ghossein, Ronald; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2004-06-01

    Clinicopathological variables used at present for prognostication and treatment selection for papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) do not uniformly predict tumor behavior, necessitating identification of novel prognostic markers. Complicating the assessment is the long natural history of PTC and our rudimentary knowledge of its genetic composition. In this study we took advantage of differences in clinical behavior of two distinct variants of PTC, the aggressive tall-cell variant (TCV) and indolent conventional PTC (cPTC), to identify molecular prognosticators of outcome using complementary genome wide analyses. Comparative genome hybridization (CGH) and cDNA microarray (17,840 genes) analyses were used to detect changes in DNA copy number and gene expression in pathological cPTC and TCV. The findings from CGH and cDNA microarray analyses were correlated and validated by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical analyses on a series of 100 cases of cPTC and TCV. Genes identified by this approach were evaluated as prognostic markers in cPTC by immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays. CGH identified significant differences in the presence (76 versus 27%; P = 0.001) and type of DNA copy number aberrations in TCV compared with cPTC. Recurrent gains of 1p34-36, 1q21, 6p21-22, 9q34, 11q13, 17q25, 19, and 22 and losses of 2q21-31, 4, 5p14-q21, 6q11-22, 8q11-22, 9q11-32, and 13q21-31 were unique to TCV. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression profiles revealed significant overlap between TCV and cPTC, but further analysis identified 82 dysregulated genes differentially expressed among the PTC variants. Of these, MUC1 was of particular interest because amplification of 1q by CGH correlated with MUC1 amplification by real-time PCR analysis and protein overexpression by immunohistochemistry in TCV (P = 0.005). Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association between MUC1 overexpression and treatment outcome, independent of histopathological categorization (P = 0

  2. Angiogenesis-Related Gene Expression Profile with Independent Prognostic Value in Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, Andrés; Mariño-Enríquez, Adrián; Madero, Rosario; Espinosa, Enrique; Vara, Juan Ángel Fresno; Sánchez-Navarro, Iker; Hernández-Cortes, Ginés; Zamora, Pilar; Pérez-Fernández, Elia; Miguel-Martín, María; Suárez, Asunción; Palacios, José; González-Barón, Manuel; Hardisson, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Ovarian carcinoma is the most important cause of gynecological cancer-related mortality in Western societies. Despite the improved median overall survival in patients receiving chemotherapy regimens such as paclitaxel and carboplatin combination, relapse still occurs in most advanced diseased patients. Increased angiogenesis is associated with rapid recurrence and decreased survival in ovarian cancer. This study was planned to identify an angiogenesis-related gene expression profile with prognostic value in advanced ovarian carcinoma patients. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAs were collected from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of 61 patients with III/IV FIGO stage ovarian cancer who underwent surgical cytoreduction and received a carboplatin plus paclitaxel regimen. Expression levels of 82 angiogenesis related genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan low-density arrays. A 34-gene-profile which was able to predict the overall survival of ovarian carcinoma patients was identified. After a leave-one-out cross validation, the profile distinguished two groups of patients with different outcomes. Median overall survival and progression-free survival for the high risk group was 28.3 and 15.0 months, respectively, and was not reached by patients in the low risk group at the end of follow-up. Moreover, the profile maintained an independent prognostic value in the multivariate analysis. The hazard ratio for death was 2.3 (95% CI, 1.5 to 3.2; p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance It is possible to generate a prognostic model for advanced ovarian carcinoma based on angiogenesis-related genes using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. The present results are consistent with the increasing weight of angiogenesis genes in the prognosis of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:19112514

  3. CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration is an independent favorable prognostic indicator in basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes may indicate an immune response to cancer development, but their significance remains controversial in breast cancer. We conducted this study to assess CD8+ (cytotoxic T) lymphocyte infiltration in a large cohort of invasive early stage breast cancers, and to evaluate its prognostic effect in different breast cancer intrinsic subtypes. Methods Immunohistochemistry for CD8 staining was performed on tissue microarrays from 3992 breast cancer patients. CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were counted as intratumoral when in direct contact with tumor cells, and as stromal in adjacent locations. Kaplan-Meier functions and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to examine the associations between tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and breast cancer specific survival. Results Among 3403 cases for which immunohistochemical results were obtained, CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were identified in an intratumoral pattern in 32% and stromal pattern in 61% of the cases. In the whole cohort, the presence of intratumoral tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was significantly correlated with young age, high grade, estrogen receptor negativity, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positivity and core basal intrinsic subtype, and was associated with superior breast cancer specific survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that the favorable prognostic effect of CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes was significant only in the core basal intrinsic subgroup (Hazard ratio, HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.23-0.54). No association with improved survival was present in those triple negative breast cancers that lack expression of basal markers (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.48-2.04) nor in the other intrinsic subtypes. Conclusions CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are an independent prognostic factor associated with better patient survival in basal-like breast cancer, but not in non-basal triple negative breast cancers nor in other intrinsic

  4. Preoperative Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer. An Independent Prognostic Factor Still Reliable

    PubMed Central

    Li Destri, Giovanni; Rubino, Antonio Salvatore; Latino, Rosalia; Giannone, Fabio; Lanteri, Raffaele; Scilletta, Beniamino; Di Cataldo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether, in a sample of patients radically treated for colorectal carcinoma, the preoperative determination of the carcinoembryonic antigen (p-CEA) may have a prognostic value and constitute an independent risk factor in relation to disease-free survival. The preoperative CEA seems to be related both to the staging of colorectal neoplasia and to the patient's prognosis, although this—to date—has not been conclusively demonstrated and is still a matter of intense debate in the scientific community. This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. A total of 395 patients were radically treated for colorectal carcinoma. The preoperative CEA was statistically compared with the 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging, the T and N parameters, and grading. All parameters recorded in our database were tested for an association with disease-free survival (DFS). Only factors significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the DFS were used to build multivariate stepwise forward logistic regression models to establish their independent predictors. A statistically significant relationship was found between p-CEA and tumor staging (P < 0.001), T (P < 0.001) and N parameters (P = 0.006). In a multivariate analysis, the independent prognostic factors found were: p-CEA, stages N1 and N2 according to AJCC, and G3 grading (grade). A statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) was evident between the DFS of patients with normal and high p-CEA levels. Preoperative CEA makes a pre-operative selection possible of those patients for whom it is likely to be able to predict a more advanced staging. PMID:25875542

  5. Independent prognostic value of fascin immunoreactivity in stage III–IV colonic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Puppa, G; Maisonneuve, P; Sonzogni, A; Masullo, M; Chiappa, A; Valerio, M; Zampino, M G; Franceschetti, I; Capelli, P; Chilosi, M; Menestrina, F; Viale, G; Pelosi, G

    2007-01-01

    Fascin, an actin-bundling protein involved in cell motility, has been shown to be upregulated in several types of carcinomas. In this study, we investigated the expression of fascin in 228 advanced colonic adenocarcinoma patients with a long follow-up. Fascin expression was compared with several clinicopathologic parameters and survival. Overall, fascin immunoreactivity was detected in 162 (71%) tumours with a prevalence for right-sided tumours (P<0.001). Fascin correlated significantly with sex, tumour grade and stage, mucinous differentiation, number of metastatic lymph nodes, extranodal tumour extension, and the occurrence of distant metastases. Patients with fascin-expressing tumours experienced a shorter disease-free and overall survival in comparison with those with negative tumours, and fascin immunoreactivity emerged as an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis. Moreover, patients with the same tumour stages could be stratified in different risk categories for relapse and progression according to fascin expression. Our findings suggest that fascin is a useful prognostic marker for colonic adenocarcinomas. PMID:17375048

  6. SERPINA4 is a novel independent prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui-Min; Mi, Yu-Shuai; Yu, Fu-Dong; Han, Yang; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Lu, Su; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Sen-Lin; Ye, Ling; Liu, Ting-Ting; Yang, Dao-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Qin, Xue-Bin; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Tang, Hua-Mei; Peng, Zhi-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Serpina family A member 4 (SERPINA4), also known as kallistatin, exerts important effects in inhibiting tumor growth and angiogenesis in many malignancies. However, the precise role of SERPINA4 in CRC has not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of SERPINA4 and its clinical significance in CRC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analyses showed that the mRNA and protein expression of SERPINA4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens was significantly decreased than that in adjacent normal mucosa. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to characterize the expression pattern of SERPINA4 by using a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 327 archived paraffin-embedded CRC specimens. Statistical analyses revealed that decreased SERPINA4 expression was significantly associated with invasion depth, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, and tumor differentiation. SERPINA4 was also an independent prognostic indicator of disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with CRC. Furthermore, the impact of altered SERPINA4 expression on CRC cells was analyzed with a series of in vitro and in vivo assays. The results demonstrated that SERPINA4 significantly inhibits malignant tumor progression and serves as a novel prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:27648355

  7. Circulating Haptoglobin Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in the Sera of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changqing; Annamalai, Loganath; Guo, Changfa; Kothandaraman, Narasimhan; Koh, Stephen Chee Liang; Zhang, Huoming; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh

    2007-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of haptoglobin levels in the overall survival of patients presenting with various stages of epithelial ovarian cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS We employed an in-house sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to determine the concentrations of preoperative haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in sera samples obtained from 66 malignant tumors, 60 benign tumors, and 10 normal healthy women. RESULTS Levels of serum haptoglobin significantly correlated with tumor type (P < .001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P < .05). A significant correlation was observed between clinical stage and patient survival (r = 5.99, P = .026). Our data also indicated that elevated serum haptoglobin levels were associated with poor outcome for overall survival using both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .048 and P = .036 respectively). Using Pearson's correlation, we have noted that serum CRP concentrations significantly correlated with haptoglobin levels (r2 = 0.22, P < .001). Immunohistochemical findings and Western blot analyses were compatible with sera levels of haptoglobin in which a higher intensity of staining occurred in late-stage epithelial ovarian cancers. CONCLUSION This study provides evidence that preoperative serum levels of haptoglobin could serve as an independent prognostic factor in patients presenting with epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:17325738

  8. Deletion of 18q is a strong and independent prognostic feature in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kluth, Martina; Graunke, Maximilian; Möller-Koop, Christina; Hube-Magg, Claudia; Minner, Sarah; Michl, Uwe; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Pompe, Raisa; Jacobsen, Frank; Hinsch, Andrea; Wittmer, Corinna; Lebok, Patrick; Steurer, Stefan; Büscheck, Franziska; Clauditz, Till; Wilczak, Waldemar; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Simon, Ronald

    2016-12-27

    Deletion of 18q recurrently occurs in prostate cancer. To evaluate its clinical relevance, dual labeling fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) using probes for 18q21 and centromere 18 was performed on a prostate cancer tissue microarray (TMA). An 18q deletion was found in 517 of 6,881 successfully analyzed cancers (7.5%). 18q deletion was linked to unfavorable tumor phenotype. An 18q deletion was seen in 6.4% of 4,360 pT2, 8.0% of 1,559 pT3a and 11.8% of 930 pT3b-pT4 cancers (P < 0.0001). Deletions of 18q were detected in 6.9% of 1,636 Gleason ≤ 3 + 3, 6.8% of 3,804 Gleason 3 + 4, 10.1% of 1,058 Gleason 4+3, and 9.9% of 344 Gleason ≥ 4 + 4 tumors (P = 0.0013). Deletions of 18q were slightly more frequent in ERG-fusion negative (8.2%) than in ERG-fusion positive cancers (6.4%, P = 0.0063). 18q deletions were also linked to biochemical recurrence (BCR, P < 0.0001). This was independent from established pre- and postoperative prognostic factors (P ≤ 0.0004). In summary, the results of our study identify 18q deletion as an independent prognostic parameter in prostate cancer. As it is easy to measure, 18q deletion may be a suitable component for multiparametric molecular prostate cancer prognosis tests.

  9. Deletion of 18q is a strong and independent prognostic feature in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Möller-Koop, Christina; Hube-Magg, Claudia; Minner, Sarah; Michl, Uwe; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Pompe, Raisa; Jacobsen, Frank; Hinsch, Andrea; Wittmer, Corinna; Lebok, Patrick; Steurer, Stefan; Büscheck, Franziska; Clauditz, Till; Wilczak, Waldemar; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Simon, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Deletion of 18q recurrently occurs in prostate cancer. To evaluate its clinical relevance, dual labeling fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) using probes for 18q21 and centromere 18 was performed on a prostate cancer tissue microarray (TMA). An 18q deletion was found in 517 of 6,881 successfully analyzed cancers (7.5%). 18q deletion was linked to unfavorable tumor phenotype. An 18q deletion was seen in 6.4% of 4,360 pT2, 8.0% of 1,559 pT3a and 11.8% of 930 pT3b-pT4 cancers (P < 0.0001). Deletions of 18q were detected in 6.9% of 1,636 Gleason ≤ 3 + 3, 6.8% of 3,804 Gleason 3 + 4, 10.1% of 1,058 Gleason 4+3, and 9.9% of 344 Gleason ≥ 4 + 4 tumors (P = 0.0013). Deletions of 18q were slightly more frequent in ERG-fusion negative (8.2%) than in ERG-fusion positive cancers (6.4%, P = 0.0063). 18q deletions were also linked to biochemical recurrence (BCR, P < 0.0001). This was independent from established pre- and postoperative prognostic factors (P ≤ 0.0004). In summary, the results of our study identify 18q deletion as an independent prognostic parameter in prostate cancer. As it is easy to measure, 18q deletion may be a suitable component for multiparametric molecular prostate cancer prognosis tests. PMID:27861151

  10. Loss of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Is an Independent Unfavorable Prognostic Factor for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xuejiao; Yu, Yue; Luo, Mei; Zhang, Zhirong; Shi, Susheng; Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Zhaoli; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine, which result in genomic DNA demethylation. It was reported that 5-hmC levels were decreased in a variety of cancers and could be regarded as an epigenetic hallmark of cancer. In the present study, 5-hmC levels were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 173 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and 91 corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues; DNA dot blot assays were used to detect the 5-hmC level in another 50 pairs of ESCC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues. In addition, the mRNA level of TET1, TET2 and TET3 in these 50 pairs of ESCC tissues was detected by real-time PCR. The IHC and DNA dot blot results showed that 5-hmC levels were significantly lower in ESCC tissues compared with corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues (P = 0.029). TET2 and TET3 expression was also significantly decreased in tumor tissues compared with paired non-tumor tissues (TET2, P < 0.0001; TET3, P = 0.009), and the decrease in 5-hmC was significantly associated with the downregulation of TET2 expression (r = 0.405, P = 0.004). Moreover, the loss of 5-hmC in ESCC tissues was significantly associated with poor overall survival among patients with ESCC (P = 0.043); multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the loss of 5-hmC in ESCC tissues was an independent unfavorable prognostic indicator for patients with ESCC (HR = 1.569, P = 0.029). In conclusion, 5-hmC levels were decreased in ESCC tissues, and the loss of 5-hmC in tumor tissues was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with ESCC. PMID:27050164

  11. Circulating Tumour Cells as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients with Advanced Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Po-Jung; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lee, Chia-Lin; Huang, Wen-Kuan; Wu, Chiao-En; Chang, Hsien-Kun; Chao, Yin-Kai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Lin, Nina Ming-Jung; Ye, Siou-Ru; Lee, Jane Ying-Chieh; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in advanced oesophageal cancer (EC) patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) remains uncertain. A negative selection protocol plus flow cytometry was validated to efficiently identify CTCs. The CTC number was calculated and analysed for survival impact. The protocol’s efficacy in CTC identification was validated with a recovery rate of 44.6 ± 9.1% and a coefficient of variation of 20.4%. Fifty-seven patients and 20 healthy donors were enrolled. Initial staging, first response to CRT, and surgery after CRT were prognostic for overall survival, with P values of <0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001, respectively. The CTC number of EC patients is significantly higher (P = 0.04) than that of healthy donors. Multivariate analysis for disease-specific progression-free survival showed that surgery after response to CCRT, initial stage, and CTC number (≥21.0 cells/mL) played independent prognostic roles. For overall survival, surgery after CCRT, performance status, initial stage, and CTC number were significant independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, a negative selection plus flow cytometry protocol efficiently detected CTCs. The CTC number before CCRT was an independent prognostic factor in patients with unresectable oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Further large-scale prospective studies for validation are warranted. PMID:27530152

  12. MALDI-imaging reveals thymosin beta-4 as an independent prognostic marker for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gemoll, Timo; Strohkamp, Sarah; Schillo, Katharina; Thorns, Christoph; Habermann, Jens K.

    2015-01-01

    DNA aneuploidy has been identified as a prognostic factor for epithelial malignancies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful tool for direct analysis of multiple proteins in tissue sections while maintaining the cellular and molecular integrity. We compared diploid and aneuploid colon cancer tissues against normal mucosa of the colon by means of IMS. DNA image cytometry determined the ploidy status of tissue samples that were subsequently subjected to MALDI-IMS. After obtaining protein profiles through direct analysis of tissue sections, a discovery and independent validation set were used to predict ploidy status by applying proteomic classification algorithms [Supervised Neural Network (SNN) and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC)]. Five peaks (m/z 2,395 and 4,977 for diploid vs. aneuploid comparison as well as m/z 3,376, 6,663, and 8,581 for normal mucosa vs. carcinoma comparison) were significant in both SNN and ROC analysis. Among these, m/z 4,977 was identified as thymosin beta 4 (Tβ-4). Tβ-4 was subsequently validated in clinical samples using a tissue microarray to predict overall survival in colon cancer patients. PMID:26556858

  13. Interleukin 35 is an independent prognostic factor and a therapeutic target for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongquan; Wu, Hui; Tan, Qindong; Xiang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study Interleukin (IL)-35 is composed of two subunits: Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) and IL-12p35. Recently, overexpression of IL-35 has been found in several types of cancers. However, its clinical significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is still obscure. We have studied the clinical significance of IL-35 expression and its correlation with outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Material and methods Interleukin 35 expression was investigated in 80 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, Fisher's exact test, Kaplan-Meier plots, and Cox proportional hazards regression were utilized to analyse these results. Results In the present study, IL-35 is highly expressed in the majority of nasopharyngeal carcinoma samples. EBI3 and p35 immunoreactivity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma samples was 67.5% and 51.3%, respectively. Both EBI3 and p35 expressions were significantly associated with advancement of tumour stage. In addition, EBI3 expression was also correlated with lymph node metastasis. Further analysis showed that EBI3 or p35 staining indicated unfavourable prognosis (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis suggested EBI3 was an independent prognostic predictor (p < 0.05). Conclusions Our results indicate for the first time that IL-35 is correlated with progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Therefore, IL-35 may be a useful target for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:26034389

  14. Overexpression of YWHAZ as an independent prognostic factor in adenocarcinoma of the esophago-gastric junction

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Nobuyuki; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Miyamae, Mahito; Ohashi, Takuma; Okajima, Wataru; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that YWHAZ (14-3-3ζ), included in the 14-3-3 family of proteins, is implicated in the initiation and progression of cancers. To detect a novel treatment target for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG), we tested whether YWHAZ acted as a cancer-promoting gene through its overexpression in AEG. We analyzed YWHAZ protein expression in 92 consecutive primary AEG tumors, which had been curatively resected in our institution between 2000 and 2010. Overexpression of the YWHAZ protein was frequently detected in primary AEG tumor samples (46% (42/92)). Overexpression of YWHAZ was significantly correlated with Siewert type III tumor, larger tumor size (≥40 mm) and higher rates of lymph node metastasis and recurrence. Patients with YWHAZ-overexpressing tumors had a worse overall rate of survival than those with non-expressing tumors (P = 0.011, log-rank test) in an intensity expression-dependent manner. Patients with YWHAZ-overexpression tumors had worse overall survival rates than those with lower-expression tumors. YWHAZ positivity was independently associated with a worse outcome in the multivariate analysis (P = 0.0015, hazard ratio 4.49 [1.736-13.06]). In conclusion, YWHAZ plays a crucial role in poor outcomes of patients with AEG through its overexpression, which highlights its usefulness as a prognosticator and potential therapeutic target and indicator in AEG. PMID:27904785

  15. BCL2 in breast cancer: a favourable prognostic marker across molecular subtypes and independent of adjuvant therapy received

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, S-J; Makretsov, N; Blows, F M; Driver, K E; Provenzano, E; Le Quesne, J; Baglietto, L; Severi, G; Giles, G G; McLean, C A; Callagy, G; Green, A R; Ellis, I; Gelmon, K; Turashvili, G; Leung, S; Aparicio, S; Huntsman, D; Caldas, C; Pharoah, P

    2010-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is heterogeneous and the existing prognostic classifiers are limited in accuracy, leading to unnecessary treatment of numerous women. B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), an antiapoptotic protein, has been proposed as a prognostic marker, but this effect is considered to relate to oestrogen receptor (ER) status. This study aimed to test the clinical validity of BCL2 as an independent prognostic marker. Methods: Five studies of 11 212 women with early-stage breast cancer were analysed. Individual patient data included tumour size, grade, lymph node status, endocrine therapy, chemotherapy and mortality. BCL2, ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) levels were determined in all tumours. A Cox model incorporating the time-dependent effects of each variable was used to explore the prognostic significance of BCL2. Results: In univariate analysis, ER, PR and BCL2 positivity was associated with improved survival and HER2 positivity with inferior survival. For ER and PR this effect was time dependent, whereas for BCL2 and HER2 the effect persisted over time. In multivariate analysis, BCL2 positivity retained independent prognostic significance (hazard ratio (HR) 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66–0.88, P<0.001). BCL2 was a powerful prognostic marker in ER− (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.54–0.74, P<0.001) and ER+ disease (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.48–0.65, P<0.001), and in HER2− (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.49–0.61, P<0.001) and HER2+ disease (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57–0.85, P<0.001), irrespective of the type of adjuvant therapy received. Addition of BCL2 to the Adjuvant! Online prognostic model, for a subset of cases with a 10-year follow-up, improved the survival prediction (P=0.0039). Conclusions: BCL2 is an independent indicator of favourable prognosis for all types of early-stage breast cancer. This study establishes the rationale for introduction of BCL2 immunohistochemistry to improve prognostic stratification. Further work

  16. Mixed Carcinoma as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Submucosal Invasive Gastric Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Yung; Yoo, Moon-Won; Hwang, Tae Sook; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-06-01

    Mixed carcinoma shows a mixture of glandular and signet ring/poorly cohesive cellular histological components and the prognostic significance of each component is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the significance of the poorly cohesive cellular histological component as a risk factor for lymph node metastasis and to examine the diagnostic reliability of endoscopic biopsy. Clinicopathologic characteristics of 202 patients who underwent submucosal invasive gastric carcinoma resection with lymph node dissection in 2005-2012 were reviewed. Mixed carcinoma accounted for 27.2% (56/202) of cases. The overall prevalence of lymph node metastasis was 17.3% (35/202). Lymphatic invasion (P < 0.001), family history of carcinoma (P = 0.025), tumor size (P = 0.004), Lauren classification (P = 0.042), and presence of any poorly cohesive cellular histological component (P = 0.021) positively correlated with the lymph node metastasis rate on univariate analysis. Multivariate analyses revealed lymphatic invasion, family history of any carcinoma, and the presence of any poorly cohesive cellular histological component to be significant and independent factors related to lymph node metastasis. Review of preoperative biopsy slides showed that preoperative biopsy demonstrated a sensitivity of 63.6% and a specificity of 100% in detecting the presence of the poorly cohesive cellular histological component, compared with gastrectomy specimens. The presence of any poorly cohesive cellular histological component was an independent risk factor associated with lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive gastric carcinoma. Endoscopic biopsy had limited value in predicting the presence and proportion of the poorly cohesive cellular histologic component due to the heterogeneity of mixed carcinoma.

  17. High expression of CXCR3 is an independent prognostic factor in glioblastoma patients that promotes an invasive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yi; Li, Shouwei; Zhang, Chuanbao; Bao, Zhaoshi; Yang, Zhengxiang; Sun, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    Chemokines are a superfamily of small heparin-binding cytokines that induce leukocytes to migrate to sites of inflammation or injury through interacting with specific transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Currently, attention is focused on chemokine/chemokine receptor pairs and their ability to promote tumor cell migration and angiogenesis. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is involved in tumor metastasis and is used as a prognostic biomarker. However, its relationship with the clinicopathological features of primary glioblastoma multiforme (pGBM) and its potential prognostic value have yet to be investigated. Here, we report that high CXCR3 expression conferred poor survival in pGBM patients. Further analysis showed that CXCR3 served as an independent prognostic biomarker for pGBM patients. In addition, functional assays indicated that CXCR3 induced glioma cell invasion. Therefore, this evidence indicates CXCR3 is an independent prognostic factor for pGBM patients and promotes an invasive phenotype, which suggests a new potential biotarget for glioblastoma multiforme therapy.

  18. Serum HE4: An Independent Prognostic Factor in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Plassot, Carine; Pujol, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4) is a secreted glycosylated protein encoded by the WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (WFDC2) gene, located on a chromosome 20 segment that is frequently amplified in many cancers. This study aimed at determining serum HE4 prognostic value in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), following the REMARK guidelines. Serum samples from 346 consecutive patients with histologically proven and previously untreated NSCLC and 41 patients with benign pulmonary disease were collected at the Montpellier-Nimes Academic Hospital. Work-up investigations performed to determine the disease characteristics and treatment algorithms were congruent with international guidelines. HE4 levels in serum were measured with an ELISA test (Fujirebio Diagnostics) that uses two monoclonal antibodies, 2H5 and 3D8, against the C-WFDC domain of HE4. The area under the ROC curve (i.e., overall ability of HE4 to discriminate between controls and patients) was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.738-0.821; z test P <0.0001). Serum HE4 levels were significantly higher in patients with worse performance status, advanced TNM stage and positive nodal status. In the Cox model, overall survival was shorter in patients with high pretreatment serum HE4 (above 140 pmol/L) than in patients with serum H4 level ≤ 140 pmol/L [median survival: 17.7 weeks (95% CI, 11.9 to 24.9) and 46.4 weeks (95% CI, 38.6 to 56.3), respectively; hazard ratio: 1.48 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.95) for high HE4; adjusted P = 0.0057]. High serum HE4 level at diagnosis is an independent determinant of poor prognosis in NSCLC.

  19. MYBL2 is an independent prognostic marker that has tumor-promoting functions in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Fei; Wang, Lisha; Shen, Xiaohan; Xiao, Xiuying; Liu, Zebing; Wei, Ping; Wang, Yiqin; Qi, Peng; Shen, Chen; Sheng, Weiqi; Du, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The MYBL2 gene plays an important role in the genesis and progression of tumors; however, few studies to date have defined the role of this gene in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between MYBL2 and the prognosis of patients with CRC and to determine the possible effect of MYBL2 on colorectal carcinogenesis. Solid CRC tissues (n=180) preserved with RNAlater were collected to examine the mRNA levels of MYBL2 by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks of CRC tissues (n=97) and adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANCTs, n=104) were obtained to detect MYBL2 protein levels by immunohistochemistry (IHC). siRNA was used to downregulate MYBL2 expression in the SW480 cell line to detect changes in proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, migration and invasion. The protein levels of MYBL2 were significantly higher in CRC tissues compared with ANCTs (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly worse in CRC patients in whom MYBL2 was overexpressed (at both the mRNA and protein levels) compared with patients not overexpressing MYBL2. Cox multivariate analysis revealed MYBL2 overexpression as an independent prognostic factor for poor patient survival. In addition, siRNA downregulation of MYBL2 suppressed SW480 cell proliferation, delayed cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis; however, changes in cell migration were minor. Western blot analysis demonstrated an association between MYBL2 expression and that of MMP9, Vimentin, and E-cadherin. MYBL2 is overexpressed in CRC and may therefore play an important role in tumourigenesis. PMID:26101717

  20. PDL1 expression is an independent prognostic factor in localized GIST.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Mamessier, Emilie; Pantaleo, Maria Abbondanza; Astolfi, Annalisa; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Birnbaum, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most frequently occurring digestive sarcomas. The prognosis of localized GIST is heterogeneous, notably for patients with an Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) intermediate or high risk of relapse. Despite imatinib effectiveness, it is crucial to develop therapies able to overcome the resistance mechanisms. The immune system represents an attractive prognostic and therapeutic target. The Programmed cell Death 1 (PD1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1) pathway is a key inhibitor of the immune response; recently, anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 drugs showed very promising results in patients with solid tumors. However, PDL1 expression has never been studied in GIST. Our objective was to analyze PDL1 expression in a large series of clinical samples. We analyzed mRNA expression data of 139 operated imatinib-untreated localized GIST profiled using DNA microarrays and searched for correlations with histoclinical features including postoperative metastatic relapse. PDL1 expression was heterogeneous across tumors and was higher in AFIP low-risk than in high-risk samples, and in samples without than with metastatic relapse. PDL1 expression was associated with immunity-related parameters such as T-cell-specific and CD8(+) T-cell-specific gene expression signatures and probabilities of activation of interferon α (IFNα), IFNγ, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) pathways, suggesting positive correlation with a cytotoxic T-cell response. In multivariate analysis, the PDL1-low group was associated with a higher metastatic risk independently of the AFIP classification and the KIT mutational status. In conclusion, PDL1 expression refines the prediction of metastatic relapse in localized GIST and might improve our ability to better tailor adjuvant imatinib. In the metastatic setting, PDL1 expression might guide the use of PDL1 inhibitors, alone or associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  1. Interleukin 6 Receptor Is an Independent Prognostic Factor and a Potential Therapeutic Target of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Aki; Sawada, Kenjiro; Kinose, Yasuto; Ohyagi-Hara, Chifumi; Nakatsuka, Erika; Makino, Hiroshi; Ogura, Tomonori; Mizuno, Tomoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Morii, Eiichi; Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Ikuko; Toda, Aska; Hashimoto, Kae; Mabuchi, Seiji; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic cancer and new targeted molecular therapies against this miserable disease continue to be challenging. In this study, we analyzed the expressional patterns of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its receptor (IL-6R) expression in ovarian cancer tissues, evaluated the impact of these expressions on clinical outcomes of patients, and found that a high-level of IL-6R expression but not IL-6 expression in cancer cells is an independent prognostic factor. In in vitro analyses using ovarian cell lines, while six (RMUG-S, RMG-1, OVISE, A2780, SKOV3ip1 and OVCAR-3) of seven overexpressed IL-6R compared with a primary normal ovarian surface epithelium, only two (RMG-1, OVISE) of seven cell lines overexpressed IL-6, suggesting that IL-6/IL-6R signaling exerts in a paracrine manner in certain types of ovarian cancer cells. Ovarian cancer ascites were collected from patients, and we found that primary CD11b+CD14+ cells, which were predominantly M2-polarized macrophages, are the major source of IL-6 production in an ovarian cancer microenvironment. When CD11b+CD14+ cells were co-cultured with cancer cells, both the invasion and the proliferation of cancer cells were robustly promoted and these promotions were almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with anti-IL-6R antibody (tocilizumab). The data presented herein suggest a rationale for anti-IL-6/IL-6R therapy to suppress the peritoneal spread of ovarian cancer, and represent evidence of the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-6R therapy for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:25658637

  2. PDL1 expression is an independent prognostic factor in localized GIST

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Mamessier, Emilie; Pantaleo, Maria Abbondanza; Astolfi, Annalisa; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Birnbaum, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most frequently occurring digestive sarcomas. The prognosis of localized GIST is heterogeneous, notably for patients with an Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) intermediate or high risk of relapse. Despite imatinib effectiveness, it is crucial to develop therapies able to overcome the resistance mechanisms. The immune system represents an attractive prognostic and therapeutic target. The Programmed cell Death 1 (PD1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1) pathway is a key inhibitor of the immune response; recently, anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 drugs showed very promising results in patients with solid tumors. However, PDL1 expression has never been studied in GIST. Our objective was to analyze PDL1 expression in a large series of clinical samples. We analyzed mRNA expression data of 139 operated imatinib-untreated localized GIST profiled using DNA microarrays and searched for correlations with histoclinical features including postoperative metastatic relapse. PDL1 expression was heterogeneous across tumors and was higher in AFIP low-risk than in high-risk samples, and in samples without than with metastatic relapse. PDL1 expression was associated with immunity-related parameters such as T–cell-specific and CD8+ T–cell-specific gene expression signatures and probabilities of activation of interferon α (IFNα), IFNγ, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) pathways, suggesting positive correlation with a cytotoxic T-cell response. In multivariate analysis, the PDL1-low group was associated with a higher metastatic risk independently of the AFIP classification and the KIT mutational status. In conclusion, PDL1 expression refines the prediction of metastatic relapse in localized GIST and might improve our ability to better tailor adjuvant imatinib. In the metastatic setting, PDL1 expression might guide the use of PDL1 inhibitors, alone or associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:26155391

  3. Marital status is an independent prognostic factor for tracheal cancer patients: an analysis of the SEER database

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mu; Dai, Chen-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ning; Chen, Tao; Wang, Long; Yang, Ping; Xie, Dong; Mao, Rui; Chen, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background Although marital status is an independent prognostic factor in many cancers, its prognostic impact on tracheal cancer has not yet been determined. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between marital status and survival in patients with tracheal cancer. Results Compared with unmarried patients (42.67%), married patients (57.33%) had better 5-year OS (25.64% vs. 35.89%, p = 0.009) and 5-year TCSS (44.58% vs. 58.75%, p = 0.004). Results of multivariate analysis indicated that marital status is an independent prognostic factor, with married patients showing better OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64–0.95, p = 0.015) and TCSS (HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91, p = 0.008). In addition, subgroup analysis suggested that marital status plays a more important role in the TCSS of patients with non-low-grade malignant tumors (HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.53–0.93, p = 0.015). Methods We extracted 600 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Variables were compared by Pearson chi-squared test, t-test, log-rank test, and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Overall survival (OS) and tracheal cancer-specific survival (TCSS) were compared between subgroups with different pathologic features and tumor stages. Conclusions Marital status is an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with tracheal cancer. For that reason, additional social support may be needed for unmarried patients, especially those with non-low-grade malignant tumors. PMID:27780931

  4. Bi-allelic inactivation is more prevalent at relapse in multiple myeloma, identifying RB1 as an independent prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Chavan, S S; He, J; Tytarenko, R; Deshpande, S; Patel, P; Bailey, M; Stein, C K; Stephens, O; Weinhold, N; Petty, N; Steward, D; Rasche, L; Bauer, M; Ashby, C; Peterson, E; Ali, S; Ross, J; Miller, V A; Stephens, P; Thanendrarajan, S; Schinke, C; Zangari, M; van Rhee, F; Barlogie, B; Mughal, T I; Davies, F E; Morgan, G J; Walker, B A

    2017-02-24

    The purpose of this study is to identify prognostic markers and treatment targets using a clinically certified sequencing panel in multiple myeloma. We performed targeted sequencing of 578 individuals with plasma cell neoplasms using the FoundationOne Heme panel and identified clinically relevant abnormalities and novel prognostic markers. Mutational burden was associated with maf and proliferation gene expression groups, and a high-mutational burden was associated with a poor prognosis. We identified homozygous deletions that were present in multiple myeloma within key genes, including CDKN2C, RB1, TRAF3, BIRC3 and TP53, and that bi-allelic inactivation was significantly enriched at relapse. Alterations in CDKN2C, TP53, RB1 and the t(4;14) were associated with poor prognosis. Alterations in RB1 were predominantly homozygous deletions and were associated with relapse and a poor prognosis which was independent of other genetic markers, including t(4;14), after multivariate analysis. Bi-allelic inactivation of key tumor suppressor genes in myeloma was enriched at relapse, especially in RB1, CDKN2C and TP53 where they have prognostic significance.

  5. Entropy-based adaptive nuclear texture features are independent prognostic markers in a total population of uterine sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Hveem, Tarjei Sveinsgjerd; Kildal, Wanja; Abeler, Vera M; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Albregtsen, Fritz; Danielsen, Håvard E

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear texture analysis measures the spatial arrangement of the pixel gray levels in a digitized microscopic nuclear image and is a promising quantitative tool for prognosis of cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of entropy-based adaptive nuclear texture features in a total population of 354 uterine sarcomas. Isolated nuclei (monolayers) were prepared from 50 µm tissue sections and stained with Feulgen-Schiff. Local gray level entropy was measured within small windows of each nuclear image and stored in gray level entropy matrices, and two superior adaptive texture features were calculated from each matrix. The 5-year crude survival was significantly higher (P < 0.001) for patients with high texture feature values (72%) than for patients with low feature values (36%). When combining DNA ploidy classification (diploid/nondiploid) and texture (high/low feature value), the patients could be stratified into three risk groups with 5-year crude survival of 77, 57, and 34% (Hazard Ratios (HR) of 1, 2.3, and 4.1, P < 0.001). Entropy-based adaptive nuclear texture was an independent prognostic marker for crude survival in multivariate analysis including relevant clinicopathological features (HR = 2.1, P = 0.001), and should therefore be considered as a potential prognostic marker in uterine sarcomas.

  6. Immunization-based scores as independent prognostic predictors in soft tissue sarcoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Long; Weng, De-Sheng; Li, Yuan-fang; Pan, Qiu-Zhong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Tang, Yan; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Xia, Jian-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the prognostic value of different immunization-based scoring systems in patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study evaluating a cohort of 165 patients diagnosed with STS between July 2007 and July 2014. The relative Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) of these patients was calculated using 3 different systems: the traditional GPS system (tGPS), the modified GPS system 1 (m1GPS), and the modified GPS system 2 (m2GPS). Then, we evaluated the relationships between each GPS system and clinicopathological characteristics. The mean follow-up for survivors in the cohort was 73.7 months as of March 2015. Results: The most favorable overall survival (OS) rate was associated with the score 0 groups, and the poorest progression-free survival (PFS) rate was associated with the score 2 groups, regardless of which system was used to calculate the score. Specifically, the m1GPS provided the greatest accuracy in predicting OS and PFS. Moreover, the same effect was observed in a separate analysis restricted to patients with metastases. Remarkably, in patients with a score of 2 as measured by all 3 systems, local treatment resulted in a poorer prognosis compared to patients with a score of 2 who did not receive local treatment. Conclusion: The GPS is a valuable prognostic marker and has the capability to predict the appropriate treatment strategy for STS patients with metastases. The modified GPS systems demonstrated superior prognostic and predictive value compared with the traditional GPS system. PMID:28367240

  7. The preoperative alkaline phosphatase-to-platelet ratio index is an independent prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatic resection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ya-Qun; Li, Jun; Liao, Yan; Chen, Qian; Liao, Wei-Jia; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A simple, inexpensive, and readily available prognostic index is highly needed to accurately predict the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to develop a simple prognostic index using routine laboratory tests, alkaline phosphatase-to-platelet count ratio index (APPRI), to predict the likelihood of postoperative survival in HCC patients. A total of 246 patients with HCC undergoing curative resection were retrospectively analyzed. Cutoff point for APPRI was calculated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and then the patients were divided into the low-APPRI group (APPRI ≤ 4.0) and the high-APPRI group (APPRI > 4.0). The influences of APPRI on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were tested by the Kaplan–Meier method, and multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Elevated APPRI was associated with age, cirrhosis, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in HCC. Univariate analysis showed that APPRI > 4.0, tumor size >6 cm, multiple tumors, Barcelona-clinic liver cancer stages B to C, and AST > 40 U/L were significant predictors of worse DFS and OS. A multivariate analysis suggested that APPRI > 4.0 was an independent factor for DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.139–2.505; P = 0.009) and OS (HR = 1.664; 95% CI, 1.123–2.466; P = 0.011). Preoperative APPRI > 4.0 was a powerful prognostic predictor of adverse DFS and OS in HCC after surgery. The APPRI may be a promising prognostic marker for HCC after surgical resection. PMID:28002346

  8. Hypermethylation of apoptotic genes as independent prognostic factor in neuroblastoma disease.

    PubMed

    Grau, Elena; Martinez, Francisco; Orellana, Carmen; Canete, Adela; Yañez, Yania; Oltra, Silvestre; Noguera, Rosa; Hernandez, Miguel; Bermúdez, Jose D; Castel, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is an embryonal tumour of neuroectodermal cells, and its prognosis is based on patient age at diagnosis, tumour stage and MYCN amplification, but it can also be classified according to their degree of methylation. Considering that epigenetic aberrations could influence patient survival, we studied the methylation status of a series of 17 genes functionally involved in different cellular pathways in patients with NB and their impact on survival. We studied 82 primary NB tumours and we used methylation-specific-PCR to perform the epigenetic analysis. We evaluated the putative association among the evidence of hypermethylation with the most important NB prognostic factors, as well as to determine the relationship among methylation, clinical classification and survival. CASP8 hypermethylation showed association with relapse susceptibility and, TMS1 and APAF1 hypermethylation are associated with bad prognosis and showed high influence on NB overall survival. Hypermethylation of apoptotic genes has been identified as a good candidate of prognostic factor. We propose the simultaneous analysis of hypermethylation of APAF1, TMS1 and CASP8 apoptotic genes on primary NB tumour as a good prognostic factor of disease progression.

  9. Prognostic Impact of Immune Microenvironment in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Tumor-Infiltrating CD10+ Neutrophil/CD20+ Lymphocyte Ratio as an Independent Prognostic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Ujiie, Hideki; Buitrago, Daniel H.; Woo, Kaitlin M.; Sima, Camelia S.; Travis, William D.; Jones, David R.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We previously reported the prognostic significance of the lung adenocarcinoma immune microenvironment. In this study, we preformed comprehensive analysis of immune markers and their associations with prognosis in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma. Methods We reviewed surgically resected, solitary lung squamous cell carcinoma patients (n = 485; 1999 to 2009) that were randomly split into a training cohort (n = 331) and validation cohort (n = 154). We constructed tissue microarrays and performed immunostaining for CD3, CD45RO, CD8, CD4, FoxP3, CD20, CD68, CXCL12, CXCR4, CCR7, IL-7R, and IL-12Rβ2. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Analysis of single immune cell infiltration revealed that high tumor-infiltrating CD10+ neutrophils were associated with worse prognoses in the training cohort (P = 0.021). Analysis of biologically relevant immune cell combinations identified that patients with high CD10+ neutrophil and low CD20+ lymphocyte had a significantly worse OS (5-year OS, 42%) than those with other combinations of CD10 and CD20 (5-year OS, 62%; P < 0.001); this was confirmed in the validation cohort (P = 0.032). For the multivariate analysis, high CD10/low CD20 immune cell infiltration was an independent predictor of OS in both the training cohort (HR = 1.61, P = 0.006) and validation cohort (HR = 1.75; P = 0.043). Conclusions High CD10+/low CD20+ immune cell infiltration ratio is a significant prognostic factor of lung squamous cell carcinoma. Immunomodulatory therapy of tumor-specific neutrophil and B lymphocyte responses may have applicability in the treatment of lung squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26291010

  10. Preoperative lymphocyte count is an independent prognostic factor in node-negative non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Usui, Shingo; Kikuchi, Shinji; Goto, Yukinobu; Sakai, Mitsuaki; Onizuka, Masataka; Sato, Yukio

    2012-02-01

    A number of prognostic factors have been reported in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although lymph node metastasis is the most poorly predictive value in completely resected NSCLC, a significant number of patients have a fatal recurrence even in node-negative curative NSCLC. Recently inflammatory response has been shown as a predictive value in NSCLC. Neutrophils and lymphocytes play an important role in cancer immune response. In this study, we retrospectively examined the impact of preoperative peripheral neutrophil and lymphocyte counts on survival, and investigated the relationships of these factors to clinicopathological factors in node-negative NSCLC. A total 237 patients were evaluated. When the cut-off value of neutrophil count was 4500 mm(-3) with a maximum log-rank statistical value, overall 5-year survival rates were 79.7% for the low-neutrophil-count group and 69.5% for the high-neutrophil-count group (P=0.04). When the cut-off value of lymphocyte count was 1900 mm(-3) with a maximum log-rank statistical value, overall survival rates were 67.9% for the low-lymphocyte group and 87.7% for the high-lymphocyte group (P<0.001). High-neutrophil-counts were associated with tumor size (P=0.002) and pleural invasion (P<0.001). Low-lymphocyte-counts were correlated with vascular invasion (P=0.018) and recurrence of NSCLC (P=0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that the lymphocyte count was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 3.842; 95% confidence interval: 1.827-8.078; P<0.001), but the neutrophil count was not (P=0.185). We conclude that a peripheral lymphocyte count, which is associated with vascular invasion, is an independent prognostic factor in node-negative NCSLC.

  11. KIT is an independent prognostic marker for pancreatic endocrine tumors: a finding derived from analysis of islet cell differentiation markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhi; Smyrk, Thomas C; Oliveira, Andre M; Lohse, Christine M; Zhang, Shuya; Johnson, Michele R; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2009-10-01

    Prediction of the biologic behavior of pancreatic endocrine tumor (PET) without local invasion or metastasis is often difficult. The 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification uses size, angioinvasion, mitotic activity, and Ki-67 index as prognostic criteria. Recently, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) was shown to be another prognostic marker, but the mechanism by which CK19 predicts prognosis is unknown. As CK19 is the first cytokeratin expressed in all epithelial cells in fetal pancreas, we sought to test expression of other markers of islet cell differentiation including KIT, Pdx-1, Pax4, and Pax6 in PET and correlation of these markers with clinical behavior. Clinical information and histology was reviewed in 97 PETs. All tumors were classified according to WHO criteria and a tumor, node, and metastases stage system. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies to Ki-67, KIT, CK19, Pdx-1, Pax4, and Pax6. Associations of clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features with prognosis were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. WHO and tumor, node, and metastases classifications, mitotic counts and Ki-67 labeling, infiltrative border, necrosis, perineural invasion, extrapancreatic extension, tumor size, and positive CK19 and KIT expression were significantly associated with death from disease in a univariate setting. In multivariate analysis, only WHO criteria and KIT expression were shown to be independent. An immunohistochemical classification system was derived from a combination of KIT and CK19 expression: low risk (KIT-/CK19-), intermediate risk (KIT-/CK19+), and high risk (KIT+/CK19+). Survival, metastases, and recurrence of PET were significantly different among the 3 groups. These results indicate that KIT is a new and independent prognostic marker for PETs. The classification system derived from KIT and CK19 was able to predict clinical behavior of PET.

  12. Prognostic breast cancer signature identified from 3D culture model accurately predicts clinical outcome across independent datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Katherine J.; Patrick, Denis R.; Bissell, Mina J.; Fournier, Marcia V.

    2008-10-20

    One of the major tenets in breast cancer research is that early detection is vital for patient survival by increasing treatment options. To that end, we have previously used a novel unsupervised approach to identify a set of genes whose expression predicts prognosis of breast cancer patients. The predictive genes were selected in a well-defined three dimensional (3D) cell culture model of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis as down-regulated during breast epithelial cell acinar formation and cell cycle arrest. Here we examine the ability of this gene signature (3D-signature) to predict prognosis in three independent breast cancer microarray datasets having 295, 286, and 118 samples, respectively. Our results show that the 3D-signature accurately predicts prognosis in three unrelated patient datasets. At 10 years, the probability of positive outcome was 52, 51, and 47 percent in the group with a poor-prognosis signature and 91, 75, and 71 percent in the group with a good-prognosis signature for the three datasets, respectively (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, p<0.05). Hazard ratios for poor outcome were 5.5 (95% CI 3.0 to 12.2, p<0.0001), 2.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.6, p<0.0001) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2, p = 0.016) and remained significant for the two larger datasets when corrected for estrogen receptor (ER) status. Hence the 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome in both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, though individual genes differed in their prognostic ability in the two subtypes. Genes that were prognostic in ER+ patients are AURKA, CEP55, RRM2, EPHA2, FGFBP1, and VRK1, while genes prognostic in ER patients include ACTB, FOXM1 and SERPINE2 (Kaplan-Meier p<0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis in the largest dataset showed that the 3D-signature was a strong independent factor in predicting breast cancer outcome. The 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome across multiple datasets and holds prognostic

  13. CLIF-SOFA score and SIRS are independent prognostic factors in patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Hee; Park, In Sung; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong Chun; Kang, Changwoo; Lee, Soo Hoon; Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Sang Bong

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complication associated with worst prognosis in decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) patients. Previous studies have identified prognostic factors for HE, and recent studies reported an association between systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and liver disease. This study aimed to identify prognostic factors for 30-day mortality in alcoholic LC patients with HE who visited the emergency department (ED).This was a retrospective study of alcoholic LC patients with HE from January 1, 2010, to April 30, 2015. The baseline characteristics, complications of portal hypertension, laboratory values, Child-Pugh class, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) score, and SIRS criteria were assessed. The presence of 2 or more SIRS criteria was considered SIRS. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and prognostic factors for patients with HE visiting the ED.In total, 105 patients who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Overall, the 30-day mortality rate was 6.7% (7 patients).Significant variables were hepatorenal syndrome, international normalized ratio, white blood cell count, total bilirubin level, MELD score CLIF-SOFA score, and SIRS in univariate analysis. CLIF-SOFA score and SIRS were the significant factors in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 5.56, 15.98; 95% confidence interval 1.18-26.18, 1.58-161.37; P = 0.03, P = 0.02). The mortality rates differed according to the CLIF-SOFA score (P < 0.01).The CLIF-SOFA score and SIRS in alcoholic LC patients with HE visiting the ED are independent predictors of 30-day mortality.

  14. Global hypomethylation is an independent prognostic factor in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jakob Werner; Garde, Christian; Asmar, Fazila; Tholstrup, Dorte; Kristensen, Søren Sommer; Munch-Petersen, Helga D; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Brown, Peter; Grønbaek, Kirsten; Kristensen, Lasse Sommer; Wedge, Eileen

    2017-04-05

    Global hypomethylation has been linked to disease progression in several cancers, but has not been reported for Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). This study aimed to assess global methylation in DLBCL and describe its prognostic value. Mean LINE1 methylation, a validated surrogate measure for global methylation, was measured in DNA from 67 tumor biopsies. Additionally, cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) in plasma samples from 74 patients was tested to assess the feasibility of global hypomethylation as a biomarker in liquid biopsies. LINE1 methylation was assessed using a commercially available kit, based on pyrosequencing of PCR amplified bisulfite-treated DNA. Global hypomethylation was detected in a subset of cases and was associated with poor overall survival in both tumor biopsies (P=0.001) and cfDNA (P=0.009). It was the strongest risk factor in multivariate analysis in both biopsies (HR: 10.65, CI: 2.03-55.81, P=0.005) and cfDNA (HR: 11.87, CI: 2.80-50.20, P=0.001), outperforming conventional clinical risk factors. Finally, hierarchical cluster analyses were performed for the cfDNA samples using previously published gene-specific methylation data. This analysis shows that global hypomethylation co-occurs with other epigenetic abnormalities, including DAPK1 promoter hypermethylation. In conclusion, we have shown that global hypomethylation is strongly associated with poor survival in DLBCL both when present in tumor biopsy DNA and when detected in plasma cfDNA, and has potential for clinical application as a prognostic biomarker. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Netrin-1 Expression Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Poor Patient Survival in Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Harter, Patrick N.; Zinke, Jenny; Scholz, Alexander; Tichy, Julia; Zachskorn, Cornelia; Kvasnicka, Hans M.; Goeppert, Benjamin; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Hattingen, Elke; Senft, Christian; Steinbach, Joachim P.; Plate, Karl H.; Mehlen, Patrick; Schulte, Dorothea; Mittelbronn, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The multifunctional molecule netrin-1 is upregulated in various malignancies and has recently been presented as a major general player in tumorigenesis leading to tumor progression and maintenance in various animal models. However, there is still a lack of clinico-epidemiological data related to netrin-1 expression. Therefore, the aim of our study was to elucidate the association of netrin-1 expression and patient survival in brain metastases since those constitute one of the most limiting factors for patient prognosis. We investigated 104 brain metastases cases for netrin-1 expression using in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry with regard to clinical parameters such as patient survival and MRI data. Our data show that netrin-1 is strongly upregulated in most cancer subtypes. Univariate analyses revealed netrin-1 expression as a significant factor associated with poor patient survival in the total cohort of brain metastasis patients and in sub-entities such as non-small cell lung carcinomas. Interestingly, many cancer samples showed a strong nuclear netrin-1 signal which was recently linked to a truncated netrin-1 variant that enhances tumor growth. Nuclear netrin-1 expression was associated with poor patient survival in univariate as well as in multivariate analyses. Our data indicate both total and nuclear netrin-1 expression as prognostic factors in brain metastases patients in contrast to other prognostic markers in oncology such as patient age, number of brain metastases or Ki67 proliferation index. Therefore, nuclear netrin-1 expression constitutes one of the first reported molecular biomarkers for patient survival in brain metastases. Furthermore, netrin-1 may constitute a promising target for future anti-cancer treatment approaches in brain metastases. PMID:24647424

  16. The number of lymphoma-associated macrophages in tumor tissue is an independent prognostic factor in patients with follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Andjelic, Bosko; Mihaljevic, Biljana; Todorovic, Milena; Bila, Jelena; Jakovic, Ljubomir; Jovanovic, Maja Perunicic

    2012-01-01

    The clinical course of patients with follicular lymphoma is variable from a slowly progressive disease to a progressive disease with a survival time of approximately 1 year. Many prognostic models have been suggested to identify high-risk patients. Recent gene profiling analysis showed that the clinical behavior of follicular lymphoma is determined by the properties of the nonmalignant tumor microenvironment. We investigated the role of lymphoma-associated macrophages (LAMs) in tumor tissue in patients with newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma. The LAM was determined immunohistochemically in lymph node tissue sections by anti-CD68 PG-M1 and analyzed through high-power field (HPF) magnification intrafollicularly (IF) and extrafollicularly. In our study, the patients who had an IF LAM count equal to or more than 10/HPF had significantly shorter overall survival (P=0.018) and 3 years of progression-free survival (P=0.034) compared with patients with <10 LAM/HPF. Multivariate analysis indicated that IF LAM/HPF ≥ 10 and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status >1 are independent prognostic factors for a poor outcome.

  17. CD44v6 down-regulation is an independent prognostic factor for poor outcome of colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Liu, Qin; Lin, Dongliang; Lai, Maode

    2015-01-01

    We aim to investigate the variation of CD44v6 expression in the normal-adenoma-primary carcinoma-liver metastasis sequence and its prognostic impact on colorectal carcinomas. The difference in CD44v6 expression between the tumor center and invasive front was also assessed. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD44v6 on two cohorts. The first was tissue microarrays including 402 primary CRCs sampled from the tumor center and the invasive margin. The second was whole-tissue sections, consisting of 217 adenomas, 72 primary carcinomas, and the corresponding metastatic carcinomas. In the first cohort, we found that CD44v6 down-regulation was inclined to lymph node metastasis and perineural invasion, and had an unfavorable prognosis compared with CD44v6 up-regulation. In the second cohort, CD44v6 expression was predominant in adenoma over primary carcinoma and liver metastasis in multiple steps (normal < adenoma > primary carcinoma and liver metastasis). In addition, our analysis showed that CD44v6 expression was decreased at the invasion front of the CRC compared with the center of the tumor. In conclusion, the maximal expression of CD44v6 in adenoma plays a crucial role in colorectal carcinogenesis, while loss of CD44v6 expression on the cell surface of the tumor edge enhances the progression of metastasis. CD44v6 down-regulation is an independent prognostic factor for strikingly worse disease-specific survival.

  18. miR-422a is an independent prognostic factor and functions as a potential tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gui-Xi; Qu, Ai-Lin; Yang, Yong-Mei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Shou-Cai; Wang, Chuan-Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expression of miR-422a in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and to further explore the prognostic value and function of miR-422a in CRC carcinogenesis. METHODS: miR-422a expression was analyzed in 102 CRC tissues and paired normal mucosa adjacent to carcinoma by quantitative real-time PCR. The relationship of miR-422a expression with clinicopathological parameters was also analyzed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox multivariate analysis were performed to estimate the potential role of miR-422a. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were used for in vitro functional analysis of miR-422a. RESULTS: The levels of miR-422a were dramatically reduced in CRC tissues compared with normal mucosa (P < 0.05), and significantly correlated with local invasion (P = 0.004) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression multivariate analyses revealed that miR-422a expression (HR = 0.568, P = 0.015) and clinical TNM stage (HR = 2.942, P = 0.003) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival in CRC patients. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that overexpression of miR-422a inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of SW480 and HT-29 cells. CONCLUSION: Down-regulation of miR-422a may serve as an independent prognosis factor in CRC. MiR-422a functions as a tumor suppressor and regulates progression of CRC. PMID:27350737

  19. Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Overexpression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: An Independent Poor Prognosticator That Enhances Cell Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Chung-Feng; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Chen, Chang-Han; Chien, Chih-Yen; Hsu, Yao-Chung; Li, Chien-Feng; and others

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: As a key component of polycomb-repressive complex 2, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) represses target genes through histone methylation and is frequently overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in common carcinomas. For the first time, we reported EZH2 expression and its biological and clinical significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: In NPC cell lines and specimens, endogenous expression of EZH2 mRNA and protein was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. To analyze the effect on cell growth, stable silencing of EZH2 was established in EZH2-expressing TW02 NPC cells with RNA interference. EZH2 immunolabeling was assessable for 89 primary NPC biopsy samples and correlated with clinicopathological variables, disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Growth activity of TW02 cells was significantly suppressed (p < 0.001) with stable EZH2 silencing. Compared with normal nasopharyngeal tissue, expression levels of EZH2 transcript and protein were apparently upregulated in NPC specimens. As a continuous variable, higher EZH2 expression preferentially occurred in NPCs of T3 to T4 stages (p = 0.03) and significantly predicted inferior DSS (p = 0.0010) and OS (p = 0.004). The prognostic implications for DSS (p = 0.010) and OS (p = 0.006) still remained valid when using the median ({>=}60%) of EZH2 immunolabeling index to dichotomize the cohort. In the multivariate model, higher EZH2 expression was an independent adverse factor of both DSS (p = 0.012) and OS (p = 0.011), along with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stages III to IV (p = 0.024 for DSS, p = 0.017 for OS). Conclusion: At least partly through promoting cell growth, EZH2 implicates disease progression, confers tumor aggressiveness, and represents an independent adverse prognosticator in patients with NPC.

  20. The expression level of HJURP has an independent prognostic impact and predicts the sensitivity to radiotherapy in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhi; Huang, Ge; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Gu, Shenda; Lenburg, Marc E; Pai, Melody; Bayani, Nora; Blakely, Eleanor A; Gray, Joe W; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2010-06-25

    Introduction: HJURP (Holliday Junction Recognition Protein) is a newly discovered gene reported to function at centromeres and to interact with CENPA. However its role in tumor development remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of HJURP in breast cancer and its correlation with radiotherapeutic outcome. Methods: We measured HJURP expression level in human breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancers by Western blot and/or by Affymetrix Microarray; and determined its associations with clinical variables using standard statistical methods. Validation was performed with the use of published microarray data. We assessed cell growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells after radiation using high-content image analysis. Results: HJURP was expressed at higher level in breast cancer than in normal breast tissue. HJURP mRNA levels were significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade, age and Ki67 proliferation indices, but not with pathologic stage, ERBB2, tumor size, or lymph node status. Higher HJURP mRNA levels significantly decreased disease-free and overall survival. HJURP mRNA levels predicted the prognosis better than Ki67 proliferation indices. In a multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression, including clinical variables as covariates, HJURP mRNA levels remained an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival. In addition HJURP mRNA levels were an independent prognostic factor over molecular subtypes (normal like, luminal, Erbb2 and basal). Poor clinical outcomes among patients with high HJURP expression werevalidated in five additional breast cancer cohorts. Furthermore, the patients with high HJURP levels were much more sensitive to radiotherapy. In vitro studies in breast cancer cell lines showed that cells with high HJURP levels were more sensitive to radiation treatment and had a higher rate of apoptosis

  1. Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus: Validation of a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer in an independent series.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew R; Soria, Daniele; Stephen, Jacqueline; Powe, Desmond G; Nolan, Christopher C; Kunkler, Ian; Thomas, Jeremy; Kerr, Gillian R; Jack, Wilma; Cameron, David; Piper, Tammy; Ball, Graham R; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Rakha, Emad A; Bartlett, John Ms; Ellis, Ian O

    2016-01-01

    The Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus (NPI+) is a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer (BC) that aims to provide improved patient outcome stratification superior to the traditional NPI. This study aimed to validate the NPI+ in an independent series of BC. Eight hundred and eighty five primary early stage BC cases from Edinburgh were semi-quantitatively assessed for 10 biomarkers [Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PgR), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK7/8, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2, HER3, HER4, p53, and Mucin 1] using immunohistochemistry and classified into biological classes by fuzzy logic-derived algorithms previously developed in the Nottingham series. Subsequently, NPI+ Prognostic Groups (PGs) were assigned for each class using bespoke NPI-like formulae, previously developed in each NPI+ biological class of the Nottingham series, utilising clinicopathological parameters: number of positive nodes, pathological tumour size, stage, tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic counts. Biological classes and PGs were compared between the Edinburgh and Nottingham series using Cramer's V and their role in patient outcome prediction using Kaplan-Meier curves and tested using Log Rank. The NPI+ biomarker panel classified the Edinburgh series into seven biological classes similar to the Nottingham series (p > 0.01). The biological classes were significantly associated with patient outcome (p < 0.001). PGs were comparable in predicting patient outcome between series in Luminal A, Basal p53 altered, HER2+/ER+ tumours (p > 0.01). The good PGs were similarly validated in Luminal B, Basal p53 normal, HER2+/ER- tumours and the poor PG in the Luminal N class (p > 0.01). Due to small patient numbers assigned to the remaining PGs, Luminal N, Luminal B, Basal p53 normal and HER2+/ER- classes could not be validated. This study demonstrates the reproducibility of NPI+ and confirmed its prognostic value in an independent cohort

  2. Characterization of Desmoglein Expression in the Normal Prostatic Gland. Desmoglein 2 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Alison G.; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Bonal, Dennis M.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Christiano, Angela M.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The expression of desmogleins (DSGs), which are known to be crucial for establishing and maintaining the cell-cell adhesion required for tissue integrity, has been well characterized in the epidermis and hair follicle; however, their expression in other epithelial tissues such as prostate is poorly understood. Although downregulation of classical cadherins, such as E-cadherin, has been described in prostate cancer tissue samples, the expression of desmogleins has only been previously reported in prostate cancer cell lines. In this study we characterized desmoglein expression in normal prostate tissues, and further investigated whether Desmoglein 2 (DSG2) expression specifically can serve as a potential clinical prognostic factor for patients diagnosed with primary prostate cancer. Experimental Design We utilized immunofluorescence to examine DSG2 expression in normal prostate (n = 50) and in a clinically well-characterized cohort of prostate cancer patients (n = 414). Correlation of DSG2 expression with clinico-pathological characteristics and biochemical recurrence was analyzed to assess its clinical significance. Results These studies revealed that DSG2 and DSG4 were specifically expressed in prostatic luminal cells, whereas basal cells lack their expression. In contrast, DSG1 and DSG3 were not expressed in normal prostate epithelium. Further analyses of DSG2 expression in prostate cancer revealed that reduced levels of this biomarker were a significant independent marker of poor clinical outcome. Conclusion Here we report for the first time that a low DSG2 expression phenotype is a useful prognostic biomarker of tumor aggressiveness and may serve as an aid in identifying patients with clinically significant prostate cancer. PMID:24896103

  3. Analysis of the invasive edge in primary and secondary oral squamous cell carcinoma: An independent prognostic marker: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Afreen; Bavle, Radhika M; Soumya, M; D'mello, Sarah; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Govindan, Sindhu

    2016-01-01

    (43.5%) of inflammation was predominant and very mild grade (5.4%) was the least. All the parameters showed a statistically significant difference on the application of Fisher's exact test between the two groups. Conclusion: Our study showed that POI could serve as an individual prognostic marker irrespective of the histologic differentiation of tumor. Tumor desmoplasia could be considered as an important reflection of the tumor-host interaction, especially in aggressive cancers. Host immune defense, especially tumor infiltrating lymphocytes must be noted as critical factors related to survival rate in OSCC patients. Assessment of mentioned parameters may lead to sound prognostic assessment and appropriate treatment planning thus reducing the possibility of recurrence or relapse. Hence, the parameters evaluated in our study could serve as independent or interdependent prognostic markers. PMID:27601816

  4. Clinical Implications of Systemic Inflammatory Response Markers as Independent Prognostic Factors in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Kwang Yeol; Lee, Yoon Suk; Sung, Na Young; Kwon, Taek Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cancer-related inflammation affects many aspects of malignancy. We confirm the effects of early postoperative systemic inflammation on cancer prognosis. Materials and Methods Six hundred consecutive patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer from 2006 to 2009. Measurements of white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelet counts were performed preoperatively, daily until the fourth postoperative day, and subsequently every two days. Patients were divided into three groups based on the days spent on the leukocyte count to drop below 10,000/mm3 after surgery. Results Preoperative white blood cell (WBC) counts correlated with stage of disease. In univariate survival analyses, tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage, and monocyte count were associated with cancer-free survival. In addition, cancer-free survival outcomes were worse in patients who required more than four days for the normalization of WBC count. A TNM stage greater than II and the neutrophil lymphocyte ratio were associated with the duration of overall survival. In a multivariate analysis of these significant variables, TNM stage, an interval longer than four days for normalization of WBC counts and monocyte count independently associated with cancer-free survival. Conclusion Postoperative early inflammatory phase and preoperative monocyte count correlate with poor colon cancer prognosis. We can conclude that preoperative and postoperative inflammatory response and period unfavorably affect the metastatic microenvironment. PMID:24520225

  5. Prognostic classification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: MRI independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Willette, Auriel A; Calhoun, Vince D; Egan, Josephine M; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2014-11-30

    Identifying predictors of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) can lead to more accurate diagnosis and facilitate clinical trial participation. We identified 320 participants (93 cognitively normal or CN, 162 MCI, 65 AD) with baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and cognition data in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. We used independent component analysis (ICA) on structural MR images to derive 30 matter covariance patterns (ICs) across all participants. These ICs were used in iterative and stepwise discriminant classifier analyses to predict diagnostic classification at 24 months for CN vs. MCI, CN vs. AD, MCI vs. AD, and stable MCI (MCI-S) vs. MCI progression to AD (MCI-P). Models were cross-validated with a "leave-10-out" procedure. For CN vs. MCI, 84.7% accuracy was achieved based on cognitive performance measures, ICs, p-tau(181p), and ApoE ε4 status. For CN vs. AD, 94.8% accuracy was achieved based on cognitive performance measures, ICs, and p-tau(181p). For MCI vs. AD and MCI-S vs. MCI-P, models achieved 83.1% and 80.3% accuracy, respectively, based on cognitive performance measures, ICs, and p-tau(181p). ICA-derived MRI biomarkers achieve excellent diagnostic accuracy for MCI conversion, which is little improved by CSF biomarkers and ApoE ε4 status.

  6. CDH1 methylation in preoperative peritoneal washes is an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qi-Ming; Wang, Xin-Bao; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shi; Fang, Xian-Hua; Yu, Jiang-Liu; Ling, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives To investigate the clinical value of CDH1 methylation in preoperative peritoneal washes (PPW) from gastric cancer patients. Methods CDH1 methylation was detected by real-time methylation specific-PCR in tumor tissues and corresponding PPW from 92 gastric cancer patients, gastric mucosa from 40 chronic gastritis patients and 48 normal persons. Results CDH1 methylation was found in 75 of 92 (81.5%) gastric cancer tissues, which significantly correlated with size, growth pattern, differentiation, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stage of tumor (all P < 0.05), but its relationship to age, gender, tumor site, and H. pylori infection was not found (all P > 0.05). The percentage of CDH1 methylation in PPW was 48.9%, of which the Aζ value of ROC curve was 0.8 compared to that in gastric cancer tissues. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that there was a significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS) between the patients with or without methylated CDH1 in their PPW (χ2 = 109.64, P < 0.000). Cox regression analysis revealed CDH1 methylation in PPW was an independent risk factor for gastric cancer patients, with a remarkable decrease in DFS after postoperative 30 months. Conclusions Methylated CDH1 in PPW predicts poor prognosis for gastric cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2012; 106:765–771. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22514028

  7. Glutathione S Transferases Polymorphisms Are Independent Prognostic Factors in Lupus Nephritis Treated with Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Verstuyft, Céline; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Hummel, Aurélie; Le Guern, Véronique; Sacré, Karim; Meyer, Olivier; Daugas, Eric; Goujard, Cécile; Sultan, Audrey; Lobbedez, Thierry; Galicier, Lionel; Pourrat, Jacques; Le Hello, Claire; Godin, Michel; Morello, Rémy; Lambert, Marc; Hachulla, Eric; Vanhille, Philippe; Queffeulou, Guillaume; Potier, Jacky; Dion, Jean-Jacques; Bataille, Pierre; Chauveau, Dominique; Moulis, Guillaume; Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Duhaut, Pierre; Saint-Marcoux, Bernadette; Deroux, Alban; Manuzak, Jennifer; Francès, Camille; Aumaitre, Olivier; Bezanahary, Holy; Becquemont, Laurent; Bienvenu, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate association between genetic polymorphisms of GST, CYP and renal outcome or occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in lupus nephritis (LN) treated with cyclophosphamide (CYC). CYC, as a pro-drug, requires bioactivation through multiple hepatic cytochrome P450s and glutathione S transferases (GST). Methods We carried out a multicentric retrospective study including 70 patients with proliferative LN treated with CYC. Patients were genotyped for polymorphisms of the CYP2B6, CYP2C19, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. Complete remission (CR) was defined as proteinuria ≤0.33g/day and serum creatinine ≤124 µmol/l. Partial remission (PR) was defined as proteinuria ≤1.5g/day with a 50% decrease of the baseline proteinuria value and serum creatinine no greater than 25% above baseline. Results Most patients were women (84%) and 77% were Caucasian. The mean age at LN diagnosis was 41 ± 10 years. The frequency of patients carrying the GST null genotype GSTT1-, GSTM1-, and the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype were respectively 38%, 60% and 44%. In multivariate analysis, the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype was an independent factor of poor renal outcome (achievement of CR or PR) (OR = 5.01 95% CI [1.02–24.51]) and the sole factor that influenced occurrence of ADRs was the GSTM1 null genotype (OR = 3.34 95% CI [1.064–10.58]). No association between polymorphisms of cytochrome P450s gene and efficacy or ADRs was observed. Conclusion This study suggests that GST polymorphisms highly impact renal outcome and occurrence of ADRs related to CYC in LN patients. PMID:27002825

  8. TP53 overexpression is an independent adverse prognostic factor in de novo myelodysplastic syndromes with fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Loghavi, Sanam; Al-Ibraheemi, Alyaa; Zuo, Zhuang; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Yabe, Mariko; Wang, Sa A; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Yin, Cameron C; Miranda, Roberto N; Luthra, Raja; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Khoury, Joseph D

    2015-10-01

    Bone marrow (BM) fibrosis is associated with poor prognosis in patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). TP53 mutations and TP53 (p53) overexpression in MDS are also associated with poor patient outcomes. The prevalence and significance of TP53 mutations and TP53 overexpression in MDS with fibrosis are unknown. We studied 67 patients with de novo MDS demonstrating moderate to severe reticulin fibrosis (MDS-F). Expression of TP53 was evaluated in BM core biopsy specimens using dual-colour CD34/TP53 immunohistochemistry with computer-assisted image analysis. Mutation analysis was performed using next-generation sequencing, or Sanger sequencing methods. TP53 mutations were present in 47·1% of cases. TP53 mutation was significantly associated with TP53 expression (P = 0·0294). High levels of TP53 expression (3 +  in ≥10% cells) were associated with higher BM blast counts (P = 0·0149); alterations of chromosomes 5 (P = 0·0009) or 7 (P = 0·0141); complex karyotype (P = 0·0002); high- and very-high risk IPSS-R groups (P = 0·009); and TP53 mutations (P = 0·0003). High TP53 expression independently predicted shorter overall survival (OS) by multivariate analysis (P = <0·001). Expression of TP53 by CD34-positive cells was associated with shorter OS and leukaemia-free survival (P = 0·0428). TP53 overexpression is a predictor of poor outcome in patients with MDS-F.

  9. α(1,6)Fucosyltransferase expression is an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Muinelo-Romay, L; Villar-Portela, S; Cuevas Alvarez, E; Gil-Martín, E; Fernández-Briera, Almudena

    2011-11-01

    We previously reported that α(1,6)fucosyltransferase (Enzyme class 2.4.1.68) activity and expression are increased in colorectal cancer, suggesting a role for this enzyme in tumor development and progression. However, the possible impact of α(1,6)fucosyltransferase activity or expression on clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients has never been studied. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the value of α(1,6)fucosyltransferase as a prognostic factor for colorectal cancer. α(1,6)Fucosyltransferase expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry in 141 colorectal tumors, and α(1,6)fucosyltransferase activity was determined in 39 tumors. A complete standardized follow-up of patients was documented until the end of the observation period of 5 years or patient death. Univariate analysis demonstrated the absence of a correlation between enzyme activity and disease evolution. However, in patients with moderate or strong α(1,6)fucosyltransferase expression, a significant decrease in the overall (P = .04) and disease-free (P = .03) survival rates was observed. In addition, when local and distant disease recurrence were considered separately, enzyme expression was found to correlate with local tumor recurrences (P = .01). Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that α(1,6)fucosyltransferase expression has independent value for predicting tumor recurrences and, specifically, local recurrences. These findings suggest that α(1,6)fucosyltransferase expression may be a good indicator of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer and, therefore, a helpful tool to choose the most effective treatment.

  10. Loss of RUNX3 expression is an independent adverse prognostic factor in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Virginia E; Ping, Zheng; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Peker, Deniz

    2017-01-01

    Runt-related transcription factor-3 (RUNX3) is an apoptotic factor correlated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Enhancer of zeste homolog-2 (EZH2), a histone methyltransferase, has been shown to mediate silencing of RUNX3. We investigated RUNX3 and EZH2 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A chart review was conducted and tissue-microarray (TMA) was constructed using archived tissue from 83 DLBCL cases. RUNX3 and EZH2 protein expression was correlated with immunophenotypic subtypes and survival. Loss of RUNX3 was observed in 20 cases; EZH2 expression was observed in 59 cases. RUNX3-negative tumors had significantly lower overall and recurrence-free survival (log-rank test, p < 0.0001 for each). No correlation was found between RUNX3 and EZH2 staining (r = 0.14; p = 0.2). Results suggest a role for the RUNX3 gene in the pathogenesis of DLBCL. Loss of RUNX3 expression strongly correlated with adverse prognosis, independent of subtype. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the biology and prognostic utility of RUNX3 in DLBCL.

  11. CEA Level, Radical Surgery, CD56 and CgA Expression Are Prognostic Factors for Patients With Locoregional Gastrin-Independent GNET.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Bi, Xinyu; Zhao, Jianjun; Huang, Zhen; Zhou, Jianguo; Li, Zhiyu; Zhang, Yefan; Li, Muxing; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Xuhui; Chi, Yihebali; Zhao, Dongbing; Zhao, Hong; Cai, Jianqiang

    2016-05-01

    Gastrin-independent gastric neuroendocrine tumors (GNETs) are highly malignant. Radical resections and lymphadenectomy are considered to be the only possible curative treatment for these tumors. However, the prognosis of gastrin-independent GNETs is not well defined. In this study, we identified prognostic factors of locoregional gastrin-independent GNETs.All patients diagnosed with locoregional gastrin-independent GNETs between 2000 and 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical characteristics, blood tests, pathological characteristics, treatments, and follow-up data of the patients were collected and analyzed.Of the 66 patients diagnosed with locoregional gastrin-independent GNETs, 57 (86.4%) received radical resections, 7 (10.6%) with palliative resection, 1 (1.5%) with gastrojejunostomy, and 1 (1.5%) with exploration surgeries. The median survival time for these patients was 19.0 months (interquartile range, 11.0-38.0). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 72%, 34%, and 28%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (P = 0.04), radical resection (P = 0.04), and positive Cluster of Differentiation 56 (CD56) expression (P = 0.016) were significant prognostic factors on overall survival rate. Further univariate and multivariate analysis of 57 patients who received radical resections found that CgA expression (P = 0.35) and CEA level (P = 0.33) are independent prognostic factors.Gastrin-independent GNETs had poor prognosis. Serum CEA level, radical surgery, CD56 and CgA expression are markers to evaluate the survival of patients with locoregional gastrin-independent GNETs.

  12. MicroRNA-891b is an independent prognostic factor of pancreatic cancer by targeting Cbl-b to suppress the growth of pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Li, Ce; Che, Xiaofang; Qu, Jinglei; Fan, Yibo; Li, Xiaohan; Li, Yue; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yunpeng; Yang, Xianghong; Qu, Xiujuan

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence has revealed that microRNAs could regulate the proliferation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells and predict the prognosis of PDAC. Here the comparative microRNA expression profiles of the good and poor prognosis groups were performed by microRNA microarray. MicroRNA-891b (miR-891b) was screened and validated to be a prognostic predictor of PDAC in the initial group and further evaluated to be an independent predictor for the overall survival of resectable PDACs in an independent cohort. By a series of cellular and animal experiments, as well as clinical specimen analyses, miR-891b was confirmed to target the Cbl-b gene, promot the expression of tumor suppressor p21 protein and inhibit the proliferation of PDAC cells. The results provide a theoretical basis for the study of miR-891b as an independent prognostic predictor of PDAC and the role of miR-891b/Cbl-b pathway in this prediction, as well as the identification of new targets for PDAC. PMID:27494897

  13. Long-term survival in glioblastoma: methyl guanine methyl transferase (MGMT) promoter methylation as independent favourable prognostic factor

    PubMed Central

    Smrdel, Uros; Zwitter, Matjaz; Bostjancic, Emanuela; Zupan, Andrej; Kovac, Viljem; Glavac, Damjan; Bokal, Drago; Jerebic, Janja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In spite of significant improvement after multi-modality treatment, prognosis of most patients with glioblastoma remains poor. Standard clinical prognostic factors (age, gender, extent of surgery and performance status) do not clearly predict long-term survival. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate immuno-histochemical and genetic characteristics of the tumour as additional prognostic factors in glioblastoma. Patients and methods Long-term survivor group were 40 patients with glioblastoma with survival longer than 30 months. Control group were 40 patients with shorter survival and matched to the long-term survivor group according to the clinical prognostic factors. All patients underwent multimodality treatment with surgery, postoperative conformal radiotherapy and temozolomide during and after radiotherapy. Biopsy samples were tested for the methylation of MGMT promoter (with methylation specific polymerase chain reaction), IDH1 (with immunohistochemistry), IDH2, CDKN2A and CDKN2B (with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification), and 1p and 19q mutations (with fluorescent in situ hybridization). Results Methylation of MGMT promoter was found in 95% and in 36% in the long-term survivor and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). IDH1 R132H mutated patients had a non-significant lower risk of dying from glioblastoma (p = 0.437), in comparison to patients without this mutation. Other mutations were rare, with no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions Molecular and genetic testing offers additional prognostic and predictive information for patients with glioblastoma. The most important finding of our analysis is that in the absence of MGMT promoter methylation, longterm survival is very rare. For patients without this mutation, alternative treatments should be explored. PMID:27904447

  14. The C-reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Is an independent Prognostic Factor for Overall Survival in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chang-Juan; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Feng; Feng, Xing-Lai; Jin, Qi-Feng; Jin, Ting; Piao, Yong-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/ALB) ratio in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era. A total of 719 patients with NPC treated between January 2007 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Serum albumin and CRP levels were measured before treatment. The associations between the CRP/ALB ratio and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to identify significant prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS). The prognostic value of the CRP/ALB ratio was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimal CRP/ALB ratio cutoff value was 0.141. High CRP/ALB ratio was significantly associated with older age (P < 0.001), more advanced T category (P < 0.001) and advanced TNM stage (P = 0.024). Patients with an elevated CRP/ALB ratio (≥ 0.141) had poorer OS than those with a CRP/ALB ratio < 0.141 (5-year OS rates: 91.9% vs. 78.1%; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested clinical T category [hazard ratio (HR) 2.284; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.429-3.652; P = 0.001]; clinical N category (HR 1.575; 95% CI, 1.007-2.464; P = 0.047) and CRP/ALB ratio (HR 2.173; 95% CI, 1.128-3.059; P = 0.015) were independently associated with OS. In conclusion, pretreatment CRP/ALB ratio is an objective biomarker with significant prognostic value for OS in NPC. The CRP/ALB ratio can enhance conventional TNM staging to stratify patients and may help facilitate individualized treatment of high-risk cases. PMID:27877215

  15. Pretreatment Quality of Life Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Overall Survival in Patients with Advanced Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yingwei; Schild, Steven E.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Tan, Angelina D.; Krook, James E.; Rowland, Kendrith M.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Soori, Gamini S.; Adjei, Alex A.; Sloan, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis We conducted this pooled analysis to assess the prognostic value of pretreatment Quality of Life (QOL) assessments on overall survival (OS) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Four hundred twenty patients with advanced NSCLC (stages IIIB with pleural effusion and IV) from six North Central Cancer Treatment Group trials were included in this study. QOL assessments included the single-item Uniscale (355 patients), Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (217 patients), and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (197 patients). QOL scores were transformed to a 0 to 100 scale with higher scores representing better status and categorized using the sample median or clinically deficient score (CDS, ≤50 versus >50). Cox proportional hazards models stratified by study were used to evaluate the prognostic importance of QOL on OS alone and in the presence of other prognostic factors such as performance status, age, gender, body mass index, and laboratory parameters. Results Pretreatment QOL accessed by Uniscale was significantly associated with OS univariately (p < 0.0001). Uniscale (p < 0.0001; hazard ratio = 1.6 for the sample median and 2.0 for the CDS categorization) and body mass index were the only significant predictors of OS multivariately. The median survival of patients who had a Uniscale score less than or equal to the CDS (≤50) was 5.7 versus 11.1 months for the >50 group; and 7.8 versus 13 months for the less than or equal to sample median (≤83) group and >83 group, respectively. The Lung Cancer Symptom Scale and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung total scores were not significant predictors of OS. Conclusions Pretreatment QOL measured by Uniscale is a significant and an independent prognostic factor for OS, and QOL should be routinely integrated as a stratification factor in advanced NSCLC trials. PMID:19546817

  16. The C-reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Is an independent Prognostic Factor for Overall Survival in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chang-Juan; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Feng; Feng, Xing-Lai; Jin, Qi-Feng; Jin, Ting; Piao, Yong-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/ALB) ratio in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era. A total of 719 patients with NPC treated between January 2007 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Serum albumin and CRP levels were measured before treatment. The associations between the CRP/ALB ratio and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to identify significant prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS). The prognostic value of the CRP/ALB ratio was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimal CRP/ALB ratio cutoff value was 0.141. High CRP/ALB ratio was significantly associated with older age (P < 0.001), more advanced T category (P < 0.001) and advanced TNM stage (P = 0.024). Patients with an elevated CRP/ALB ratio (≥ 0.141) had poorer OS than those with a CRP/ALB ratio < 0.141 (5-year OS rates: 91.9% vs. 78.1%; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested clinical T category [hazard ratio (HR) 2.284; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.429-3.652; P = 0.001]; clinical N category (HR 1.575; 95% CI, 1.007-2.464; P = 0.047) and CRP/ALB ratio (HR 2.173; 95% CI, 1.128-3.059; P = 0.015) were independently associated with OS. In conclusion, pretreatment CRP/ALB ratio is an objective biomarker with significant prognostic value for OS in NPC. The CRP/ALB ratio can enhance conventional TNM staging to stratify patients and may help facilitate individualized treatment of high-risk cases.

  17. TET2 exon 2 skipping is an independent favorable prognostic factor for cytogenetically normal acute myelogenous leukemia (AML): TET2 exon 2 skipping in AML.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Aminetou Mint; Balsat, Marie; Koering, Catherine; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Boissel, Nicolas; Payen-Gay, Lea; Cheok, Meyling; Mortada, Hussein; Auboeuf, Didier; Pinatel, Christiane; El-Hamri, Mohamed; Tigaud, Isabelle; Hayette, Sandrine; Dumontet, Charles; Cros, Emeline; Flandrin-Gresta, Pascale; Nibourel, Olivier; Preudhomme, Claude; Thomas, Xavier; Nicolini, Franck-Emmanuel; Solly, Françoise; Guyotat, Denis; Campos, Lydia; Michallet, Mauricette; Ceraulo, Antony; Mortreux, Franck; Wattel, Eric

    2017-01-16

    In AML, approximately one-third of expressed genes are abnormally spliced, including aberrant TET2 exon 2 expression. In a discovery cohort (n=99), TET2 exon 2 skipping (TET2E2S) was found positively associated with a significant reduction in the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR). Age, cytogenetics, and TET2E2S were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS), and favorable effects on outcomes predominated in cytogenetic normal (CN)-AML and younger patients. Using the same cutoff in a validation cohort of 86 CN-AML patients, TET2E2S(high) patients were found to be younger than TET2(low) patients without a difference in the rate of complete remission. However, TET2E2S(high) patients exhibited a significantly lower CIR (p<10(-4)). TET2E2S and FLT3-ITD, but not age or NPM1 mutation status were independent prognostic factors for DFS and event-free survival (EFS), while TET2E2S was the sole prognostic factor that we identified for overall survival (OS). In both the intermediate-1 and favorable ELN genetic categories, TET2E2S remained significantly associated with prolonged survival. There was no correlation between TET2E2S status and outcomes in 34 additional AML patients who were unfit for IC. Therefore our results suggest that assessments of TET2 exon 2 splicing status might improve risk stratification in CN-AML patients treated with IC.

  18. Pretreatment TG/HDL-C Ratio Is Superior to Triacylglycerol Level as an Independent Prognostic Factor for the Survival of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Danian; Chen, Bo; Wang, Bin; Tang, Hailin; Li, Xing; Zhao, Zhiping; Li, Xuan; Xie, Xiaoming; Wei, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have reported that the triacylglycerol (TG) level and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are connected with breast cancer. However, the prognostic utility of the TG level and the TG/HDL-C ratio (THR) as conventional biomarkers in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has not been elucidated. In this research, we investigate and compare the predictive value of the pretreatment serum TG level and THR in TNBC patients. Methods: We evaluated 221 patients with TNBC who had pretreatment conventional blood biochemical examinations and calculated the THR. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of the TG level and the THR on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: The optimal cutoff values of the TG level and the THR were determined to be 0.935 mmol/L and 0.600, respectively. As shown in a Kaplan-Meier analysis, TNBC patients with a high TG level and THR had shorter OS and DFS than patients in the low-level groups (p < 0.05). The multivariate analysis suggested that the pretreatment THR level is an independent prognostic factor of OS (HR: 1.935; 95%CI: 1.032-3.629; p = 0.040) in TNBC patients. Conclusions: In conclusion, our data indicate that a high THR is an independent predictor and is superior to the TG level for predicting poor clinical outcomes in TNBC patients. PMID:27698913

  19. Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lanic, Hélène; Kraut-Tauzia, Jerôme; Modzelewski, Romain; Clatot, Florian; Mareschal, Sylvain; Picquenot, Jean Michel; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    Approximately 25-35% of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are older than 70 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of depletion of skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) in elderly patients with DLBCL. This retrospective analysis included 82 patients with DLBCL older than 70 years and treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, Oncovin, prednisone) or R-miniCHOP. Sarcopenia was measured by the analysis of stored computed tomography (CT) images at the L3 level at baseline. The surface of the muscular tissues was selected according to the CT Hounsfield unit. This value was normalized for stature in order to calculate the lumbar L3 skeletal muscle index (LSMI, in cm(2)/m(2)). The mean age of the population was 78 years. According to the defined cut-offs for LSMI, 45 patients with DLBCL were considered sarcopenic. Sarcopenic patients displayed a higher revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) compared with patients without sarcopenia, and were older, with a mean age of 80 years and 77 years, respectively (p = 0.006). With a median follow-up of 39 months, the 2-year overall survival in the sarcopenic population was 46% compared with 84% in the non-sarcopenic group (HR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.73-5.98; p = 0.0002). In a multivariate analysis, sarcopenia remained predictive of outcome (p = 0.005). Sarcopenia is a relevant and predictive factor in elderly patients with DLBCL treated with rituximab plus chemotherapy.

  20. Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1) is an independently prognostic biomarker of non-small cell lung cancers with cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Liu, Beiyan; Cui, Ying; Wang, Fengping; Sun, Hui; Lv, Fuzhen

    2014-11-01

    Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1) has been recently documented in various malignancies, but its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains uncertain. In the current study, we investigated the level of Cthrc1 in NSCLC tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results revealed that Cthrc1 overexpression was significantly associated with differentiation (P=0.039), tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P=0.035), lymph node status (P=0.001), and cigarette smoke (P=0.037). Furthermore, it was shown that patients with high Cthrc1 expression had significantly poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS; P=0.004 and P=0.010, respectively). Interestingly, high Cthrc1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS (P=0.010 and P=0.005, respectively) only in NSCLCs with cigarette smoke. These results indicated and suggested that Cthrc1 could be used as a prognostic marker for NSCLC, and it may play an important role in the smoked-related NSCLC.

  1. CD38+ CD58- is an independent adverse prognostic factor in paediatric Philadelphia chromosome negative B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Mian; Zhang, Le-Ping; Wang, Ya-Zhe; Lu, Ai-Dong; Chang, Yan; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Qin, Ya-Zhen; Lai, Yue-Yun; Kong, Yuan; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Yan-Rong

    2016-04-01

    To explore new risk predictors for a high risk of relapse in Philadelphia chromosome negative (Ph-) B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) patients, 196 paediatric Ph- B-ALL patients (≤ 18 years) were retrospectively analysed. We mainly focus on investigating the prognostic value of CD38 and CD58 expression in leukemic blasts in these patients by four colour flow cytometry. The CD38+ CD58- group (n=16) had a higher relapse rate, a shorter 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) than the CD38+ CD58+ group (n=157; 31.3% vs 10.2%, P=0.04; 52.4% vs 92.3%, P<0.01; 32.5% vs 91.0%, P=0.01); CD38+ CD58- was an independent adverse prognostic predictor for relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.203; 95%CI, 0.063-0.656; P=0.01), 3-year EFS (HR, 0.091; 95%CI, 0.023-0.355; P<0.01) and OS (HR, 0.102; 95%CI, 0.026-0.3971; P<0.01) in this cohort, as determined by Cox multivariate analysis. We identified, for the first time, a higher risk population of paediatric Ph- B-ALL patients with CD38+ CD58- who had a higher relapse risk and a shorter survival. Our results may allow better risk stratification and individualized treatment.

  2. IMP3 expression in lesions of the biliary tract: a marker for high-grade dysplasia and an independent prognostic factor in bile duct carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Riener, Marc-Oliver; Fritzsche, Florian R; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Jochum, Wolfram; Kristiansen, Glen

    2009-10-01

    The oncofetal protein IMP3 (insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 3) is expressed during embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. Various tumor types have been analyzed for IMP3 expression, which was exclusively found in tumor cells and correlated with increased tumor aggressiveness and reduced overall survival. To our knowledge, IMP3 expression has not been investigated in bile duct carcinomas. Using large tissue sections from resection specimens of the extrahepatic biliary tract, we analyzed IMP3 in normal bile ducts (n = 36), bile ducts with acute inflammation and reactive epithelial changes (n = 26), low-grade dysplasia (n = 9), and high-grade dysplasia (n = 11). Furthermore, IMP3 expression was assessed in bile duct carcinoma (n = 115) using clinically well-characterized tissue microarrays. The findings were correlated with clinical-pathologic parameters including survival. High-grade dysplasia was strongly positive for IMP3 in all cases studied compared with no or weak expression in normal, inflamed, and low-grade dysplastic bile ducts. Of the bile duct carcinomas 58.3% (67/115) were strongly positive for IMP3, which was associated with a higher proliferation rate (P = .004) and p53 positivity (P = .022). Patients with strong IMP3 expression had significantly reduced overall survival (P = .037) similarly to the subgroup of pT3 carcinomas (P = .007). In multivariate analysis, IMP3 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = .040, RR = 1.809). This comprehensive study shows that IMP3 is an independent prognostic biomarker in bile duct carcinoma. In addition, it may be a marker for high-grade dysplasia in the extrahepatic biliary tract.

  3. Shed urinary ALCAM is an independent prognostic biomarker of three-year overall survival after cystectomy in patients with bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Egloff, Shanna A. Arnold; Du, Liping; Loomans, Holli A.; Starchenko, Alina; Su, Pei-Fang; Ketova, Tatiana; Knoll, Paul B.; Wang, Jifeng; Haddad, Ahmed Q.; Fadare, Oluwole; Cates, Justin M.; Lotan, Yair; Shyr, Yu; Clark, Peter E.; Zijlstra, Andries

    2017-01-01

    Proteins involved in tumor cell migration can potentially serve as markers of invasive disease. Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) promotes adhesion, while shedding of its extracellular domain is associated with migration. We hypothesized that shed ALCAM in biofluids could be predictive of progressive disease. ALCAM expression in tumor (n = 198) and shedding in biofluids (n = 120) were measured in two separate VUMC bladder cancer cystectomy cohorts by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The primary outcome measure was accuracy of predicting 3-year overall survival (OS) with shed ALCAM compared to standard clinical indicators alone, assessed by multivariable Cox regression and concordance-indices. Validation was performed by internal bootstrap, a cohort from a second institution (n = 64), and treatment of missing data with multiple-imputation. While ALCAM mRNA expression was unchanged, histological detection of ALCAM decreased with increasing stage (P = 0.004). Importantly, urine ALCAM was elevated 17.0-fold (P < 0.0001) above non-cancer controls, correlated positively with tumor stage (P = 0.018), was an independent predictor of OS after adjusting for age, tumor stage, lymph-node status, and hematuria (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.03–2.06; P = 0.002), and improved prediction of OS by 3.3% (concordance-index, 78.5% vs. 75.2%). Urine ALCAM remained an independent predictor of OS after accounting for treatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, carcinoma in situ, lymph-node dissection, lymphovascular invasion, urine creatinine, and adjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02–1.19; P = 0.011). In conclusion, shed ALCAM may be a novel prognostic biomarker in bladder cancer, although prospective validation studies are warranted. These findings demonstrate that markers reporting on cell motility can act as prognostic indicators. PMID:27894096

  4. Metabonomics Analysis of Plasma Reveals the Lactate to Cholesterol Ratio as an Independent Prognostic Factor of Short-Term Mortality in Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Desmoulin, Franck; Galinier, Michel; Trouillet, Charlotte; Berry, Matthieu; Delmas, Clément; Turkieh, Annie; Massabuau, Pierre; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Smih, Fatima; Rouet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mortality in heart failure (AHF) remains high, especially during the first days of hospitalization. New prognostic biomarkers may help to optimize treatment. The aim of the study was to determine metabolites that have a high prognostic value. Methods We conducted a prospective study on a training cohort of AHF patients (n = 126) admitted in the cardiac intensive care unit and assessed survival at 30 days. Venous plasmas collected at admission were used for 1H NMR–based metabonomics analysis. Differences between plasma metabolite profiles allow determination of discriminating metabolites. A cohort of AHF patients was subsequently constituted (n = 74) to validate the findings. Results Lactate and cholesterol were the major discriminating metabolites predicting 30-day mortality. Mortality was increased in patients with high lactate and low total cholesterol concentrations at admission. Accuracies of lactate, cholesterol concentration and lactate to cholesterol (Lact/Chol) ratio to predict 30-day mortality were evaluated using ROC analysis. The Lact/Chol ratio provided the best accuracy with an AUC of 0.82 (P < 0.0001). The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system provided an AUC of 0.76 for predicting 30-day mortality. APACHE II score, Cardiogenic shock (CS) state and Lact/Chol ratio ≥ 0.4 (cutoff value with 82% sensitivity and 64% specificity) were significant independent predictors of 30-day mortality with hazard ratios (HR) of 1.11, 4.77 and 3.59, respectively. In CS patients, the HR of 30-day mortality risk for plasma Lact/Chol ratio ≥ 0.4 was 3.26 compared to a Lact/Chol ratio of < 0.4 (P  =  0.018). The predictive power of the Lact/Chol ratio for 30-day mortality outcome was confirmed with the independent validation cohort. Conclusion This study identifies the plasma Lact/Chol ratio as a useful objective and simple parameter to evaluate short term prognostic and could be integrated into quantitative

  5. Increased expression of discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2): a novel independent prognostic marker of worse outcome in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tingting; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xinping; Yao, Libo

    2013-03-01

    The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, have been linked with numerous human cancers. We sought to determine expression level and distribution of DDRs in human breast cancer, and investigate prognostic determinates to determine whether levels of DDRs could predict survival. Tumor samples from 122 breast cancer patients were analyzed for relative expression of DDRs. An additional 24 matched tumor and normal tissues were tested for differential expression of DDR1 and DDR2. DDR2 was found to be significantly increased by 6-fold (P = 0.0005) and DDR1 decreased (P = 0.0001) in tumor vs. normal breast tissue. DDR1 expression was not predictive for patient survival; however, DDR2 expression was significantly associated with disease-free (HR = 0.55, 95 % CI = 0.24-0.78, P = 0.026) and overall survival (HR = 0.46, 95 % CI = 0.35-0.84, P = 0.019). Multivariate analysis revealed DDR2 is an independent favorable predictor for prognosis independent of tumor stage, histology, and patient age. The present research provided the first evidence that increased DDR2 mRNA expression in primary human breast cancer might be a powerful, independent predictor of recurrence and outcome.

  6. The expression level of BAALC-associated microRNA miR-3151 is an independent prognostic factor in younger patients with cytogenetic intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Beyá, M; Brunet, S; Nomdedéu, J; Cordeiro, A; Tormo, M; Escoda, L; Ribera, J M; Arnan, M; Heras, I; Gallardo, D; Bargay, J; Queipo de Llano, M P; Salamero, O; Martí, J M; Sampol, A; Pedro, C; Hoyos, M; Pratcorona, M; Castellano, J J; Nomdedeu, M; Risueño, R M; Sierra, J; Monzó, M; Navarro, A; Esteve, J

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease whose prognosis is mainly related to the biological risk conferred by cytogenetics and molecular profiling. In elderly patients (⩾60 years) with normal karyotype AML miR-3151 have been identified as a prognostic factor. However, miR-3151 prognostic value has not been examined in younger AML patients. In the present work, we have studied miR-3151 alone and in combination with BAALC, its host gene, in a cohort of 181 younger intermediate-risk AML (IR-AML) patients. Patients with higher expression of miR-3151 had shorter overall survival (P=0.0025), shorter leukemia-free survival (P=0.026) and higher cumulative incidence of relapse (P=0.082). Moreover, in the multivariate analysis miR-3151 emerged as independent prognostic marker in both the overall series and within the unfavorable molecular prognostic category. Interestingly, the combined determination of both miR-3151 and BAALC improved this prognostic stratification, with patients with low levels of both parameters showing a better outcome compared with those patients harboring increased levels of one or both markers (P=0.003). In addition, we studied the microRNA expression profile associated with miR-3151 identifying a six-microRNA signature. In conclusion, the analysis of miR-3151 and BAALC expression may well contribute to an improved prognostic stratification of younger patients with IR-AML. PMID:26430723

  7. Expression of CD44v6 is an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Midori; Ishiguro, Hideyuki; Kuwabara, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Masahiro; Mitsui, Akira; Naganawa, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Takahiro; Fujii, Yoshitaka; Takeyama, Hiromitsu

    2011-05-01

    CD44v6 has been causally associated with the development of metastases and with poor prognosis in various human malignancies. To elucidate the clinicopathological significance of CD44v6 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the present study aimed to investigate the expression of CD44v6 using immunohistological techniques. Using specific antibodies against CD44v6 and CD44s, expression of the proteins was analyzed immunohistochemically in 63 primary esophageal ESCCs, which were previously resected at the Nagoya City University Hospital without pre-operative induction therapy. Using light microscopy, the positive expression of CD44v6 was divided into a low- or high-expression group. The expression of CD44v6 in ESCC was analyzed with respect to various clinicopathological characteristics. The frequency of CD44v6 expression was 90.5% (57/63). The CD44v6 high-expression group comprised 55.6% of the patients (n=35) and the low expression group included 44.4% of the patients (n=28). In this study, no significant difference was observed between any clinicopathological factor and the immunohistochemical expression of CD44v6. In patients with high levels of CD44v6 expression, survival was markedly worse (p=0.0327). Favorable outcomes were observed for the clinicopathological characteristics of 6 patients whose tissue immunohistochemical expression of CD44v6 was not detected. Moreover, multivariate analysis confirmed that expression of CD44v6 was an independent prognostic indicator (risk ratio =2.793; p=0.0301). Overexpression of CD44v6 is a useful prognostic indicator of ESCC. Therefore, CD44v6 should be investigated as a potential target for therapy.

  8. The G Protein-Coupled Receptor RAI3 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Pancreatic Cancer Survival and Regulates Proliferation via STAT3 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Jahny, Elisabeth; Yang, Hai; Liu, Bin; Jahnke, Beatrix; Lademann, Franziska; Knösel, Thomas; Rümmele, Petra; Grützmann, Robert; Aust, Daniela E.; Denz, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest tumors worldwide. Understanding the function of gene expression alterations is a prerequisite for developing new strategies in diagnostic and therapy. GPRC5A (RAI3), coding for a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor is known to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and might be an interesting candidate for therapeutic intervention. Expression levels of RAI3 were compared using a tissue microarray of 435 resected patients with pancreatic cancer as well as 209 samples from chronic pancreatitis (CP), intra-ductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and normal pancreatic tissue. To elucidate the function of RAI3 overexpression, siRNA based knock-down was used and transfected cells were analyzed using proliferation and migration assays. Pancreatic cancer patients showed a statistically significant overexpression of RAI3 in comparison to normal and chronic pancreatitis tissue. Especially the loss of apical RAI3 expression represents an independent prognostic parameter for overall survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. Suppression of GPRC5a results in decreased cell growth, proliferation and migration in pancreatic cancer cell lines via a STAT3 modulated pathway, independent from ERK activation. PMID:28114355

  9. Global histone deacetylase enzymatic activity is an independent prognostic marker associated with a shorter overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Michaël; Crompot, Emerence; Meuleman, Nathalie; Mineur, Philippe; Dessars, Barbara; El Housni, Hakim; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence; Stamatopoulos, Basile

    2014-10-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) play a crucial role in transcriptional regulation and are often deregulated in many cancers. However, global HDAC enzymatic activity has never been investigated in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). We measured HDAC activity in protein extracts from CD19+ B-cells purified from 114 CLL patients with a median follow-up of 91 months (range: 11-376). HDAC activity was equivalent in CLL and normal B-cells but higher in patients who died during the study than in living patients (152.1 vs. 65.04 pmol; P = 0.0060). Furthermore, HDAC activity correlated with treatment-free survival (TFS; P = 0.0156) and overall survival (OS; P < 0.0001): patients with low HDAC activity (n = 75) had a median TFS and OS of 101 and > 376 months, respectively, whereas patients with high HDAC activity (n = 39) had a median TFS and OS of 47 and 137 months, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that HDAC activity is an independent predictor of OS (hazard ratio = 7.68; P = 0.0017). Finally, HDAC activity increased after B-cell receptor stimulation using IgM, suggesting a role for microenvironment stimuli (n = 10; P = 0.0371). In conclusion, high HDAC activity in CLL B-cells is associated with shorter TFS and OS and is an independent marker of OS, refining the use of other prognostic factors. This work provides a biological base for the use of HDAC inhibitors in CLL treatment.

  10. Interpretation of dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Interpretation of dental radiographs is fairly straightforward, with a handful of common patterns making up the majority of pathology. This article covers normal radiographic anatomy, endodontic disease, periodontal disease, neoplastic changes, tooth resorption, caries, and radiographic signs of oral trauma.

  11. Multiparameter flow cytometry provides independent prognostic information in patients with suspected myelodysplastic syndromes: A study on 804 patients.

    PubMed

    Kern, Wolfgang; Bacher, Ulrike; Haferlach, Claudia; Alpermann, Tamara; Schnittger, Susanne; Haferlach, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) relies on well-defined cytomorphologic criteria but is challenging in a significant number of patients. The detection of aberrant antigen expression by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) is considered a promising tool to improve MDS diagnostics. We prospectively analyzed 804 unselected patients sent with suspected MDS for correlation of MFC findings with overall survival (OS) in the context of cytomorphologic and cytogenetic findings. Patients with evidence of MDS by MFC had a significantly worse OS as compared to those without (OS at 2 years, 71.2% vs. 89.4%; P<0.001). The number of aberrantly expressed antigens as a continuous variable was significantly associated with OS [P<0.001, hazards ratio (HR): 1.19 per additional aberrantly expressed antigen]. Multivariate analysis proved a diagnosis of MDS by MFC to be independently associated with OS (P=0.050; HR: 1.42). Furthermore, a diagnosis of MDS by MFC was related to inferior survival within all three cytomorphologically defined subgroups, i.e., proven MDS (median OS, 45.4 vs. 52.8 months, P<0.001), suspected MDS (2-year-OS, 75.0% vs. 82.8%; P=0.062), and MDS excluded (2-year-OS, 63.5% vs. 92.8%, P=0.020). Our data clearly demonstrate that, in the assessment of cytopenic patients with suspected MDS, a diagnosis of MDS by MFC is independently associated with OS, which had been shown in previous studies for today's standard diagnostic parameters cytomorphology and cytogenetics. MFC may, therefore, be considered an additional tool in the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected MDS.

  12. Elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an independent poor prognostic factor in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yize; Wang, Jun; Shuang, Zeyu; Chen, Jianlin; Li, Shengping

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was associated with poor anti-tumor immunity and prognosis in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Clinicopathologic data of 102 patients with ICC who underwent hepatectomy was retrospectively analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model were used to analyze the survival and prognosis. The percentage of overall lymphocytes, T cells and CD8+ T cells in the high NLR group was lower than that in the low NLR group. The percentage of PD-1+CD4+ and PD-1+CD8+ T cells was higher and the percentage of IFN-γ+CD4+ and IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells was lower in the high NLR group than that in the low NLR group (p = 0.045, p = 0.008; p = 0.012, p = 0.006). Density of tumor-infiltrating CD3+ T cells in the high NLR group was lower than that in the low NLR group (p < 0.001). Elevated NLR was an independent predictor for poor overall survival (OS; p = 0.035) and recurrence-free survival (RFS; p = 0.008). These results indicate that elevated NLR is associated with poor anti-tumor immunity and could be a poor biomarker for prognosis in patients with ICC. PMID:26918355

  13. Polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 6 expression in pancreatic cancer is an independent prognostic factor indicating better overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z; Yamada, S; Inenaga, S; Imamura, T; Wu, Y; Wang, K-Y; Shimajiri, S; Nakano, R; Izumi, H; Kohno, K; Sasaguri, Y

    2011-01-01

    Background: The family of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) is responsible for the altered glycosylation in cancer. The purpose of our study was to investigate the clinical significance of two isoforms, GalNAc-T6 and -T3, and their correlation with the prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse GalNAc-T6 and -T3 expressions in 70 clinicopathologically characterised pancreatic cancer cases. Results: Positive expressions of GalNAc-T6 and -T3 were immunohistochemically identified in 51% (36 of 70) and in 77% (54 of 70) of patients, respectively. A close relationship was noted between GalNAc-T6 positive expression and pathological well/moderate differentiated type (P=0.001), small tumour size (P=0.044), absence of vascular invasion (P=0.009), and low stage of the American Joint Committee on Cancer systems (P=0.043). The expression of GalNAc-T3 significantly correlated with good differentiation (P=0.001), but not with other clinicopathologic features. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that GalNAc-T6 expression was an independent prognosis indicator for the disease, whereas GalNAc-T3 expression had no impact on clinical outcome, even though 33 of 36 GalNAc-T6-positive cases also had a positive expression of GalNAc-T3 (P=0.001, r=0.356). Conclusion: Both GalNAc-T6 and -T3 expressions correlated significantly with tumour differentiation, whereas only GalNAc-T6 expression predicted prognosis in pancreatic cancer. PMID:21587259

  14. Galectin-1 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Local Recurrence and Survival After Definitive Radiation Therapy for Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Chanchien, Chan-Chao; Lin, Hao; Wang, Chung-Chi; Wang, Chong-Jong; Huang, Chao-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of galectin-1 in patients with cervical cancer after definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 154 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma. Patients underwent curative-intent radiation therapy. Paraffin-embedded tissues were analyzed using immunohistochemistry staining for galectin-1. The rates of cancer-specific survival (CSS), local recurrence (LR), and distant metastasis were compared among patient tissue samples with no, weak, and strong galectin-1 expression. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazard model with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Results: The areas under the curve for the intracellular expression scores of galectin-1 for both LR and CSS were significantly higher than those for stromal expression. There were no significant differences in the demographic data, such as stage and serum tumor markers, between patients with and without intracellular expression of galectin-1 in cancer tissue samples. Using multivariate analyses, the hazard ratios of LR and CSS were 2.60 (95% CI 1.50-4.52) (P=.001) and 1.94 (95% CI 1.18-3.19) (P=.010), respectively. Conclusion: Galectin-1 is an independent prognostic factor associated with LR and CSS in stage I-II cervical cancer patients undergoing definitive radiation therapy. Further studies targeting galectin-1 may improve the local control of cervical cancer.

  15. Angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) is an independent prognosticator of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and promotes cells proliferation via mTOR activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shau-Hsuan; Lu, Hung-I; Chang, Alice Y.W.; Huang, Wan-Ting; Lin, Wei-Che; Lee, Ching-Chang; Tien, Wan-Yu; Lan, Ya-Chun; Tsai, Hsin-Ting; Chen, Chang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the angiotensin II/ angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin II type II receptor (AT2R) signaling pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression levels of AT1R and AT2R in tissues from 152 surgically resected ESCC patients, and those expression levels were then correlated with treatment outcomes. The angiotensin II/AT1R/AT2R signaling pathway and its biological effects in the context of ESCC were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Results In human samples, AT1R overexpression was univariately associated with inferior overall survival and remained multivariately independent (hazard ratio=1.812). In vitro, angiotensin II stimulated the growth of ESCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with irbesartan or AT1R-RNAi knockdown but not treatment with PD123319 significantly decreased the level of angiotensin II-induced ESCC cell proliferation. Angiotensin II also caused mTOR activation in a dose-dependent manner, and everolimus or mTOR-RNAi knockdown significantly suppressed the level of angiotensin II-induced ESCC cell proliferation. Furthermore, AT1R-RNAi knockdown suppressed the activation of mTOR. Clinically, AT1R expression was also correlated with phosphorylated mTOR expression. In a xenograft model, local angiotensin II injection enhanced tumor growth, and this effect could be decreased by treatment with irbesartan or everolimus. In a 4-NQO-induced-ESCC murine model, irbesartan significantly decreased the incidence of esophageal tumor. Conclusions These findings suggest that AT1R overexpression is an independent adverse prognosticator for patients with ESCC and that angiotensin II/AT1R signaling stimulates ESCC growth, in part through mTOR activation. PMID:27564102

  16. Baseline sacroiliac joint magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and male sex predict the development of radiographic sacroiliitis.

    PubMed

    Akar, Servet; Isik, Sibel; Birlik, Bilge; Solmaz, Dilek; Sari, Ismail; Onen, Fatos; Akkoc, Nurullah

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the baseline sacroiliac joint (SIJ) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the development of radiographic sacroiliitis and tested their prognostic significance in cases of ankylosing spondylitis. Patients who had undergone an SIJ MRI at the rheumatology department were identified. Individuals for whom pelvic X-rays were available after at least 1 year of MRI were included in the analysis. All radiographs and MRI examinations were scored by two independent readers. Medical records of the patients were reviewed to obtain potentially relevant demographic and clinical data. We identified 1,069 SIJ MRIs, and 328 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Reliability analysis revealed moderate to good inter- and intra-observer agreement. On presentation data, 14 cases were excluded because they had unequivocal radiographic sacroiliitis at baseline. After a mean of 34.8 months of follow-up, 24 patients developed radiographic sacroiliitis. The presence of active sacroiliitis (odds ratio (OR) 15.1) and structural lesions on MRI (OR 8.3), male sex (OR 4.7), fulfillment of Calin's inflammatory back pain criteria (P = 0.001), and total MRI activity score (P < 0.001) were found to be related to the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. By regression modeling, the presence of both active inflammatory and structural damage lesions on MRI and male sex were found to be predictive factors for the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. Our present results suggest that the occurrence of both active inflammatory and structural lesions in SIJs revealed by MRI is a significant risk factor for radiographic sacroiliitis, especially in male patients with early inflammatory back pain.

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1), Partly Related to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and Microvessel Density, is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Dan; Liu, Jiewei; Li, Zhixi; Zhu, Jiang; Hou, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the correlation between FGFR1 and clinical features, including survival analysis and the promotion of angiogenesis by fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). FGFR1 gene amplification has been found in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognostic value of FGFR1 and the correlation between FGFR1 and clinical features are still controversial. Material/Methods A total of 92 patients with NSCLC who underwent R0 resection between July 2006 and July 2008 were enrolled in the study. The expression of FGFR1, VEGFR2, and CD34 was detected by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between the aforementioned markers and the patients’ clinical features were analyzed by the chi-square test. The impact factors of prognosis were evaluated by Cox regression analyses. Results The expression ratios of FGFR1 and VEGFR2 were 26.1% and 43.4%, respectively. The intensity of FGFR1 expression was related to VEGFR2 and histopathology. To some extent, the average microvessel density (MVD) had correlation to the expression of FGFR1 and VGEFR2. The pathological stages III–IV and high expression of FGFR1 were found to be independent prognostic factors. Conclusions The expression intensity of FGFR1 and VEGFR2 was associated with MVD, and the expression of FGFR1 is one of the independent prognostic indicators for NSCLC. PMID:28088809

  18. Twelve-Month Prostate-Specific Antigen Values and Perineural Invasion as Strong Independent Prognostic Variables of Long-Term Biochemical Outcome After Prostate Seed Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, William; Lee, John; Chamberlain, David; Cunningham, James; Yang Lixi; Tay, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (ptPSA) values at 12 months and other clinical parameters predict long-term PSA relapse-free survival (PRFS) following prostate seed brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of 204 hormone-naieve patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated at St. Mary's Regional Medical Center in Reno, NV, and at Carson Tahoe Regional Medical Center in Carson City, NV, between 1998 and 2003, using I-125 or Pd-103 seed brachytherapy, were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment planning was done using a preplanned, modified peripheral loading technique. A total of 185 of 204 patients had PSA records at 12 months after implant. Variables included were age, initial pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, T stage, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group (RG), perineural invasion (PNI), external beam boost, dose, and ptPSA levels at 12 months with cutpoints at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml. Results: Median follow-up was 80 months, and median age was 69 years. The numbers of patients stratified by NCCN low, intermediate, and high RG were 110:65:10, respectively. Monotherapy and boost prescription doses were 145 Gy and 110 Gy for I-125, and 125 Gy and 100 Gy for Pd-103 seeds, respectively. The median dose (D90) was 95.4% of the prescribed dose. The 5-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml were 98.5%, 85.7%, 61.5%, and 22.2%, respectively. The 10-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1 and 1.01 to 2.00 ng/ml were 90.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, both ptPSA and PNI were significant independent predictors of PRFS. Hazard ratios (HR) for ptPSA levels at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml at 12 months were 1, 4.96, 27.57, and 65.10, respectively. PNI had an HR of 6.1 (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Presence of PNI and ptPSA values at 12 months are strong prognostic variables for

  19. An independent evaluation of the potential clinical usefulness of proposed CA-125 indices previously shown to be of prognostic significance in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, D. J.; Paul, J.; Lewis, C. R.; McAllister, E. J.; Kaye, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    CA-125 levels were assessed prior to each of the first three cycles of chemotherapy, in 81 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer receiving first-line chemotherapy. All patients have at least 1 year's follow-up. Thirty-nine patients (48%) have progressed clinically or have died within 1 year of treatment (treatment 'failures'). Three CA-125 indices previously shown to be of prognostic value are assessed for their ability to pick-out these 'failures'. When the indices examined are modified to obtain a specificity for picking out failures just exceeding 90%, the maximum sensitivity obtained was 46%. The use of CA-125 for clinical decision making in ovarian cancer requires further investigation to determine and validate a prognostic index with acceptable sensitivity and specificity, and to determine the clinical impact of treatment decisions made using such an index. PMID:1562469

  20. Visual simulation of radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Laguna, G.

    1985-01-18

    A method for computer simulation of radiographs has been added to the LLNL version of the solid modeler TIPS-1 (Technical Information Processing System-1). This new tool will enable an engineer to compare an actual radiograph of a solid to its computer-generated counterpart. The appearance of discrepancies between the two can be an indication of flaws in the solid object. Simulated radiographs can also be used to preview the placement of x-ray sources to focus on areas of concern before actual radiographs are made.

  1. Prognostic factors for remission in early rheumatoid arthritis: a multiparameter prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gossec, L; Dougados, M; Goupille, P; Cantagrel, A; Sibilia, J; Meyer, O; Sany, J; Daures, J; Combe, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine prognostic factors for remission in early rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: 191 patients with rheumatoid arthritis whose disease duration was less than one year were followed up prospectively for five years. Remission, defined by a disease activity score (DAS) of <1.6, was used as the outcome measure. Baseline clinical, laboratory, genetic, and radiographic data (with radiographic scores determined by Sharp's method, modified by van der Heijde) were obtained. Results: 48 patients (25.1%) fulfilled the remission criteria at the three year follow up visit, and 30 (15.7%) at three and five years. On univariate analysis by Fisher's exact test, remission at three years and persistent remission at five years were closely correlated with baseline DAS values, C reactive protein level, Ritchie score, health assessment questionnaire score, duration of morning stiffness, and to a lesser extent baseline total radiological scores and rheumatoid factor negativity. No significant correlation was found with sex, age, extra-articular manifestations, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibodies, anti-keratin antibodies, anti-HSP 90, anticalpastatin antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, or HLA-DRB1* genotypes. Logistic regression analysis showed that the baseline independent variables predictive of remission were low DAS, Ritchie score, morning stiffness duration, and total radiographic score. Conclusions: Baseline prognostic factors for remission in early rheumatoid arthritis were mainly clinical markers of disease activity and radiological scores. PMID:15140774

  2. Radiographic film package

    SciTech Connect

    Muylle, W. E.

    1985-08-27

    A radiographic film package for non-destructive testing, comprising a radiographic film sheet, an intensifying screen with a layer of lead bonded to a paper foil, and a vacuum heat-sealed wrapper with a layer of aluminum and a heat-sealed easy-peelable thermoplastic layer.

  3. Identification of high independent prognostic value of nanotechnology based circulating tumor cell enumeration in first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ran; Shao, Bin; Peng, Jia-Xi; Li, Hui-Ping; Yang, Yan-Lian; Kong, Wei-Yao; Song, Guo-Hong; Jiang, Han-Fang; Liang, Xu; Yan, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a promising tool in the management of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This study investigated the capturing efficiency and prognostic value of our previously reported peptide-based nanomagnetic CTC isolation system (Pep@MNPs). We counted CTCs in blood samples taken at baseline (n = 102) and later at patients' first clinical evaluation after starting firstline chemotherapy (n = 72) in a cohort of women treated for MBC. Their median follow-up was 16.3 months (range: 9.0-31.0 months). The CTC detection rate was 69.6 % for the baseline samples. Patients with ≤2 CTC/2 ml at baseline had longer median progression-free survival (PFS) than did those with >2 CTC/2 ml (17.0 months vs. 8.0 months; P = 0.002). Patients with ≤2 CTC/2 ml both at baseline and first clinical evaluation had longest PFS (18.2 months) among all patient groups (P = 0.004). Particularly, among patients with stable disease (SD; per imaging evaluation) our assay could identify those with longer PFS (P < 0.001). Patients with >2 CTC/2 ml at baseline were also significantly more likely to suffer liver metastasis (P = 0.010). This study confirmed the prognostic value of Pep@MNPs assays for MBC patients who undergo firstline chemotherapy, and offered extra stratification regarding PFS for patients with SD, and a possible indicator for patients at risk for liver metastasis.

  4. PROX1 is a novel pathway-specific prognostic biomarker for high-grade astrocytomas; results from independent glioblastoma cohorts stratified by age and IDH mutation status

    PubMed Central

    Edqvist, Per-Henrik D.; Hägerstrand, Daniel; Carlson, Joseph; Lysiak, Malgorzata; Henriksson, Roger; Pontén, Fredrik; Rosell, Johan; Söderkvist, Peter; Stupp, Roger; Tchougounova, Elena; Nistér, Monica; Malmström, Annika; Smits, Anja

    2016-01-01

    PROX1 is a transcription factor with an essential role in embryonic development and determination of cell fate. In addition, PROX1 has been ascribed suppressive as well as oncogenic roles in several human cancers, including brain tumors. In this study we explored the correlation between PROX1 expression and patient survival in high-grade astrocytomas. For this purpose, we analyzed protein expression in tissue microarrays of tumor samples stratified by patient age and IDH mutation status. We initially screened 86 unselected high-grade astrocytomas, followed by 174 IDH1-R132H1 immunonegative glioblastomas derived from patients aged 60 years and older enrolled in the Nordic phase III trial of elderly patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Representing the younger population of glioblastomas, we studied 80 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas from patients aged 18-60 years. There was no correlation between PROX1 protein and survival for patients with primary glioblastomas included in these cohorts. In contrast, high expression of PROX1 protein predicted shorter survival in the group of patients with IDH-mutant anaplastic astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas. The prognostic impact of PROX1 in IDH-mutant 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas, as well as the negative findings in primary glioblastomas, was corroborated by gene expression data extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas. We conclude that PROX1 is a new prognostic biomarker for 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas that have progressed from pre-existing low-grade tumors and harbor IDH mutations. PMID:27626492

  5. PROX1 is a novel pathway-specific prognostic biomarker for high-grade astrocytomas; results from independent glioblastoma cohorts stratified by age and IDH mutation status.

    PubMed

    Roodakker, Kenney R; Elsir, Tamador; Edqvist, Per-Henrik D; Hägerstrand, Daniel; Carlson, Joseph; Lysiak, Malgorzata; Henriksson, Roger; Pontén, Fredrik; Rosell, Johan; Söderkvist, Peter; Stupp, Roger; Tchougounova, Elena; Nistér, Monica; Malmström, Annika; Smits, Anja

    2016-11-08

    PROX1 is a transcription factor with an essential role in embryonic development and determination of cell fate. In addition, PROX1 has been ascribed suppressive as well as oncogenic roles in several human cancers, including brain tumors. In this study we explored the correlation between PROX1 expression and patient survival in high-grade astrocytomas. For this purpose, we analyzed protein expression in tissue microarrays of tumor samples stratified by patient age and IDH mutation status. We initially screened 86 unselected high-grade astrocytomas, followed by 174 IDH1-R132H1 immunonegative glioblastomas derived from patients aged 60 years and older enrolled in the Nordic phase III trial of elderly patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Representing the younger population of glioblastomas, we studied 80 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas from patients aged 18-60 years. There was no correlation between PROX1 protein and survival for patients with primary glioblastomas included in these cohorts. In contrast, high expression of PROX1 protein predicted shorter survival in the group of patients with IDH-mutant anaplastic astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas. The prognostic impact of PROX1 in IDH-mutant 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas, as well as the negative findings in primary glioblastomas, was corroborated by gene expression data extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas. We conclude that PROX1 is a new prognostic biomarker for 1p19q non-codeleted high-grade astrocytomas that have progressed from pre-existing low-grade tumors and harbor IDH mutations.

  6. p16(INK4) expression is of prognostic and predictive value in oropharyngeal cancers independent of human papillomavirus status: a Hungarian study.

    PubMed

    Brauswetter, Diana; Birtalan, Ede; Danos, Kornel; Kocsis, Adrienn; Krenacs, Tibor; Timar, Jozsef; Mihalyi, Reka; Horcsik, Dorottya; Polony, Gabor; Tamas, Laszlo; Petak, Istvan

    2017-04-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment protocols still lack well-established biomarkers of prognostic and predictive value. It is well known that human papillomavirus (HPV)-related and non-HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers are distinct entities concerning tumor biology and clinical outcome. However, there is an ongoing debate whether tumor suppressor p16(INK4) status alone or both p16(INK4) and HPV detection should be used in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to investigate p16(INK4)-immunolabelled and HPV-induced rates and determine their clinical significance in 110 primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. The expression of p16(INK4) protein was assessed with immunohistochemistry, while high-risk HPV detection was performed using DNA PCR method. P16(INK4) immunolabelling was detected in 17.3% of all tumor samples, and in 38.1% of oropharyngeal malignancies. Oropharyngeal, p16(INK4)-immunolabelled tumors showed an improved disease-specific survival compared to the non-p16(INK4)-immunolabelled group (median survival: 30.3 vs. 8.8 months, p < 0.001 with the log-rank test). Furthermore, 56% of p16(INK4)-immunolabelled cases were tested positive for HPV-DNA. The HPV-induced group presented better disease-specific survival compared to the non-HPV-induced cases (median survival: 25.9 vs. 9.5 months, p = 0.024 with the log-rank test). Improved response rates to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were observed both in p16(INK4)-immunolabelled and p16(INK4)- immunolabelled/HPV DNA- containing groups (Fisher's exact test: p = 0.025 and p = 0.009). In conclusion, p16(INK4) immunohistochemistry proved to be a reliable and affordable tool for prognostic and predictive testing of head and neck squamous cell cancers. The p16(INK4) immunopositivity status alone was confirmed to be an equally precise indicator of clinical outcome as p16(INK4)/HPV DNA PCR double testing.

  7. Loss of aquaporin 3 protein expression constitutes an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival: an immunohistochemical study on stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) continues to be a challenge due to its unpredictable clinical course. Reliable molecular markers that help to determine appropriate individual treatment are still lacking. Loss of aquaporin (AQP) 3 protein expression has previously been shown in muscle-invasive UBC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of AQP3 protein expression with regard to the prognosis of stage pT1 UBC. Method AQP 3 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in specimens of 87 stage T1 UBC patients, who were diagnosed by transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) and subsequent second resection at a high-volume urological centre between 2002 and 2009. Patients underwent adjuvant instillation therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Loss of AQP3 protein expression was defined as complete absence of the protein within the whole tumour. Expression status was correlated retrospectively with clinicopathological and follow-up data (median: 31 months). Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the value of AQP3 tumour expression with regard to recurrence-free (RFS), progression-free (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). RFS, PFS and CSS were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Log rank test. Results 59% of patients were shown to exhibit AQP3-positive tumours, whereas 41% of tumours did not express the marker. Loss of AQP3 protein expression was associated with a statistically significantly worse PFS (20% vs. 72%, p=0.020). This finding was confirmed by multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR 7.58, CI 1.29 – 44.68; p=0.025). Conclusions Loss of AQP3 protein expression in pT1 UBC appears to play a key role in disease progression and is associated with worse PFS. Considering its potential prognostic value, assessment of AQP3 protein expression could be used to help stratify the behavior of patients with pT1 UBC. PMID:23043286

  8. TERT promoter mutations and Ki-67 labeling index as a prognostic marker of papillary thyroid carcinomas: combination of two independent factors

    PubMed Central

    Matsuse, Michiko; Yabuta, Tomonori; Saenko, Vladimir; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Nishihara, Eijun; Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Miyauchi, Akira; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2017-01-01

    Although most papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) have a good prognosis, a small but certain fraction shows aggressive behavior. Therefore, a novel and well-performing molecular marker is needed. In the present study, we assessed the impact of the combination of the TERT promoter/BRAF mutations and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) as a prognostic marker in PTC patients. Of 400 PTC samples, 354 were successfully genotyped for both TERT promoter/BRAF and analyzed for Ki-67 LI. Based on the combination of the mutational status and Ki-67 LI, the cases were categorized into three groups: high-, middle-, and low-risk. The recurrence rates of low-, middle-, and high-risk group were 1.9% (6 of 323), 18.2% (4 of 22), and 44.4% (4 of 9), respectively. The Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank analyses demonstrated that there were statistical differences between any two groups. The hazard ratios for recurrence remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, tumor size, and extrathyroidal extension (low vs. middle: 8.80, 95% CI: 2.35–32.92, p = 0.001; middle vs. high: 6.255, 95% CI: 1.13–34.51, p = 0.035). In conclusion, the combination of the TERT promoter/BRAFV600E mutations and Ki-67 LI performed excellent in predicting PTC recurrence and may be clinically useful. PMID:28150740

  9. Overexpression of ANXA3 is an independent prognostic indicator in gastric cancer and its depletion suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Li, Jiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Tumour metastasis is one of the leading causes of death in GC patients. This study aims to investigate the significance of ANXA3 expression and the mechanism by which ANXA3 is involved in the epithelial–mensenchymal transition (EMT) of gastric cancer cells. Results Our results confirmed that ANXA3 was high expression at the mRNA and protein level in GC cancer tissues and the majority of GC cell lines. In clinicopathological analysis, we found that increased expression of ANXA3 in tumors was closely associated with a poor prognosis. Xogenous ANXA3 transduction promoted proliferation, clone formation, migration, and invasion. Small interfering RNA silencing of ANXA3 inhibited these processes. Silence of ANXA3 inhibited tumorigenicity in vivo. Additionally, ANXA3 expression is associated with the epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Methods Firstly, we investigated the ANXA3 expression on mRNA and protein level with RT-PCR and Western blot. Secondly, 183 GC patients tissues were used the to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis through immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, The functions of ANXA3 were analyzed in the cell proliferation, Colony Formation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of GC cell lines. Conclusions Our research suggests that ANXA3 plays important roles in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and metastasis, and provides a valuable prognostic marker and potential target for treatment of gastric cancer patients. PMID:27894078

  10. Weld radiograph enigmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemian, Wartan A.

    1986-01-01

    Weld radiograph enigmas are features observed on X-ray radiographs of welds. Some of these features resemble indications of weld defects, although their origin is different. Since they are not understood, they are a source of concern. There is a need to identify their causes and especially to measure their effect on weld mechanical properties. A method is proposed whereby the enigmas can be evaluated and rated, in relation to the full spectrum of weld radiograph indications. Thie method involves a signature and a magnitude that can be used as a quantitive parameter. The signature is generated as the diference between the microdensitometer trace across the radiograph and the computed film intensity derived from a thickness scan along the corresponding region of the sample. The magnitude is the measured difference in intensity between the peak and base line values of the signature. The procedure is demonstated by comparing traces across radiographs of a weld sample before and after the introduction of a hole and by a system based on a MacIntosh mouse used for surface profiling.

  11. Pretreatment Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Level as an Independent Prognostic Factor of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in the Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Era

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuhong; Guo, Qiaojuan; Lu, Tianzhu; Lin, Shaojun; Zong, Jingfeng; Zhan, Shenghua; Xu, Luying; Pan, Jianji

    2017-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to analyze the prognostic value of baseline lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) among nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and to evaluate the potential application of LDH in monitoring treatment efficacy dynamically. Material/Methods From June 2005 to December 2010, 1188 patients with non-metastatic NPC who underwent IMRT with or without chemotherapy were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the predictive value of baseline LDH. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze the difference between baseline and post-radiotherapy LDH, and to compare post-radiotherapy LDH with the LDH in cases of distant failure. Results Patients with elevated LDH had significant inferior survival rates, in terms of overall survival (70.0% vs. 83.2%, p=0.010), disease-specific survival (71.1% vs. 85.7%, p=0.002), and distant metastasis-free survival (71.1% vs. 83.4%, p=0.009), but not correlated with locoregional relapse-free survival (p=0.275) or progression-free survival (p=0.104). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that this predictive effect was more significant with advanced stage. Sixty-five post-radiotherapy LDH levels were available from the 90 patients with high LDH at initial diagnosis, and these levels fell in 65 patients, with 62 cases (95.4%) falling within the normal range. Of the 208 patients who experienced distant metastasis, 87 had an available LDH level at that time. Among them, 69 cases (79.3%) had an increased level compared with the post-radiotherapy LDH level. Conclusions Pretreatment LDH is a simple, cost-effective biomarker that could predict survival rates and might be used in individualized treatment. It is also a potential biomarker that might reflect tumor burden and be used to monitor therapy efficacy. PMID:28120819

  12. Prognostic value of TAPSE after therapy optimisation in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension is independent of the haemodynamic effects of therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghio, Stefano; Pica, Silvia; Klersy, Catherine; Guzzafame, Eleonora; Scelsi, Laura; Raineri, Claudia; Turco, Annalisa; Schirinzi, Sandra; Visconti, Luigi Oltrona

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prognostic significance of right ventricular function assessed by echocardiography after start or escalation of targeted therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods Study design: longitudinal study. Setting: tertiary referral centre for pulmonary hypertension. Patients: 81 consecutive patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (33 naive and 48 prevalent). Interventions: right heart catheterisation and echocardiography performed prior to starting or escalating targeted therapy and repeated in 55 patients after 4–12 months of therapy. Main outcome measure: survival after follow-up examinations. Results 11 patients died and 7 were lost to follow-up during the first year; 8 patients underwent first follow-up evaluation beyond 1 year. 55 patients were re-evaluated after therapy; during the subsequent follow-up period of 25 months, 9 patients died, 7 worsened from WHO I/II to III/IV and 15 remained in WHO III/IV despite therapy. A baseline tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) ≥15 mm was associated with a lower risk of death (HR=0.32; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.83, p=0.012). Attaining a TAPSE≥15 mm after therapy was associated with a significantly lower risk of death or clinical worsening (HR=0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.6, p=0.002) and a lower risk of death which approached statistical significance (HR=0.3; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.1, p=0.075). Per cent changes in TAPSE were loosely related to changes in pulmonary vascular resistances after therapy (R=0.37). Conclusions In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, the evaluation of right ventricular function by TAPSE after targeted therapy is useful to predict subsequent prognosis, regardless of the haemodynamic effects of therapy. PMID:27175288

  13. AEG-1 expression is an independent prognostic factor in rectal cancer patients with preoperative radiotherapy: a study in a Swedish clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gnosa, S; Zhang, H; Brodin, V P; Carstensen, J; Adell, G; Sun, X-F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) is widely used to downstage rectal tumours, but the rate of recurrence varies significantly. Therefore, new biomarkers are needed for better treatment and prognosis. It has been shown that astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a key mediator of migration, invasion, and treatment resistance. Our aim was to analyse the AEG-1 expression in relation to RT in rectal cancer patients and to test its radiosensitising properties. Methods: The AEG-1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 158 patients from the Swedish clinical trial of RT. Furthermore, we inhibited the AEG-1 expression by siRNA in five colon cancer cell lines and measured the survival after irradiation by colony-forming assay. Results: The AEG-1 expression was increased in the primary tumours compared with the normal mucosa independently of the RT (P<0.01). High AEG-1 expression in the primary tumour of the patients treated with RT correlated independently with higher risk of distant recurrence (P=0.009) and worse disease-free survival (P=0.007). Downregulation of AEG-1 revealed a decreased survival after radiation in radioresistant colon cancer cell lines. Conclusions: The AEG-1 expression was independently related to distant recurrence and disease-free survival in rectal cancer patients with RT and could therefore be a marker to discriminate patients for distant relapse. PMID:24874474

  14. The time frame of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 gene to disappear in nasopharyngeal swabs after initiation of primary radiotherapy is an independently significant prognostic factor predicting local control for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.-Y.; Chang, K.-P.; Hsieh, M.-S.; Ueng, S.-H.; Hao, S.-P.; Tseng, C.-K.; Pai, P.-C.; Chang, F.-T.; Tsai, M.-H.; Tsang, N.-M. . E-mail: rt3126@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: The presence of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene in nasopharyngeal swabs indicates the presence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mucosal tumor cells. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the time taken for LMP-1 to disappear after initiation of primary radiotherapy (RT) was inversely associated with NPC local control. Methods and Materials: During July 1999 and October 2002, there were 127 nondisseminated NPC patients receiving serial examinations of nasopharyngeal swabbing with detection of LMP-1 during the RT course. The time for LMP-1 regression was defined as the number of days after initiation of RT for LMP-1 results to turn negative. The primary outcome was local control, which was represented by freedom from local recurrence. Results: The time for LMP-1 regression showed a statistically significant influence on NPC local control both univariately (p < 0.0001) and multivariately (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, the administration of chemotherapy conferred a significantly more favorable local control (p = 0.03). Advanced T status ({>=} T2b), overall treatment time of external photon radiotherapy longer than 55 days, and older age showed trends toward being poor prognosticators. The time for LMP-1 regression was very heterogeneous. According to the quartiles of the time for LMP-1 regression, we defined the pattern of LMP-1 regression as late regression if it required 40 days or more. Kaplan-Meier plots indicated that the patients with late regression had a significantly worse local control than those with intermediate or early regression (p 0.0129). Conclusion: Among the potential prognostic factors examined in this study, the time for LMP-1 regression was the most independently significant factor that was inversely associated with NPC local control.

  15. Promoter methylation of the immune checkpoint receptor PD-1 (PDCD1) is an independent prognostic biomarker for biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer patients following radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Diane; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Dietrich, Jörn; Ellinger, Jörg; Landsberg, Jennifer; Kristiansen, Glen; Dietrich, Dimo

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers that facilitate the prediction of disease recurrence in prostate cancer (PCa) may enable physicians to personalize treatment for individual patients. In the current study, PD-1 (PDCD1) promoter methylation was assessed in a cohort of 498 PCa patients included in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and a second cohort of 300 PCa cases treated at the University Hospital of Bonn. In the TCGA cohort, the PD-1 promoter was significantly hypermethylated in carcinomas versus normal prostatic epithelium (55.5% vs. 38.2%, p < 0.001) and PD-1 methylation (mPD-1) inversely correlated with PD-1 mRNA expression in PCa (Spearman's ρ = -0.415, p < 0.001). In both cohorts, mPD-1 significantly correlated with preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA). In univariate Cox Proportional Hazard analysis, mPD-1 served as a significant prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival (Hazard ratio: HR = 2.35 [1.35-4.10], p = 0.003, n = 410) in the TCGA cohort. In multivariate analysis, mPD-1 was shown to add significant independent prognostic information adjunct to pathologic tumor category (pT) and Gleason grading group (HR = 2.08 [1.16-3.74], p = 0.014, n = 350). PD-1 promoter methylation analyses could thus potentially aid the identification of patients which might benefit from adjuvant treatment after radical prostatectomy. Moreover, our data suggest an intrinsic role of PD-1 in PCa carcinogenesis and disease progression, which needs to be addressed in future studies.

  16. Comparison Of Digital Radiographic Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yen

    1986-06-01

    A total PACS will be inevitable for radiology practice within several years. To achieve a total PACS for radiology, a satisfactory digital radiographic unit is required, because approximately 65% of digital data for PACS comes from digital radiographs. There are several possibilities for producing digital radiographs, and 3 - 4 companies have been marketing digital radiographic devices. Some data regarding the digital radiographic units on the market are compared. It will aid in assessing the current status and availability of this aspect of development, as well as providing a summary of further development of digital radiographic technology.

  17. Neutron radiographic viewing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leysath, W.; Brown, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Neutron radiographic viewing system consisting of camera head and control processor is developed for use in nondestructive testing applications. Camera head consists of neutron-sensitive image intensifier system, power supply, and SEC vidicon camera head. Both systems, with their optics, are housed on test mount.

  18. The radiographic union scale in tibial (RUST) fractures

    PubMed Central

    Clement, N. D.; Tawonsawatruk, T.; Simpson, C. J.; Simpson, A. H. R. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The radiographic union score for tibial (RUST) fractures was developed by Whelan et al to assess the healing of tibial fractures following intramedullary nailing. In the current study, the repeatability and reliability of the RUST score was evaluated in an independent centre (a) using the original description, (b) after further interpretation of the description of the score, and (c) with the immediate post-operative radiograph available for comparison. Methods A total of 15 radiographs of tibial shaft fractures treated by intramedullary nailing (IM) were scored by three observers using the RUST system. Following discussion on how the criteria of the RUST system should be implemented, 45 sets (i.e. AP and lateral) of radiographs of IM nailed tibial fractures were scored by five observers. Finally, these 45 sets of radiographs were rescored with the baseline post-operative radiograph available for comparison. Results The initial intraclass correlation (ICC) on the first 15 sets of radiographs was 0.67 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.71). However, the original description was being interpreted in different ways. After agreeing on the interpretation, the ICC on the second cohort improved to 0.75. The ICC improved even further to 0.79, when the baseline post-operative radiographs were available for comparison. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the RUST scoring system is a reliable and repeatable outcome measure for assessing tibial fracture healing. Further improvement in the reliability of the scoring system can be obtained if the radiographs are compared with the baseline post-operative radiographs. Cite this article: Mr J.M. Leow. The radiographic union scale in tibial (RUST) fractures: Reliability of the outcome measure at an independent centre. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:116–121. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000628. PMID:27073210

  19. Analysis of local chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate combined with systemic inflammation improves prognostication in stage II colon cancer independent of standard clinicopathologic criteria.

    PubMed

    Turner, Natalie; Wong, Hui-Li; Templeton, Arnoud; Tripathy, Sagarika; Whiti Rogers, Te; Croxford, Matthew; Jones, Ian; Sinnathamby, Mathuranthakan; Desai, Jayesh; Tie, Jeanne; Bae, Susie; Christie, Michael; Gibbs, Peter; Tran, Ben

    2016-02-01

    In Stage II colon cancer, multiple independent studies have shown that a dense intratumoural immune infiltrate (local inflammation) is associated with improved outcomes, while systemic inflammation, measured by various markers, has been associated with poorer outcomes. However, previous studies have not considered the interaction between local and systemic inflammation, nor have they assessed the type of inflammatory response compared with standard clinicopathologic criteria. In order to evaluate the potential clinical utility of inflammatory markers in Stage II colon cancer, we examined local and systemic inflammation in a consecutive series of patients with resected Stage II colon cancer between 2000 and 2010 who were identified from a prospective clinical database. Increased intratumoural chronic inflammatory cell (CIC) density, as assessed by pathologist review of hematoxylin and eosin stained slides, was used to represent local inflammation. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) >5, as calculated from pre-operative full blood counts, was used to represent systemic inflammation. In 396 eligible patients identified, there was a non-significant inverse relationship between local and systemic inflammation. Increased CIC density was significantly associated with improved overall (HR 0.45, p = 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (HR 0.37, p = 0.003). High NLR was significantly associated with poorer overall survival (HR 2.56, p < 0.001). The combination of these markers further stratified prognosis independent of standard high-risk criteria, with a dominant systemic inflammatory response (low CIC/high NLR) associated with the worst outcome (5-year overall survival 55.8%). With further validation this simple, inexpensive combined inflammatory biomarker might assist in patient selection for adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage II colon cancer.

  20. Total Gross Tumor Volume Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients Treated With Selective Nodal Irradiation for Stage I to III Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Reymen, Bart; Van Loon, Judith; Baardwijk, Angela van; Wanders, Rinus; Borger, Jacques; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Bootsma, Gerben; Pitz, Cordula; Lunde, Ragnar; Geraedts, Wiel; Lambin, Philippe; De Ruysscher, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: In non-small cell lung cancer, gross tumor volume (GTV) influences survival more than other risk factors. This could also apply to small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Analysis of our prospective database with stage I to III SCLC patients referred for concurrent chemo radiation therapy. Standard treatment was 45 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions twice daily concurrently with carboplatin-etoposide, followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in case of non-progression. Only fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)-positive or pathologically proven nodal sites were included in the target volume. Total GTV consisted of post chemotherapy tumor volume and pre chemotherapy nodal volume. Survival was calculated from diagnosis (Kaplan-Meier ). Results: A total of 119 patients were included between May 2004 and June 2009. Median total GTV was 93 ± 152 cc (7.5-895 cc). Isolated elective nodal failure occurred in 2 patients (1.7%). Median follow-up was 38 months, median overall survival 20 months (95% confidence interval = 17.8-22.1 months), and 2-year survival 38.4%. In multivariate analysis, only total GTV (P=.026) and performance status (P=.016) significantly influenced survival. Conclusions: In this series of stage I to III small cell lung cancer patients treated with FDG-PET-based selective nodal irradiation total GTV is an independent risk factor for survival.

  1. Progression of localised Wilms' tumour during preoperative chemotherapy is an independent prognostic factor: a report from the SIOP 93-01 nephroblastoma trial and study.

    PubMed

    Ora, Ingrid; van Tinteren, Harm; Bergeron, Christophe; de Kraker, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The SIOP nephroblastoma clinical trials have previously demonstrated that preoperative chemotherapy is advantageous for patients with nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumour). However, some primary tumours increase in size during preoperative chemotherapy, and to investigate the clinical relevance of this progression we studied the patient cohort with increasing tumours included in the SIOP 93-01 study (June 1993 to June 2000). Patients were considered eligible if they had a confirmed localised Wilms' tumour that had been measured in at least two dimensions at diagnosis and before surgery. Tumour response to preoperative chemotherapy was defined according to criteria set by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Patient characteristics in the different response groups were compared and related to event-free survival and overall survival. Patient records were studied regarding compliance with protocol. Tumour progression during preoperative chemotherapy was observed in 57 of 1090 patients (5%) with localised Wilms' tumours. In those cases, the tumours were significantly smaller at diagnosis and were more often stage III (p=0.05) and associated with high risk histopathology (p=0.03). After adjustment for stage and risk group, progression was proved to be correlated with poorer event-free and overall survival (hazard ratio 1.9, p=0.026 and 3.2, p=0.002 respectively). In summary, progression of localised Wilms' tumours is rarely seen in patients during preoperative chemotherapy. However, independent of stage distribution and histopathological risk group, those whose tumours do increase in size have poorer event-free and overall survival.

  2. Reestablishment of radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzer dogs

    PubMed Central

    SOHN, Jungmin; YUN, Sookyung; LEE, Jeosoon; CHANG, Dongwoo; CHOI, Mincheol; YOON, Junghee

    2016-01-01

    Kidney size may be altered in renal diseases, and the detection of kidney size alteration has diagnostic and prognostic values. We hypothesized that radiographic kidney size, the kidney length to the second lumbar vertebra (L2) length ratio, in normal Miniature Schnauzer dogs may be overestimated due to their shorter vertebral length. This study was conducted to evaluate radiographic and ultrasonographic kidney size and L2 length in clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers and other dog breeds to evaluate the effect of vertebral length on radiographic kidney size and to reestablish radiographic kidney size in normal Miniature Schnauzers. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasonograms from 49 Miniature Schnauzers and 54 other breeds without clinical evidence of renal disease and lumbar vertebral abnormality were retrospectively evaluated. Radiographic kidney size, in the Miniature Schnauzer (3.31 ± 0.26) was significantly larger than that in other breeds (2.94 ± 0.27). Relative L2 length, the L2 length to width ratio, in the Miniature Schnauzer (1.11 ± 0.06) was significantly shorter than that in other breeds (1.21 ± 0.09). However, ultrasonographic kidney sizes, kidney length to aorta diameter ratios, were within or very close to normal range both in the Miniature Schnauzer (6.75 ± 0.67) and other breeds (7.16 ± 1.01). Thus, Miniature Schnauzer dogs have breed-specific short vertebrae and consequently a larger radiographic kidney size, which was greater than standard reference in normal adult dogs. Care should be taken when evaluating radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzers to prevent falsely diagnosed renomegaly. PMID:27594274

  3. DARHT Radiographic Grid Scale Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Warthen, Barry J.

    2015-02-13

    Recently it became apparent that the radiographic grid which has been used to calibrate the dimensional scale of DARHT radiographs was not centered at the location where the objects have been centered. This offset produced an error of 0.188% in the dimensional scaling of the radiographic images processed using the assumption that the grid and objects had the same center. This paper will show the derivation of the scaling correction, explain how new radiographs are being processed to account for the difference in location, and provide the details of how to correct radiographic image processed with the erroneous scale factor.

  4. Distributed Prognostics based on Structural Model Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, I.

    2014-01-01

    Within systems health management, prognostics focuses on predicting the remaining useful life of a system. In the model-based prognostics paradigm, physics-based models are constructed that describe the operation of a system and how it fails. Such approaches consist of an estimation phase, in which the health state of the system is first identified, and a prediction phase, in which the health state is projected forward in time to determine the end of life. Centralized solutions to these problems are often computationally expensive, do not scale well as the size of the system grows, and introduce a single point of failure. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed model-based prognostics scheme that formally describes how to decompose both the estimation and prediction problems into independent local subproblems whose solutions may be easily composed into a global solution. The decomposition of the prognostics problem is achieved through structural decomposition of the underlying models. The decomposition algorithm creates from the global system model a set of local submodels suitable for prognostics. Independent local estimation and prediction problems are formed based on these local submodels, resulting in a scalable distributed prognostics approach that allows the local subproblems to be solved in parallel, thus offering increases in computational efficiency. Using a centrifugal pump as a case study, we perform a number of simulation-based experiments to demonstrate the distributed approach, compare the performance with a centralized approach, and establish its scalability. Index Terms-model-based prognostics, distributed prognostics, structural model decomposition ABBREVIATIONS

  5. Predictive factors for re-displacement in diaphyseal forearm fractures in children—role of radiographic indices

    PubMed Central

    Asadollahi, Shadi; Pourali, Masoumeh; Heidari, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — Manipulation and cast immobilization is the primary management for diaphyseal forearm fractures in children, and re-displacement is the most common complication. We wanted (1) to analyze the incidence of re-displacement in a group of children treated with close reduction and casting; (2) to determine predictive factors such as demographics, mechanism of injury, affected bone, fracture pattern, degree of initial displacement and angulation, and reduction accuracy; and (3) to determine the prognostic effect of previously defined radiographic indices. Patients and methods — We prospectively studied 269 consecutive children with closed and complete middle-third diaphyseal fractures treated with close reduction and casting from October 2014 to April 2015. Factors analyzed included demographics, initial fracture features, having a non-anatomical reduction, and the radiographic indices of cast quality. Results — There were 189 fractures of both bones (70%) and 80 solitary fractures (30%). The overall re-displacement rate was 11%. According to multivariable analysis, independent predictors of re-displacement were initial angulation >10° (RR =5) and failure to achieve an anatomical reduction (RR =2). Statistically significant radiographic indices regarding increased rate of re-displacement included cast index ≥0.7 (RR =5), Canterbury index ≥1.1 (RR =3), and 3-point index ≥0.8 (RR =6). Interpretation — Our results suggested that fractures with a higher degree of initial angulation and non-anatomical reduction more often result in re-displacement. Moreover, the casting quality examined with the radiographic indices played an important role in the success of a non-operative management. PMID:27841692

  6. Predictive factors for re-displacement in diaphyseal forearm fractures in children-role of radiographic indices.

    PubMed

    Asadollahi, Shadi; Pourali, Masoumeh; Heidari, Kamran

    2017-02-01

    Background and purpose - Manipulation and cast immobilization is the primary management for diaphyseal forearm fractures in children, and re-displacement is the most common complication. We wanted (1) to analyze the incidence of re-displacement in a group of children treated with close reduction and casting; (2) to determine predictive factors such as demographics, mechanism of injury, affected bone, fracture pattern, degree of initial displacement and angulation, and reduction accuracy; and (3) to determine the prognostic effect of previously defined radiographic indices. Patients and methods - We prospectively studied 269 consecutive children with closed and complete middle-third diaphyseal fractures treated with close reduction and casting from October 2014 to April 2015. Factors analyzed included demographics, initial fracture features, having a non-anatomical reduction, and the radiographic indices of cast quality. Results - There were 189 fractures of both bones (70%) and 80 solitary fractures (30%). The overall re-displacement rate was 11%. According to multivariable analysis, independent predictors of re-displacement were initial angulation >10° (RR =5) and failure to achieve an anatomical reduction (RR =2). Statistically significant radiographic indices regarding increased rate of re-displacement included cast index ≥0.7 (RR =5), Canterbury index ≥1.1 (RR =3), and 3-point index ≥0.8 (RR =6). Interpretation - Our results suggested that fractures with a higher degree of initial angulation and non-anatomical reduction more often result in re-displacement. Moreover, the casting quality examined with the radiographic indices played an important role in the success of a non-operative management.

  7. Computer enhancement of radiographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekaney, A.; Keane, J.; Desautels, J.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of three relevant noise processes and the image degradation associated with Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) X-ray/scanning system was conducted for application to computer enhancement of radiographs using MSFC's digital filtering techniques. Graininess of type M, R single coat and R double coat X-ray films was quantified as a function of density level using root-mean-square (RMS) granularity. Quantum mottle (including film grain) was quantified as a function of the above film types, exposure level, specimen material and thickness, and film density using RMS granularity and power spectral density (PSD). For various neutral-density levels the scanning device used in digital conversion of radiographs was examined for noise characteristics which were quantified by RMS granularity and PSD. Image degradation of the entire pre-enhancement system (MG-150 X-ray device; film; and optronics scanner) was measured using edge targets to generate modulation transfer functions (MTF). The four parameters were examined as a function of scanning aperture sizes of approximately 12.5 25 and 50 microns.

  8. Textbook of radiographic science

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    This book has been written to provide an outline of scientific background of specialized radiologic procedures for candidates studying for the higher examination of the College of Radiographers (United Kingdom). The book contains nine chapters on various areas such as emergency/trauma; pediatrics; neurologic, angiographic, and urodynamic studies; and a final chapter on research. An index concludes the book. Information on historical and scientific procedural background, equipment, anatomic and pathologic correlates, and positioning of the patient is organized and presented. Scientific data are inserted in the text where appropriate. Metrizamide is given an extensive write-up as the contrast medium of choice for imaging of the spinal cord and is said to be ''less toxic than other forms of water-soluble contrast.''

  9. Dynamic Radiographic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, A.; Turley, D.; Veeser, L.; Lukyanov, N.; Yegorov, N.; Baker, S.A.; Mirenko, V.; Lewis, W.; Kuropatkin, Y.

    1999-06-01

    A radiographic system recently developed by American and Russian collaborators is designed to capture multiple images of a dynamic event lasting less than 10 microseconds. Various optical and electro-optical components were considered and their performance compared. The final system employed a solid crystal of lutetium oxyorthosilicate doped with cerium (LSO:Ce or LSO) for X-ray-to-light conversion with a coherent fiber optic bundle to relay the scintillator image to a streak camera with charge coupled device (CCD) readout. Resolution and sensitivity studies were carried out for this system on two different sources of X-rays: a 20 MeV microtron and a 70 MeV betatron.

  10. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back Pain? Other Reasons for Having an X-ray What ... rays? What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the use of X-rays to determine ...

  11. Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-05-01

    Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.

  12. A Distributed Approach to System-Level Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics, which deals with predicting remaining useful life of components, subsystems, and systems, is a key technology for systems health management that leads to improved safety and reliability with reduced costs. The prognostics problem is often approached from a component-centric view. However, in most cases, it is not specifically component lifetimes that are important, but, rather, the lifetimes of the systems in which these components reside. The system-level prognostics problem can be quite difficult due to the increased scale and scope of the prognostics problem and the relative Jack of scalability and efficiency of typical prognostics approaches. In order to address these is ues, we develop a distributed solution to the system-level prognostics problem, based on the concept of structural model decomposition. The system model is decomposed into independent submodels. Independent local prognostics subproblems are then formed based on these local submodels, resul ting in a scalable, efficient, and flexible distributed approach to the system-level prognostics problem. We provide a formulation of the system-level prognostics problem and demonstrate the approach on a four-wheeled rover simulation testbed. The results show that the system-level prognostics problem can be accurately and efficiently solved in a distributed fashion.

  13. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  14. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Earl V.; Foster, Billy E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

  15. Radiographic findings in liveborn triploidy.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K G; Houston, C S; Newman, D E; Wood, B J

    1989-01-01

    The detailed radiographic features of triploidy, a fatal congenital disorder with 69 chromosomes, have not previously been reported. Radiographs of ten liveborn infants with chromosomally confirmed triploidy showed six findings highly suggestive of this diagnosis: harlequin orbits, small anterior fontanelle, gracile ribs, diaphyseal overtubulation of long bones, upswept clavicles and antimongoloid pelvis. Sixteen other less specific findings showed many similarities to those found in trisomy 18.

  16. Prognostics for Microgrid Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics is the science of predicting future performance and potential failures based on targeted condition monitoring. Moving away from the traditional reliability centric view, prognostics aims at detecting and quantifying the time to impending failures. This advance warning provides the opportunity to take actions that can preserve uptime, reduce cost of damage, or extend the life of the component. The talk will focus on the concepts and basics of prognostics from the viewpoint of condition-based systems health management. Differences with other techniques used in systems health management and philosophies of prognostics used in other domains will be shown. Examples relevant to micro grid systems and subsystems will be used to illustrate various types of prediction scenarios and the resources it take to set up a desired prognostic system. Specifically, the implementation results for power storage and power semiconductor components will demonstrate specific solution approaches of prognostics. The role of constituent elements of prognostics, such as model, prediction algorithms, failure threshold, run-to-failure data, requirements and specifications, and post-prognostic reasoning will be explained. A discussion on performance evaluation and performance metrics will conclude the technical discussion followed by general comments on open research problems and challenges in prognostics.

  17. Acid corrosive esophagitis: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Muhletaler, C A; Gerlock, A J; de Soto, L; Halter, S A

    1980-06-01

    Thirty-nine esophagograms of 24 patients after ingestion of muriatic acid (27% HCI) in suicide attempts were reviewed. All esophagograms were obtained in the acute, subacute, and chronic phases. In the acute and subacute phases, the radiographic findings consisted of mucosal edema, submucosal edema or hemorrhage, ulcerations, sloughing of the mucosa, atony, and dilatation. Strictures of the esophagus were present in the chronic phase. These radiographic findings were not different from those found in alkaline corrosive esophagitis. The severity of the corrosive esophagitis is considered related to the concentration, amount, viscosity, and duration of contact between the caustic agent and the esophageal mucosa.

  18. Tonsillolith: a panoramic radiograph presentation.

    PubMed

    Babu B, Balaji; Tejasvi M L, Avinash; Avinash, C K Anulekha; B, Chittaranjan

    2013-10-01

    Tonsilloliths are calcifications within a tonsillar crypt, involve primarily the palatine tonsil caused by dystrophic calcification as a result of chronic inflammation. Tonsilloliths are very uncommon and are microscopic. Tonsillar concretions sometimes produce symptoms which include non-specific chronic halitosis, irritable cough, dysphagia, otalgia and foreign body-like sensation or foul taste. Patients with tonsillolithiasis may also be asymptomatic, with their lesions being discovered incidentally on panoramic radiographs. This article presents an unusual case of multiple bilateral and asymptomatic tonsilloliths which were found during a routine panoramic radiographic examination.

  19. Toward IVHM Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Kevin; Venti, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the prognostics of Integrated Vehicle Health Management. The contents include: 1) Aircraft Operations-Today's way of doing business; 2) Prognostics; 3) NASA's instrumentation data-system rack; 4) Data mining for IVHM; 5) NASA GRC's C-MAPSS generic engine model; and 6) Concluding thoughts.

  20. Prognostic factors in cancer.

    PubMed

    Gospodarowicz, Mary; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment are the three core elements of the art of medicine. Modern medicine pays more attention to diagnosis and treatment but prognosis has been a part of the practice of medicine much longer than diagnosis. Cancer is a heterogeneous group of disease characterized by growth, invasion and metastasis. To plan the management of an individual cancer patient, the fundamental knowledge base includes the site of origin of the cancer, its morphologic type, and the prognostic factors specific to that particular patient and cancer. Most prognostic factors literature describes those factors that directly relate to the tumor itself. However, many other factors, not directly related to the tumor, also affect the outcome. To comprehensively represent these factors we propose three broad groupings of prognostic factors: 'tumor'-related prognostic factors, 'host'-related prognostic factors, and 'environment'-related prognostic factors. Some prognostic factors are essential to decisions about the goals and choice treatment, while others are less relevant for these purposes. To guide the use of various prognostic factors we have proposed a grouping of factors based on their relevance in everyday practice; these comprise 'essential,' 'additional,' and 'new and promising factors.' The availability of a comprehensive classification of prognostic factors assures an ordered and deliberate approach to the subject and provide safeguard against skewed approaches that may ignore large parts of the field. The current attention to tumor factors has diminished the importance of 'patient' (i.e., 'host'), and almost completely overshadows the importance of the 'environment'. This ignores the fact that the latter presents the greatest potential for immediate impact. The acceptance of a generic prognostic factor classification would facilitate communication and education about this most important subject in oncology.

  1. Reference for radiographic film interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Reference of X-ray film images provides examples of weld defects, film quality, stainless steel welded tubing, and acceptable weld conditions. A summary sheet details the discrepancies shown on the film strip. This reference aids in interpreting and evaluating radiographic film of weldments.

  2. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A; Varma, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings.

  3. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A.; Varma, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings. PMID:27186241

  4. Improved radiographic image amplifier panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L., Sr.

    1968-01-01

    Layered image amplifier for radiographic /X ray and gamma ray/ applications, combines very high radiation sensitivity with fast image buildup and erasure capabilities by adding a layer of material that is both photoconductive and light-emitting to basic image amplifier and cascading this assembly with a modified Thorne panel.

  5. Chemical intensification of dental radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C.

    1983-04-01

    The potential applications of chemical intensification in dental radiography are explored. Three standard photographic intensifiers and three methods designed for radiographic use are evaluated. One of these methods is shown to be capable of reducing radiation dose to one half, without loss of diagnostic quality. Further work is necessary to achieve a system sufficiently practicable to deserve widespread use in routine clinical dental radiography.

  6. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or...

  11. Radiographic techniques for investigating cereal grains

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    Radiographic examination of cereal grain can determine nondestructively the presence of internal structural damage and other defects, which can be correlated to associated problems such as disease and infestation. Radiographs of several representative grains demonstrate the capabilities of the radiographic technique to detect structural deviations in the grains.

  12. HADES, A Radiographic Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M.B.; Slone, D.M.; Schach von Wittenau, A.E.

    2000-08-18

    We describe features of the HADES radiographic simulation code. We begin with a discussion of why it is useful to simulate transmission radiography. The capabilities of HADES are described, followed by an application of HADES to a dynamic experiment recently performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. We describe quantitative comparisons between experimental data and HADES simulations using a copper step wedge. We conclude with a short discussion of future work planned for HADES.

  13. Non-Radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Slobodin, Gleb; Eshed, Iris

    2015-12-01

    The term non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nrAxSpA) was coined for patients who have a clinical picture of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) but do not exhibit radiographic sacroiliitis. The ASAS classification criteria for nrAxSpA, ensuring the recruitment of homogenous study cohorts, were accepted in 2009, although the respective diagnostic criteria for daily clinical practice have not yet been developed. The clinical diagnosis should be based on the composite of clinical symptoms and signs of the disease, HLA B27 status, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of sacroiliac joints. Notably, a negative MRI or HLA B27 does not exclude the diagnosis in patients with a high clinical suspicion for nrAxSpA. The prevalence of nrAxSpA is similar to that of AS, but the former has a higher female preponderance. The rate of progression of nrAxSpA to the radiographic stage of disease (AS) ranges from 10% to 20% over 2 years. Current treatment strategies for nrAxSpA are the same as for AS and include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. While this review summarizes the current achievements in the field of nrAxSpA, further understanding of the epidemiology and natural history of the disease and, particularly, mechanisms of inflammation and subsequent new bone formation is essential for the development of new treatment strategies for nrAxSpA patients.

  14. No prognostic value added by vitamin D pathway SNPs to current prognostic system for melanoma survival

    PubMed Central

    Orlow, Irene; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Fang, Shenying; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Berwick, Marianne; Lee, Ji-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The prognostic improvement attributed to genetic markers over current prognostic system has not been well studied for melanoma. The goal of this study is to evaluate the added prognostic value of Vitamin D Pathway (VitD) SNPs to currently known clinical and demographic factors such as age, sex, Breslow thickness, mitosis and ulceration (CDF). We utilized two large independent well-characterized melanoma studies: the Genes, Environment, and Melanoma (GEM) and MD Anderson studies, and performed variable selection of VitD pathway SNPs and CDF using Random Survival Forest (RSF) method in addition to Cox proportional hazards models. The Harrell’s C-index was used to compare the performance of model predictability. The population-based GEM study enrolled 3,578 incident cases of cutaneous melanoma (CM), and the hospital-based MD Anderson study consisted of 1,804 CM patients. Including both VitD SNPs and CDF yielded C-index of 0.85, which provided slight but not significant improvement by CDF alone (C-index = 0.83) in the GEM study. Similar results were observed in the independent MD Anderson study (C-index = 0.84 and 0.83, respectively). The Cox model identified no significant associations after adjusting for multiplicity. Our results do not support clinically significant prognostic improvements attributable to VitD pathway SNPs over current prognostic system for melanoma survival. PMID:28323902

  15. Immunohistochemical distinction of metastases of renal cell carcinoma with molecular analysis of overexpression of the chemokines CXCR2 and CXCR3 as independent positive prognostic factors for the tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Rezakhaniha, Bijan; Dormanesh, Banafshe; Pirasteh, Hamid; Yahaghi, Emad; Masoumi, Babak; Ziari, Katayoun; Rahmani, Omid

    2016-08-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents, on average, over 90% of all malignancies of the kidney that occur in adults in both sexes. Chemokine receptors expression has been found in many kinds of cancer and at tumor metastasis site. We determined CXCR2 and CXCR3 expression in RCC by immunohistochemistry method and analyzed the prognostic value of these markers. Our finding demonstrated that CXCR3 were highly overexpressed in renal cancer tissues compared with those adjacent normal kidney tissues (P < 0.001). The results showed that high expression of CXCR3 was markedly correlated with metastasis (P = 0.021) and tumor stage (P = 0.031). CXCR2 were overexpressed in renal cancer tissues compared with those adjacent normal kidney tissues (P < 0.001). Our result showed that CXCR2 expression was correlated with high grade (P = 0.024), advanced stage (P = 0.029) and metastasis (P = 0.018). The log-rank test revealed that high CXCR2 and CXCR3 expressions are related to poorer overall survival (P < 0.001; P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study indicates the correlation of CXCR3 and CXCR3 with progression of RCC. In addition, high CXCR3 andCXCR2 expressions were correlated with shorter overall survival. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(8):629-633, 2016.

  16. Radiographic abnormalities and mortality in subjects with exposure to crocidolite.

    PubMed Central

    de Klerk, N H; Musk, A W; Cookson, W O; Glancy, J J; Hobbs, M S

    1993-01-01

    Plain chest radiographs from a one in six random sample of the workforce of the asbestos industry at Wittenoom, Western Australia between 1943 and 1966 have been classified for degree of profusion and pleural thickening by two independent observers according to the 1980 UICC-ILO Classification of Radiographs for the pneumoconioses to clarify the effect of degree of radiological abnormality on survival. A total of 1106 subjects were selected. Each subject's age, cumulative exposure to crocidolite, and time since first exposure were determined from employment records, the results of a survey of airborne concentrations of fibres > 5 mu in length conducted in 1966, and an exposure rating by an industrial hygienist and an ex-manager of the mine and mill at Wittenoom. By the end of 1986 193 subjects had died. Conditional logistic regression was used to model the relative risk of death in five separate case-control analyses in which the outcomes were deaths from: (1) all causes, (2) malignant mesothelioma, (3) lung cancer, (4) asbestosis, and (5) other causes excluding cancer and asbestosis. Up to 20 controls per case were randomly chosen from all men of the same age who were not known to have died before the date of death of the index case. After adjustment for exposure and time since first exposure, there were significant and independent effects of radiographic profusion and pleural thickening on all cause mortality. The effect of profusion was largely a result of the effect on mortality from malignant mesothelioma and asbestosis but not lung cancer. The effect of pleural thickening was greatest on mortality from other causes, mainly ischaemic heart disease. This study has shown that degree of radiographic abnormality has an independent effect on mortality from malignant mesothelioma, asbestosis, and all causes even after allowing for the effects of age, degree of exposure, and time since first exposure. PMID:8217849

  17. Material identification with multichannel radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Noelle; Jimenez, Edward S.; Thompson, Kyle R.

    2017-02-01

    This work aims to validate previous exploratory work done to characterize materials by matching their attenuation profiles using a multichannel radiograph given an initial energy spectrum. The experiment was performed in order to evaluate the effects of noise on the resulting attenuation profiles, which was ignored in simulation. Spectrum measurements have also been collected from various materials of interest. Additionally, a MATLAB optimization algorithm has been applied to these candidate spectrum measurements in order to extract an estimate of the attenuation profile. Being able to characterize materials through this nondestructive method has an extensive range of applications for a wide variety of fields, including quality assessment, industry, and national security.

  18. Prognostics of Power MOSFET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose Ramon; Saxena, Abhinav; Vashchenko, Vladislay; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how to apply prognostics to power MOSFETs (metal oxide field effect transistor). The methodology uses thermal cycling to age devices and Gaussian process regression to perform prognostics. The approach is validated with experiments on 100V power MOSFETs. The failure mechanism for the stress conditions is determined to be die-attachment degradation. Change in ON-state resistance is used as a precursor of failure due to its dependence on junction temperature. The experimental data is augmented with a finite element analysis simulation that is based on a two-transistor model. The simulation assists in the interpretation of the degradation phenomena and SOA (safe operation area) change.

  19. Early radiographic changes in radiation bone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, M.; Tanimoto, K.; Wada, T.

    1986-06-01

    A chronologic series of periapical radiographs was evaluated for the purpose of detecting damage to bone and tooth-supporting tissues in a patient receiving radiation therapy for a basal cell carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva. Widening of the periodontal space was one of the early radiographic changes observed. It is suggested, from the sequence of radiographic changes, that radiation-induced changed in the circulatory system of the bone might be primarily responsible for the resulting changes.

  20. Observer POD for radiographic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kanzler, Daniel E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de Ewert, Uwe E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de Müller, Christina E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de; Pitkänen, Jorma

    2015-03-31

    The radiographic testing (RT) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method capable of finding volumetric and open planar defects depending on their orientation. The radiographic contrast is higher for larger penetrated length of the defect in a component. Even though, the detectability of defects does not only depend on the contrast, but also on the noise, the defect area and the geometry of the defect. The currently applied Probability of Detection (POD) approach uses a detection threshold that is only based on a constant noise level or on a constant contrast threshold. This does not reflect accurately the results of evaluations by human observers. A new approach is introduced, using the widely applied POD evaluation and additionally a detection threshold depending on the lateral area and shape of the indication. This work shows the process of calculating the POD curves with simulated data by the modeling software aRTist and with artificial reference data of different defect types, such as ASTM E 476 EPS plates, flat bottom holes and notches. Additional experiments with different operators confirm that the depth of a defect, the lateral area and shape of its indication contribute with different weight to the detectability of the defect if evaluated by human operators on monitors.

  1. DIGITAL SPALL RADIOGRAPH ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    CURTIS L. HARRIS - LATA

    1990-01-01

    This report describes progress on work to develop a cost effective, rapid response system for measuring Technology Assessment National Laboratory. momentum and kinetic energy of span for the Advanced Center (ATAC) Armor/Anti-Armor (As) program at Los Alamos The system will exploit data contained in two sets of simultaneous co-planar flash radiographs taken along the center line of anticipated span motion. Data contained in each set (which is proportional to the mass and z-number of the span material intersected by the exposing x-ray at each point) is digitized and used to construct a three dimensional model (called the reconstructed span image) that approximates the original span cloud. From the model the mass of span fragments is computed. The two sets of radiographs, separated in time, represent the span configuration at two instants of time. Span fragments from the first instant are matched with those from the second instant to determine velocity. Evaluation of the fidelity of candidate reconstruction algorithms is the highest priority task in. this development program for the obvious reason that the efficacy of the projected span analysis system depends upon the fidelity of the reconstruction techniques.

  2. Digital processing of radiographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Some techniques are presented and the software documentation for the digital enhancement of radiographs. Both image handling and image processing operations are considered. The image handling operations dealt with are: (1) conversion of format of data from packed to unpacked and vice versa; (2) automatic extraction of image data arrays; (3) transposition and 90 deg rotations of large data arrays; (4) translation of data arrays for registration; and (5) reduction of the dimensions of data arrays by integral factors. Both the frequency and the spatial domain approaches are presented for the design and implementation of the image processing operation. It is shown that spatial domain recursive implementation of filters is much faster than nonrecursive implementations using fast fourier transforms (FFT) for the cases of interest in this work. The recursive implementation of a class of matched filters for enhancing image signal to noise ratio is described. Test patterns are used to illustrate the filtering operations. The application of the techniques to radiographic images of metallic structures is demonstrated through several examples.

  3. Baseline Cardiopulmonary Function as an Independent Prognostic Factor for Survival of Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Single-Center Analysis of 161 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Semrau, Sabine; Klautke, Gunther; Fietkau, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the effects of cardiopulmonary function on the prognosis of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of the effects of tumor- and patient-related factors and parameters of cardiopulmonary function and heart morphology on the feasibility, toxicity, and prognosis was performed. Results: Cardiopulmonary function had no effect on the toxicity or feasibility of treatment; effects on survival were observed in the univariate analysis. Median survival varied as follows: cardiac function: 13.0 {+-} 1.6 months for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) > 50% vs. 10.0 {+-} 1.9 months for LVEF {<=} 50% (p = 0.003); pulmonary function: 16.0 {+-} 0.6 months for no lung function deficits (vital capacity [VC]{>=} 60%, forced expiratory volume in 1 s {>=} 80%, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) {>=}60%) vs. 14.0 {+-} 1.5 months for one or two function deficits vs. 8.0 {+-} 1.5 months for three lung function deficits (p = 0.001); T stage: 19.0 {+-} 3.1 months for rcT0/cT1/cT2 vs. 12.0 {+-} 0.8 months for cT3/cT4 (p = 0.039); and age: 11.0 {+-} 1.5 months for <60 years vs. 18.0 {+-} 2.5 months for 60-69 years vs. 12.0 {+-} 1.2 months for {>=}70 years (p = 0.008). Prognostic factors identified in the multivariate analysis were LVEF {<=}50% (p = 0.043; hazard ratio [HR], 1.74), reduced pulmonary function (p = 0.001; HR, 1.71 or 5.05) and T stage (p = 0.026; HR: 1.71). Conclusions: In addition to T-stage, cardiac and pulmonary function variables affected the survival of non-small-cell lung cancer patients after chemoradiotherapy.

  4. Prognostic value of preoperative serum lactate dehydrogenase levels for resectable gastric cancer and prognostic nomograms

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi-Xin; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Feng-Hua; Li, Yu-Hong; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative serum lactate dehydrogenase (SLDH) levels for resected gastric cancer and construct prognostic nomograms for risk prediction. The study cohort consisted of 619 patients with D2-resected gastric cancer. The relationship of SLDH levels with clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes was evaluated. Prognostic nomograms were created using identified prognosticators to predict 3-year overall survival (OS) and 3-year disease-free survival (DFS), and bootstrap validation was performed. High SLDH levels were correlated with old age but not depth of invasion or lymph node metastasis. When assessed as a continuous variable, high SLDH levels were independently associated with poor OS and DFS. Internal validation of the developed nomograms revealed good predictive accuracy (bootstrap-corrected concordance indices: 0.77 and 0.75, respectively for prediction of OS and DFS). The preoperative SLDH levels, an identified unfavorable prognosticator, were incorporated into nomograms along with other clinicopathological features to refine the prediction of clinical outcomes for patients with D2-resected gastric cancer. PMID:27223065

  5. Radiographical evaluation of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Parakkal; Bruining, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiographical modalities have become important diagnostic tools in cases of ulcerative colitis (UC). Imaging can be used non-invasively to determine the extent of involvement, severity of disease and to detect disease-related complications and extra-intestinal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) manifestations. While abdominal X-rays and barium enemas still retain their relevance in specific clinical settings, the use of computed tomography enterography (CTE) or magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) are now used as first-line investigations to exclude active small bowel disease in IBD patients and can be utilized to detect active colonic inflammation. Additionally, CT colonography and MR colonography are emerging techniques with potential applications in UC. Ultrasonography, leukocyte scintigraphy and positron emission tomography are novel abdominal imaging modalities currently being explored for IBD interrogations. This plethora of radiological imaging options has become a vital component of UC assessments. PMID:24843072

  6. Prognostic impact of stress testing in coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Severi, S.; Michelassi, C. )

    1991-05-01

    Observational data prospectively collected permit the examination of a complex set of decisions, including the decision not to perform any stress testing. Patients with or without previous myocardial infarction admitted for coronary evaluation and not submitted to any stress testing because of clinical reasons are at a higher risk for subsequent death. For prognostication, no test has been better validated than exercise electrocardiography: it can identify patients at low and high risk for future cardiac events among those without symptoms, with typical chest pain, and with previous myocardial infarction. In patients with triple-vessel disease, the results of exercise also allow those at low and high risk to be recognized. Both exercise radionuclide angiography and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy (the latter in larger patient populations) have also demonstrated significant prognostic value on patients with or without previous myocardial infarction. Neither one has shown superiority to the other in prognostication. So far, they have been considered the only viable alternatives to exercise electrocardiography stress testing for diagnosis and prognostication. However, their costs limit their extensive application. Preliminary data suggest that intravenous dipyridamole echocardiography can be used for both diagnosis and prognostication of coronary artery disease; moreover, the prognostic information derived from dipyridamole echocardiography testing seems independent of and additive to that provided by exercise electrocardiography. Further prospective studies on larger patient populations are needed to better define the prognostic value of dipyridamole echocardiography testing.47 references.

  7. Doping explosive materials for neutron radiographic enhancement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of studies relating to the selection of doping materials of high neutron absorption usable for enhancing the neutron radiographic imaging of explosive mixtures, without interfering with the proper chemical reaction of the explosives. The results of the studies show that gadolinium oxide is an excellent material for doping explosive mixtures to enhance the neutron radiographic image.

  8. Radiographic simulations and analysis for ASCI

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M.; Stone, D.; VonWittenau, A.

    1998-12-18

    In this paper, the authors describe their work on developing quantitatively accurate radiographic simulation and analysis tools for ASCI hydro codes. they have extended the ability of HADES, the code which simulates radiography through a mesh, to treat the complex meshes used in ASCI calculations. The ultimate goal is to allow direct comparison between experimental radiographs and full physics simulated radiographs of ASCI calculations. They describe the ray-tracing algorithm they have developed for fast, accurate simulation of dynamic radiographs with the meshes used in ALE3D, an LLNL ASCI code. Spectral effects and material compositions are included. In addition to the newness of the mesh types, the distributed nature of domain decomposed problems requires special treatment by the radiographic code. Because of the size of such problems, they have parallelized the radiographic simulation, in order to have quick turnaround time. presently, this is done using the domain decomposition from the hydro code. They demonstrate good parallel scaling as the size of the problem is increased. They show a comparison between an experimental radiograph of a high explosive detonation and a simulated radiograph of an ALE3D calculation. They conclude with a discussion of future work.

  9. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  10. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  11. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  13. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  14. Abdominal Plain Radiograph in Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G Raghavendra; Aziz, Amtul

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive all-inclusive resource on plain radiograph in neonatal intestinal obstruction is presented. This is an attempt to develop a protocol and to regain expertise in evaluating a plain radiograph that most often yields more than enough clues to diagnose and to decide a plan of action. PMID:28083492

  15. Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that “random” gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated

  16. Prognostic significance of peripheral monocyte count in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL. Methods Retrospective data from 163 patients newly diagnosed with ENKL were analyzed. The absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis was analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. Independent prognostic factors of survival were determined by Cox regression analysis. Results The AMC at diagnosis were related to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ENKL. Multivariate analysis identified AMC as independent prognostic factors of survival, independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Korean prognostic index (KPI). The prognostic index incorporating AMC and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), another surrogate factor of immune status, could be used to stratify all 163 patients with ENKL into different prognostic groups. For patients who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (102 cases), the three AMC/ALC index categories identified patients with significantly different survivals. When superimposed on IPI or KPI categories, the AMC/ALC index was better able to identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI or KPI category. Conclusion The baseline peripheral monocyte count is shown to be an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKL patients. The prognostic index related to tumor microenvironment might be helpful to identify high-risk patients with ENKL. PMID:23638998

  17. Overexpression of SLC34A2 is an independent prognostic indicator in bladder cancer and its depletion suppresses tumor growth via decreasing c-Myc expression and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wen; Chen, Cui; Gao, Ying; Zheng, Zou-Shan; Xu, Yi; Yun, Miao; Weng, Hui-Wen; Xie, Dan; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Jia-Xing

    2017-02-02

    Solute carrier family 34 member 2 (SLC34A2), a pH-sensitive sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, is associated with several human cancers. In this study, we investigate the clinical significance of SLC34A2 and its function in human bladder cancer (BC). The expression dynamics of SLC34A2 were examined in two independent cohorts of BC samples by quantitative PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In the training cohort (156 cases), we applied the X-tile program software to assess the optimal cutoff points for biomarkers in order to accurately classify patients according to clinical outcome. In the validation cohort (130 cases), the cutoff score derived from X-title analysis was investigated to determine the association of SLC34A2 expression with survival outcome. A series of in vitro and in vivo assays were then performed to elucidate the function of SLC34A2 in BC and its underlying mechanisms. Results showed that SLC34A2 was significantly upregulated in BC cell lines and clinical samples. In both two cohorts of BC samples, high expression of SLC34A2 was associated with large tumor size, advanced T status and poor patients' survival. The depletion of SLC34A2 in BC suppressed cellular viability, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and inhibited xenograft tumor growth in vivo, whereas overexpression of SLC34A2 had the converse effect. Simultaneously, downregulation of SLC34A2 decreased the transcriptional activity and protein expression level of c-Myc in BC cells, whereas restoration of c-Myc expression could compromise the anti-proliferation effect of SLC34A2 depletion. Furthermore, miR-214 was proved as a negative regulator of SLC34A2. Our present study illustrated that SLC34A2 has an important role in promoting proliferation and tumorigenicity of BC, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for this disease.

  18. Littoral Refractivity Prognostic Advancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    situational awareness of the 3D radio-frequency (RF) propagation environment and a quantitative diagnostic and prognostic capability for assessing sub- and...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 with the benchmark showing the quantitative improvement with each stage of model development...grid point. Modified the NSWCDD littoral clutter model ( LCM ) to accept COAMPS® derived refractivity fields. Analyzed the impact on ducting of

  19. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiographic intensifying screen is a device that is a thin radiolucent sheet... for medical purposes to expose radiographic film. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  20. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiographic intensifying screen is a device that is a thin radiolucent sheet... for medical purposes to expose radiographic film. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  1. Unusual radiographic appearance of adamantinoma.

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, Michele; Montalti, Maurizio; Bosco, Giuseppe; Gasbarrini, Alessandro; Boriani, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare tumor with an indolent course that occurs most commonly in the tibia. It is locally aggressive, and local recurrences are described after resection. Pain is the most common symptom. Since the lesion is typically slow growing, the pain can be present for many years before the patient seeks medical attention. Microscopically, adamantinoma consists of islands of epithelial cells in a fibrous stroma. Nuclear atypia is minimal, and mitotic figures are rare. The most common radiographic appearance is that of multiple sharply demarcated radiolucent lesions surrounded by areas of dense, sclerotic bone. This tumor most often affects the tibial diaphysis and produces lytic lesions that can cause fractures. A 31-year-old man presented with a rapidly growing lytic lesion of the distal tibia. On histological examination, many areas of epithelial cells in a fibrous stroma were identified. Diagnosis of adamantinoma was performed. The lesion was treated with en bloc resection and reconstruction with distal tibia allograft and ankle arthrodesis with retrograde nail. At 2-year follow-up, there were no clinical or radiological signs of recurrence of disease.

  2. Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

  3. Solid state radiographic image amplifiers, part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szepesi, Z.

    1971-01-01

    The contrast sensitivity of the radiographic amplifiers, both the storage type and nonstorage type, their absolute sensitivity, and the reproducibility of fabrication were investigated. The required 2-2T quality level was reached with the radiographic storage screen. The sensitivity threshold was 100 to 200 mR with 45 to 100 kV filtered X-rays. The quality level of the radiographic amplifier screen (without storage) was 4-4T; for a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick aluminum specimen, a 1 mm (0.040 in.) diameter hole in a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick penetrameter was detected. Its sensitivity threshold was 2 to 6 mR/min. The developed radiographic screens are applicable for uses in nondestructive testing.

  4. Radiographic selection criteria: new guidelines, old challenges.

    PubMed

    Horner, K

    2013-02-01

    Radiographic selection criteria are a legal requirement for any establishment using ionising radiation for medical purposes, including dental practices. The Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK) pioneered the development of radiographic selection criteria for dentistry in the UK in 1998 and followed this with a second edition in 2004. This year will see a third edition, updated by new research evidence and developments in X-ray imaging for dentistry, including cone beam computed tomography (CT). Radiographic selection criteria are not rules but are one form of clinical guideline designed to help in clinical decision making. There are many influences on the use of radiography in dental practice including non-clinical factors. Evidence-based radiographic selection criteria can help to reinforce good practice, but require a multi-faceted implementation strategy including incorporation into clinical audit, easy availability to users and education.

  5. Film adhesive enhances neutron radiographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    Resolution of neutron radiographic images of thermally conductive film is increased by replacing approximately 5 percent of aluminum powder, which provides thermal conductivity, with gadolinium oxide. Oxide is also chemically stable.

  6. Gastroduodenal lesions of ingested acids: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Muhletaler, C A; Gerlock, A J; de Soto, L; Halter, S A

    1980-12-01

    Abdominal radiographs and barium studies of the stomach and duodenum of 27 patients after ingestion of muriatic acid (27% HCl) in suicidal attempts were reviewed. Eleven patients were studied in the acute phase (1-10 days), nine in the subacute phase (11-20 days), and 15 in the chronic phase (21 days or more). Extensive gastric and duodenal mucosal and submucosal damage was radiographically demonstrated in all patients studied in the acute and subacute phase. Four patients had gastric perforation. The radiographic findings in the chronic phase were characterized by marked contraction of the lesser curvature, antral stenosis, irregular gastric contours, and deformed duodenal bulb. Esophageal mucosal and submucosal lesions were radiographically demonstrated in all these patients.

  7. Method prevents secondary radiation in radiographic inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struckus, A. A.

    1967-01-01

    Thin-walled neoprene containers prevent secondary radiation, scatter, and undercut during radiographic inspection. The containers are filled with a mixture of barium sulfate, red lead, and petroleum jelly that achieves the required absorption rate.

  8. The forensic importance of frontal sinus radiographs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua; Caputo, Isamara Geandra Cavalcanti; Devito, Karina Lopes; Botelho, Tessa de Luscena; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The identification of unidentified human remains through the comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs has found wide acceptance in recent years. Reported here is the forensic case of an unidentified adult male who had died as the result of a traffic accident, after which the body was identified by matching images of ante- and postmortem radiographs of the frontal sinus. A general discussion on identification using frontal sinus radiographs is presented, highlighting the reliability of this method, in reference to the uniqueness of the frontal sinus in humans. However, it also notes a few difficulties, especially in reference to the X-ray technique in cases where antemortem radiographs are available and a potentially larger number of anatomical, pathological or traumatic features are present. The comparison of frontal sinus outlines is recommended when it may become necessary to provide quantitative substantiation for forensic identification based on these structures.

  9. Does radio-opaque contrast improve radiographic localisation of percutaneous central venous lines?

    PubMed Central

    Odd, D; Page, B; Battin, M; Harding, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous central venous lines (long lines) are commonly used in neonatal practice. The position of these lines is important, because incorrect placement may be associated with complications. Aims: To determine whether the addition of radio-opaque contrast material improves the localisation of long line tips over plain radiography. Methods: Radiographs taken to identify long line position were identified in two periods; 106 radiographs without contrast taken between October 1999 and August 2000, and 96 radiographs with contrast between September 2001 and July 2002. Two observers independently reviewed each radiograph to identify the position of the line tip. The formal radiology report was recorded as a third observer. Results: The use of contrast increased the proportion of radiographs in which all observers reported they could see the long line tip (53 (55%) v 41 (39%)). It also increased the proportion where they agreed on anatomical position (57 (59%) v 39 (37%)) and there was a higher kappa coefficient for agreement (0.56 v 0.33). Conclusions: The use of contrast while taking radiographs for the localisation of long line position improves the likelihood that an observer can see a long line tip and reduces inter-observer variability. Even using contrast, precise localisation of a long line tip can be difficult. PMID:14711854

  10. New prognostic model for extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qingqing; Luo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Guanrong; Huang, Huiqiang; Huang, Hui; Lin, Tongyu; Jiang, Wenqi; Xia, Zhongjun; Young, Ken H

    2014-09-01

    Extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis, requiring risk stratification in affected patients. We designed a new prognostic model specifically for ENKTL to identify high-risk patients who need more aggressive therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 158 patients who were newly diagnosed with ENKTL. The estimated 5-year overall survival rate was 39.4 %. Independent prognostic factors included total protein (TP) <60 g/L, fasting blood glucose (FBG) >100 mg/dL, and Korean Prognostic Index (KPI) score ≥2. We constructed a new prognostic model by combining these prognostic factors: group 1 (64 cases (41.0 %)), no adverse factors; group 2 (58 cases (37.2 %)), one adverse factor; and group 3 (34 cases (21.8 %)), two or three adverse factors. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of these groups were 66.7, 23.0, and 5.9 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Our new prognostic model had a better prognostic value than did the KPI model alone (p < 0.001). Our proposed prognostic model for ENKTL, including the newly identified prognostic indicators, TP and FBG, demonstrated a balanced distribution of patients into different risk groups with better prognostic discrimination compared with the KPI model alone.

  11. Lead Scales for X-Radiographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Adams, James F.

    1987-01-01

    Indentations made by typing on lead tape. Lead scales for inclusion in x-radiographs as length and position references created by repeatedly imprinting character like upper-case I, L, or V, or lower-case L into lead tape with typewriter. Character pitch of typewriter serves as length reference for scale. Thinning of tape caused by impacts of type shows up dark in radiograph.

  12. The one-leg standing radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis was evaluated using the joint space width and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic classification. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results The mean medial joint space width found in the one-leg and in the both-legs standing view were measured at 1.8 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively (p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7). 33%, 47.4% and 23.1% of the knees diagnosed with a KL grade of I, II and III in the both-legs standing views were changed to KL grade II, III and IV in the one-leg standing views, respectively. No changes for KL IV osteoarthritis diagnoses have been found between both- and one-leg standing views. Conclusions One-leg standing radiographs better represent joint space width than both-legs standing radiographs. 32% of both-legs standing radiographs have changed the KL grading to a more severe grade than that in the one-leg standing radiographs. Cite this article: P. Pinsornsak, K. Naratrikun, S. Kanitnate, T. Sangkomkamhang. The one-leg standing radiograph: An improved technique to evaluate the severity of knee osteoarthritis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:436–441. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.BJR-2016-0049.R1. PMID:27683299

  13. Radiation recommendation series: administratively required dental radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Administrative requirements for radiographs are found in many segments of the United States health care system. This document presents an FDA radiation recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. In general, such examinations are not requested to further the patient's dental health, but rather as a means of monitoring claims. However, the administrative use of radiographs that have been taken in the normal course of patient care is usually appropriate, as long as the patient's right to privacy is respected.

  14. Angiogenesis: a prognostic determinant in pancreatic cancer?

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Jill A; van Eijck, Casper H J; Hop, Wim C J; van Dekken, Herman; Dicheva, Bilyana M; Seynhaeve, Ann L B; Koning, Gerben A; Eggermont, Alexander M M; ten Hagen, Timo L M

    2011-11-01

    Angiogenesis has been associated with disease progression in many solid tumours, however the statement that tumours need angiogenesis to grow, invade and metastasise seems no longer applicable to all tumours or to all tumour subtypes. Prognostic studies in pancreatic cancer are conflicting. In fact, pancreatic cancer has been suggested an example of a tumour in which angiogenesis is less essential for tumour progression. The aim of the present study was therefore to measure angiogenesis in two anatomically closely related however prognostically different types of pancreatic cancer, pancreatic head and periampullary cancer, and investigate its relation with outcome. Vessels were stained by CD31 on original paraffin embedded tissue from 206 patients with microscopic radical resection (R0) of pancreatic head (n=98) or periampullary cancer (n=108). Angiogenesis was quantified by microvessel density (MVD) and measured by computerised image analysis of three randomly selected fields and investigated for associations with recurrence free survival (RFS), cancer specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS) and conventional prognostic factors. MVD was heterogeneous both between and within tumours. A higher MVD was observed in periampullary cancers compared with pancreatic head cancers (p<.01). Furthermore, MVD was associated with lymph node involvement in pancreatic head (p=.014), but not in periampullary cancer (p=.55). Interestingly, MVD was not associated with RFS, CSS or with OS. In conclusion, angiogenesis is higher in periampullary cancer and although associated with nodal involvement in pancreatic head cancer, pancreatic cancer prognosis seems indeed angiogenesis independent.

  15. Radiographic signs and diagnosis of dental disease.

    PubMed

    Bellows, J

    1993-08-01

    Dental radiographs are critical for the complete assessment and treatment of dental diseases. Dental radiography is commonly used to evaluate congenital dental defects, periodontal disease, orthodontic manipulations, oral tumors, endodontic treatments, oral trauma, and any situation where an abnormality is suspected. Although standard radiographic equipment and film can be used to produce dental radiographs, dental X-ray equipment and film provide superior quality images and greater convenience of animal patient positioning. An understanding of normal dental radiographic anatomy is important when interpreting dental radiographs. Stage III periodontitis is the earliest stage of periodontal disease at which radiographic abnormalities become apparent. Bone loss associated with periodontal disease can be classified as either horizontal or vertical. Periapical radiolucencies can represent granulomas, cysts, or abscesses, whereas periapical radiodensities may represent sclerotic bone or condensing osteitis. Lytic lesions of the bone of the jaw often represent oral neoplasms. Neoplasms also can displace or disrupt teeth in the dental arch. Resorptive lesions can be external or internal and appear as radiolucent areas involving the external surface of the root or the pulp cavity, respectively. Feline dental resorptive lesions, also known as odontoclastic resorptions, are a specific form of dental resorptive lesions unique to cats.

  16. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    SciTech Connect

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  17. Prognostic Impact of Autophagy Biomarkers for Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Diana Y. L.; Ellis, Robert A.; Lovat, Penny E.

    2016-01-01

    Prognosis and survival for malignant melanoma is highly dependent on early diagnosis and treatment. While the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) criterion provides a means of staging melanomas and guiding treatment approaches, it is unable to identify the risk of disease progression of early stage tumors or provide reliable stratification for novel adjuvant therapies. The demand for credible prognostic/companion biomarkers able to identify high-risk melanoma subgroups as well as guide more effective personalized/precision-based therapy is therefore of paramount importance. Autophagy, the principle lysosomal-mediated process for the degradation/recycling of cellular debris, is a hot topic in cancer medicine, and observations of its deregulation in melanoma have brought its potential as a prognostic biomarker to the forefront of current research. Key regulatory proteins, including Atg8/microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3) and BECN1 (Beclin 1), have been proposed as potential prognostic biomarkers. However, given the dynamic nature of autophagy, their expression in vitro does not translate to their use as a prognostic biomarker for melanoma in vivo. We have recently identified the expression levels of Sequestosome1/SQSTM1 (p62) and activating molecule in Beclin 1-regulated autophagy protein 1 (AMBRA1) as novel independent prognostic biomarkers for early stage melanomas. While increasing followed by subsequent decreasing levels of p62 expression reflects the paradoxical role of autophagy in melanoma, expression levels additionally define a novel prognostic biomarker for AJCC stage II tumors. Conversely, loss of AMBRA1 in the epidermis overlying primary melanomas defines a novel prognostic biomarker for AJCC stage I tumors. Collectively, the definition of AMBRA1 and p62 as prognostic biomarkers for early stage melanomas provides novel and accurate means through which to identify tumors at risk of disease progression, facilitating earlier patient therapeutic

  18. Interobserver error in interpretation of the radiographs for degeneration of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Madan, Sanjeev S; Rai, Am; Harley, John M

    2003-01-01

    We examined 114 segments in 23 patients' lumbar spine plain radiographs affected by disc degeneration. Two consultant orthopaedic surgeons, two consultant radiologists, and one spine nurse practitioner made independent observations on the radiographs. MRI scan films of the corresponding 114 segments were used as a gold standard. Kappa coefficients were used to evaluate the interobserver error, and the error between the independent observers and the MRI scanning reports. The systematic differences between the observers for the diagnosis of the disc degeneration at each segment level was recorded. There was significant interobserver error between the independent observers. The pairwise interobserver agreement ranged from fair to substantial on the plain radiograph observations [Weighted kappa coefficient, mean: 0.517 (CI=0.388-0.646)]. The pairwise interobserver agreement between the independent observers and the MRI scan ranged from fair to moderate [Weighted kappa coefficient, mean: 0.388 (CI=0.259-0.518)]. There is significant error in interpretation of the plain radiographs for the diagnosis of lumbar disc degeneration. MRI may be more accurate in the diagnosis of lumbar disc degeneration.

  19. Interobserver Error in Interpretation of the Radiographs for Degeneration of the Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Sanjeev S; Rai, Am; Harley, John M

    2003-01-01

    We examined 114 segments in 23 patients' lumbar spine plain radiographs affected by disc degeneration. Two consultant orthopaedic surgeons, two consultant radiologists, and one spine nurse practitioner made independent observations on the radiographs. MRI scan films of the corresponding 114 segments were used as a gold standard. Kappa coefficients were used to evaluate the interobserver error, and the error between the independent observers and the MRI scanning reports. The systematic differences between the observers for the diagnosis of the disc degeneration at each segment level was recorded. There was significant interobserver error between the independent observers. The pairwise interobserver agreement ranged from fair to substantial on the plain radiograph observations [Weighted kappa coefficient, mean: 0.517 (CI=0.388-0.646)]. The pairwise interobserver agreement between the independent observers and the MRI scan ranged from fair to moderate [Weighted kappa coefficient, mean: 0.388 (CI=0.259-0.518)]. There is significant error in interpretation of the plain radiographs for the diagnosis of lumbar disc degeneration. MRI may be more accurate in the diagnosis of lumbar disc degeneration. PMID:14575250

  20. Urinary interleukin-6 as a predictor of radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: A 3-year evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yune-Jung; Yoo, Seung-Ah; Kim, Ga-Ram; Cho, Chul-Soo; Kim, Wan-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the urine proteome signature of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reflects inflammation-related cellular processes. Here, we measured interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) concentrations in the urine of RA patients and prospectively investigated their role in predicting RA activity and prognosis. One hundred seventy-three RA patients and 62 non-RA controls were recruited. Urinary IL-6, CCL2, and IL-8 levels were elevated in RA patients and correlated well with disease activity. Urinary IL-6 level at presentation was an independent risk factor of radiographic progression at 1 and 3 years. High urinary IL-6 level increased the risk ratio of radiographic progression by 2.9-fold, which was comparable to high serum CRP. Moreover, combination of urinary IL-6 and serum CRP measures synergistically increased the predictability of radiographic progression. In a subgroup with normal ESR, patients with the highest tertile of urinary IL-6 were at 6.4-fold greater risk of radiographic progression. Conclusively, high urinary IL-6 level at presentation is an independent risk factor for radiographic progression of RA, reflecting disease activity. Urinary IL-6 in combination with serum CRP may be a useful parameter for estimating RA prognosis. PMID:27731382

  1. Features and prognostic impact of distant metastasis in patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutations: importance of bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Daichi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ryoko; Kato, Ryoji; Otoshi, Takehiro; Kawamura, Takahisa; Tamai, Koji; Shibata, Yumi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Nagata, Kazuma; Otsuka, Kyoko; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Tomii, Keisuke

    2014-06-01

    Mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and signaling pathways were associated with multiple brain and intra-pulmonary metastases, oncogenic progression and metastasis. However, features of metastasis to other organs and the independent prognostic influence of metastatic lesions were not elucidated in patients with lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations. Between January 2007 and April 2012, we treated 277 patients diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. Studied were 246 patients with available tumor EGFR mutation data who also underwent radiographic evaluation of lung, abdominal, brain, and bone metastases. The EGFR mutated group (N = 98) had significantly more metastatic lesions in the brain and bone than the wild-type group (N = 148): brain, 3 (1-93) versus 2 (1-32) median (range), P = 0.023; bone, 3 (1-43) versus 2 (1-27), P = 0.035, respectively. In addition, EGFR mutations were significantly more frequent in patients with multiple than non-multiple lung metastases (24/40 vs. 12/42, P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that bone metastasis was a significant independent negative predictive factor of overall survival (OS) in patients with mutated [hazard ratio (HR) 2.04; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.64; P = 0.011] and wild-type EGFR (HR 2.09; 95 % CI 1.37-3.20; P < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with mutated EGFR had more lung, brain, and bone metastases, and bone metastasis was an independent negative predictor of OS.

  2. Reducing missing fracture clinic radiographs by entrusting them to patients.

    PubMed Central

    Calder, Peter R.; Hynes, Matthew C.; Goodier, W. David

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Missing radiographs in fracture clinics may compromise fracture management and lead to inappropriate use of clerical resources. METHODS: We prospectively compared the number of missing radiographs in two hospitals over a period of two months. In hospital A the radiographs were retained and in hospital B they were entrusted to the patients. RESULTS: At the completion of the study, entrusting patients with their radiographs resulted in statistically less radiographs missing from the clinic. PMID:15333169

  3. Image-processing technique for suppressing ribs in chest radiographs by means of massive training artificial neural network (MTANN).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Abe, Hiroyuki; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio

    2006-04-01

    When lung nodules overlap with ribs or clavicles in chest radiographs, it can be difficult for radiologists as well as computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes to detect these nodules. In this paper, we developed an image-processing technique for suppressing the contrast of ribs and clavicles in chest radiographs by means of a multiresolution massive training artificial neural network (MTANN). An MTANN is a highly nonlinear filter that can be trained by use of input chest radiographs and the corresponding "teaching" images. We employed "bone" images obtained by use of a dual-energy subtraction technique as the teaching images. For effective suppression of ribs having various spatial frequencies, we developed a multiresolution MTANN consisting of multiresolution decomposition/composition techniques and three MTANNs for three different-resolution images. After training with input chest radiographs and the corresponding dual-energy bone images, the multiresolution MTANN was able to provide "bone-image-like" images which were similar to the teaching bone images. By subtracting the bone-image-like images from the corresponding chest radiographs, we were able to produce "soft-tissue-image-like" images where ribs and clavicles were substantially suppressed. We used a validation test database consisting of 118 chest radiographs with pulmonary nodules and an independent test database consisting of 136 digitized screen-film chest radiographs with 136 solitary pulmonary nodules collected from 14 medical institutions in this study. When our technique was applied to nontraining chest radiographs, ribs and clavicles in the chest radiographs were suppressed substantially, while the visibility of nodules and lung vessels was maintained. Thus, our image-processing technique for rib suppression by means of a multiresolution MTANN would be potentially useful for radiologists as well as for CAD schemes in detection of lung nodules on chest radiographs.

  4. A radiographic scanning technique for cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, G.W.; Dorsey, M.E.; Woods, J.C.; Miller, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A radiographic scanning technique (RST) can produce single continuous radiographs of cores or core sections up to 1.5 m long and up to 30 cm wide. Changing a portable industrial X-ray unit from the normal still-shot mode to a scanning mode requires simple, inexpensive, easily constructed, and highly durable equipment. Additional components include a conveyor system, antiscatter cylinder-diaphragm, adjustable sample platform, developing tanks, and a contact printer. Complete cores, half cores, sample slabs or peels may be scanned. Converting the X-ray unit from one mode to another is easy and can be accomplished without the use of special tools. RST provides the investigator with a convenient, continuous, high quality radiograph, saves time and money, and decreases the number of times cores have to be handled. ?? 1979.

  5. Centric relation determinations: clinical and radiographic comparisons.

    PubMed

    Carwell, M L; McFall, W T

    1981-07-01

    This study investigated variations in occlusal prematurities and condylar positions using different methods of determining centric relation. Thirty patients were randomly placed into three groups of 10. In Group I a clinical analysis of occlusal patterns using bilateral mandibular manipulation (BMM) was compared to results with a chin point (CPM) method. Group II compared CPM to an anterior guidance jig (CPJ) method. Group III compared BMM to CPJ. Standardized transcranial oblique radiographs were taken of each temporomandibular joint using CPM and BMM on 10 patients. Condylar position was determined with tracing evaluations and direct measurements of the radiographs. Clinical results indicated that the initial point of contact was located most accurately with CPJ. Both initial contact points and secondary points were disclosed with CPM. The BMM disclosed the most tooth contacts. Contacts were most prevalent on the premolars. Radiographic analyses of condylar positions were inconclusive.

  6. Postmortem abdominal radiographic findings in feline cadavers.

    PubMed

    Heng, Hock Gan; Teoh, Wen Tian; Sheikh-Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are commonly performed in judicial investigations to rule out gunshot and fractures. However, there was no available data on radiographic postmortem changes of animals. Forty-one sets of abdominal radiographs of feline cadavers made within 12 h of death were evaluated for postmortem changes. Intravascular gas was detected in 11 of 41 (27%) cadavers. The most common site of intravascular gas was the liver. Intravascular gas was also present in the aorta, femoral artery, celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries, and caudal superficial epigastric artery. Intrasplenic gas was detected in two cadavers. Only two cadavers had distended small intestine. One cadaver had pneumatosis coli. The changes detected were most likely due to putrefaction.

  7. The Significance of the Prognostic Nutritional Index in Patients with Completely Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shunsuke; Usami, Noriyasu; Fukumoto, Koichi; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Sakakura, Noriaki; Yokoi, Kohei; Sakao, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Immunological parameters and nutritional status influence the outcome of patients with malignant tumors. A prognostic nutritional index, calculated using serum albumin levels and peripheral lymphocyte count, has been used to assess prognosis for various cancers. This study aimed to investigate whether this prognostic nutritional index affects overall survival and the incidence of postoperative complications in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 409 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent complete resection between 2005 and 2007 at the Aichi Cancer Center. Results The 5-year survival rates of patients with high (≥50) and low (<50) prognostic nutritional indices were 84.4% and 70.7%, respectively (p = 0.0011). Univariate analysis showed that gender, histology, pathological stage, smoking history, serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels, and prognostic nutritional index were significant prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis identified pathological stage and the prognostic nutritional index as independent prognostic factors. The frequency of postoperative complications tended to be higher in patients with a low prognostic nutritional index. Conclusions The prognostic nutritional index is an independent prognostic factor for survival of patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:26356222

  8. Radiographic union score for hip substantially improves agreement between surgeons and radiologists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the prominence of hip fractures in orthopedic trauma, the assessment of fracture healing using radiographs remains subjective. The variability in the assessment of fracture healing has important implications for both clinical research and patient care. With little existing literature regarding reliable consensus on hip fracture healing, this study was conducted to determine inter-rater reliability between orthopedic surgeons and radiologists on healing assessments using sequential radiographs in patients with hip fractures. Secondary objectives included evaluating a checklist designed to assess hip fracture healing and determining whether agreement improved when reviewers were aware of the timing of the x-rays in relation to the patients’ surgery. Methods A panel of six reviewers (three orthopedic surgeons and three radiologists) independently assessed fracture healing using sequential radiographs from 100 patients with femoral neck fractures and 100 patients with intertrochanteric fractures. During their independent review they also completed a previously developed radiographic checklist (Radiographic Union Score for Hip (RUSH)). Inter and intra-rater reliability scores were calculated. Data from the current study was compared to the findings from a previously conducted study where the same reviewers, unaware of the timing of the x-rays, completed the RUSH score. Results The agreement between surgeons and radiologists for fracture healing was moderate for “general impression of fracture healing” in both femoral neck (ICC = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.71) and intertrochanteric fractures (0.50, 95% CI: 0.33-0.62). Using a standardized checklist (RUSH), agreement was almost perfect in both femoral neck (ICC = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.82-0.87) and intertrochanteric fractures (0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90). We also found a high degree of correlation between healing and the total RUSH score using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis, there was

  9. Elbow Radiographic Anatomy: Measurement Techniques and Normative Data

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Charles A.; Patterson, J. Megan M.; Sutter, Melanie; Krauss, Melissa; Steffen, Jennifer A.; Galatz, Leesa

    2011-01-01

    Background An increase in elbow pathology in adolescents has paralleled an increase in sports participation. Evaluation and classification of these injuries is challenging because of limited information regarding normal anatomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate normal radiographic anatomy in adolescents to establish parameters for diagnosing abnormal development. Established and new measurements were evaluated for reliability and variance based on age and sex. Methods Three orthopaedic surgeons independently and in a standardized fashion evaluated the normal anteroposterior and lateral elbow radiographs of 178 adolescent and young adult subjects. Fourteen measurements were performed including radial neck- shaft angle, articular surface angle, articular surface morphologic assessment (subjective and objective evaluation of the patterns of ridges and sulci), among others. We performed a statistical analysis by age and sex for each measure and assessed for inter and intra-observer reliability. Results The distal humerus articular surface was relatively flat in adolescence and became more contoured with age as objectively demonstrated by increasing depth of the trochlear and trochleocapitellar sulci, and decreasing trochlear notch angle. Overall measurements were similar between males and females, with an increased carrying angle in females. There were several statistically significant differences based on age and sex but these were small and unlikely to be clinically significant. Inter and intra-observer reliability were variable; some commonly utilized tools had poor reliability. Conclusions Most commonly utilized radiographic measures were consistent between sexes, across the adolescent age group, and between adolescents and young adults. Several commonly used assessment tools show poor reliability. Level of evidence Basic Science Study, Anatomic Study, Imaging PMID:22329911

  10. Unicameral bone cyst: radiographic assessment of venous outflow by cystography as a prognostic index.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ana; Abril, Juan Carlos; Touza, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the benefits of cystography in the management of a simple bone cyst, its implication in the final result of the treatment after corticoid intracystic injections, and the presence of secondary effects. We retrospectively reviewed 42 patients diagnosed with a simple bone cyst. Cystography was performed before the corticoid injection. The presence or absence of loculation intracyst and the existence and number of venous outflows were determined. According to the venous drainage, cysts were classified as type 0 when a venous outflow did not exist and as type 1 when there was a rapid venous outflow (<3 min). The treatment protocol included a maximum of three corticoid injections at an interval of 6 months. Healing of the cyst was determined on the basis of Neer's criteria. Secondary effects and surgical complications were assessed. Cystography studies showed a unicameral bone cyst with absent loculation in 16 cases (37.3%), whereas the lesion showed multiloculation in 26 cases (62.7%). There was no statistical difference between loculation intracyst (present or absent) and the final outcomes of the 42 cysts treated with a steroid injection (P=0.9). Cystography showed a negative venogram in 10 cases (23.8%), whereas the cysts showed a rapid venous outflow in 32 cases (76.2%). On the basis of Neer's classification, all patients with a negative venogram achieved complete healing of the cyst. Patients with a rapid venous outflow achieved complete healing in 14 cases (Neer I). In two patients, the healing was incomplete at the end of the follow-up period (Neer IV). In most cases (21 cysts), healing was partial (Neer II). Five patients showed a recurrence after initial healing of the cyst (Neer III) (P<0.05). The number or the size of veins did not affect healing of a bone cyst (P=0.6). Two patients with a rapid venous outflow showed a generalized hypertrichosis after the first injection of corticosteroids. Sex and age at the initiation of the first injection were not significant factors of healing (P=0.4). The average follow-up time was 59 months (24-60 months). Cystography provides morphological and functional information of simple bone cyst. It is a useful test before the administration of percutaneous injections of sclerosing substances. It facilitates the differentiation of cysts that may achieve complete healing (negative venogram) from those that tend to show recurrence (rapid venous outflow). Therapeutic material should be introduced slowly and a second trocar should always be placed to decrease the risk of migration in cysts with communication with the venous system.

  11. Method of radiographic inspection of wooden members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Maggie L. (Inventor); Berry, Robert F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a method to be used for radiographic inspection of a wooden specimen for internal defects which includes the steps of introducing a radiopaque penetrant into any internal defects in the specimen through surface openings; passing a beam of radiation through a portion of the specimen to be inspected; and making a radiographic film image of the radiation passing through the specimen, with the radiopaque penetrant in the specimen absorbing the radiation passing through it, thereby enhancing the resulting image of the internal defects in the specimen.

  12. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  13. Microbiology of endotracheal aspirates in intubated pediatric intensive care unit patients: correlations with radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Golden, S E; Shehab, Z M; Bjelland, J C; Ryan, K J; Ray, C G

    1987-07-01

    We studied the utility of Gram-stained smears and semiquantitative cultures of endotracheal aspirates (ETAs) in diagnosing pneumonia in intubated patients in a pediatric intensive care unit. The chest radiographs of 35 intubated patients were independently reviewed by a pediatric radiologist and classified into probable, possible and unlikely pneumonias. Concomitant bacteriologic and radiographic information was available in 15 episodes of probable and 13 of possible pneumonia. These findings were compared with the ETAs obtained during the study from patients with no radiographic evidence of pneumonia (N = 21). There was a good correlation between ETA findings and radiographic evidence of pneumonia when ETAs were obtained within 60 minutes of initial intubation. Only a growth of greater than or equal to 3+ of a pathogen was associated with probable pneumonia when ETAs were obtained more than 60 minutes from initial intubation. There was a poor correlation between the microbiologic findings from ETAs and the results of blood cultures and postmortem examinations. Moreover 5 of 10 pairs of ETAs obtained within 18 hours of each other demonstrated discordant results. The ETAs from patients with indwelling endotracheal tubes correlated poorly with radiographic findings and are of questionable value in diagnosing the presence of pneumonia or its etiology in this group. They must be cautiously interpreted in critically ill patients.

  14. Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Hu, Wei; Sood, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy despite several decades of progress in diagnosis and treatment. Taking advantage of the robust development of discovery and utility of prognostic biomarkers, clinicians and researchers are developing personalized and targeted treatment strategies. This review encompasses recently discovered biomarkers of ovarian cancer, the utility of published prognostic biomarkers for EOC (especially biomarkers related to angiogenesis and key signaling pathways), and their integration into clinical practice. PMID:22045356

  15. Lateral cephalometric radiograph versus lateral nasopharyngeal radiograph for quantitative evaluation of nasopharyngeal airway space

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Suelen Cristina da Costa; Beltrão, Rejane Targino Soares; Janson, Guilherme; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compared lateral radiographs of the nasopharynx (LN) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC) used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space in children. Material and Methods One examiner measured the nasopharyngeal space of 15 oral breathing patients aged between 5 and 11 years old by using LN and LC. Both assessments were made twice with a 15-day interval in between. Intergroup comparison was performed with t-tests (P < 0.05). Results Comparison between LN and LC measurements showed no significant differences. Conclusion Lateral cephalometric radiograph is an acceptable method used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space. PMID:25279526

  16. Detecting objects in radiographs for homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Lakshman; Snyder, Hans

    2005-05-01

    We present a general scheme for segmenting a radiographic image into polygons that correspond to visual features. This decomposition provides a vectorized representation that is a high-level description of the image. The polygons correspond to objects or object parts present in the image. This characterization of radiographs allows the direct application of several shape recognition algorithms to identify objects. In this paper we describe the use of constrained Delaunay triangulations as a uniform foundational tool to achieve multiple visual tasks, namely image segmentation, shape decomposition, and parts-based shape matching. Shape decomposition yields parts that serve as tokens representing local shape characteristics. Parts-based shape matching enables the recognition of objects in the presence of occlusions, which commonly occur in radiographs. The polygonal representation of image features affords the efficient design and application of sophisticated geometric filtering methods to detect large-scale structural properties of objects in images. Finally, the representation of radiographs via polygons results in significant reduction of image file sizes and permits the scalable graphical representation of images, along with annotations of detected objects, in the SVG (scalable vector graphics) format that is proposed by the world wide web consortium (W3C). This is a textual representation that can be compressed and encrypted for efficient and secure transmission of information over wireless channels and on the Internet. In particular, our methods described here provide an algorithmic framework for developing image analysis tools for screening cargo at ports of entry for homeland security.

  17. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively.

  18. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively. PMID:28123272

  19. Radiographic applications of spatial frequency multiplexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macovski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of spacial frequency encoding techniques which allow different regions of the X-ray spectrum to be encoded on conventional radiographs was studied. Clinical considerations were reviewed, as were experimental studies involving the encoding and decoding of X-ray images at different energies and the subsequent processing of the data to produce images of specific materials in the body.

  20. TECHNICAL TRAINING FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHERS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEARDEN, H.D.

    TO OFFSET THE PROBLEM OF A SHORTAGE OF QUALIFIED TECHNICIANS TO SERVE AS RADIOGRAPHERS IN INDUSTRY, 19 STUDENTS WERE TRAINED IN TWO CLASSES, THE FIRST CONSISTING OF 19, AND THE SECOND OF EIGHTEEN 30-HOUR WEEKS. ORGANIZED FORMAL OR LECTURE-TYPE INSTRUCTION WAS PRESENTED IN SOME SUBJECT AREAS, BUT THE MAJOR EMPHASIS WAS ON LABORATORY EXPERIENCES…

  1. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  2. The Design of Radiographic Enhancement Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    reco Inc., 547 St. Thomas, Longueuil , Quebec, Canada J4H 3A7 9 S. I",, . % . . ,. . - . % % .,, . -.- . . . .d- . - ,. , - - .,, - ,. - ..- , .S...34: the IED safe. Samples of original and enhanced radiographs made with the P-1700 scanner are shown in Figures 5 and 6. The improvement in image

  3. Panoramic radiographic demonstration of bilateral tonsilloliths.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Carlo; Mandel, Louis

    2011-04-01

    Calcifications can develop within the crypts of the palatine tonsil. During routine dental panoramic radiography, these tonsillar calcifications, or tonsilloliths, may be visualized superimposed upon the mandibular ramus. Their anatomic location and radiographic appearance are such that confusion with parotid sialolithiasis may occur. This report defines the symptomatology and differential diagnosis of these tonsilloliths.

  4. Survey of Radiographic Requirements and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farman, Allan G.; Shawkat, Abdul H.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of dental schools revealed little standardization of student requirements for dental radiography in the United States. There was a high degree of variability as to what constituted a full radiographic survey, which has implications concerning the maximum limits to patient exposure to radiation. (Author/MLW)

  5. Pulp size in molars: underestimation on radiographs.

    PubMed

    Chandler, N P; Ford, T R Pitt; Monteith, B D

    2004-08-01

    The aim was to determine whether radiographs provide a clinically useful indication of pulp size in diseased/restored human first molar teeth, and to investigate accessibility of pulp tissue for diagnostic testing using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Extracted teeth of known age were collected. Restorative materials were removed and teeth with evidence of pulp exposures excluded. Fifty-six teeth were radiographed from buccal and mesial aspects, and then their crowns were sectioned axiobuccolingually and photographed. Images were digitally scanned and measurements made of the total pulp area (above a line across the most superior part of the pulpal floor) and the pulp area in the clinical crown (superior to a line between the amelocemental junctions). The pulp width at the cervix and the highest point of the pulp were also recorded. Data were analysed using Pearson correlations. Pulp areas within the clinical crowns were significantly larger than indicated by radiographs, by 23% in the case of the clinically attainable buccal view (P < 0.05). Pulps may be more accessible to flowmeter testing than they appear. Absence of pulp tissues in the crown was recorded in equal numbers of teeth on radiographs and sections, but with agreement for only one tooth. Sixteen per cent of the teeth had no pulp area in the clinical crown when sectioned, but might still be suitable for testing using LDF.

  6. Radiographic evaluation and assessment of paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Lustrin, E S; Palestro, C; Vaheesan, K

    2001-10-01

    Radiographic imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of paragangliomas. Diagnosis and treatment should be performed as a team effort, with all the involved disciplines working together to provide the best possible individualized work-up and treatment plan for the patient.

  7. Radiographic Differentiation of Advanced Fibrocystic Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Akira, Masanori

    2017-03-01

    The concept of end-stage lung disease suggests a final common pathway for most diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. In accordance with this concept, end-stage disease is characterized radiographically and pathologically by the presence of extensive honeycombing. However, sequential computed tomographic (CT) scans obtained from patients with chronic diffuse lung disease evolve over time to show various advanced lung disease patterns other than honeycombing. In addition, several radiographically distinct honeycomb patterns, including microcystic, macrocystic, mixed, and combined emphysema and honeycombing, differentiate one advanced lung disease from another. For example, usual interstitial pneumonia (IP) usually shows mixed microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing. In contrast, CT images of long-standing fibrotic nonspecific IP typically show only small, scattered foci of honeycombing; instead, most enlarged airspaces observed in the advanced stage of this disease represent dilatation of bronchioles. In desquamative IP and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, focal opacities typically evolve into emphysema-like lesions seen on CT imaging. In combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema and sarcoidosis, the cysts tend to be larger than those observed in usual IP. Sequential CT scans in other chronic, diffuse lung diseases also show various distinctive changes. This article highlights radiographic patterns of lung destruction that belie a single common pathway to end-stage lung disease. Recognition of distinct radiographic patterns of lung destruction can help differentiate diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, even in advanced stages of disease evolution.

  8. Prognostic value of preoperative serum tumor markers in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Jun; Du, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Jian; Shu, Yong-Qian; Liu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9, and CA50 in patients undergoing D2 resection. METHODS: We evaluated 363 patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy at our hospital from January 2006 to December 2009. Blood samples were obtained from each patient within 1 wk before surgery. The cut-off values for serum CEA, CA19-9, and CA50 were 5 ng/mL, 37 U/mL, and 20 U/mL, respectively. The correlation between preoperative tumor marker levels and prognosis was studied by means of univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The preoperative serum positive rates of CEA, CA19-9 and CA50 were 24.0%, 18.9% and 24.5%, respectively. The positivity rate of serum CEA was significantly correlated with age (P < 0.001), sex (P = 0.022), tumor size (P = 0.007) and depth of invasion (P = 0.018); CA19-9 with tumor size (P = 0.042) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001); and CA50 only with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, tumor size, T category, N category, vascular or neural invasion, and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. CA19-9 had an independent prognostic significance in patients without adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.027). CONCLUSION: Preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA50 are prognostic in patients with gastric cancer. Only CA19-9 is an independent prognostic factor after surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:24829865

  9. Gender differences in prognostic factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Honorato, J; Rebelo, M S; Dias, F L; Camisasca, D R; Faria, P A; Azevedo e Silva, G; Lourenço, S Q C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in prognostic factors among patients treated surgically for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The medical records of 477 eligible patients (345 males, 132 females) obtained from the Brazilian Cancer Institute were reviewed. Survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression models were used to obtain adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for males and females. Multivariate analysis showed that past tobacco use (aHR 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-0.7) and regional metastasis (aHR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5) in males, and regional metastasis (aHR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.3), distant metastasis (aHR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3-32.7), and hard palate tumours (aHR 11.8, 95% CI 3.3-47.7) in females, were associated with a higher risk of death. There were no differences in survival between males and females. Regional metastasis was found to be a negative prognostic factor in OSCC for both genders. Past tobacco use was an independent prognostic factor for worse survival among males, while distant metastasis and hard palate tumours were independent prognostic factors for worse survival among females. Further studies are necessary to corroborate the relationships found in this study.

  10. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of brain central neurocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xilei; Tong, Yusuo; Wang, Wanwei

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims This study is designed for the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of central neurocytoma (CN). Methods CN patients from 2004 to 2012 were enrolled from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, race, tumor size, tumor number, surgery, and radiation therapy were summarized. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to explore the prognostic factors of CN. Results CN tended to be borderline malignant and single lesion. Compared with other brain tumor (NCN), Patients with CN (CNs) were more likely to be female, young, and non-white race. Surgery was the primary treatment of CN. Univariate and Multivariate analysis indicated tumor number and surgery were both independent prognostic factors of CN (P < 0.05). Unifocal CNs had a lower mortality risk than multifocal ones (HR 0.167, 95% CI 0.052-0.537), surgery significantly reduced the death risk of CNs (HR 0.284, 95% CI 0.088-0.921). Conclusions CN tend to be borderline malignant, single lesion, operated on. Most CNs are female and younger. single lesion and surgery are the independent positive prognostic factors of CN. PMID:27542237

  11. Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis: what are the similarities and differences?

    PubMed

    Baraliakos, X; Braun, J

    2015-01-01

    The development of the axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis (ASAS) classification criteria has had several implications for our understanding of the entire spectrum of spondyloarthritides (SpA). Going beyond the modified New York criteria, which concentrate on conventional radiographs of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) for the classification of ankylosing spondylitis, the ASAS criteria add active inflammation of the SIJ as obtained by MRI and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 to classify patients with chronic back pain starting at a young age as axial SpA (axSpA). AxSpA should be considered as one disease that includes AS, the radiographic form, as well as the non-radiographic (nr-axSpA) form. Similarities and differences between these subgroups have been described in 3 studies: 1 local study, 1 national study (German SpA Inception Cohort) and 1 international study mainly conducted to test the efficacy of a tumour necrosis factor α blocker. Most clinical features and assessments of axSpA showed the same prevalence in patients with and without radiographic changes. However, some differences have been observed: the male:female ratio, the proportion of patients with objective signs of inflammation such as bone marrow oedema as detected by MRI, and the proportion of patients with increased levels of C reactive protein were higher in patients with AS. Importantly, these factors have also been identified as prognostic factors for more severe disease in terms of new bone formation. Thus, nr-axSpA may represent an early stage of AS but may also just be an abortive form of a disease which does cause much pain but which may also never lead to structural changes of the axial skeleton. Since the cut-off between nr-axSpA and AS is artificial and unreliable, we think that the term nr-axSpA should not be used for diagnosis but only for classification for historical reasons.

  12. Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis: what are the similarities and differences?

    PubMed Central

    Baraliakos, X; Braun, J

    2015-01-01

    The development of the axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis (ASAS) classification criteria has had several implications for our understanding of the entire spectrum of spondyloarthritides (SpA). Going beyond the modified New York criteria, which concentrate on conventional radiographs of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) for the classification of ankylosing spondylitis, the ASAS criteria add active inflammation of the SIJ as obtained by MRI and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 to classify patients with chronic back pain starting at a young age as axial SpA (axSpA). AxSpA should be considered as one disease that includes AS, the radiographic form, as well as the non-radiographic (nr-axSpA) form. Similarities and differences between these subgroups have been described in 3 studies: 1 local study, 1 national study (German SpA Inception Cohort) and 1 international study mainly conducted to test the efficacy of a tumour necrosis factor α blocker. Most clinical features and assessments of axSpA showed the same prevalence in patients with and without radiographic changes. However, some differences have been observed: the male:female ratio, the proportion of patients with objective signs of inflammation such as bone marrow oedema as detected by MRI, and the proportion of patients with increased levels of C reactive protein were higher in patients with AS. Importantly, these factors have also been identified as prognostic factors for more severe disease in terms of new bone formation. Thus, nr-axSpA may represent an early stage of AS but may also just be an abortive form of a disease which does cause much pain but which may also never lead to structural changes of the axial skeleton. Since the cut-off between nr-axSpA and AS is artificial and unreliable, we think that the term nr-axSpA should not be used for diagnosis but only for classification for historical reasons. PMID:26557375

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 34 - Radiographer Certification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Pt. 34, App. A Appendix A to Part 34—Radiographer Certification I... Agreement State requirements; 2. Written in a multiple-choice format; 3. Have test items drawn from...

  14. Reliability of Panoramic Radiographs in the Localization of Mandibular Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Karthikeya; Guledgud, Mahima V

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the reliability and accuracy of panoramic radiographs in the localization of mandibular foramen. Materials and Methods Twenty five Indian dry human adult mandibles constituted the study material. Ten measurements were carried on each of them to evaluate the location of mandibular foramen with respect to adjacent anatomic landmarks. Panoramic radiographs were then made of the mandibles. Same distances were measured on the traced images of the radiographs. Paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation test were applied to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of panoramic radiographs in localization of mandibular foramen. Results The mean distances measured on dry mandibles and panoramic radiographs showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was strong positive correlation between the measurements on dry mandible and panoramic radiographs. Conclusion The panoramic radiographs can serve as a guide in locating the anterosuperior point of mandibular foramen on panoramic radiographs. PMID:26155559

  15. Chest Radiographic Patterns and the Transmission of Tuberculosis: Implications for Automated Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Angela; Barrie, James; Winter, Christopher; Elamy, Abdel-Halim; Tyrrell, Gregory; Long, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Computer-aided detection to identify and diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis is being explored. While both cavitation on chest radiograph and smear-positivity on microscopy are independent risk factors for the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis it is unknown which radiographic pattern, were it detectable, would provide the greatest public health benefit; i.e. reduced transmission. Herein we provide that evidence. Objectives 1) to determine whether pulmonary tuberculosis in a high income, low incidence country is more likely to present with “typical” adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis radiographic features and 2) to determine whether those with “typical” radiographic features are more likely than those without such features to transmit the organism and/or cause secondary cases. Methods Over a three-year period beginning January 1, 2006 consecutive adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in the Province of Alberta, Canada, were identified and their pre-treatment radiographs scored by three independent readers as “typical” (having an upper lung zone predominant infiltrate, with or without cavitation but no discernable adenopathy) or “atypical” (all others). Each patient’s pre-treatment bacillary burden was carefully documented and, during a 30-month transmission window, each patient’s transmission events were recorded. Mycobacteriology, radiology and transmission were compared in those with “typical” versus “atypical” radiographs. Findings A total of 97 smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases were identified, 69 (71.1%) with and 28 (28.9%) without “typical” chest radiographs. “Typical” cases were more likely to have high bacillary burdens and cavitation (Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals: 2.75 [1.04–7.31] and 9.10 [2.51–32.94], respectively). Typical cases were also responsible for most transmission events—78% of tuberculin skin test conversions (p<0.002) and 95% of secondary cases in reported

  16. C-reactive protein/albumin ratio as prognostic score in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many studies have examined histopathological factors and various prognostic scores related to inflammation to predict outcomes. Here, we examined the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/alb) ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 40 patients with OSCC. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we focused on the correlation of the CRP/alb ratio with clinicopathological characteristics and with overall survival. We then compared five inflammation-based prognostic scores, CRP/alb ratio, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The optimal cut-off value for the CRP/alb ratio was 0.085. The group with a high CRP/alb ratio had a high TNM clinical stage (P=0.002) and larger primary tumors (P=0.029), with statistically significant differences in lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. In addition, when the CRP/alb ratio was high, multivariate analysis showed a lower survival rate (P=0.002; hazard ratio=6.078), and the ROC curve showed more outstanding discriminatory ability regarding overall survival compared to other inflammation-based prognostic scores. Conclusion The CRP/alb ratio can be an independent prognostic factor when predicting prognosis in OSCC and has good prognostic ability. PMID:27847731

  17. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  19. 42 CFR 37.41 - Chest radiograph specifications-film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chest radiograph specifications-film. 37.41 Section... Specifications for Performing Chest Radiographic Examinations § 37.41 Chest radiograph specifications—film. (a... posteroanterior projection at full inspiration on a film being no less than 14 by 17 inches and no greater than...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  4. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Clinical Outcome and Prognostic Correlates1

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Man Leung; Yuen, Hon; Lai, Sik To

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) poses a major threat to the health of people worldwide. We performed a retrospective case series analysis to assess clinical outcome and identify pretreatment prognostic correlates of SARS, managed under a standardized treatment protocol. We studied 127 male and 196 female patients with a mean age of 41±14 (range 18–83). All patients, except two, received ribavirin and steroid combination therapy. In 115 (36%) patients, the course of disease was limited. Pneumonitis progressed rapidly in the remaining patients. Sixty-seven (21%) patients required intensive care, and 42 (13%) required ventilator support. Advanced age, high admission neutrophil count, and high initial lactate dehydrogenase level were independent correlates of an adverse clinical outcome. SARS-associated coronavirus caused severe illnesses in most patients, despite early treatment with ribavirin and steroid. This study has identified three independent pretreatment prognostic correlates. PMID:14519241

  5. Clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors of Bordetella pertussis infection☆

    PubMed Central

    Bellettini, Camila Vieira; de Oliveira, Andressa Welter; Tusset, Cintia; Baethgen, Ludmila Fiorenzano; Amantéa, Sérgio Luís; Motta, Fabrizio; Gasparotto, Aline; Andreolla, Huander Felipe; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors for Bordetella pertussis infection. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, which analyzed medical records of all patients submitted to a molecular dignosis (qPCR) for B. pertussis from September 2011 to January 2013. Clinical and laboratorial data were reviewed, including information about age, sex, signs/symptoms, length of hospitalization, blood cell counts, imaging findings, coinfection with other respiratory pathogens and clinical outcome. RESULTS: 222 cases were revised. Of these, 72.5% had proven pertussis, and 60.9% were under 1 year old. In patients aging up to six months, independent predictors for B. pertussis infection were (OR 8.0, CI 95% 1.8-36.3; p=0.007) and lymphocyte count >104/µL (OR 10.0, CI 95% 1.8-54.5; p=0.008). No independent predictors of B. pertussis infection could be determined for patients older than six months. Co-infection was found in 21.4% of patients, of which 72.7% were up to six months of age. Adenovirus was the most common agent (40.9%). In these patients, we were not able to identify any clinical features to detect patients presenting with a respiratory co-infection, even though longer hospital stay was observed in patients with co-infections (12 vs. 6 days; p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Cyanosis and lymphocytosis are independent predictors for pertussis in children up to 6 months old. PMID:25510991

  6. Salam's independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    In his kind review of my biography of the Nobel laureate Abdus Salam (December 2008 pp45-46), John W Moffat wrongly claims that Salam had "independently thought of the idea of parity violation in weak interactions".

  7. Towards Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Kulkarni, Chetan; Biswas, Gautam; Goegel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    A remaining useful life prediction algorithm and degradation model for electrolytic capacitors is presented. Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications ranging from power supplies on critical avionics equipment to power drivers for electro-mechanical actuators. These devices are known for their low reliability and given their criticality in electronics subsystems they are a good candidate for component level prognostics and health management research. Prognostics provides a way to assess remaining useful life of a capacitor based on its current state of health and its anticipated future usage and operational conditions. In particular, experimental results of an accelerated aging test under electrical stresses are presented. The capacitors used in this test form the basis for a remaining life prediction algorithm where a model of the degradation process is suggested. This preliminary remaining life prediction algorithm serves as a demonstration of how prognostics methodologies could be used for electrolytic capacitors.

  8. Iterative Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Bingham, Philip R; Gregor, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Use of a coded source facilitates high-resolution neutron imaging but requires that the radiographic data be deconvolved. In this paper, we compare direct deconvolution with two different iterative algorithms, namely, one based on direct deconvolution embedded in an MLE-like framework and one based on a geometric model of the neutron beam and a least squares formulation of the inverse imaging problem.

  9. Video enhancement of dental radiographic films

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dis, M.L.; Beck, F.M.; Miles, D.A. )

    1989-08-01

    A prototype video image display system, a real-time analog enhancer (RAE), was compared to conventional viewing conditions with the use of nonscreen dental films. When medium optical density films were evaluated, there was no significant difference in the number of radiographic details detected. Conventional viewing conditions allowed perception of more details when dark films were evaluated; however, the RAE unit allowed the perception of more details when light films were viewed.

  10. Clinical and radiographic maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Nilton; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review of the literature to determine the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis emphasizing the main aspects of interest to the dentist in order to make them fit for the proper treatment of this population. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible in order to plan the treatment more suitable to provide a better life’s quality to the patients. The most frequent clinical maxillofacial features were: grooved palate, midfacial hypoplasia, mandibular hypoplasia and enamel hypoplasia. The most common radiographic maxillofacial features were: obtuse mandibular angle, frontal/parietal/occiptal bossing, open fontanels and sutures, multiple impacted teeth. The earlier diagnostic of pycnodysostosis has a fundamental role in general health of the patients. We consider that is very important that the dentist know recognize the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis, which allows correct treatment planning avoiding risks and ensuring better life’s quality to the patients. PMID:24753741

  11. Unsupervised segmentation of lungs from chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Payel; Antani, Sameer K.; Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes our preliminary investigations for deriving and characterizing coarse-level textural regions present in the lung field on chest radiographs using unsupervised grow-cut (UGC), a cellular automaton based unsupervised segmentation technique. The segmentation has been performed on a publicly available data set of chest radiographs. The algorithm is useful for this application because it automatically converges to a natural segmentation of the image from random seed points using low-level image features such as pixel intensity values and texture features. Our goal is to develop a portable screening system for early detection of lung diseases for use in remote areas in developing countries. This involves developing automated algorithms for screening x-rays as normal/abnormal with a high degree of sensitivity, and identifying lung disease patterns on chest x-rays. Automatically deriving and quantitatively characterizing abnormal regions present in the lung field is the first step toward this goal. Therefore, region-based features such as geometrical and pixel-value measurements were derived from the segmented lung fields. In the future, feature selection and classification will be performed to identify pathological conditions such as pulmonary tuberculosis on chest radiographs. Shape-based features will also be incorporated to account for occlusions of the lung field and by other anatomical structures such as the heart and diaphragm.

  12. Morphometric Comparison of Clavicle Outlines from 3D Bone Scans and 2D Chest Radiographs: A Short-listing Tool to Assist Radiographic Identification of Human Skeletons

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Carl N.; Amidan, Brett G.; Trease, Harold E.; Guyomarch, Pierre; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Byrd, John E.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a computerized clavicle identification system, primarily designed to resolve the identities of unaccounted for US soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Elliptical Fourier analysis is used to quantify the clavicle outline shape from skeletons and postero-anterior antemortem chest radiographs to rank individuals in terms of metric distance. Similar to leading fingerprint identification systems, shortlists of the top matching candidates are extracted for subsequent human visual assessment. Two independent tests of the computerized system using 17 field-recovered skeletons and 409 chest radiographs demonstrate that true positive matches are captured within the top 5% of the sample 75% of the time. These results are outstanding given the eroded state of some field-recovered skeletons and the faintness of the 1950’s photoflurographs. These methods enhance the capability to resolve several hundred cold cases for which little circumstantial information exists and current DNA and dental record technologies cannot be applied.

  13. Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Factors of Colorectal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mengjie; Tan, Yinuo; Li, Xiaofen; Fu, Jianfei; Hu, Hanguang; Ye, Xianyun; Cao, Ying; Xu, Jinghong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Limited research is available regarding colorectal NENs and the prognostic factors remain controversial. Materials and Methods. A total of 68 patients with colorectal NENs were studied retrospectively. Clinical characteristics and prognosis between colonic and rectal NENs were compared. The Cox regression models were used to evaluate the predictive capacity. Results. Of the 68 colorectal NENs patients, 43 (63.2%) had rectal NENs, and 25 (36.8%) had colonic NENs. Compared with rectal NENs, colonic NENs more frequently exhibited larger tumor size (P < 0.0001) and distant metastasis (P < 0.0001). Colonic NENs had a worse prognosis (P = 0.027), with 5-year overall survival rates of 66.7% versus 88.1%. NET, NEC, and MANEC were noted in 61.8%, 23.5%, and 14.7% of patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that tumor location was not an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.081), but tumor size (P = 0.037) and pathological classification (P = 0.012) were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion. Significant differences exist between colonic and rectal NENs. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumor size and pathological classification were associated with prognosis. Tumor location was not an independent factor. The worse outcome of colonic NENs observed in clinical practice might be due not only to the biological differences, but also to larger tumor size in colonic NENs caused by the delayed diagnosis. PMID:28194176

  14. The forensic radiographer: a new member in the medicolegal team.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Chevallier, Christine; Dominguez, Alejandro; Bruguier, Christine; Elandoy, Cristèle; Mangin, Patrice; Grabherr, Silke

    2012-03-01

    Multidetector computed tomography is becoming more widespread in forensic medicine. In most services, autopsy assistants perform the radiological examination. We introduced professional radiographers into the legal medicine service and hypothesized they would also be able to take over duties currently reserved for other specialists. The aims of this study were to evaluate if radiographers could be trained as "forensic radiographers" by (1) integrating graduated medical radiographers into the legal medicine service, (2) investigating the advantages of this collaboration, and (3) defining the duties of the forensic radiographers.The study was performed prospectively on a group of 8 recruited radiographers who underwent a testing period with special training. They learned the basics of medicolegal case treatment, the autonomous execution of postmortem computed tomography angiography, and postprocessing of data. Seven of 8 radiographers finished the training and were integrated into our service. Although all radiographers were able to fulfill the duties demanded after the training period, some radiographers could not enter or complete the program because they were unable to work with dead bodies.Our study presents the advantages of integrating radiographers into the medicolegal team and proposes how to train the forensic radiographers. In addition, the duties and responsibilities of these new specialists are defined.

  15. Histopathologic Features of Prognostic Significance in High-Grade Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chui, Michael Herman; Kandel, Rita A; Wong, Marcus; Griffin, Anthony M; Bell, Robert S; Blackstein, Martin E; Wunder, Jay S; Dickson, Brendan C

    2016-08-23

    Context .- In osteosarcoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy the extent of tumor necrosis on resection is considered an indicator of treatment response, and this has been shown to correlate with survival in most but not all studies. Objective .- To identify additional histologic variables of prognostic significance in high-grade osteosarcoma. Design .- Slides of pretreatment biopsy and primary postneoadjuvant chemotherapy resections from 165 patients with high-grade osteosarcoma were reviewed. Univariate (Kaplan-Meier) and multivariate (Cox regression) analyses were performed to identify clinical and histomorphologic attributes associated with overall survival. Results .- Univariate analyses confirmed the prognostic significance of metastatic status on presentation, primary tumor size, anatomic site, and histologic subtype. Additionally, the identification of lymphovascular invasion, 10% or more residual viable tumor, and 10 or more mitoses per 10 high-powered fields assessed in posttreatment resections were associated with poor survival, retaining significance in multivariate analyses. Based on results from multivariate analysis, we developed a prognostic index incorporating primary tumor size and site, and significant histologic features assessed on resection (ie, lymphovascular invasion status, mitotic rate, and extent of viable tumor). This scoring system segregates patients into 3 risk categories with significant differences in overall survival and retained significance in an independent validation set of 42 cases. Conclusions .- The integration of clinical and microscopic features improves prognostication of patients with osteosarcoma.

  16. Prognostic models in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Halpern, A C; Schuchter, L M

    1997-02-01

    Predicting which patients with primary melanoma are at risk of developing metastastic disease is important for making rational therapeutic decisions. Tumor thickness alone is the most commonly used predictor of survival, but other clinical and pathologic variables also play an important role. We have developed two multivariate logistic regression models to predict survival in patients who have primary melanoma. The first of these models assigns patients to two groups based on radial or vertical growth phase. The probability of survival for those patients with vertical growth phase tumors was further determined based on a model using six variables (mitotic rate, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor thickness, anatomic site of the primary tumor, sex, and histologic regression) that have the greatest strength as independent predictors of survival. This model is 89% accurate for predicting survival in patients with vertical growth phase tumors. A second model has been developed that uses readily available clinical parameters to predict survival. Four variables (tumor thickness, anatomic site, age, and sex) entered into the model as powerful independent predictors. Clinical algorithms for assessing patient risk are provided.

  17. Real-Time Radiographic In-Situ Characterization Of Ply Lift In Composite Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, Ronald D.; Doering, Edward R.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of ply lifting in composite materials is a significant issue for various aerospace and military applications. A fundamental element in the prevention or mitigation of ply lift is determination of the timing of the ply lifting event during exposure of the composite material to flight conditions. The Marshall Space Flight Center s Nondestructive Evaluation Team developed a real-time radiographic technique for the detection of ply lift in carbon phenolic ablative materials in situ during live firings of subscale test motors in support of NASA s Reusable Solid Rocket Motor program, using amorphous silicon detector panels. The radiographic method has successfully detected ply lifting in seven consecutive carbon phenolic converging cones attached to solid fuel torches, providing the time of ply lift initiation in each test. Post-processing of the radiographic images improved the accuracy of timing measurements and allowed measurement of the ply lifting height as a function of time. Radiographic data correlated well with independent pressure and temperature measurements that indicate the onset of ply lift in the nozzle material.

  18. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the…

  19. Prognostic value of late heart rate recovery after treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nils P; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2012-07-01

    Recovery from exercise can be divided into an early, rapid period and a late, slower period. Although early heart rate (HR) recovery 1 minute after treadmill exercise independently predicts survival, the prognostic value of late HR recovery has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent prognostic value of late HR recovery for all-cause mortality. A total of 2,082 patients referred to the nuclear cardiology laboratory of an urban academic medical center for treadmill exercise with imaging from August 1998 to December 2003 were followed for all-cause mortality. During 9.9 ± 1.5 years of follow-up, 196 deaths (9%) occurred. To avoid overlap with early HR recovery or the baseline HR, late HR recovery was defined as the percentage of the cycle length change between rest and peak exercise that had been recovered after 5 minutes. Lower values represent impaired recovery, by analogy with 1-minute HR recovery. Impaired late HR recovery was a significant univariate predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.28 per percentage, 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.46, p <0.001). It significantly improved a nested, multivariate model (change in chi-square 8.66, p = 0.003), including 1-minute HR recovery, with independent prognostic value (adjusted hazard ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.41 to 0.84, p = 0.004). In conclusion, late HR recovery after treadmill exercise stress adds prognostic value for all-cause mortality to a multivariate model including early, 1-minute HR recovery.

  20. Cytogenetic Prognostication Within Medulloblastoma Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Shih, David J.H.; Northcott, Paul A.; Remke, Marc; Korshunov, Andrey; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Kool, Marcel; Luu, Betty; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M.; Garzia, Livia; Peacock, John; Mack, Stephen C.; Wu, Xiaochong; Rolider, Adi; Morrissy, A. Sorana; Cavalli, Florence M.G.; Jones, David T.W.; Zitterbart, Karel; Faria, Claudia C.; Schüller, Ulrich; Kren, Leos; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Shin Ra, Young; Garami, Miklós; Hauser, Peter; Chan, Jennifer A.; Robinson, Shenandoah; Bognár, László; Klekner, Almos; Saad, Ali G.; Liau, Linda M.; Albrecht, Steffen; Fontebasso, Adam; Cinalli, Giuseppe; De Antonellis, Pasqualino; Zollo, Massimo; Cooper, Michael K.; Thompson, Reid C.; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C.; Di Rocco, Concezio; Massimi, Luca; Michiels, Erna M.C.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Gupta, Nalin; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M.; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Eberhart, Charles G.; Fouladi, Maryam; Lach, Boleslaw; Jung, Shin; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Jouvet, Anne; Jabado, Nada; Pollack, Ian F.; Weiss, William A.; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Leonard, Jeffrey R.; Rubin, Joshua B.; de Torres, Carmen; Lavarino, Cinzia; Mora, Jaume; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tabori, Uri; Olson, James M.; Gajjar, Amar; Packer, Roger J.; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pomeroy, Scott L.; French, Pim J.; Kloosterhof, Nanne K.; Kros, Johan M.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Clifford, Steven C.; Bourdeaut, Franck; Delattre, Olivier; Doz, François F.; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Malkin, David; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A.; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Taylor, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Current medulloblastoma protocols stratify patients based on clinical features: patient age, metastatic stage, extent of resection, and histologic variant. Stark prognostic and genetic differences among the four subgroups suggest that subgroup-specific molecular biomarkers could improve patient prognostication. Patients and Methods Molecular biomarkers were identified from a discovery set of 673 medulloblastomas from 43 cities around the world. Combined risk stratification models were designed based on clinical and cytogenetic biomarkers identified by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. Identified biomarkers were tested using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a nonoverlapping medulloblastoma tissue microarray (n = 453), with subsequent validation of the risk stratification models. Results Subgroup information improves the predictive accuracy of a multivariable survival model compared with clinical biomarkers alone. Most previously published cytogenetic biomarkers are only prognostic within a single medulloblastoma subgroup. Profiling six FISH biomarkers (GLI2, MYC, chromosome 11 [chr11], chr14, 17p, and 17q) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, we can reliably and reproducibly identify very low-risk and very high-risk patients within SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas. Conclusion Combining subgroup and cytogenetic biomarkers with established clinical biomarkers substantially improves patient prognostication, even in the context of heterogeneous clinical therapies. The prognostic significance of most molecular biomarkers is restricted to a specific subgroup. We have identified a small panel of cytogenetic biomarkers that reliably identifies very high-risk and very low-risk groups of patients, making it an excellent tool for selecting patients for therapy intensification and therapy de-escalation in future clinical trials. PMID

  1. Prognostic factors in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Braeckman, Johan; Michielsen, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    In the nineteenth century the main goal of medicine was predictive: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted to cure the disease. Since the twentieth century, the word prognosis has also been used in nonmedical contexts, for example in corporate finance or elections. The most accurate form of prognosis is achieved statistically. Based on different prognostic factors it should be possible to tell patients how they are expected to do after prostate cancer has been diagnosed and how different treatments may change this outcome. A prognosis is a prediction. The word prognosis comes from the Greek word (see text) and means foreknowing. In the nineteenth century this was the main goal of medicine: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted towards seeking a cure. Prognostic factors in (prostate) cancer are defined as "variables that can account for some of the heterogeneity associated with the expected course and outcome of a disease". Bailey defined prognosis as "a reasoned forecast concerning the course, pattern, progression, duration, and end of the disease. Prognostic factors are not only essential to understand the natural history and the course of the disease, but also to predict possible different outcomes of different treatments or perhaps no treatment at all. This is extremely important in a disease like prostate cancer where there is clear evidence that a substantial number of cases discovered by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing are unlikely ever to become clinically significant, not to mention mortal. Furthermore, prognostic factors are of paramount importance for correct interpretation of clinical trials and for the construction of future trials. Finally, according to WHO national screening committee criteria for implementing a national screening programme, widely accepted prognostic factors must be defined before

  2. Comparing prediction models for radiographic exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, W.; Robinson, J.; McEntee, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    During radiographic exposures the milliampere-seconds (mAs), kilovoltage peak (kVp) and source-to-image distance can be adjusted for variations in patient thicknesses. Several exposure adjustment systems have been developed to assist with this selection. This study compares the accuracy of four systems to predict the required mAs for pelvic radiographs taken on a direct digital radiography system (DDR). Sixty radiographs were obtained by adjusting mAs to compensate for varying combinations of source-to-image distance (SID), kVp and patient thicknesses. The 25% rule, the DuPont Bit System and the DigiBit system were compared to determine which of these three most accurately predicted the mAs required for an increase in patient thickness. Similarly, the 15% rule, the DuPont Bit System and the DigiBit system were compared for an increase in kVp. The exposure index (EI) was used as an indication of exposure to the DDR. For each exposure combination the mAs was adjusted until an EI of 1500+/-2% was achieved. The 25% rule was the most accurate at predicting the mAs required for an increase in patient thickness, with 53% of the mAs predictions correct. The DigiBit system was the most accurate at predicting mAs needed for changes in kVp, with 33% of predictions correct. This study demonstrated that the 25% rule and DigiBit system were the most accurate predictors of mAs required for an increase in patient thickness and kVp respectively. The DigiBit system worked well in both scenarios as it is a single exposure adjustment system that considers a variety of exposure factors.

  3. Segmentation of ribs in digital chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Lin; Guo, Wei; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Ribs and clavicles in posterior-anterior (PA) digital chest radiographs often overlap with lung abnormalities such as nodules, and cause missing of these abnormalities, it is therefore necessary to remove or reduce the ribs in chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to develop a fully automated algorithm to segment ribs within lung area in digital radiography (DR) for removal of the ribs. The rib segmentation algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, a radiograph was pre-processed for contrast adjustment and noise removal; second, generalized Hough transform was employed to localize the lower boundary of the ribs. In the third step, a novel bilateral dynamic programming algorithm was used to accurately segment the upper and lower boundaries of ribs simultaneously. The width of the ribs and the smoothness of the rib boundaries were incorporated in the cost function of the bilateral dynamic programming for obtaining consistent results for the upper and lower boundaries. Our database consisted of 93 DR images, including, respectively, 23 and 70 images acquired with a DR system from Shanghai United-Imaging Healthcare Co. and from GE Healthcare Co. The rib localization algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 98.2% with 0.1 false positives per image. The accuracy of the detected ribs was further evaluated subjectively in 3 levels: "1", good; "2", acceptable; "3", poor. The percentages of good, acceptable, and poor segmentation results were 91.1%, 7.2%, and 1.7%, respectively. Our algorithm can obtain good segmentation results for ribs in chest radiography and would be useful for rib reduction in our future study.

  4. Bone suppression technique for chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhimin; Xu, Fan; Zhang, Jane; Zhao, Hui; Hobbs, Susan K.; Wandtke, John C.; Sykes, Anne-Marie; Paul, Narinder; Foos, David

    2014-03-01

    High-contrast bone structures are a major noise contributor in chest radiographic images. A signal of interest in a chest radiograph could be either partially or completely obscured or "overshadowed" by the highly contrasted bone structures in its surrounding. Thus, removing the bone structures, especially the posterior rib and clavicle structures, is highly desirable to increase the visibility of soft tissue density. We developed an innovative technology that offers a solution to suppress bone structures, including posterior ribs and clavicles, on conventional and portable chest X-ray images. The bone-suppression image processing technology includes five major steps: 1) lung segmentation, 2) rib and clavicle structure detection, 3) rib and clavicle edge detection, 4) rib and clavicle profile estimation, and 5) suppression based on the estimated profiles. The bone-suppression software outputs an image with both the rib and clavicle structures suppressed. The rib suppression performance was evaluated on 491 images. On average, 83.06% (±6.59%) of the rib structures on a standard chest image were suppressed based on the comparison of computer-identified rib areas against hand-drawn rib areas, which is equivalent to about an average of one rib that is still visible on a rib-suppressed image based on a visual assessment. Reader studies were performed to evaluate reader performance in detecting lung nodules and pneumothoraces with and without a bone-suppression companion view. Results from reader studies indicated that the bone-suppression technology significantly improved radiologists' performance in the detection of CT-confirmed possible nodules and pneumothoraces on chest radiographs. The results also showed that radiologists were more confident in making diagnoses regarding the presence or absence of an abnormality after rib-suppressed companion views were presented

  5. A generic cycling hypoxia-derived prognostic gene signature: application to breast cancer profiling

    PubMed Central

    Helleputte, Thibault; Rubio, Laila Illan; Dupont, Pierre; Feron, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Temporal and local fluctuations in O2 in tumors require adaptive mechanisms to support cancer cell survival and proliferation. The transcriptome associated with cycling hypoxia (CycHyp) could thus represent a prognostic biomarker of cancer progression. Methods We exposed 20 tumor cell lines to repeated periods of hypoxia/reoxygenation to determine a transcriptomic CycHyp signature and used clinical data sets from 2,150 breast cancer patients to estimate a prognostic Cox proportional hazard model to assess its prognostic performance. Results The CycHyp prognostic potential was validated in patients independently of the receptor status of the tumors. The discriminating capacity of the CycHyp signature was further increased in the ER+ HER2- patient populations including those with a node negative status under treatment (HR=3.16) or not (HR=5.54). The CycHyp prognostic signature outperformed a signature derived from continuous hypoxia and major prognostic metagenes (P<0.001). The CycHyp signature could also identify ER+HER2 node-negative breast cancer patients at high risk based on clinicopathologic criteria but who could have been spared from chemotherapy and inversely those patients classified at low risk based but who presented a negative outcome. Conclusions The CycHyp signature is prognostic of breast cancer and offers a unique decision making tool to complement anatomopathologic evaluation. PMID:25216520

  6. Inspecting Pipe Radiographically Through Asbestos Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianettino, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Welds between sections of insulated steampipe located and inspected radiographically. Unless need to repair defective weld, one avoids cost, time, and hazard of removing asbestos insulation. Enables inspectors to locate and evaluate nondestructively any weld in pipe system, without shutting down steam. Hidden weld joints first located by use of low-power fluoroscope, moved along pipe while technician observes fluoroscopic image. Low-energy x rays from fluoroscope penetrate insulation but not pipe. Weld bead appears in silhouette on fluoroscope screen. Technician then accurately marks weld sites on insulation for later inspection.

  7. [Detection method for blurred regions in radiographs].

    PubMed

    Muroi, Tomoya; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Tsurumaki, Masaki

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a detection method for blurred regions in radiographs. The method involves edge detection using a Sobel filter, manually determining the region of interest (ROI), feature calculation, and classification using a support vector machine. We applied our method to 14 phantom images (7 normal images, 7 blurred images) and 14 clinical images (12 normal images, 2 blurred images). As a result, the average classification accuracies of ROIs with blurring and ROIs without blurring were 98% and 90% for phantom images and clinical images, respectively.

  8. Chest radiographic manifestations of scrub typhus

    PubMed Central

    Abhilash, KPP; Mannam, PR; Rajendran, K; John, RA; Ramasami, P

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Respiratory system involvement in scrub typhus is seen in 20–72% of patients. In endemic areas, good understanding and familiarity with the various radiologic findings of scrub typhus are essential in identifying pulmonary complications. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a tertiary care center with scrub typhus between October 2012 and September 2013 and had a chest X ray done were included in the analysis. Details and radiographic findings were noted and factors associated with abnormal X-rays were analyzed. Results: The study cohort contained 398 patients. Common presenting complaints included fever (100%), generalized myalgia (83%), headache (65%), dyspnea (54%), cough (24.3%), and altered sensorium (14%). Almost half of the patients (49.4%) had normal chest radiographs. Common radiological pulmonary abnormalities included pleural effusion (14.6%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (14%), airspace opacity (10.5%), reticulonodular opacities (10.3%), peribronchial thickening (5.8%), and pulmonary edema (2%). Cardiomegaly was noted in 3.5% of patients. Breathlessness, presence of an eschar, platelet counts of <20,000 cells/cumm, and total serum bilirubin >2 mg/dL had the highest odds of having an abnormal chest radiograph. Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray had a higher requirement of noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 13.98; 95% confidence interval CI: 5.89–33.16), invasive ventilation (OR: 18.07; 95% CI: 6.42–50.88), inotropes (OR: 8.76; 95% CI: 4.35–17.62), higher involvement of other organ systems, longer duration of hospital stay (3.18 ± 3 vs. 7.27 ± 5.58 days; P < 0.001), and higher mortality (OR: 4.63; 95% CI: 1.54–13.85). Conclusion: Almost half of the patients with scrub typhus have abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiography should be included as part of basic evaluation at presentation in patients with scrub typhus, especially in those with breathlessness, eschar, jaundice, and severe

  9. Radiographic Evaluation of Common Pediatric Elbow Injuries

    PubMed Central

    DeFroda, Steven F.; Hansen, Heather; Gil, Joseph A.; Hawari, Ashraf H.; Cruz, Aristides I.

    2017-01-01

    Normal variations in anatomy in the skeletally immature patient may be mistaken for fracture or injury due to the presence of secondary centers of ossification. Variations in imaging exist from patient to patient based on sex, age, and may even vary from one extremity to the other on the same patient. Despite differences in the appearance of the bony anatomy of the elbow there are certain landmarks and relationships, which can help, distinguish normal from abnormal. We review common radiographic parameters and pitfalls associated in the evaluation of pediatric elbow imaging. We also review common clinical diagnoses in this population. PMID:28286625

  10. Understanding independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annan, James; Hargreaves, Julia

    2016-04-01

    In order to perform any Bayesian processing of a model ensemble, we need a prior over the ensemble members. In the case of multimodel ensembles such as CMIP, the historical approach of ``model democracy'' (i.e. equal weight for all models in the sample) is no longer credible (if it ever was) due to model duplication and inbreeding. The question of ``model independence'' is central to the question of prior weights. However, although this question has been repeatedly raised, it has not yet been satisfactorily addressed. Here I will discuss the issue of independence and present a theoretical foundation for understanding and analysing the ensemble in this context. I will also present some simple examples showing how these ideas may be applied and developed.

  11. Structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis as visualized through radiographs

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Several agents show an effect on reducing radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis. It is tempting to retrospectively compare the effects of these agents on radiographic progression across clinical trials. However, there are several limitations in interpreting and comparing radiographic results across clinical trials. These limitations, including study designs, patient characteristics, durations of follow-up, scoring methodologies, reader reliability, radiograph sequence, handling of missing data, and data presentation, will be discussed. The consequences are illustrated with several examples of recent clinical trials that show an effect on radiographic progression. A guide in the interpretation and clinical relevance of radiographic results is presented, with the Anti-TNF Trial in Rheumatoid Arthritis with Concomitant Therapy used as an example. PMID:12110155

  12. Autophagy-related prognostic signature for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yunyan; Li, Pengfei; Peng, Fuduan; Zhang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liang, Haihai; Zhao, Wenyuan; Qi, Lishuang; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Chenguang; Guo, Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy is a process that degrades intracellular constituents, such as long-lived or damaged proteins and organelles, to buffer metabolic stress under starvation conditions. Deregulation of autophagy is involved in the progression of cancer. However, the predictive value of autophagy for breast cancer prognosis remains unclear. First, based on gene expression profiling, we found that autophagy genes were implicated in breast cancer. Then, using the Cox proportional hazard regression model, we detected autophagy prognostic signature for breast cancer in a training dataset. We identified a set of eight autophagy genes (BCL2, BIRC5, EIF4EBP1, ERO1L, FOS, GAPDH, ITPR1 and VEGFA) that were significantly associated with overall survival in breast cancer. The eight autophagy genes were assigned as a autophagy-related prognostic signature for breast cancer. Based on the autophagy-related signature, the training dataset GSE21653 could be classified into high-risk and low-risk subgroups with significantly different survival times (HR = 2.72, 95% CI = (1.91, 3.87); P = 1.37 × 10(-5)). Inactivation of autophagy was associated with shortened survival of breast cancer patients. The prognostic value of the autophagy-related signature was confirmed in the testing dataset GSE3494 (HR = 2.12, 95% CI = (1.48, 3.03); P = 1.65 × 10(-3)) and GSE7390 (HR = 1.76, 95% CI = (1.22, 2.54); P = 9.95 × 10(-4)). Further analysis revealed that the prognostic value of the autophagy signature was independent of known clinical prognostic factors, including age, tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, ERBB2 status, lymph node status and TP53 mutation status. Finally, we demonstrated that the autophagy signature could also predict distant metastasis-free survival for breast cancer.

  13. MRI visualisation by digitally reconstructed radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrurier, Antoine; Bönsch, Andrea; Lau, Robert; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Visualising volumetric medical images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) clients is often achieved by image browsing in sagittal, coronal or axial views or three-dimensional (3D) rendering. This latter technique requires fine thresholding for MRI. On the other hand, computing virtual radiograph images, also referred to as digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR), provides in a single two-dimensional (2D) image a complete overview of the 3D data. It appears therefore as a powerful alternative for MRI visualisation and preview in PACS. This study describes a method to compute DRR from T1-weighted MRI. After segmentation of the background, a histogram distribution analysis is performed and each foreground MRI voxel is labeled as one of three tissues: cortical bone, also known as principal absorber of the X-rays, muscle and fat. An intensity level is attributed to each voxel according to the Hounsfield scale, linearly related to the X-ray attenuation coefficient. Each DRR pixel is computed as the accumulation of the new intensities of the MRI dataset along the corresponding X-ray. The method has been tested on 16 T1-weighted MRI sets. Anterior-posterior and lateral DRR have been computed with reasonable qualities and avoiding any manual tissue segmentations. This proof-of-concept holds for research application for use in clinical PACS.

  14. Radiographic X-Ray Pulse Jitter

    SciTech Connect

    Mitton, C. V., Good, D. E., Henderson, D. J., Hogge, K. W.

    2011-01-15

    The Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources. Major components of the machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 60-ns. Each source has the following x-ray parameters: 1-mm-diameter spot size, 4-rad at 1 m, 50-ns full width half max. The x-ray pulse is measured with PIN diode detectors. The sources were developed to produce high resolution images on single-shot, high-value experiments. For this application it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. X-ray pulse jitter is a key metric for analysis of reproducibility. We will give measurements of x-ray jitter for each machine. It is expected that x-ray pulse jitter is predominantly due to PFL switch jitter, and therefore a correlation of the two will be discussed.

  15. Dynamic assessment of RBC-transfusion dependency improves the prognostic value of the revised-IPSS in MDS patients.

    PubMed

    Hiwase, Devendra K; Singhal, Deepak; Strupp, Corinna; Chhetri, Rakchha; Kutyna, Monika M; Wee, L Amilia; Harrison, Peter B; Nath, Shriram V; Wickham, Nicholas; Hui, Chi-Hung; Gray, James X; Bardy, Peter; Ross, David M; Lewis, Ian D; Reynolds, John; To, L Bik; Germing, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    RBC-transfusion dependency (RBC-TD) is an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (OS) in the WHO classification-based prognostic scoring system (WPSS) for MDS patients. However, WPSS did not include cytopenia, whereas revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) did not include RBC-TD. Thus, neither of these prognostic scoring systems incorporates both cytopenia and RBC-TD. We aimed to test whether RBC-TD adds prognostic value to the IPSS-R. We analyzed MDS patients not treated with disease-modifying therapy, and enrolled in SA-MDS Registry (derivation cohort; n = 295) and Dusseldorf registry (Germany; validation cohort; n = 113) using time-dependent Cox proportional regression and serial landmark analyses. In the derivation cohort, RBC-TD patients had inferior OS compared to RBC transfusion-independent (RBC-TI) patients (P < 0.0001) at 6- (18 vs. 64 months), 12- (24 vs. 71 months), and 24-months (40 vs. 87 months). In a Cox proportional regression analysis, RBC-TD was an independent adverse prognostic marker in addition to age, sex, and IPSS-R variables (P < 0.0001). A prognostic index (PI) was derived using these Cox-proportional regression model variables. In the validation cohort, this PI classified patients into four prognostic groups with significantly different OS (P < 0.001) as in the derivation cohort. In conclusion, multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression and serial landmark analyses clearly demonstrates that development of RBC-TD at any time during the course of MDS is associated with poor OS, independent of IPSS-R. This study demonstrates that dynamic assessment of RBC-TD provides additional prognostic value to IPSS-R and should be included in treatment decision algorithms for MDS patients.

  16. Talocalcaneal coalition: A focus on radiographic findings and sites of bridging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon Hyuck; Park, Hyung Jun; Yeo, Eui Dong; Lee, Young Koo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Verifying the exact location of talocalcaneal (TC) coalition is important for surgery, but the complicated anatomy of the subtalar joint makes it difficult to visualize on radiographs. No study has used computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to verify the radiological characteristics of TC coalition or those of different facet coalitions. Therefore, this study verified the radiological findings used to identify TC coalitions and those of different facet coalitions using CT and MRI. Materials and Methods: Plain with/without weight bearing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, CT, and MRI of 43 feet in 39 patients with TC coalitions were reviewed retrospectively. CT or MRI was used to verify the location of the TC coalition. Secondary signs for the presence of a coalition in the anteroposterior and lateral plain radiographs, including talar beak, humpback sign, duck-face sign, and typical or deformed C-sign, were evaluated. Three independent observers evaluated the radiographs twice at 6-week intervals to determine intraobserver reliability. They examined the radiographs for the secondary signs, listed above, and coalition involved facets. Results: The average rates from both assessments were as follows: Middle facet 5%, middle and posterior facets 27%, and posterior facet 68%. The deformed C-sign is more prevalent in posterior facet coalitions. The posterior facet has the highest prevalence of involvement in TC coalitions, and the deformed C-sign and duck-face sign have high correlations with TC coalitions in the posterior subtalar facet. Conclusion: A posterior facet is the most prevalent for TC coalition, and the C-sign is useful for determining all types of TC coalition. PMID:27904223

  17. Reader characteristics linked to detection of pulmonary nodules on radiographs: ROC vs. JAFROC analyses of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Akshay; Robinson, John W.; Ryan, John; McEntee, Mark F.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether reader characteristics are linked to heightened levels of diagnostic performance in chest radiology using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and jackknife free response ROC (JAFROC) methodologies. A set of 40 postero-anterior chest radiographs was developed, of which 20 were abnormal containing one or more simulated nodules, of varying subtlety. Images were independently reviewed by 12 boardcertified radiologists including six chest specialists. The observer performance was measured in terms of ROC and JAFROC scores. For the ROC analysis, readers were asked to rate their degree of suspicion for the presence of nodules by using a confidence rating scale (1-6). JAFROC analysis required the readers to locate and rate as many suspicious areas as they wished using the same scale and resultant data were used to generate Az and FOM scores for ROC and JAFROC analyses respectively. Using Pearson methods, scores of performance were correlated with 7 reader characteristics recorded using a questionnaire. JAFROC analysis showed that improved reader performance was significantly (p<=0.05) linked with chest specialty (p<0.03), hours per week reading chest radiographs (p<0.03) and chest readings per year (p<0.04). ROC analyses demonstrated only one significant relationship, hours per week reading chest radiographs (p<0.02).The results of this study have shown that radiologist's performance in the detection of pulmonary nodules on radiographs is significantly linked to chest specialty, hours reading per week and number of radiographs read per year. Also, JAFROC is a more powerful predictor of performance as compared to ROC.

  18. Modified axillary radiograph of the shoulder: a new position.

    PubMed

    Senna, Luís Filipe; Pires E Albuquerque, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining axillary radiographs of the shoulder in acute trauma is not always feasible. The authors present a new modification of this radiographic view, in order to assess the anatomic relationship between the humeral head and the glenoid cavity. The incidence is performed with the patient sitting on X-ray table, with the affected limb supported thereon. The authors describe the case of a 28-year-old male who suffered an anterior glenohumeral dislocation that was clearly evidenced by this modified radiograph. The concentric relationship between the humeral head and the glenoid cavity was also easily confirmed by obtaining such radiograph after the reduction maneuver.

  19. Susuk - black magic exposed "white" by dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    F, Arishiya Thapasum; Mohammed, Faraz

    2014-07-01

    Susuk or charm needles are a facial cum body art widely practiced among women of Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia. These are small, needle-shaped metallic talismans inserted subcutaneously in different parts of the body. The concealed art of susuk was "exposed" by routine radiographic examination in the oral and maxillofacial region. This paper reports two such cases of unusual incidental radiographic finding in dental radiographs which were taken on a routine basis as part of the diagnostic work up. This article will also primarily enlighten the importance of radiographs in detecting such charm needles as the wearer keeps the body art a "hidden secret" thereby avoiding misdiagnosis.

  20. Radiographic evaluation of occlusal caries: effect of training and experience.

    PubMed

    Lazarchik, D A; Firestone, A R; Heaven, T J; Filler, S J; Lussi, A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect differing levels of didactic education and clinical experience have on the ability to diagnose occlusal caries from radiographs. Freshman and senior dental students and dental school faculty were asked to evaluate bitewing radiographs for the presence of occlusal caries and for a recommendation for restorative treatment. The agreement between histologic and radiographic diagnosis was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and interexaminer agreement. It was concluded that dental students and faculty did differ in their abilities to evaluate radiographs for occlusal caries, and that education and clinical experience especially affected interexaminer agreement.

  1. Towards Prognostics for Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Celaya, Jose R.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

    2013-01-01

    Electronics components have an increasingly critical role in avionics systems and in the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research field as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management information. This paper focuses on a prognostics application for electronics components within avionics systems, and in particular its application to an Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). This application utilizes the remaining useful life prediction, accomplished by employing the particle filter framework, leveraging data from accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. These tests induced thermal-electrical overstresses by applying thermal cycling to the IGBT devices. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

  2. Prognostic value of perioperative leukocyte count in resectable gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Jing; Pei, Dong; Zhou, Chen; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Zhu, Fang; He, Shao-Hua; Qian, Ying-Ying; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin; Li, Xiao; Ping, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Yi-Qian; Wang, Ping; Guo, Ren-Hua; Shu, Yong-Qian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prognostic significance of perioperative leukopenia in patients with resected gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 614 eligible gastric cancer patients who underwent curative D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. The relationship between pre- and postoperative hematologic parameters and overall survival was assessed statistically, adjusted for known prognostic factors. RESULTS: The mean white blood cell count (WBC) significantly decreased after surgery, and 107/614 (17.4%) patients developed p-leukopenia, which was defined as a preoperative WBC ≥ 4.0 × 109/L and postoperative WBC < 4.0 × 109/L, with an absolute decrease ≥ 0.5 × 109/L. The neutrophil count decreased significantly more than the lymphocyte count. P-leukopenia significantly correlated with poor tumor differentiation and preoperative WBC. A higher preoperative WBC and p-leukopenia were independent negative prognostic factors for survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.602, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.185-2.165; P = 0.002, and HR = 1.478, 95%CI: 1.149-1.902; P = 0.002, respectively] after adjusting for histology, Borrmann type, pTNM stage, vascular or neural invasion, gastrectomy method, resection margins, chemotherapy regimens, and preoperative WBC count. The patients with both higher preoperative WBC and p-leukopenia had a worse prognosis compared to those with lower baseline WBC and no p-leukopenia (27.5 mo vs 57.3 mo, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Preoperative leukocytosis alone or in combination with postoperative leukopenia could be independent prognostic factors for survival in patients with resectable gastric cancer. PMID:26973420

  3. LGALS3 as a prognostic factor for classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Koh, Young Wha; Jung, Se Jin; Park, Chan-Sik; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung

    2014-10-01

    LGALS3, a member of the lectin family, has an important role in tumor progression through inhibition of apoptosis. LGALS3 shares several significant structural properties with BCL2. In this study, we examined the prognostic significance of LGALS3 and BCL2 in uniformly treated classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Diagnostic tissues from 110 patients with uniformly treated classical Hodgkin's lymphoma were evaluated retrospectively by immunohistochemical analysis of LGALS3 and BCL2 expression. The median follow-up time was 6.2 years (range, 0.2-17.3 years). Twenty-seven patients (25%) expressed LGALS3 protein in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, which was associated with poor overall survival and event-free survival (P=0.007 and P<0.001). Fifteen patients (14%) expressed BCL2 protein in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, which was not associated with overall survival and event-free survival (P=0.928 and P=0.900).There was no correlation between LGALS3 and BCL2 expression (P=0.193). Multivariate analysis identified LGALS3 protein as an independent prognostic factor for event-free survival (P=0.007). Subgroup analysis according to the Ann Arbor stage of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma showed that LGALS3 protein expression had a prognostic value in limited-stage classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (P<0.001). The results of this study suggest that LGALS3 is an independent prognostic factor in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, and may allow the identification of a subgroup of patients with limited-stage classical Hodgkin's lymphoma who require more intensive therapy.

  4. Prognostic implication of hepatoduodenal ligament lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sung Eun; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There has been controversy regarding whether hepatoduodenal lymph node (HDLN) metastasis in gastric cancer is distant or regional metastasis. HDLN positivity was classified as distant metastasis in the 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification, but it was reclassified as regional lymph node metastasis in the 8th AJCC classification. The aim of our study is to verify prognostic significance of HDLN metastasis in gastric cancer. This retrospective study enrolled patients with gastric cancer who underwent D2 gastrectomy from January 2007 to June 2010. HDLN was classified as a regional lymph node. Total number of patients was 3175; 143 (4.5%) of them had HDLN metastasis. The HDLN positivity was significantly associated with older age, more advanced tumor stage, undifferentiated histologic type, and pathologic diagnosis of lymphatic, vascular, and perineural invasions. Five-year survival rate of HDLN-positive patients with stages I to III disease was significantly higher than that of stage IV group (59.3% vs 18.8%, P = 0.001). In patients with stage III disease, 5-year survival rate of HDLN-positive group was significantly lower than that of HDLN-negative group (51.7% vs 66.3%, P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that HDLN metastasis was an independent prognostic factor. HDLN has a different prognostic significance from other regional lymph nodes in advanced stage of gastric cancer though its positivity is not considered as distant metastasis. HDLN positivity itself seems to be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer, and the survival outcomes of patients with stage III disease need to be reconsidered according to HDLN positivity. PMID:28353581

  5. [Technical parameters to decrease the radiation dose from conventional and digital radiographs].

    PubMed

    Foulquier, J N

    2010-11-01

    Reducing radiation dose while maintaining adequate image quality on conventional and digital radiographs requires optimal use of the unit. Additional filtration avoids unnecessary tissue exposure and improves photon transmission. Automatic exposure control may reduce exposure and dose. The volume of tissue imaged must be limited by the use of diaphragms and shutters or compression. Sensitive detectors with increased photon detection also contribute to reduce dose. Radiographic films combined to rare-earth screens also afford a good photon-conversion efficiency. Large area flat panel amorphous silicon x-ray sensors may also reduce dose up to 50% compared to films. Finally, calculation of the Kerma-area product independent of the source distance constitutes an important indicator of radiation dose.

  6. Hand and wrist arthropathies of hemochromatosis and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease: distinct radiographic features

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, T.C. III; Resnik, C.S.; Guerra, J. Jr.; Vint, V.C.; Weisman, M.H.; Resnick, D.

    1983-05-01

    Radiographic features of hand and wrist involvement in 26 patients with hemochromatosis and in 26 patients with idiopathic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease were compared. Two radiologists independently examined the radiographs without knowledge of the specific group to which the patient belonged. The results of this study clearly establish that structural joint diseases in the two disorders are not identical. Characteristic findings allow the radiologist to favor one diagnosis over the other. These radiograhic differences indicate that the arthropathy of hemochromatosis is related to factors additional to the presence of CPPD crystals, specifically, the more prevalent narrowing of the metacarpophalangeal joint spaces, including those in the fourth and fifth digits, peculiar hook-like osteophytes on the radial aspect of the metacarpal heads, and less prevalent separation of the scaphoid and the lunate.

  7. 'Independence' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Independence' Panorama (QTVR)

    This is the Spirit 'Independence' panorama, acquired on martian days, or sols, 536 to 543 (July 6 to 13, 2005), from a position in the 'Columbia Hills' near the summit of 'Husband Hill.' The summit of 'Husband Hill' is the peak near the right side of this panorama and is about 100 meters (328 feet) away from the rover and about 30 meters (98 feet) higher in elevation. The rocky outcrops downhill and on the left side of this mosaic include 'Larry's Lookout' and 'Cumberland Ridge,' which Spirit explored in April, May, and June of 2005.

    The panorama spans 360 degrees and consists of 108 individual images, each acquired with five filters of the rover's panoramic camera. The approximate true color of the mosaic was generated using the camera's 750-, 530-, and 480-nanometer filters. During the 8 martian days, or sols, that it took to acquire this image, the lighting varied considerably, partly because of imaging at different times of sol, and partly because of small sol-to-sol variations in the dustiness of the atmosphere. These slight changes produced some image seams and rock shadows. These seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. However, it is often not possible or practical to smooth out such seams for regions of rock, soil, rover tracks or solar panels. Such is the nature of acquiring and assembling large panoramas from the rovers.

  8. Generic Software Architecture for Prognostics (GSAP) User Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teubert, Christopher Allen; Daigle, Matthew John; Watkins, Jason; Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The Generic Software Architecture for Prognostics (GSAP) is a framework for applying prognostics. It makes applying prognostics easier by implementing many of the common elements across prognostic applications. The standard interface enables reuse of prognostic algorithms and models across systems using the GSAP framework.

  9. Radiographer perceptions of managerial transformational leadership levels.

    PubMed

    Legg, Jeffrey S; Akroyd, Duane; Jackowski, Melissa B

    2010-01-01

    Transformational leadership focuses on the ability of a leader to impact employees by inspiring employees to broaden interests in work as well as to be innovative and creative. It is positively associated with employee satisfaction and commitment to the organization. Characteristics of transformational leaders include confidence, ability to mange and deal with complexity, and belief in their employees and organizations. Considering the importance of leadership skills in radiology departments, this paper addresses directly the empirical evidence concerning radiographer's perception of their radiology managers and supervisors transformational leadership levels in the United States. Leadership can be taught, and we as a profession must begin to implement leadership training programs for our current and future leaders.

  10. Iterative Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Bingham, Philip R; Gregor, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Use of a coded source facilitates high-resolution neutron imaging through magnifications but requires that the radiographic data be deconvolved. A comparison of direct deconvolution with two different iterative algorithms has been performed. One iterative algorithm is based on a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-like framework and the second is based on a geometric model of the neutron beam within a least squares formulation of the inverse imaging problem. Simulated data for both uniform and Gaussian shaped source distributions was used for testing to understand the impact of non-uniformities present in neutron beam distributions on the reconstructed images. Results indicate that the model based reconstruction method will match resolution and improve on contrast over convolution methods in the presence of non-uniform sources. Additionally, the model based iterative algorithm provides direct calculation of quantitative transmission values while the convolution based methods must be normalized base on known values.

  11. Male Pectoral Implants: Radiographic Appearance of Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Damitz, Lynn; Burke, Rachael; Hwang, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There has been a significant surge in aesthetic chest surgery for men in the last several years. Male chest enhancement is performed with surgical placement of a solid silicone pectoral implant. In the past, male chest correction and implantation were limited to the treatment of men who had congenital absence or atrophy of the pectoralis muscle and pectus excavatum deformity. But today, the popularization of increased chest and pectoral size fostered by body builders has more men desiring chest correction with implantation for non-medical reasons. We present a case of a 44-year-old, male with a displaced left pectoral implant with near extrusion and with an associated peri-implant soft tissue mass and fluid collection. While the imaging of these patients is uncommon, our case study presents the radiographic findings of male chest enhancement with associated complications. PMID:27200162

  12. Model-based segmentation of hand radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Frank; Vogelsang, Frank

    1998-06-01

    An important procedure in pediatrics is to determine the skeletal maturity of a patient from radiographs of the hand. There is great interest in the automation of this tedious and time-consuming task. We present a new method for the segmentation of the bones of the hand, which allows the assessment of the skeletal maturity with an appropriate database of reference bones, similar to the atlas based methods. The proposed algorithm uses an extended active contour model for the segmentation of the hand bones, which incorporates a-priori knowledge of shape and topology of the bones in an additional energy term. This `scene knowledge' is integrated in a complex hierarchical image model, that is used for the image analysis task.

  13. Radiographic apparatus for photographing entire jaws

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, K.

    1985-01-22

    This disclosure relates to a dental radiographic apparatus for photographing the entire jaw designed to control the rotation of a rotary arm such that the film surface of a film holder mounted at one end of the rotary arm may rotate and move substantially at equal speed substantially equidistantly along the dental arch and that the X-ray beams irradiated upon the film surface from an X-ray generator mounted at the other end of the arm may fall on the dental arch at any point thereof at right angles with the arch. The apparatus makes it possible to obtain a very clear tomographic picture of a curved plane of the entire jaws, the picture being free of a double image of the teeth, partial change in enlargement ratio of the image obtained, and partial difference in the shade of the image obtained.

  14. Specimen banks for cancer prognostic factor research.

    PubMed

    Burke, H B; Henson, D E

    1998-10-01

    Prognostic factors are necessary for determining whether a patient will require therapy, for selecting the optimal therapy, and for evaluating the effectiveness of the therapy chosen. Research in prognostic factors has been hampered by long waiting times and a paucity of outcomes. Specimen banks can solve these problems, but their implementation and use give rise to many important and complex issues. This paper presents an overview of some of the issues related to the use of specimen banks in prognostic factor research.

  15. Prognostic comparison of the proliferation markers (mitotic activity index, phosphohistone H3, Ki67), steroid receptors, HER2, high molecular weight cytokeratins and classical prognostic factors in T₁₋₂N₀M₀ breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gudlaugsson, Einar; Klos, Jan; Skaland, Ivar; Janssen, Emiel A M; Smaaland, Rune; Feng, Weiwei; Shao, Zhimin; Malpica, Anais; Baak, Jan P A

    2013-04-01

    The proliferation factors: mitotic activity index (MAI), phosphohistone H3 (PPH3) and Ki67 have strong prognostic value in early breast cancer but their independent value to each other and other prognostic factors has not been evaluated. In 237 T₁₋₂N₀M₀ breast cancers without systemic adjuvant treatment, formalized MAI assessment and strictly standardized, fully automated quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) for Ki67, PPH3, estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), HER2, cytokeratins-5/6 and -14, and automated digital image analysis (DIA) for measuring PPH3 and Ki67 were performed. Section thickness was measured to further control IHC measurements. All features were measured in the periphery of tumors. The different proliferation assessments and other well-established clinicopathological and biomarker prognostic factors were compared. DIA-Ki67 added prognostically to PPH3. None of the other biomarkers or clinicopathological variables added prognostically to this PPH3/Ki67 combination. However, when PPH3 is replaced by MAI the prognostic value is nearly the same. In early operable node negative breast cancer without adjuvant systemic treatment, Ki67 with a threshold of 6.5% assessed by digital image analysis in the periphery of the tumor is prognostically strong. The combination of either PPH3/Ki67 or MAI/Ki67 overshadowed the prognostic value of all other features including Ki67 alone.

  16. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.41... qualified radiographer or an individual who has at a minimum met the requirements of § 34.43(c). The... the requirements for having two qualified individuals present at locations other than a...

  17. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.41... qualified radiographer or an individual who has at a minimum met the requirements of § 34.43(c). The... the requirements for having two qualified individuals present at locations other than a...

  18. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.46 Supervision...

  19. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.46 Supervision...

  20. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.41... qualified radiographer or an individual who has at a minimum met the requirements of § 34.43(c). The... the requirements for having two qualified individuals present at locations other than a...

  1. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.46 Supervision...

  2. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.46 Supervision...

  3. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.41... qualified radiographer or an individual who has at a minimum met the requirements of § 34.43(c). The... the requirements for having two qualified individuals present at locations other than a...

  4. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.41... qualified radiographer or an individual who has at a minimum met the requirements of § 34.43(c). The... the requirements for having two qualified individuals present at locations other than a...

  5. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.46 Supervision...

  6. Reperfusion edema after thromboendarterectomy: radiographic patterns of disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, W T; Osiason, A W; Langlotz, C P; Palevsky, H I

    1998-07-01

    In patients with chronic pulmonary embolism, pulmonary thromboendarterectomy may result in a unique form of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema termed reperfusion edema. This report reviews the authors' experience after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy with particular emphasis on the radiographic manifestations of reperfusion edema. The clinical and radiographic record of 25 patients who underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy at the University of Pennsylvania from 1985 through 1995 were reviewed. The zonal distribution of radiographic opacity, time to maximal opacity, and the time to clearance of reperfusion edema were determined. The relationship of these radiographic manifestations to clinical severity of disease and clinical outcome was examined. Reperfusion edema, characterized by patchy bilateral perihilar alveolar opacities, occurred in all but one patient. There is a lower lung zone predominance of opacities, but in individual cases, striking unilateral or haphazard arrangements of opacities may be seen. In this small sample of patients, no association between preoperative pulmonary arterial pressures and radiographic appearance or clinical outcome was found. However, severity of radiographic opacities, as measured by the extent of involved lung, correlated with disease severity, as measured by time to extubation and time to discharge. Pneumonia, defined as a radiographic opacity that evolves discordantly with the reperfusion edema opacities, occurred in 20% of cases. Reperfusion edema is a common consequence of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. The severity of radiographic manifestations and clinical severity of disease are related. This characteristically appears as perihilar alveolar opacities.

  7. 42 CFR 37.41 - Chest radiograph specifications-film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chest radiograph specifications-film. 37.41 Section... specifications—film. (a) Miners must be disrobed from the waist up at the time the radiograph is given. The... single posteroanterior projection at full inspiration on a film being no less than 14 by 17 inches and...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  10. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1950 Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1950 Radiographic...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1950 Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1950 Radiographic...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  13. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  15. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic intensifying screen. 892.1960 Section 892.1960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1960 Radiographic intensifying...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic intensifying screen. 892.1960 Section 892.1960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1960 Radiographic intensifying...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic intensifying screen. 892.1960 Section 892.1960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1960 Radiographic intensifying...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1950 Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1950 Radiographic...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  2. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  3. Associations between dietary antioxidants intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary antioxidants (carotenoid, vitamin C, E, and selenium) intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 4685 participants were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade 2 in at least one leg. A multivariable logistic analysis model was established to test the relationship between dietary antioxidants (carotenoid, vitamin C, E, and selenium) intake and radiographic knee OA with adjustment of a number of potential confounding factors. A significant positive association between dietary vitamin C intake (P value for trend was 0.04 in multivariable adjusted analysis) and radiographic knee OA was observed. The relative odds of radiographic knee OA were increased by 0.39 times in the third quintile (OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.11-1.73), 0.42 times in the fourth quintile (OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.13-1.79), and 0.33 times in the fifth quintile (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.03-1.71). However, radiographic knee OA was not significantly associated with dietary carotenoid, vitamin E, and selenium. Among dietary antioxidants, dietary vitamin C intake was positively correlated with the prevalence of radiographic knee OA, while no significant association was found between dietary intake of carotenoid, vitamin E, and selenium and the prevalence of radiographic knee OA.

  4. A Study of Radiographic Imaging Systems Used for Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Nancy S.

    Thirty-three two-year dental hygiene programs throughout the United States were surveyed to identify the radiographic imaging system most often used and the accompanying rationale for that decision. A literature review identified the three radiographic imaging systems most frequently used and indicated that all dental hygiene programs had the…

  5. Are Panoramic Radiographs Reliable to Diagnose Mild Alveolar Bone Resorption?

    PubMed Central

    Semenoff, Larissa; Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle; Pedro, Fabio Luiz Miranda; Volpato, Evaristo Ricci; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex

    2011-01-01

    It is extremely important to assess variations between the most used radiographs in dental practice, since minimum distortion on obtained images may change diagnosis, treatment plan, and prognosis for the patient. For this, the distance between the enamel-cementum junction and the alveolar bone crest was measured on conventional and digitized periapical, bitewing, and panoramic radiographs and compared among them. From a total of 1484 records, 39 sets of radiographs that fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study sample were selected. The measurements were grouped according to the intensity of bone loss. Statistically significant difference was found in the averages of the measurements assessed in radiographs with absence of bone loss between conventional panoramic and periapical radiographs, between digitized panoramic and periapical radiographs and between digitized bitewing and panoramic radiographs. By analyzing the results of this work and considering the research protocol used, one can conclude that small losses in height of alveolar bone crest observed in panoramic radiographs should be cautiously evaluated, as they may be overestimated. PMID:21991470

  6. Are panoramic radiographs reliable to diagnose mild alveolar bone resorption?

    PubMed

    Semenoff, Larissa; Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle; Pedro, Fabio Luiz Miranda; Volpato, Evaristo Ricci; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex

    2011-01-01

    It is extremely important to assess variations between the most used radiographs in dental practice, since minimum distortion on obtained images may change diagnosis, treatment plan, and prognosis for the patient. For this, the distance between the enamel-cementum junction and the alveolar bone crest was measured on conventional and digitized periapical, bitewing, and panoramic radiographs and compared among them. From a total of 1484 records, 39 sets of radiographs that fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study sample were selected. The measurements were grouped according to the intensity of bone loss. Statistically significant difference was found in the averages of the measurements assessed in radiographs with absence of bone loss between conventional panoramic and periapical radiographs, between digitized panoramic and periapical radiographs and between digitized bitewing and panoramic radiographs. By analyzing the results of this work and considering the research protocol used, one can conclude that small losses in height of alveolar bone crest observed in panoramic radiographs should be cautiously evaluated, as they may be overestimated.

  7. Distilling the Verification Process for Prognostics Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Indranil; Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose R.; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The goal of prognostics and health management (PHM) systems is to ensure system safety, and reduce downtime and maintenance costs. It is important that a PHM system is verified and validated before it can be successfully deployed. Prognostics algorithms are integral parts of PHM systems. This paper investigates a systematic process of verification of such prognostics algorithms. To this end, first, this paper distinguishes between technology maturation and product development. Then, the paper describes the verification process for a prognostics algorithm as it moves up to higher maturity levels. This process is shown to be an iterative process where verification activities are interleaved with validation activities at each maturation level. In this work, we adopt the concept of technology readiness levels (TRLs) to represent the different maturity levels of a prognostics algorithm. It is shown that at each TRL, the verification of a prognostics algorithm depends on verifying the different components of the algorithm according to the requirements laid out by the PHM system that adopts this prognostics algorithm. Finally, using simplified examples, the systematic process for verifying a prognostics algorithm is demonstrated as the prognostics algorithm moves up TRLs.

  8. Determinants Of Acceptability Of Radiographic Images For Archival Digital Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markivee, C. R.; Nalesnik, W. J.; Chiang, M. C.; Tio, J. R.; Hall, E. L.

    1983-05-01

    The parameter, quality of radiographic film exposure, was evaluated by computer and 15 human observers for the purpose of determining the feasibility of automatic computer eval-uation of radiographs prior to archival storage. Histograms of digitized knee radiographs were parameterized according to the Pearson technique and the computer was used to grade exposure quality relative to a set of training radiographs evaluated by the readers. There was a significant variation in the assessment of film exposure quality among the different observers. The computer scored 73% for the AP films and 53% for the laterals relative to the general consensus. The discrepancies were explained in terms of differences in anatomy and radiographic technique. The significance of this work is that it demonstrates that a computer can grade films according to a predetermined standard set by the radiologist.

  9. Human Identification via Lateral Patella Radiographs: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Niespodziewanski, Emily; Stephan, Carl N; Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Fenton, Todd W

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the utility of patella outline shape for matching 3D scans of patellae to knee radiographs using elliptical Fourier analysis and subjective methods of human visual comparison of patellae across radiographs for identification purposes. Repeat radiographs were captured of cadaver's knees for visual comparison before patellae were extracted and skeletonized for quantitative comparisons. Quantitative methods provided significant narrowing down of the candidate pool to just a few potential matches (<5% of original sample), while the human analysts showed high capacity for correctly matching radiographs, irrespective of educational level (positive predictive value = 99.8%). The successful computerized matching based on a single quantified patella trait (outline shape) helps explain the potency achieved by subjective visual examination. This work adds to a growing body of studies demonstrating the value of single isolated infracranial bones for human identification via radiographic comparison.

  10. Radiographic appearance of confirmed pulmonary lymphoma in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Nicole E; Reichle, Jean K; Valdés-Martínez, Alejandro; Williams, Jamie; Goggin, Justin M; Leach, Lesley; Hanson, Jennifer; Hill, Steve; Axam, Tasha

    2010-01-01

    Herein we describe the thoracic radiographic appearance of confirmed pulmonary lymphoma. Patients with thoracic radiographs and cytologically or histologically confirmed pulmonary lymphoma were sought by contacting American College of Veterinary Radiology members. Seven cats and 16 dogs met the inclusion criteria, ranging in age from 4 to 15 years. Method of diagnosis was via ultrasound-guided cytology (four), surgical biopsy (two), ultrasound-guided biopsy (one), and necropsy (16). Radiographic findings varied but ranged from normal (one) to alveolar (six) and/or unstructured interstitial infiltrates (11), nodules and/or masses (eight), and bronchial infiltrates (four). Additional thoracic radiographic findings included pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy. The results of this evaluation indicate a wide variability in thoracic radiographic abnormalities in cats and dogs with pulmonary lymphoma.

  11. The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) as a novel and significant predictor of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Jun; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Huang, Jia-Jia; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2013-05-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score including C-reactive protein and albumin, shows significant prognostic value in several types of solid tumors. The prognostic value of GPS in lymphoma remains unclear. We performed this study to evaluate the prognostic significance of GPS in extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL). We retrospectively analyzed 164 patients with newly diagnosed ENKL. The prognostic value of GPS was evaluated and compared with that of International Prognostic Index (IPI), Prognostic Index for Peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified (PIT), and Korean Prognostic Index (KPI). Patients with higher GPS tended to have more adverse clinical characteristics, lower rates of complete remission (P < 0.001), inferior progression-free survival (PFS, P < 0.001), and inferior overall survival (OS, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high GPS, age > 60 years, and elevated LDH were independent adverse predictors of OS. GPS was found superior to IPI, PIT, and KPI in discriminating patients with different outcomes in low-risk groups (all P < 0.05). GPS is an independent predictor of survival outcomes in ENKL. Inflammatory response might play an important role in the progression of ENKL and survival of patients with ENKL.

  12. Impact of bone suppression imaging on the detection of lung nodules in chest radiographs: analysis of multiple reading sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalekamp, S.; van Ginneken, B.; Schaefer-Prokop, C. M.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2013-03-01

    Observer studies are frequently performed to test new modalities. Correct study design is important to generate reliable results. Two most frequently used observer study designs are the sequential and the independent reading design. We investigated the effect of different observer study designs on reader performance results and statistical power. The study included multiple assessments of chest radiographs (CXR) with bone suppression images (BSI) for the detection of lung nodules. In a fully crossed study design 8 observers assessed first radiographs without and with BSI sequentially. Secondly they scored radiographs independently having BSI available from the beginning. Five months later, the same readers scored the same cases again in an independent reading session, completing the three scorings for CXRs with BSI. Observer performance was compared using multi reader multi case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristics (ROC). To estimate reader variance, Dorfman, Berbaum, Metz (DBM) variance component estimates were calculated. No significant difference between the sequential and the independent reading sessions could be found (p=0.51; p=0.61). Both reading designs showed increased performance with BSI, with a significant increase for the sequential and the independent reading session after five months (p=0.002; p=0.007). Total observer variance between sequential and independent reading design remained the same. A strong increase of uncorrelated components was found in the independent reading sessions, masking the ability to demonstrate differences in observer performance across modalities. In conclusion, results of the sequential and the independent study design did not show a significant difference. The independent study design had less power compared to the sequential study design due to a strong increase of uncorrelated variance components.

  13. Gene expression-based prognostic signatures in lung cancer: ready for clinical use?

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Jyothi; Simon, Richard

    2010-04-07

    A substantial number of studies have reported the development of gene expression-based prognostic signatures for lung cancer. The ultimate aim of such studies should be the development of well-validated clinically useful prognostic signatures that improve therapeutic decision making beyond current practice standards. We critically reviewed published studies reporting the development of gene expression-based prognostic signatures for non-small cell lung cancer to assess the progress made toward this objective. Studies published between January 1, 2002, and February 28, 2009, were identified through a PubMed search. Following hand-screening of abstracts of the identified articles, 16 were selected as relevant. Those publications were evaluated in detail for appropriateness of the study design, statistical validation of the prognostic signature on independent datasets, presentation of results in an unbiased manner, and demonstration of medical utility for the new signature beyond that obtained using existing treatment guidelines. Based on this review, we found little evidence that any of the reported gene expression signatures are ready for clinical application. We also found serious problems in the design and analysis of many of the studies. We suggest a set of guidelines to aid the design, analysis, and evaluation of prognostic signature studies. These guidelines emphasize the importance of focused study planning to address specific medically important questions and the use of unbiased analysis methods to evaluate whether the resulting signatures provide evidence of medical utility beyond standard of care-based prognostic factors.

  14. Recommended guidelines for the conduct and evaluation of prognostic studies in veterinary oncology.

    PubMed

    Webster, J D; Dennis, M M; Dervisis, N; Heller, J; Bacon, N J; Bergman, P J; Bienzle, D; Cassali, G; Castagnaro, M; Cullen, J; Esplin, D G; Peña, L; Goldschmidt, M H; Hahn, K A; Henry, C J; Hellmén, E; Kamstock, D; Kirpensteijn, J; Kitchell, B E; Amorim, R L; Lenz, S D; Lipscomb, T P; McEntee, M; McGill, L D; McKnight, C A; McManus, P M; Moore, A S; Moore, P F; Moroff, S D; Nakayama, H; Northrup, N C; Sarli, G; Scase, T; Sorenmo, K; Schulman, F Y; Shoieb, A M; Smedley, R C; Spangler, W L; Teske, E; Thamm, D H; Valli, V E; Vernau, W; von Euler, H; Withrow, S J; Weisbrode, S E; Yager, J; Kiupel, M

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for more accurate prognostic and predictive markers in veterinary oncology because of an increasing number of treatment options, the increased financial costs associated with treatment, and the emotional stress experienced by owners in association with the disease and its treatment. Numerous studies have evaluated potential prognostic and predictive markers for veterinary neoplastic diseases, but there are no established guidelines or standards for the conduct and reporting of prognostic studies in veterinary medicine. This lack of standardization has made the evaluation and comparison of studies difficult. Most important, translating these results to clinical applications is problematic. To address this issue, the American College of Veterinary Pathologists' Oncology Committee organized an initiative to establish guidelines for the conduct and reporting of prognostic studies in veterinary oncology. The goal of this initiative is to increase the quality and standardization of veterinary prognostic studies to facilitate independent evaluation, validation, comparison, and implementation of study results. This article represents a consensus statement on the conduct and reporting of prognostic studies in veterinary oncology from veterinary pathologists and oncologists from around the world. These guidelines should be considered a recommendation based on the current state of knowledge in the field, and they will need to be continually reevaluated and revised as the field of veterinary oncology continues to progress. As mentioned, these guidelines were developed through an initiative of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists' Oncology Committee, and they have been reviewed and endorsed by the World Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. Low T3 syndrome is a strong prognostic predictor in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui; Liang, Jin-Hua; Wang, Li; Zhu, Hua-Yuan; Wu, Wei; Wu, Jia-Zhu; Xia, Yi; Cao, Lei; Fan, Lei; Yang, Tao; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic effect of low triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome on patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A hundred and eighty-eight patients with detailed thyroid hormone levels at diagnosis of DLBCL were enrolled. Low T3 syndrome was defined as a low serum free T3 (FT3) level with low or normal serum free tetraiodothyronine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone levels. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to screen prognostic factors associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Receiver-operator characteristic curves and the corresponding areas under the curve were calculated to assess the predictive accuracy of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and low T3 syndrome. Twenty-four patients were diagnosed with low T3 syndrome, which was associated with worse PFS and OS in the rituximab era. It was an independent prognostic factor for PFS and OS, especially for those with IPI 0-2, extranodal sites ≤1 and stage III-IV. Synchronously low FT3 and FT4 had poorer survival outcome compared to only low FT3 and adding criterion of low T3 syndrome improved the prognostic capacity of IPI for predicting PFS and OS in DLBCL. Low T3 syndrome was found to be a strong prognostic predictor in DLBCL.

  16. Realizing the Translational Potential of Telomere Length Variation as a Tissue-Based Prognostic Marker for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Telomere Length Variation as a Tissue- Based Prognostic Marker for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Elizabeth A. Platz CONTRACTING...Translational Potential of Telomere Length Variation as a Tissue- Based Prognostic Marker for Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0545 5c...combination of telomere length variability in prostate cancer cells and short telomere length in cancer -associated stromal cells is an independent

  17. Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

  18. A prognostic gene expression signature in infratentorial ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Wani, Khalida; Armstrong, Terri S; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Raghunathan, Aditya; Ellison, David; Gilbertson, Richard; Vaillant, Brian; Goldman, Stewart; Packer, Roger J; Fouladi, Maryam; Pollack, Ian; Mikkelsen, Tom; Prados, Michael; Omuro, Antonio; Soffietti, Riccardo; Ledoux, Alicia; Wilson, Charmaine; Long, Lihong; Gilbert, Mark R; Aldape, Ken

    2012-05-01

    Patients with ependymoma exhibit a wide range of clinical outcomes that are currently unexplained by clinical or histological factors. Little is known regarding molecular biomarkers that could predict clinical behavior. Since recent data suggest that these tumors display biological characteristics according to their location (cerebral vs. infratentorial vs. spinal cord), rather than explore a broad spectrum of ependymoma, we focused on molecular alterations in ependymomas arising in the infratentorial compartment. Unsupervised clustering of available gene expression microarray data revealed two major subgroups of infratentorial ependymoma. Group 1 tumors over expressed genes that were associated with mesenchyme, Group 2 tumors showed no distinct gene ontologies. To assess the prognostic significance of these gene expression subgroups, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on genes defining the subgroups in a training set. This resulted in a 10-gene prognostic signature. Multivariate analysis showed that the 10-gene signature was an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival after adjusting for clinical factors. Evaluation of an external dataset describing subgroups of infratentorial ependymomas showed concordance of subgroup definition, including validation of the mesenchymal subclass. Importantly, the 10-gene signature was validated as a predictor of recurrence-free survival in this dataset. Taken together, the results indicate a link between clinical outcome and biologically identified subsets of infratentorial ependymoma and offer the potential for prognostic testing to estimate clinical aggressiveness in these tumors.

  19. Prognostic impact of metallothionein on oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sérgio V; Barbosa, Hugo M; Candellori, Ignez M; Loyola, Adriano M; Aguiar, Maria Cássia F

    2002-08-01

    Metallothionein (MT), a low-molecular-weight protein with high cysteine content, seems to be related to neoplastic resistance to oncologic treatment and therefore has been studied as a prognostic factor for a variety of human malignant tumors. MT overexpression in neoplasms of ectodermal origin is usually associated with a poor prognosis. MT expression was evaluated in 60 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma by immunohistochemistry to study its prognostic influence on oral cancer. Possible associations of MT immunoexpression were also investigated with respect to clinical stage (TNM), histological grading, and proliferation index (Ki-67) of the lesions. No significant statistical correlation was observed among these variables. The impact on overall survival was assessed by uni and multivariate statistical tests. Mean MT labeling index was 60%. High MT labeling indexes (over 76%) predicted shorter survival in univariate statistical analysis. In multivariate analysis, MT labeling index and clinical stage were independent prognostic factors. MT overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma seems to be related to a worse prognosis for patients.

  20. IDH mutations: genotype-phenotype correlation and prognostic impact.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Wei; Ciccarino, Pietro; Rossetto, Marta; Boisselier, Blandine; Marie, Yannick; Desestret, Virginie; Gleize, Vincent; Mokhtari, Karima; Sanson, Marc; Labussière, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    IDH1/2 mutation is the most frequent genomic alteration found in gliomas, affecting 40% of these tumors and is one of the earliest alterations occurring in gliomagenesis. We investigated a series of 1305 gliomas and showed that IDH mutation is almost constant in 1p19q codeleted tumors. We found that the distribution of IDH1(R132H) , IDH1(nonR132H) , and IDH2 mutations differed between astrocytic, mixed, and oligodendroglial tumors, with an overrepresentation of IDH2 mutations in oligodendroglial phenotype and an overrepresentation of IDH1(nonR132H) in astrocytic tumors. We stratified grade II and grade III gliomas according to the codeletion of 1p19q and IDH mutation to define three distinct prognostic subgroups: 1p19q and IDH mutated, IDH mutated--which contains mostly TP53 mutated tumors, and none of these alterations. We confirmed that IDH mutation with a hazard ratio = 0.358 is an independent prognostic factor of good outcome. These data refine current knowledge on IDH mutation prognostic impact and genotype-phenotype associations.

  1. Prognostic effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Results from large epidemiologic studies on the association between vitamin D and gastric cancer are controversial. Vitamin D significantly promotes apoptosis in the undifferentiated gastric cancer cell, but the prognostic effects of its levels are unknown. Methods 197 gastric carcinoma patients who received treatment in the cancer centre of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2002 to January 2006 were involved in the study. The stored blood drawn before any treatment was assayed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The clinicopathologic data were collected to examine the prognostic effects of vitamin D. Results The mean vitamin D levels of the 197 gastric patients was 49.85 ± 23.68 nmol/L, among whom 114(57.9%) were deficient in Vitamin D(< 50 nmol/L), 67(34%) were insufficient (50-75 nmol/L) and 16(8.1%) were sufficient (> 75 nmol/L). Clinical stage (P = 0.004) and lymph node metastasis classification (P = 0.009) were inversely associated with vitamin D levels. The patients with high vitamin D levels group (≥ 50 nmol/L) had a higher overall survival compared with the low vitamin D levels group (< 50 nmol/L)(P = 0.018). Multivariate analysis indicated that vitamin D levels were an independent prognostic factor of gastric cancer (P = 0.019). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer. PMID:22284859

  2. Prognostic value of sarcopenia in liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Cornet, M; Lim, C; Salloum, C; Lazzati, A; Compagnon, P; Pascal, G; Azoulay, D

    2015-11-01

    Current knowledge indicates that malnutrition increases the rate of post-operative complications, particularly respiratory and infectious, after major surgery. Almost all liver surgery is performed in patients with cancer, a factor that increases the risk of malnutrition. The primary risk factors for post-operative complications are pre-operative hypo-albuminemia and a body mass index less than 20 kg/m(2). To improve the prediction of complications in these patients, some teams have suggested measurement of muscle thickness by computed tomography. Muscular mass can thus be quantified by measuring the total surface of the psoas muscle or the total surface of all muscles (i.e. external and internal oblique, transverse, psoas and paravertebral muscles) seen on an axial CT slice at L3. As well, data exist suggesting that sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor of post-operative morbidity and poor long-term survival after resection for cancer. Nonetheless, the literature on the subject is limited, there are no standardized definitions for sarcopenia, and the need of special software to calculate the surfaces limits its usefulness. Lastly, there are little if any data concerning the nutritional or pharmacologic means to treat sarcopenia. This update, based on a literature review, deals with the value and the prognostic impact of sarcopenia in surgery for liver tumors. The current definition of sarcopenia, validated internationally, the methods of measurement, and the consequences of sarcopenia on the outcome of liver resections are detailed in this review.

  3. Evaluation of Prognostic Nutritional Index in Patients Undergoing Radical Surgery with Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chen; Qu, Xiao; Shen, Hongchang; Zheng, Chunlong; Zhu, Linhai; Meng, Long; Du, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been reported to be a prognostic indicator in some malignant tumors. However, its prognostic value in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been fully investigated. A retrospective review of 1416 patients with NSCLC who underwent radical surgery between January 2006 and December 2011 was conducted. To obtain optimal cutoff levels of PNI, running log-rank statistics was applied. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic significance of PNI, together with various clinicopathological factors, was evaluated by multivariate analysis. The optimal cutoff point for PNI was 52. The 1-, 3-, and 5-yr survival rates in patients with PNI of less than 52 were 80.0%, 61.3%, and 50.4%, respectively, and were significantly more unfavorable than those in patients with PNI 52 or higher (84.7%, 71.5%, and 60.3%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested that gender (P = 0.026), age (P < 0.001), PNI (P = 0.005), differentiation (P = 0.024), pathology T category (P = 0.003), and pathology N category (P < 0.001) were revealed to be independent prognostic factors. Our results indicate that PNI is an independent predictor of survival for patients undergoing radical surgery with NSCLC.

  4. Accuracy of survey radiographic diagnosis of intervertebral disc protrusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lamb, C R; Nicholls, A; Targett, M; Mannion, P

    2002-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of survey radiography for canine thoracolumbar intervertebral disc protrusion, survey radiographs (lateral and ventrodorsal) of 64 dogs with surgically-confirmed thoracolumbar intervertebral disc protrusion, 51 dogs with negative myelograms and 29 dogs with various spinal conditions other than disc protrusion were reviewed by three independent observers who were unaware of any clinical information. There were marked differences in observer performance for diagnosis of intervertebral disc protrusion, although there were no significant differences in intraobserver diagnostic accuracy for small vs. large dogs. Accuracy of observers for determining sites of intervertebral disc protrusion using survey radiography was in the range 51-61%. All observers had low accuracy for identification of second sites of intervertebral disc protrusion. The most useful radiographic sign, narrowed intervertebral space, had only moderate sensitivity (range 64-69%) and moderate predictive value (range 63-71%) for intervertebral disc protrusion. Vacuum phenomenon was an infrequent but accurate sign of intervertebral disc protrusion. Recognition of multiple radiographic signs of intervertebral disc protrusion at one site was associated with increased accuracy of diagnosis. No observer was accurate enough to justify attempting targeted surgical treatment of intervertebral disc protrusion without myelography.

  5. Prognostic markers in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gomatos, Ilias P; Xiaodong, Xu; Ghaneh, Paula; Halloran, Christopher; Raraty, Michael; Lane, Brian; Sutton, Robert; Neoptolemos, John P

    2014-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis has a mortality rate of 5-10%. Early deaths are mainly due to multiorgan failure and late deaths are due to septic complications from pancreatic necrosis. The recently described 2012 Revised Atlanta Classification and the Determinant Classification both provide a more accurate description of edematous and necrotizing pancreatitis and local complications. The 2012 Revised Atlanta Classification uses the modified Marshall scoring system for assessing organ dysfunction. The Determinant Classification uses the sepsis-related organ failure assessment scoring system for organ dysfunction and, unlike the 2012 Revised Atlanta Classification, includes infected necrosis as a criterion of severity. These scoring systems are used to assess systemic complications requiring intensive therapy unit support and intra-abdominal complications requiring minimally invasive interventions. Numerous prognostic systems and markers have been evaluated but only the Glasgow system and serum CRP levels provide pragmatic prognostic accuracy early on. Novel concepts using genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic profiling and also functional imaging for the identification of specific disease patterns are now required.

  6. [Prognostic study of liver abscess].

    PubMed

    Nouira, Ramzi; Bedoui, Riadh; Miaadi, Naoufel; Guesmi, Fethi; Ben Achour, Jamel; Hani, Mohamed; Daghfous, Mounir; Ben Osman, Samia; Zoghlami, Ayoub; Najah, Nabil

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this work is to study factors of prognostic of mortality of abscesses of the liver. We have treated between 1990 and 2000 in our service, 38 patient for abscess of the liver. The symptoms are dominated by the pain of the right hypochondria (37 cases) and the fever (34 cases). An unique abscess has been recovered in 25 cases. Some multiple localizations have been observed in 12 cases. 21 patients have been operated. The bacteriological study at all patients revealed the presence of germ in 27 cases. In 6 cases, there were two germs. It was a bacillus negative gram in 26 cases and a cocci positive gram in 7 cases. Six complications have been observed at the operated patients. In 5 cases, it was a septic shock having leads to the death. After survey univariate and multivariate the only factor of bad prognostic recovered is the septic shock. The aetiology was identified in only 9 cases; it was abscess cholangiotis.

  7. Prognostic Analysis System and Methods of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKey, Ryan M. E. (Inventor); Sneddon, Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A prognostic analysis system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, a prognostic analysis system for the analysis of physical system health applicable to mechanical, electrical, chemical and optical systems and methods of operating the system are described herein.

  8. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  9. Static rearfoot alignment: a comparison of clinical and radiographic measures.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Bradley M; Mendicino, Robert W; Catanzariti, Alan R; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2005-01-01

    Foot structure is typically evaluated using static clinical and radiographic measures. To date, the literature is devoid of a correlation between rearfoot frontal plane radiographic parameters and clinical measures of alignment. In a repeated-measures study comparing radiographic and clinical rearfoot alignment in 24 healthy subjects, radiographic angular measurements were made from standard weightbearing anteroposterior, lateral, long leg calcaneal axial, and rearfoot alignment views. Clinical measurements were made using a jig and scanner to assess the malleolar valgus index and a goniometer to evaluate the resting and neutral calcaneal stance positions. There was a significant correlation between frontal plane radiographic angles (long leg calcaneal axial and rearfoot alignment views) (r = 0.814). Similarly, there was a significant correlation between clinical measures (resting calcaneal stance position and malleolar valgus index) (r = 0.714). A multivariate stepwise regression showed that resting calcaneal stance position can be accurately predicted from 3 of the 15 clinical and radiographic measurements collected: malleolar valgus index, rearfoot alignment view, and long leg calcaneal axial view (r = 0.829). In summary, a commonly used clinical measure of static rearfoot alignment, resting calcaneal stance position, was correlated closely with the malleolar valgus index and both frontal plane radiographic parameters.

  10. Model-Based Prognostics of Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Model-based prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the model-based prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the model-based prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.

  11. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the “rate-limiting” steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout. PMID:22253352

  12. Tofacitinib prevents radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Wan; Choi, In Ah; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Yeong Wook; Lee, Eun Bong

    2013-08-01

    Tofacitinib, a novel Janus kinase inhibitor, may prevent structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this cohort study, we compared radiographic progression of hand joints between 21 RA patients who took tofacitinb for 18 months in a phase IIb and its extension study and 42 patients who took conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), using simple erosion narrowing score. For tofacitinib group, changes before and after the treatment were also compared. The changes of erosion and sum scores were significantly less in tofacitinib than DMARDs group (for erosion, -0.60 ± 1.83 vs 0.51 ± 1.77, P = 0.038; for sum, -0.50 ± 1.72 vs 1.57 ± 4.13, P = 0.012). Joint space narrowing score (JSN) was also less in tofacitinib group (0.095 ± 0.58 vs 1.06 ± 2.60, P = 0.055). In tofacitinib group, yearly rates of both erosion and JSN were significantly decreased after administration of tofacitinib (For erosion, 0.62 ± 0.93 to -0.14 ± 0.48, P = 0.009; for JSN, 0.47 ± 0.64 to 0.03 ± 0.40, P = 0.032), as was change of sum score (1.09 ± 1.27 to -0.10 ± 0.63, P < 0.001). In conclusion, tofacitinib may prevent structural damage caused by RA.

  13. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C

    2012-09-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the "rate-limiting" steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout.

  14. Modulation of ADPase and t-PA release by radiographic contrast media in bovine aortic endothelium.

    PubMed

    Caprino, L; Togna, A R; Zappacosta, B; Giardina, B; Togna, G

    1997-05-01

    Vascular endothelial injuries induced by intravascular administration of radiographic contrast agents may be clinically relevant to the development of thrombosis and platelet activation. In this connection, we investigated the in vitro effects induced by iodamide, iopamidol, and ioxaglate on vascular endothelial ADPase activity and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release in bovine aortic endothelium, in order to extend knowledge required to evaluate endothelial compatibility of radiographic contrast media. Undiluted and Tris-diluted contrast agent formulations were employed, and mannitol and sucrose hyperosmolar solutions were used as comparison. Results demonstrated that the high-osmolar ionic contrast agent iodamide, and to a lesser extent, the low-osmolar nonionic agent iopamidol, stimulated endothelial ADPase activity of the aortic endothelium; the low-osmolar ionic agent ioxaglate left endothelial ADPase activity unchanged. Furthermore, the diluted formulations of iodamide and iopamidol, as well as high-osmolar mannitol and sucrose solutions, were devoid of activity in ADPase. This suggests that the endothelial ADPase stimulation induced by both radiographic contrast media was a hyperosmolar-independent pharmacodynamic activity. Iopamidol and ioxaglate reduced endogenous t-PA release from bovine aortic endothelium only in undiluted formulation, while iodamide showed this inhibiting action in both diluted and undiluted formulations. No effect was observed when using mannitol solutions at different osmolarity values. Our in vitro findings agree with published data on the different thrombotic tendency attributed to the contrast agents used, suggesting endothelial enzymatic activities (ADPase and t-PA release) as suitable tools for evaluating endothelial vessel wall compatibility with radiographic contrast media.

  15. Ontario dentists: 3. Radiographs prescribed in general practice.

    PubMed

    Swan, E S; Lewis, D W

    1993-01-01

    In February 1991, a mail survey was used to poll a sample consisting of about 10 per cent of Ontario's general dentists. The data obtained provided information about the radiographs prescribed by dentists for five different patient types, which were described to the respondents. The per cent agreement between the radiographic procedures prescribed by Ontario dentists and the ADA-approved Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) guidelines ranged from three per cent to 79 per cent, depending on patient type and disease risk. For each patient and risk type, there was considerable variation in the radiographs prescribed.

  16. Correlating the clinical assessment of impacted mandibular third molars with panoramic radiograph and intraoral periapical radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Priya, P. Vani; Nasyam, Fazil A.; Ramprasad, M.; Penumatsa, Narendra V.; Akifuddin, Syed; Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aims And Objectives: This study was conducted to compare the clinical assessment of impacted third molars of mandible with panaromic radiograph (OPG) and intraoral periapical radiograph (IOPA) and to assess the efficacy of IOPA and. Moreover, we corroborated the OPG and IOPA findings of impacted mandiblar third molar root apex to inferior alveolar canal. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients with pericoronitis were examined who were indicated for surgical extraction, among which 50 patients were selected for the study. All the patients underwent a radiographic survey with a digital OPG and IOPA of impacted mandibular third molars, along with clinical survey for anatomic relationship, type of impaction, space available, position in relation to second molar, number of roots, root curvature, and proximity of nerve canal. The data was subjected to statistical analysis. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 4.0.1 software was used for analyzing the collected data. Results: The study revealed that IOPA was more accurate in determining a majority of the factors affecting the third molar surgery, including relationship of the external oblique ridge (IOPA vs OPG = 96%:90%), anteroposterior relation with ramus (IOPA vs OPG = 70%:66%), vertical depth of impaction (IOPA vs OPG = 72%:68%), number of roots (P = 0.013), morphology of roots (IOPA vs OPG = 96%:90%); however, OPG was found to be accurate in evaluating the type of impaction (IOPA vs OPG = 88%:94%), canal relation, along with root of impacted molar (IOPA vs OPG = 74%:86%). Conclusion: To conclude, although IOPA has a marginal angle over OPG in assessing various parameters, only the number of roots have a greater accuracy (P < 0.0013) in IOPA than with OPG. However, the OPG is the better choice to be considered when the patient is associated with trismus. PMID:28217540

  17. Prognostic value of different staging systems in neuroblastomas and completeness of tumour excision.

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, N L; Christensen, I J; Schroeder, H; Bro, P V; Hesselbjerg, U; Jensen, K B; Nielsen, O H

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty three patients were retrospectively assigned to eight different staging systems proposed for neuroblastomas, and the prognostic value of each staging system was evaluated individually. The ability of each system to predict prognosis was compared with the others and the system proposed by Evans et al found to be the best predictor, even better than the recently proposed Tumour-Nodes-Metastases staging system. This is probably due to the fact that factors other than the resectability of the tumour play a major role in the survival of these children. Age was found to have independent prognostic significance whatever staging system was used. PMID:3767412

  18. Prognostic Factors in Arthroplasty in the Rheumatoid Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Nagels, Jochem; Rozing, Maarten P.

    2010-01-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty is commonly considered a good option for treatment of the rheumatoid shoulder. However, when the rotator cuff and glenoid bone stock are not preserved, the clinical outcome of arthroplasty in the rheumatoid patients remains unclear. Aim of the study is to explore the prognostic value of multiple preoperative and peroperative variables in total shoulder arthroplasty and shoulder hemiarthroplasty in rheumatoid patients. Clinical Hospital for Special Surgery Shoulder score was determined at different time points over a mean period of 6.5 years in 66 rheumatoid patients with total shoulder arthroplasty and 75 rheumatoid patients with shoulder hemiarthroplasty. Moreover, radiographic analysis was performed to assess the progression of humeral head migration and glenoid loosening. Advanced age and erosions or cysts at the AC joint at time of surgery were associated with a lower postoperative Clinical Hospital for Special Surgery Shoulder score. In total shoulder arthroplasty, status of the rotator cuff and its repair at surgery were predictive of postoperative improvement. Progression of proximal migration during the period after surgery was associated with a lower clinical score over time. However, in hemiarthroplasty, no relation was observed between the progression of proximal or medial migration during follow-up and the clinical score over time. Status of the AC joint and age at the time of surgery should be taken into account when considering shoulder arthroplasty in rheumatoid patients. Total shoulder arthroplasty in combination with good cuff repair yields comparable clinical results as total shoulder arthroplasty when the cuff is intact. PMID:21423883

  19. Prognostic factors of choroidal melanoma in Slovenia, 1986–2008

    PubMed Central

    Budihna, Marjan; Drnovsek-Olup, Brigita; Andrejcic, Katrina Novak; Zupancic, Irena Brovet; Pahor, Dusica

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye, which frequently metastasizes. The Cancer Registry of Slovenia reported the incidence of choroid melanoma from 1983 to 2009 as stable, at 7.8 cases/million for men and 7.4/million for women. The aim of the retrospective study was to determinate the prognostic factors of survival for choroidal melanoma patients in Slovenia. Patients and methods From January 1986 to December 2008 we treated 288 patients with malignant choroidal melanoma; 127 patients were treated by brachytherapy with beta rays emitting ruthenium-106 applicators; 161 patients were treated by enucleation. Results Patients with tumours thickness < 7.2 mm and base diameter < 16 mm were treated by brachytherapy and had 5- and 10-year overall mortality 13% and 32%, respectively. In enucleated patients, 5- and 10-year mortality was higher, 46% and 69%, respectively, because their tumours were larger. Thirty patients treated by brachytherapy developed local recurrence. Twenty five of 127 patients treated by brachytherapy and 86 of 161 enucleated patients developed distant metastases. Patients of age ≥ 60 years had significantly lower survival in both treatment modalities. For patients treated by brachytherapy the diameter of the tumour base and treatment time were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, for patients treated by enucleation age and histological type of tumour were independent prognosticators. In first few years after either of treatments, the melanoma specific annual mortality rate increased, especially in older patients, and then slowly decreased. Conclusions It seems that particularly younger patients with early tumours can be cured, whereby preference should be given to eyesight preserving brachytherapy over enucleation. PMID:27069456

  20. Prognostic value of glycated hemoglobin in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Patrizia; Formica, Vincenzo; Della-Morte, David; Lucchetti, Jessica; Spila, Antonella; D'Alessandro, Roberta; Riondino, Silvia; Guadagni, Fiorella; Roselli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the clinical significance of routinely used glycemic parameters in a cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS Pre-treatment fasting blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c and homeostasis model of risk assessment (HOMA-IR) were retrospectively evaluated in a case-control study of 224 CRC and 112 control subjects matched for sex, obesity and diabetes frequency and blood lipid profile. Furthermore, the prognostic value of routinely used glycemic parameters towards progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was prospectively evaluated. RESULTS Fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and HbA1c (all P < 0.0001) levels were higher in non-diabetic CRC patients compared with obesity-matched controls. All parameters were associated with increased CRC risk at ROC analysis, but no relationship with clinical-pathological variables or survival outcomes was observed for glycemia, insulinemia or HOMA-IR. Conversely, advanced CRC stage (P = 0.018) was an independent predictor of increased HbA1c levels, which were also higher in patients who had disease progression compared with those who did not (P = 0.05). Elevated HbA1c levels showed a negative prognostic value both in terms of PFS (HR = 1.24) and OS (HR = 1.36) after adjustment for major confounders, which was further confirmed in a subgroup analysis performed after exclusion of diabetic patients. CONCLUSION HbA1c might have a negative prognostic value in CRC, thus suggesting that glycemic metabolic markers should be carefully monitored in these patients, independently of overt diabetes. PMID:28018105

  1. Practical guidelines for radiographers to improve computed radiography image quality.

    PubMed

    Pongnapang, N

    2005-10-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) has become a major digital imaging modality in a modern radiological department. CR system changes workflow from the conventional way of using film/screen by employing photostimulable phosphor plate technology. This results in the changing perspectives of technical, artefacts and quality control issues in radiology departments. Guidelines for better image quality in digital medical enterprise include professional guidelines for users and the quality control programme specifically designed to serve the best quality of clinical images. Radiographers who understand technological shift of the CR from conventional method can employ optimization of CR images. Proper anatomic collimation and exposure techniques for each radiographic projection are crucial steps in producing quality digital images. Matching image processing with specific anatomy is also important factor that radiographers should realise. Successful shift from conventional to fully digitised radiology department requires skilful radiographers who utilise the technology and a successful quality control program from teamwork in the department.

  2. A proposed benchmark for simulation in radiographic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenisch, G.-R.; Deresch, A.; Bellon, C.; Schumm, A.; Guerin, P.

    2014-02-18

    The purpose of this benchmark study is to compare simulation results predicted by various models of radiographic testing, in particular those that are capable of separately predicting primary and scatter radiation for specimens of arbitrary geometry.

  3. Dental Identification Through Endodontic Radiographic Records: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Ademir; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective of work The present study aims to report a case of successful human identification based on the comparison of ante-mortem and post-mortem records of endodontic treatment. Based on these, the legal value of storing and updating clinical records is highlighted throughout the text. Case report An unknown body was recovered from a traffic accident site. Forensic examination was conducted in order to establish the identity of the victim. Based on the absence of ante-mortem fingerprint registration in the national database, the search for AM data was performed using periapical radiographic records from private dental clinics. A positive dental identification was achieved analyzing evidence of endodontic treatment. Conclusion Dental radiographs play a valuable role as legal tools supporting the criminal demands on the daily forensic practice. Specifically in endodontics, periapical radiographs are essential for a proper treatment. In forensics, these radiographs represent a solid source of ante-mortem data for human identifications. PMID:27688359

  4. Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.; Kusagaya, Taro; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Radiographic imaging of magma dynamics in a volcanic conduit provides detailed information about ascent and descent of magma, the magma flow rate, the conduit diameter and inflation and deflation of magma due to volatile expansion and release. Here we report the first radiographic observation of the ascent and descent of magma along a conduit utilizing atmospheric (cosmic ray) muons (muography) with dynamic radiographic imaging. Time sequential radiographic images show that the top of the magma column ascends right beneath the crater floor through which the eruption column was observed. In addition to the visualization of this magma inflation, we report a sequence of images that show magma descending. We further propose that the monitoring of temporal variations in the gas volume fraction of magma as well as its position in a conduit can be used to support existing eruption prediction procedures. PMID:24614612

  5. Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K M; Kusagaya, Taro; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2014-03-10

    Radiographic imaging of magma dynamics in a volcanic conduit provides detailed information about ascent and descent of magma, the magma flow rate, the conduit diameter and inflation and deflation of magma due to volatile expansion and release. Here we report the first radiographic observation of the ascent and descent of magma along a conduit utilizing atmospheric (cosmic ray) muons (muography) with dynamic radiographic imaging. Time sequential radiographic images show that the top of the magma column ascends right beneath the crater floor through which the eruption column was observed. In addition to the visualization of this magma inflation, we report a sequence of images that show magma descending. We further propose that the monitoring of temporal variations in the gas volume fraction of magma as well as its position in a conduit can be used to support existing eruption prediction procedures.

  6. Interobserver reproducibility of radiographic evaluation of lumbar spine instability

    PubMed Central

    Segundo, Saulo de Tarso de Sá Pereira; Valesin, Edgar Santiago; Lenza, Mario; Santos, Durval do Carmo Barros; Rosemberg, Laercio Alberto; Ferretti, Mario

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To measure the interobserver reproducibility of the radiographic evaluation of lumbar spine instability. Methods: Measurements of the dynamic radiographs of the lumbar spine in lateral view were performed, evaluating the anterior translation and the angulation among the vertebral bodies. The tests were evaluated at workstations of the organization, through the Carestream Health Vue RIS (PACS), version 11.0.12.14 Inc. 2009© system. Results: Agreement in detecting cases of radiographic instability among the observers varied from 88.1 to 94.4%, and the agreement coefficients AC1 were all above 0.8, indicating excellent agreement. Conclusion: The interobserver analysis performed among orthopedic surgeons with different levels of training in dynamic radiographs of the spine obtained high reproducibility and agreement. However, some factors, such as the manual method of measurement and the presence of vertebral osteophytes, might have generated a few less accurate results in this comparative evaluation of measurements. PMID:27759827

  7. Novel diagnostic and prognostic classifiers for prostate cancer identified by genome-wide microRNA profiling

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Helle; Thomsen, Anni R.; Haldrup, Christa; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Høyer, Søren; Borre, Michael; Mouritzen, Peter; Ørntoft, Torben F.; Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates the diagnostic and prognostic biomarker potential of miRNAs in prostate cancer (PC). Results We identified several new deregulated miRNAs between non-malignant (NM) and PC tissue samples and between more/less aggressive PC subgroups. We also developed and validated a novel 13-miRNA diagnostic classifier with high sensitivity and specificity for PC. Finally, we trained a new 3-miRNA prognostic classifier (miR-185-5p+miR-221-3p+miR-326) that predicted time to biochemical recurrence (BCR) independently of routine clinicopathological variables in a training radical prostatectomy (RP) cohort (n = 126) as well as in two independent validation cohorts (n = 110 and n = 99). Experimental Design After RT-qPCR-based profiling of 752 miRNAs in 13 NM and 134 PC tissue samples (cohort 1), we selected 93 top candidate diagnostic/prognostic miRNAs for validation in two independent patient sets (cohort 2: 19 NM and 138 PC; cohort 3: 28 NM and 113 PC samples). Diagnostic potential was assessed by ROC curve analysis and prognostic potential by Kaplan-Meier, uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. BCR after RP was used as endpoint. Conclusions This is the first report of a miRNA signature with significant independent prognostic value demonstrated in three PC patient cohorts. PMID:27120795

  8. High frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    SciTech Connect

    King, N.S.P.; Cverna, F.H.; Albright, K.L.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E.; Flynn, M.J.; Tashman, S.

    1994-09-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100-microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  9. Cigarette smoking and radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Finckh, A; Dehler, S; Costenbader, K H; Gabay, C

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking is a well‐established environmental risk factor for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it remains unclear whether smoking influences RA disease progression and whether smokers have more radiographic damage progression than non‐smokers over time. Objective To compare the rates of radiographic damage progression in current smokers and non‐smokers in a large prospective RA cohort. Methods The SCQM‐RA is a population‐based registry monitoring disease activity, radiographic damage and symptoms at regular intervals. All patients in the SCQM‐RA database with sequential plain radiographs were included. Joint erosions were assessed in 38 hand and foot joints with a validated scoring method. The rate of erosion progression was analysed using multivariate longitudinal regression models and adjusted for potential confounders. Results 2004 RA patients with a mean of 3.6 sequential radiographs and 3.1 years of follow‐up were included. The 545 (27%) current smokers smoked on average 16 cigarettes per day and had a mean past smoking exposure of 20.6 pack‐years. Radiographic joint damage progressed at a similar rate in current smokers and non‐smokers (p = 0.26). However, smoking intensity was associated with a significant inverse dose–response; heavy smokers (>1 pack‐day) progressed significantly less than non‐smokers or moderate smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion Radiographic joint damage progressed at an equivalent rate in smokers and non‐smokers. Furthermore, a significant trend was observed for reduced radiographic progression and generally more favourable functional scores among heavy smokers, suggesting that cigarette smoke does not accelerate RA disease progression. PMID:17237117

  10. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Jefferson Luis Oshiro; Medici Filho, Edmundo; Salgado, José Antônio Pereira; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Moraes, Luiz Cesar de; Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli de; Castilho, Julio Cezar de Melo

    2008-01-01

    Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s) and the target-sensor distance (40 cm) were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the 'histogram' tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p < 0.05) and for bovine and human coronal dentin (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found for the bovine and human radicular dentin (p > 0.05). Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a) the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b) the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c) bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  11. Alcohol and radiographs in the accident and emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Rust, P; Hunt, I; Wallis, D; Jowett, A; Rottenberg, G

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the contribution of alcohol ingestion to the radiological workload of an inner city accident and emergency (A&E) department. Methods—A prospective survey of patients presenting to A&E who required radiographs was performed over a seven day period. The A&E clinician questioned patients about alcohol intake during the six hours before the onset of the presenting complaint or injury, and made an objective assessment of signs of alcohol ingestion or intoxication. An assessment was made also of the relative contribution of alcohol as a cause of patients' injuries. Results—A total of 419 patients who had radiography fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and a questionnaire was completed for 351 (84%). Forty (11%) of 351 were found to have ingested alcohol. Thirty five (87%) of 40 patients who had ingested alcohol were radiographed for trauma, as compared with 171 (55%) of the 311 who had not (p<0.001). Alcohol was considered to have been causative of injury in 30% and a contributory factor in an additional 58%. Radiographs of the skull, face and jaw accounted for 18 (33%) of 55 radiographs from trauma patients who had ingested alcohol compared with 20 (9%) of 212 radiographs from those who had not (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the proportion of abnormal radiographs between these two groups (27% of radiographs from trauma patients who had ingested alcohol compared with 23% of radiographs from those who had not, p>0.2). Conclusion—Patients with alcohol related injuries requiring radiography have a significant impact on the radiological workload of an A&E department, although the prevalence of alcohol ingestion detected in this study was less than expected from previous studies. PMID:11696496

  12. Pulmonary embolism findings on chest radiographs and multislice spiral CT.

    PubMed

    Coche, Emmanuel; Verschuren, Franck; Hainaut, Philippe; Goncette, Louis

    2004-07-01

    Multislice spiral CT is becoming an increasingly important tool for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. However, in many instances, a chest radiograph is usually performed as a first-line examination. Many parenchymal, vascular, and other ancillary findings may be observed on both imaging modalities with a highly detailed depiction of abnormalities on multislice CT. A comprehensive review of chest radiograph findings is presented with side-by-side correlations of CT images reformatted mainly in the frontal plane.

  13. Printed peptide arrays identify prognostic TNC serumantibodies in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Andreas; Warta, Rolf; Geisenberger, Christoph; Bischoff, Ralf; Schulte, Alexander; Lamszus, Katrin; Stadler, Volker; Felgenhauer, Thomas; Schichor, Christian; Schwartz, Christoph; Matschke, Jakob; Jungk, Christine; Ahmadi, Rezvan; Sahm, Felix; Capper, David; Glass, Rainer; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Westphal, Manfred; von Deimling, Andreas; Unterberg, Andreas; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Herold-Mende, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Liquid biopsies come of age offering unexploited potential to monitor and react to tumor evolution. We developed a cost-effective assay to non-invasively determine the immune status of glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Employing newly developed printed peptide microarrays we assessed the B-cell response against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in 214 patients. Firstly, sera of long-term (36+ months, LTS, n=10) and short-term (6-10 months, STS, n=14) surviving patients were screened for prognostic antibodies against 1745 13-mer peptides covering known TAAs (TNC, EGFR, GLEA2, PHF3, FABP5, MAGEA3). Next, survival associations were investigated in two retrospective independent multicenter validation sets (n=61, n=129, all IDH1-wildtype). Reliability of measurements was tested using a second array technology (spotted arrays). LTS/STS screening analyses identified 106 differential antibody responses. Evaluating the Top30 peptides in validation set 1 revealed three prognostic peptides. Prediction of TNC peptide VCEDGFTGPDCAE was confirmed in a second set (p=0.043, HR=0.66 [0.44-0.99]) and was unrelated to TNC protein expression. Median signals of printed arrays correlated with pre-synthesized spotted microarrays (p<0.0002, R=0.33). Multiple survival analysis revealed independence of age, gender, KPI and MGMT status. We present a novel peptide microarray immune assay that identified increased anti-TNC VCEDGFTGPDCAE serum antibody titer as a promising non-invasive biomarker for prolonged survival. PMID:25944688

  14. Phosphohistone-H3 (PHH3) is prognostic relevant in Merkel cell carcinomas but Merkel cell polyomavirus is a more powerful prognostic factor than AJCC clinical stage, PHH3, Ki-67 or mitotic indices.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takeshi; Matsushita, Michiko; Nonaka, Daisuke; Kato, Masako; Nagata, Keiko; Murakami, Ichiro; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs) associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) have better prognosis than those without MCPyV. The relationship between mitotic index (MI) and MCC outcome has remained elusive because of the difficulty in differentiating mitotic cells from apoptotic ones. We evaluated the role of phosphohistone-H3 (PHH3) (Ser10), a new mitotic count biomarker, in MCPyV-positive or -negative MCC patients, and assessed its prognostic value in comparison to Ki-67 labeling index or MI using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. We compared the prognostic value of PHH3 mitotic index with that of MI by HE in 19 MCPyV-positive and 9 MCPyV-negative MCC patients. PHH3-positive immunoreactivity was mostly observed in mitotic figures. Multivariate analysis significantly showed that MCPyV status (HR, 0.004; 95% CI 0.0003-0.058) and the American Joint Committee of Cancer (AJCC) stage (HR, 5.02; 95% CI 1.23-20.51) were observed as significantly independent prognostic factors for OS. PHH3-positive cell counts/10 HPF was a slightly significant independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 4.96; 95% CI 0.93-26.55). PHH3-positive MI and MCPyV status in MCC patients are useful in prognostication, although MCPyV-infection is a more powerful prognostic factor in MCCs than the AJCC scheme on proliferation or mitotic indices.

  15. Automatic image hanging protocol for chest radiographs in PACS.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui; Hao, Wei; Foos, David H; Cornelius, Craig W

    2006-04-01

    Chest radiography is one of the most widely used techniques in diagnostic imaging. It comprises at least one-third of all diagnostic radiographic procedures in hospitals. However, in the picture archive and communication system, images are often stored with the projection and orientation unknown or mislabeled, which causes inefficiency for radiologists' interpretation. To address this problem, an automatic hanging protocol for chest radiographs is presented. The method targets the most effective region in a chest radiograph, and extracts a set of size-, rotation-, and translation-invariant features from it. Then, a well-trained classifier is used to recognize the projection. The orientation of the radiograph is later identified by locating the neck, heart, and abdomen positions in the radiographs. Initial experiments are performed on the radiographs collected from daily routine chest exams in hospitals and show promising results. Using the presented protocol, 98.2% of all cases could be hung correctly on projection view (without protocol, 62%), and 96.1% had correct orientation (without protocol, 75%). A workflow study on the protocol also demonstrates a significant improvement in efficiency for image display.

  16. Automatic detection of scoliotic curves in posteroanterior radiographs.

    PubMed

    Duong, Luc; Cheriet, Farida; Labelle, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Spinal deformities are diagnosed using posteroanterior (PA) radiographs. Automatic detection of the spine on conventional radiographs would be of interest to quantify curve severity, would help reduce observer variability and would allow large-scale retrospective studies on radiographic databases. The goal of this paper is to present a new method for automatic detection of spinal curves from a PA radiograph. A region of interest (ROI) is first extracted according to the 2-D shape variability of the spine obtained from a set of PA radiographs of scoliotic patients. This region includes 17 bounding boxes delimiting each vertebral level from T1 to L5. An adaptive filter combining shock with complex diffusion is used to individually restore the image of each vertebral level. Then, texture descriptors of small block elements are computed and submitted for training to support vector machines (SVM). Vertebral body's locations are thereby inferred for a particular vertebral level. The classifications of block elements for all 17 SVMs are identified in the image and a voting system is introduced to cumulate correctly predicted blocks. A spline curve is then fitted through the centers of the predicted vertebral regions and compared to a manual identification using a Student t-test. A clinical validation is performed using 100 radiographs of scoliotic patients (not used for training) and the detected spinal curve is found to be statistically similar (p < 0.05) in 93% of cases to the manually identified curve.

  17. Radiographic measurement of internal organs in Spix's macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii).

    PubMed

    Rettmer, Helen; Deb, Amrita; Watson, Ryan; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hammer, Sven

    2011-12-01

    Radiology is an important diagnostic instrument in avian medicine, but standard measurement ranges for the objective evaluation of radiographs of birds are rare. To establish radiographic reference ranges for the critically endangered Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), we measured radiographic silhouettes of the heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, proventriculus, and keel of the sternum on 29 radiographs taken under standardized conditions in adult and juvenile, clinically healthy birds. Ratios were determined for the proventricular diameter-to-keel height, the width of the heart to the width of the thorax, and for the "hourglass shape" (ratio of the width of the heart to the width of the liver). No significant differences were found between the sexes among the adult birds. Compared with adult birds, juvenile females had a significantly larger heart width (19.8 +/- 1.4 mm versus 21.2 +/- 0.7 mm), ratio of the heart width to the thorax width (0.86 +/- 0.08 versus 0.94 +/- 0.09), and horizontal width of the spleen (7.7 +/- 0.6 mm versus 8.5 +/- 0.4 mm). Results of radiographic measurements in the Spix's macaws were comparable to those published from other psittacine species. These reference ranges will facilitate a more objective radiographic evaluation of captive Spix's macaws.

  18. Evaluation of a standardised radiographic technique of the equine hoof.

    PubMed

    Kummer, M; Lischer, C; Ohlerth, S; Vargas, J; Auer, J

    2004-11-01

    Radiography of the equine hoof is often used to obtain a diagnosis. Quantitative interpretation, especially for research purposes requires high quality and accuracy of radiographs. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate a radiographic technique for the lateromedial (LM) and the dorsopalmar (DP) view of the equine hoof. Ten radiographs for each view from one cadaver limb and from both front feet in a standing horse were taken in order to assess repeatability of the radiographic technique. The method requires easy to use adjustable and portable equipment and strictly defined external radio opaque markers on the hoof capsule. The digitalised radiographs were processed and analysed with the software package Metron PX, measuring 13 parameters in the LM view and 10 parameters in the DP view, respectively. Results show that with few exceptions measurements of these parameters revealed a coefficient of variation that was smaller than 0.05. It was concluded that this easy to use standardised radiographic technique ensures excellent accuracy and repeatability for both the LM and DP view. Hence, this method provides an adequate tool for quantitative assessment of the equine hoof, inter- and intraindividually.

  19. Segmentation and determination of joint space width in foot radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, O.; de Muinck Keizer, D. M.; Bernelot Moens, H. J.; Slump, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    Joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis is frequently assessed using radiographs of hands and feet. Evaluation includes measurements of the joint space width (JSW) and detection of erosions. Current visual scoring methods are timeconsuming and subject to inter- and intra-observer variability. Automated measurement methods avoid these limitations and have been fairly successful in hand radiographs. This contribution aims at foot radiographs. Starting from an earlier proposed automated segmentation method we have developed a novel model based image analysis algorithm for JSW measurements. This method uses active appearance and active shape models to identify individual bones. The model compiles ten submodels, each representing a specific bone of the foot (metatarsals 1-5, proximal phalanges 1-5). We have performed segmentation experiments using 24 foot radiographs, randomly selected from a large database from the rheumatology department of a local hospital: 10 for training and 14 for testing. Segmentation was considered successful if the joint locations are correctly determined. Segmentation was successful in only 14%. To improve results a step-by-step analysis will be performed. We performed JSW measurements on 14 randomly selected radiographs. JSW was successfully measured in 75%, mean and standard deviation are 2.30+/-0.36mm. This is a first step towards automated determination of progression of RA and therapy response in feet using radiographs.

  20. Radiographic appearance of nosocomial legionnaires' disease after erythromycin treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, C; Roig, J; Planas, F; Bechini, J; Tenesa, M; Morera, J

    1991-01-01

    Radiographic features of 71 patients (48 men, 23 women) with nosocomial Legionella pneumophila pneumonia were assessed and compared with those of other nosocomial series of L pneumophila pneumonia. Sixteen patients were assessed retrospectively and 55 prospectively. Chest radiographs were assessed at the onset of the illness, 10 days later, and at 3 months. Erythromycin was given to 67 patients at the time of the diagnosis and to the remaining four at a later stage. Forty eight patients were over the age of 60. On the initial chest radiograph 53 of the 71 patients had unilateral shadowing (23 of them in the right lung); 35 had unilobar shadowing and the remaining 36 had more than one affected lobe. Pleural effusion was present in 24 cases and cavitation in 2. One patient had evidence of a pericardial effusion. At 10 days 21 patients had evidence of radiographic progression (14 ipsilateral), but 28 had improved. At 3 months 36 patients had an abnormal radiograph, 30 showing residual scarring, 15 loss of volume, six pleural shadows and two cavitation. Our series shows a lesser incidence of unilateral shadowing and pleural effusion than other nosocomial series and a lesser tendency to progression, but more patients had radiographic abnormalities at long term follow up. PMID:1948796

  1. Distortion of digital panoramic radiographs used for implant site assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Rayyan Abdulhamid

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study is conducted to determine the amount of distortion of digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of all patients who received dental implants in the years 2012 and 2013 were selected from the records at the faculty of dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Radiographs were analyzed using the R4 Kodak Software for linear measurements of implants length and width. The measurements were compared to the actual size of the implant, and the amount of distortion was calculated. Results: A total of 169 implants were analyzed. Horizontally, there was a statistically significant increase of 0.4 mm in width in the radiographic measurement compared to the actual size in the incisor region. Vertically, the sample overall exhibited a decrease by 0.4 mm compared to the actual size. Incisors had the highest difference with a decrease of 1.7 mm in the radiographic measurements compared to actual size. The highest distortion was found in the incisor region for both diameter and length (1.1 and 0.86), respectively. Conclusion: Digital panoramic radiographs show minimal to no distortion. The highest distortion is found in the anterior area. PMID:27843885

  2. An Integrated Approach for Gear Health Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, David; Bechhoefer, Eric; Dempsey, Paula; Ma, Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated approach for gear health prognostics using particle filters is presented. The presented method effectively addresses the issues in applying particle filters to gear health prognostics by integrating several new components into a particle filter: (1) data mining based techniques to effectively define the degradation state transition and measurement functions using a one-dimensional health index obtained by whitening transform; (2) an unbiased l-step ahead RUL estimator updated with measurement errors. The feasibility of the presented prognostics method is validated using data from a spiral bevel gear case study.

  3. What causes a small increase in radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients tapering TNF inhibitors?

    PubMed Central

    Bouman, Chantal A M; den Broeder, Alfons A; van der Maas, Aatke; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; Landewé, Robert B M; van Herwaarden, Noortje

    2017-01-01

    Objective In a randomised controlled trial investigating tapering of TNF inhibitors (TNFi) compared with usual care (UC) in rheumatoid arthritis patients, minimal radiographic progression was more frequent in patients who attempted tapering. Possible explanations include higher incidence of flaring, higher mean disease activity or lower TNFi use. Methods 18 months data from the DRESS study were used. Change in Sharp-van der Heijde (ΔSvdH) score (linear regression) and proportion of patients with >0.5 ΔSvdH (logistic regression) were used as outcomes. The cumulative incidence and number of short-lived and major flares per patient, mean time-weighted disease activity (MTW-DAS28-CRP) and TNFi use were used as independent variables. Regression models were performed stratified per study group and corrected for possible confounders. Results 175 of 180 patients had 18-month data available. The mean ΔSvdH were 0.75 and 0.15 units with 37 of 116 (32%) and 9 of 59 (15%) patients exceeding 0.5 points in the tapering and UC group, respectively (both p<0.05). MTW-DAS28-CRP, but not incidence or number of short-lived or major flares, or TNFi use, was independently associated with the mean progression score, but only in the tapering group. Additional analyses on DAS28-CRP subcomponents showed that this was mainly caused by MTW swollen joint count. No confounders were identified. Conclusions Radiographic progression was associated with higher MTW-DAS28-CRP (and especially swollen joint count), but only in patients who tapered TNFi. This finding stresses the importance of maintaining disease activity as low as possible in patients in whom TNFi is tapered and to check for radiographic progression regularly. Trial registration number NTR 3216; Post-results.

  4. The biological and prognostic significance of angiotropism in uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Raymond L; Ye, Mengliang; Batistella, Aude; Stern, Marc-Henri; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Dendale, Rémi; Lantz, Olivier; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Desjardins, Laurence; Cassoux, Nathalie; Lugassy, Claire

    2017-02-27

    Angiotropism is a marker of extravascular migration of melanoma cells along vascular and other structures and a prognostic factor in cutaneous melanoma. Because of this biological and prognostic importance in cutaneous melanoma, angiotropism was studied in uveal melanoma (UM). This retrospective study performed at a single ocular oncology referral center included 89 patients from the study period 2006-2008. All patients were diagnosed with UM from the choroid and/or ciliary body. All patients underwent enucleation for prognostic purposes and definitive therapy. Clinical, histopathological, and molecular variables included patient age, gender, extraocular extension, tumor location (ciliary body or not), optic nerve invasion, angiotropism, neurotropism, melanoma cell type, BAP1 mutation, and monosomy 3. Angiotropism was defined as melanoma cells arrayed along the abluminal vascular surfaces without intravasation in the sclera and/or episcleral tissue. The study included 51 women (57.3%) and 38 men with mean and median age: 63 years (range: 25-92). Mean follow-up was 4.4 years (range: 0.2 to 11). Fifty-three (59.6%) patients developed metastases and 48 (53.9%) were dead from metastases at last follow-up. Other principal variables recorded were angiotropism in 43.8%, extraocular extension in 7.9%, epithelioid/mixed cell type in 73.1%, BAP1 mutation in 41.3%, and monosomy 3 in 53.6% of cases. On multivariate analysis, extraocular extension, angiotropism, and monosomy 3 were predictive of metastasis, whereas tumor diameter, epithelioid cell type, angiotropism, and monosomy 3 were predictive of death. Chi-square test confirmed an association between angiotropism and metastasis and death but none with BAP1 mutation and monosomy 3. In conclusion, angiotropism and monosomy 3 were independent prognostic factors for both metastases and death in UM. However, irrespective of any prognostic value, the true importance of angiotropism is its biological significance as a marker of

  5. Optimisation of the digital radiographic imaging of suspected non-accidental injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offiah, Amaka

    Aim: To optimise the digital (radiographic) imaging of children presenting with suspected non-accidental injury (NAI). Objectives: (i) To evaluate existing radiographic quality criteria, and to develop a more suitable system if these are found to be inapplicable to skeletal surveys obtained in suspected NAI. (ii) To document differences in image quality between conventional film-screen and the recently installed Fuji5000R computed radiography (CR) system at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, (iii) To document the extent of variability in the standard of skeletal surveys obtained in the UK for suspected NAI. (iv) To determine those radiographic parameters which yield the highest diagnostic accuracy, while still maintaining acceptable radiation dose to the child, (v) To determine how varying degrees of edge-enhancement affect diagnostic accuracy. (vi) To establish the accuracy of soft compared to hard copy interpretation of images in suspected NAI. Materials and Methods: (i) and (ii) Retrospective analysis of 286 paediatric lateral spine radiographs by two observers based on the Commission of European Communities (CEC) quality criteria, (iii) Review of the skeletal surveys of 50 consecutive infants referred from hospitals throughout the United Kingdom (UK) with suspected NAI. (iv) Phantom studies. Leeds TO. 10 and TO. 16 test objects were used to compare the relationship between film density, exposure parameters and visualisation of object details, (iv) Clinical study. Anteroposterior and lateral post mortem skull radiographs of six consecutive infants were obtained at various exposures. Six observers independently scored the images based on visualisation of five criteria, (v) and (vi) A study of diagnostic accuracy in which six observers independently interpreted 50 radiographs from printed copies (with varying degrees of edge-enhancement) and from a monitor. Results: The CEC criteria are useful for optimisation of imaging parameters and allow the detection

  6. 42 CFR 37.60 - Submitting required chest radiograph classification and miner identification documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Submitting required chest radiograph classification... OF COAL MINERS Chest Radiographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of Chest Radiographs § 37.60 Submitting required chest radiograph classification and...

  7. Radiographic diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia: review of 60 cases in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Changbaig

    2004-06-01

    Sixty cases of diaphragmatic hernia in dogs and cats were radiologically reviewed and categorized by their characteristic radiographic signs. Any particular predilection for age, sex, or breed was not observed. Liver, stomach and small intestine were more commonly herniated. At least two radiographs, at different angles, were required for a valid diagnosis, because some radiographic signs were not visible in a single radiographic view and more clearly detectable in two radiographic views. In addition to previously reported radiographic signs for diaphragmatic hernia, we found that the location of the stomach axis and the displacement of tracheal and bronchial segments were also useful radiographic signs.

  8. Development of a radiographic index to assess the tarsal involvement in patients with spondyloarthropathies

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Tena, C; Londono, J; Cazarin-Barriento..., J; Martinez, A; Vazquez-Mellado, J; Moctezuma, J; Gonzalez, M; Pineda, C; Cardiel, M; Burgos-Vargas, R

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test an index to evaluate the radiographic changes that occur in the tarsus and adjacent areas of the foot in patients with spondyloarthropathies (SpA). Methods: The spondyloarthropathy tarsal radiographic index (SpA-TRI) was developed in three consecutive steps: (a) detection of descriptors after reviewing 70 radiographic files; (b) descriptor gradation and subsequent modifications performed by a consensus committee, and (c) interobserver variability assessed by three blinded and independent observers on 272 radiographs: anteroposterior 118, lateral 90, oblique 64 from 121 patients with SpA, and intraobserver variability on 75 radiographs from 25 patients with SpA. Statistical analysis included percentage of agreement and κ test. SpA-TRI score ranges from 0 to 4 (0=normal; 1=osteopenia or suspicious findings; 2=definite joint space narrowing, bony erosion(s), periosteal whiskering, or enthesophyte(s) in the plantar fascia or Achilleal tendon attachments; 3=para-articular enthesophyte(s); 4=bony ankylosis (joint space fusion or complete bridging)). Results: Complete agreement for every evaluation was >40%, and discordance >1 grade was <15%. The κ scores among the three observers were acceptable for all the single projections: oblique (0.52, 0.36, 0.35), lateral (0.50, 0.42, 0.56), and anteroposterior (0.40, 0.41, 0.21) views. The combination of lateral and oblique views achieved the highest concordance rates (0.72, 0.33, 0.66), surpassing that of the three projections altogether (0.34, 0.58, 0.37). In every case the concordance was comparable with that of sacroiliac joints (0.47, 0.41, 0.34); intraobserver concordance showed a similar trend. Conclusion: The SpA-TRI is an index that includes the most prominent features of tarsal disease and adjacent areas of the foot in SpA and grades them accordingly, it has an adequate reproducibility, and is suitable for use with two or more projections, preferably the combination of oblique and

  9. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M.

    2009-11-15

    }=0.61 (MF and MG features, p<0.01) and were partially independent of BMD. The correlations were dependent on the choice of the ROI and the texture measure. The best predictive multiregression model for failure load R{sub adj}{sup 2}=0.86 (p<0.001) included a set of recently developed texture methods (MF and SIM) but excluded bone mineral density and commonly used texture measures. Conclusions: The results suggest that texture information contained in trabecular bone structure visualized on radiographs may predict whether an implant anchorage can be used and may determine the local bone quality from preoperative radiographs.

  10. Prognostic markers of acute decompensated heart failure: the emerging roles of cardiac biomarkers and prognostic scores.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Solal, Alain; Laribi, Said; Ishihara, Shiro; Vergaro, Giuseppe; Baudet, Mathilde; Logeart, Damien; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Gayat, Etienne; Vodovar, Nicolas; Pascual-Figal, Domingo A; Seronde, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly assessing outcome in patients with acute decompensated heart failure is important but prognostic factors may differ from those used routinely for stable chronic heart failure. Multiple plasma biomarkers, besides the classic natriuretic peptides, have recently emerged as potential prognosticators. Furthermore, prognostic scores that combine clinical and biochemical data may also be useful. However, compared with the scores used in chronic heart failure, scores for acute decompensated heart failure have not been validated. This article reviews potential biomarkers, with a special focus on biochemical biomarkers, and possible prognostic scores that could be used by the clinician when assessing outcome in patients with acute heart failure.

  11. The prognostic relevance of tumor associated macrophages in advanced stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jakovic, Ljubomir R; Mihaljevic, Biljana S; Perunicic Jovanovic, Maja D; Bogdanovic, Andrija D; Andjelic, Bosko M; Bumbasirevic, Vladimir Z

    2011-10-01

    Although the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has been improved, distinguishing reliable prognostic biomarkers could better stratify patients for more effective treatment. We analyzed the prognostic relevance of CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) by immunohistochemical analysis at diagnosis and standard clinical parameters in 52 ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine)-treated patients with advanced stage classical HL (cHL). Patients with >25% CD68+ TAMs compared to those with ≤25% had worse 5-year overall survival (45% vs. 77%, log-rank p = 0.019) and showed a trend toward shorter 5-year event-free survival (51% vs. 71%, log-rank p = 0.19). Additionally, no significant correlation with selected clinical features was found. Significantly shorter 5-year overall survival was associated with International Prognostic Score (IPS) >2, bulky disease, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (log-rank test, p = 0.003, p = 0.049, p = 0.007, respectively). In multivariate analysis, increased CD68+TAMs, IPS >2, and bulky disease were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival (Cox multivariate model, p = 0.006, p = 0.007, p = 0.013, respectively). Tumor-associated macrophages represent a potential prognostic biomarker which could contribute to better risk stratification of patients with cHL.

  12. Predictive and prognostic factors in definition of risk groups in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sorbe, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim was to evaluate predictive and prognostic factors in a large consecutive series of endometrial carcinomas and to discuss pre- and postoperative risk groups based on these factors. Material and Methods. In a consecutive series of 4,543 endometrial carcinomas predictive and prognostic factors were analyzed with regard to recurrence rate and survival. The patients were treated with primary surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. Two preoperative and three postoperative risk groups were defined. DNA ploidy was included in the definitions. Eight predictive or prognostic factors were used in multivariate analyses. Results. The overall recurrence rate of the complete series was 11.4%. Median time to relapse was 19.7 months. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, FIGO grade, myometrial infiltration, and DNA ploidy were independent and statistically predictive factors with regard to recurrence rate. The 5-year overall survival rate was 73%. Tumor stage was the single most important factor with FIGO grade on the second place. DNA ploidy was also a significant prognostic factor. In the preoperative risk group definitions three factors were used: histology, FIGO grade, and DNA ploidy. Conclusions. DNA ploidy was an important and significant predictive and prognostic factor and should be used both in preoperative and postoperative risk group definitions.

  13. Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Leininger, Jennifer; Hamby, Carl; Safai, Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a lethal melanocytic neoplasm. Unfortunately, the histological diagnosis can be difficult at times. Distinguishing ambiguous melanocytic neoplasms that are benign nevi from those that represent true melanoma is important both for treatment and prognosis. Diagnostic biomarkers currently used to assist in the diagnosis of melanoma are usually specific only for melanocytic neoplasms and not necessarily for their ability to metastasize. Traditional prognostic biomarkers include depth of invasion and mitotic count. Newer diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers utilize immunohistochemical staining as well as ribonucleic acid, micro-ribonucleic acid, and deoxyribonucleic acid assays and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Improved diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are of increasing importance in the treatment of melanoma with the development of newer and more targeted therapies. Herein, the authors review many of the common as well as newer diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers used in melanoma. PMID:25013535

  14. Radiographic Evidence of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Athletes With Athletic Pubalgia

    PubMed Central

    Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Study Design: Case series. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a “crossover” sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Results: Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. Conclusion: The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Clinical Relevance: Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI. PMID:24587869

  15. The cost of screening radiographs after stable fracture fixation

    PubMed Central

    Tufescu, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently up to 58% of Canadian surgeons would forego screening radiographs after stable fracture fixation. It is therefore expected that reducing screening radiographs will be well accepted, provided that patient safety is not compromised, resulting in a cost reduction. The study objective was to measure the savings of a simplified radiographic protocol for well-fixed fractures and establish feasibility for a noninferiority trial that proves patient safety. Methods Patients were randomized after fixation. The control group received screening radiographs immediately after fixation and at 2 weeks. The experimental group received radiographs only when clinically indicated. At 6 weeks all patients received radiographs. The cost of imaging, time spent in clinic and patient satisfaction was measured. A blinded reviewer documented adverse events, either detected or missed. Results Of the 90 patients screened, 39 were randomized and 26 had complete follow-up. The mean cost of radiographs over the first 6 weeks was $44.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 38.64–50.38) per patient in the experimental group, and $129.23 (95% CI 120.23–138.23) in the control group (p < 0.001). The mean time spent in clinic at 2 weeks was 46 min (95% CI 32–60) per patient for the experimental group and 68 min (95% CI 55–81) for the control group (p = 0.018). Two complications occurred in the experimental group. Both were detected clinically and did not qualify as missed events. Conclusion Implementing a simplified radiography protocol after stable fracture fixation saves time and money. Additionally, no adverse events were missed with the study protocol. Recommendations are made toward a noninferiority trial to establish protocol safety. PMID:28234590

  16. Radiographic dental implants recognition for geographic evaluation in human identification.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Lusito, S; Solarino, B; Di Vella, G

    2008-06-01

    Dental implants for prosthetic rehabilitation with fixed crown or mobile partial/total dentures is a very common oral treatment among the population in Italy as elsewhere. There is a great number of implant systems of different designs. However, a catalogue of radiographic images and a description of the dental implants available in Italy would be useful in order to identify the manufacturer and the type of implant encountered in forensic casework. When an unidentified body is found with one or more implants in the jaws, and no dental record is available, clues gleaned from the type of implants used could give direction to the investigation. In this study Italian implant manufactures were contacted and asked to provide specimen implants. Digital radiographs were taken of all the implants donated at 0º, 30º, and 60º horizontal rotation, combined with -20º, -10º, 0º, +10º, and +20º vertical inclination relative to the radiographic beam and the X-ray sensor. A total of 15 images per implant were taken and examined to identify consistent, unique features that would aid in implant recognition. Only those observations made from radiographs between -10º and +10º vertical inclination would ever be used for definite identification of any implant. The information from this study should be considered a survey of the commercial distribution of dental implants in Italy through their digital radiographic images. It is also a starting point for a wider geographical evaluation of different manufacturers in other countries and continents. The radiographic images provided should help both the forensic odontologist and the prosthodontist to identify pre-existing implants which they may discover from their radiographic images.

  17. Evaluation of Patellar Position before and After Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: Radiographic and Computed Tomography Findings

    PubMed Central

    Moghtadaei, Mehdi; Otoukesh, Babak; Bodduhi, Bahram; Ahmadi, Keyvan; Yeganeh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Genovarum is a common orthopedic problem. Its optimal prompt treatment is an issue of importance. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the radiographic changes in patella bone before and after open wedge high tibial osteotomy. Material and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 43 patients were enrolled and underwent open wedge high tibial osteotomy and the radiographic and CT-scan indices including Q-Angle, Congruence Angle, Insall-Salvati index, and TTTG were measured and compared before and after surgery. Results: The result revealed that all indices including Q-Angle, Congruence Angle, Insull-Salvati index, and TTTG were not significantly differed across the study (P > 0.05). There was no difference between DLFA values before and after the operation (P> 0.05), while MPTA values were significantly different before and after operation (p <0.001). Conclusions: Totally it may be concluded that imaging indices are not differed after open wedge high tibial osteotomy and monitoring for them is not necessary and they would have no prognostic role. PMID:27703292

  18. Metrics for Offline Evaluation of Prognostic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Prognostic performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. Currently, prognostics concepts lack standard definitions and suffer from ambiguous and inconsistent interpretations. This lack of standards is in part due to the varied end-user requirements for different applications, time scales, available information, domain dynamics, etc. to name a few. The research community has used a variety of metrics largely based on convenience and their respective requirements. Very little attention has been focused on establishing a standardized approach to compare different efforts. This paper presents several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics that were recently introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. These metrics have the capability of incorporating probabilistic uncertainty estimates from prognostic algorithms. In addition to quantitative assessment they also offer a comprehensive visual perspective that can be used in designing the prognostic system. Several methods are suggested to customize these metrics for different applications. Guidelines are provided to help choose one method over another based on distribution characteristics. Various issues faced by prognostics and its performance evaluation are discussed followed by a formal notational framework to help standardize subsequent developments.

  19. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Metric Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornhill, Dennis; Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines a set of metrics for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic schemes developed for the Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR), a system-level reasoner that encompasses the multiple levels of large, complex systems such as those for aircraft and spacecraft. VIPR health managers are organized hierarchically and operate together to derive diagnostic and prognostic inferences from symptoms and conditions reported by a set of diagnostic and prognostic monitors. For layered reasoners such as VIPR, the overall performance cannot be evaluated by metrics solely directed toward timely detection and accuracy of estimation of the faults in individual components. Among other factors, overall vehicle reasoner performance is governed by the effectiveness of the communication schemes between monitors and reasoners in the architecture, and the ability to propagate and fuse relevant information to make accurate, consistent, and timely predictions at different levels of the reasoner hierarchy. We outline an extended set of diagnostic and prognostics metrics that can be broadly categorized as evaluation measures for diagnostic coverage, prognostic coverage, accuracy of inferences, latency in making inferences, computational cost, and sensitivity to different fault and degradation conditions. We report metrics from Monte Carlo experiments using two variations of an aircraft reference model that supported both flat and hierarchical reasoning.

  20. On Applying the Prognostic Performance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prognostics performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. As prognostics technology matures and more sophisticated methods for prognostic uncertainty management are developed, a standardized methodology for performance evaluation becomes extremely important to guide improvement efforts in a constructive manner. This paper is in continuation of previous efforts where several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics were introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. Several shortcomings identified, while applying these metrics to a variety of real applications, are also summarized along with discussions that attempt to alleviate these problems. Further, these metrics have been enhanced to include the capability of incorporating probability distribution information from prognostic algorithms as opposed to evaluation based on point estimates only. Several methods have been suggested and guidelines have been provided to help choose one method over another based on probability distribution characteristics. These approaches also offer a convenient and intuitive visualization of algorithm performance with respect to some of these new metrics like prognostic horizon and alpha-lambda performance, and also quantify the corresponding performance while incorporating the uncertainty information.

  1. Cryocooler Prognostic Health Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A.; Penswick, L.; Dodson, C.; Roberts, T.

    2008-03-01

    High performance sensors are playing an increasingly important role in all aspects of all critical DoD missions. There is a family of sensors that operate with improved sensitivities if cooled to very low (cryogenic) temperatures. For these sensors, a healthy and reliable mechanical refrigeration system (cryocooler) is required. The ability to accurately predict the "health" or remaining useful life of the cryocooler has significant benefits from the viewpoint of ensuring that mission critical functions can be carried out with a high probability of success. The paper provides an overview and approaches used for the development of a Cryocooler Prognostic Health Management System (CPHMS) capable of assessing the cryocooler "health" from the viewpoint of the level of performance degradation and/or the potential for near term failure. Additionally, it quantifies the reliable remaining useful life of the cryocooler. While the proposed system is focused on the specific application to linear drive cryocoolers, especially for DoD, many of the attributes of the system can be applied to other specialized system hardware in both commercial and U.S. Government agency for situations where it is critical that all aspects of the hardware "health" and "remaining useful life" be fully understood. Several benefits of the health monitoring system are also described in the paper.

  2. An investigation of the chest radiographs in a controlled trial of busulphan, cyclophosphamide, and a placebo after resection for carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Stott, H; Stephens, R; Fox, W; Simon, G; Roy, D C

    1976-01-01

    A standard series of radiographs of 588 patients allocated at random to treatment with busulphan (B patients), cyclophosphamide (C patients), or a placebo (P patients) for two years after surgery for bronchial carcinoma were viewed in three stages (following procedures which avoided bias) by an independent assessor, unaware of the allocated treatment of any patient, with a view to identifying pulmonary changes due to busulphan. Radiographic appearances consistent with busulphan lung were not reported in any of the 195 B patients (receiving a mean dosage of 464 mg of busulphan over 301 days) or of the 192 C patients but were present in one of the 201 patients receiving placebo. PMID:781905

  3. Predictive and prognostic value of preoperative serum tumor markers in resectable adenosqamous lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Dongsheng; Li, Kai; Jiang, Richeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of lung cancer. The prognostic and predictive value of preoperative serum tumor markers and frequency of EGFR mutations in adenosquamous lung carcinoma are unclear. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data and samples collected from 106 radically resected adenosquamous lung carcinoma patients with pathological stage I-IIIA between 2008 and 2013. Correlations between serum tumor marker levels and EGFR mutations as well as survival parameters were analyzed and prognostic factors were identified. Results Of the 106 adenosquamous lung carcinoma patients, 29 (27.4%) harbored EGFR mutations. By univariate analysis, advanced clinical stage (P = 0.009 for disease-free survival [DFS]; P = 0.046 for overall survival [OS]), larger tumor size (P = 0.001 for DFS; P = 0.002 for OS), regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.024 for DFS; P = 0.030 for OS), higher NSE level (P = 0.002 for DFS; P < 0.001 for OS), and higher TMI (tumor marker index) (P = 0.009 for OS) were significantly correlated with a worse prognosis. By multivariate analysis, NSE (P = 0.014) was confirmed as independent predictor for DFS, while NSE (P = 0.001) and TMI (P = 0.038) were independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion Adenosquamous lung carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with relatively high EGFR mutation frequency. Elevated preoperative NSE level and TMI are adverse predictive and prognostic indicators. PMID:27623437

  4. Clinical determinants and prognostic significance of the electrocardiographic strain pattern in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Antonio C; Moraes, Aline A I; Cerutti, Virginia; França, Faustino; Quiroga, Borja; Amodeo, Celso; Picotti, Juliano C; Dutra, Lucas V; Rodrigues, Gabriel D; Amparo, Fernanda C; Lindholm, Bengt; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2014-05-01

    The electrocardiographic (ECG) strain pattern (Strain) is a marker of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) severity that provides additional prognostic information beyond echocardiography (ECHO) in the community level. We sought to evaluate its clinical determinants and prognostic usefulness in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We evaluated 284 non-dialysis-dependent patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 (mean age, 61 years [interquartile range, 53-67 years]; 62% men). Patients were followed for 23 months (range, 13-32 months) for cardiovascular (CV) events and/or death. Strain patients (n = 37; 13%) were using more antihypertensive drugs, had higher prevalence of peripheral vascular disease and smoking, and higher levels of C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The independent predictors of Strain were: left ventricular mass index (LVMI), BNP, and smoking. During follow-up, there were 44 cardiovascular events (fatal and non-fatal) and 22 non-CV deaths; and Strain was associated with a worse prognosis independently of LVMI. Adding Strain to a prognostic model of LVMI improved in 15% the risk discrimination for the composite endpoint and in 12% for the CV events. Strain associates with CV risk factors and adds prognostic information over and above that of ECHO-assessed LVMI. Its routine screening may allow early identification of high risk CKD patients.

  5. Telomere fusion threshold identifies a poor prognostic subset of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Simpson, K; Jones, R E; Grimstead, J W; Hills, R; Pepper, C; Baird, D M

    2015-06-01

    Telomere dysfunction and fusion can drive genomic instability and clonal evolution in human tumours, including breast cancer. Telomere length is a critical determinant of telomere function and has been evaluated as a prognostic marker in several tumour types, but it has yet to be used in the clinical setting. Here we show that high-resolution telomere length analysis, together with a specific telomere fusion threshold, is highly prognostic for overall survival in a cohort of patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (n = 120). The telomere fusion threshold defined a small subset of patients with an extremely poor clinical outcome, with a median survival of less than 12 months (HR = 21.4 (7.9-57.6), P < 0.0001). Furthermore, this telomere length threshold was independent of ER, PGR, HER2 status, NPI, or grade and was the dominant variable in multivariate analysis. We conclude that the fusogenic telomere length threshold provides a powerful, independent prognostic marker with clinical utility in breast cancer. Larger prospective studies are now required to determine the optimal way to incorporate high-resolution telomere length analysis into multivariate prognostic algorithms for patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

  6. Prognostic value of circulating tumor DNA in patients with colon cancer: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Gaowei; Zhang, Kuo; Yang, Xin; Ding, Jiansheng; Wang, Zujian; Li, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    The application of circulating tumor DNA(ctDNA) represents a non-invasive method for tumor detection. Its prognostic significance in patients with colorectal cancer is controversial. We performed a systematic review of data from published studies to assess the prognostic values of ctDNA in patients with colorectal cancer. We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases to identify eligible studies reporting disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) stratified by ctDNA prior to December 6, 2016. We evaluated the quality and design of these studies. A total of 22 studies were eligible for systematic review. Among them, 11 studies investigated the prognostic value of ctDNA on disease-free survival (DFS). Seven of 11 studies showed that ctDNA was an independent variable to estimate the probability of DFS by multivariate analyses. Thirteen studies assessed the relationship between ctDNA and overall survival (OS). Eight of 13 studies showed that ctDNA was an independent predictor of worse OS through the use of multivariate analyses. This analysis provides evidence that ctDNA may be a prognostic biomarker, negatively correlated with the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:28187169

  7. Computer-assisted diagnosis of chest radiographs for pneumoconioses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliz, Peter; Pattichis, Marios S.; Ramachandran, Janakiramanan; James, David S.

    2001-07-01

    A Computer-assisted Chest Radiograph Reader System (CARRS) was developed for the detection of pathological features in lungs presenting with pneumoconioses. CARRS applies novel techniques in automatic image segmentation, incorporates neural network-based pattern classification, and integrates these into a graphical user interface. The three aspects of CARRS are described: Chest radiograph digitization and display, rib and parenchyma characterization, and classification. The quantization of the chest radiograph film was optimized to maximize the information content of the digital images. Entropy was used as the benchmark for optimizing the quantization. From the rib-segmented images, regions of interest were selected by the pulmonologist. A feature vector composed of image characteristics such as entropy, textural statistics, etc. was calculated. A laterally primed adaptive resonance theory (LAPART) neural network was used as the classifier. LAPART classification accuracy averaged 86.8 %. Truth was determined by the two pulmonologists. The CARRS has demonstrated potential as a screening device. Today, 90% or more of the chest radiographs seen by the pulmonologist are normal. A computer-based system that can screen 50% or more of the chest radiographs represents a large savings in time and dollars.

  8. Etanercept for the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rios Rodriguez, Valeria; Poddubnyy, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Presently, tumor necrosis factor α antagonist therapy is the only effective alternative treatment to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the entire spectrum of axial spondyloarthritis, including non-radiographic and radiographic (=ankylosing spondylitis) forms. Recently, etanercept has been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis, increasing the number of available treatment options for this indication. The latest data on etanercept concerning clinical efficacy and safety in short-term and long-term treatment of patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis who do not respond to the first-line therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suggests good efficacy and safety profiles similar to that observed previously in ankylosing spondylitis. This article reviews recent data on the efficacy and safety of etanercept and is focused on the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis. This article will also discuss the role of etanercept in the context of current and developing treatment options.

  9. Radiologists remember mountains better than radiographs, or do they?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Karla K.; Marom, Edith M.; Godoy, Myrna C. B.; Palacio, Diana; Sagebiel, Tara; Cuellar, Sonia Betancourt; McEntee, Mark; Tian, Charles; Brennan, Patrick C.; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Expertise with encoding material has been shown to aid long-term memory for that material. It is not clear how relevant this expertise is for image memorability (e.g., radiologists’ memory for radiographs), and how robust over time. In two studies, we tested scene memory using a standard long-term memory paradigm. One compared the performance of radiologists to naïve observers on two image sets, chest radiographs and everyday scenes, and the other radiologists’ memory with immediate as opposed to delayed recognition tests using musculoskeletal radiographs and forest scenes. Radiologists’ memory was better than novices for images of expertise but no different for everyday scenes. With the heterogeneity of image sets equated, radiologists’ expertise with radiographs afforded them better memory for the musculoskeletal radiographs than forest scenes. Enhanced memory for images of expertise disappeared over time, resulting in chance level performance for both image sets after weeks of delay. Expertise with the material is important for visual memorability but not to the same extent as idiosyncratic detail and variability of the image set. Similar memory decline with time for images of expertise as for everyday scenes further suggests that extended familiarity with an image is not a robust factor for visual memorability. PMID:26870748

  10. Radiologists remember mountains better than radiographs, or do they?

    PubMed

    Evans, Karla K; Marom, Edith M; Godoy, Myrna C B; Palacio, Diana; Sagebiel, Tara; Cuellar, Sonia Betancourt; McEntee, Mark; Tian, Charles; Brennan, Patrick C; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2016-01-01

    Expertise with encoding material has been shown to aid long-term memory for that material. It is not clear how relevant this expertise is for image memorability (e.g., radiologists' memory for radiographs), and how robust over time. In two studies, we tested scene memory using a standard long-term memory paradigm. One compared the performance of radiologists to naïve observers on two image sets, chest radiographs and everyday scenes, and the other radiologists' memory with immediate as opposed to delayed recognition tests using musculoskeletal radiographs and forest scenes. Radiologists' memory was better than novices for images of expertise but no different for everyday scenes. With the heterogeneity of image sets equated, radiologists' expertise with radiographs afforded them better memory for the musculoskeletal radiographs than forest scenes. Enhanced memory for images of expertise disappeared over time, resulting in chance level performance for both image sets after weeks of delay. Expertise with the material is important for visual memorability but not to the same extent as idiosyncratic detail and variability of the image set. Similar memory decline with time for images of expertise as for everyday scenes further suggests that extended familiarity with an image is not a robust factor for visual memorability.

  11. Prognostic factors and survival in patients with gastric stump cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hua; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Jin, Jie-Jie; Long, Zi-Wen; Cai, Hong; Liu, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Ye; Wang, Ya-Nong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of gastric stump cancer (GSC). METHODS: The clinical data for 92 patients with GSC were collected at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. The prognostic factors were analyzed with Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: GSC tended to occur within 25 years following the primary surgery, when the initial disease is benign, whereas it primarily occurred within the first 15 years post-operation for gastric cancer. Patients with regular follow-up after primary surgery had a better survival rate. The multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that Borrmann type I/II (HR = 3.165, 95%CI: 1.055-9.500, P = 0.040) and radical resection (HR = 1.780, 95%CI: 1.061-2.987, P = 0.029) were independent prognostic factors for GSC. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of the 92 patients were 78.3%, 45.6% and 27.6%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of those undergoing radical resection were 79.3%, 52.2%, and 37.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates for stages I, II, III, and IV were 85.7%, 47.4%, 16.0%, and 13.3%, respectively (P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The appearance of GSC occurs sooner in patients with primary malignant cancer than in patients with a primary benign disease. Therefore, close follow-up is necessary. The overall survival of patients with GSC is poor, and curative resection can improve their prognosis. PMID:25684953

  12. Prognostic value of microalbuminuria during antihypertensive treatment in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Escrich, Miguel; Gonzalez, Carmen; Redon, Josep

    2014-12-01

    Whether changes over time of urinary albumin excretion have prognostic value is a matter of discussion. The objective was to assess the prognostic value of changes in urinary albumin excretion over time in cardiovascular risk during antihypertensive treatment. Follow-up study of 2835 hypertensives in the absence of previous cardiovascular disease (mean age 55 years, 47% men, BP 138/80 mm Hg, 19.1% diabetics, and calibrated systemic coronary risk estimation 5 or >10.6%). Usual-care of antihypertensive treatment was implemented to maintain blood pressure<140/90 mm Hg. Urinary albumin excretion was assessed yearly, and the values were expressed as the creatinine ratio. Incidence of cardiovascular events, fatal and nonfatal, was recorded during the follow-up. During a median follow-up of 4.7 years (17 028 patients-year), 294 fatal and first nonfatal cardiovascular events were recorded (1.73 CVD per 100 patients/year). Independently of blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, level of cardiovascular risk, and antihypertensive treatment, microalbuminuria at baseline and at any time during the follow-up resulted in higher risk for events, hazard ratio (HR) 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.79) and HR 1.49 (95% CI, 1.14-1.94), respectively. Likewise, development of microalbuminuria (HR 1.60; 95% CI, 1.04-2.46) or persistence from the beginning (1.53; 95% CI, 1.13-2.06) had a significantly higher rate of events than if remained normoalbuminuric (HR 1) or regress to normoalbuminuria (HR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.92-2.06) with an 18%, 18%, 8%, and 11% events, respectively, P<0.001. The study supports the value of urinary albumin excretion assessment as a prognostic factor for cardiovascular risk, but also opens the way to consider it as an intermediate objective in hypertension.

  13. Prognostic Disclosures to Children: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sisk, Bryan A.; Bluebond-Langner, Myra; Wiener, Lori; Mack, Jennifer; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic disclosure to children has perpetually challenged clinicians and parents. In this article, we review the historical literature on prognostic disclosure to children in the United States using cancer as an illness model. Prior to 1948, there was virtually no literature focused on prognostic disclosure to children. As articles began to be published in the 1950s and 1960s, many clinicians and researchers initially recommended a “protective” approach to disclosure, where children were shielded from the harms of bad news. We identified four main arguments in the literature at this time supporting this “protective” approach. By the late 1960s, however, a growing number of clinicians and researchers were recommending a more “open” approach, where children were included in discussions of diagnosis, which at the time was often synonymous with a terminal prognosis. Four different arguments in the literature were used at this time supporting this “open” approach. Then by the late 1980s, the recommended approach to prognostic disclosure in pediatrics shifted largely from “never tell” to “always tell”. In recent years, however, there has been a growing appreciation for the complexity of prognostic disclosure in pediatrics. Current understanding of pediatric disclosure does not lead to simple “black and white” recommendations for disclosure practices. As with most difficult questions, we are left to balance competing factors on a case-by-case basis. We highlight four categories of current considerations related to prognostic disclosure in pediatrics, and we offer several approaches to prognostic disclosure for clinicians who care for these young patients and their families. PMID:27561728

  14. Comparisons of NIF convergent ablation simulations with radiograph data.

    PubMed

    Olson, R E; Hicks, D G; Meezan, N B; Koch, J A; Landen, O L

    2012-10-01

    A technique for comparing simulation results directly with radiograph data from backlit capsule implosion experiments will be discussed. Forward Abel transforms are applied to the kappa*rho profiles of the simulation. These provide the transmission ratio (optical depth) profiles of the simulation. Gaussian and top hat blurs are applied to the simulated transmission ratio profiles in order to account for the motion blurring and imaging slit resolution of the experimental measurement. Comparisons between the simulated transmission ratios and the radiograph data lineouts are iterated until a reasonable backlighter profile is obtained. This backlighter profile is combined with the blurred, simulated transmission ratios to obtain simulated intensity profiles that can be directly compared with the radiograph data. Examples will be shown from recent convergent ablation (backlit implosion) experiments at the NIF.

  15. Upper airway radiographs in infants with upper airway insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, S L; Davis, S L; Gunn, T R

    1994-01-01

    Upper airway measurements in nine infants considered to be at risk of upper airway insufficiency, six of whom presented after an apnoeic episode, were compared with measurements taken in two age groups of healthy infants. Paired, inspiratory and expiratory, lateral upper airway radiographs were obtained while the infants were awake and breathing quietly. The radiographs of all nine infants demonstrated narrowing in the oropharyngeal portion of the airway during inspiration and in six infants there was ballooning of the upper airway during expiration. Seven of the nine infants subsequently experienced recurrent apnoeic episodes which required vigorous stimulation to restore breathing. Experience suggests that respiratory phase timed radiographs are a useful adjunct to the evaluation of infants who are suspected of having upper airway dysfunction. They provide information regarding both the dimensions and compliance of the upper airway as well as the site of any restriction. Images PMID:8048825

  16. Development of osteochondrosis in Lusitano foals: a radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Baccarin, Raquel Yvonne Arantes; Pereira, Marco Antonio; Roncati, Neimar Vanderlei; Bergamaschi, Rafael Ramalho Corso; Hagen, Stefano Carlo Filippo

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to detect, by radiographic examination, the evolution of osteochondral lesions in the tarsocrural and femoropatellar joints of Lusitano foals. Within 1 month of age, 76.08% of foals had radiographic signs of osteochondrosis, but only 16.20% had lesions at 18 months. The radiographic signs resolved by 5 mo of age in most foals, but some cases that involved either joint, were not resolved until 12 mo of age. It is thought that the "age of no return" is 5 mo for the tarsocrural and 8 mo for the femoropatellar joint but this study demonstrated regression of osteochondral lesions in both joints of Lusitano foals up to 12 months of age.

  17. Intelligent segmentation of industrial radiographic images using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Shaun W.; Parker, Graham A.

    1994-10-01

    An application of machine vision, incorporating neural networks, which aims to fully automate real-time radiographic inspection in welding process is described. The current methodology adopted comprises two distinct stages - the segmentation of the weld from the background content of the radiographic image, and the segmentation of suspect defect areas inside the weld region itself. In the first stage, a back propagation neural network has been employed to adaptively and accurately segment the weld region from a given image. The training of the network is achieved with a single image showing a typical weld in the run which is to be inspected, coupled with a very simple schematic weld 'template'. The second processing stage utilizes a further backpropagation network which is trained on a test set of image data previously segmented by a conventional adaptive threshold method. It is shown that the two techniques can be combined to fully segment radiographic weld images.

  18. Para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea: its radiographic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, A; Murayama, S; Ohuchida, T; Russell, W J

    1988-01-01

    On retrospective reviews of radiographs, periarthritis calcarea was distinguished from os acetabula by interval radiographic progression and regression. Among 59 men and 51 women, there were 137 instances of para-acetabular calcifications and ossifications, which were morphologically classified as 58 discrete, 58 amorphous, and 21 segmented types. Correlations with other radiographic abnormalities, symptoms, signs, and laboratory abnormalities were sought, but not established. Out of 93 serially imaged opacities, 90 changed, including 37 of the 40 instances (92.5%) of the discrete type and 53 instances (100%) of the amorphous and segmented types--due to periarthritis calcarea. At least 43 of 90 densities were newly developed. Mean age at first detection was 47.7 years. Three of the discrete densities were unchanged and represented os acetabula. Thus, recognition of para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea is not only of academic importance; it can facilitate proper treatment as well.

  19. Registration of dental atlas to radiographs for human identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anil K.; Chen, Hong

    2005-03-01

    The human dental atlas contains a detailed description of each tooth in the mouth and their relative positions. Registering a dental radiograph to the dental atlas reveals the position and index of each tooth in the radiograph. This helps in establishing the correspondence of teeth when matching two radiographs for human identification. We propose a hidden Markov model (HMM) as an underlying representation of the dental atlas. In our model, the states representing the available teeth have discrete observations, namely the class of each tooth, and the states representing the missing teeth have continuous observations-the distance between neighboring teeth. To classify the teeth, three support vector machines (SVMs) using different feature sets are combined using the average fusion method. Experimental results show that this registration algorithm is promising.

  20. Cemented total hip prosthesis: Radiographic and scintigraphic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Aliabadi, P.; Tumeh, S.S.; Weissman, B.N.; McNeil, B.J. )

    1989-10-01

    Conventional radiographs, technetium-99m bone scans, and gallium-67 scans were reviewed in 44 patients who had undergone cemented total hip joint replacement and were imaged because of suspicion of prosthesis loosening or infection. A complete radiolucent line of 2 mm or wider along the bone-cement interface or metal-cement lucency on conventional radiographs was used as the criterion for prosthetic loosening with or without infection and proved to be 54% sensitive and 96% specific. Scintigraphic criteria for prosthetic loosening were increased focal uptake of the radiopharmaceutical for the femoral component and increased focal or diffuse uptake for the acetabular component. For bone scintigraphy, sensitivity was 73% and specificity was 96%. Combining the results of conventional radiographs and bone scans increased sensitivity to 84% and decreased specificity to 92% for the diagnosis of loosening, infection, or both. The study also showed that Ga-67 scintigraphy has a low sensitivity for the detection of infection.

  1. Bone texture analysis on dental radiographic images: results with several angulated radiographs on the same region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouriq, Yves; Guedon, Jeanpierre; Normand, Nicolas; Arlicot, Aurore; Benhdech, Yassine; Weiss, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Bone microarchitecture is the predictor of bone quality or bone disease. It can only be measured on a bone biopsy, which is invasive and not available for all clinical situations. Texture analysis on radiographs is a common way to investigate bone microarchitecture. But relationship between three-dimension histomorphometric parameters and two-dimension texture parameters is not always well known, with poor results. The aim of this study is to performed angulated radiographs of the same region of interest and see if a better relationship between texture analysis on several radiographs and histomorphometric parameters can be developed. Computed radiography images of dog (Beagle) mandible section in molar regions were compared with high-resolution micro-CT (Computed-Tomograph) volumes. Four radiographs with 27° angle (up, down, left, right, using Rinn ring and customized arm positioning system) were performed from initial radiograph position. Bone texture parameters were calculated on all images. Texture parameters were also computed from new images obtained by difference between angulated images. Results of fractal values in different trabecular areas give some caracterisation of bone microarchitecture.

  2. ROC Detectability Evaluation Of A Filmless Digital Radiographic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaber, Gary S.; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard; D'Adamo, Arthur J.

    1988-06-01

    A new digital radiographic system (Matrix Laser Rad) employing a filmless photostimulable reusable phosphor (PSP) was evaluated for spatial resolution and high and low contrast object detectability. Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) comparisons were made to film images using equal or lower exposure factors. The low and high contrast test objects for the ROC evaluation were respectively a 5/32 inch diameter hemispheric depression filled with mineral oil and 250-500 micrometer diameter silicon carbide granules, both in a 2 inch thick plexiglass block. These object sizes were shown to be at thresh-old of detectability for either the film or PSP system at the exposure factors used. The ROC curves were generated from data obtained by radiologists viewing multiple film radiographs and CRT displays of both the digitized film radiographs and PSP images with the test objects in random locations. There were 90 images generated for each system, 45 with test objects and 45 without. Each observer had 15 seconds at a fixed distance to view each image presented at random at standard view box intensities (140 foot-lamberts) on either a light view box or CRT. The unenhanced filmless PSP radiographs had a reduced detectability threshold for the test objects, however with the use of windowing, level manipulations and appropriate filtering, detectability could be improved for the low contrast objects with the digital system surpassing unenhanced film radiographs. In addition, a dose reduction could be achieved with the PSP filmless system without loss of significant detectability. Enhanced film radiographs demonstrated the highest detectability characteristics. To achieve similar detectability for high contrast objects with the PSP system, a significant increase in object size was necessary.

  3. Radiographic Outcomes of Volar Locked Plating for Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Mignemi, Megan E.; Byram, Ian R.; Wolfe, Carmen C.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Koehler, Elizabeth A.; Block, John J.; Jordanov, Martin I.; Watson, Jeffry T.; Weikert, Douglas R.; Lee, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the ability of volar locked plating to achieve and maintain normal radiographic parameters for articular stepoff, volar tilt, radial inclination, ulnar variance, and radial height in distal radius fractures. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 185 distal radius fractures that underwent volar locked plating with a single plate design over a 5-year period. We reviewed radiographs and recorded measurements for volar tilt, radial inclination, ulnar variance, radial height, and articular stepoff. We used logistic regression to determine the association between return to radiographic standard norms and fracture type. Results At the first and final postoperative follow-up visits, we observed articular congruence less than 2 mm in 92% of fractures at both times. Normal volar tilt (11°) was restored in 46% at the first follow-up and 48% at the final one. Radial inclination (22°) was achieved in 44% at the first follow-up and 43% at the final one, and ulnar variance (01 ± 2 mm) was achieved in 53% at the first follow-up and 53% at the final one. In addition, radial height (14 ± 1mm) was restored in 14% at the first follow-up and 12% at the final one. More complex, intra-articular fractures (AO class B and C and Frykman types 3, 4, 7, and 8) were less likely to be restored to normal radiographic parameters. However, because of the small sample size for some fracture types, it was difficult to discover significant associations between fracture type and radiographic outcome. Conclusions Volar locked plating for distal radius fractures achieved articular stepoff less than 2 mm in most fractures but only restored and maintained normal radiographic measurements for volar tilt, radial inclination, and ulnar variance in 50% of fractures. The ability of volar locked plating to restore and maintain ulnar variance and volar tilt decreased with more complex intra-articular fracture types. PMID:23218558

  4. Abnormal distribution of pulmonary blood flow in aortic valve disease. Relation between pulmonary function and chest radiograph.

    PubMed

    Goodenday, L S; Simon, G; Craig, H; Dalby, L

    1970-05-01

    Wasted ventilatory volume (V(D)) and its ratio to tidal volume (V(D)/V(T)) were measured at rest and during exertion in 17 patients with aortic valve disease. We considered V(D)/V(T) to indicate abnormal ventilation: perfusion relations if it did not decrease on exertion, or if the exercising value was greater than 40 per cent. Plain chest radiographs were independently examined for evidence of diversion of pulmonary blood to the upper lobes. There was significant agreement (p<0.05) between radiographic and pulmonary function estimations of abnormality. This suggests that the raised pulmonary venous pressure associated with left ventricular failure creates an abnormal pattern of blood flow through the lung, which is responsible for causing inadequate perfusion with respect to ventilation.

  5. Improved texture analysis for automatic detection of tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs with bone suppression images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduskar, Pragnya; Hogeweg, Laurens; Philipsen, Rick; Schalekamp, Steven; van Ginneken, Bram

    2013-03-01

    Computer aided detection (CAD) of tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs (CXR) is challenging due to over-lapping structures. Suppression of normal structures can reduce overprojection effects and can enhance the appearance of diffuse parenchymal abnormalities. In this work, we compare two CAD systems to detect textural abnormalities in chest radiographs of TB suspects. One CAD system was trained and tested on the original CXR and the other CAD system was trained and tested on bone suppression images (BSI). BSI were created using a commercially available software (ClearRead 2.4, Riverain Medical). The CAD system is trained with 431 normal and 434 abnormal images with manually outlined abnormal regions. Subtlety rating (1-3) is assigned to each abnormal region, where 3 refers to obvious and 1 refers to subtle abnormalities. Performance is evaluated on normal and abnormal regions from an independent dataset of 900 images. These contain in total 454 normal and 1127 abnormal regions, which are divided into 3 subtlety categories containing 280, 527 and 320 abnormal regions, respectively. For normal regions, original/BSI CAD has an average abnormality score of 0.094+/-0.027/0.085+/-0.032 (p - 5.6×10-19). For abnormal regions, subtlety 1, 2, 3 categories have average abnormality scores for original/BSI of 0.155+/-0.073/0.156+/-0.089 (p = 0.73), 0.194+/-0.086/0.207+/-0.101 (p = 5.7×10-7), 0.225+/-0.119/0.247+/-0.117 (p = 4.4×10-7), respectively. Thus for normal regions, CAD scores slightly decrease when using BSI instead of the original images, and for abnormal regions, the scores increase slightly. We therefore conclude that the use of bone suppression results in slightly but significantly improved automated detection of textural abnormalities in chest radiographs.

  6. Decreased survival with increasing prevalence of full-body, radiographically defined osteoarthritis in women.

    PubMed

    Cerhan, J R; Wallace, R B; el-Khoury, G Y; Moore, T E; Long, C R

    1995-02-01

    The relation between full-body, radiographically defined osteoarthritis and survival was examined in a cohort of 296 women aged 42-76 years (mean age, 57.1 years). These women were a random sample of women with very low body burdens of radium who were part of a larger cohort of women first employed in the US radium dial-painting industry between 1915 and 1945. At entry into the study between 1957 and 1982, these women had a clinical examination, and full-body radiographs were taken. Fifty-five joints (18 joint groups) of the hands, feet, cervical spine, lumbar spine, pelvis, and knees in each woman were graded for osteoarthritis by the method of J. H. Kellgren and J. S. Lawrence (Ann Rheum Dis 1957; 16:494-502). Through 1985, 18.6% (n = 55) of the women died. Cox regression showed a decreased survival for women with an increasing number of joint groups affected with osteoarthritis after adjusting for age at examination (hazard ratio = 1.45 for each increase in 3.1 joint groups (1 standard deviation) affected with osteoarthritis, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.87). Further adjustment for a history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol use, and body mass index only slightly altered the risk. Similar results were obtained for the number of joints with osteoarthritis and the number of structures (e.g., left hand and right hand) with osteoarthritis. These results suggest that an increasing prevalence of full-body radiographic osteoarthritis is associated with decreased survival independent of age and several comorbid conditions related to osteoarthritis.

  7. Prognostic significance of WNT signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Mitsuhiro; Matsuyama, Atsuji; Shiba, Eisuke; Shibuya, Ryo; Kasai, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Koji; Hisaoka, Masanori

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most lethal human malignancies and is associated with a variety of molecular abnormalities. Although WNT signaling through its canonical/non-canonical pathways is one of the major factors involved in oncogenesis or progression of PDA, the prognostic significance of WNT signaling still remains poorly investigated. In this study, the status of the WNT signaling pathways was immunohistochemically analyzed in 101 PDAs, and its potential association with patient postoperative survival was assessed. Nuclear expression of beta-catenin, a hallmark of the activated canonical pathway, was identified in 59 cases, and was associated with reduced survival compared to the patients lacking nuclear beta-catenin expression (P = 0.002). In contrast, activation of the non-canonical pathway (25 cases), as indicated by co-expression of WNT2/5a and nuclear NFATc1, was not correlated with reduced survival (P = 0.268). Co-activation of both pathways (16 cases) was associated with worse prognosis in comparison with cases with an activated non-canonical pathway (P = 0.034). In addition, nuclear beta-catenin expression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P = 0.006). Our data indicate that activated WNT signaling through its canonical pathway has a significantly negative effect on the clinical course of PDA, and the canonical WNT pathway should be considered as a future therapeutic target for PDA.

  8. HVPG signature: A prognostic and predictive tool in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yi; Chen, Jinjun; Zhao, Jianbo; Li, Jing; Qi, Fu-Zhen; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement provides independent prognostic value in patients with cirrhosis, and the prognostic and predictive role of HVPG in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) also has been explored. The management of HCC is limited to the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines that consider that HVPG≥10 mmHg to be a contraindication for hepatic resection (HR), otherwise other treatment modalities are recommended. Current studies show that a raised HVPG diagnosed directly or indirectly leads to a negative prognosis of patients with HCC and cirrhosis, but HVPG greater than 10 mmHg should not be regarded as an absolute contraindication for HR. Selecting direct or surrogate measurement of HVPG is still under debate. Only several studies reported the impact of HVPG in negative prognosis of HCC patients after liver transplantation (LT) and the value of HVPG in the prediction of HCC development, which need to be further validated. PMID:27566593

  9. IGF-IR: a new prognostic biomarker for human glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Maris, C; D'Haene, N; Trépant, A-L; Le Mercier, M; Sauvage, S; Allard, J; Rorive, S; Demetter, P; Decaestecker, C; Salmon, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most common malignant primary brain tumours in adults and are refractory to conventional therapy, including surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is a complex network that includes ligands (IGFI and IGFII), receptors (IGF-IR and IGF-IIR) and high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6). Many studies have reported a role for the IGF system in the regulation of tumour cell biology. However, the role of this system remains unclear in GBMs. Methods: We investigate the prognostic value of both the IGF ligands' and receptors' expression in a cohort of human GBMs. Tissue microarray and image analysis were conducted to quantitatively analyse the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins in 218 human GBMs. Results: Both IGF-IR and IGF-IIR were overexpressed in GBMs compared with normal brain (P<10−4 and P=0.002, respectively). Moreover, with regard to standard clinical factors, IGF-IR positivity was identified as an independent prognostic factor associated with shorter survival (P=0.016) and was associated with a less favourable response to temozolomide. Conclusions: This study suggests that IGF-IR could be an interesting target for GBM therapy. PMID:26291053

  10. Prognostic significance of KLF4 expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Isaya; Nagata, Takuya; Sekine, Shinichi; Moriyama, Makoto; Shibuya, Kazuto; Hojo, Shozo; Matsui, Koshi; Yoshioka, Isaku; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Hori, Takashi; Shimada, Yutaka; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    To understand the roles of pluripotent stem cell-inducing genes in gastric cancer, the expression of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), Nanog, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-Myc) and sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) was examined using the newly developed gastric carcinoma tissue microarray. The associations between the immunohistochemical expression levels of the pluripotency-inducing factors and the clinicopathological data of 108 patients with gastric cancer were analyzed. No associations were identified between the expression levels of the five pluripotency-inducing factors and the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification or clinicopathological characteristics of the patients. In addition, multivariate analysis revealed no association of Nanog, Oct4, SOX2 or c-Myc with the prognosis of the gastric cancer patients; however, low expression of KLF4 was determined to be an independent negative prognostic factor (P=0.0331), particularly in patients who underwent R0 resection (TNM stages 2 and 3; P=0.0048). In summary, low KLF4 expression was found to be negatively associated with overall survival, and may therefore be a useful prognostic marker in gastric cancer patients. PMID:28356964

  11. Digital image processing of cephalometric radiographs: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P H; Dickson, G C; Birnie, D J

    1985-07-01

    The principles of image capture, image storage and image processing in digital radiology are described. The enhancement of radiographic images using digital image processing techniques and its application to cephalometry is discussed. The results of a pilot study which compared some common cephalometric measurements made from manual point identification with those made by direct digitization of digital radiographic images from video monitors are presented. Although in an early stage of development, the results from the image processing system were comparable with those obtained by traditional methods.

  12. [Clinical radiographic features of basilar impression (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Scotti, G; Redaelli, M R

    1978-09-01

    After a review of the literature and an analysis of the clinical and radiographic features of basilar impression (b.i.) the authors describe 27 personal cases. In 6 b.i. was present in its pure form and in 21 it was associated with other anomalies at the cranio-vertebral junction. Because of the frequent misdiagnosis with multiple sclerosis or other chronic neurologic diseases and because of the possible improvement of symptoms following decompressive occipital craniectomy and cervical laminectomy, the importance of a correct and complete radiographic study of the cranio-vertebral junction in these cases is stressed.

  13. Automated thresholding in radiographic image for welded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazid, Haniza; Arof, Hamzah; Yazid, Hafizal

    2012-03-01

    Automated detection of welding defects in radiographic images becomes non-trivial when uneven illumination, contrast and noise are present. In this paper, a new surface thresholding method is introduced to detect defects in radiographic images of welding joints. In the first stage, several image processing techniques namely fuzzy c means clustering, region filling, mean filtering, edge detection, Otsu's thresholding and morphological operations method are utilised to locate the area in which defects might exist. This is followed by the implementation of inverse surface thresholding with partial differential equation to locate isolated areas that represent the defects in the second stage. The proposed method obtained a promising result with high precision.

  14. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  15. Radiographic identification by mastoid sinus and arterial pattern.

    PubMed

    Rhine, S; Sperry, K

    1991-01-01

    A skull and some incomplete postcranial remains were discovered in two searches over a two-month period near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The discoveries could be demonstrated to be from the same person, and the remains were shown to be consistent with a specific missing person on the basis of anthropological analysis. Further work led to a positive identification on multiple grounds, including agreement of the details of the mastoid sinus and endocranial arterial patterns observed radiographically. These features may be useful for establishing positive identification from skeletal remains when antemortem radiographic studies for comparison are limited to lateral cranial vault studies.

  16. Radiographic kidney measurements in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Hackendahl, Nicole C; Citino, Scott B

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal disease is substantial among captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The purpose of this study was to determine kidney measurements from radiographs of captive cheetahs (n = 15) with normal renal function. The ratio of kidney length to length of the body of the second lumbar vertebrae has been established for domestic cats with normal renal function. The mean ratio of renal length to length of the second lumbar vertebra was 1.81 +/- 0.14 in cheetahs. This baseline data may allow an objective evaluation of radiographic kidney size in cheetahs. However, evaluation of a small number of cheetahs with confirmed renal failure resulted in a similar ratio.

  17. A prognostic approach to defining chronic pain: application to knee pain in older adults.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elaine; Dunn, Kate M; Mallen, Christian; Peat, George

    2008-10-15

    A prognostic approach to defining chronic pain has been proposed as an alternative to traditional definitions based on retrospective duration of pain. While this new approach performs well in low back pain (LBP), headache and orofacial pain, it is not known whether it translates to regional pain syndromes with an underlying pathological component, such as osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated the performance of this approach in a population-based cohort of older adults reporting knee pain, with a spectrum of radiographic knee OA. 676 adults (50 years+) attended a research clinic and were followed up at 18 months and 3 years. Risk scores were calculated using pain intensity, pain duration, pain-related activity, number of pain sites and depressive symptoms, measured at baseline and at 18 months. These scores were used to determine the probability of future clinically significant knee pain, defined as Chronic Pain Grade II-IV, at 18 months and at 3 years using logistic regression. Cut-points on the risk score were applied to determine groups at intermediate (probability >or=0.2), possible (>or=0.5) and probable (>or=0.8) risk of clinically significant knee pain. Discriminative ability of the risk scores, determined by area under the ROC curve, was high (0.78-0.82), varied little by radiographic severity and was superior to pain duration alone. The derived cut-points suggested a lower threshold for each of the risk groups than the previous LBP work. This prognostic approach to defining chronic pain appears to translate well to knee pain. Different cut-points for defining risk groups may be needed for different pain syndromes.

  18. Prognostic factors predictive of survival for truncal and retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, S; Corson, J M; Demetri, G D; Healey, E A; Marcus, K; Eberlein, T J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors identified prognostic factors relevant to clinical outcomes (especially survival) in truncal and retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: These results can be used to optimize surgical management and select patients most likely to benefit from novel therapeutic strategies in future trials. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of a prospectively compiled database of 183 consecutive patients with truncal and retroperitoneal sarcomas seen at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute between 1970 to 1994. RESULTS: For truncal sarcoma, multivariate analysis showed that high-grade histology was associated with an eightfold increased risk of death compared with low-grade histology (p = 0.001). In addition to grade, gross positive margin of resection (p = 0.001), microscopic positive margin (p = 0.023), and tumors greater than 5 cm in size (p = 0.018) were important independent prognostic factors for survival. In this series, postoperative radiation therapy for truncal sarcoma was associated with a 2.4-fold decreased risk of death compared with truncal sarcoma patients receiving no adjuvant radiation therapy, having adjusted for the other prognostic factors (p = 0.030). In contrast, for retroperitoneal sarcoma, multivariate analysis showed that high-grade and intermediate-grade histology were associated with a five- to sixfold increased risk of death compared with low-grade histology (p = 0.009). In addition to grade, gross positive margin of resection (p = 0.001) and microscopic positive margin (p = 0.004) were important independent prognostic factors for survival in retroperitoneal sarcoma. Patients who received either preoperative or postoperative chemotherapy for retroperitoneal sarcoma had a 4.6-fold (p = 0.002) and 3-fold (p = 0.010) increased risk of death, respectively, compared with patients receiving no adjuvant chemotherapy, having adjusted for the other prognostic factors

  19. A Distributed Prognostic Health Management Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskar, Saha; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a generic distributed prognostic health management (PHM) architecture with specific application to the electrical power systems domain. Current state-of-the-art PHM systems are mostly centralized in nature, where all the processing is reliant on a single processor. This can lead to loss of functionality in case of a crash of the central processor or monitor. Furthermore, with increases in the volume of sensor data as well as the complexity of algorithms, traditional centralized systems become unsuitable for successful deployment, and efficient distributed architectures are required. A distributed architecture though, is not effective unless there is an algorithmic framework to take advantage of its unique abilities. The health management paradigm envisaged here incorporates a heterogeneous set of system components monitored by a varied suite of sensors and a particle filtering (PF) framework that has the power and the flexibility to adapt to the different diagnostic and prognostic needs. Both the diagnostic and prognostic tasks are formulated as a particle filtering problem in order to explicitly represent and manage uncertainties; however, typically the complexity of the prognostic routine is higher than the computational power of one computational element ( CE). Individual CEs run diagnostic routines until the system variable being monitored crosses beyond a nominal threshold, upon which it coordinates with other networked CEs to run the prognostic routine in a distributed fashion. Implementation results from a network of distributed embedded devices monitoring a prototypical aircraft electrical power system are presented, where the CEs are Sun Microsystems Small Programmable Object Technology (SPOT) devices.

  20. Evaluating Algorithm Performance Metrics Tailored for Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prognostics has taken a center stage in Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) where it is desired to estimate Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of the system so that remedial measures may be taken in advance to avoid catastrophic events or unwanted downtimes. Validation of such predictions is an important but difficult proposition and a lack of appropriate evaluation methods renders prognostics meaningless. Evaluation methods currently used in the research community are not standardized and in many cases do not sufficiently assess key performance aspects expected out of a prognostics algorithm. In this paper we introduce several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics and show that they can effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically four algorithms namely; Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Polynomial Regression (PR) are compared. These algorithms vary in complexity and their ability to manage uncertainty around predicted estimates. Results show that the new metrics rank these algorithms in different manner and depending on the requirements and constraints suitable metrics may be chosen. Beyond these results, these metrics offer ideas about how metrics suitable to prognostics may be designed so that the evaluation procedure can be standardized. 1

  1. Histological characterisation and prognostic evaluation of 62 gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaohui; Ye, Yuhong; Shi, Xi; Zhu, Kunshou; Huang, Liming; Zhang, Sheng; Ying, Mingang; Lin, Xuede

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the significance of expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67 and their association with clinicopathological parameters, and to find out the possible prognostic factors in gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (G-NEC). Material and methods We investigated the immunohistochemical features and prognosis of 62 G-NECs, and evaluated the association among expressions of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67, clinicopathological variables, and outcome. Results Chromogranin A expression was found more commonly in small-cell NECs (9/9, 100%) than in large-cell NECs (27/53, 51%) (p = 0.008). No statistical significance was found in Ki-67 (p = 0.494) or synaptophysin (p > 0.1) expression between NEC cell types. Correlation analyses revealed that Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with mid-third disease of stomach (p = 0.005) and vascular involvement (p = 0.006), and had a trend of significant correlation with tumour relapse (p = 0.078). High expression of chromogranin A was significantly associated with histology of small-cell NECs (p = 0.008) and lesser tumour greatest dimension (p = 0.038). The prognostic significance was determined by means of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests, and as a result, early TNM staging and postoperative chemotherapy were found to be correlated with longer overall survival (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis revealed associations between poor prognosis in NECs and several factors, including high TNM staging (p = 0.048), vascular involvement (p = 0.023), relapse (p = 0.004), and microscopic/macroscopic residual tumour (R1/2, p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, relapse was identified as the sole independent prognostic factor. Conclusions No significant correlation between survival and expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, or Ki-67 has been determined in G-NECs. Our study indicated that early diagnosis, no-residual-tumour resection, and postoperative chemotherapy were

  2. Clinical and radiographic diagnosis of underlying dark shadow from dentin (ICDAS 4) in permanent molars.

    PubMed

    Bertella, N; Moura, Dos S; Alves, L S; Damé-Teixeira, N; Fontanella, V; Maltz, M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the radiographic pattern of underlying dark shadow from dentin (ICDAS 4) in permanent molars and assessed the association between enamel breakdown and radiographic features. Ninety-five teeth (54 patients) were clinically and radiographically assessed. The majority of ICDAS 4 caries lesions presented enamel breakdown (n = 78, 82.1%) and no radiographic image (n = 64, 67.4%) or a radiolucent zone restricted to the enamel-dentin junction (n = 17, 17.9%). No association was found between enamel breakdown and radiographic features. This study suggests that a radiographic examination is needed prior to the decision making process for underlying dark shadows from dentin.

  3. The preoperative sensitive-modified Glasgow prognostic score is superior to the modified Glasgow prognostic score in predicting long-term survival for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Rui; Zhang, Fei; Sun, Peng; Wu, Jing; Yan, Hong; Wu, Ai-Ran; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Yu-Lu; Lu, Yan-Hong; Xu, Qiu-Yan; Zhan, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Qian, Li-Ting; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the prognostic significance of the preoperative sensitive-modified Glasgow prognostic score (S-mGPS) and its superiority in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Clinicopathologic characteristics, preoperative albumin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were retrospectively collected in 442 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy. The S-mGPS was calculated before surgery based on optimal cutoff values of 45.6 g/L for albumin and 10.0 mg/L for CRP. 360, 74 and 8 cases were assigned an mGPS of 0, 1 and 2, respectively. In contrast, the S-mGPS was 0 in 114, 1 in 258 and 2 in 70 patients. Of the 360 patients with an mGPS of 0, 246 migrated to the S-mGPS-1 group. Both mGPS and S-mGPS were significantly correlated with tumor length, depth of invasion, pathological tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) stage and adjuvant treatment. In addition, they were significantly associated with disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis. Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis identified S-mGPS as an independent prognostic indicator for both DFS [hazard ratio (HR), 1.577; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.149-2.163; P = 0.005] and OS (HR, 1.762; 95% CI, 1.250-2.484; P = 0.001), but not mGPS (HR, 0.957; 95% CI, 0.692-1.323; P = 0.790 for DFS and HR, 1.089; 95% CI, 0.781-1.517; P = 0.615 for OS, respectively). Moreover, subgroup analysis revealed that the prognostic impact of the S-mGPS was especially striking in pTNM stage II patients. The preoperative S-mGPS is superior to the mGPS as a prognostic predictor in patients with resectable ESCC. PMID:27528228

  4. Sleep apnea in rheumatoid arthritis patients with occipitocervical lesions: the prevalence and associated radiographic features.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Naoki; Seichi, Atsushi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ono, Takashi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo

    2009-06-01

    Since sleep apnea is a risk factor for high mortality of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, this study examined the prevalence in RA patients with occipitocervical lesions, and the associated radiographic features. Twenty-nine RA patients requiring surgery for progressive myelopathy due to occipitocervical lesions (3 males, 26 females, average age 65 years) were preoperatively evaluated. Twenty-three (79%) had sleep apnea defined as apnea-hypopnea index >5 events per hour measured by a portable monitoring device, and all of them were classified as the obstructive type. Among gender, age, bone mass index (BMI), and radiographic parameters related to occipitocervical lesions: atlantodental interval (ADI), cervical angles (O/C1, C1/2, and C2/6), and cervical lengths (O-C2 and O-C6), the ADI and cervical lengths were shown to be significantly associated with the presence of sleep apnea by parametric statistical analysis. Since there were positive correlations between the ADI and cervical lengths by Pearson's test, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors and found that small ADI was the principle parameter associated with sleep apnea. We therefore conclude that the prevalence of sleep apnea is higher than that in a general RA population that was reported previously, and believe that occipitocervical lesions are an independent risk factor for this condition. Small ADI and short neck, secondary to the vertical translocation by RA, may cause obstructive sleep apnea, probably through mechanical or neurological collapse of the upper airway.

  5. Management-related outcomes and radiographic findings of idiopathic condylar resorption: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Raghav, M; Mallya, S M; Karjodkar, F

    2015-02-01

    Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR) is progressive resorption of the condyle of unknown aetiology. There is no consensus on the approaches for diagnostic imaging and management of this disease. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the best practices for imaging and to appraise the success of surgical and non-surgical therapy of ICR. Eleven search engines were queried via explicit literature searches for studies describing ICR, published until 2012. Two authors independently extracted data using predetermined characteristics. Studies that identified patients as having either ICR or progressive condylar resorption and that described the radiographic findings or treatment options were included. Seventeen studies contributing 178 cases met the eligibility criteria. The major radiographic findings, as assessed mostly by two-dimensional imaging, included decreased ramus height, decreased condylar height, altered volume of the condyle, decreased SNB angle and mandibular plane angle, and a retrognathic profile. Treatments included occlusal splints with orthodontic treatment, condylectomy with costochondral graft, and other surgical approaches. This systematic review was limited by the lack of meta-analysis. Nevertheless, we identified the need for future investigations: characterization of findings on three-dimensional imaging and its contribution to treatment planning, outcomes of non-surgical and pharmacological management of ICR, and randomized trials and comparative studies with longer follow-up periods.

  6. Automatic Quantification of Radiographic Finger Joint Space Width of Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yinghe; Vincken, Koen L; van der Heijde, Desiree; De Hair, Maria J H; Lafeber, Floris P; Viergever, Max A

    2016-10-01

    The assessment of joint space width (JSW) on hand X-ray images of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a time-consuming task. Manual assessment is semiquantitative and is observer dependent which hinders an accurate evaluation of joint damage, particularly in the early stages. Automated analysis of the JSW is an important step forward since it is observer independent and might improve the assessment sensitivity in the early RA stage. This study proposes a fully automatic method for both joint location and margin detection in RA hand radiographs. The location detection procedure is based on image features of the joint region and is aided by geometric relationship of finger joints. More than 99% of joint locations are detected with an error smaller than 3 mm with respect to the manually indicated gold standard. The joint margins are detected by combining intensity values and spatially constrained intensity derivatives, refined by an active contour model. More than 96% of the joints are successfully delineated. The JSW is calculated over the middle 60% of a landmark-defined joint span. The overall JSW error compared with the ground truth is 6.8%. In conclusion, the proposed method is able to automatically locate the finger joints in RA hand radiographs, and to quantify the JSW of these joints.

  7. Preliminayr Study on Diffraction Enhanced Radiographic Imaging for a Canine Model of Cartilage Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Muehleman,C.; Li, J.; Zhong, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the ability of a novel radiographic technique, Diffraction Enhanced Radiographic Imaging (DEI), to render high contrast images of canine knee joints for identification of cartilage lesions in situ. Methods: DEI was carried out at the X-15A beamline at Brookhaven National Laboratory on intact canine knee joints with varying levels of cartilage damage. Two independent observers graded the DE images for lesions and these grades were correlated to the gross morphological grade. Results: The correlation of gross visual grades with DEI grades for the 18 canine knee joints as determined by observer 1 (r2=0.8856, P=0.001) and observer 2 (r2=0.8818, P=0.001) was high. The overall weighted ? value for inter-observer agreement was 0.93, thus considered high agreement. Conclusion: The present study is the first study for the efficacy of DEI for cartilage lesions in an animal joint, from very early signs through erosion down to subchondral bone, representing the spectrum of cartilage changes occurring in human osteoarthritis (OA). Here we show that DEI allows the visualization of cartilage lesions in intact canine knee joints with good accuracy. Hence, DEI may be applicable for following joint degeneration in animal models of OA.

  8. Talocalcaneal coalition. Diagnosis with the C-sign on lateral radiographs of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, A; Sallomi, D; Janzen, D L; Munk, P L; Claridge, R J; Kiri, V A

    2000-05-01

    We analysed 42 weight-bearing lateral radiographs of the ankle, 20 of which were from patients with a clinical and plain radiological diagnosis of talocalcaneal coalition (TCC) who subsequently had CT. The remainder were from 22 healthy volunteers with no clinical findings suggestive of hindfoot pathology. Four observers, blinded to the CT findings, independently evaluated the radiographs on two separate occasions. With the 95% confidence interval and using the CT findings as the comparison we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values for the C-sign, and for other signs known to be associated with TCC. Similarly, we also calculated the interobserver and intraobserver reliability for these signs using the kappa statistic. Our results suggest that the C-sign is highly sensitive and specific for TCC. It is an accurate indicator and significantly more reliable than other previously recognised radiological signs of TCC. Features of the C-sign, however, cannot be relied upon to indicate whether the TCC is fibrous or bony.

  9. Radiographic severity of knee osteoarthritis is conditional on interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene variations

    PubMed Central

    Attur, Mukundan; Wang, Hwa-Ying; Kraus, Virginia Byers; Bukowski, Jack F; Aziz, Nazneen; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Samuels, Jonathan; Greenberg, Jeffrey; McDaniel, Gary; Abramson, Steven B; Kornman, Kenneth S

    2010-01-01

    Background A lack of biomarkers that identify patients at risk for severe osteoarthritis (OA) complicates development of disease-modifying OA drugs. Objective To determine whether inflammatory genetic markers could stratify patients with knee OA into high and low risk for destructive disease. Methods Genotype associations with knee OA severity were assessed in two Caucasian populations. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six inflammatory genes were evaluated for association with radiographic severity and with synovial fluid mediators in a subset of the patients. Results Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) SNPs (rs419598, rs315952 and rs9005) predicted Kellgren–Lawrence scores independently in each population. One IL1RN haplotype was associated with lower odds of radiographic severity (OR=0.15; 95% CI 0.065 to 0.349; p<0.0001), greater joint space width and lower synovial fluid cytokine levels. Carriage of the IL1RN haplotype influenced the age relationship with severity. Conclusion IL1RN polymorphisms reproducibly contribute to disease severity in knee OA and may be useful biomarkers for patient selection in disease-modifying OA drug trials. PMID:19934104

  10. Diagnosis, progression patterns and prognostication in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of disorders defined by abnormal growth and accumulation of clonal mast cells. CM is the predominant variant in childhood, whereas the majority of adult patients present with systemic mastocytosis. In over 80% of the latter patients, the KIT mutation D816V is detectable. Whereas childhood mastocytosis often resolves spontaneously before adolescence and has a good prognosis, in most adult patients mastocytosis is a persistent systemic disorder. The course and prognosis in these patients are variable; in indolent variants, the clinical course remains stable over years or even decades. In advanced mastocytosis, the prognosis is less favorable despite novel drugs counteracting growth of neoplastic mast cells. Although WHO criteria are clearly separating prognostic subsets of mastocytosis, little is known about specific prognostic factors predicting the outcome in individual patients. In this article, we review current concepts in mastocytosis, including prognostic parameters for indolent and advanced systemic mastocytosis.

  11. Prognostic utility of coronary computed tomographic angiography

    PubMed Central

    Otaki, Yuka; Berman, Daniel S.; Min, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) employing CT scanners of 64-detector rows or greater represents a noninvasive method that enables accurate detection and exclusion of anatomically obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), providing excellent diagnostic information when compared to invasive angiography. There are numerous potential advantages of CCTA beyond simply luminal stenosis assessment including quantification of atherosclerotic plaque volume as well as assessment of plaque composition, extent, location and distribution. In recent years, an array of studies has evaluated the prognostic utility of CCTA findings of CAD for the prediction of major adverse cardiac events, all-cause death and plaque instability. This prognostic information enhances risk stratification and, if properly acted upon, may improve medical therapy and/or behavioral changes that may enhance event-free survival. The goal of the present article is to summarize the current status of the prognostic utility of CCTA findings of CAD. PMID:23809386

  12. Independent Peer Reviews

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-16

    Independent Assessments: DOE's Systems Integrator convenes independent technical reviews to gauge progress toward meeting specific technical targets and to provide technical information necessary for key decisions.

  13. Expression and prognostic significance of unique ULBPs in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiong; Zhu, Xing-Xing; Xu, Hong; Fang, Heng-Zhong; Zhao, Jin-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide, due to the lack of efficient therapy and difficulty in early diagnosis. ULBPs have been shown to behave as important protectors with prognostic significance in various cancers. Materials and methods Immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to explore the expression of ULBPs in cancer tissue and in serum, while survival analysis was used to evaluate the subsequent clinical value of ULBPs. Results Statistics showed that high expression of membrane ULBP1 was a good biomarker of overall survival (18 months vs 13 months), and a high level of soluble ULBP2 was deemed an independent poor indicator for both overall survival (P<0.001) and disease-free survival (P<0.001). Conclusion ULBP1 provides additional information for early diagnosis, and soluble ULBP2 can be used as a novel tumor marker to evaluate the risk of pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:27621649

  14. Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Progression: Prognostic Factors and Basic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sirica, Alphonse E.; Dumur, Catherine I.; Campbell, Deanna J. W.; Almenara, Jorge A.; Ogunwobi, Olorunseun O.; Dewitt, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we will examine various molecular biomarkers for their potential to serve as independent prognostic factors for predicting survival outcome in postoperative patients with progressive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Specific rodent models of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma that mimic relevant cellular, molecular, and clinical features of the human disease are also described, not only in terms of their usefulness in identifying molecular pathways and mechanisms linked to cholangiocarcinoma development and progression, but also for their potential value as preclinical platforms for suggesting and testing novel molecular strategies for cholangiocarcinoma therapy. Last, recent studies aimed at addressing the role of desmoplastic stroma in promoting intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma progression are highlighted in an effort to underline the potential value of targeting tumor stromal components together with that of cholangiocarcinoma cells as a novel therapeutic option for this devastating cancer. PMID:19896103

  15. Prognostic Awareness and Communication of Prognostic Information in Malignant Glioma: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Eli L.; Corner, Geoffrey W.; DeRosa, Antonio; Breitbart, William; Applebaum, Allison J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant glioma (MG) is a devastating neurological disease with a uniformly poor prognosis and a clinical course characterized by progressive functional and cognitive impairment. A small body of literature addresses patients’ and caregivers’ prognostic awareness (PA), or understanding of prognosis in patients with cancer. Studies that examine PA and desire for prognostic information among patients with MG are limited. We sought to review the existing literature on PA and communication of prognostic information to patients with MG. Fourteen studies examining PA or experience and preferences regarding communication of prognostic information were included. The definition and measurement of PA across studies varied, and the prevalence of accurate PA ranged from 25% to 100% of participants. There is likely a subset of patients who do not desire accurate prognostic information, although the patient and disease characteristics that predict this preference are currently unknown. This review suggests that patients with MG desire prognostic information communicated in a manner that preserves hope. Systematic investigation to define communication needs for prognostic information in the unique clinical setting of MG is needed. PMID:24874468

  16. Prognostic awareness and communication of prognostic information in malignant glioma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Eli L; Corner, Geoffrey W; De Rosa, Antonio; Breitbart, William; Applebaum, Allison J

    2014-09-01

    Malignant glioma (MG) is a devastating neurological disease with a uniformly poor prognosis and a clinical course characterized by progressive functional and cognitive impairment. A small body of literature addresses patients' and caregivers' prognostic awareness (PA), or understanding of prognosis in patients with cancer. Studies that examine PA and desire for prognostic information among patients with MG are limited. We sought to review the existing literature on PA and communication of prognostic information to patients with MG. Fourteen studies examining PA or experience and preferences regarding communication of prognostic information were included. The definition and measurement of PA across studies varied, and the prevalence of accurate PA ranged from 25 to 100 % of participants. There is likely a subset of patients who do not desire accurate prognostic information, although the patient and disease characteristics that predict this preference are currently unknown. This review suggests that patients with MG desire prognostic information communicated in a manner that preserves hope. Systematic investigation to define communication needs for prognostic information in the unique clinical setting of MG is needed.

  17. BRAF V600E mutation in prognostication of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Barczyński, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) offers excellent prognosis, however relapse risk or persistent disease is related to ~30%. Currently, attention is paid to the possibility of patient group selection of different risk of unfavorable outcome to match a particular therapeutic approach. Therefore, interest in new prognostic and predictive markers known preoperatively is observed. BRAF V600E mutation is such a marker. Many studies analyzing the prevalence of the mutation and its relationship with other clinico-pathological risk factors were reported but with controversial conclusions. The prognostic significance of BRAF mutation was confirmed by some single centre studies, a few meta-analyses and a large multicenter retrospective international study. They confirmed a correlation between the mutation and the risk of recurrence. The strongest argument against using BRAF mutation as an independent prognostic and predictive factor in PTC is its high prevalence (30–80%). At present it seems that BRAF mutation is one of the factors influencing the prognosis and it should be analyzed in correlation with other prognostic factors. The most recent ATA recommendations do not indicate a routine application of BRAF status for initial risk stratification in differentiated thyroid cancer due to a lack of evident confirmation of a direct influence of mutation on the increase in relapse risk. However, ATA demonstrates the continuous risk scale for the relapse risk assessment, considering BRAF and/or TERT status. At present, researchers are working on determining the role of BRAF mutation in patients from a low-risk group and its correlations with others molecular events. Currently, BRAF mutation cannot be used as a single, independent predictive factor. However, its usefulness in the context of other molecular and clinico-pathological risk factors cannot be excluded. They may be used to make modern prognostic scales of relapse risk and be applied to individualized diagnostic and

  18. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in Chinese patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Yue-Li; Xia, Yi; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Huang, Jia-Jia; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Lin, Tong-Yu; Guan, Zhong-Zhen; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2012-06-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in Chinese Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. It is known that clinical characteristics and epidemiology of Hodgkin's lymphoma in China are different from Western countries. In total, 137 consecutive, previously untreated patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center were enrolled. Among these patients, 92 were male and 45 were female, with a median age of 28 (range: 2-76) years. The bimodal age curve of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma analyzed from our patients was not obvious as the Western population, showing an early peak in 25 years and a second peak in 45 years. Most of the patients (41.6%) were classified as nodular sclerosis classic Hodgkin's lymphoma. Results showed that the 5-year overall survival, event-free survival, and disease-free survival rates were 97.7, 85.0, and 94.0%, respectively. Lymphopenia at diagnosis was related to poorer overall survival (P = 0.015) and event-free survival (P < 0.001) in all-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. Multivariate analysis showed that lymphopenia as an independent unfavorable prognostic factor influenced event-free survival (P = 0.015). The international prognostic score ≥ 5 was also the only independent prognostic factor of disease-free survival in advanced-stage patients (P = 0.046). Our findings demonstrated that some clinical characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma in China were different from those in the Western countries. Lymphopenia was an effective prognostic predictor in both early stage and advanced stage.

  19. Expression of CRM1 and CDK5 shows high prognostic accuracy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Qin; Xie, Jian-Wei; Xie, Hong-Teng; Chen, Peng-Chen; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Cao, Long-Long; Huang, Chang-Ming; Lin, Yao

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the predictive value of the expression of chromosomal maintenance (CRM)1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)5 in gastric cancer (GC) patients after gastrectomy. METHODS A total of 240 GC patients who received standard gastrectomy were enrolled in the study. The expression level of CRM1 and CDK5 was detected by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between CRM1 and CDK5 expression and clinicopathological factors were explored. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were used to identify prognostic factors for GC. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to compare the accuracy of the prediction of clinical outcome by the parameters. RESULTS The expression of CRM1 was significantly related to size of primary tumor (P = 0.005), Borrmann type (P = 0.006), degree of differentiation (P = 0.004), depth of invasion (P = 0.008), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.013), TNM stage (P = 0.002) and distant metastasis (P = 0.015). The expression of CDK5 was significantly related to sex (P = 0.048) and Lauren’s classification (P = 0.011). Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified that CRM1 and CDK5 co-expression status was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) of patients with GC. Integration of CRM1 and CDK5 expression could provide additional prognostic value for OS compared with CRM1 or CDK5 expression alone (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION CRM1 and CDK5 co-expression was an independent prognostic factors for GC. Combined CRM1 and CDK5 expression could provide a prognostic model for OS of GC. PMID:28373767

  20. Novel immunological and nutritional-based prognostic index for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai-Yu; Xu, Jian-Bo; Chen, Shu-Ling; Yuan, Yu-Jie; Wu, Hui; Peng, Jian-Jun; Chen, Chuang-Qi; Guo, Pi; Hao, Yuan-Tao; He, Yu-Long

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prognostic significance of immunological and nutritional-based indices, including the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio in gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 632 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy between 1998 and 2008. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated to compare the predictive ability of the indices, together with estimating the sensitivity, specificity and agreement rate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for overall survival (OS). Propensity score analysis was performed to adjust variables to control for selection bias. RESULTS: Each index could predict OS in gastric cancer patients in univariate analysis, but only PNI had independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis before and after adjustment with propensity scoring (hazard ratio, 1.668; 95% confidence interval: 1.368-2.035). In subgroup analysis, a low PNI predicted a significantly shorter OS in patients with stage II-III disease (P = 0.019, P < 0.001), T3-T4 tumors (P < 0.001), or lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Canton score, a combination of PNI, NLR, and platelet, was a better indicator for OS than PNI, with the largest area under the curve for 12-, 36-, 60-mo OS and overall OS (P = 0.022, P = 0.030, P < 0.001, and P = 0.024, respectively). The maximum sensitivity, specificity, and agreement rate of Canton score for predicting prognosis were 84.6%, 34.9%, and 70.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: PNI is an independent prognostic factor for OS in gastric cancer. Canton score can be a novel preoperative prognostic index in gastric cancer. PMID:26019461

  1. Clinical efficacy and safety of abatacept in methotrexate-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and poor prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Westhovens, R; Robles, M; Ximenes, A C; Nayiager, S; Wollenhaupt, J; Durez, P; Gomez-Reino, J; Grassi, W; Haraoui, B; Shergy, W; Park, S-H; Genant, H; Peterfy, C; Becker, J-C; Covucci, A; Helfrick, R; Bathon, J

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of abatacept in methotrexate-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and poor prognostic factors. Methods: In this double-blind, phase IIIb study, patients with RA for 2 years or less were randomly assigned 1 : 1 to receive abatacept (∼10 mg/kg) plus methotrexate, or placebo plus methotrexate. Patients were methotrexate-naive and seropositive for rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated protein (CCP) type 2 or both and had radiographic evidence of joint erosions. The co-primary endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28)-defined remission (C-reactive protein) and joint damage progression (Genant-modified Sharp total score; TS) at year 1. Safety was monitored throughout. Results: At baseline, patients had a mean DAS28 of 6.3, a mean TS of 7.1 and mean disease duration of 6.5 months; 96.5% and 89.0% of patients were RF or anti-CCP2 seropositive, respectively. At year 1, a significantly greater proportion of abatacept plus methotrexate-treated patients achieved remission (41.4% vs 23.3%; p<0.001) and there was significantly less radiographic progression (mean change in TS 0.63 vs 1.06; p = 0.040) versus methotrexate alone. Over 1 year, the frequency of adverse events (84.8% vs 83.4%), serious adverse events (7.8% vs 7.9%), serious infections (2.0% vs 2.0%), autoimmune disorders (2.3% vs 2.0%) and malignancies (0.4% vs 0%) was comparable for abatacept plus methotrexate versus methotrexate alone. Conclusions: In a methotrexate-naive population with early RA and poor prognostic factors, the combination of abatacept and methotrexate provided significantly better clinical and radiographic efficacy compared with methotrexate alone and had a comparable, favourable safety profile. PMID:19124524

  2. Personalized models of bones based on radiographic photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Berthonnaud, E; Hilmi, R; Dimnet, J

    2009-07-01

    The radiographic photogrammetry is applied, for locating anatomical landmarks in space, from their two projected images. The goal of this paper is to define a personalized geometric model of bones, based uniquely on photogrammetric reconstructions. The personalized models of bones are obtained from two successive steps: their functional frameworks are first determined experimentally, then, the 3D bone representation results from modeling techniques. Each bone functional framework is issued from direct measurements upon two radiographic images. These images may be obtained using either perpendicular (spine and sacrum) or oblique incidences (pelvis and lower limb). Frameworks link together their functional axes and punctual landmarks. Each global bone volume is decomposed in several elementary components. Each volumic component is represented by simple geometric shapes. Volumic shapes are articulated to the patient's bone structure. The volumic personalization is obtained by best fitting the geometric model projections to their real images, using adjustable articulations. Examples are presented to illustrating the technique of personalization of bone volumes, directly issued from the treatment of only two radiographic images. The chosen techniques for treating data are then discussed. The 3D representation of bones completes, for clinical users, the information brought by radiographic images.

  3. Radiographic characterization of the os penis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Piola, Valentina; Posch, Barbara; Aghte, Petra; Caine, Abby; Herrtage, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    The os penis in the cat has not been described radiographically, as compared with the dog. However, a small linear bony radiopacity is sometimes detected in the perineal area of male cats. We hypothesized that the feline os penis might be visible on survey radiographs of the pelvis, and we aimed to investigate the frequency of its visualization using analog and computed radiography (CR) system. One hundred radiographs of the pelvis of 99 male cats were reviewed retrospectively (50 were obtained with a CR system and 50 with an analog system). Age, breed, neutering status, and reason for presentation were recorded, as well as the visualization of the os penis. An os penis was detected in 19/50 (38%) cats with CR and in eight of 50 (16%) cats with analog radiography; this difference was statistically significant. With CR, the median age of cats with a visible os penis was significantly higher than in cats where the os penis was not seen. In one cat with a visible os penis examined with CR and analog radiography, the os penis was only visible on CR images. The penile tissues were examined histopathologically in one cat and well-differentiated bone was found but there were no pathologic findings detected in surrounding tissues. Thus, the os penis can be detected on radiographs of cats and this should not be mistaken for a pathologic finding such as urolithiasis or dystrophic mineralization.

  4. Analysis of physiological impact while reading stereoscopic radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Yasuko Y.; Tajima, Takashi; Kuwabara, Takao; Hasegawa, Akira; Natsui, Nobutaka; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Hatada, Toyohiko

    2011-03-01

    A stereoscopic viewing technology is expected to improve diagnostic performance in terms of reading efficiency by adding one more dimension to the conventional 2D images. Although a stereoscopic technology has been applied to many different field including TV, movies and medical applications, physiological fatigue through reading stereoscopic radiographs has been concerned although no established physiological fatigue data have been provided. In this study, we measured the α-amylase concentration in saliva, heart rates and normalized tissue hemoglobin index (nTHI) in blood of frontal area to estimate physiological fatigue through reading both stereoscopic radiographs and the conventional 2D radiographs. In addition, subjective assessments were also performed. As a result, the pupil contraction occurred just after the reading of the stereoscopic images, but the subjective assessments regarding visual fatigue were nearly identical for the reading the conventional 2D and stereoscopic radiographs. The α-amylase concentration and the nTHI continued to decline while examinees read both 2D and stereoscopic images, which reflected the result of subjective assessment that almost half of the examinees reported to feel sleepy after reading. The subjective assessments regarding brain fatigue showed that there were little differences between 2D and stereoscopic reading. In summary, this study shows that the physiological fatigue caused by stereoscopic reading is equivalent to the conventional 2D reading including ocular fatigue and burden imposed on brain.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ADVANCED RADIOGRAPHIC CAPABILITY FRONT END ON NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, C; Heebner, J; Dawson, J; Fochs, S; Shverdin, M; Crane, J K; Kanz, V K; Halpin, J; Phan, H; Sigurdsson, R; Brewer, W; Britten, J; Brunton, G; Clark, W; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Nguyen, H; Shaw, B; Hackel, R; Hermann, M; Tietbohl, G; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-07-15

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  6. Radiographic appearance of commonly used cements in implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pette, Gregory A; Ganeles, Jeffrey; Norkin, Frederic J

    2013-01-01

    Cement-retained restorations allow for a conventional fixed partial denture approach to restoring dental implants. However, inadequate removal of excess cement at the time of cementation may introduce a severe complication: cement-induced peri-implantitis. Radiopaque cements are more easily detected on radiographs and should improve the recognition of extravasated cement at the time of insertion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of commercially available cements in vitro. Eighteen different cements commonly used for luting restorations to implants were tested at both 0.5- and 1.0-mm thicknesses. The cements examined were zinc oxide eugenol, zinc oxide, zinc polycarboxylate, zinc phosphate, resin-reinforced glass ionomer, urethane resin, resin, and composite resin. Two samples of each cement thickness underwent standardized radiography next to an aluminum step wedge as a reference. The mean grayscale value of each of the nine 1-mm steps in the step wedge were used as reference values and compared to each of the cement samples. Temp Bond Clear (resin), IMProv (urethane resin), Premier Implant Cement (resin), and Temrex NE (resin) were not radiographically detectable at either sample thickness. Cements containing zinc were the most detectable upon radiographic analysis. There are significant differences in the radiopacity of many commonly used cements. Since cementinduced peri-implantitis can lead to late implant failure, cements that can be visualized radiographically may reduce the incidence of this problem.

  7. Utilization of Radiographs for a State Dental Hygiene Board Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Brad G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study documented the number of x-rays acquired during screening and subsequent treatment of patients for a state dental hygiene licensing examination for 109 candidates. Results indicate that patient exposure guidelines attempt to minimize radiographic exposure but that some exposures should be reevaluated for need and effect on patients. (MSE)

  8. Radiographic study of impact in polymer-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Fugelso, E.; Jacobson, J.D.; Karpp, R.R.; Jensen, R.

    1981-01-01

    Computer-tomography generated material-density maps from flash x-ray radiographs of the impact of cylinders of mockup polymer-bonded explosive (PBX) striking a steel plate. Comparison of the density fields with computer simulation allowed discrimination of rather complex deformation and flow models for insensitive explosives to be used in further studies of chemical reactions initiated by shock waves.

  9. Information content of low-dose radiographs: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    The previous paper described the concept of using the net number of information bits transmitted in a radiographic image as a measure of the contrast parameter of image quality. The concept is particularly useful when the image contrast is limited by the statistics of the photon fluence incident on the detector (low doses). The Wolfram Research Mathematica program (described in Ref. 1) that was used to simulate a noisy image of an object with two thicknesses and to calculate the resulting IC (information content). The only noise source in the simulation was fluctuations in the photon fluence incident on the detector. The results from the simulation were compared to data obtained from actual radiographs of a copper step wedge radiographed with 10 and 50 pulses from a 150-p, V x-ray machine. Good agreement between the simulation and experiment was obtained when the photon fluence was considered a free, adjustable parameter. This report extends the simulation described in Ref. 1 and shows how IC varies as the following radiographic parameters change: object thickness; object Z number; x-ray energy; and incident x-ray fluence.

  10. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... purposes to simulate a human body for positioning radiographic equipment. (b) Classification. Class I... Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part 820 of this...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... purposes to simulate a human body for positioning radiographic equipment. (b) Classification. Class I... Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part 820 of this...

  12. Prognostic Implications of Tumor Diameter in Association With Gene Expression Profile for Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Scott D.; Chao, Daniel L.; Feuer, William; Schiffman, Joyce; Char, Devron H.; Harbour, J. William

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Uveal melanoma (UM) can be divided into prognostically significant subgroups based on a prospectively validated and widely used 15-gene expression profile (GEP) test. Class 1 UMs have a low risk and class 2 UMs have a high risk for metastasis. OBJECTIVE To determine whether any clinicopathologic factors provide independent prognostic information that may enhance the accuracy of the GEP classification. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective observational study performed at 2 ocular oncology referral centers included 339 patients in a primary cohort and 241 patients in a validation cohort. Both cohorts had a diagnosis of UM arising from the ciliary body and/or choroid. All patients underwent tumor biopsy for GEP prognostic testing. Clinicopathologic variables included patient age and sex, tumor thickness, largest basal tumor diameter (LBD), ciliary body involvement, and pathologic cell type. Patients from the primary cohort were enrolled from November 1, 1998, to March 16, 2012; from the validation cohort, from November 4, 1996, to November 7, 2013. Follow-up for the primary cohort was completed on August 18, 2013; for the validation cohort, December 10, 2013. Data were analyzed from November 12, 2013, to November 25, 2015. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES Progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary outcome was overall survival. RESULTS The primary cohort included 339 patients (175 women [51.6%]; mean [SD] age, 61.8 [13.6] years). The most significant prognostic factor was GEP classification (exp[b], 10.33; 95% CI, 4.30–24.84; P < .001). The only other variable that provided independent prognostic information was LBD (exp[b], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02–1.26; P = .02). Among class 2 UMs, LBD showed a modest but significant association with PFS (exp[b], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04–1.24; P = .005). The 5-year actuarial metastasis-free survival estimates (SE) were 97% (3%) for class 1 UMs with LBD of less than 12 mm, 90% (4%) for class 1 UMs with LBD of at

  13. Aurora Kinase A Is a Prognostic Marker in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hyun Min; Jang, Bo Geun; Hyun, Chang Lim; Kim, Young Sill; Hyun, Jin Won; Chang, Weon Young; Maeng, Young Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background Aurora kinase A (AURKA), or STK15/BTAK, is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family and plays important roles in mitosis and chromosome stability. This study investigated the clinical significance of AURKA expression in colorectal cancer patients in Korea. Methods AURKA protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 151 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma using tissue microarray blocks. We analyzed the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and AURKA expression. In addition, the prognostic significance of various clinicopathological data for progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed. Also we evaluated copy number variations by array comparative genomic hybridization and AURKA gene amplification using fluorescence in situ hybridization in colorectal carcinoma tissues. Results AURKA gene amplification was found more frequently in the 20q13.2–13.33 gain-positive group than the group with no significant gain on the AURKA-containing locus. AURKA protein expression was detected in 45% of the cases (68/151). Positive staining for AURKA was observed more often in male patients (p = .035) and distally located tumors (p = .021). PFS was shorter in patients with AURKA expression compared to those with low-level AURKA expression (p < .001). Univariate analysis revealed that AURKA expression (p = .001), age (p = .034), lymphatic invasion (p = .001), perineural invasion (p = .002), and TNM stage (p = .013) significantly affected PFS. In a multivariate analysis of PFS, a Cox proportional hazard model confirmed that AURKA expression was an independent and significant prognostic factor in colorectal adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio, 3.944; p < .001). Conclusions AURKA could serve as an independent factor to predict a poor prognosis in Korean colorectal adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:28013532

  14. Prognostic Factors in Childhood Leukemia (ALL or AML)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis, and Types Prognostic Factors in Childhood Leukemia (ALL or AML) Certain factors that can affect a ... myelogenous leukemia (AML). Prognostic factors for children with ALL Children with ALL are often divided into risk ...

  15. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs.

  16. Symptomatic sacroiliac joint disease and radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Patrick M; Anderson, Anthony W; Swiontkowski, Marc F

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic sacroiliac (SI) joint disease is poorly understood. The literature provides no clear aetiology for SI joint pathology, making evaluation and diagnosis challenging. We hypothesised that patients with documented sacroiliac pain might provide insight into the aetiology of these symptoms. Specifically, we questioned whether SI joint symptoms might be associated with abnormal hip radiographs. We reviewed the pelvic and hip radiographs of a prospectively collected cohort of 30 consecutive patients with SI joint pathology. This database included 33 hips from 30 patients. Radiographic analysis included measurements of the lateral centre edge angle, Tönnis angle, and the triangular index, of the ipsilateral hip. Evidence for retrotorsion of the hemipelvis was recorded. Hips were graded on the Tönnis grading system for hip arthrosis. In this cohort 14/33 (42%) of hips had evidence of significant osteoarthrosis indicated by Tönnis grade 2 or greater and 15/33 (45%) displayed subchondral cyst formation around the hip or head neck junction. In assessing acetabular anatomy, 21% (7/33) had retroversion, 12% (4/33) had a lateral centre edge angle >40° with 3% (1/33) >45°. Tönnis angle was <0° in 27% (9/33). Coxa profunda and acetabuli protrusio were present in 47% (17/33) and 3% (1/33), respectively. When femoral head morphology was assessed, 33% (11/33) showed evidence of cam impingement. Overall, 76% (25/33) had at least one abnormality on their hip radiograph. A significant number of patients meeting strict diagnostic criteria for SI joint pain had radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip arthrosis. The clinician should maintain FAI in the differential diagnosis when investigating patients with buttock pain.

  17. A comparison of the prognostic value of preoperative inflammation-based scores and TNM stage in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qun-Xiong; Su, Zi-Jian; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Chong-Ren; Ke, Shao-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background People’s Republic of China is one of the countries with the highest incidence of gastric cancer, accounting for 45% of all new gastric cancer cases in the world. Therefore, strong prognostic markers are critical for the diagnosis and survival of Chinese patients suffering from gastric cancer. Recent studies have begun to unravel the mechanisms linking the host inflammatory response to tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in gastric cancers. Based on this relationship between inflammation and cancer progression, several inflammation-based scores have been demonstrated to have prognostic value in many types of malignant solid tumors. Objective To compare the prognostic value of inflammation-based prognostic scores and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage in patients undergoing gastric cancer resection. Methods The inflammation-based prognostic scores were calculated for 207 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery. Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and prognostic index (PI) were analyzed. Linear trend chi-square test, likelihood ratio chi-square test, and receiver operating characteristic were performed to compare the prognostic value of the selected scores and TNM stage. Results In univariate analysis, preoperative serum C-reactive protein (P<0.001), serum albumin (P<0.001), GPS (P<0.001), PLR (P=0.002), NLR (P<0.001), PI (P<0.001), PNI (P<0.001), and TNM stage (P<0.001) were significantly associated with both overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with gastric cancer. In multivariate analysis, GPS (P=0.024), NLR (P=0.012), PI (P=0.001), TNM stage (P<0.001), and degree of differentiation (P=0.002) were independent predictors of gastric cancer survival. GPS and TNM stage had a comparable prognostic value and higher linear trend chi-square value, likelihood ratio chi-square value, and larger area under the receiver operating

  18. A review of computer aided interpretation technology for the evaluation of radiographs of aluminum welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, J. F., Sr.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial radiography is a well established, reliable means of providing nondestructive structural integrity information. The majority of industrial radiographs are interpreted by trained human eyes using transmitted light and various visual aids. Hundreds of miles of radiographic information are evaluated, documented and archived annually. In many instances, there are serious considerations in terms of interpreter fatigue, subjectivity and limited archival space. Quite often it is difficult to quickly retrieve radiographic information for further analysis or investigation. Methods of improving the quality and efficiency of the radiographic process are being explored, developed and incorporated whenever feasible. High resolution cameras, digital image processing, and mass digital data storage offer interesting possibilities for improving the industrial radiographic process. A review is presented of computer aided radiographic interpretation technology in terms of how it could be used to enhance the radiographic interpretation process in evaluating radiographs of aluminum welds.

  19. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments... maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source... meters, radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment and...

  20. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments... maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source... meters, radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment and...