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Sample records for independent radiographic prognostic

  1. Prognostic implications of physiologic and radiographic changes in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Kevin R; Mumford, Jeanette A; Murray, Susan; Kazerooni, Ella A; Gross, Barry H; Colby, Thomas V; Travis, William D; Flint, Andrew; Toews, Galen B; Lynch, Joseph P; Martinez, Fernando J

    2003-09-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a diverse group of lung diseases with varied prognoses. We hypothesized that changes in physiologic and radiographic parameters would predict survival. We retrospectively examined 80 patients with usual interstitial pneumonia and 29 patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Baseline characteristics were examined together with 6-month change in forced vital capacity, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and ground glass infiltrate and fibrosis on high resolution computed tomography. Patients with usual interstitial pneumonia were more likely to have a statistically significant or marginally significant decline in lung volume, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and an increase in ground glass infiltrates (p < or = 0.08) compared with patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. For patients with usual interstitial pneumonia, change in forced vital capacity was the best physiologic predictor of mortality (p = 0.05). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model controlling for histopathologic diagnosis, gender, smoking history, baseline forced vital capacity, and 6-month change in forced vital capacity, a decrease in forced vital capacity remained an independent risk factor for mortality (decrease > 10%; hazard ratio 2.47; 95% confidence interval 1.29, 4.73; p = 0.006). We conclude that a 6-month change in forced vital capacity gives additional prognostic information to baseline features for patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

  2. Prognostic Factors Toward Clinically Relevant Radiographic Progression in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tomohiro; Okada, Akitomo; Fukuda, Takaaki; Hidaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Tomonori; Ueki, Yukitaka; Kodera, Takao; Nakashima, Munetoshi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Honda, Seiyo; Horai, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Ryu; Okuno, Hiroshi; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Izumiyama, Tomomasa; Takai, Osamu; Miyashita, Taiichiro; Sato, Shuntaro; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Origuchi, Tomoki; Nakamura, Hideki; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice. We performed a multicenter prospective study in Japan of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD)-naive RA patients with moderate to high disease activity treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) at study entry. We longitudinally observed 408 patients for 1 year and assessed disease activity every 3 months. CRRP was defined as yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS) > 3.0 U. We also divided the cohort into 2 groups based on disease duration (<3 vs ≥3 years) and performed a subgroup analysis. CRRP was found in 10.3% of the patients. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: CRP at baseline (0.30 mg/dL increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.11), time-integrated Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) during the 1 year postbaseline (12.4-unit increase, 95%CI 1.17–2.59), RA typical erosion at baseline (95%CI 1.56–21.1), and the introduction of bDMARDs (95%CI 0.06–0.38). The subgroup analysis revealed that time-integrated DAS28-ESR is not a predictor whereas the introduction of bDMARDs is a significant protective factor for CRRP in RA patients with disease duration <3 years. We identified factors that could be used to predict the development of CRRP in RA patients treated with DMARDs. These variables appear to be different based on the RA patients’ disease durations. PMID:27124044

  3. Prognostic radiographic factors in developmental dysplasia of the hip following Salter osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hsieh; Yang, Wen-E; Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Lee, Wei-Chun; Shih, Chun-Hsiung; Kuo, Ken N

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic parameters for evaluating hip development are altered by Salter osteotomy, and their prognostic value require further validation. A total of 63 patients who underwent open reduction and Salter osteotomy for unilateral hip dysplasia were evaluated with Severin classification 10.8 years later. The initial first-year postoperative acetabular index, c/b ratio, head-teardrop distance, and head coverage were compared with the final outcome of Severin classification. Greater c/b ratio was significantly associated with later Severin class III hip. Using receiver operating characteristics curve, a c/b ratio greater than 0.72 at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively can predict the possibility of a class III hip in 30 and 60% of patients, respectively.

  4. Prognostic radiographic factors in developmental dysplasia of the hip following Salter osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hsieh; Yang, Wen-E; Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Lee, Wei-Chun; Shih, Chun-Hsiung; Kuo, Ken N

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic parameters for evaluating hip development are altered by Salter osteotomy, and their prognostic value require further validation. A total of 63 patients who underwent open reduction and Salter osteotomy for unilateral hip dysplasia were evaluated with Severin classification 10.8 years later. The initial first-year postoperative acetabular index, c/b ratio, head-teardrop distance, and head coverage were compared with the final outcome of Severin classification. Greater c/b ratio was significantly associated with later Severin class III hip. Using receiver operating characteristics curve, a c/b ratio greater than 0.72 at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively can predict the possibility of a class III hip in 30 and 60% of patients, respectively. PMID:25305045

  5. Radiographer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of radiographer, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of radiographer. The following skill areas are covered in the…

  6. Bile duct invasion can be an independent prognostic factor in early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ye-Rang; Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), bile duct invasion occurs far more rarely than vascular invasion and is not well characterized. In addition, the pathologic finding of bile duct invasion is not considered an independent prognostic factor for HCC following surgery. In this study, we determined the characteristics of HCC with bile duct invasion, and assessed the clinical significance of bile duct invasion. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 363 patients who underwent hepatic resection for HCC at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) from January 2009 to December 2011. Preoperative, operative, and pathological data were collected. The risk factors for recurrence and survival were analyzed. Subsequently, the patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer 7th edition): early stage (T1 and 2) and advanced stage (T3 and 4) group; and risk factors in the sub-groups were analyzed. Results Among 363 patients, 13 showed bile duct invasion on pathology. Patients with bile duct invasion had higher preoperative total bilirubin levels, greater microvascular invasion, and a higher death rate than those without bile duct invasion. In multivariate analysis, bile duct invasion was not an independent prognostic factor for survival for the entire cohort, but, was an independent prognostic factor for early stage. Conclusions Bile duct invasion accompanied microvascular invasion in most cases, and could be used as an independent prognostic factor for survival especially in early stage HCC (T1 and T2). PMID:26693236

  7. Chronic joint pain in the lower body is associated with gait differences independent from radiographic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    de Kruijf, Marjolein; Verlinden, Vincentius J A; Huygen, Frank J P M; Hofman, Albert; van der Geest, Jos N; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Ikram, M Arfan; van Meurs, Joyce B J

    2015-09-01

    Gait is an important indicator of health. Chronic lower body pain may impair gait and lead to morbidity and mortality. We investigated the associations between lower body pain and gait in community-dwelling individuals, independent from osteoarthritis (OA). This population based cohort study included 2304 Rotterdam Study participants who underwent electronic walkway gait assessment. Thirty different variables resulting from gait assessment were summarized into seven gait domains using principle components analysis: i.e. Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace, Tandem, Turning, and Base of Support. Chronic lower body pain was assessed using pain drawings. OA was defined as a Kellgren & Lawrence score of 2 or higher on radiographs of the hip and/or knee. Linear regression analysis was used to study associations. Participants with chronic pain in the leg and hip, had lower Rhythm, Phases, and Pace, independent from OA. Additionally, we found unilateral pain to associate with larger gait asymmetry. No associations were found between chronic pain and the other gait domains, including gait variability. However, within individuals with hip pain, gait variability was higher in individuals with radiographic OA compared to those without OA. This is the first population based study showing chronic lower body pain associates with gait differences independent from OA. Participants with pain were found to walk with slower and smaller steps, longer double support and more asymmetry. Proper care and treatment of chronic pain could be a way of reducing gait problems and thereby fall risk and associated mortality. In addition, gait assessment may help identifying individuals with OA from those having pain due to other causes.

  8. Methylation of serum SST gene is an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanqun; Chew, Min Hoe; Tham, Chee Kian; Tang, Choong Leong; Ong, Simon YK; Zhao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for accurate prognostication for colorectal cancer (CRC). This study sought to assess prognostic potentials of methylation targets in the serum of CRC patients. A total of 165 CRC patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Promoter methylation levels of seven genes in pre-operative sera and matched tumor tissues were evaluated by quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Kaplan-Meier test, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for survival analyses. After a median follow-up of 56 months, 43 patients (28.7%) experienced tumor recurrence. In univariate survival analyses, serum methylation levels of SST and MAL were significantly predictive of cancer-specific death (P<0.005 for both). The former was also a significant predictor for tumor recurrence (P=0.007). Independent prognostic effects of serum methylation levels of SST were revealed by multivariate Cox regression model (P=0.031 and P=0.003 for cancer death and recurrence, respectively). When focusing on stage II and III patients, prognostication with serum methylated SST remained significant. Methylated SST detected in all serum samples can be traced back to the matched primary tumor tissues. We believe that methylated SST detected in the pre-operative sera of CRC patients appear to be a novel promising prognostic marker and probably can be auxiliary to tumor staging system and serum carcinoembryonic antigen towards better risk stratification. PMID:27725914

  9. DNA methylation in serum of breast cancer patients: an independent prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hannes M; Widschwendter, Andreas; Fiegl, Heidi; Ivarsson, Lennart; Goebel, Georg; Perkmann, Elisabeth; Marth, Christian; Widschwendter, Martin

    2003-11-15

    Changes in the status of DNA methylation are one of the most common molecular alterations in human neoplasia. Because it is possible to detect these epigenetic alterations in the bloodstream of patients, we investigated whether aberrant DNA methylation in patient pretherapeutic sera is of prognostic significance in breast cancer. Using MethyLight, a high-throughput DNA methylation assay, we analyzed 39 genes in a gene evaluation set, consisting of 10 sera from metastasized patients, 26 patients with primary breast cancer, and 10 control patients. To determine the prognostic value of genes identified within the gene evaluation set, we finally analyzed pretreatment sera of 24 patients having had no adjuvant treatment (training set) to determine their prognostic value. An independent test set consisting of 62 patients was then used to test the validity of genes and combinations of genes, which in the training set were found to be good prognostic markers. In the gene evaluation set we identified five genes (ESR1, APC, HSD17B4, HIC1, and RASSF1A). In the training set, patients with methylated serum DNA for RASSF1A and/or APC had the worst prognosis (P < 0.001). This finding was confirmed by analyzing serum samples from the independent test set (P = 0.007). When analyzing all 86 of the investigated patients, multivariate analysis showed methylated RASSF1A and/or APC serum DNA to be independently associated with poor outcome, with a relative risk for death of 5.7. DNA methylation of particular genes in pretherapeutic sera of breast cancer patients, especially of RASSF1A/APC, is more powerful than standard prognostic parameters.

  10. Hypoxia inducible BHLHB2 is a novel and independent prognostic marker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weibin; Reiser-Erkan, Carolin; Michalski, Christoph W.; Raggi, Matthias C.; Quan, Liao; Yupei, Zhao; Friess, Helmut; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Joerg

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} The expression and function of BHLHB2 (DEC1/SHARP2) in pancreatic cancer is unknown. {yields} Hypoxia and serum starvation induces BHLHB2 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. {yields} BHLHB2 inhibition in pancreatic cancer cell line SU86.86 increases ED50 of gemcitabine 2.8-fold. {yields} BHLHB2 is an independent prognostic factor in multivariable cox analysis with a hazard ratio of 2:4. -- Abstract: Aims: The cyclic adenosine monophosphate-inducible basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain containing class-B2 transcriptional factor BHLHB2 is differentially expressed in a number of human malignancies. In the present study, the expression, regulation, functions and prognostic impact of BHLHB2 in pancreatic cancer were investigated. Methods: Expression analyses were carried out in tissues of the normal pancreas (n = 10) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 77) as well as in eight pancreatic cancer cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR, semiquantitative immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot analyses. In vitro functional experiments were conducted using siRNA transfection, hypoxia, serum starvation, apoptosis induction with gemcitabine and actinomycin-D, and invasion assays. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were determined in a multivariable analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: BHLHB2 mRNA and protein expressions were strongly induced by hypoxia and by serum starvation in pancreatic cancer cell lines. BHLHB2 silencing with RNAi had no significant effects on growth and invasion but increased apoptosis resistance against gemcitabine by reducing caspace-3 cleavage. In BHLHB2 silenced cells the ED50 of gemcitabine increased from 13.95 {+-} 1.353 to 38.70 {+-} 5.262 nM (p < 0.05). Ex vivo, the weak/absent nuclear staining in normal pancreatic ducts and acinar cells was replaced by moderate to strong nuclear/cytoplasmic staining in PanIN lesions and pancreatic cancer

  11. KIF23 is an independent prognostic biomarker in glioma, transcriptionally regulated by TCF-4.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lihua; Zhang, Chuanbao; Yang, Zhengxiang; Wu, Yiping; Wang, Hongjun; Bao, Zhaoshi; Jiang, Tao

    2016-04-26

    Kinesin family member 23 (KIF23), a nuclear protein and a key regulator of cellular cytokinesis, has been found to be overexpressed as an oncogene in glioma. However, the prognostic and clinicopathological features of glioma with KIF23 expression was not clear yet. Here, we analyzed KIF23 expression pattern by using whole genome mRNA expression microarray data from Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database (http://www.cgga.org.cn), and found that KIF23 overexpression was significantly associated with high grade glioma as well as the higher mortality in survival analysis (log-rank test, p<0.01). The results of the three other validation datasets showed similar findings. Furthermore, KIF23 also served as an independent prognostic biomarker in glioma patients. Finally, functional assay showed that reduction of KIF23 suppressed glioma cell proliferation both in vivo and vitro. Additionally, we found that KIF23 was regulated by TCF-4 at transcriptionally level. Therefore, this evidence indicates KIF23 over-expression is associated with glioma malignancy and conferred a worse survival time in glioma, which suggests KIF23 is a new novel prognostic biomarker with potential therapeutic implications in glioma. PMID:27013586

  12. KIF23 is an independent prognostic biomarker in glioma, transcriptionally regulated by TCF-4

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhengxiang; Wu, Yiping; Wang, Hongjun; Bao, Zhaoshi; Jiang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Kinesin family member 23 (KIF23), a nuclear protein and a key regulator of cellular cytokinesis, has been found to be overexpressed as an oncogene in glioma. However, the prognostic and clinicopathological features of glioma with KIF23 expression was not clear yet. Here, we analyzed KIF23 expression pattern by using whole genome mRNA expression microarray data from Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database (http://www.cgga.org.cn), and found that KIF23 overexpression was significantly associated with high grade glioma as well as the higher mortality in survival analysis (log-rank test, p<0.01). The results of the three other validation datasets showed similar findings. Furthermore, KIF23 also served as an independent prognostic biomarker in glioma patients. Finally, functional assay showed that reduction of KIF23 suppressed glioma cell proliferation both in vivo and vitro. Additionally, we found that KIF23 was regulated by TCF-4 at transcriptionally level. Therefore, this evidence indicates KIF23 over-expression is associated with glioma malignancy and conferred a worse survival time in glioma, which suggests KIF23 is a new novel prognostic biomarker with potential therapeutic implications in glioma. PMID:27013586

  13. Validation and Recalibration of Two Multivariable Prognostic Models for Survival and Independence in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Teece, Lucy; Dennis, Martin S.; Roffe, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various prognostic models have been developed for acute stroke, including one based on age and five binary variables (‘six simple variables’ model; SSVMod) and one based on age plus scores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSSMod). The aims of this study were to externally validate and recalibrate these models, and to compare their predictive ability in relation to both survival and independence. Methods Data from a large clinical trial of oxygen therapy (n = 8003) were used to determine the discrimination and calibration of the models, using C-statistics, calibration plots, and Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics. Methods of recalibration in the large and logistic recalibration were used to update the models. Results For discrimination, both models functioned better for survival (C-statistics between .802 and .837) than for independence (C-statistics between .725 and .735). Both models showed slight shortcomings with regard to calibration, over-predicting survival and under-predicting independence; the NIHSSMod performed slightly better than the SSVMod. For the most part, there were only minor differences between ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Logistic recalibration successfully updated the models for a clinical trial population. Conclusions Both prognostic models performed well overall in a clinical trial population. The choice between them is probably better based on clinical and practical considerations than on statistical considerations. PMID:27227988

  14. Prospective independent validation of IMPACT modeling as a prognostic tool in severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Panczykowski, David M; Puccio, Ava M; Scruggs, Bobby J; Bauer, Joshua S; Hricik, Allison J; Beers, Sue R; Okonkwo, David O

    2012-01-01

    Clinical trials in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been fraught with failure due in part to heterogeneity in pathology and insensitive outcome measurements. The International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) prognostic model has been purposed as a means of risk adjustment and outcome prediction for use in trial design and analysis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the IMPACT model in predicting 6-month functional outcome and mortality using prospectively collected data at a large, Level 1 neurotrauma center. This population-based cohort study included all TBI patients ≥14 years of age admitted with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of ≤8 (severe TBI) to the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between July 1994 and May 2009. Clinical data were prospectively collected and linked to 6-month functional outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS]) and mortality. The discriminatory power and calibration of the three iterations of the IMPACT model (core, extended, and lab) were assessed using multiple regression analyses and indicated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). A sample of 587 patients was available for analysis; the mean age was 37.8±17 years. The median 6-month GOS was 3 (IQR 3); 6-month mortality was 41%. The prognostic models were composed of age, motor score, and pupillary reactivity (core model), Marshall grade on head CT and secondary insults (extended), and laboratory values (lab); all of these displayed good prediction ability for unfavorable outcome and mortality (unfavorable outcome AUC=0.76, 0.79, 0.76; mortality AUC=0.78, 0.83, 0.83, respectively). All model iterations displayed adequate calibration for predicting unfavorable outcome and mortality. Prospective, independent validation supports the IMPACT prognostic model's prediction of patient 6-month functional status and mortality after severe TBI. The IMPACT prognostic model is an effective

  15. Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George; Orchard, Marcos E.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge discovery, statistical learning, and more specifically an understanding of the system evolution in time when it undergoes undesirable fault conditions, are critical for an adequate implementation of successful prognostic systems. Prognosis may be understood as the generation of long-term predictions describing the evolution in time of a particular signal of interest or fault indicator, with the purpose of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a failing component/subsystem. Predictions are made using a thorough understanding of the underlying processes and factor in the anticipated future usage.

  16. HES1 is an independent prognostic factor for acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chen; Tang, Yingjun; Wang, Tengteng; Yu, Yong; Wang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yafei; Zhang, Yizhuo

    2015-01-01

    HES1 is the target of Notch signaling which is reported to affect cell differentiation and maintain the cells in G0 phase in various tissues including the hematopoietic tissue. HES1 expression appears to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in a heterogeneous group of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. To better assess its significance, we analyzed HES1 expression in a group of non-core binding factor AML patients and correlated its expression with the overall survival and relapse-free survival of AML patients. First, we detected the messenger RNA expression of HES1 in 40 patients with AML by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The top 50% of AML cases with the high HES1 expression were compared with the rest of the AML cohort. Overall survival was calculated from the date of diagnosis until the date of death from any cause or until the date of final follow-up. Relapse-free survival was determined for responders from the time of diagnosis until relapse or death from any cause. We showed that the lower-expression group had a shorter overall survival time and shorter relapse-free survival time compared with those of the high-expression group (37.6±1.6 versus 54.0±1.3 months, 28.6±1.8 months versus 44.8±2.1 months, respectively, P<0.05), and Cox regression showed that HES1 was an independent prognostic factor. In all, we conclude that expression of HES1 is a useful prognostic factor for patients with non-core binding factor AML. PMID:25960660

  17. c-Myc protein expression is not an independent prognostic predictor in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brenna, S M F; Zeferino, L C; Pinto, G A; Souza, R A; Andrade, L A L; Vassalo, J; Martinez, E Z; Syrjanen, K J

    2002-04-01

    The c-myc protein is known to regulate the cell cycle, and its down-regulation can lead to cell death by apoptosis. The role of c-myc protein as an independent prognostic determinant in cervical cancer is controversial. In the present study, a cohort of 220 Brazilian women (mean age 53.4 years) with FIGO stage I, II and III (21, 28 and 51%, respectively) cervical squamous cell carcinomas was analyzed for c-myc protein expression using immunohistochemistry. The disease-free survival and relapse-rate were analyzed using univariate (Kaplan-Meier) survival analysis for 116 women who completed the standard FIGO treatment and were followed up for 5 years. Positive c-myc staining was detected in 40% of carcinomas, 29% being grade 1, 9% grade 2, and 2% grade 3. The distribution of positive c-myc according to FIGO stage was 19% (17 women) in stage I, 33% (29) in stage II, and 48% (43) in stage III of disease. During the 60-month follow-up, disease-free survival in univariate (Kaplan-Meier) survival analysis (116 women) was lower for women with c-myc-positive tumors, i.e., 60.5, 47.5 and 36.6% at 12, 36, and 60 months, respectively (not significant). The present data suggest that immunohistochemical demonstration of c-myc does not possess any prognostic value independent of FIGO stage, and as such is unlikely to be a useful prognostic marker in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Cyclin G2: A novel independent prognostic marker in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    HASEGAWA, SHINICHIRO; NAGANO, HIROAKI; KONNO, MASAMITSU; EGUCHI, HIDETOSHI; TOMOKUNI, AKIRA; TOMIMARU, YOSHITO; WADA, HIROSHI; HAMA, NAOKI; KAWAMOTO, KOICHI; KOBAYASHI, SHOGO; MARUBASHI, SHIGERU; NISHIDA, NAOHIRO; KOSEKI, JUN; GOTOH, NORIKO; OHNO, SHOUICHI; YABUTA, NORIKAZU; NOJIMA, HIROSHI; MORI, MASAKI; DOKI, YUICHIRO; ISHII, HIDESHI

    2015-01-01

    Unlike other cyclins that positively regulate the cell cycle, cyclin G2 (CCNG2) regulates cell proliferation as a tumor suppressor gene. A decreased CCNG2 expression serves as a marker for poor prognosis in several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to clarify the correlation of CCNG2 expression with overall survival and histopathological factors in pancreatic cancer patients. This retrospective analysis included data from 36 consecutive patients who underwent complete surgical resection for pancreatic cancer and did not undergo any preoperative therapies. The association between prognoses and the expression of CCNG2 was assessed using immunohistochemical staining. Multivariate analysis identified that the expression of CCNG2 is an independent prognostic factor. In addition, the Kaplan-Meier curve for overall survival revealed that decreased expression of CCNG2 was a consistent indicator of poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients (P=0.0198). A decreased CCNG2 expression significantly correlated with venous invasion in tumor specimens and the tumor invasion depth. In conclusion, CCNG2 expression inversely reflected cancer progression and may be a novel, independent prognostic marker in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26722276

  19. The metastasis suppressor SOX11 is an independent prognostic factor for improved survival in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    QU, YING; ZHOU, CHENFEI; ZHANG, JIANIAN; CAI, QU; LI, JIANFANG; DU, TAO; ZHU, ZHENGGANG; CUI, XIAOJIANG; LIU, BINGYA

    2014-01-01

    SOX11 is involved in gastrulation and in malignant diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of SOX11 in gastric cancer and its expression pattern and clinical significance. SOX11 overexpression cell model was used to examine in vitro and in vivo the role of SOX11 in cell growth and metastasis. Cell cycle analysis and Annexin V/PI double staining were used to investigate the effect of SOX11 on cell cycle progression and apoptosis. The expression of SOX11 in human gastric cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry. The correlation of SOX11 expression with clinicopathological characteristics and survival of patients was analyzed by Pearson’s χ2 and Kaplan-Meier analyses, respectively. Cox’s proportional hazard model was employed in multivariate analysis. SOX11 overexpression did not inhibit cell growth but strongly suppressed cell migration/invasion in vitro and in vivo. We found a significant correlation between high SOX11 protein levels and Lauren’s classification (intestinal type), differentiation status (high and medium), and early TNM stage. SOX11 is an independent prognostic factor for improved survival in gastric cancer patients. SOX11 was a potential tumor-suppressor and an independent positive prognostic factor in gastric cancer patients with less advanced clinicopathological features. PMID:24604109

  20. CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration is an independent favorable prognostic indicator in basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes may indicate an immune response to cancer development, but their significance remains controversial in breast cancer. We conducted this study to assess CD8+ (cytotoxic T) lymphocyte infiltration in a large cohort of invasive early stage breast cancers, and to evaluate its prognostic effect in different breast cancer intrinsic subtypes. Methods Immunohistochemistry for CD8 staining was performed on tissue microarrays from 3992 breast cancer patients. CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were counted as intratumoral when in direct contact with tumor cells, and as stromal in adjacent locations. Kaplan-Meier functions and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to examine the associations between tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and breast cancer specific survival. Results Among 3403 cases for which immunohistochemical results were obtained, CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were identified in an intratumoral pattern in 32% and stromal pattern in 61% of the cases. In the whole cohort, the presence of intratumoral tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was significantly correlated with young age, high grade, estrogen receptor negativity, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positivity and core basal intrinsic subtype, and was associated with superior breast cancer specific survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that the favorable prognostic effect of CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes was significant only in the core basal intrinsic subgroup (Hazard ratio, HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.23-0.54). No association with improved survival was present in those triple negative breast cancers that lack expression of basal markers (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.48-2.04) nor in the other intrinsic subtypes. Conclusions CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are an independent prognostic factor associated with better patient survival in basal-like breast cancer, but not in non-basal triple negative breast cancers nor in other intrinsic

  1. FLOT-2 is an independent prognostic marker in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qiuyuan; Alnemah, Mohannad Ma; Luo, Jiadi; Wang, Weiyuan; Chu, Shuzhou; Chen, Lingjiao; Li, Jiao; Xu, Lina; Li, Meirong; Zhou, Jianhua; Fan, Songqing

    2015-01-01

    Flotillin-2 (Flot-2) is an important component of cellular membrane, which involves in various cellular processes and recent studies have revealed that Flot-2 played important roles in cancer progression. The expression and prognostic impact of Flot-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) have not been well studied. So, a tissue microarray (TMA) based on immunohistochemical analysis of surgical resection of tumor tissues of 78 cases of OSCC patients and 27 cases of adjacent non-cancerous squamous epithelium tissues was conducted. This study focused on detecting Flot-2 expression and analyzing its prognostic impact on OSCC. The result showed that the positive percentage of Flot-2 expression in OSCC (74.4%, 58/78) was significantly higher than that in adjacent non-cancerous squamous epithelium tissues (25.9%, 7/27) (P<0.001). Additionally, the positive expression of Flot-2 in OSCC patients with a history of alcohol consumption was significantly higher than those nonusers (P=0.027). Both univariate and multivariate survival analysis indicated that increased expression Flot-2 protein was significantly correlated inversely with overall survival rates in OSCC patients (P=0.046, P=0.002). Taken together, positive expression of Flot-2 protein may be an independent biomarker for poor prognosis in OSCC. PMID:26339392

  2. SERPINA4 is a novel independent prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui-Min; Mi, Yu-Shuai; Yu, Fu-Dong; Han, Yang; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Lu, Su; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Sen-Lin; Ye, Ling; Liu, Ting-Ting; Yang, Dao-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Qin, Xue-Bin; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Tang, Hua-Mei; Peng, Zhi-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Serpina family A member 4 (SERPINA4), also known as kallistatin, exerts important effects in inhibiting tumor growth and angiogenesis in many malignancies. However, the precise role of SERPINA4 in CRC has not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of SERPINA4 and its clinical significance in CRC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analyses showed that the mRNA and protein expression of SERPINA4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens was significantly decreased than that in adjacent normal mucosa. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to characterize the expression pattern of SERPINA4 by using a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 327 archived paraffin-embedded CRC specimens. Statistical analyses revealed that decreased SERPINA4 expression was significantly associated with invasion depth, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, and tumor differentiation. SERPINA4 was also an independent prognostic indicator of disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with CRC. Furthermore, the impact of altered SERPINA4 expression on CRC cells was analyzed with a series of in vitro and in vivo assays. The results demonstrated that SERPINA4 significantly inhibits malignant tumor progression and serves as a novel prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:27648355

  3. SERPINA4 is a novel independent prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui-Min; Mi, Yu-Shuai; Yu, Fu-Dong; Han, Yang; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Lu, Su; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Sen-Lin; Ye, Ling; Liu, Ting-Ting; Yang, Dao-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Qin, Xue-Bin; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Tang, Hua-Mei; Peng, Zhi-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Serpina family A member 4 (SERPINA4), also known as kallistatin, exerts important effects in inhibiting tumor growth and angiogenesis in many malignancies. However, the precise role of SERPINA4 in CRC has not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of SERPINA4 and its clinical significance in CRC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analyses showed that the mRNA and protein expression of SERPINA4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens was significantly decreased than that in adjacent normal mucosa. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to characterize the expression pattern of SERPINA4 by using a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 327 archived paraffin-embedded CRC specimens. Statistical analyses revealed that decreased SERPINA4 expression was significantly associated with invasion depth, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, and tumor differentiation. SERPINA4 was also an independent prognostic indicator of disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with CRC. Furthermore, the impact of altered SERPINA4 expression on CRC cells was analyzed with a series of in vitro and in vivo assays. The results demonstrated that SERPINA4 significantly inhibits malignant tumor progression and serves as a novel prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:27648355

  4. SERPINA4 is a novel independent prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui-Min; Mi, Yu-Shuai; Yu, Fu-Dong; Han, Yang; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Lu, Su; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Sen-Lin; Ye, Ling; Liu, Ting-Ting; Yang, Dao-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Qin, Xue-Bin; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Tang, Hua-Mei; Peng, Zhi-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Serpina family A member 4 (SERPINA4), also known as kallistatin, exerts important effects in inhibiting tumor growth and angiogenesis in many malignancies. However, the precise role of SERPINA4 in CRC has not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of SERPINA4 and its clinical significance in CRC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analyses showed that the mRNA and protein expression of SERPINA4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens was significantly decreased than that in adjacent normal mucosa. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to characterize the expression pattern of SERPINA4 by using a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 327 archived paraffin-embedded CRC specimens. Statistical analyses revealed that decreased SERPINA4 expression was significantly associated with invasion depth, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, and tumor differentiation. SERPINA4 was also an independent prognostic indicator of disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with CRC. Furthermore, the impact of altered SERPINA4 expression on CRC cells was analyzed with a series of in vitro and in vivo assays. The results demonstrated that SERPINA4 significantly inhibits malignant tumor progression and serves as a novel prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target for CRC.

  5. Intra-Gene DNA Methylation Variability Is a Clinically Independent Prognostic Marker in Women’s Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Thomas E.; Jones, Allison; Goode, Ellen L.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Berns, Els M. J. J.; Wik, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B.; Davidson, Ben; Trope, Claes G.; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Widschwendter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel per-gene measure of intra-gene DNA methylation variability (IGV) based on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 platform, which is prognostic independently of well-known predictors of clinical outcome. Using IGV, we derive a robust gene-panel prognostic signature for ovarian cancer (OC, n = 221), which validates in two independent data sets from Mayo Clinic (n = 198) and TCGA (n = 358), with significance of p = 0.004 in both sets. The OC prognostic signature gene-panel is comprised of four gene groups, which represent distinct biological processes. We show the IGV measurements of these gene groups are most likely a reflection of a mixture of intra-tumour heterogeneity and transcription factor (TF) binding/activity. IGV can be used to predict clinical outcome in patients individually, providing a surrogate read-out of hard-to-measure disease processes. PMID:26629914

  6. Circulating free DNA concentration is an independent prognostic biomarker in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tissot, Claire; Toffart, Anne-Claire; Villar, Stéphanie; Souquet, Pierre-Jean; Merle, Patrick; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Pérol, Maurice; Zavadil, Jiri; Brambilla, Christian; Olivier, Magali; Couraud, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Plasma circulating cell-free (cf)DNA is of interest in oncology because it has been shown to contain tumour DNA and may thus be used as liquid biopsy. In nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), cfDNA quantification has been proposed for the monitoring and follow-up of patients. However, available studies are limited and need to be confirmed by studies with larger sample sizes and including patients who receive more homogenous treatments. Our objective was to assess the predictive and prognostic value of plasma cfDNA concentration in a large series of patients with NSCLC and treated with a standard chemotherapy regimen.We included samples from lung cancer patients recruited into the Pharmacogenoscan study. The cfDNA of 218 patients was extracted and quantified by fluorometry before and after two or three cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. The association between baseline and post-chemotherapy concentrations and treatment response, assessed by RECIST (response evaluation criteria in solid tumours) or patient survival was analysed.Patients with high cfDNA concentrations (highest tertile) at baseline had a significantly worse disease-free and overall survival than those with lower concentrations (lowest and middle tertiles) (median overall survival 10 months (95% CI 10.7-13.9) versus 14.2 months (95% CI 12.6-15.8), respectively; p=0.001). In multivariate analysis, increased baseline concentration of cfDNA was an independent prognostic factor. However, we did not find any association between cfDNA concentration and response to treatment.cfDNA may be a biomarker for the assessment of prognosis in NSCLC. However, total concentration of cfDNA does not appear to predict chemotherapy response.

  7. Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in male patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nobuhiko; Hara, Takeshi; Shibata, Yuhei; Matsumoto, Takuro; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Soranobu; Kito, Yusuke; Kitagawa, Junichi; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Goto, Naoe; Shiraki, Makoto; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Shimizu, Masahito; Tsurumi, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Sarcopenia reportedly predicts poor outcomes in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, because previous studies only involved elderly patients, it is difficult to generalize these results to all patients with DLBCL. We retrospectively analyzed 207 patients with DLBCL who received the R-CHOP or R-THP-COP regimen between June 2004 and May 2014. Sarcopenia was measured by the analysis of CT images at the L3 level before treatment. The surface of muscular tissues was selected according to the CT Hounsfield unit. This value was normalized for stature in order to calculate the L3 skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI, cm(2)/m(2)). Median age at diagnosis in the 121 males and 86 females was 67 years (range, 19-86 years). The sex-specific cutoffs for the L3 SMI were determined by receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis. Sarcopenic patients were older than non-sarcopenic patients, with a median age of 70 and 65 years, respectively (p < 0.001). Other International Prognostic Index factors were not significantly different when comparing sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients. With a median follow-up of 50.4 months, the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 70 % in the sarcopenic group and 85 % in the non-sarcopenic group (p = 0.0260). In a subgroup analysis by gender, there was a significant difference in the OS when comparing sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients in males but not in females (p = 0.0003, p = 0.4440, respectively). Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in male patients with DLBCL. PMID:26385388

  8. Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in male patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nobuhiko; Hara, Takeshi; Shibata, Yuhei; Matsumoto, Takuro; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Soranobu; Kito, Yusuke; Kitagawa, Junichi; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Goto, Naoe; Shiraki, Makoto; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Shimizu, Masahito; Tsurumi, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Sarcopenia reportedly predicts poor outcomes in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, because previous studies only involved elderly patients, it is difficult to generalize these results to all patients with DLBCL. We retrospectively analyzed 207 patients with DLBCL who received the R-CHOP or R-THP-COP regimen between June 2004 and May 2014. Sarcopenia was measured by the analysis of CT images at the L3 level before treatment. The surface of muscular tissues was selected according to the CT Hounsfield unit. This value was normalized for stature in order to calculate the L3 skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI, cm(2)/m(2)). Median age at diagnosis in the 121 males and 86 females was 67 years (range, 19-86 years). The sex-specific cutoffs for the L3 SMI were determined by receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis. Sarcopenic patients were older than non-sarcopenic patients, with a median age of 70 and 65 years, respectively (p < 0.001). Other International Prognostic Index factors were not significantly different when comparing sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients. With a median follow-up of 50.4 months, the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 70 % in the sarcopenic group and 85 % in the non-sarcopenic group (p = 0.0260). In a subgroup analysis by gender, there was a significant difference in the OS when comparing sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients in males but not in females (p = 0.0003, p = 0.4440, respectively). Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in male patients with DLBCL.

  9. CD49d and CD26 are independent prognostic markers for disease progression in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ibrahem, Lamia; Elderiny, Wesam E; Elhelw, Loie; Ismail, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    CLL is characterized by extremely variable clinical course. Several prognostic factors can predict disease progression and therapeutic outcomes in those patients. The aim was to evaluate the use of CD49d and CD26 as independent prognostic markers in CLL patients. The present study measured surface expression of CD49d and CD26 by three-color flow cytometry in a series of 103 untreated CLL patients. We evaluated the prognostic role of CD49d and CD26 to predict the risk of lymphocyte doubling, disease progression and overall survival. We confirmed that CD49d and CD26 were significant predictors of lymphocyte doubling(P<0.001 for both markers) and disease progression (P<0.001 for both markers) but insignificant for overall survival(P=0.303 and 0.519 respectively. Multivariate analysis between clinical parameters and flow cytometry markers revealed that CD49d and CD26 are independent prognostic markers for lymphocyte doubling (HR=1.487 P=007 and HR=2.248, P=0.014 respectively) and progression to a more advanced stage (HR=3.191, P=0.049 and HR=7.887, P=0.003). Also, concordant expression of both markers was found to improve their predictive power. Many studies reported that CD49d and CD26 combined analysis was found to improve their power to predict the risk of lymphocyte doubling and disease progression. CD49d and CD26 have independent prognostic value and we suggest its use as a part of routine panel for prognostic stratification of CLL.

  10. Circulating Tumour Cells as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients with Advanced Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Su, Po-Jung; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lee, Chia-Lin; Huang, Wen-Kuan; Wu, Chiao-En; Chang, Hsien-Kun; Chao, Yin-Kai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Lin, Nina Ming-Jung; Ye, Siou-Ru; Lee, Jane Ying-Chieh; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in advanced oesophageal cancer (EC) patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) remains uncertain. A negative selection protocol plus flow cytometry was validated to efficiently identify CTCs. The CTC number was calculated and analysed for survival impact. The protocol's efficacy in CTC identification was validated with a recovery rate of 44.6 ± 9.1% and a coefficient of variation of 20.4%. Fifty-seven patients and 20 healthy donors were enrolled. Initial staging, first response to CRT, and surgery after CRT were prognostic for overall survival, with P values of <0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001, respectively. The CTC number of EC patients is significantly higher (P = 0.04) than that of healthy donors. Multivariate analysis for disease-specific progression-free survival showed that surgery after response to CCRT, initial stage, and CTC number (≥21.0 cells/mL) played independent prognostic roles. For overall survival, surgery after CCRT, performance status, initial stage, and CTC number were significant independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, a negative selection plus flow cytometry protocol efficiently detected CTCs. The CTC number before CCRT was an independent prognostic factor in patients with unresectable oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Further large-scale prospective studies for validation are warranted. PMID:27530152

  11. Circulating Tumour Cells as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients with Advanced Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Po-Jung; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lee, Chia-Lin; Huang, Wen-Kuan; Wu, Chiao-En; Chang, Hsien-Kun; Chao, Yin-Kai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Lin, Nina Ming-Jung; Ye, Siou-Ru; Lee, Jane Ying-Chieh; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in advanced oesophageal cancer (EC) patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) remains uncertain. A negative selection protocol plus flow cytometry was validated to efficiently identify CTCs. The CTC number was calculated and analysed for survival impact. The protocol’s efficacy in CTC identification was validated with a recovery rate of 44.6 ± 9.1% and a coefficient of variation of 20.4%. Fifty-seven patients and 20 healthy donors were enrolled. Initial staging, first response to CRT, and surgery after CRT were prognostic for overall survival, with P values of <0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001, respectively. The CTC number of EC patients is significantly higher (P = 0.04) than that of healthy donors. Multivariate analysis for disease-specific progression-free survival showed that surgery after response to CCRT, initial stage, and CTC number (≥21.0 cells/mL) played independent prognostic roles. For overall survival, surgery after CCRT, performance status, initial stage, and CTC number were significant independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, a negative selection plus flow cytometry protocol efficiently detected CTCs. The CTC number before CCRT was an independent prognostic factor in patients with unresectable oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Further large-scale prospective studies for validation are warranted. PMID:27530152

  12. SREBP-1 is an independent prognostic marker and promotes invasion and migration in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Jisheng; Zhu, Liping; Zhu, Qi; Su, Jianhua; Liu, Menglan; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Re-programming of lipogenic signaling has been previously demonstrated to result in significant alterations in tumor cell pathology. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) is a known transcription factor of lipogenic genes. Despite the fact that its functions in proliferation and apoptosis have been elucidated in recent studies, its role in tumor cell migration and invasion, particularly in breast cancer, remains unclear. In present study, the messenger RNA and protein expression levels of SREBP-1 in cancer tissues were observed to be overexpressed compared with those in matched para-cancerous tissues (P<0.01). SREBP-1 level was highly positively correlated with tumor differentiation (P<0.001), tumor-node-metastasis stage (P=0.044) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.001). High expression of SREBP-1 predicted poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Additionally, multivariate analysis revealed that SREBP-1 was an independent factor of 5-year overall and disease-specific survival in breast cancer patients (P<0.01). In vitro studies revealed that the suppression of SREBP-1 expression in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion (P<0.01). The present data indicate that SREBP-1 plays a critical role in breast cancer migration and invasion, and may serve as a prognostic marker of this malignancy. PMID:27703522

  13. Preoperative serum fibrinogen is an independent prognostic factor in operable esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shui-Shen; Lei, Yi-Yan; Cai, Xiao-Li; Yang, Hong; Xia, Xin; Luo, Kong-Jia; Su, Chun-Hua; Zou, Jian-Yong; Zeng, Bo; Hu, Yi; Luo, Hong-He

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully elucidate the association between serum fibrinogen and prognosis of esophageal cancer, we examined serum fibrinogen concentrations in 1512 patients who underwent esophagectomy by the Clauss method. The impact of fibrinogen on overall survival and disease-free survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. Hyperfibrinogenemia was significantly associated with older age, male gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, weight loss, advanced pathological T stage and lymph node metastasis. Patients with hyperfibrinogenemia exhibited poor OS (HR=1.20, 95%CI: 1.04-1.38, P=0.012) and DFS (HR=1.18, 95%CI: 1.03-1.35, P=0.019). Subgroup analysis further exhibited an significant association between hyperfibrinogenemia and poor OS (P<0.001), DFS (P<0.001) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (P<0.001) and early pathological stage (I-II) (P=0.001). Collectively, this study indicates that preoperative serum fibrinogen is an independent prognostic factor for survival in esophageal cancer. PMID:27009857

  14. Blood Cell Palmitoleate-Palmitate Ratio Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Alexandre; Blasco, Hélène; Fleury, Marie-Céline; Corcia, Philippe; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Robelin, Laura; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Lequeu, Thiebault; Bergaentzle, Martine; Gachet, Christian; Pradat, Pierre-François; Marchioni, Eric; Andres, Christian R.; Tranchant, Christine; Gonzalez De Aguilar, Jose-Luis; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence supports a link between fatty acid metabolism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we determined the fatty acid composition of blood lipids to identify markers of disease progression and survival. We enrolled 117 patients from two clinical centers and 48 of these were age and gender matched with healthy volunteers. We extracted total lipids from serum and blood cells, and separated fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography. We measured circulating biochemical parameters indicative of the metabolic status. Association between fatty acid composition and clinical readouts was studied, including ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R), survival, disease duration, site of onset and body mass index. Palmitoleate (16:1) and oleate (18:1) levels, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase indices (16:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:0) significantly increased in blood cells from ALS patients compared to healthy controls. Palmitoleate levels and 16:1/16:0 ratio in blood cells, but not body mass index or leptin concentrations, negatively correlated with ALSFRS-R decline over a six-month period (p<0.05). Multivariate Cox analysis, with age, body mass index, site of onset and ALSFRS-R as covariables, showed that blood cell 16:1/16:0 ratio was an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio=0.1 per unit of ratio, 95% confidence interval=0.01-0.57, p=0.009). In patients with high 16:1/16:0 ratio, survival at blood collection was extended by 10 months, as compared to patients with low ratio. The 16:1/16:0 index is an easy-to-handle parameter that predicts survival of ALS patients independently of body mass index. It therefore deserves further validation in larger cohorts for being used to assess disease outcome and effects of disease-modifying drugs. PMID:26147510

  15. MicroRNA paraffin-based studies in osteosarcoma reveal reproducible independent prognostic profiles at 14q32

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in osteosarcoma biology and chemoresponse, miRNA prognostic models are still needed, particularly because prognosis is imperfectly correlated with chemoresponse. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is a necessary resource for biomarker studies in this malignancy with limited frozen tissue availability. Methods We performed miRNA and mRNA microarray formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded assays in 65 osteosarcoma biopsy and 26 paired post-chemotherapy resection specimens and used the only publicly available miRNA dataset, generated independently by another group, to externally validate our strongest findings (n = 29). We used supervised principal components analysis and logistic regression for survival and chemoresponse, and miRNA activity and target gene set analysis to study miRNA regulatory activity. Results Several miRNA-based models with as few as five miRNAs were prognostic independently of pathologically assessed chemoresponse (median recurrence-free survival: 59 months versus not-yet-reached; adjusted hazards ratio = 2.90; P = 0.036). The independent dataset supported the reproducibility of recurrence and survival findings. The prognostic value of the profile was independent of confounding by known prognostic variables, including chemoresponse, tumor location and metastasis at diagnosis. Model performance improved when chemoresponse was added as a covariate (median recurrence-free survival: 59 months versus not-yet-reached; hazard ratio = 3.91; P = 0.002). Most prognostic miRNAs were located at 14q32 - a locus already linked to osteosarcoma - and their gene targets display deregulation patterns associated with outcome. We also identified miRNA profiles predictive of chemoresponse (75% to 80% accuracy), which did not overlap with prognostic profiles. Conclusions Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue-derived miRNA patterns are a powerful prognostic tool for risk-stratified osteosarcoma management

  16. Serum HE4: An Independent Prognostic Factor in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Plassot, Carine; Pujol, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4) is a secreted glycosylated protein encoded by the WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (WFDC2) gene, located on a chromosome 20 segment that is frequently amplified in many cancers. This study aimed at determining serum HE4 prognostic value in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), following the REMARK guidelines. Serum samples from 346 consecutive patients with histologically proven and previously untreated NSCLC and 41 patients with benign pulmonary disease were collected at the Montpellier-Nimes Academic Hospital. Work-up investigations performed to determine the disease characteristics and treatment algorithms were congruent with international guidelines. HE4 levels in serum were measured with an ELISA test (Fujirebio Diagnostics) that uses two monoclonal antibodies, 2H5 and 3D8, against the C-WFDC domain of HE4. The area under the ROC curve (i.e., overall ability of HE4 to discriminate between controls and patients) was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.738-0.821; z test P <0.0001). Serum HE4 levels were significantly higher in patients with worse performance status, advanced TNM stage and positive nodal status. In the Cox model, overall survival was shorter in patients with high pretreatment serum HE4 (above 140 pmol/L) than in patients with serum H4 level ≤ 140 pmol/L [median survival: 17.7 weeks (95% CI, 11.9 to 24.9) and 46.4 weeks (95% CI, 38.6 to 56.3), respectively; hazard ratio: 1.48 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.95) for high HE4; adjusted P = 0.0057]. High serum HE4 level at diagnosis is an independent determinant of poor prognosis in NSCLC.

  17. Interleukin 6 Receptor Is an Independent Prognostic Factor and a Potential Therapeutic Target of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Aki; Sawada, Kenjiro; Kinose, Yasuto; Ohyagi-Hara, Chifumi; Nakatsuka, Erika; Makino, Hiroshi; Ogura, Tomonori; Mizuno, Tomoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Morii, Eiichi; Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Ikuko; Toda, Aska; Hashimoto, Kae; Mabuchi, Seiji; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic cancer and new targeted molecular therapies against this miserable disease continue to be challenging. In this study, we analyzed the expressional patterns of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its receptor (IL-6R) expression in ovarian cancer tissues, evaluated the impact of these expressions on clinical outcomes of patients, and found that a high-level of IL-6R expression but not IL-6 expression in cancer cells is an independent prognostic factor. In in vitro analyses using ovarian cell lines, while six (RMUG-S, RMG-1, OVISE, A2780, SKOV3ip1 and OVCAR-3) of seven overexpressed IL-6R compared with a primary normal ovarian surface epithelium, only two (RMG-1, OVISE) of seven cell lines overexpressed IL-6, suggesting that IL-6/IL-6R signaling exerts in a paracrine manner in certain types of ovarian cancer cells. Ovarian cancer ascites were collected from patients, and we found that primary CD11b+CD14+ cells, which were predominantly M2-polarized macrophages, are the major source of IL-6 production in an ovarian cancer microenvironment. When CD11b+CD14+ cells were co-cultured with cancer cells, both the invasion and the proliferation of cancer cells were robustly promoted and these promotions were almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with anti-IL-6R antibody (tocilizumab). The data presented herein suggest a rationale for anti-IL-6/IL-6R therapy to suppress the peritoneal spread of ovarian cancer, and represent evidence of the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-6R therapy for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:25658637

  18. Interleukin 6 receptor is an independent prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Aki; Sawada, Kenjiro; Kinose, Yasuto; Ohyagi-Hara, Chifumi; Nakatsuka, Erika; Makino, Hiroshi; Ogura, Tomonori; Mizuno, Tomoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Morii, Eiichi; Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Ikuko; Toda, Aska; Hashimoto, Kae; Mabuchi, Seiji; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic cancer and new targeted molecular therapies against this miserable disease continue to be challenging. In this study, we analyzed the expressional patterns of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its receptor (IL-6R) expression in ovarian cancer tissues, evaluated the impact of these expressions on clinical outcomes of patients, and found that a high-level of IL-6R expression but not IL-6 expression in cancer cells is an independent prognostic factor. In in vitro analyses using ovarian cell lines, while six (RMUG-S, RMG-1, OVISE, A2780, SKOV3ip1 and OVCAR-3) of seven overexpressed IL-6R compared with a primary normal ovarian surface epithelium, only two (RMG-1, OVISE) of seven cell lines overexpressed IL-6, suggesting that IL-6/IL-6R signaling exerts in a paracrine manner in certain types of ovarian cancer cells. Ovarian cancer ascites were collected from patients, and we found that primary CD11b+CD14+ cells, which were predominantly M2-polarized macrophages, are the major source of IL-6 production in an ovarian cancer microenvironment. When CD11b+CD14+ cells were co-cultured with cancer cells, both the invasion and the proliferation of cancer cells were robustly promoted and these promotions were almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with anti-IL-6R antibody (tocilizumab). The data presented herein suggest a rationale for anti-IL-6/IL-6R therapy to suppress the peritoneal spread of ovarian cancer, and represent evidence of the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-6R therapy for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:25658637

  19. PD-L1 is an independent prognostic predictor in gastric cancer of Western patients

    PubMed Central

    Böger, Christine; Behrens, Hans-Michael; Mathiak, Micaela; Krüger, Sandra; Kalthoff, Holger; Röcken, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint signaling is a novel promising treatment strategy in several tumor entities, and it is suggested that PD-L1/PD-1 expression is predictive for a PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor treatment response. We investigated the expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 by immunohistochemistry in a large and well characterized gastric cancer (GC) cohort of Caucasian patients, consisting of 465 GC samples and 15 corresponding liver metastases. Staining results were correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics and survival. PD-L1 expression was found in tumor cells of 140 GCs (30.1%) and 9 liver metastases (60%) respectively in immune cells of 411 GCs (88.4%) and 11 liver metastases (73.3%). PD-1 was expressed in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in 250 GCs (53.8%) and in 11 liver metastases (73.3%). PD-L1 expression was significantly more prevalent in men, GCs of the proximal stomach, unclassified, papillary, Her2/neu-positive, Epstein-Barr-virus-positive, microsatellite instable, and PIK3CA-mutated GCs. A high PD-L1/PD-1 expression was associated with a significantly better patient outcome, and PD-L1 turned out to be an independent survival prognosticator. The correlation of PD-L1/PD-1 expression with distinct clinico-pathological patient characteristics may serve as a surrogate marker of PD-L1-positive GCs and may direct the use of immune checkpoint treatment strategies. PMID:27009855

  20. Complex karyotype in mantle cell lymphoma is a strong prognostic factor for the time to treatment and overall survival, independent of the MCL international prognostic index.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Terré, Christine; Jardin, Fabrice; Radford, Isabelle; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Penther, Dominique; Bastard, Christian; Rigaudeau, Sophie; Pilorge, Sylvain; Morschhauser, Franck; Bouscary, Didier; Delarue, Richard; Farhat, Hassan; Rousselot, Philippe; Hermine, Olivier; Tilly, Hervé; Chevret, Sylvie; Castaigne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is usually an aggressive disease. However, a few patients do have an "indolent" evolution (iMCL) defined by a long survival time without intensive therapy. Many studies highlight the prognostic role of additional genetic abnormalities, but these abnormalities are not routinely tested for and do not yet influence the treatment decision. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of these additional abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetic testing, as well as their relationships with the clinical characteristics and their value in identifying iMCL. All consecutive MCL cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at four institutions were retrospectively selected on the basis of an informative karyotype with a t(11;14) translocation at the time of diagnosis. A total of 125 patients were included and followed for an actual median time of 35 months. The median overall survival (OS) and survival without treatment (TFS) were 73.7 and 1.3 months, respectively. In multivariable Cox models, a high mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index score, a complex karyotype, and blastoid morphology were independently associated with a shortened OS. Spleen enlargement, nodal presentation, extra-hematological involvement, and complex karyotypes were associated with shorter TFS. A score based on these factors allowed for the identification of "indolent" patients (median TFS 107 months) from other patients (median TFS: 1 month). In conclusion, in this multicentric cohort of MCL patients, a complex karyotype was associated with a shorter survival time and allowed for the identification of iMCL at the time of diagnosis. PMID:24249260

  1. The ABO Blood Group is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients With Resected Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Koichi; Taniguchi, Tetsuo; Usami, Noriyasu; Kawaguchi, Koji; Fukui, Takayuki; Ishiguro, Futoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Yokoi, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Background The ABO blood group is reported to be associated with the incidence and patient survival for several types of malignancies. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the prognostic significance of the ABO blood group in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods A total of 333 patients (218 men and 115 women) with resected NSCLC were included in this study. In addition to age, sex, smoking status, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, operative procedure, histology of tumors, pathological stage (p-stage), and adjuvant therapy, the association between the ABO blood group and survival was explored. Results The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 83.0% and 71.6% for blood group O, 67.2% and 62.3% for blood group A, 68.8% and 68.8% for blood group B and 69.2% and 65.3% for blood group AB, respectively. A multivariate analysis for overall survival showed the ABO blood group (group A vs. group O: HR 2.47, group AB vs. group O: HR 3.62) to be an independent significant prognostic factor, in addition to age, sex, smoking status, p-stage, and serum CEA level. A multivariate analysis for disease-free survival also showed the ABO blood group to be an independent significant prognostic factor. Conclusions The ABO blood group is an independent prognostic factor in patients with resected NSCLC. Studies of other larger cohorts are therefore needed to confirm the relationship between the ABO blood group and the prognosis among patients with resected NSCLC. PMID:25483106

  2. Bimodality of intratumor Ki67 expression is an independent prognostic factor of overall survival in patients with invasive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Laurinavicius, Arvydas; Plancoulaine, Benoit; Rasmusson, Allan; Besusparis, Justinas; Augulis, Renaldas; Meskauskas, Raimundas; Herlin, Paulette; Laurinaviciene, Aida; Abdelhadi Muftah, Abir A; Miligy, Islam; Aleskandarany, Mohammed; Rakha, Emad A; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O

    2016-04-01

    Proliferative activity, assessed by Ki67 immunohistochemistry (IHC), is an established prognostic and predictive biomarker of breast cancer (BC). However, it remains under-utilized due to lack of standardized robust measurement methodologies and significant intratumor heterogeneity of expression. A recently proposed methodology for IHC biomarker assessment in whole slide images (WSI), based on systematic subsampling of tissue information extracted by digital image analysis (DIA) into hexagonal tiling arrays, enables computation of a comprehensive set of Ki67 indicators, including intratumor variability. In this study, the tiling methodology was applied to assess Ki67 expression in WSI of 152 surgically removed Ki67-stained (on full-face sections) BC specimens and to test which, if any, Ki67 indicators can predict overall survival (OS). Visual Ki67 IHC estimates and conventional clinico-pathologic parameters were also included in the study. Analysis revealed linearly independent intrinsic factors of the Ki67 IHC variance: proliferation (level of expression), disordered texture (entropy), tumor size and Nottingham Prognostic Index, bimodality, and correlation. All visual and DIA-generated indicators of the level of Ki67 expression provided significant cutoff values as single predictors of OS. However, only bimodality indicators (Ashman's D, in particular) were independent predictors of OS in the context of hormone receptor and HER2 status. From this, we conclude that spatial heterogeneity of proliferative tumor activity, measured by DIA of Ki67 IHC expression and analyzed by the hexagonal tiling approach, can serve as an independent prognostic indicator of OS in BC patients that outperforms the prognostic power of the level of proliferative activity. PMID:26818835

  3. Ki67 index is an independent prognostic factor in epithelioid but not in non-epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanim, B; Klikovits, T; Hoda, M A; Lang, G; Szirtes, I; Setinek, U; Rozsas, A; Renyi-Vamos, F; Laszlo, V; Grusch, M; Filipits, M; Scheed, A; Jakopovic, M; Samarzija, M; Brcic, L; Stancic–Rokotov, D; Kern, I; Rozman, A; Dekan, G; Klepetko, W; Berger, W; Glasz, T; Dome, B; Hegedus, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Estimating the prognosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains challenging. Thus, the prognostic relevance of Ki67 was studied in MPM. Methods: Ki67 index was determined in a test cohort of 187 cases from three centres. The percentage of Ki67-positive tumour cells was correlated with clinical variables and overall survival (OS). The prognostic power of Ki67 index was compared with other prognostic factors and re-evaluated in an independent cohort (n=98). Results: Patients with Ki67 higher than median (>15%) had significantly (P<0.001) shorter median OS (7.5 months) than those with low Ki67 (19.1 months). After multivariate survival analyses, Ki67 proved to be—beside histology and treatment—an independent prognostic marker in MPM (hazard ratio (HR): 2.1, P<0.001). Interestingly, Ki67 was prognostic exclusively in epithelioid (P<0.001) but not in non-epithelioid subtype. Furthermore, Ki67 index was significantly lower in post-chemotherapy samples when compared with chemo-naive cases. The prognostic power was comparable to other recently published prognostic factors (CRP, fibrinogen, neutrophil-to-leukocyte ratio (NLR) and nuclear grading score) and was recapitulated in the validation cohort (P=0.048). Conclusion: This multicentre study demonstrates that Ki67 is an independent and reproducible prognostic factor in epithelioid but not in non-epithelioid MPM and suggests that induction chemotherapy decreases the proliferative capacity of MPM. PMID:25633038

  4. Severe muscle depletion in patients on the liver transplant wait list: its prevalence and independent prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Puneeta; Ney, Michael; Irwin, Ivana; Ma, Mang M; Gramlich, Leah; Bain, Vincent G; Esfandiari, Nina; Baracos, Vickie; Montano-Loza, Aldo J; Myers, Robert P

    2012-10-01

    As detected by cross-sectional imaging, severe muscle depletion, which is termed sarcopenia, holds promise for prognostication in patients with cirrhosis. Our aims were to describe the prevalence and predictors of sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis listed for liver transplantation (LT) and to determine its independent prognostic significance for the prediction of waiting-list mortality. Adults listed for LT who underwent abdominal computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging within 6 weeks of activation were retrospectively identified. The exclusions were hepatocellular carcinoma, acute liver failure, prior LT, and listing for multivisceral transplantation or living related LT. Sixty percent of the 142 eligible patients were male, the median age was 53 years, and the median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score at listing was 15. Forty-one percent were sarcopenic; sarcopenia was more prevalent in males versus females (54% versus 21%, P < 0.001) and increased with the Child-Pugh class (10% for class A, 34% for class B, and 54% for class C, P = 0.007). Male sex, the dry-weight body mass index (BMI), and Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis (but not the MELD score) were independent predictors of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio = 2.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-4.53) after adjustments for age and MELD scores. In conclusion, sarcopenia is associated with increased waiting-list mortality and is poorly predicted by subjective nutritional assessment tools such as BMI and subjective global assessment. If this is validated in larger studies, the objective assessment of sarcopenia holds promise for prognostication in this patient population. PMID:22740290

  5. Entropy-based adaptive nuclear texture features are independent prognostic markers in a total population of uterine sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Hveem, Tarjei Sveinsgjerd; Kildal, Wanja; Abeler, Vera M; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Albregtsen, Fritz; Danielsen, Håvard E

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear texture analysis measures the spatial arrangement of the pixel gray levels in a digitized microscopic nuclear image and is a promising quantitative tool for prognosis of cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of entropy-based adaptive nuclear texture features in a total population of 354 uterine sarcomas. Isolated nuclei (monolayers) were prepared from 50 µm tissue sections and stained with Feulgen-Schiff. Local gray level entropy was measured within small windows of each nuclear image and stored in gray level entropy matrices, and two superior adaptive texture features were calculated from each matrix. The 5-year crude survival was significantly higher (P < 0.001) for patients with high texture feature values (72%) than for patients with low feature values (36%). When combining DNA ploidy classification (diploid/nondiploid) and texture (high/low feature value), the patients could be stratified into three risk groups with 5-year crude survival of 77, 57, and 34% (Hazard Ratios (HR) of 1, 2.3, and 4.1, P < 0.001). Entropy-based adaptive nuclear texture was an independent prognostic marker for crude survival in multivariate analysis including relevant clinicopathological features (HR = 2.1, P = 0.001), and should therefore be considered as a potential prognostic marker in uterine sarcomas.

  6. Monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG/CXCL9) is an independent prognostic factor in newly diagnosed myeloma.

    PubMed

    Bolomsky, Arnold; Schreder, Martin; Hübl, Wolfgang; Zojer, Niklas; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Ludwig, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Immune suppression is a hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM), but data on soluble factors involved in the fate of immune effector cells are limited. The CXCR3-binding chemokine monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG/CXCL9) has been associated with tumor progression, immune escape, and angiogenesis in several malignancies. We here aimed to evaluate the prognostic relevance of MIG in MM. MIG serum levels were significantly elevated in newly diagnosed MM patients (n = 105) compared to patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 37). MIG expression in stromal compartments but not purified MM cells correlated with serum levels. High MIG serum levels were significantly associated with established prognostic markers (international staging system: R = 0.25, p = 0.001; age: R = 0.47, p < 0.0001; lactate-dehydrogenase: R = 0.34, p = 0.0005) and poor overall survival (OS) (median OS 17.0 months vs. not reached, p < 0.001). A similar association was found for CXCL10 and CXCL11. Multivariate regression analysis indicated MIG as an independent prognostic factor of OS. PMID:26999330

  7. Lysosome-associated protein transmembrane-4β-35 is a novel independent prognostic factor in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Man; Hu, Guohua

    2015-09-01

    The lysosome-associated protein transmembrane-4β-35 (LAPTM4B-35) protein has been indicated to be involved in solid tumors, while its role in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the LAPTM4B-35 protein expression and its clinical and prognostic role in SCLC patients. A total of 88 SCLC patients who underwent radical surgery between 2002 and 2010 were enrolled in the study. The level of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was detected from the fresh paired tumor specimens and adjacent normal tissues. The clinicopathological and survival data were collected. And the relationship between LAPTM4B-35 and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The prognostic value of LAPTM4B-35 for SCLC was investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. The LAPTM4B-35 was overexpressed significantly in SCLC cancer tissues. The elevated protein expression was correlated strongly with clinical stage (p = 0.012) and tumor recurrence (p = 0.023). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly worse in the patients with high LAPTM4B-35 level. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that high LAPTM4B-35 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) and DFS (p = 0.017 vs p = 0.011). LAPTM4B-35 overexpression was an independent factor in SCLC prognosis, which may be considered a potential useful marker in defining the SCLC prognosis.

  8. Prognostic breast cancer signature identified from 3D culture model accurately predicts clinical outcome across independent datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Katherine J.; Patrick, Denis R.; Bissell, Mina J.; Fournier, Marcia V.

    2008-10-20

    One of the major tenets in breast cancer research is that early detection is vital for patient survival by increasing treatment options. To that end, we have previously used a novel unsupervised approach to identify a set of genes whose expression predicts prognosis of breast cancer patients. The predictive genes were selected in a well-defined three dimensional (3D) cell culture model of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis as down-regulated during breast epithelial cell acinar formation and cell cycle arrest. Here we examine the ability of this gene signature (3D-signature) to predict prognosis in three independent breast cancer microarray datasets having 295, 286, and 118 samples, respectively. Our results show that the 3D-signature accurately predicts prognosis in three unrelated patient datasets. At 10 years, the probability of positive outcome was 52, 51, and 47 percent in the group with a poor-prognosis signature and 91, 75, and 71 percent in the group with a good-prognosis signature for the three datasets, respectively (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, p<0.05). Hazard ratios for poor outcome were 5.5 (95% CI 3.0 to 12.2, p<0.0001), 2.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.6, p<0.0001) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2, p = 0.016) and remained significant for the two larger datasets when corrected for estrogen receptor (ER) status. Hence the 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome in both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, though individual genes differed in their prognostic ability in the two subtypes. Genes that were prognostic in ER+ patients are AURKA, CEP55, RRM2, EPHA2, FGFBP1, and VRK1, while genes prognostic in ER patients include ACTB, FOXM1 and SERPINE2 (Kaplan-Meier p<0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis in the largest dataset showed that the 3D-signature was a strong independent factor in predicting breast cancer outcome. The 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome across multiple datasets and holds prognostic

  9. Specific Secondary Genetic Alterations in Mantle Cell Lymphoma Provide Prognostic Information Independent of the Gene Expression–Based Proliferation Signature

    PubMed Central

    Salaverria, Itziar; Zettl, Andreas; Beà, Sílvia; Moreno, Victor; Valls, Joan; Hartmann, Elena; Ott, German; Wright, George; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Chan, Wing C.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Grogan, Thomas M.; Delabie, Jan; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Montserrat, Emili; Muller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Staudt, Louis M.; Rosenwald, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To compare the genetic relationship between cyclin D1–positive and cyclin D1–negative mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) and to determine whether specific genetic alterations may add prognostic information to survival prediction based on the proliferation signature of MCLs. Patients and Methods Seventy-one cyclin D1–positive and six cyclin D1–negative MCLs previously characterized by gene expression profiling were examined by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Results Cyclin D1–negative MCLs were genetically characterized by gains of 3q, 8q, and 15q, and losses of 1p, 8p23-pter, 9p21-pter, 11q21–q23, and 13q that were also the most common alterations in conventional MCLs. Parallel analysis of CGH aberrations and locus-specific gene expression profiles in cyclin D1–positive patients showed that chromosomal imbalances had a substantial impact on the expression levels of the genes located in the altered regions. The analysis of prognostic factors revealed that the proliferation signature, the number of chromosomal aberrations, gains of 3q, and losses of 8p, 9p, and 9q predicted survival of MCL patients. A multivariate analysis showed that the gene expression-based proliferation signature was the strongest predictor for shorter survival. However, 3q gains and 9q losses provided prognostic information that was independent of the proliferative activity. Conclusion Cyclin D1–positive and –negative MCLs share the same secondary genetic aberrations, supporting the concept that they correspond to the same genetic entity. The integration of genetic information on chromosome 3q and 9q alterations into a proliferation signature-based model may improve the ability to predict survival in patients with MCL. PMID:17296973

  10. Lymphangiogenesis in Regional Lymph Nodes Is an Independent Prognostic Marker in Rectal Cancer Patients after Neoadjuvant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Christiane; Aust, Daniela E.; Liebscher, Birgit; Baretton, Gustavo B.; Datta, Kaustubh; Muders, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major prognostic factors in rectal cancer is lymph node metastasis. The formation of lymph node metastases is dependent on the existence of a premetastatic niche. An important factor preceding metastasis are lymph vessels which are located in the lymph node. Accordingly, the occurrence of intranodal lymphangiogenesis is thought to indicate distant metastasis and worse prognosis. To evaluate the significance of lymph node lymphangiogenesis, we studied formalin fixed, paraffin embedded adenocarcinomas and regional lymph nodes of 203 rectal cancer patients who were treated with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and consecutive curative surgery with cancer free surgical margins (R0). Regional lymph node lymph vessels were detected by immunohistochemistry for podoplanin (D2-40). Our results show that the presence of lymphatic vessels in regional lymph nodes significantly affects the disease-free survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. In contrast, there was no correlation between peritumoral or intratumoral lymph vessel density and prognosis. Indeed, our study demonstrates the importance of lymphangiogenesis in regional lymph nodes after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and consecutive surgery as an independent prognostic marker. Staining for intranodal lymphangiogenesis and methods of intravital imaging of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic flow may be a useful strategy to predict long-term outcome in rectal cancer patients. Furthermore, addition of VEGF-blocking agents to standardized neoadjuvant treatment schemes might be indicated in advanced rectal cancer. PMID:22087309

  11. miR-422a is an independent prognostic factor and functions as a potential tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gui-Xi; Qu, Ai-Lin; Yang, Yong-Mei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Shou-Cai; Wang, Chuan-Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expression of miR-422a in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and to further explore the prognostic value and function of miR-422a in CRC carcinogenesis. METHODS: miR-422a expression was analyzed in 102 CRC tissues and paired normal mucosa adjacent to carcinoma by quantitative real-time PCR. The relationship of miR-422a expression with clinicopathological parameters was also analyzed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox multivariate analysis were performed to estimate the potential role of miR-422a. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were used for in vitro functional analysis of miR-422a. RESULTS: The levels of miR-422a were dramatically reduced in CRC tissues compared with normal mucosa (P < 0.05), and significantly correlated with local invasion (P = 0.004) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression multivariate analyses revealed that miR-422a expression (HR = 0.568, P = 0.015) and clinical TNM stage (HR = 2.942, P = 0.003) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival in CRC patients. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that overexpression of miR-422a inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of SW480 and HT-29 cells. CONCLUSION: Down-regulation of miR-422a may serve as an independent prognosis factor in CRC. MiR-422a functions as a tumor suppressor and regulates progression of CRC. PMID:27350737

  12. Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus: Validation of a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer in an independent series.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew R; Soria, Daniele; Stephen, Jacqueline; Powe, Desmond G; Nolan, Christopher C; Kunkler, Ian; Thomas, Jeremy; Kerr, Gillian R; Jack, Wilma; Cameron, David; Piper, Tammy; Ball, Graham R; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Rakha, Emad A; Bartlett, John Ms; Ellis, Ian O

    2016-01-01

    The Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus (NPI+) is a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer (BC) that aims to provide improved patient outcome stratification superior to the traditional NPI. This study aimed to validate the NPI+ in an independent series of BC. Eight hundred and eighty five primary early stage BC cases from Edinburgh were semi-quantitatively assessed for 10 biomarkers [Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PgR), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK7/8, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2, HER3, HER4, p53, and Mucin 1] using immunohistochemistry and classified into biological classes by fuzzy logic-derived algorithms previously developed in the Nottingham series. Subsequently, NPI+ Prognostic Groups (PGs) were assigned for each class using bespoke NPI-like formulae, previously developed in each NPI+ biological class of the Nottingham series, utilising clinicopathological parameters: number of positive nodes, pathological tumour size, stage, tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic counts. Biological classes and PGs were compared between the Edinburgh and Nottingham series using Cramer's V and their role in patient outcome prediction using Kaplan-Meier curves and tested using Log Rank. The NPI+ biomarker panel classified the Edinburgh series into seven biological classes similar to the Nottingham series (p > 0.01). The biological classes were significantly associated with patient outcome (p < 0.001). PGs were comparable in predicting patient outcome between series in Luminal A, Basal p53 altered, HER2+/ER+ tumours (p > 0.01). The good PGs were similarly validated in Luminal B, Basal p53 normal, HER2+/ER- tumours and the poor PG in the Luminal N class (p > 0.01). Due to small patient numbers assigned to the remaining PGs, Luminal N, Luminal B, Basal p53 normal and HER2+/ER- classes could not be validated. This study demonstrates the reproducibility of NPI+ and confirmed its prognostic value in an independent cohort

  13. The expression level of HJURP has an independent prognostic impact and predicts the sensitivity to radiotherapy in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhi; Huang, Ge; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Gu, Shenda; Lenburg, Marc E; Pai, Melody; Bayani, Nora; Blakely, Eleanor A; Gray, Joe W; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2010-06-25

    Introduction: HJURP (Holliday Junction Recognition Protein) is a newly discovered gene reported to function at centromeres and to interact with CENPA. However its role in tumor development remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of HJURP in breast cancer and its correlation with radiotherapeutic outcome. Methods: We measured HJURP expression level in human breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancers by Western blot and/or by Affymetrix Microarray; and determined its associations with clinical variables using standard statistical methods. Validation was performed with the use of published microarray data. We assessed cell growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells after radiation using high-content image analysis. Results: HJURP was expressed at higher level in breast cancer than in normal breast tissue. HJURP mRNA levels were significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade, age and Ki67 proliferation indices, but not with pathologic stage, ERBB2, tumor size, or lymph node status. Higher HJURP mRNA levels significantly decreased disease-free and overall survival. HJURP mRNA levels predicted the prognosis better than Ki67 proliferation indices. In a multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression, including clinical variables as covariates, HJURP mRNA levels remained an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival. In addition HJURP mRNA levels were an independent prognostic factor over molecular subtypes (normal like, luminal, Erbb2 and basal). Poor clinical outcomes among patients with high HJURP expression werevalidated in five additional breast cancer cohorts. Furthermore, the patients with high HJURP levels were much more sensitive to radiotherapy. In vitro studies in breast cancer cell lines showed that cells with high HJURP levels were more sensitive to radiation treatment and had a higher rate of apoptosis

  14. Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus: Validation of a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer in an independent series.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew R; Soria, Daniele; Stephen, Jacqueline; Powe, Desmond G; Nolan, Christopher C; Kunkler, Ian; Thomas, Jeremy; Kerr, Gillian R; Jack, Wilma; Cameron, David; Piper, Tammy; Ball, Graham R; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Rakha, Emad A; Bartlett, John Ms; Ellis, Ian O

    2016-01-01

    The Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus (NPI+) is a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer (BC) that aims to provide improved patient outcome stratification superior to the traditional NPI. This study aimed to validate the NPI+ in an independent series of BC. Eight hundred and eighty five primary early stage BC cases from Edinburgh were semi-quantitatively assessed for 10 biomarkers [Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PgR), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK7/8, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2, HER3, HER4, p53, and Mucin 1] using immunohistochemistry and classified into biological classes by fuzzy logic-derived algorithms previously developed in the Nottingham series. Subsequently, NPI+ Prognostic Groups (PGs) were assigned for each class using bespoke NPI-like formulae, previously developed in each NPI+ biological class of the Nottingham series, utilising clinicopathological parameters: number of positive nodes, pathological tumour size, stage, tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic counts. Biological classes and PGs were compared between the Edinburgh and Nottingham series using Cramer's V and their role in patient outcome prediction using Kaplan-Meier curves and tested using Log Rank. The NPI+ biomarker panel classified the Edinburgh series into seven biological classes similar to the Nottingham series (p > 0.01). The biological classes were significantly associated with patient outcome (p < 0.001). PGs were comparable in predicting patient outcome between series in Luminal A, Basal p53 altered, HER2+/ER+ tumours (p > 0.01). The good PGs were similarly validated in Luminal B, Basal p53 normal, HER2+/ER- tumours and the poor PG in the Luminal N class (p > 0.01). Due to small patient numbers assigned to the remaining PGs, Luminal N, Luminal B, Basal p53 normal and HER2+/ER- classes could not be validated. This study demonstrates the reproducibility of NPI+ and confirmed its prognostic value in an independent cohort

  15. Sprouty 2 protein, but not Sprouty 4, is an independent prognostic biomarker for human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Amini, Afshin; Wei, Ai-Qun; Robertson, Gregory; Morris, David L

    2015-08-01

    Sprouty proteins are evolutionary-conserved modulators of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, deregulation of which has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cancer. In the present study, the expression status of Spry2 and Spry4 proteins and its clinical relevance in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) were investigated retrospectively. We examined the immunohistochemical expression of Spry2 and Spry4 in matched tumor and normal tissue samples from 99 patients. The expression of ERK, p-ERK, Ki67, fibroblast growth factor-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 and their correlation with Sprouty homologs were also evaluated. Moreover, the correlation between Spry2 and Spry4 and the clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed along with their predictive value for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Our data indicated significant downregulation of Spry2 and Spry4 in tumor tissues (p < 0.0001). A significant inverse correlation was evident between Spry2 and p-ERK/ERK (p = 0.048), Ki67 (p = 0.011), disease stage (p = 0.013), tumor grade (p = 0.003), recurrence (p < 0.001) and post-treatment ascites (p = 0.001), individually. It was found that Spry2 low-expressing patients had significantly poorer OS (p = 0.002) and DFS (p = 0.004) than those with high expression of Spry2. Multivariate analysis showed that high Spry2 (p = 0.018), low stage (p = 0.049) and no residual tumor (p =0.006) were independent prognostic factors for a better OS. With regard to DFS, high Spry2 (p = 0.044) and low stage (p = 0.046) remained as independent predictors. In conclusion, we report for the first time significant downregulation of Spry2 and Spry4 proteins in human EOC. Spry2 expression was revealed to significantly impact tumor behavior with predictive value as an independent prognostic factor for survival and recurrence.

  16. Thioredoxin reductase: A novel, independent prognostic marker in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunyan; Peng, Yan; Mao, Binglang; Qian, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Here we found that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with recurrence outcome and nonsurvivors had significantly increased thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) serum levels on reoperation (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis adjusted for common risk factors showed that TrxR was an independent predictor of recurrence (hazard ratios [HR] = 4.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 3.21–7.08) and overall survival (HR = 5.56; 95% CI: 3.42–10.21). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of TrxR was 0.837 (95% CI, 0.794–0.881) for recurrence outcome and 0.901 (95% CI, 0.869–0.933) for mortality, which was superior to high-sensitivity-C-reactive protein and a-fetoprotein (P < 0.001). The preoperative serum TrxR level is an independent and significant indicator predictive of poor prognosis and early recurrence in patients with HCC, which offering reliable information for predicting survival. PMID:25970775

  17. Anemia is an independent prognostic factor in intracerebral hemorrhage: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To date only two studies have evaluated anemia status in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) reporting that on admission anemia (OAA) was associated with larger hematoma volume, and lower hemoglobin levels during hospital stay, which related to poorer outcome. The question remains whether anemia influences outcome through related volume-effects or itself has an independent impact? Methods This single-center investigation included 435 consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH admitted to the Department of Neurology over five years. Functional short- and long-term outcome (3 months and 1 year) were analyzed for anemia status. Multivariate logistic and graphical regression analyses were calculated for associations of anemia and to determine independent effects on functional outcome. It was decided to perform a separate analysis for patients with ICH-volume <30cm3 (minor-volume-ICH). Results Overall short-term-outcome was worse in anemic patients (mRS[4-6] OAA = 93.3% vs. non-OAA = 61.2%, P < 0.01), and there was a further shift towards an increased long-term mortality (P = 0.02). The probability of unfavorable long-term-outcome (mRS[4-6]) in OAA was elevated 7-fold (OR:7.5; P < 0.01). Receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) analysis revealed a positive but poor association of ICH-volume and anemia (AUC = 0.67) suggesting volume-undriven outcome-effects of anemia (AUC = 0.75). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that anemia, besides established parameters, has the strongest relation to unfavorable outcome (OR:3.0; P < 0.01). This is even more pronounced in minor-volume-ICH (OR:5.6; P < 0.01). Conclusions Anemia seems to be a previously unrecognized significant predictor of unfavorable functional outcome with independent effects beyond its association with larger hemorrhage volumes. The recognition of anemia and its treatment may possibly influence outcome after ICH and as such prospective interventional studies are warranted. PMID:23880122

  18. Analysis of the invasive edge in primary and secondary oral squamous cell carcinoma: An independent prognostic marker: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Afreen; Bavle, Radhika M; Soumya, M; D'mello, Sarah; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Govindan, Sindhu

    2016-01-01

    (43.5%) of inflammation was predominant and very mild grade (5.4%) was the least. All the parameters showed a statistically significant difference on the application of Fisher's exact test between the two groups. Conclusion: Our study showed that POI could serve as an individual prognostic marker irrespective of the histologic differentiation of tumor. Tumor desmoplasia could be considered as an important reflection of the tumor-host interaction, especially in aggressive cancers. Host immune defense, especially tumor infiltrating lymphocytes must be noted as critical factors related to survival rate in OSCC patients. Assessment of mentioned parameters may lead to sound prognostic assessment and appropriate treatment planning thus reducing the possibility of recurrence or relapse. Hence, the parameters evaluated in our study could serve as independent or interdependent prognostic markers. PMID:27601816

  19. Analysis of the invasive edge in primary and secondary oral squamous cell carcinoma: An independent prognostic marker: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Afreen; Bavle, Radhika M; Soumya, M; D'mello, Sarah; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Govindan, Sindhu

    2016-01-01

    (43.5%) of inflammation was predominant and very mild grade (5.4%) was the least. All the parameters showed a statistically significant difference on the application of Fisher's exact test between the two groups. Conclusion: Our study showed that POI could serve as an individual prognostic marker irrespective of the histologic differentiation of tumor. Tumor desmoplasia could be considered as an important reflection of the tumor-host interaction, especially in aggressive cancers. Host immune defense, especially tumor infiltrating lymphocytes must be noted as critical factors related to survival rate in OSCC patients. Assessment of mentioned parameters may lead to sound prognostic assessment and appropriate treatment planning thus reducing the possibility of recurrence or relapse. Hence, the parameters evaluated in our study could serve as independent or interdependent prognostic markers.

  20. Glutathione S Transferases Polymorphisms Are Independent Prognostic Factors in Lupus Nephritis Treated with Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Verstuyft, Céline; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Hummel, Aurélie; Le Guern, Véronique; Sacré, Karim; Meyer, Olivier; Daugas, Eric; Goujard, Cécile; Sultan, Audrey; Lobbedez, Thierry; Galicier, Lionel; Pourrat, Jacques; Le Hello, Claire; Godin, Michel; Morello, Rémy; Lambert, Marc; Hachulla, Eric; Vanhille, Philippe; Queffeulou, Guillaume; Potier, Jacky; Dion, Jean-Jacques; Bataille, Pierre; Chauveau, Dominique; Moulis, Guillaume; Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Duhaut, Pierre; Saint-Marcoux, Bernadette; Deroux, Alban; Manuzak, Jennifer; Francès, Camille; Aumaitre, Olivier; Bezanahary, Holy; Becquemont, Laurent; Bienvenu, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate association between genetic polymorphisms of GST, CYP and renal outcome or occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in lupus nephritis (LN) treated with cyclophosphamide (CYC). CYC, as a pro-drug, requires bioactivation through multiple hepatic cytochrome P450s and glutathione S transferases (GST). Methods We carried out a multicentric retrospective study including 70 patients with proliferative LN treated with CYC. Patients were genotyped for polymorphisms of the CYP2B6, CYP2C19, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. Complete remission (CR) was defined as proteinuria ≤0.33g/day and serum creatinine ≤124 µmol/l. Partial remission (PR) was defined as proteinuria ≤1.5g/day with a 50% decrease of the baseline proteinuria value and serum creatinine no greater than 25% above baseline. Results Most patients were women (84%) and 77% were Caucasian. The mean age at LN diagnosis was 41 ± 10 years. The frequency of patients carrying the GST null genotype GSTT1-, GSTM1-, and the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype were respectively 38%, 60% and 44%. In multivariate analysis, the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype was an independent factor of poor renal outcome (achievement of CR or PR) (OR = 5.01 95% CI [1.02–24.51]) and the sole factor that influenced occurrence of ADRs was the GSTM1 null genotype (OR = 3.34 95% CI [1.064–10.58]). No association between polymorphisms of cytochrome P450s gene and efficacy or ADRs was observed. Conclusion This study suggests that GST polymorphisms highly impact renal outcome and occurrence of ADRs related to CYC in LN patients. PMID:27002825

  1. Loss of Fhit expression is associated with poorer survival in gastric cancer but is not an independent prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Bragantini, Emma; Barbi, Stefano; Beghelli, Stefania; Moore, Patrick S; de Manzoni, Giovanni; Roviello, Franco; Tomezzoli, Anna; Vindigni, Carla; Baffa, Raffaele; Scarpa, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have reported conflicting results regarding correlations of the loss of Fhit expression with clinicopathological parameters in gastric cancer. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of Fhit in 362 cases of sporadic advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. The series included 64 cases with microsatellite instability associated with defective mismatch repair genes. Fhit expression resulted absent in 72% of the tumors analyzed. Absence of Fhit expression was more frequent in cases with diffuse and mixed histotype compared to the intestinal histotype (P=0.009). Absence of Fhit expression also correlated with tumor stage (P<0.001), lymph node involvement (P<0.001), presence of distant metastasis (P=0.033), and increasing histological grade (P=0.005). Retained Fhit expression also correlated with microsatellite instability as 61% of instable tumors had lost Fhit expression compared to 74% of microsatellite stable cancers (P=0.050). While loss of Fhit correlates with poorer survival in univariate analysis, it is not an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis and is thus not of clinical utility.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of aggressive meningiomas identifies PTTG1 and LEPR as prognostic biomarkers independent of WHO grade

    PubMed Central

    Jungk, Christine; Sahm, Felix; Ull, Anna Theresa; Warta, Rolf; Lamszus, Katrin; Gousias, Konstantinos; Ketter, Ralf; Roesch, Saskia; Rapp, Carmen; Schefzyk, Sebastian; Urbschat, Steffi; Lahrmann, Bernd; Kessler, Almuth F.; Löhr, Mario; Senft, Christian; Grabe, Niels; Reuss, David; Beckhove, Philipp; Westphal, Manfred; von Deimling, Andreas; Unterberg, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Meningiomas are frequent central nervous system tumors. Although most meningiomas are benign (WHO grade I) and curable by surgery, WHO grade II and III tumors remain therapeutically challenging due to frequent recurrence. Interestingly, relapse also occurs in some WHO grade I meningiomas. Hence, we investigated the transcriptional features defining aggressive (recurrent, malignantly progressing or WHO grade III) meningiomas in 144 cases. Meningiomas were categorized into non-recurrent (NR), recurrent (R), and tumors undergoing malignant progression (M) in addition to their WHO grade. Unsupervised transcriptomic analysis in 62 meningiomas revealed transcriptional profiles lining up according to WHO grade and clinical subgroup. Notably aggressive subgroups (R+M tumors and WHO grade III) shared a large set of differentially expressed genes (n=332; p<0.01, FC>1.25). In an independent multicenter validation set (n=82), differential expression of 10 genes between WHO grades was confirmed. Additionally, among WHO grade I tumors differential expression between NR and aggressive R+M tumors was affirmed for PTTG1, AURKB, ECT2, UBE2C and PRC1, while MN1 and LEPR discriminated between NR and R+M WHO grade II tumors. Univariate survival analysis revealed a significant association with progression-free survival for PTTG1, LEPR, MN1, ECT2, PRC1, COX10, UBE2C expression, while multivariate analysis identified a prediction for PTTG1 and LEPR mRNA expression independent of gender, WHO grade and extent of resection. Finally, stainings of PTTG1 and LEPR confirmed malignancy-associated protein expression changes. In conclusion, based on the so far largest study sample of WHO grade III and recurrent meningiomas we report a comprehensive transcriptional landscape and two prognostic markers. PMID:26894859

  3. Overexpression of Transient Receptor Protein Cation Channel Subfamily A Member 1, Confers an Independent Prognostic Indicator in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, You-Ting; Yen, Shao-Lun; Li, Chien-Feng; Chan, Ti-Chun; Chen, Tzu-Ju; Lee, Sung-Wei; He, Hong-Lin; Chang, I-Wei; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Shiue, Yow-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background: Detection of oncogenes provides chances to understand tumor development and progression. Transient receptor protein cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) transcript was significantly upregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with a stepwise upregulation from low- to high-stage NPCs from a preliminary data analysis in the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The TRPA1 gene is a member of the TRP channel family, encoding integral membrane proteins that functions as cation channels. Loss of calcium homeostasis takes place in cancer cells. Methods: Immunostaining of TRPA1 was analyzed on 124 biopsies from NPC patients retrospectively. The H-score method was used to evaluate the immunoexpression of TRPA1. The correlations between H-score of TRPA1 protein level and clinicopathological factors, as well as the significances of TRPA1 protein level for disease-specific, distal-metastasis-free and local recurrence-free survivals were assessed. Results: These patients were characterized to be no initial metastasis and medicated with the traditional procedure. The TRPA1 score was found to be associated with clinicopathological parameters and patient survivals. Along with the guideline of 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, we found that TRPA1 upregulation (50%) was associated with advanced primary tumor (P = 0.009) and overall clinical stage (P = 0.019). In univariate log-rank testing, primary tumor, nodal status, stage and TRPA1 protein level significantly contributed to worse disease-specific survival, distal metastasis-free survival and local recurrence-free survival. In multivariate analysis, high TRPA1 protein level and tumor stage emerged as independent prognostic indicators for inferior disease-specific survival (P = 0.014; P = 0.003), distal metastasis-free survival (P = 0.004; P = 0.034) and recurrence-free survival (P = 0.017; P = 0.015). Conclusions: The upregulation of TRPA1 protein level is frequently correlated to unfavorable

  4. MiR-378 is an independent prognostic factor and inhibits cell growth and invasion in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs(miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that participate in a variety of biologic processes, and dysregulation of miRNA is always associated with cancer development and progression. Aberrant expression of miR-378 has been found in some types of cancer. However, effects and potential mechanisms of miR-378 in colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been explored. Methods Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to evaluate miR-378 levels in CRC cell lines and 84 pairs of CRC cancer and normal adjacent mucosa. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional regression analyses were utilized to determine the association of miR-378 expression with survival of patients. MTT and invasion assays were used to determine the role of miR-378 in regulation of CRC cancer cell growth and invasion, respectively. Tumor growth was assessed by subcutaneous inoculation of cells into BALB/c nude mice. Luciferase assay was performed to assess miR-378 binding to vimentin gene. Results In this study, we confirmed that miR-378 significantly down-regulated in CRC cancer tissues and cell lines. Moreover, patients with low miR-378 expression had significantly poorer overall survival, and miR-378 expression was an independent prognostic factor in CRC. Over-expression of miR-378 inhibited SW620 cell growth and invasion, and resulted in down-regulation of vimentin expression. However, miR-378 knock-down promoted these processes and enhanced the expression of vimentin. In addition, we further identified vimentin as the functional downstream target of miR-378 by directly targeting the 3′-UTR of vimentin. Conclusions In conclusion, miR-378 may function as a tumor suppressor and plays an important role in inhibiting tumor growth and invasion. Our present results implicate the potential effects of miR-378 on prognosis and treatment of CRC cancer. PMID:24555885

  5. The first double-blind, randomised, parallel-group certolizumab pegol study in methotrexate-naive early rheumatoid arthritis patients with poor prognostic factors, C-OPERA, shows inhibition of radiographic progression

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Yamanishi, Yuji; Kita, Yasuhiko; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Shoji, Toshiharu; Okada, Toshiyuki; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of combination therapy using certolizumab pegol (CZP) and methotrexate (MTX) as first-line treatment for MTX-naive, early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with poor prognostic factors, compared with MTX alone. Methods MTX-naive, early RA patients with ≤12 months persistent disease, high anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, and either rheumatoid factor positive and/or presence of bone erosions were enrolled in this multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo (PBO)-controlled study. Patients were randomised 1:1 to CZP+MTX or PBO+MTX for 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was inhibition of radiographic progression (change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS CFB)) at week 52. Secondary endpoints were mTSS CFB at week 24, and clinical remission rates at weeks 24 and 52. Results 316 patients randomised to CZP+MTX (n=159) or PBO+MTX (n=157) had comparable baseline characteristics reflecting features of early RA (mean disease duration: 4.0 vs 4.3 months; Disease Activity Score 28-joint assessment (DAS28)) (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)): 5.4 vs 5.5; mTSS: 5.2 vs 6.0). CZP+MTX group showed significantly greater inhibition of radiographic progression relative to PBO+MTX at week 52 (mTSS CFB=0.36 vs 1.58; p<0.001) and week 24 (mTSS CFB=0.26 vs 0.86; p=0.003). Clinical remission rates (Simple Disease Activity Index, Boolean and DAS28 (ESR)) of the CZP+MTX group were significantly higher compared with those of the PBO+MTX group, at weeks 24 and 52. Safety results in both groups were similar, with no new safety signals observed with addition of CZP to MTX. Conclusions In MTX-naive early RA patients with poor prognostic factors, CZP+MTX significantly inhibited structural damage and reduced RA signs and symptoms, demonstrating the efficacy of CZP in these patients. Trial registration number (NCT01451203). PMID:26139005

  6. Independent Prognostic Value of Single and Multiple Non-Specific 12-Lead Electrocardiographic Findings for Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawano, Mitsuaki; Kohsaka, Shun; Okamura, Tomonori; Inohara, Taku; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Higashiyama, Aya; Kadota, Aya; Okuda, Nagako; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Aims The long-term prognostic effect of non-specific 12-lead electrocardiogram findings is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the cumulative prognostic impact of axial, structural, and repolarization categorical abnormalities on cardiovascular death, independent from traditional risk scoring systems such as the Framingham risk score and the NIPPON DATA80 risk chart. Methods and Results A total of 16,816 healthy men and women from two prospective, longitudinal cohort studies were evaluated. 3,794 (22.6%) individuals died during a median follow-up of 15 years (range, 2.0–24 years). Hazard ratios for cardiovascular death, all-cause death, coronary death and stroke death were calculated for the cumulative and independent axial, structural, and repolarization categorical abnormalities adjusted for the Framingham risk score and the NIPPON DATA80 risk chart. Individuals with two or more abnormal categories had a higher risk of cardiovascular death after adjustment for Framingham risk score (men: HR 4.27, 95%CI 3.35–5.45; women: HR 4.83, 95%CI 3.76–6.22) and NIPPON DATA80 risk chart (men: HR 2.39, 95%CI 1.87–3.07; women: HR 2.04, 95%CI 1.58–2.64). Conclusion Cumulative findings of axial, structural, and repolarization abnormalities are significant predictors of long-term cardiovascular death in asymptomatic, healthy individuals independent of traditional risk stratification systems. PMID:27362562

  7. Pretreatment TG/HDL-C Ratio Is Superior to Triacylglycerol Level as an Independent Prognostic Factor for the Survival of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Danian; Chen, Bo; Wang, Bin; Tang, Hailin; Li, Xing; Zhao, Zhiping; Li, Xuan; Xie, Xiaoming; Wei, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have reported that the triacylglycerol (TG) level and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are connected with breast cancer. However, the prognostic utility of the TG level and the TG/HDL-C ratio (THR) as conventional biomarkers in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has not been elucidated. In this research, we investigate and compare the predictive value of the pretreatment serum TG level and THR in TNBC patients. Methods: We evaluated 221 patients with TNBC who had pretreatment conventional blood biochemical examinations and calculated the THR. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of the TG level and the THR on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: The optimal cutoff values of the TG level and the THR were determined to be 0.935 mmol/L and 0.600, respectively. As shown in a Kaplan-Meier analysis, TNBC patients with a high TG level and THR had shorter OS and DFS than patients in the low-level groups (p < 0.05). The multivariate analysis suggested that the pretreatment THR level is an independent prognostic factor of OS (HR: 1.935; 95%CI: 1.032-3.629; p = 0.040) in TNBC patients. Conclusions: In conclusion, our data indicate that a high THR is an independent predictor and is superior to the TG level for predicting poor clinical outcomes in TNBC patients.

  8. Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lanic, Hélène; Kraut-Tauzia, Jerôme; Modzelewski, Romain; Clatot, Florian; Mareschal, Sylvain; Picquenot, Jean Michel; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    Approximately 25-35% of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are older than 70 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of depletion of skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) in elderly patients with DLBCL. This retrospective analysis included 82 patients with DLBCL older than 70 years and treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, Oncovin, prednisone) or R-miniCHOP. Sarcopenia was measured by the analysis of stored computed tomography (CT) images at the L3 level at baseline. The surface of the muscular tissues was selected according to the CT Hounsfield unit. This value was normalized for stature in order to calculate the lumbar L3 skeletal muscle index (LSMI, in cm(2)/m(2)). The mean age of the population was 78 years. According to the defined cut-offs for LSMI, 45 patients with DLBCL were considered sarcopenic. Sarcopenic patients displayed a higher revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) compared with patients without sarcopenia, and were older, with a mean age of 80 years and 77 years, respectively (p = 0.006). With a median follow-up of 39 months, the 2-year overall survival in the sarcopenic population was 46% compared with 84% in the non-sarcopenic group (HR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.73-5.98; p = 0.0002). In a multivariate analysis, sarcopenia remained predictive of outcome (p = 0.005). Sarcopenia is a relevant and predictive factor in elderly patients with DLBCL treated with rituximab plus chemotherapy.

  9. Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Margaret E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the four planes of development and the periods of creation and crystallization within each plane. Identifies the type of independence that should be achieved by the end of the first two planes of development. Maintains that it is through individual work on the environment that one achieves independence. (KB)

  10. Global histone deacetylase enzymatic activity is an independent prognostic marker associated with a shorter overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Michaël; Crompot, Emerence; Meuleman, Nathalie; Mineur, Philippe; Dessars, Barbara; El Housni, Hakim; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence; Stamatopoulos, Basile

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) play a crucial role in transcriptional regulation and are often deregulated in many cancers. However, global HDAC enzymatic activity has never been investigated in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). We measured HDAC activity in protein extracts from CD19+ B-cells purified from 114 CLL patients with a median follow-up of 91 months (range: 11–376). HDAC activity was equivalent in CLL and normal B-cells but higher in patients who died during the study than in living patients (152.1 vs. 65.04 pmol; P = 0.0060). Furthermore, HDAC activity correlated with treatment-free survival (TFS; P = 0.0156) and overall survival (OS; P < 0.0001): patients with low HDAC activity (n = 75) had a median TFS and OS of 101 and >376 months, respectively, whereas patients with high HDAC activity (n = 39) had a median TFS and OS of 47 and 137 months, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that HDAC activity is an independent predictor of OS (hazard ratio = 7.68; P = 0.0017). Finally, HDAC activity increased after B-cell receptor stimulation using IgM, suggesting a role for microenvironment stimuli (n = 10; P = 0.0371). In conclusion, high HDAC activity in CLL B-cells is associated with shorter TFS and OS and is an independent marker of OS, refining the use of other prognostic factors. This work provides a biological base for the use of HDAC inhibitors in CLL treatment. PMID:25437053

  11. Galectin-1 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Local Recurrence and Survival After Definitive Radiation Therapy for Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Chanchien, Chan-Chao; Lin, Hao; Wang, Chung-Chi; Wang, Chong-Jong; Huang, Chao-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of galectin-1 in patients with cervical cancer after definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 154 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma. Patients underwent curative-intent radiation therapy. Paraffin-embedded tissues were analyzed using immunohistochemistry staining for galectin-1. The rates of cancer-specific survival (CSS), local recurrence (LR), and distant metastasis were compared among patient tissue samples with no, weak, and strong galectin-1 expression. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazard model with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Results: The areas under the curve for the intracellular expression scores of galectin-1 for both LR and CSS were significantly higher than those for stromal expression. There were no significant differences in the demographic data, such as stage and serum tumor markers, between patients with and without intracellular expression of galectin-1 in cancer tissue samples. Using multivariate analyses, the hazard ratios of LR and CSS were 2.60 (95% CI 1.50-4.52) (P=.001) and 1.94 (95% CI 1.18-3.19) (P=.010), respectively. Conclusion: Galectin-1 is an independent prognostic factor associated with LR and CSS in stage I-II cervical cancer patients undergoing definitive radiation therapy. Further studies targeting galectin-1 may improve the local control of cervical cancer.

  12. Attenuation and image noise level based online z-axis tube current modulation for CT scans independent with localizer radiograph: simulation study and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yi; Chen, Mahao; Kong, Jun

    2009-02-01

    With the online z-axis tube current modulation (OZTCM) technique proposed by this work, full automatic exposure control (AEC) for CT systems could be realized with online feedback not only for angular tube current modulation (TCM) but also for z-axis TCM either. Then the localizer radiograph was not required for TCM any more. OZTCM could be implemented with 2 schemes as attenuation based μ-OZTCM and image noise level based μ-OZTCM. Respectively the maximum attenuation of projection readings and standard deviation of reconstructed images can be used to modulate the tube current level in z-axis adaptively for each half (180 degree) or full (360 degree) rotation. Simulation results showed that OZTCM achieved better noise level than constant tube current scan case by using same total dose in mAs. The OZTCM can provide optimized base tube current level for angular TCM to realize an effective auto exposure control when localizer radiograph is not available or need to be skipped for simplified scan protocol in case of emergency procedure or children scan, etc.

  13. Preoperative γ-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is an independent prognostic factor for HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma after curative hepatic resection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wan-Li; Zheng, Xing-Long; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Ying; Hao, Jie; Tang, Gang; Li, Ou; Xiang, Jun-Xi; Wu, Zheng; Wang, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis is associated with the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after treatment. The γ-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is reported to predict significant liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of preoperative GPR on the recurrence and survival of patients with HCC who underwent curative hepatectomy.A retrospective review of demographics, medical records, and prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC was performed. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to analyze differences in recurrence and survival. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used for significance of prognostic factor.A total of 357 patients with HBV-related HCC were included in this analysis. The preoperative GPR was associated with recurrence and survival rates, independent of HCC progression or tumor marker levels, in a multivariate analysis. OS was higher in patients with a GPR <0.84 versus ≥084 (5-year survival rates 58.6% vs. 38.5%; P < 0.001). DFS was also worse in patients with a GPR ≥0.84 than in those with GPR <0.84 (5-year recurrence rates 42.8% vs. 22.8%; P < 0.001).GPR score of ≥0.84 represents a major risk factor for the poor prognosis for HBV-related HCC after hepatic resection, and GPR served as an independent predictive factor for HBV-related HCC OS. PMID:27399101

  14. Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), but not galactin-3, adds to prognostication in patients with systemic AL amyloidosis independent of NT-proBNP and troponin T.

    PubMed

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A; Saenger, Amy; Kumar, Shaji K; Lacy, Martha Q; Buadi, Francis K; Dingli, David; Leung, Nelson; Zeldenrust, Steven; Hayman, Suzanne R; Kapoor, Prashant; Grogan, Martha; Hwa, Lisa; Russell, Stephen J; Go, Ronald S; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kyle, Robert A; Jaffe, Allan

    2015-06-01

    The use of soluble cardiac biomarkers such as N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin has revolutionized prognostication for patients with AL amyloidosis. Soluble ST2 (sST2) and galectin-3 have also been reported to have prognostic value in other cardiac patient populations. We identified 502 patients with AL amyloidosis, who provided a research sample and consent to review their medical records between 1/1/2006-12/31/2010 within 90 days of their diagnosis. Samples were assayed for sST2 and galectin-3. Within this AL amyloidosis population, overall survival (OS) was 25.5 months (95% CI 18, 35.7 months). Receiver operating curve analyses were done to detect the best cut-points for sST2 and galectin-3 to predict both 1- and 5-year OS. The respective cut points for sST2 were 30 and 29.7 ng/mL, while the median sST2 for the entire population was 31 ng/mL (IQR 19.8, 53.6). The respective cut points for galectin-3 were 11 and 10.4 ng/mL while the median for the entire population was 16.6 ng/mL (IQR 11.5, 24.0). Although on univariate analysis, both sST2 and galectin-3 were prognostic, upon multivariate analysis, only sST2 was independent of troponin, NT-proBNP, serum immunoglobulin free light chain, and blood pressure. Not only did sST2 add to previously reported prognostication systems, but a novel prognostication 5-point system including sST2 was possible. The addition of sST2 - but not galectin-3 - to existing prognostication systems for patients with AL amyloidosis strengthens the ability to predict for death.

  15. Prognostic investigations of B7-H1 and B7-H4 expression levels as independent predictor markers of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Hamid Reza; Rostamzadeh, Ayoob; Rahmani, Omid; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Omar; Yahaghi, Hamid; Ahmadi, Koroosh

    2016-06-01

    In order to evaluate the correlation of B7-H4 and B7-H1 with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we analyzed B7-H1 and B7-H4 expressions and their clinical significance by immunohistochemical method. Our result indicated that B7-H4-positive staining was detected in 58.13 % of RCC tissues (25 tissues tumors), and there were 18 tissues of patients without detectable B7-H4. Furthermore, 21 cases (48.83 %) were B7-H1-positive. Positive tumor expressions of B7-H4 and B7-H1 were markedly related to advanced TNM stage (P = 0.001; P = 0.014), high grade (P = 0.001; P = 002), and larger tumor size (P = 0.002; P = 024) in RCC tissues than patients with B7-H4-negative and B7-H1-negative in RCC tissues. The patients with B7-H1 and B7-H4-positive expressions were found to be markedly correlated with the overall survival of the patients (P < 0.05) and tended to have an increased risk of death when compared with negative expression groups. Univariate analysis showed that B7-H4 and B7-H1 expressions, TNM stage, high grade, and tumor size were significantly related to the prognosis of RCC. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that B7-H4 and B7-H1 expressions decreased overall survival. The adjusted HR for B7-H1 was 2.83 (95 % CI 1.210-2.971; P = 0.031) and also was 2.918 (95 % CI 1.243-3.102; P = 0.006) for B7-H4 that showed these markers were independent prognostic factors in RCC patients. The expressions of B7-H1 and B7-H4 in RCC patients indicate that these markers may be as a predictor of tumor development and death risk. Further investigations can be helpful to confirm B7-H1 and B7-H4 roles as an independent predictor of clinical RCC outcome. PMID:26687644

  16. Photographic Effect Of Darkroom Exposure On Radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, R. H.

    1982-12-01

    Fogging of radiographic films can be characterized by a photographically equivalent radiographic exposure dose (Ex-eq). It is shown that within the limits of the experiments Ex-eq is independent of the moment of fogging i.e. before or after the radiographic imaging, and of the radiation intensity levels in the radiographic beam in case of no-screenexposure, but is dependent in case of an exposure with fluorescent screens and fogging by light. A dependent Ex-eq causes apparent sensitometric anomalies. The study warns against darkroom light fogging mainly when unloading cassettes.

  17. Brachial-to-ankle pulse wave velocity as an independent prognostic factor for ovulatory response to clomiphene citrate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a risk for cardiovascular disease. Increased arterial stiffness has been observed in women with PCOS. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the brachial-to-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is a prognostic factor for ovulatory response to clomiphene citrate (CC) in women with PCOS. Methods This study was a retrospective cohort study of 62 women with PCOS conducted from January 2009 to December 2012 at the university hospital, Yamagata, Japan. We analyzed 62 infertile PCOS patients who received CC. Ovulation was induced by 100 mg CC for 5 days. CC non-responder was defined as failure to ovulate for at least 2 consecutive CC-treatment cycles. The endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular parameters between CC responder (38 patients) and non-responder (24 patients) groups were analyzed. Results In univariate analysis, waist-to-hip ratio, level of free testosterone, percentages of patients with dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes mellitus, blood glucose and insulin levels at 60 min and 120 min, the area under the curve of glucose and insulin after 75-g oral glucose intolerance test, and baPWV were significantly higher in CC non-responders compared with responders. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, both waist-to-hip ratio (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.2–14.1; P = 0.04) and baPWV (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–2.8; P = 0.03) were independent predictors of ovulation induction by CC in PCOS patients. The predictive values of waist-to-hip ratio and baPWV for the CC resistance in PCOS patients were determined by the receiver operating characteristic curves. The area under the curves for waist-to-hip ratio and baPWV were 0.76 and 0.77, respectively. Setting the threshold at 0.83 for waist-to-hip ratio offered the best compromise between specificity (0.65) and sensitivity (0.84), while the setting the threshold at 1,182 cm/s for

  18. MicroRNA-15b represents an independent prognostic parameter and is correlated with tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Satzger, Imke; Mattern, Anika; Kuettler, Uta; Weinspach, Dirk; Voelker, Bernward; Kapp, Alexander; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2010-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs ( approximately 22 bp) that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. MiRNAs possess oncogenic or tumor suppressor activity in various tumors but little is known about miRNA expression pattern in malignant melanoma. We determined the expression level of 16 potentially relevant miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-15b, miR-16, miR-34a, miR-210, let-7I, miR-23a, miR-23b, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-100, miR-137, miR-222, miR-373-1, miR-373*) by real-time PCR in 6 preparations of normal melanocytes vs. 10 melanoma cell lines and in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue of 11 melanocytic nevi versus 16 melanomas. MiR-15b and miR-210 were significantly upregulated, miR-34a was significantly downregulated in melanomas compared with melanocytic nevi. These 3 miRNAs were analyzed in a total of 128 primary melanomas from patients with detailed clinical follow-up information. High expression of miR-15b (but not miR-210 upregulation and miR-34a downregulation) was significantly associated with poor recurrence free survival and overall survival by univariate Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox analyses. Downregulation of miR-15b in two melanoma cell lines with high miR-15b expression by transfection with anti-miR-15b siRNA was associated with reduced tumor cell proliferation, whereas apoptosis was increased. In summary, miRNA expression levels show distinct differences comparing benign and malignant melanocytic cell proliferations and can provide independent prognostic informations. MiR-15b appears to represent a particular important miRNA in melanoma that is associated with poor prognosis and tumorigenesis.

  19. A retrospective comparative exploratory study on two Methylentetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in esophagogastric cancer: the A1298C MTHFR polymorphism is an independent prognostic factor only in neoadjuvantly treated gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a major role in folate metabolism and consequently could be an important factor for the efficacy of a treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of two well characterized constitutional MTHFR gene polymorphisms for primarily resected and neoadjuvantly treated esophagogastric adenocarcinomas. Methods 569 patients from two centers were analyzed (gastric cancer: 218, carcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG II, III): 208 and esophagus (AEG I): 143). 369 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery, 200 patients were resected without preoperative treatment. The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphozytes. Associations with prognosis, response and clinicopathological factors were analyzed retrospectively within a prospective database (chi-square, log-rank, cox regression). Results Only the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms had prognostic relevance in neoadjuvantly treated patients but it was not a predictor for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The AC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was significantly associated with worse outcome (p = 0.02, HR 1.47 (1.06-2.04). If neoadjuvantly treated patients were analyzed based on their tumor localization, the AC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was a significant negative prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer according to UICC 6th edition (gastric cancer including AEG type II, III: HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-2.0, p = 0.001) and 7th edition (gastric cancer without AEG II, III: HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.7, p = 0.003), not for AEG I. For both definitions of gastric cancer the AC genotype was confirmed as an independent negative prognostic factor in cox regression analysis. In primarily resected patients neither the MTHFR A1298C nor the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms had prognostic impact. Conclusions The MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was

  20. Early clearance of peripheral blasts measured by flow cytometry during the first week of AML induction therapy as a new independent prognostic factor: a GOELAMS study.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, F; Arnoulet, C; Maynadié, M; Lippert, E; Luquet, I; Pigneux, A; Vey, N; Casasnovas, O; Witz, F; Béné, M C

    2009-02-01

    An early appreciation of treatment efficacy could be very useful in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), and a prognostic value has been suggested for the morphological assessment of decrease in blasts during induction therapy. More sensitive, multiparametric flow cytometry (FCM) can detect far lower blast counts, allowing for a precise and reliable calculation of blast cell decrease rate (BDR). Such a multiparametric FCM four-colours/single-tube protocol, combining CD11b, CD45-ECD and CD16-PC5, was applied to peripheral blood samples from 130 AML patients, collected daily during induction chemotherapy. Normalized blast cell percentages were used to calculate the relevant decrease slopes. Slope thresholds (<-25, -25 to -15 and >-15), or the time required to reach 90% depletion of the peripheral blast load (<5, 5 or >5 days), was strongly associated with the achievement of complete remission (P<0.0001). Log-rank test and Cox model showed that they also carried high statistical significance (P<0.0001) for disease-free survival. The prognostic value of cytogenetic features, confirmed in this series, was refined by BDR, which allowed to discriminate between good- and poor-risk patients among those with intermediate or normal karyotypes. This simple FCM protocol allows for an accurate prognostic sequential approach adapted to the determination of decrease in peripheral blast cells during induction chemotherapy.

  1. Independent replication of a melanoma subtype gene signature and evaluation of its prognostic value and biological correlates in a population cohort.

    PubMed

    Nsengimana, Jérémie; Laye, Jon; Filia, Anastasia; Walker, Christy; Jewell, Rosalyn; Van den Oord, Joost J; Wolter, Pascal; Patel, Poulam; Sucker, Antje; Schadendorf, Dirk; Jönsson, Göran B; Bishop, D Timothy; Newton-Bishop, Julia

    2015-05-10

    Development and validation of robust molecular biomarkers has so far been limited in melanoma research. In this paper we used a large population-based cohort to replicate two published gene signatures for melanoma classification. We assessed the signatures prognostic value and explored their biological significance by correlating them with factors known to be associated with survival (vitamin D) or etiological routes (nevi, sun sensitivity and telomere length). Genomewide microarray gene expressions were profiled in 300 archived tumors (224 primaries, 76 secondaries). The two gene signatures classified up to 96% of our samples and showed strong correlation with melanoma specific survival (P=3 x 10(-4)), Breslow thickness (P=5 x 10(-10)), ulceration (P=9.x10-8) and mitotic rate (P=3 x 10(-7)), adding prognostic value over AJCC stage (adjusted hazard ratio 1.79, 95%CI 1.13-2.83), as previously reported. Furthermore, molecular subtypes were associated with season-adjusted serum vitamin D at diagnosis (P=0.04) and genetically predicted telomere length (P=0.03). Specifically, molecular high-grade tumors were more frequent in patients with lower vitamin D levels whereas high immune tumors came from patients with predicted shorter telomeres. Our data confirm the utility of molecular biomarkers in melanoma prognostic estimation using tiny archived specimens and shed light on biological mechanisms likely to impact on cancer initiation and progression.

  2. The flow cytometry-defined light chain cytoplasmic immunoglobulin index and an associated 12-gene expression signature are independent prognostic factors in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, X; Alapat, D; Rosenthal, A; Stein, C; Epstein, J; Owens, R; Yaccoby, S; Johnson, S; Bailey, C; Heuck, C; Tian, E; Joiner, A; van Rhee, F; Khan, R; Zangari, M; Jethava, Y; Waheed, S; Davies, F; Morgan, G; Barlogie, B

    2015-08-01

    As part of Total Therapy (TT) 3b, baseline marrow aspirates were subjected to two-color flow cytometry of nuclear DNA content and cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (DNA/CIG) as well as plasma cell gene expression profiling (GEP). DNA/CIG-derived parameters, GEP and standard clinical variables were examined for their effects on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Among DNA/CIG parameters, the percentage of the light chain-restricted (LCR) cells and their cytoplasmic immunoglobulin index (CIg) were linked to poor outcome. In the absence of GEP data, low CIg <2.8, albumin <3.5 g/dl and age ⩾65 years were significantly associated with inferior OS and PFS. When GEP information was included, low CIg survived the model along with GEP70-defined high risk and low albumin. Low CIg was linked to beta-2-microglobulin >5.5 mg/l, a percentage of LCR cells exceeding 50%, C-reactive protein ⩾8 mg/l and GEP-derived high centrosome index. Further analysis revealed an association of low CIg with 12 gene probes implicated in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and drug transportation from which a risk score was developed in TT3b that held prognostic significance also in TT3a, TT2 and HOVON trials, thus validating its general applicability. Low CIg is a powerful new prognostic variable and has identified potentially drug-able targets. PMID:25753926

  3. The flow cytometry-defined light chain cytoplasmic immunoglobulin index and an associated 12-gene expression signature are independent prognostic factors in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, X; Alapat, D; Rosenthal, A; Stein, C; Epstein, J; Owens, R; Yaccoby, S; Johnson, S; Bailey, C; Heuck, C; Tian, E; Joiner, A; van Rhee, F; Khan, R; Zangari, M; Jethava, Y; Waheed, S; Davies, F; Morgan, G; Barlogie, B

    2015-08-01

    As part of Total Therapy (TT) 3b, baseline marrow aspirates were subjected to two-color flow cytometry of nuclear DNA content and cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (DNA/CIG) as well as plasma cell gene expression profiling (GEP). DNA/CIG-derived parameters, GEP and standard clinical variables were examined for their effects on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Among DNA/CIG parameters, the percentage of the light chain-restricted (LCR) cells and their cytoplasmic immunoglobulin index (CIg) were linked to poor outcome. In the absence of GEP data, low CIg <2.8, albumin <3.5 g/dl and age ⩾65 years were significantly associated with inferior OS and PFS. When GEP information was included, low CIg survived the model along with GEP70-defined high risk and low albumin. Low CIg was linked to beta-2-microglobulin >5.5 mg/l, a percentage of LCR cells exceeding 50%, C-reactive protein ⩾8 mg/l and GEP-derived high centrosome index. Further analysis revealed an association of low CIg with 12 gene probes implicated in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and drug transportation from which a risk score was developed in TT3b that held prognostic significance also in TT3a, TT2 and HOVON trials, thus validating its general applicability. Low CIg is a powerful new prognostic variable and has identified potentially drug-able targets.

  4. Visual simulation of radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Laguna, G.

    1985-01-18

    A method for computer simulation of radiographs has been added to the LLNL version of the solid modeler TIPS-1 (Technical Information Processing System-1). This new tool will enable an engineer to compare an actual radiograph of a solid to its computer-generated counterpart. The appearance of discrepancies between the two can be an indication of flaws in the solid object. Simulated radiographs can also be used to preview the placement of x-ray sources to focus on areas of concern before actual radiographs are made.

  5. Loss of aquaporin 3 protein expression constitutes an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival: an immunohistochemical study on stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) continues to be a challenge due to its unpredictable clinical course. Reliable molecular markers that help to determine appropriate individual treatment are still lacking. Loss of aquaporin (AQP) 3 protein expression has previously been shown in muscle-invasive UBC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of AQP3 protein expression with regard to the prognosis of stage pT1 UBC. Method AQP 3 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in specimens of 87 stage T1 UBC patients, who were diagnosed by transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) and subsequent second resection at a high-volume urological centre between 2002 and 2009. Patients underwent adjuvant instillation therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Loss of AQP3 protein expression was defined as complete absence of the protein within the whole tumour. Expression status was correlated retrospectively with clinicopathological and follow-up data (median: 31 months). Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the value of AQP3 tumour expression with regard to recurrence-free (RFS), progression-free (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). RFS, PFS and CSS were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Log rank test. Results 59% of patients were shown to exhibit AQP3-positive tumours, whereas 41% of tumours did not express the marker. Loss of AQP3 protein expression was associated with a statistically significantly worse PFS (20% vs. 72%, p=0.020). This finding was confirmed by multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR 7.58, CI 1.29 – 44.68; p=0.025). Conclusions Loss of AQP3 protein expression in pT1 UBC appears to play a key role in disease progression and is associated with worse PFS. Considering its potential prognostic value, assessment of AQP3 protein expression could be used to help stratify the behavior of patients with pT1 UBC. PMID:23043286

  6. Prognostic value of TAPSE after therapy optimisation in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension is independent of the haemodynamic effects of therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghio, Stefano; Pica, Silvia; Klersy, Catherine; Guzzafame, Eleonora; Scelsi, Laura; Raineri, Claudia; Turco, Annalisa; Schirinzi, Sandra; Visconti, Luigi Oltrona

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prognostic significance of right ventricular function assessed by echocardiography after start or escalation of targeted therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods Study design: longitudinal study. Setting: tertiary referral centre for pulmonary hypertension. Patients: 81 consecutive patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (33 naive and 48 prevalent). Interventions: right heart catheterisation and echocardiography performed prior to starting or escalating targeted therapy and repeated in 55 patients after 4–12 months of therapy. Main outcome measure: survival after follow-up examinations. Results 11 patients died and 7 were lost to follow-up during the first year; 8 patients underwent first follow-up evaluation beyond 1 year. 55 patients were re-evaluated after therapy; during the subsequent follow-up period of 25 months, 9 patients died, 7 worsened from WHO I/II to III/IV and 15 remained in WHO III/IV despite therapy. A baseline tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) ≥15 mm was associated with a lower risk of death (HR=0.32; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.83, p=0.012). Attaining a TAPSE≥15 mm after therapy was associated with a significantly lower risk of death or clinical worsening (HR=0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.6, p=0.002) and a lower risk of death which approached statistical significance (HR=0.3; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.1, p=0.075). Per cent changes in TAPSE were loosely related to changes in pulmonary vascular resistances after therapy (R=0.37). Conclusions In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, the evaluation of right ventricular function by TAPSE after targeted therapy is useful to predict subsequent prognosis, regardless of the haemodynamic effects of therapy. PMID:27175288

  7. AEG-1 expression is an independent prognostic factor in rectal cancer patients with preoperative radiotherapy: a study in a Swedish clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gnosa, S; Zhang, H; Brodin, V P; Carstensen, J; Adell, G; Sun, X-F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) is widely used to downstage rectal tumours, but the rate of recurrence varies significantly. Therefore, new biomarkers are needed for better treatment and prognosis. It has been shown that astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a key mediator of migration, invasion, and treatment resistance. Our aim was to analyse the AEG-1 expression in relation to RT in rectal cancer patients and to test its radiosensitising properties. Methods: The AEG-1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 158 patients from the Swedish clinical trial of RT. Furthermore, we inhibited the AEG-1 expression by siRNA in five colon cancer cell lines and measured the survival after irradiation by colony-forming assay. Results: The AEG-1 expression was increased in the primary tumours compared with the normal mucosa independently of the RT (P<0.01). High AEG-1 expression in the primary tumour of the patients treated with RT correlated independently with higher risk of distant recurrence (P=0.009) and worse disease-free survival (P=0.007). Downregulation of AEG-1 revealed a decreased survival after radiation in radioresistant colon cancer cell lines. Conclusions: The AEG-1 expression was independently related to distant recurrence and disease-free survival in rectal cancer patients with RT and could therefore be a marker to discriminate patients for distant relapse. PMID:24874474

  8. Evaluation of epidermal growth factor-related growth factors and receptors and of neoangiogenesis in completely resected stage I-IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer: amphiregulin and microvessel count are independent prognostic indicators of survival.

    PubMed

    Fontanini, G; De Laurentiis, M; Vignati, S; Chinè, S; Lucchi, M; Silvestri, V; Mussi, A; De Placido, S; Tortora, G; Bianco, A R; Gullick, W; Angeletti, C A; Bevilacqua, G; Ciardiello, F

    1998-01-01

    We have determined the expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), amphiregulin (AR), CRIPTO, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB-2, erbB-3, and tumor angiogenesis in a series of 195 patients with stage I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radical surgery to define their usefulness as prognostic indicators of survival. A variable degree of specific staining in cancer cells was observed for the three growth factors and for the three growth factor receptors in the majority of NSCLC patients. A statistically significant association between overexpression of TGF alpha, AR, and CRIPTO was observed. Enhanced expression of AR was significantly correlated with enhanced expression of erbB-2 and advanced T-stage. A direct association was also detected for overexpression of TGF alpha and of erbB-2 or erbB-3, respectively. Sex, tumor size, nodal status, stage, microvessel count, as a measure of neovascularization, and AR overexpression significantly correlated with overall survival at univariate analysis. In a Cox multivariate analysis, the only characteristics with an independent prognostic effect on OAS were microvessel count [relative hazard (RH), 6.61; P < 0.00001), nodal status (RH, 1.59; P = 0.0013), and AR overexpression (RH, 1.72; P = 0.02). These results suggest that evaluation of neoangiogenesis and of certain growth factors, such as AR, can be useful in addition to conventional pathological staging to select high-risk NSCLC patients who may benefit from post-surgical systemic therapies.

  9. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain What are Radiographic Assessments? When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back Pain? Other Reasons for Having an X-ray What ... What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the use of X-rays to determine ...

  10. Analysis of local chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate combined with systemic inflammation improves prognostication in stage II colon cancer independent of standard clinicopathologic criteria.

    PubMed

    Turner, Natalie; Wong, Hui-Li; Templeton, Arnoud; Tripathy, Sagarika; Whiti Rogers, Te; Croxford, Matthew; Jones, Ian; Sinnathamby, Mathuranthakan; Desai, Jayesh; Tie, Jeanne; Bae, Susie; Christie, Michael; Gibbs, Peter; Tran, Ben

    2016-02-01

    In Stage II colon cancer, multiple independent studies have shown that a dense intratumoural immune infiltrate (local inflammation) is associated with improved outcomes, while systemic inflammation, measured by various markers, has been associated with poorer outcomes. However, previous studies have not considered the interaction between local and systemic inflammation, nor have they assessed the type of inflammatory response compared with standard clinicopathologic criteria. In order to evaluate the potential clinical utility of inflammatory markers in Stage II colon cancer, we examined local and systemic inflammation in a consecutive series of patients with resected Stage II colon cancer between 2000 and 2010 who were identified from a prospective clinical database. Increased intratumoural chronic inflammatory cell (CIC) density, as assessed by pathologist review of hematoxylin and eosin stained slides, was used to represent local inflammation. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) >5, as calculated from pre-operative full blood counts, was used to represent systemic inflammation. In 396 eligible patients identified, there was a non-significant inverse relationship between local and systemic inflammation. Increased CIC density was significantly associated with improved overall (HR 0.45, p = 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (HR 0.37, p = 0.003). High NLR was significantly associated with poorer overall survival (HR 2.56, p < 0.001). The combination of these markers further stratified prognosis independent of standard high-risk criteria, with a dominant systemic inflammatory response (low CIC/high NLR) associated with the worst outcome (5-year overall survival 55.8%). With further validation this simple, inexpensive combined inflammatory biomarker might assist in patient selection for adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage II colon cancer.

  11. Weld radiograph enigmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemian, Wartan A.

    1986-01-01

    Weld radiograph enigmas are features observed on X-ray radiographs of welds. Some of these features resemble indications of weld defects, although their origin is different. Since they are not understood, they are a source of concern. There is a need to identify their causes and especially to measure their effect on weld mechanical properties. A method is proposed whereby the enigmas can be evaluated and rated, in relation to the full spectrum of weld radiograph indications. Thie method involves a signature and a magnitude that can be used as a quantitive parameter. The signature is generated as the diference between the microdensitometer trace across the radiograph and the computed film intensity derived from a thickness scan along the corresponding region of the sample. The magnitude is the measured difference in intensity between the peak and base line values of the signature. The procedure is demonstated by comparing traces across radiographs of a weld sample before and after the introduction of a hole and by a system based on a MacIntosh mouse used for surface profiling.

  12. Total Gross Tumor Volume Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients Treated With Selective Nodal Irradiation for Stage I to III Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Reymen, Bart; Van Loon, Judith; Baardwijk, Angela van; Wanders, Rinus; Borger, Jacques; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Bootsma, Gerben; Pitz, Cordula; Lunde, Ragnar; Geraedts, Wiel; Lambin, Philippe; De Ruysscher, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: In non-small cell lung cancer, gross tumor volume (GTV) influences survival more than other risk factors. This could also apply to small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Analysis of our prospective database with stage I to III SCLC patients referred for concurrent chemo radiation therapy. Standard treatment was 45 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions twice daily concurrently with carboplatin-etoposide, followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in case of non-progression. Only fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)-positive or pathologically proven nodal sites were included in the target volume. Total GTV consisted of post chemotherapy tumor volume and pre chemotherapy nodal volume. Survival was calculated from diagnosis (Kaplan-Meier ). Results: A total of 119 patients were included between May 2004 and June 2009. Median total GTV was 93 ± 152 cc (7.5-895 cc). Isolated elective nodal failure occurred in 2 patients (1.7%). Median follow-up was 38 months, median overall survival 20 months (95% confidence interval = 17.8-22.1 months), and 2-year survival 38.4%. In multivariate analysis, only total GTV (P=.026) and performance status (P=.016) significantly influenced survival. Conclusions: In this series of stage I to III small cell lung cancer patients treated with FDG-PET-based selective nodal irradiation total GTV is an independent risk factor for survival.

  13. Distributed Prognostics based on Structural Model Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, I.

    2014-01-01

    Within systems health management, prognostics focuses on predicting the remaining useful life of a system. In the model-based prognostics paradigm, physics-based models are constructed that describe the operation of a system and how it fails. Such approaches consist of an estimation phase, in which the health state of the system is first identified, and a prediction phase, in which the health state is projected forward in time to determine the end of life. Centralized solutions to these problems are often computationally expensive, do not scale well as the size of the system grows, and introduce a single point of failure. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed model-based prognostics scheme that formally describes how to decompose both the estimation and prediction problems into independent local subproblems whose solutions may be easily composed into a global solution. The decomposition of the prognostics problem is achieved through structural decomposition of the underlying models. The decomposition algorithm creates from the global system model a set of local submodels suitable for prognostics. Independent local estimation and prediction problems are formed based on these local submodels, resulting in a scalable distributed prognostics approach that allows the local subproblems to be solved in parallel, thus offering increases in computational efficiency. Using a centrifugal pump as a case study, we perform a number of simulation-based experiments to demonstrate the distributed approach, compare the performance with a centralized approach, and establish its scalability. Index Terms-model-based prognostics, distributed prognostics, structural model decomposition ABBREVIATIONS

  14. Comparative Assessment of the Prognostic Value of Biomarkers in Traumatic Brain Injury Reveals an Independent Role for Serum Levels of Neurofilament Light

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Harriet; Dring, Ann M.; Svenningsson, Anders; Piehl, Fredrik; Nelson, David W.; Bellander, Bo-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of death and disability, worldwide. Early determination of injury severity is essential to improve care. Neurofilament light (NF-L) has been introduced as a marker of neuroaxonal injury in neuroinflammatory/-degenerative diseases. In this study we determined the predictive power of serum (s-) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-) NF-L levels towards outcome, and explored their potential correlation to diffuse axonal injury (DAI). A total of 182 patients suffering from TBI admitted to the neurointensive care unit at a level 1 trauma center were included. S-NF-L levels were acquired, together with S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). CSF-NF-L was measured in a subcohort (n = 84) with ventriculostomies. Clinical and neuro-radiological parameters, including computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, were included in the analyses. Outcome was assessed 6 to 12 months after injury using the Glasgow Outcome Score (1-5). In univariate proportional odds analyses mean s-NF-L, -S100B and -NSE levels presented a pseudo-R2 Nagelkerke of 0.062, 0.214 and 0.074 in correlation to outcome, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, in addition to a model including core parameters (pseudo-R2 0.33 towards outcome; Age, Glasgow Coma Scale, pupil response, Stockholm CT score, abbreviated injury severity score, S100B), S-NF-L yielded an extra 0.023 pseudo-R2 and a significantly better model (p = 0.006) No correlation between DAI or CT assessed-intracranial damage and NF-L was found. Our study thus demonstrates that S-NF-L correlates to TBI outcome, even if used in models with S100B, indicating an independent contribution to the prediction, perhaps by reflecting different pathophysiological processes, not possible to monitor using conventional neuroradiology. Although we did not find a predictive value of NF-L for DAI, this cannot be completely excluded. We suggest further studies, with volume quantification of axonal injury

  15. The radiographic union scale in tibial (RUST) fractures

    PubMed Central

    Clement, N. D.; Tawonsawatruk, T.; Simpson, C. J.; Simpson, A. H. R. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The radiographic union score for tibial (RUST) fractures was developed by Whelan et al to assess the healing of tibial fractures following intramedullary nailing. In the current study, the repeatability and reliability of the RUST score was evaluated in an independent centre (a) using the original description, (b) after further interpretation of the description of the score, and (c) with the immediate post-operative radiograph available for comparison. Methods A total of 15 radiographs of tibial shaft fractures treated by intramedullary nailing (IM) were scored by three observers using the RUST system. Following discussion on how the criteria of the RUST system should be implemented, 45 sets (i.e. AP and lateral) of radiographs of IM nailed tibial fractures were scored by five observers. Finally, these 45 sets of radiographs were rescored with the baseline post-operative radiograph available for comparison. Results The initial intraclass correlation (ICC) on the first 15 sets of radiographs was 0.67 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.71). However, the original description was being interpreted in different ways. After agreeing on the interpretation, the ICC on the second cohort improved to 0.75. The ICC improved even further to 0.79, when the baseline post-operative radiographs were available for comparison. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the RUST scoring system is a reliable and repeatable outcome measure for assessing tibial fracture healing. Further improvement in the reliability of the scoring system can be obtained if the radiographs are compared with the baseline post-operative radiographs. Cite this article: Mr J.M. Leow. The radiographic union scale in tibial (RUST) fractures: Reliability of the outcome measure at an independent centre. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:116–121. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000628. PMID:27073210

  16. Prognostic factors in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, M L

    1998-06-01

    There is obvious merit in being able to accurately predict outcome and tailor treatment according to individual risk and potential for benefit. Epithelial ovarian cancers are characterized by a broad spectrum of biological behavior ranging from tumors that have an excellent prognosis and high likelihood of cure to those that progress rapidly and have a very poor prognosis. This wide clinical spectrum is partly reflected by a number of clinicopathological prognostic variables which include International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, histologic subtype and grade, volume of residual tumor remaining after surgical resection, performance status, and age. There has been increasing interest by many groups to incorporate the independent prognostic variables into multivariate models that could better predict outcome. This approach does appear to allow the identification of different prognostic subsets and requires confirmation in prospective studies. There has been, and there continues to be a lot of effort in identifying new prognostic factors that have a biologic rationale and these will be discussed. Most of these new prognostic factors have not been subjected to rigorous testing and this will be clearly necessary before they find clinical application. This is an area that is rapidly evolving with the increased understanding of the molecular basis for ovarian carcinogenesis and progression coupled with technological advances such as DNA arrays and automated polymerase chain reaction. We are at the threshold of developing a new and more objective as well as rational approach to predict prognosis and response to therapy.

  17. Radiographic intensifying screen

    SciTech Connect

    Ochiai, T.

    1985-02-26

    A radiographic intensifying screen comprising a substrate and a fluorescent layer provided thereon and consisting essentially of a binder and a radioluminescent phosphor dispersed therein. The binder comprises linear polyester resin or linear polyester resin crosslinked with a crosslinking agent. The screen exhibits improved physical properties.

  18. Independent prognostic variables in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew L; Hills, Robert K; Grimwade, David

    2011-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is one of the most common haematological malignancies and is increasing in frequency due to an ageing population. Whilst remission will be achieved in up to 80% of those receiving intensive chemotherapy, the main variables precluding cure are the treatment-related mortality and relapse rates. Decisions on intensification, de-escalation and allografting rely on the ability to divide an apparently homogeneous group according to risk. A wide range of clinical, cytogenetic and molecular variables may be used to inform this task. Cytogenetic and molecular characterisation has already identified subgroups, such as acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) with t(15;17)/PML-RARA and AML with FLT3 mutation for which targeted therapies are available, and further molecularly defined groups who may be potential candidates for this approach are likely to be identified in the future. This review examines the range of established clinical and diagnostic parameters that should be used in assessing prognosis for a patient with AML and looks ahead to an expanding repertoire of potential variables that are currently under evaluation.

  19. DARHT Radiographic Grid Scale Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Warthen, Barry J.

    2015-02-13

    Recently it became apparent that the radiographic grid which has been used to calibrate the dimensional scale of DARHT radiographs was not centered at the location where the objects have been centered. This offset produced an error of 0.188% in the dimensional scaling of the radiographic images processed using the assumption that the grid and objects had the same center. This paper will show the derivation of the scaling correction, explain how new radiographs are being processed to account for the difference in location, and provide the details of how to correct radiographic image processed with the erroneous scale factor.

  20. IKZF1 deletion is an independent prognostic marker in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and distinguishes patients benefiting from pulses during maintenance therapy: results of the EORTC Children's Leukemia Group study 58951.

    PubMed

    Clappier, E; Grardel, N; Bakkus, M; Rapion, J; De Moerloose, B; Kastner, P; Caye, A; Vivent, J; Costa, V; Ferster, A; Lutz, P; Mazingue, F; Millot, F; Plantaz, D; Plat, G; Plouvier, E; Poirée, M; Sirvent, N; Uyttebroeck, A; Yakouben, K; Girard, S; Dastugue, N; Suciu, S; Benoit, Y; Bertrand, Y; Cavé, H

    2015-11-01

    The added value of IKZF1 gene deletion (IKZF1(del)) as a stratifying criterion in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is still debated. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the impact of IKZF1(del) in a large cohort of children (n=1223) with BCR-ABL1-negative BCP-ALL treated in the EORTC-CLG trial 58951. Patients with IKZF1(del) had a lower 8-year event-free survival (EFS, 67.7% versus 86.5%; hazard ratio (HR)=2.41; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.75-3.32; P<0.001). Importantly, despite association with high-risk features such as high minimal residual disease, IKZF1(del) remained significantly predictive in multivariate analyses. Analysis by genetic subtype showed that IKZF1(del) increased risk only in the high hyperdiploid ALLs (HR=2.57; 95% CI=1.19-5.55; P=0.013) and in 'B-other' ALLs, that is, lacking classifying genetic lesions (HR=2.22; 95% CI=1.45-3.39; P<0.001), the latter having then a dramatically low 8-year EFS (56.4; 95% CI=44.6-66.7). Among IKZF1(del)-positive patients randomized for vincristine-steroid pulses during maintenance, those receiving pulses had a significantly higher 8-year EFS (93.3; 95% CI=61.3-99.0 versus 42.1; 95% CI=20.4-62.5). Thus, IKZF1(del) retains independent prognostic significance in the context of current risk-adapted protocols, and is associated with a dismal outcome in 'B-other' ALL. Addition of vincristine-steroid pulses during maintenance may specifically benefit to IKZF1(del) patients in preventing relapses.

  1. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. Rohrer; Lacey Stewart; M. D. Wilke; N. S. King; S. A Baker; Wilfred Lewis

    1999-08-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics.

  2. Radiographic solution contamination.

    PubMed

    Hardman, P K; Tilmon, M F; Taylor, T S

    1987-06-01

    Contamination of processor solutions adversely affects the image quality of radiographic films. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of developer or fixer contaminant that was necessary to produce a significant densitometric change in the base plus fog, speed, or contrast optical density readings for panoramic film. Significant differences in base plus fog (after 16 mL of fixer contaminant was added to developer), speed index (after 4 mL), and contrast index (after 8 mL) were observed in comparison with control values. PMID:3473399

  3. A Distributed Approach to System-Level Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics, which deals with predicting remaining useful life of components, subsystems, and systems, is a key technology for systems health management that leads to improved safety and reliability with reduced costs. The prognostics problem is often approached from a component-centric view. However, in most cases, it is not specifically component lifetimes that are important, but, rather, the lifetimes of the systems in which these components reside. The system-level prognostics problem can be quite difficult due to the increased scale and scope of the prognostics problem and the relative Jack of scalability and efficiency of typical prognostics approaches. In order to address these is ues, we develop a distributed solution to the system-level prognostics problem, based on the concept of structural model decomposition. The system model is decomposed into independent submodels. Independent local prognostics subproblems are then formed based on these local submodels, resul ting in a scalable, efficient, and flexible distributed approach to the system-level prognostics problem. We provide a formulation of the system-level prognostics problem and demonstrate the approach on a four-wheeled rover simulation testbed. The results show that the system-level prognostics problem can be accurately and efficiently solved in a distributed fashion.

  4. Computer enhancement of radiographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekaney, A.; Keane, J.; Desautels, J.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of three relevant noise processes and the image degradation associated with Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) X-ray/scanning system was conducted for application to computer enhancement of radiographs using MSFC's digital filtering techniques. Graininess of type M, R single coat and R double coat X-ray films was quantified as a function of density level using root-mean-square (RMS) granularity. Quantum mottle (including film grain) was quantified as a function of the above film types, exposure level, specimen material and thickness, and film density using RMS granularity and power spectral density (PSD). For various neutral-density levels the scanning device used in digital conversion of radiographs was examined for noise characteristics which were quantified by RMS granularity and PSD. Image degradation of the entire pre-enhancement system (MG-150 X-ray device; film; and optronics scanner) was measured using edge targets to generate modulation transfer functions (MTF). The four parameters were examined as a function of scanning aperture sizes of approximately 12.5 25 and 50 microns.

  5. Contamination of dental radiographic solutions.

    PubMed

    Tamburus, J R; Pardini, L C; Watanabe, P C

    1995-01-01

    Thirteen groups of periapical radiographic films were evaluated to determine and compare within and between groups the effects of contamination of the fixer solution with developing solution during radiographic processing. An aluminum penetrometer was used as the radiographic object to produce different optical densities. The images were compared using radiographic density and contrast as parameters. There were significant differences between the control groups and the groups processed with a contaminated fixer solution. No statistically significant differences were observed in the intragroup comparisons. PMID:8688649

  6. The reliability of tablet computers in depicting maxillofacial radiographic landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Mahdian, Mina; Sheth, Sonam; Chandhoke, Taranpreet K; Gopalakrishna, Aadarsh; Potluri, Anitha; Yadav, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the reliability of the identification of anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs on a standard medical grade picture archiving communication system (PACS) monitor and a tablet computer (iPad 5). Materials and Methods A total of 1000 radiographs, including 500 panoramic and 500 lateral cephalometric radiographs, were retrieved from the de-identified dataset of the archive of the Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of the University Of Connecticut School Of Dental Medicine. Major radiographic anatomical landmarks were independently reviewed by two examiners on both displays. The examiners initially reviewed ten panoramic and ten lateral cephalometric radiographs using each imaging system, in order to verify interoperator agreement in landmark identification. The images were scored on a four-point scale reflecting the diagnostic image quality and exposure level of the images. Results Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two displays regarding the visibility and clarity of the landmarks in either the panoramic or cephalometric radiographs. Conclusion Tablet computers can reliably show anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. PMID:26389060

  7. Prognostics for Microgrid Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics is the science of predicting future performance and potential failures based on targeted condition monitoring. Moving away from the traditional reliability centric view, prognostics aims at detecting and quantifying the time to impending failures. This advance warning provides the opportunity to take actions that can preserve uptime, reduce cost of damage, or extend the life of the component. The talk will focus on the concepts and basics of prognostics from the viewpoint of condition-based systems health management. Differences with other techniques used in systems health management and philosophies of prognostics used in other domains will be shown. Examples relevant to micro grid systems and subsystems will be used to illustrate various types of prediction scenarios and the resources it take to set up a desired prognostic system. Specifically, the implementation results for power storage and power semiconductor components will demonstrate specific solution approaches of prognostics. The role of constituent elements of prognostics, such as model, prediction algorithms, failure threshold, run-to-failure data, requirements and specifications, and post-prognostic reasoning will be explained. A discussion on performance evaluation and performance metrics will conclude the technical discussion followed by general comments on open research problems and challenges in prognostics.

  8. Industrial application of radiographic paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domanus, J. C.; Ruault, P. A.

    1980-03-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparison made among high speed Kodak Industrex D X-ray film, Industrex Instant 600 and 620, and Agfa Gevaert Structuric IC radiograph papers. It is shown that the quality of the radiographic image was tested by the use of standard and special IQIs as well as Al step wedges and artificial and natural defects. The speeds, contrasts, and exposure latitudes were calculated from the characteristic curves. An analysis is made of the quality of information available in the radiograph and the merits of the constant exposure technique are stressed. Finally, conclusions are drawn about information quality, sensitometric properties, equipment, and areas of application for radiographic paper.

  9. Radiographic findings in liveborn triploidy.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K G; Houston, C S; Newman, D E; Wood, B J

    1989-01-01

    The detailed radiographic features of triploidy, a fatal congenital disorder with 69 chromosomes, have not previously been reported. Radiographs of ten liveborn infants with chromosomally confirmed triploidy showed six findings highly suggestive of this diagnosis: harlequin orbits, small anterior fontanelle, gracile ribs, diaphyseal overtubulation of long bones, upswept clavicles and antimongoloid pelvis. Sixteen other less specific findings showed many similarities to those found in trisomy 18.

  10. Prognostic Value of the Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score in Patients Undergoing Radical Surgery for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiao-Chun; Yi, Yong; Fu, Yi-Peng; He, Hong-Wei; Cai, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Jia-Xing; Zhou, Jian; Cheng, Yun-Feng; Jin, Jian-Jun; Fan, Jia; Qiu, Shuang-Jian

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing and consistent evidence concerning the association of systemic inflammation and poor outcome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to identify a superior inflammation-based prognostic scoring system for patients with HCC undergoing hepatectomy.We analyzed two independent cohorts of a total of 723 patients with HCC who underwent radical surgery between 2010 and 2012. The prognostic value of the inflammation scores, including the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), modified GPS (mGPS), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet lymphocyte ratio, prognostic index, and prognostic nutritional index, as well as the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program staging systems was analyzed in a test cohort of 367 patients and validated in a validation cohort of 356 patients.A high score with the mGPS was associated with large tumor size, vascular invasion, and advanced clinical stage. Multivariate analysis showed that the mGPS was independently associated with overall survival and disease-free survival, and had a higher area under the curve value in comparison with other inflammation-based scores.The results of this study demonstrated that the mGPS is an independent marker of poor prognosis in patients with resectable HCC and is superior to other inflammation-based scores. PMID:26356714

  11. Vascular grading of angiogenesis: prognostic significance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, F B; Bak, M; Vach, W; Rose, C

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11 years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers was moderately reproduced (κ = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all patients (P< 0.0001), node-negative patients (P< 0.0001) and node-positive patients (P< 0.0001). Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that vascular grading contributed with independent prognostic value in all patients (P< 0.0001). A prognostic index including the vascular grade had clinical impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10646886

  12. Radiographic testing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.

    1982-04-21

    Radiographic testing is a nondestructive inspection technique which uses penetrating radiation. The Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Section at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a broad spectrum of equipment and techniques for radiographic testing. These resources include low-energy vacuum systems, low- and mid-energy cabinet and cell radiographic systems, high-energy linear accelerators, portable x-ray machines and radioisotopes for radiographic inspections. For diagnostic testing the NDE Section also has real-time and flash radiographic equipment.

  13. Prognostic factors in patients with jaw sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Rafael Morales; Contreras, Sonia Julia Sacsaquispe; Canales, Janet Ofelia Guevara

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors related to the survival of patients with sarcomas of the jaw treated in the Dr. Eduardo Caceres Graziani National Institute for Neoplastic Diseases, Lima, Peru. Age, gender, delay in consultation, diagnostic delay, therapeutic delay, tumor size, tumor location, facial asymmetry, pain, treatment type, and histopathological diagnosis were all evaluated as possible prognostic factors that would influence survival in those with jaw sarcomas. In the analysis, the following was used: mortality tables, Kaplan-Meier's product-limit method, log-rank, and Breslow and Tarone-Ware tests; for the prognostic factors, Cox's Regression Model was used. The overall survival rate, with the patient being free from disease at two years, was 55%, and that at five years was 45%. In the independent analysis of the prognostic factors, four variables were statistically significant in influencing survival: gender (p = 0.043), histopathologic diagnosis (p = 0.019), tumor location (p = 0.019), and treatment type (p = 0.030). According to Cox's Regression Model for the multivariate analysis, statistically significant prognostic factors were: gender (p = 0.086), tumor location (p = 0.020), and treatment type (p = 0.092). Thus, the variables of gender, tumor location, and treatment type were determined to be predictive factors for prognosis of survival.

  14. Tissue prognostic biomarkers in primary cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Mandalà, Mario; Massi, Daniela

    2014-03-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) causes the greatest number of skin cancer-related deaths worldwide. Predicting CM prognosis is important to determine the need for further investigation, counseling of patients, to guide appropriate management (particularly the need for postoperative adjuvant therapy), and for assignment of risk status in groups of patients entering clinical trials. Since recurrence rate is largely independent from stages defined by morphological and morphometric criteria, there is a strong need for identification of additional robust prognostic factors to support decision-making processes. Most data on prognostic biomarkers in melanoma have been evaluated in tumor tissue samples by conventional morphology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) as well as DNA and RNA analyses. In the present review, we critically summarize main high-quality studies investigating IHC-based protein biomarkers of melanoma outcome according to Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK)-derived criteria. Pathways have been classified and conveyed in the "biologic road" previously described by Hanahan and Weinberg. Data derived from genomic and transcriptomic technologies have been critically reviewed to better understand if any of investigated proteins or gene signatures should be incorporated into clinical practice or still remain a field of melanoma research. Despite a wide body of research, no molecular prognostic biomarker has yet been translated into clinical practice. Conventional tissue biomarkers, such as Breslow thickness, ulceration, mitotic rate and lymph node positivity, remain the backbone prognostic indicators in melanoma.

  15. Computer Simulation Of Radiographic Screen-Film Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metter, Richard V.; Dillon, Peter L.; Huff, Kenneth E.; Rabbani, Majid

    1986-06-01

    A method is described for computer simulation of radiographic screen-film images. This method is based on a previously published model of the screen-film imaging process.l The x-ray transmittance of a test object is sampled at a pitch of 50 μm by scanning a high-resolution, low-noise direct-exposure radiograph. This transmittance is then used, along with the x-ray exposure incident upon the object, to determine the expected number of quanta per pixel incident upon the screen. The random nature of x-ray arrival and absorption, x-ray quantum to light photon conversion, and photon absorption by the film is simulated by appropriate random number generation. Standard FFT techniques are used for computing the effects of scattering. Finally, the computed film density for each pixel is produced on a high-resolution, low-noise output film by a scanning printer. The simulation allows independent specification of x-ray exposure, x-ray quantum absorption, light conversion statistics, light scattering, and film characteristics (sensitometry and gran-ularity). Each of these parameters is independently measured for radiographic systems of interest. The simulator is tested by comparing actual radiographic images with simulated images resulting from the independently measured parameters. Images are also shown illustrating the effects of changes in these parameters on image quality. Finally, comparison is made with a "perfect" imaging system where information content is only limited by the finite number of x-rays.

  16. Radiographic assessment of splinting bandages.

    PubMed

    Wytch, R; Ashcroft, G P; McKenzie, G; Wardlaw, D; Ledingham, W M

    1991-01-01

    The physical attenuation of X-rays by a variety of splinting bandages was measured and compared with the subjective opinion of nine radiologists. The radiolucency of the bandages and their interference with the interpretation of bony detail on radiographs (using a radiographic knee phantom) was assessed. Plaster-of-Paris (POP) bandages produced the greatest attenuation of X-rays and the greatest interference with interpretation of bony detail. All the polyurethane resin impregnated fabric bandages produced less attenuation than POP, but variations occurred due to the fabric type and knit of the bandage. The lowest attenuation occurred in those bandages using cotton, polyester or polypropylene fabric, and in all but one instance these caused least interference in radiographic interpretation. The exception was the polyester bandage, where the coarse knit of the fabric produced a large difference in X-ray beam absorption between the air spaces and the bandage. The distracting mesh pattern on the radiograph interfered with radiographic visualization. The glass fibre bandages caused intermediate attenuation, being better than POP but not as radiolucent as the non-glass fabrics. PMID:2030030

  17. Palliative medicine review: prognostication.

    PubMed

    Glare, Paul A; Sinclair, Christian T

    2008-01-01

    Prognostication, along with diagnosis and treatment, is a traditional core clinical skill of the physician. Many patients and families receiving palliative care want information about life expectancy to help plan realistically for their futures. Although underappreciated, prognosis is, or at least should be, part of every clinical decision. Despite this crucial role, expertise in the art and science of prognostication diminished during the twentieth century, due largely to the ascendancy of accurate diagnostic tests and effective therapies. Consequently, "Doctor, how long do I have?" is a question most physicians find unprepared to answer effectively. As we focus on palliative care in the twenty-first century, prognostication will need to be restored as a core clinical proficiency. The discipline of palliative medicine can provide leadership in this direction. This paper begins by discussing a framework for understanding prognosis and how its different domains might be applied to all patients with life limiting illness, although the main focus of the paper is predicting survival in patients with cancer. Examples of prognostic tools are provided, although the subjective assessment of prognosis remains important in the terminally ill. Other issues addressed include: the importance of prognostication in terms of clinical decision-making, discharge planning, and care planning; the impact of prognosis on hospice referrals and patient/family satisfaction; and physicians' willingness to prognosticate. PMID:18370898

  18. Motion blur detection in radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hui; Sehnert, William J.; Ellinwood, Jacquelyn S.; Foos, David; Reiner, Bruce; Siegel, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    Image blur introduced by patient motion is one of the most frequently cited reasons for image rejection in radiographic diagnostic imaging. The goal of the present work is to provide an automated method for the detection of anatomical motion blur in digital radiographic images to help improve image quality and facilitate workflow in the radiology department. To achieve this goal, the method first reorients the image to a predetermined hanging protocol. Then it locates the primary anatomy in the radiograph and extracts the most indicative region for motion blur, i.e., the region of interest (ROI). The third step computes a set of motion-sensitive features from the extracted ROI. Finally, the extracted features are evaluated by using a classifier that has been trained to detect motion blur. Preliminary experiments show promising results with 86% detection sensitivity, 72% specificity, and an overall accuracy of 76%.

  19. Radiographic Inspection of Fueled Clads

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Roney; Karen M. Wendt

    2005-04-01

    Five general purpose heat source (GPHS) fueled clads were radiographically inspected at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The girth weld region of each clad had previously passed visual examination, ring gauge test, and leak test but showed “positive” indications on the ultrasonic (UT) test. Positive ultrasonic indications are allowable under certain weld conditions; radiographic inspection provides a secondary nonintrusive means of clad inspection and may confirm allowable anomalies from the UT inspection. All the positive UT indications were found to exhibit allowable weld shield fusion or mismatch conditions. No indication of void defects was found. One additional clad (FCO371) was deemed unacceptable for radiographic inspection due to an unknown black substance that obscured the angular origin on the weld so that the angular offset to the UT indication could not be found.

  20. Assessment of primary hip osteoarthritis: comparison of radiographic methods using colon radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Ingvarsson, T.; Hagglund, G.; Lindberg, H.; Lohmander, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To compare the reliability of quantitative measurement of minimum hip joint space with a qualitative global assessment of radiological features for estimating the prevalence of primary osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip in colon radiographs.
METHODS—All colon radiographs from patients aged 35 or older, taken at three different radiographic departments in Iceland during the years 1990-96, were examined. A total of 3002 hips in 638 men and 863 women were analysed. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was assessed by measuring 147 randomly selected radiographs (294 hips) twice by the same observer, and 87 and 98 randomly selected radiographs (174 and 196 hips) by two additional independent observers. Minimum hip joint space was measured with a millimetre ruler, and global assessment of radiological features by a published atlas.
RESULTS—With a minimum joint space of 2.5 mm or less as definition for OA, 212 hips were defined as having OA. When the global Kellgren and Lawrence assessment with grade 2 (definite narrowing in the presence of definite osteophytes) or higher as definition for OA was used, 202 hips showed OA. However, only 166 hips were diagnosed as OA with both systems. With 2.0 or 3.0 mm minimum joint space as cut off point, the difference between the two methods increased. Both intrarater and interrater reliability was significantly higher with joint space measurement than with global assessment.
CONCLUSIONS—Overall prevalence of radiological OA was similar with the two methods. However, the quantitative measurement of minimum hip joint space had a better within-observer and between-observer reliability than qualitative global assessment of radiographic features of hip OA. It is thus suggested that minimum joint space measurement is a preferable method in epidemiological studies of radiological hip OA.

 PMID:10913065

  1. High TUBB3 expression, an independent prognostic marker in patients with early non-small cell lung cancer treated by preoperative chemotherapy, is regulated by K-Ras signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Levallet, Guénaëlle; Bergot, Emmanuel; Antoine, Martine; Creveuil, Christian; Santos, Adriana O; Beau-Faller, Michelle; de Fraipont, Florence; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Levallet, Jérôme; Morin, Franck; Westeel, Virginie; Wislez, Marie; Quoix, Elisabeth; Debieuvre, Didier; Dubois, Fatéméh; Rouquette, Isabelle; Pujol, Jean-Louis; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Camonis, Jacques; Zalcman, Gérard

    2012-05-01

    We assessed the prognostic and predictive value of β-tubulin III (TUBB3) expression, as determined by immunohistochemistry, in 412 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens from early-stage patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (paclitaxel- or gemcitabine-based) in a phase III trial (IFCT-0002). We also correlated TUBB3 expression with K-Ras and EGF receptor (EGFR) mutations in a subset of 208 cryopreserved specimens. High TUBB3 protein expression was associated with nonsquamous cell carcinomas (P < 0.001) and K-Ras mutation (P < 0.001). The 127 (30.8%) TUBB3-negative patients derived more than 1 year of overall survival advantage, with more than 84 months median overall survival versus 71.7 months for TUBB3-positive patients [HR, 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.25)]. This prognostic value was confirmed in multivariate analysis (adjusted HR for death, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.04-2.21; P = 0.031) with a bootstrapping validation procedure. TUBB3 expression was associated with nonresponse to chemotherapy (adjusted HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.01-1.70; P = 0.044) but had no predictive value (taxane vs. gemcitabine). Taking account of these clinical findings, we further investigated TUBB3 expression in isogenic human bronchial cell lines only differing by K-Ras gene status and assessed the effect of K-Ras short interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated depletion, cell hypoxia, or pharmacologic inhibitors of K-Ras downstream effectors, on TUBB3 protein cell content. siRNA K-Ras knockdown, inhibition of RAF/MEK (MAP-ERK kinase) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling, and hypoxia were shown to downregulate TUBB3 expression in bronchial cells. This study is the first one to identify K-Ras mutations as determinant of TUBB3 expression, a chemoresistance marker. Our in vitro data deserve studies combining standard chemotherapy with anti-MEK or anti-PI3K drugs in patients with TUBB3-overexpressing tumors.

  2. Prognostics of Power MOSFET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose Ramon; Saxena, Abhinav; Vashchenko, Vladislay; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how to apply prognostics to power MOSFETs (metal oxide field effect transistor). The methodology uses thermal cycling to age devices and Gaussian process regression to perform prognostics. The approach is validated with experiments on 100V power MOSFETs. The failure mechanism for the stress conditions is determined to be die-attachment degradation. Change in ON-state resistance is used as a precursor of failure due to its dependence on junction temperature. The experimental data is augmented with a finite element analysis simulation that is based on a two-transistor model. The simulation assists in the interpretation of the degradation phenomena and SOA (safe operation area) change.

  3. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or...

  8. Method for converting radiographic images

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchino, H.; Shimada, F.; Takeuchi, H.; Teshima, M.

    1985-03-26

    In a radiographic image conversion method in which a stimulating light is irradiated to a panel storing a radiation energy in the form of an image to reproduce and then to read out the image, the response speed of a stimulation and the reading speed of a radiographic image area increased by making use of (1) a phosphate type phosphor having the composition, xM/sub 3/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/.NX/sub 2/:yA or M/sub 3/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/:yA, which is a highly sensitive phosphor capable of readily releasing the stored energy when a stimulating light is irradiated to the phosphor, and (2) the stimulating light having the range of the wavelengths from a visible ray of not shorter that 500 nm to an infrared ray.

  9. HADES, A Radiographic Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M.B.; Slone, D.M.; Schach von Wittenau, A.E.

    2000-08-18

    We describe features of the HADES radiographic simulation code. We begin with a discussion of why it is useful to simulate transmission radiography. The capabilities of HADES are described, followed by an application of HADES to a dynamic experiment recently performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. We describe quantitative comparisons between experimental data and HADES simulations using a copper step wedge. We conclude with a short discussion of future work planned for HADES.

  10. Prognostic impact of stress testing in coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Severi, S.; Michelassi, C. )

    1991-05-01

    Observational data prospectively collected permit the examination of a complex set of decisions, including the decision not to perform any stress testing. Patients with or without previous myocardial infarction admitted for coronary evaluation and not submitted to any stress testing because of clinical reasons are at a higher risk for subsequent death. For prognostication, no test has been better validated than exercise electrocardiography: it can identify patients at low and high risk for future cardiac events among those without symptoms, with typical chest pain, and with previous myocardial infarction. In patients with triple-vessel disease, the results of exercise also allow those at low and high risk to be recognized. Both exercise radionuclide angiography and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy (the latter in larger patient populations) have also demonstrated significant prognostic value on patients with or without previous myocardial infarction. Neither one has shown superiority to the other in prognostication. So far, they have been considered the only viable alternatives to exercise electrocardiography stress testing for diagnosis and prognostication. However, their costs limit their extensive application. Preliminary data suggest that intravenous dipyridamole echocardiography can be used for both diagnosis and prognostication of coronary artery disease; moreover, the prognostic information derived from dipyridamole echocardiography testing seems independent of and additive to that provided by exercise electrocardiography. Further prospective studies on larger patient populations are needed to better define the prognostic value of dipyridamole echocardiography testing.47 references.

  11. Baseline Cardiopulmonary Function as an Independent Prognostic Factor for Survival of Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Single-Center Analysis of 161 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Semrau, Sabine; Klautke, Gunther; Fietkau, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the effects of cardiopulmonary function on the prognosis of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of the effects of tumor- and patient-related factors and parameters of cardiopulmonary function and heart morphology on the feasibility, toxicity, and prognosis was performed. Results: Cardiopulmonary function had no effect on the toxicity or feasibility of treatment; effects on survival were observed in the univariate analysis. Median survival varied as follows: cardiac function: 13.0 {+-} 1.6 months for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) > 50% vs. 10.0 {+-} 1.9 months for LVEF {<=} 50% (p = 0.003); pulmonary function: 16.0 {+-} 0.6 months for no lung function deficits (vital capacity [VC]{>=} 60%, forced expiratory volume in 1 s {>=} 80%, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) {>=}60%) vs. 14.0 {+-} 1.5 months for one or two function deficits vs. 8.0 {+-} 1.5 months for three lung function deficits (p = 0.001); T stage: 19.0 {+-} 3.1 months for rcT0/cT1/cT2 vs. 12.0 {+-} 0.8 months for cT3/cT4 (p = 0.039); and age: 11.0 {+-} 1.5 months for <60 years vs. 18.0 {+-} 2.5 months for 60-69 years vs. 12.0 {+-} 1.2 months for {>=}70 years (p = 0.008). Prognostic factors identified in the multivariate analysis were LVEF {<=}50% (p = 0.043; hazard ratio [HR], 1.74), reduced pulmonary function (p = 0.001; HR, 1.71 or 5.05) and T stage (p = 0.026; HR: 1.71). Conclusions: In addition to T-stage, cardiac and pulmonary function variables affected the survival of non-small-cell lung cancer patients after chemoradiotherapy.

  12. An international data set for CMML validates prognostic scoring systems and demonstrates a need for novel prognostication strategies.

    PubMed

    Padron, E; Garcia-Manero, G; Patnaik, M M; Itzykson, R; Lasho, T; Nazha, A; Rampal, R K; Sanchez, M E; Jabbour, E; Al Ali, N H; Thompson, Z; Colla, S; Fenaux, P; Kantarjian, H M; Killick, S; Sekeres, M A; List, A F; Onida, F; Komrokji, R S; Tefferi, A; Solary, E

    2015-01-01

    Since its reclassification as a distinct disease entity, clinical research efforts have attempted to establish baseline characteristics and prognostic scoring systems for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Although existing data for baseline characteristics and CMML prognostication have been robustly developed and externally validated, these results have been limited by the small size of single-institution cohorts. We developed an international CMML data set that included 1832 cases across eight centers to establish the frequency of key clinical characteristics. Of note, we found that the majority of CMML patients were classified as World Health Organization CMML-1 and that a 7.5% bone marrow blast cut-point may discriminate prognosis with higher resolution in comparison with the existing 10%. We additionally interrogated existing CMML prognostic models and found that they are all valid and have comparable performance but are vulnerable to upstaging. Using random forest survival analysis for variable discovery, we demonstrated that the prognostic power of clinical variables alone is limited. Last, we confirmed the independent prognostic relevance of ASXL1 gene mutations and identified the novel adverse prognostic impact imparted by CBL mutations. Our data suggest that combinations of clinical and molecular information may be required to improve the accuracy of current CMML prognostication. PMID:26230957

  13. Prognostic significance of peripheral monocyte count in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL. Methods Retrospective data from 163 patients newly diagnosed with ENKL were analyzed. The absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis was analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. Independent prognostic factors of survival were determined by Cox regression analysis. Results The AMC at diagnosis were related to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ENKL. Multivariate analysis identified AMC as independent prognostic factors of survival, independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Korean prognostic index (KPI). The prognostic index incorporating AMC and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), another surrogate factor of immune status, could be used to stratify all 163 patients with ENKL into different prognostic groups. For patients who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (102 cases), the three AMC/ALC index categories identified patients with significantly different survivals. When superimposed on IPI or KPI categories, the AMC/ALC index was better able to identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI or KPI category. Conclusion The baseline peripheral monocyte count is shown to be an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKL patients. The prognostic index related to tumor microenvironment might be helpful to identify high-risk patients with ENKL. PMID:23638998

  14. Radiographic abnormalities and mortality in subjects with exposure to crocidolite.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, N H; Musk, A W; Cookson, W O; Glancy, J J; Hobbs, M S

    1993-10-01

    Plain chest radiographs from a one in six random sample of the workforce of the asbestos industry at Wittenoom, Western Australia between 1943 and 1966 have been classified for degree of profusion and pleural thickening by two independent observers according to the 1980 UICC-ILO Classification of Radiographs for the pneumoconioses to clarify the effect of degree of radiological abnormality on survival. A total of 1106 subjects were selected. Each subject's age, cumulative exposure to crocidolite, and time since first exposure were determined from employment records, the results of a survey of airborne concentrations of fibres > 5 mu in length conducted in 1966, and an exposure rating by an industrial hygienist and an ex-manager of the mine and mill at Wittenoom. By the end of 1986 193 subjects had died. Conditional logistic regression was used to model the relative risk of death in five separate case-control analyses in which the outcomes were deaths from: (1) all causes, (2) malignant mesothelioma, (3) lung cancer, (4) asbestosis, and (5) other causes excluding cancer and asbestosis. Up to 20 controls per case were randomly chosen from all men of the same age who were not known to have died before the date of death of the index case. After adjustment for exposure and time since first exposure, there were significant and independent effects of radiographic profusion and pleural thickening on all cause mortality. The effect of profusion was largely a result of the effect on mortality from malignant mesothelioma and asbestosis but not lung cancer. The effect of pleural thickening was greatest on mortality from other causes, mainly ischaemic heart disease. This study has shown that degree of radiographic abnormality has an independent effect on mortality from malignant mesothelioma, asbestosis, and all causes even after allowing for the effects of age, degree of exposure, and time since first exposure.

  15. Radiographic survey of perlite workers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, W C

    1975-05-01

    Chest roentgenograms of 240 perlite workers employed for 1 to 23 years in the industry, showed no evidence of pneumoconiosis associated with perlite exposures. One individual, found to have simple pneumoconiosis, and one found to have complicated pneumoconiosis, had formerly been diatomaceous earth workers. Since only 28 of the men had been in the industry over 15 years and only seven for 20 years or more, continued surveillance is essential to make sure that there are no effects with more prolonged exposures. Studies of pulmonary function of the individuals who have had relatively long exposures are needed to supplement radiographic evidence.

  16. Early radiographic changes in radiation bone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, M.; Tanimoto, K.; Wada, T.

    1986-06-01

    A chronologic series of periapical radiographs was evaluated for the purpose of detecting damage to bone and tooth-supporting tissues in a patient receiving radiation therapy for a basal cell carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva. Widening of the periodontal space was one of the early radiographic changes observed. It is suggested, from the sequence of radiographic changes, that radiation-induced changed in the circulatory system of the bone might be primarily responsible for the resulting changes.

  17. Observer POD for radiographic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kanzler, Daniel E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de Ewert, Uwe E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de Müller, Christina E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de; Pitkänen, Jorma

    2015-03-31

    The radiographic testing (RT) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method capable of finding volumetric and open planar defects depending on their orientation. The radiographic contrast is higher for larger penetrated length of the defect in a component. Even though, the detectability of defects does not only depend on the contrast, but also on the noise, the defect area and the geometry of the defect. The currently applied Probability of Detection (POD) approach uses a detection threshold that is only based on a constant noise level or on a constant contrast threshold. This does not reflect accurately the results of evaluations by human observers. A new approach is introduced, using the widely applied POD evaluation and additionally a detection threshold depending on the lateral area and shape of the indication. This work shows the process of calculating the POD curves with simulated data by the modeling software aRTist and with artificial reference data of different defect types, such as ASTM E 476 EPS plates, flat bottom holes and notches. Additional experiments with different operators confirm that the depth of a defect, the lateral area and shape of its indication contribute with different weight to the detectability of the defect if evaluated by human operators on monitors.

  18. Digital processing of radiographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Some techniques are presented and the software documentation for the digital enhancement of radiographs. Both image handling and image processing operations are considered. The image handling operations dealt with are: (1) conversion of format of data from packed to unpacked and vice versa; (2) automatic extraction of image data arrays; (3) transposition and 90 deg rotations of large data arrays; (4) translation of data arrays for registration; and (5) reduction of the dimensions of data arrays by integral factors. Both the frequency and the spatial domain approaches are presented for the design and implementation of the image processing operation. It is shown that spatial domain recursive implementation of filters is much faster than nonrecursive implementations using fast fourier transforms (FFT) for the cases of interest in this work. The recursive implementation of a class of matched filters for enhancing image signal to noise ratio is described. Test patterns are used to illustrate the filtering operations. The application of the techniques to radiographic images of metallic structures is demonstrated through several examples.

  19. DIGITAL SPALL RADIOGRAPH ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    CURTIS L. HARRIS - LATA

    1990-01-01

    This report describes progress on work to develop a cost effective, rapid response system for measuring Technology Assessment National Laboratory. momentum and kinetic energy of span for the Advanced Center (ATAC) Armor/Anti-Armor (As) program at Los Alamos The system will exploit data contained in two sets of simultaneous co-planar flash radiographs taken along the center line of anticipated span motion. Data contained in each set (which is proportional to the mass and z-number of the span material intersected by the exposing x-ray at each point) is digitized and used to construct a three dimensional model (called the reconstructed span image) that approximates the original span cloud. From the model the mass of span fragments is computed. The two sets of radiographs, separated in time, represent the span configuration at two instants of time. Span fragments from the first instant are matched with those from the second instant to determine velocity. Evaluation of the fidelity of candidate reconstruction algorithms is the highest priority task in. this development program for the obvious reason that the efficacy of the projected span analysis system depends upon the fidelity of the reconstruction techniques.

  20. ACCURACY OF RADIOGRAPHIC DETECTION OF THE CRANIAL MARGIN OF THE DORSAL LAMINA OF THE CANINE SACRUM.

    PubMed

    Blume, Lauren M; Worth, Andrew J; Cohen, Eli B; Bridges, Janis P; Hartman, Angela C

    2015-01-01

    An elongated sacral lamina has been described as one of the contributing factors for dogs with cauda equina syndrome due to degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS); however, published evidence is lacking on the accuracy of radiographic screening for the presence of this lesion. Objectives of this prospective, cross-sectional cadaver study were to describe the accuracy and repeatability of detection of the cranial sacral lamina margin on plain lateral radiographs of the lumbosacral junction in dogs. Twenty-five medium and large breed canine cadavers were radiographed before and after placement of a radiopaque hook in the cranial margin of the sacral lamina. Three independent evaluators placed digital markers at the perceived margin on preinterventional radiographs. The distance from perceived location to the true location on postinterventional radiographs was recorded for each dog and observer. A discordance threshold (distance between perceived and actual margin) of 1.5 mm was subjectively defined as clinically relevant. The three evaluators demonstrated good repeatability, although the accuracy for margin detection was only fair (mean discordance 1.7 mm). Evaluators demonstrated greater accuracy in identifying the landmark in juveniles (1.4 mm) vs. adults (1.8 mm; P < 0.01). Results of this study indicated that observer repeatability is good and accuracy is fair for correctly identifying the radiographic cranial margin of the sacral lamina in dogs. This should be taken into consideration when interpreting elongation of the sacral lamina in radiographs of dogs with suspected DLSS, especially adults. PMID:26304022

  1. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34... radiographers' assistants. Whenever a radiographer's assistant uses radiographic exposure devices, associated... personal supervision of a radiographer. The personal supervision must include: (a) The...

  2. Prognostic significance of QRS duration and morphology.

    PubMed

    Brenyo, Andrew; Zaręba, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    QRS duration and morphology, evaluated via a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), represent an opportunity to derive useful prognostic information regarding the risk of subsequent cardiac events or therapeutic outcomes. Prolonged QRS duration, and the presence of intraventricular conduction abnormalities, usually indicate the presence of changes in the myocardium due to underlying heart disease. Prolonged QRS duration is often associated with depressed ejection fraction or enlarged left ventricular volumes, but several studies have demonstrated that this simple ECG measure provides independent prognostic value, after adjusting for relevant clinical covariates. Post-infarction patients with prolonged QRS duration have a significantly increased risk of mortality, although data associating QRS prolongation specifically with sudden death is less supportive. In non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, there is no evidence that QRS duration has prognostic significance in predicting mortality or sudden death. Prolonged QRS duration, and especially presence of left bundle branch block, seems to predict a benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy in both ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients. Therefore, QRS duration and morphology should not only be considered a predictor of death or sudden death in patients after myocardial infarction, and in those suspected of coronary artery disease, but also as a predictor of benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure, whether of an ischemic or non-ischemic origin. PMID:21305480

  3. Malnutrition in lung cancer: incidence, prognostic implications, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kisner, D L

    1982-01-01

    Malnutrition and weight loss are common in patients with lung cancer. Weight loss is an independent prognostic factor for survival in lung cancer treatment studies. Metabolic disturbances probably play a dominant role in weight loss in these patients rather than reduced food intake. The identification of the pertinent etiologic metabolic abnormalities and development of specific therapeutic intervention should be goals for future research.

  4. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    SciTech Connect

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  5. Doping explosive materials for neutron radiographic enhancement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of studies relating to the selection of doping materials of high neutron absorption usable for enhancing the neutron radiographic imaging of explosive mixtures, without interfering with the proper chemical reaction of the explosives. The results of the studies show that gadolinium oxide is an excellent material for doping explosive mixtures to enhance the neutron radiographic image.

  6. 10 CFR 34.23 - Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... surveillance of a radiographer or a radiographer's assistant except at permanent radiographic installations as... containing sealed sources except when under the direct surveillance of a radiographer or a...

  7. Prognostic laboratory markers of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, E; Eberhardt, K; Bendtzen, K; Heinegard, D; Saxne, T

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether determination of a set of laboratory markers at baseline provides prognostic information on joint damage in hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: 183 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis included in a prospective study were examined. Radiographic changes in hands and feet at 5 and 10 years after inclusion were evaluated (Larsen). The markers analysed were: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); HLA-DRB alleles typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism; and C reactive protein, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), rheumatoid factor (RF) (IgG, IgA, and IgM subtypes), antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), and antibodies against interleukin 1α (anti-IL1α), analysed by immunoassays. Multiple linear regression with backward elimination was used to determine the prognostic value of the variables. Results: 117/176 patients were positive for IgG RF, 138/176 for IgA RF, 139/176 for IgM RF, 140/176 for anti-CCP, and 40/182 for anti-IL1α. After five years, ESR, the presence of IgA RF, serum COMP, and the presence of anti-CCP were significantly associated with more severe joint damage, and the presence of anti-IL1α with less severe joint damage. Baseline C reactive protein and anti-CCP predicted radiographic outcome after 10 years. A stronger prediction was obtained by combining the prognostic factors. Conclusions: Early determination of anti-CCP, IgA RF, anti-IL-1α, ESR, C reactive protein, and COMP predicted the development of joint damage in hands and feet in this cohort. A combination of these measures reflecting different aspects of the disease process should be useful for evaluating prognosis in individual patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:15458956

  8. Reliability of panoramic radiographs for identifying supernumerary teeth in children.

    PubMed

    Anthonappa, Robert P; King, Nigel M; Rabie, A Bakr M; Mallineni, Sreekanth K

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the reliability of panoramic radiographs (PRs) for identifying supernumerary teeth (ST) and to determine whether the level of dental training of the observer influenced the identification of ST. METHODS. Seventy-five PRs were randomly selected from the patient records and 18 examiners independently rated 25 radiographs each, for specific risk factors as well as for a measure of adequacy. Subsequently, the results were paired with those of the other examiners who assessed the same set of PRs. Descriptive statistics were computed using Fisher's exact test, and kappa statistics were used to assess the inter- and intra-observer reliability. RESULTS. Four hundred and fifty PRs were available for analysis. The overall sensitivity and specificity figures were 50% and 98.3%, whereas the positive and negative predictive values were 90.6% and 83.6%, respectively. The sensitivity figures for Junior House Dental Officers and Postgraduate Paediatric Dental Trainees were 39.2% and 60.8%, whereas the specificity figures were 99.4% and 95% with slight inter-examiner and moderate intra-examiner reliability. CONCLUSIONS. Panoramic radiographs are unreliable for identifying ST, and higher level of dental training is essential for identifying ST. PMID:21740473

  9. A new immunohistochemistry prognostic score (IPS) for recurrence and survival in resected pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET)

    PubMed Central

    Viúdez, Antonio; Carvalho, Filipe L.F.; Maleki, Zahra; Zahurak, Marianna; Laheru, Daniel; Stark, Alejandro; Azad, Nilofer Z.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Baylin, Stephen; Herman, James G.; De Jesus-Acosta, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) is a neoplastic entity in which few prognostic factors are well-known. Here, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of N-myc downstream-regulated gen-1 (NDRG-1), O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and Pleckstrin homology-like domain family A member 3 (PHLDA-3) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and methylation analysis in 92 patients with resected PanNET and follow-up longer than 24 months. In multivariate analyses, ki-67 and our immunohistochemistry prognostic score (IPS-based on MGMT, NDRG-1 and PHLDA-3 IHC expression) were independent prognostic factors for disease-free-survival (DFS), while age and IPS were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Our IPS could be a useful prognostic biomarker for recurrence and survival in patients following resection for PanNET. PMID:26894863

  10. The prognostic significance of race and survival from laryngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Roach, M.; Alexander, M.; Coleman, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program data suggest that blacks with laryngeal carcinoma have a significantly lower 5-year survival rate than whites. Most of this difference persists despite adjustment for "crude stage." To evaluate possible factors contributing to this residual survival deficit, 190 white and 23 black patients treated at the Martinez Veterans Administration Hospital between 1968 and 1988 were studied. The independent impact of race on survival rate was analyzed with respect to various prognostic factors including treatment delay, elapsed time (diagnosis to treatment), age, stage, cancer subsites, and type of therapy. No independent prognostic significance could be attributed to race. The differences noted in SEER data probably reflect a tendency for the use of crude stage to underestimate the impact of prognostic groups within the categories of "local" and "regional" disease, the independent prognostic significance of subsites (glottic versus supraglottic), and the variable distribution of these subsites in different populations. This study suggests that when stage, subsite, and quality of care are adequately considered, survival from laryngeal cancer in blacks is comparable to that of whites. PMID:1507256

  11. Features and prognostic impact of distant metastasis in patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutations: importance of bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Daichi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ryoko; Kato, Ryoji; Otoshi, Takehiro; Kawamura, Takahisa; Tamai, Koji; Shibata, Yumi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Nagata, Kazuma; Otsuka, Kyoko; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Tomii, Keisuke

    2014-06-01

    Mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and signaling pathways were associated with multiple brain and intra-pulmonary metastases, oncogenic progression and metastasis. However, features of metastasis to other organs and the independent prognostic influence of metastatic lesions were not elucidated in patients with lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations. Between January 2007 and April 2012, we treated 277 patients diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. Studied were 246 patients with available tumor EGFR mutation data who also underwent radiographic evaluation of lung, abdominal, brain, and bone metastases. The EGFR mutated group (N = 98) had significantly more metastatic lesions in the brain and bone than the wild-type group (N = 148): brain, 3 (1-93) versus 2 (1-32) median (range), P = 0.023; bone, 3 (1-43) versus 2 (1-27), P = 0.035, respectively. In addition, EGFR mutations were significantly more frequent in patients with multiple than non-multiple lung metastases (24/40 vs. 12/42, P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that bone metastasis was a significant independent negative predictive factor of overall survival (OS) in patients with mutated [hazard ratio (HR) 2.04; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.64; P = 0.011] and wild-type EGFR (HR 2.09; 95 % CI 1.37-3.20; P < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with mutated EGFR had more lung, brain, and bone metastases, and bone metastasis was an independent negative predictor of OS.

  12. Radiographic evaluation of the soap man mummy.

    PubMed

    Conlogue, G; Forcier, D; Airo, M; Kilosky, J; Gambardella, S; Mansfield, K; Greenwood, L

    1997-01-01

    This article describes how mobile radiography was used to examine a mummified cadaver exhumed in 1875 and stored in the Smithsonian Museum. Radiographs revealed artifacts imbedded in the cadaver, indicating 1824 as the earliest possible interment. Through radiographic assessment of the skeleton, researchers were able to approximate the individual's age at death. In addition, evidence of pathology, possibly ideopathic skeletal hyperostosis, suggested the individual may have been employed in manual labor. The radiographs, when compared to x-rays of another cadaver exhumed at the same time and place, refuted information in museum records.

  13. Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

  14. End-to-End Radiographic Systems Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, A.; Kwan, T.; Buescher, K.; Snell, C.; Adams, K.

    1999-07-23

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop a validated end-to-end radiographic model that could be applied to both x-rays and protons. The specific objectives were to link hydrodynamic, transport, and magneto-hydrodynamic simulation software for purposes of modeling radiographic systems. In addition, optimization and analysis algorithms were to be developed to validate physical models and optimize the design of radiographic facilities.

  15. Rapid display of radiographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.; Whitman, Robert A.; Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Karlsson, L. M.; Monsees, Thomas L.; Hassen, Gregory L.; David, Timothy C.

    1991-07-01

    The requirements for the rapid display of radiographic images exceed the capabilities of widely available display, computer, and communications technologies. Computed radiography captures data with a resolution of about four megapixels. Large-format displays are available that can present over four megapixels. One megapixel displays are practical for use in combination with large-format displays and in areas where the viewing task does not require primary diagnosis. This paper describes an electronic radiology system that approximates the highest quality systems, but through the use of several interesting techniques allows the possibility of its widespread installation throughout hospitals. The techniques used can be grouped under three major system concepts: a local, high-speed image server, one or more physician's workstations each with one or more high-performance auxiliary displays specialized to the radiology viewing task, and dedicated, high-speed communication links between the server and the displays. This approach is enhanced by the use of a progressive transmission scheme to decrease the latency for viewing four megapixel images. The system includes an image server with storage for over 600 4-megapixel images and a high-speed link. A subsampled megapixel image is fetched from disk and transmitted to the display in about one second followed by the full resolution 4-megapixel image in about 2.5 seconds. Other system components include a megapixel display with a 6-megapixel display memory space and frame-rate update of image roam, zoom, and contrast. Plans for clinical use are presented.

  16. A consensus prognostic gene expression classifier for ER positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Teschendorff, Andrew E; Naderi, Ali; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Pinder, Sarah E; Ellis, Ian O; Aparicio, Sam; Brenton, James D; Caldas, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Background A consensus prognostic gene expression classifier is still elusive in heterogeneous diseases such as breast cancer. Results Here we perform a combined analysis of three major breast cancer microarray data sets to hone in on a universally valid prognostic molecular classifier in estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors. Using a recently developed robust measure of prognostic separation, we further validate the prognostic classifier in three external independent cohorts, confirming the validity of our molecular classifier in a total of 877 ER positive samples. Furthermore, we find that molecular classifiers may not outperform classical prognostic indices but that they can be used in hybrid molecular-pathological classification schemes to improve prognostic separation. Conclusion The prognostic molecular classifier presented here is the first to be valid in over 877 ER positive breast cancer samples and across three different microarray platforms. Larger multi-institutional studies will be needed to fully determine the added prognostic value of molecular classifiers when combined with standard prognostic factors. PMID:17076897

  17. Prognostic significance of microRNA-203 in cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Gao, Beibei; Huang, Zufa; Duan, Tong; Li, Daiqiang; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Yujun; Liu, Lian; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Zhizhao; Cheng, Ke

    2015-01-01

    MircroRNA functions as a tumor suppressor or a promoter in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Researchers have found that miR-203 functioned as tumor suppressor in many types of cancer. However, the role of miR-203 that plays in CCA remains to be clarified. We aimed to detect the expression level and the prognostic significance of miR-203 in CCA tissues. qRT-RCR was performed to examine the miR-203 expression levels in CCA tissue specimens and corresponding normal tissues. Our findings suggest that miR-203 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for CCA patient overall survival. Therefore, miR-203 may serve as a valuable prognostic marker and promising treatment target for CCA.

  18. Inter- and intraobserver variability in radiographic bone level assessment at Brånemark fixtures.

    PubMed

    Gröndahl, K; Sundén, S; Gröndahl, H G

    1998-08-01

    The aim was to determine inter- and intraobserver variability in radiographic bone level assessments at Brånemark fixtures and to study the influence of various factors (radiographic density; projection geometry; jaw in which the fixtures were inserted; degree of bone loss; time after fixture loading; and number of radiographs of each fixture) on the variability. Intraoral radiographs from bridge connection and 1- and 3-year check-ups from 15 upper and 15 lower jaws (172 fixtures) were assessed by 6 observers. Measurements were taken from a reference point on the fixture to the marginal bone level, and some were repeated by all observers after 1 months. Results showed a small interobserver variation (0.14 mm) with the intraobserver variation (0.08 mm) as its largest component. The radiographic density and the degree of bone loss showed the strongest influence on the interobserver variation. The only variable with a significant effect on the intraobserver variation was the number of radiographs of each fixture. Calculated confidence values showed that measurement reliability can be improved by letting one observer or preferably more make several, independent readings, allowing for the demonstration of minor differences in bone height over time or between implant systems.

  19. Bacterial adherence and contamination during radiographic processing.

    PubMed

    Bachman, C E; White, J M; Goodis, H E; Rosenquist, J W

    1990-11-01

    Oral fluids are potential contaminants of radiographic processors. This investigation measured bacterial contamination in a radiographic processing room during times of high and low clinical activity and processing effects on five types of microorganisms. Cultures in the clinical setting, during high and low activity, were taken by brain-heart infusion agar plates placed near automatic processors. Site samples were taken of entrance, developer, fixer, water, and exit surfaces. Measurements of processing effects were accomplished by intentional contamination of films run in series through an automatic processor. Site samples were again taken of the processor. In the clinical setting colony-forming units increased with activity. Radiographic processing after intentional contamination decreased colony-forming units on films, but they increased for all processing solutions. Bacteria on radiographic film survived processing. Although processing procedures significantly reduce the number of bacteria on films, the potential for contamination and cross-contamination remains. PMID:2122350

  20. Film adhesive enhances neutron radiographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    Resolution of neutron radiographic images of thermally conductive film is increased by replacing approximately 5 percent of aluminum powder, which provides thermal conductivity, with gadolinium oxide. Oxide is also chemically stable.

  1. Solid state radiographic image amplifiers, part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szepesi, Z.

    1971-01-01

    The contrast sensitivity of the radiographic amplifiers, both the storage type and nonstorage type, their absolute sensitivity, and the reproducibility of fabrication were investigated. The required 2-2T quality level was reached with the radiographic storage screen. The sensitivity threshold was 100 to 200 mR with 45 to 100 kV filtered X-rays. The quality level of the radiographic amplifier screen (without storage) was 4-4T; for a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick aluminum specimen, a 1 mm (0.040 in.) diameter hole in a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick penetrameter was detected. Its sensitivity threshold was 2 to 6 mR/min. The developed radiographic screens are applicable for uses in nondestructive testing.

  2. The one-leg standing radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis was evaluated using the joint space width and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic classification. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results The mean medial joint space width found in the one-leg and in the both-legs standing view were measured at 1.8 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively (p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7). 33%, 47.4% and 23.1% of the knees diagnosed with a KL grade of I, II and III in the both-legs standing views were changed to KL grade II, III and IV in the one-leg standing views, respectively. No changes for KL IV osteoarthritis diagnoses have been found between both- and one-leg standing views. Conclusions One-leg standing radiographs better represent joint space width than both-legs standing radiographs. 32% of both-legs standing radiographs have changed the KL grading to a more severe grade than that in the one-leg standing radiographs. Cite this article: P. Pinsornsak, K. Naratrikun, S. Kanitnate, T. Sangkomkamhang. The one-leg standing radiograph: An improved technique to evaluate the severity of knee osteoarthritis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:436–441. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.BJR-2016-0049.R1. PMID:27683299

  3. Radiation recommendation series: administratively required dental radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Administrative requirements for radiographs are found in many segments of the United States health care system. This document presents an FDA radiation recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. In general, such examinations are not requested to further the patient's dental health, but rather as a means of monitoring claims. However, the administrative use of radiographs that have been taken in the normal course of patient care is usually appropriate, as long as the patient's right to privacy is respected.

  4. Pitfalls in the radiographic diagnosis of angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, K; Haughton, V; Farley, G; Friedman, J

    1978-05-01

    Radiographic findings previously thought pathognomonic for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma are anterior bowing of the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum on plain films or tomography, and a dense homogeneous blush on angiography. Two patients presented with nasopharyngeal masses which mimicked angiofibroma radiographically: one mass was a lymphoepithelioma and the other was a fibrous tumor. Constitutional symptoms and atypical physical findings should alert the physician to a diagnosis other than juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

  5. Association of Radiographic Emphysema and Airflow Obstruction with Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David O.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Balkan, Arzu; Schragin, Jeffrey G.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Fisher, Stephen N.; Wilson, Jonathan; Leader, Joseph K.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Shapiro, Steven D.; Sciurba, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: To study the relationship between emphysema and/or airflow obstruction and lung cancer in a high-risk population. Objective: We studied lung cancer related to radiographic emphysema and spirometric airflow obstruction in tobacco-exposed persons who were screened for lung cancer using chest computed tomography (CT). Methods: Subjects completed questionnaires, spirometry, and low-dose helical chest CT. CT scans were scored for emphysema based on National Emphysema Treatment Trial criteria. Multiple logistic regressions estimated the independent associations between various factors, including radiographic emphysema and airflow obstruction, and subsequent lung cancer diagnosis. Measurements and Main Results: Among 3,638 subjects, 57.5, 18.8, 14.6, and 9.1% had no, trace, mild, and moderate–severe emphysema, and 57.3, 13.6, 22.8, and 6.4% had no, mild (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] I), moderate (GOLD II), and severe (GOLD III–IV) airflow obstruction. Of 3,638 subjects, 99 (2.7%) received a lung cancer diagnosis. Adjusting for sex, age, years of cigarette smoking, and number of cigarettes smoked daily, logistic regression showed the expected lung cancer association with the presence of airflow obstruction (GOLD I–IV, odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33–3.27). A second logistic regression showed lung cancer related to emphysema (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 2.21–5.73). After additional adjustments for GOLD class, emphysema remained a strong and statistically significant factor related to lung cancer (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.91–5.15). Conclusions: Emphysema on CT scan and airflow obstruction on spirometry are related to lung cancer in a high-risk population. Emphysema is independently related to lung cancer. Both radiographic emphysema and airflow obstruction should be considered when assessing lung cancer risk. PMID:18565949

  6. [Indications for and frequency of intraoral radiographs].

    PubMed

    Poorterman, J H G

    2015-05-01

    Radiographs are essential in dental practice today. Due to the exposure of patients to X-rays every radiograph has to be justified. The advantages and disadvantages of risks and diagnostic rewards have to be weighed against one another whenever X-ray imaging is considered. An important factor in this respect is the usefulness (in terms of sensitivity and specificity) of a radiograph and along with that, the monitoring of the quality of the entire process, from positioning the photo up to and including the development or scanning of it. Both for children and adults the indication for taking radiographs must be made on an individual basis. The most important considerations are: caries experience, oral hygiene and nutritional habits and exposure to fluorides. Based on these factors an individual risk assessment can be made and the possible benefit of bitewing radiographs for the dental treatment can be determined. European guidelines give advice on the indications and frequency of radiographs in, among other fields, periodontology, endodontology and implantology. PMID:26210219

  7. Automation of arthritis measures in hand radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitt, Tod S.; Hedgcock, Marcus W.; Dye, John; Johnston, Scott E.

    1990-07-01

    Hand radiographs provide a valuable index of disease in arthritis and other generalized diseases such as secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis. Measures such as cortical volume intercortical width average and periarticular demineralization provide diagnostic indicators for these diseases. However visual analysis of hand radiographs is not quantitative and is compromised by both interobserver and intraobserver variation. Automation of these measures would provide repeatable comparable quantities to assist in diagnosis and disease and therapy monitoring. The computer calculations to perform these measures are straightforward. The key problem is automatic segmentation of the hand anatomy that is recognizing the pixels that correspond to specific imaged bones and joints. Our approach incorporates computer-represented hand models in addition to more traditional image processing algorithms. We describe our techniques for using a combination of predictive models and image processing evidence to automatically fmd bone and tissue boundaries and identify specific bone and joints. 2. COMPUTING ARTHRITIS MEASURES Digital scanners and radiograph digitizers make the radiograph available as a data source for computer algorithms that analyze medical imagery. This is significant because radiographs comprise more than 80 of all medical imagery at this time and they are considerably quicker and less costly than other digital modalities such as CT and Mill. Quantitative measures from digital radiographs can aid physicians in diagnosis tracking disease progress and in therapy planning and evaluation. We have begun studying diagnostic measures in arthritis

  8. Urinary interleukin-6 as a predictor of radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: A 3-year evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yune-Jung; Yoo, Seung-Ah; Kim, Ga-Ram; Cho, Chul-Soo; Kim, Wan-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the urine proteome signature of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reflects inflammation-related cellular processes. Here, we measured interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) concentrations in the urine of RA patients and prospectively investigated their role in predicting RA activity and prognosis. One hundred seventy-three RA patients and 62 non-RA controls were recruited. Urinary IL-6, CCL2, and IL-8 levels were elevated in RA patients and correlated well with disease activity. Urinary IL-6 level at presentation was an independent risk factor of radiographic progression at 1 and 3 years. High urinary IL-6 level increased the risk ratio of radiographic progression by 2.9-fold, which was comparable to high serum CRP. Moreover, combination of urinary IL-6 and serum CRP measures synergistically increased the predictability of radiographic progression. In a subgroup with normal ESR, patients with the highest tertile of urinary IL-6 were at 6.4-fold greater risk of radiographic progression. Conclusively, high urinary IL-6 level at presentation is an independent risk factor for radiographic progression of RA, reflecting disease activity. Urinary IL-6 in combination with serum CRP may be a useful parameter for estimating RA prognosis. PMID:27731382

  9. Prognostic factors in patients with intracerebral haematoma.

    PubMed Central

    Franke, C L; van Swieten, J C; Algra, A; van Gijn, J

    1992-01-01

    In a prospective study, the prognostic value of clinical characteristics in 157 consecutive patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage were examined by means of multivariate analysis. Two days after the event 37 (24%) patients had died. Factors independently contributing to the prediction of two day mortality were pineal gland displacement on CT of 3 mm or more (p less than 0.001), blood glucose level on admission of 8.0 mmol/l or more (p = 0.01), eye and motor score on the Glasgow Coma Scale of eight out of 10 or less (p = 0.022) and haematoma volume of 40 cm3 or more (p = 0.037). Between the third day and one year after the event another 46 of the 120 two day survivors had died; the independent prognostic indicators for death during that period were: age 70 years or more (p less than 0.001) and severe handicap (Rankin grade five) on the third day (p less than 0.001). Functional independence (Rankin grade two or less) at one year was most common not only with the converse features of age less than 70 years (p less than 0.01) and Rankin grade four or less on the third day (p = 0.002), but also with an eye and motor score on the Glasgow Coma Scale of nine or 10 on the third day (p less than 0.001). The 120 patients with intracerebral haemorrhage who were still alive two days after the event were matched with 120 patients with cerebral infarction, according to age, level of consciousness on the third day after stroke (Glasgow Coma Scale) and handicap (Rankin grade). Survival and handicap after one year did not differ between these two groups. The conclusion drawn is that it is not the cause (intracerebral haemorrhage or cerebral infarction) but the extent of the brain lesion that determines the outcome in patients who survive the first two days. PMID:1527534

  10. Prognostic Role of Glasgow Prognostic Score in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mu-xing; Bi, Xin-yu; Li, Zhi-yu; Huang, Zhen; Han, Yue; Zhou, Jian-guo; Zhao, Jian-jun; Zhang, Ye-fan; Zhao, Hong; Cai, Jian-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Conflicting results about the prognostic value of Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients have been reported. We searched the available articles and performed the meta-analysis to clarify the predictive value of GPS in HCC patients’ outcome. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed (Medline), Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ChinaInfo, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure for all years up to September 2015. Studies analyzing the relationship of GPS and survival outcome were identified. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to assess the risk. A total of 10 studies were finally enrolled in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates demonstrated a significant relationship between elevated GPS and inferior overall survival in patients with HCC (HR = 2.156, 95% CI: 1.696–2.740, P < 0.001). Patients with increased GPS had a tendency toward shorter progression-free survival (HR = 1.755, 95% CI: 0.943–3.265, P = 0.076). And elevated GPS was found to be significantly associated with advanced Child–Pugh class (odds ratio = 25.979, 95% CI: 6.159–109.573, P < 0.001). The publication bias analysis revealed that there was publication bias in the meta-analysis. Glasgow Prognostic Score may be an independent prognostic factor in patients with HCC. More well-designed studies with adequate follow-up duration are warranted. PMID:26656342

  11. A Multi-Marker Prognostic Assay for Primary Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Venna, Suraj; Nosrati, Mehdi; Rangel, Javier; Sucker, Antje; Egberts, Friederike; Baehner, Frederick L.; Simko, Jeff; Leong, Stanley P.L.; Haqq, Chris; Hauschild, Axel; Schadendorf, Dirk; Miller, James R.; Sagebiel, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prognostic significance of a multi-marker assay incorporating expression levels of three molecular markers in primary cutaneous melanoma. Experimental Design We assessed expression levels of NCOA3, SPP1, and RGS1 using immunohistochemical analysis in a tissue microarray cohort of 395 patients. For each marker, we identified optimal cut-points for expression intensity to predict disease-specific survival (DSS) and, as a secondary endpoint, sentinel lymph node (SLN) status. The cumulative over-expression of all three markers was embodied in a multi-marker index, and its prognostic impact on DSS and SLN status was assessed using Cox regression, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and logistic regression. The prognostic impact of this multi-marker assay on DSS was assessed in an independent cohort of 141 patients, in which marker expression levels were scored using immunohistochemical analysis of stained tissue sections. Results Increasing multi-marker index scores were significantly predictive of reduced DSS and increased SLN metastasis in the 395-patient cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed multi-marker expression scores as an independent predictor of SLN status (P=0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed the independent impact of the multi-marker index on DSS (P<0.001). The multi-marker index was the most significant factor predicting DSS, when compared to other clinical and histological factors, including SLN status (P=0.002). Multi-marker expression scores were also the most significantly predictive of DSS in the independent cohort (P=0.01). Conclusions These results describe a multi-marker assay with independent prognostic impact on the prediction of survival associated with melanoma in two distinct cohorts. PMID:19887476

  12. Independence Is.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Sharon

    This workbook is designed to help participants of the Independence Training Program (ITP) to achieve a definition of "independence." The program was developed for teenage girls. The process for developing the concept of independence consists of four steps. Step one instructs the participant to create an imaginary situation where she is completely…

  13. Medial Calcar Support and Radiographic Outcomes of Plate Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Jie; Tsai, Yao-Hung; Yang, Tien-Yu; Shen, Shih-Hsun; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Lee, Mel S.

    2015-01-01

    Plate fixation remains one of the most popular surgical procedures for treating proximal humeral fractures (PHFx); however, substantial rates of complications have been reported in the literature. The objectives of the study were to examine how medial calcar support (MCS) affects the radiographic outcomes and to determine the prognostic factors predicting treatment failure. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 89 adult patients who had PHFx and were treated with plate fixation at our institution in 2007–2011. The enrolled patients were separated into two groups according to disruption of medial calcar. Our results revealed an increased rate of poor radiographic outcomes in patients with disrupted medial calcar. Osteonecrosis of the humeral head and redisplacement were the two radiographic outcomes which had a positive causality with disruption of medial calcar (P = 0.008 and 0.050, resp.). Deficient medial calcar, inadequate reduction, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and chronic liver disease were all significant predictors for the development of osteonecrosis in patients after PHFx surgery. Inadequate reduction was also a predictor for redisplacement. We confirmed that the restoration of medial calcar as well as comorbid conditions plays key roles in treatment of patients having PHFx with disrupted medial calcar. PMID:25692132

  14. Multigene prognostic tests in breast cancer: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Győrffy, Balázs; Hatzis, Christos; Sanft, Tara; Hofstatter, Erin; Aktas, Bilge; Pusztai, Lajos

    2015-01-27

    There is growing consensus that multigene prognostic tests provide useful complementary information to tumor size and grade in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers. The tests primarily rely on quantification of ER and proliferation-related genes and combine these into multivariate prediction models. Since ER-negative cancers tend to have higher proliferation rates, the prognostic value of current multigene tests in these cancers is limited. First-generation prognostic signatures (Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, Genomic Grade Index) are substantially more accurate to predict recurrence within the first 5 years than in later years. This has become a limitation with the availability of effective extended adjuvant endocrine therapies. Newer tests (Prosigna, EndoPredict, Breast Cancer Index) appear to possess better prognostic value for late recurrences while also remaining predictive of early relapse. Some clinical prediction problems are more difficult to solve than others: there are no clinically useful prognostic signatures for ER-negative cancers, and drug-specific treatment response predictors also remain elusive. Emerging areas of research involve the development of immune gene signatures that carry modest but significant prognostic value independent of proliferation and ER status and represent candidate predictive markers for immune-targeted therapies. Overall metrics of tumor heterogeneity and genome integrity (for example, homologue recombination deficiency score) are emerging as potential new predictive markers for platinum agents. The recent expansion of high-throughput technology platforms including low-cost sequencing of circulating and tumor-derived DNA and RNA and rapid reliable quantification of microRNA offers new opportunities to build extended prediction models across multiplatform data.

  15. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  16. Heart failure prognostic model.

    PubMed

    Axente, L; Sinescu, C; Bazacliu, G

    2011-05-15

    Heart failure (HF) is a common, costly, disabling and deadly syndrome. Heart failure is a progressive disease characterized by high prevalence in society, significantly reducing physical and mental health, frequent hospitalization and high mortality (50% of the patients survive up to 4 years after the diagnosis, the annual mortality varying from 5% to 75%). The purpose of this study is to develop a prognostic model with easily obtainable variables for patients with heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS. Our lot included 101 non-consecutive hospitalized patients with heart failure diagnosis. It included 49.5% women having the average age of 71.23 years (starting from 40 up to 91 years old) and the roughly estimated period for monitoring was 35.1 months (5-65 months). Survival data were available for all patients and the median survival duration was of 44.0 months. A large number of variables (demographic, etiologic, co morbidity, clinical, echocardiograph, ECG, laboratory and medication) were evaluated. We performed a complex statistical analysis, studying: survival curve, cumulative hazard, hazard function, lifetime distribution and density function, meaning residual life time, Ln S (t) vs. t and Ln(H) t vs. Ln (t). The Cox multiple regression model was used in order to determine the major factors that allow the forecasting survival and their regression coefficients: age (0.0369), systolic blood pressure (-0.0219), potassium (0.0570), sex (-0.3124) and the acute myocardial infarction (0.2662). DISCUSSION. Our model easily incorporates obtainable variables that may be available in any hospital, accurately predicting survival of the heart failure patients and enables risk stratification in a few hours after the patients' presentation. Our model is derived from a sample of patients hospitalized in an emergency department of cardiology, some with major life-altering co morbidities. The benefit of being aware of the prognosis of these patients with high risk is extremely

  17. [Radiographic assessment of pulmonary hypertension: Methodical aspects].

    PubMed

    Korobkova, I Z; Lazutkina, V K; Nizovtsova, L A; Riden, T V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a menacing complication of a number of diseases, which is responsible for high mortality rates and considerably poorer quality of life in a patient. The timely detection for pulmonary hypertension allows timely initiation of treatment, thus improvement in prognosis in the patient. Chest X-ray is the most commonly used radiographic technique for various causes. Physicians' awareness about the radiographic manifestations of pulmonary hypertension may contribute to the earlier detection of this severe disease. Owing to the natural contrast of reflected structures, a chest X-ray film gives a unique opportunity to assess pulmonary circulation vessels, to reveal the signs of pulmonary hypertension, and to estimate trends in the course of the disease. The paper details a procedure for analysis and the normal radiographic anatomy of pulmonary circulation vessels, gives the present classification of pulmonary hypertension, and sets forth its X-ray semiotics. PMID:26552229

  18. Magnetic cassette for radiographic film material

    SciTech Connect

    Dallas, D.

    1985-03-26

    A radiographic film cassette having a plurality of magnet components integral with the cassette holder for adhering the cassette to ferrous material in X-raying for defects in welds or fissures in shipyards, pipe lines, or the like. What is provided is a substantially flexible cassette envelope comprising first and second layers of radiographic intensifying screens with a sheet of radiographic film positioned therebetween. The cassette would be a cassette envelope constructed of waterproof fabric or other suitable material providing a light-free environment, and having the ability to flex around the curvature of the surface of a pipe or the like to be x-rayed. There is further provided a plurality of magnet components, preferably situated in each corner of the cassette envelope and flexibly attached thereto for overall adherence of the envelope to the surface of the pipe or the like to be x-rayed during the process.

  19. A radiographic scanning technique for cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, G.W.; Dorsey, M.E.; Woods, J.C.; Miller, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A radiographic scanning technique (RST) can produce single continuous radiographs of cores or core sections up to 1.5 m long and up to 30 cm wide. Changing a portable industrial X-ray unit from the normal still-shot mode to a scanning mode requires simple, inexpensive, easily constructed, and highly durable equipment. Additional components include a conveyor system, antiscatter cylinder-diaphragm, adjustable sample platform, developing tanks, and a contact printer. Complete cores, half cores, sample slabs or peels may be scanned. Converting the X-ray unit from one mode to another is easy and can be accomplished without the use of special tools. RST provides the investigator with a convenient, continuous, high quality radiograph, saves time and money, and decreases the number of times cores have to be handled. ?? 1979.

  20. [Radiographic assessment of pulmonary hypertension: Methodical aspects].

    PubMed

    Korobkova, I Z; Lazutkina, V K; Nizovtsova, L A; Riden, T V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a menacing complication of a number of diseases, which is responsible for high mortality rates and considerably poorer quality of life in a patient. The timely detection for pulmonary hypertension allows timely initiation of treatment, thus improvement in prognosis in the patient. Chest X-ray is the most commonly used radiographic technique for various causes. Physicians' awareness about the radiographic manifestations of pulmonary hypertension may contribute to the earlier detection of this severe disease. Owing to the natural contrast of reflected structures, a chest X-ray film gives a unique opportunity to assess pulmonary circulation vessels, to reveal the signs of pulmonary hypertension, and to estimate trends in the course of the disease. The paper details a procedure for analysis and the normal radiographic anatomy of pulmonary circulation vessels, gives the present classification of pulmonary hypertension, and sets forth its X-ray semiotics.

  1. Giant colonic diverticulum: radiographic and MDCT characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zeina, Abdel-Rauf; Mahamid, Ahmad; Nachtigal, Alicia; Ashkenazi, Itamar; Shapira-Rootman, Mika

    2015-12-01

    Giant colonic diverticulum (GCD), defined as a diverticulum larger than 4 cm, is a rare entity that is generally a manifestation of colonic diverticular disease. Because of its rarity and its variable and non-specific presentation, the diagnosis of GCD depends mainly on imaging findings. Knowledge of the spectrum of radiographic and CT features of the GCD is important in making the correct diagnosis and potentially preventing complications. This review focuses on imaging findings characteristic of GCD as well as its complications and radiographic mimics. Teaching points • Giant colonic diverticulum is a rare complication of diverticulosis.• The most common symptom is abdominal pain presenting in approximately 70 % of patients.• Diagnosis is based on imaging findings with plain abdominal radiographs and MDCT.• Treatment consists of en bloc resection of the diverticulum and affected adjacent colon.

  2. Towards Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Kulkarni, Chetan; Biswas, Gautam; Goegel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    A remaining useful life prediction algorithm and degradation model for electrolytic capacitors is presented. Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications ranging from power supplies on critical avionics equipment to power drivers for electro-mechanical actuators. These devices are known for their low reliability and given their criticality in electronics subsystems they are a good candidate for component level prognostics and health management research. Prognostics provides a way to assess remaining useful life of a capacitor based on its current state of health and its anticipated future usage and operational conditions. In particular, experimental results of an accelerated aging test under electrical stresses are presented. The capacitors used in this test form the basis for a remaining life prediction algorithm where a model of the degradation process is suggested. This preliminary remaining life prediction algorithm serves as a demonstration of how prognostics methodologies could be used for electrolytic capacitors.

  3. Elbow Radiographic Anatomy: Measurement Techniques and Normative Data

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Charles A.; Patterson, J. Megan M.; Sutter, Melanie; Krauss, Melissa; Steffen, Jennifer A.; Galatz, Leesa

    2011-01-01

    Background An increase in elbow pathology in adolescents has paralleled an increase in sports participation. Evaluation and classification of these injuries is challenging because of limited information regarding normal anatomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate normal radiographic anatomy in adolescents to establish parameters for diagnosing abnormal development. Established and new measurements were evaluated for reliability and variance based on age and sex. Methods Three orthopaedic surgeons independently and in a standardized fashion evaluated the normal anteroposterior and lateral elbow radiographs of 178 adolescent and young adult subjects. Fourteen measurements were performed including radial neck- shaft angle, articular surface angle, articular surface morphologic assessment (subjective and objective evaluation of the patterns of ridges and sulci), among others. We performed a statistical analysis by age and sex for each measure and assessed for inter and intra-observer reliability. Results The distal humerus articular surface was relatively flat in adolescence and became more contoured with age as objectively demonstrated by increasing depth of the trochlear and trochleocapitellar sulci, and decreasing trochlear notch angle. Overall measurements were similar between males and females, with an increased carrying angle in females. There were several statistically significant differences based on age and sex but these were small and unlikely to be clinically significant. Inter and intra-observer reliability were variable; some commonly utilized tools had poor reliability. Conclusions Most commonly utilized radiographic measures were consistent between sexes, across the adolescent age group, and between adolescents and young adults. Several commonly used assessment tools show poor reliability. Level of evidence Basic Science Study, Anatomic Study, Imaging PMID:22329911

  4. Common errors in evaluating chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Mann, H

    1990-01-01

    Chest radiographs that are correctly obtained and interpreted provide valuable diagnostic information. However, some radiographs are not taken at total lung capacity, and the appearance of the lungs on film may mimic certain lung disorders. Most common interpretive pitfalls in chest radiography can be avoided by physicians who are familiar with the film appearance of varying degrees of lung inflation, technical limitations of portable radiography, and common chest abnormalities. When further definition is necessary, additional projections should be obtained. Chest fluoroscopy and computed tomography can offer further clarification, if needed. PMID:2296566

  5. Instant slides of radiographs for lectures.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, S G; Stewart, P L

    1989-10-01

    High quality slides of radiographs may be made with a simple, fast, and inexpensive technique using Kodak Rapid Process Copy film. Lecture presentations may include a slide of a pertinent plain radiograph, computed tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although these slides may be made with a 35 mm SLR camera and flash or with a 35 mm SLR camera and a lighted viewbox, an alternative method is available that is easy to perform, inexpensive, and can produce quality slides in as little as 30 minutes. PMID:2477785

  6. Do we need hip-ankle radiographs to assess the coronal alignment and implant position after total knee replacement?

    PubMed Central

    Dargel, Jens; Oppermann, Johannes; Eysel, Peer; Penning, Lenhard

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Restoration of the coronal alignment of the knee is known to be one of the major criteria of a successful total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It therefore appears to be mandatory to routinely assess the postoperative limb alignment using hip-ankle radiographs and to identify implants that may be at risk of premature failure. However, there is no clear consensus whether weight-bearing hip-ankle radiographs or rather standardized a-p knee-radiographs should be used to assess implant position and coronal alignment after TKA. It is the aim of the present study to investigate if implant position and the mechanical alignment after TKA can reproducibly be assessed using standardized a-p knee-radiographs or rather if weight-bearing hip-ankle radiographs are needed. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 100 postoperative weight-bearing hip-ankle radiographs after conventional primary TKA. The true mechanical and anatomical femorotibial angle as well as coronal implant position (MPTA, LDFA) was assessed using the MediCAD software, which served as a control. The hip-ankle radiographs were then digitally cropped to 80%, 60% and 40% of the leg-length. In each cropped radiograph, tibial coronal implant position was assessed by referencing against the visible mid-shaft, whereas femoral implant position was referenced against the visible mid-shaft (anatomical axis) or against a surrogate mechanical axis, which was drawn perpendicular to the distal tangent of the femoral component. Each measurement was performed by three independent observers. The difference between the alignment parameters in the hip-ankle radiographs were statistically compared with the cropped radiographs and the inter-observer correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for each parameter. Results: The ICC for inter-observer agreement of measurement of the mechanical femorotibial angle was significantly higher in hip-ankle radiographs (.95) when compared with a radiograph cropped

  7. Validation of a new radiographic protocol for Asian elephant feet and description of their radiographic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mumby, C; Bouts, T; Sambrook, L; Danika, S; Rees, E; Parry, A; Rendle, M; Masters, N; Weller, R

    2013-10-01

    Foot problems are extremely common in elephants and radiography is the only imaging method available but the radiographic anatomy has not been described in detail. The aims of this study were to develop a radiographic protocol for elephant feet using digital radiography, and to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the Asian elephant front and hind foot. A total of fifteen cadaver foot specimens from captive Asian elephants were radiographed using a range of projections and exposures to determine the best radiographic technique. This was subsequently tested in live elephants in a free-contact setting. The normal radiographic anatomy of the Asian elephant front and hind foot was described with the use of three-dimensional models based on CT reconstructions. The projection angles that were found to be most useful were 65-70° for the front limb and 55-60° in the hind limb. The beam was centred 10-15 cm proximal to the cuticle in the front and 10-15 cm dorsal to the plantar edge of the sole in the hind foot depending on the size of the foot. The protocol developed can be used for larger-scale diagnostic investigations of captive elephant foot disorders, while the normal radiographic anatomy described can improve the diagnostic reliability of elephant feet radiography.

  8. Will it hurt? Verbal interaction between child and radiographer during radiographic examination.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Berit; Golsäter, Marie; Simeonson, Rune J; Enskär, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of verbal interactions between child, parent and radiographer and the extent to which it varied as a function of the child's age. The participants were 20 female radiographers and 32 children (3-15 years) examined for acute injuries. The verbal interactions during the examination were video recorded and analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Results indicated that 80% of the verbal interaction was accounted for by the radiographer, 17% by the child and 3% by the parent. The distribution of utterances varied with regard to children's age. PMID:23619022

  9. Comorbid illnesses and chest radiographic severity in African-American sarcoidosis patients.

    PubMed

    Westney, Gloria E; Habib, Sadia; Quarshie, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Sarcoidosis disease expression differs along racial/ethnic lines and black race has been cited as a poor prognostic factor. Besides genetic, healthcare, and socioeconomic factors, comorbid illnesses may influence sarcoidosis disease expression. We set out to investigate the association between comorbid illnesses and chest radiographic severity in a population of African-American sarcoidosis patients. The study was designed as a retrospective database analysis. The hospital and outpatient databases of the Grady Health System were searched to capture adult patients between November 1999 and December 2003 with the ICD-9 codes of 135 or 519.8, along with all associated secondary and tertiary diagnostic codes. Patient electronic pathology and radiographic reports were reviewed for tissue biopsies showing noncaseating granulomas and for chest radiographic Scadding stage. A total of 165 African-American patients were identified (64% female, 43 +/- 10 years old). Ninety percent (149/165) had comorbid illnesses. The most frequent chronic comorbid illnesses were hypertension (39%), diabetes mellitus (19%), anemia (19%), asthma (15%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (15%), depression (13%), and heart failure (10%). Females had increased frequency and clustering of chronic illnesses. Chest radiographic stages were more severe in patients with anemia, depression, and those less than 40 years old. Males, within each chronic illnesses category, had more severe CXR stages compared to females; however, significance was not achieved. We concluded that most adult patients with sarcoidosis have comorbid illnesses and these, in addition to gender differences, may influence sarcoidosis disease expression. Screening for comorbid illnesses should be an important aspect of sarcoidosis patient management.

  10. Hinged, Magnetic Holder For Radiographic Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Darryl E.

    1989-01-01

    Hinged holder equipped with magnets enables positive, accurate, and repeatable placement and orientation of radiographic film at hidden and otherwise inaccessible location. Made from simple, readily available parts. Film and holder inserted in end of duct and pulled along by magnets on outside. Holder removed by reversing sequence of motions.

  11. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  12. Pitfalls in Radiographic Interpretation of Emphysema Patients.

    PubMed

    Baik, Jun Hyun; Ko, Jeong Min; Park, Hyun Jin

    2016-08-01

    Emphysema commonly accompanies various complications such as pneumonia. Sometimes, these comorbidities look so strange on images, because destroyed airspaces could change the usual disease progression. So, we demonstrated various cases of common comorbidities with unusual radiographic findings in emphysema patients. Awareness of various findings of emphysema with commonly coexistent diseases may aid in the proper diagnosis and management of emphysema patients. PMID:27147485

  13. The radiographic investigation of two Egyptian mummies.

    PubMed

    Fodor, J; Malott, J C; King, A Y

    1983-01-01

    Radiography is a well-recognized method of nondestructive analysis of art objects and ancient relics. The methods and techniques used in the examination of two ancient Egyptian mummies are presented here. Additionally, the use of radiographic findings to help substantiate alleged historical information and to establish sex, age, and pathology of each specimen is discussed.

  14. Radiographic applications of spatial frequency multiplexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macovski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of spacial frequency encoding techniques which allow different regions of the X-ray spectrum to be encoded on conventional radiographs was studied. Clinical considerations were reviewed, as were experimental studies involving the encoding and decoding of X-ray images at different energies and the subsequent processing of the data to produce images of specific materials in the body.

  15. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... placed between the patient and the image receptor to reduce the amount of scattered radiation...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... placed between the patient and the image receptor to reduce the amount of scattered radiation...

  17. TECHNICAL TRAINING FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHERS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEARDEN, H.D.

    TO OFFSET THE PROBLEM OF A SHORTAGE OF QUALIFIED TECHNICIANS TO SERVE AS RADIOGRAPHERS IN INDUSTRY, 19 STUDENTS WERE TRAINED IN TWO CLASSES, THE FIRST CONSISTING OF 19, AND THE SECOND OF EIGHTEEN 30-HOUR WEEKS. ORGANIZED FORMAL OR LECTURE-TYPE INSTRUCTION WAS PRESENTED IN SOME SUBJECT AREAS, BUT THE MAJOR EMPHASIS WAS ON LABORATORY EXPERIENCES…

  18. Prognostic factors in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Braeckman, Johan; Michielsen, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    In the nineteenth century the main goal of medicine was predictive: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted to cure the disease. Since the twentieth century, the word prognosis has also been used in nonmedical contexts, for example in corporate finance or elections. The most accurate form of prognosis is achieved statistically. Based on different prognostic factors it should be possible to tell patients how they are expected to do after prostate cancer has been diagnosed and how different treatments may change this outcome. A prognosis is a prediction. The word prognosis comes from the Greek word (see text) and means foreknowing. In the nineteenth century this was the main goal of medicine: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted towards seeking a cure. Prognostic factors in (prostate) cancer are defined as "variables that can account for some of the heterogeneity associated with the expected course and outcome of a disease". Bailey defined prognosis as "a reasoned forecast concerning the course, pattern, progression, duration, and end of the disease. Prognostic factors are not only essential to understand the natural history and the course of the disease, but also to predict possible different outcomes of different treatments or perhaps no treatment at all. This is extremely important in a disease like prostate cancer where there is clear evidence that a substantial number of cases discovered by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing are unlikely ever to become clinically significant, not to mention mortal. Furthermore, prognostic factors are of paramount importance for correct interpretation of clinical trials and for the construction of future trials. Finally, according to WHO national screening committee criteria for implementing a national screening programme, widely accepted prognostic factors must be defined before

  19. Image rejects/retakes--radiographic challenges.

    PubMed

    Waaler, D; Hofmann, B

    2010-01-01

    A general held position among radiological personnel prior to digitalisation was that the problem of image rejects/retakes should more or less vanish. However, rejects/retakes still impose several challenges within radiographic imaging; they occupy unnecessary resources, expose patients to unnecessary ionizing radiation and may also indicate suboptimal quality management. The latter is the main objective of this paper, which is based on a survey of international papers published both for screen/film and digital technology. The digital revolution in imaging seems to have reduced the percentage of image rejects/retakes from 10-15 to 3-5 %. The major contribution to the decrease appears to be the dramatic reduction of incorrect exposures. At the same time, rejects/retakes due to lack of operator competence (positioning, etc.) are almost unchanged, or perhaps slightly increased (due to lack of proper technical competence, incorrect organ coding, etc.). However, the causes of rejects/retakes are in many cases defined and reported with reference to radiographers' subjective evaluations. Thus, unless radiographers share common views on image quality and acceptance criteria, objective measurements and assessments of reject/retake rates are challenging tasks. Interestingly, none of the investigated papers employs image quality parameters such as 'too much noise' as categories for rejects/retakes. Surprisingly, no reject/retake analysis seems yet to have been conducted for direct digital radiography departments. An increased percentage of rejects/retakes is related to 'digital skills' of radiographers and therefore points to areas for extended education and training. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate the inter-subjectivity of radiographers' perception of, and attitude towards, both technical and clinical image quality criteria. Finally, there may be a need to validate whether reject/retake rate analysis is such an effective quality indicator as has been asserted

  20. Reliability of Panoramic Radiographs in the Localization of Mandibular Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Karthikeya; Guledgud, Mahima V

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the reliability and accuracy of panoramic radiographs in the localization of mandibular foramen. Materials and Methods Twenty five Indian dry human adult mandibles constituted the study material. Ten measurements were carried on each of them to evaluate the location of mandibular foramen with respect to adjacent anatomic landmarks. Panoramic radiographs were then made of the mandibles. Same distances were measured on the traced images of the radiographs. Paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation test were applied to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of panoramic radiographs in localization of mandibular foramen. Results The mean distances measured on dry mandibles and panoramic radiographs showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was strong positive correlation between the measurements on dry mandible and panoramic radiographs. Conclusion The panoramic radiographs can serve as a guide in locating the anterosuperior point of mandibular foramen on panoramic radiographs. PMID:26155559

  1. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures to hold a radiographic film in close contact with an x-ray intensifying screen and to provide a...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures to hold a radiographic film in close contact with an x-ray intensifying screen and to provide a...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures to hold a radiographic film in close contact with an x-ray intensifying screen and to provide a...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures to hold a radiographic film in close contact with an x-ray intensifying screen and to provide a...

  5. Chest Radiographic Patterns and the Transmission of Tuberculosis: Implications for Automated Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Angela; Barrie, James; Winter, Christopher; Elamy, Abdel-Halim; Tyrrell, Gregory; Long, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Computer-aided detection to identify and diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis is being explored. While both cavitation on chest radiograph and smear-positivity on microscopy are independent risk factors for the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis it is unknown which radiographic pattern, were it detectable, would provide the greatest public health benefit; i.e. reduced transmission. Herein we provide that evidence. Objectives 1) to determine whether pulmonary tuberculosis in a high income, low incidence country is more likely to present with “typical” adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis radiographic features and 2) to determine whether those with “typical” radiographic features are more likely than those without such features to transmit the organism and/or cause secondary cases. Methods Over a three-year period beginning January 1, 2006 consecutive adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in the Province of Alberta, Canada, were identified and their pre-treatment radiographs scored by three independent readers as “typical” (having an upper lung zone predominant infiltrate, with or without cavitation but no discernable adenopathy) or “atypical” (all others). Each patient’s pre-treatment bacillary burden was carefully documented and, during a 30-month transmission window, each patient’s transmission events were recorded. Mycobacteriology, radiology and transmission were compared in those with “typical” versus “atypical” radiographs. Findings A total of 97 smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases were identified, 69 (71.1%) with and 28 (28.9%) without “typical” chest radiographs. “Typical” cases were more likely to have high bacillary burdens and cavitation (Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals: 2.75 [1.04–7.31] and 9.10 [2.51–32.94], respectively). Typical cases were also responsible for most transmission events—78% of tuberculin skin test conversions (p<0.002) and 95% of secondary cases in reported

  6. Salam's independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    In his kind review of my biography of the Nobel laureate Abdus Salam (December 2008 pp45-46), John W Moffat wrongly claims that Salam had "independently thought of the idea of parity violation in weak interactions".

  7. Maintaining Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upah-Bant, Marilyn

    1978-01-01

    Describes the over-all business and production operation of the "Daily Illini" at the University of Illinois to show how this college publication has assumed the burdens and responsibilities of true independence. (GW)

  8. Measuring x-ray spectra of flash radiographic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, Amanda Elizabeth; Espy, Michelle A.; Haines, Todd Joseph; Mendez, Jacob; Moir, David C.; Sedillo, Robert; Shurter, Roger P.; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Webb, Timothy J

    2015-11-02

    The x-ray spectra of flash radiographic sources is difficult to measure. The sources measured were Radiographic Integrated Test Stand-6 (370 rad at 1 m; 50 ns pulse) and Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) (550 rad at 1 m; 50 ns pulse). Features of the Compton spectrometer are described, and spectra are shown. Additional slides present data on instrumental calibration.

  9. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used...

  10. 10 CFR 34.33 - Permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permanent radiographic installations. 34.33 Section 34.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.33 Permanent radiographic installations....

  11. 10 CFR 34.33 - Permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent radiographic installations. 34.33 Section 34.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.33 Permanent radiographic installations....

  12. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used...

  7. Prognostic Significance of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Serum Determination in Women with Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Elisabetta; Franceschini, Roberta; Specchia, Claudia; Bignotti, Eliana; Trevisiol, Chiara; Gion, Massimo; Pecorelli, Sergio; Santin, Alessandro Davide; Ravaggi, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We performed a review of the literature to elucidate the potential prognostic significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (sVEGF) levels in ovarian cancer. Methods. Eligible studies in English and Italian were identified in MEDLINE/PubMed from VEGF discovery to October 2011. All studies evaluating: (i) sVEGF levels before any surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment; (ii) the association between sVEGF levels and the established prognostic variables; (iii) the value of sVEGF levels in predicting patients' outcomes, were selected for this review. Results. The search resulted in 758 titles. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. A statistically significant association between the level of sVEGF and FIGO stage, tumour grade, residual tumour size, lymph node involvement, and presence of ascites was found in at least one study. sVEGF, in comparison with the established prognostic factors, appears to be the best prognostic marker for overall survival, since it stands out as an independent prognostic factor in most of the studies considered. Moreover, sVEGF levels were shown to be independent prognostic factors by 2 out of the 3 studies that considered DFS as an end point. Conclusion. High levels of sVEGF identify a subgroup of patients with higher risk of death and/or recurrence. These patients should be eligible for individually tailored therapeutic interventions. PMID:22792477

  8. Clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors of Bordetella pertussis infection☆

    PubMed Central

    Bellettini, Camila Vieira; de Oliveira, Andressa Welter; Tusset, Cintia; Baethgen, Ludmila Fiorenzano; Amantéa, Sérgio Luís; Motta, Fabrizio; Gasparotto, Aline; Andreolla, Huander Felipe; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors for Bordetella pertussis infection. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, which analyzed medical records of all patients submitted to a molecular dignosis (qPCR) for B. pertussis from September 2011 to January 2013. Clinical and laboratorial data were reviewed, including information about age, sex, signs/symptoms, length of hospitalization, blood cell counts, imaging findings, coinfection with other respiratory pathogens and clinical outcome. RESULTS: 222 cases were revised. Of these, 72.5% had proven pertussis, and 60.9% were under 1 year old. In patients aging up to six months, independent predictors for B. pertussis infection were (OR 8.0, CI 95% 1.8-36.3; p=0.007) and lymphocyte count >104/µL (OR 10.0, CI 95% 1.8-54.5; p=0.008). No independent predictors of B. pertussis infection could be determined for patients older than six months. Co-infection was found in 21.4% of patients, of which 72.7% were up to six months of age. Adenovirus was the most common agent (40.9%). In these patients, we were not able to identify any clinical features to detect patients presenting with a respiratory co-infection, even though longer hospital stay was observed in patients with co-infections (12 vs. 6 days; p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Cyanosis and lymphocytosis are independent predictors for pertussis in children up to 6 months old. PMID:25510991

  9. Autophagy-related prognostic signature for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yunyan; Li, Pengfei; Peng, Fuduan; Zhang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liang, Haihai; Zhao, Wenyuan; Qi, Lishuang; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Chenguang; Guo, Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy is a process that degrades intracellular constituents, such as long-lived or damaged proteins and organelles, to buffer metabolic stress under starvation conditions. Deregulation of autophagy is involved in the progression of cancer. However, the predictive value of autophagy for breast cancer prognosis remains unclear. First, based on gene expression profiling, we found that autophagy genes were implicated in breast cancer. Then, using the Cox proportional hazard regression model, we detected autophagy prognostic signature for breast cancer in a training dataset. We identified a set of eight autophagy genes (BCL2, BIRC5, EIF4EBP1, ERO1L, FOS, GAPDH, ITPR1 and VEGFA) that were significantly associated with overall survival in breast cancer. The eight autophagy genes were assigned as a autophagy-related prognostic signature for breast cancer. Based on the autophagy-related signature, the training dataset GSE21653 could be classified into high-risk and low-risk subgroups with significantly different survival times (HR = 2.72, 95% CI = (1.91, 3.87); P = 1.37 × 10(-5)). Inactivation of autophagy was associated with shortened survival of breast cancer patients. The prognostic value of the autophagy-related signature was confirmed in the testing dataset GSE3494 (HR = 2.12, 95% CI = (1.48, 3.03); P = 1.65 × 10(-3)) and GSE7390 (HR = 1.76, 95% CI = (1.22, 2.54); P = 9.95 × 10(-4)). Further analysis revealed that the prognostic value of the autophagy signature was independent of known clinical prognostic factors, including age, tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, ERBB2 status, lymph node status and TP53 mutation status. Finally, we demonstrated that the autophagy signature could also predict distant metastasis-free survival for breast cancer.

  10. Incidental findings of pathology and abnormality in pretreatment orthodontic panoramic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Bondemark, Lars; Jeppsson, Malin; Lindh-Ingildsen, Lina; Rangne, Klara

    2006-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs, in combination with a clinical examination, are routinely used as an aid to orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and location of incidental findings of pathology and abnormalities in pretreatment orthodontic panoramic radiographs. A total of 496 patients (232 girls and 264 boys; mean age 11.2 years, SD 2.33) were randomly selected from the Orthodontic Clinic at the Faculty of Odontology, University of Malmö, Sweden. All radiographic examinations were performed between 1999 and 2003 at the Department of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Odontology, University of Malmö, Sweden. Two independent examiners analyzed the radiographs for abnormalities and diagnoses of pathology. However, caries and findings related to the orthodontic treatment plan, such as eruption disturbances and missing or supernumerary teeth, were not recorded. All radiographs with positive findings were reexamined by a third examiner, a specialist registrar in oral radiology. A total of 56 findings in 43 patients (8.7%) were recorded, and significantly more findings were detected in girls (P = .007). The most common findings were radiopacities (idiopathic sclerosis) in alveolar bone (n = 22), thickening of mucosal lining in sinus maxillaris (n = 15), and periapical inflammatory lesions (n = 10). The majority of the periapical lesions and radiopacities were found in the mandible. In most cases, the findings had no consequence for the orthodontic treatment plan and did not require medical or odontological management. However, the clinician should be aware of the potential to detect pathology and abnormality in pretreatment orthodontic panoramic radiographs. PMID:16448276

  11. Clinical and Histopathological Prognostic Factors in Chondrosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Myhre-Jensen, Olaf; Schiødt, Torben; Jurik, Anne G.; Keller, Johnny; Mouridsen, Henning T.; Lund, Bjarne

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. In an attempt to identify clinical and histopathological factors of prognostic importance in chondrosarcomas, 115 cases of malignant and borderline chondromatous tumours were reviewed. Patients/methods. Histopathological features tested for prognostic information as well as reproducibility included cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, multinucleated cells, mitotic activity and grade. Eleven patients had a biopsy only, and a short survival (median 2.0 years); these were excluded from further analysis. The remaining 104 patients who had received intended curative treatment had a median survival of 14.7 years. Results. In univariate analysis, tumour size, extra-compartmental growth, surgical margin and sex were significantly correlated to recurrence-free survival (RFS); sex was marginally significant while age, site and pathological parameters were not significant. Overall survival (OAS) was likewise found to be independent of pathological features as well as site, size and surgical margin; but age, sex and extra-compartmental growth were statistically significant. However, when the same parameters were entered into a stepwise Cox (multivariate) analysis, only surgical margin, cellularity and pleomorphism were significantly related to RFS; margin, grade, pleomorphism and age to OAS. Overall inter-observer agreement on grade was relatively low: 0.54, with a Kappa value of 0.32. It was not better for the other histological parameters, with the exception of the mitotic count. However, acceptable values were achieved when the material was divided into low-grade (grade I and below) vs high-grade (grade II and III) lesions: overall agreement 0.79, Kappa 0.56. Discussion. Although the grading of chondrosarcomas is in need of improvement, its replacement by semiquantitative evaluation of individual histopathological parameters as performed in this study offers no advantage. Among the clinical parameters, only the adequacy of the surgical treatment and the patient's age

  12. Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Ovarian and Uterine Carcinosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cicin, İrfan; Özatlı, Tahsin; Türkmen, Esma; Özturk, Türkan; Özçelik, Melike; Çabuk, Devrim; Gökdurnalı, Ayşe; Balvan, Özlem; Yıldız, Yaşar; Şeker, Metin; Özdemir, Nuriye; Yapar, Burcu; Tanrıverdi, Özgür; Günaydin, Yusuf; Menekşe, Serkan; Öksüzoğlu, Berna; Aksoy, Asude; Erdogan, Bülent; Bekir Hacıoglu, M.; Arpaci, Erkan; Sevinç, Alper

    2016-01-01

    serous/clear cell component was a negative prognostic factor (p=0.035). Patients with serous/clear cell histology for whom adjuvant chemotherapy was applied had significantly longer OS (p=0.019), and there was no beneficial effect of adjuvant radiotherapy (p=0.4). Adjuvant chemotherapy was effective in heterologous tumours (p=0.026). In multivariate analysis, the stage and chemotherapy were prognostic factors for all patients. Age was an independent prognostic factor for UCS. However, serous/clear cell histology and radiotherapy tended to be significant prognostic factors. Conclusion: The primary location, the histological type of sarcomatous and the epithelial component may be predictive factors for the efficacy of chemotherapy or radiotherapy in UCS and OCS. PMID:27761279

  13. Towards Prognostics for Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Celaya, Jose R.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

    2013-01-01

    Electronics components have an increasingly critical role in avionics systems and in the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research field as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management information. This paper focuses on a prognostics application for electronics components within avionics systems, and in particular its application to an Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). This application utilizes the remaining useful life prediction, accomplished by employing the particle filter framework, leveraging data from accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. These tests induced thermal-electrical overstresses by applying thermal cycling to the IGBT devices. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

  14. Enhancement of chest radiographs using eigenimage processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bones, Philip J.; Butler, Anthony P. H.; Hurrell, Michael

    2006-08-01

    Frontal chest radiographs ("chest X-rays") are routinely used by medical personnel to assess patients for a wide range of suspected disorders. Often large numbers of images need to be analyzed. Furthermore, at times the images need to analyzed ("reported") when no radiological expert is available. A system which enhances the images in such a way that abnormalities are more obvious is likely to reduce the chance that an abnormality goes unnoticed. The authors previously reported the use of principal components analysis to derive a basis set of eigenimages from a training set made up of images from normal subjects. The work is here extended to investigate how best to emphasize the abnormalities in chest radiographs. Results are also reported for various forms of image normalizing transformations used in performing the eigenimage processing.

  15. [Radiographic diagnosis of vertical root fracture].

    PubMed

    Guangning, Zheng; Jiyao, Li

    2016-02-01

    Vertical root fracture (VRF) is different from odontoclasis caused by trauma or injury. VRF is defined as a complete or incomplete fracture of roots caused by long-term and persistent stimulus, such as excessive forces from mastication or occlusion, improper tooth anatomy, and tooth treatment accident. Early diagnosis of VRF is essential to prevent the absorption of alveolar bone, thereby improving prognosis. Radiographic examination is the most common and effective evaluation method for VRF. Cone beam computed tomography can provide three-dimensional information for fracture details, which are more precise than traditional periapical films. In this paper, we present the radiographic features, differential diagnosis, and new treatment techniques for VRF. PMID:27266189

  16. Morphometric comparison of clavicle outlines from 3D bone scans and 2D chest radiographs: a shortlisting tool to assist radiographic identification of human skeletons.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Carl N; Amidan, Brett; Trease, Harold; Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Pulsipher, Trenton; Byrd, John E

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a computerized clavicle identification system primarily designed to resolve the identities of unaccounted-for U.S. soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Elliptical Fourier analysis is used to quantify the clavicle outline shape from skeletons and postero-anterior antemortem chest radiographs to rank individuals in terms of metric distance. Similar to leading fingerprint identification systems, shortlists of the top matching candidates are extracted for subsequent human visual assessment. Two independent tests of the computerized system using 17 field-recovered skeletons and 409 chest radiographs demonstrate that true-positive matches are captured within the top 5% of the sample 75% of the time. These results are outstanding given the eroded state of some field-recovered skeletons and the faintness of the 1950's photofluorographs. These methods enhance the capability to resolve several hundred cold cases for which little circumstantial information exists and current DNA and dental record technologies cannot be applied. PMID:24313347

  17. Morphometric comparison of clavicle outlines from 3D bone scans and 2D chest radiographs: a shortlisting tool to assist radiographic identification of human skeletons.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Carl N; Amidan, Brett; Trease, Harold; Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Pulsipher, Trenton; Byrd, John E

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a computerized clavicle identification system primarily designed to resolve the identities of unaccounted-for U.S. soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Elliptical Fourier analysis is used to quantify the clavicle outline shape from skeletons and postero-anterior antemortem chest radiographs to rank individuals in terms of metric distance. Similar to leading fingerprint identification systems, shortlists of the top matching candidates are extracted for subsequent human visual assessment. Two independent tests of the computerized system using 17 field-recovered skeletons and 409 chest radiographs demonstrate that true-positive matches are captured within the top 5% of the sample 75% of the time. These results are outstanding given the eroded state of some field-recovered skeletons and the faintness of the 1950's photofluorographs. These methods enhance the capability to resolve several hundred cold cases for which little circumstantial information exists and current DNA and dental record technologies cannot be applied.

  18. Morphometric Comparison of Clavicle Outlines from 3D Bone Scans and 2D Chest Radiographs: A Short-listing Tool to Assist Radiographic Identification of Human Skeletons

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Carl N.; Amidan, Brett G.; Trease, Harold E.; Guyomarch, Pierre; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Byrd, John E.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a computerized clavicle identification system, primarily designed to resolve the identities of unaccounted for US soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Elliptical Fourier analysis is used to quantify the clavicle outline shape from skeletons and postero-anterior antemortem chest radiographs to rank individuals in terms of metric distance. Similar to leading fingerprint identification systems, shortlists of the top matching candidates are extracted for subsequent human visual assessment. Two independent tests of the computerized system using 17 field-recovered skeletons and 409 chest radiographs demonstrate that true positive matches are captured within the top 5% of the sample 75% of the time. These results are outstanding given the eroded state of some field-recovered skeletons and the faintness of the 1950’s photoflurographs. These methods enhance the capability to resolve several hundred cold cases for which little circumstantial information exists and current DNA and dental record technologies cannot be applied.

  19. Prognostic significance of c-Myc expression in soft tissue leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Tsiatis, Athanasios C; Herceg, Megan E; Keedy, Vicki L; Halpern, Jennifer L; Holt, Ginger E; Schwartz, Herbert S; Cates, Justin M M

    2009-11-01

    The biological potential of soft tissue leiomyosarcoma is difficult to predict using current standard prognostic parameters, and control of systemic disease is challenging with current chemotherapeutic protocols. Additional prognostic markers and alternative treatment options are very much required. Previous studies implicate upregulation of the oncogenic nuclear transcription factor c-Myc with aggressive behavior of many solid tumors. Therefore, this oncoprotein was evaluated as a prognostic marker for overall and metastasis-free survival in leiomyosarcoma. Immunohistochemical stains for c-Myc were performed on 28 cases of leiomyosarcoma occurring in the deep somatic soft tissues. Comparisons of Kaplan-Meier survival curves stratified by c-Myc status and conventional prognostic factors (histological grade, tumor size, and tumor stage) were evaluated using standard univariate statistical methods. A subsequent multivariate survival analysis was carried out according to the Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusting for potential confounding prognostic factors. A total of 15 cases (54%) were positive for nuclear c-Myc expression. Patients with c-Myc-positive tumors had significantly shorter metastasis-free survival intervals compared with those with c-Myc-negative tumors (median, 9 months vs. >94 months; P=0.014). c-Myc positivity also correlated with decreased overall survival (median, 23 months vs. >94 months; P=0.017). Histological grade was the only other prognostic marker predictive of poor outcome in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate survival analysis, only c-Myc status reached statistical significance, suggesting that it is an important and independent predictor of prognosis in leiomyosarcoma. Detection of nuclear c-Myc in leiomyosarcoma predicts decreased overall and metastasis-free survival, independent of standard prognostic variables, tumor size, histological grade, and TNM stage. The expression of this oncoprotein may represent a

  20. Neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Sandroni, Claudio; Geocadin, Romergryko G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Prediction of neurological prognosis in patients who are comatose after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest remains difficult. Previous guidelines recommended ocular reflexes, somatosensory evoked potentials and serum biomarkers for predicting poor outcome within 72h from cardiac arrest. However, these guidelines were based on patients not treated with targeted temperature management and did not appropriately address important biases in literature. Recent findings Recent evidence reviews detected important limitations in prognostication studies, such as low precision and, most importantly, lack of blinding, which may have caused a self-fulfilling prophecy and overestimated the specificity of index tests. Maintenance of targeted temperature using sedatives and muscle relaxants may interfere with clinical examination, making assessment of neurological status before 72 h or more after cardiac arrest unreliable. Summary No index predicts poor neurological outcome after cardiac arrest with absolute certainty. Prognostic evaluation should start not earlier than 72 h after ROSC and only after major confounders have been excluded so that reliable clinical examination can be made. Multimodality appears to be the most reasonable approach for prognostication after cardiac arrest. PMID:25922894

  1. Clinical and radiographic maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Nilton; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review of the literature to determine the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis emphasizing the main aspects of interest to the dentist in order to make them fit for the proper treatment of this population. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible in order to plan the treatment more suitable to provide a better life’s quality to the patients. The most frequent clinical maxillofacial features were: grooved palate, midfacial hypoplasia, mandibular hypoplasia and enamel hypoplasia. The most common radiographic maxillofacial features were: obtuse mandibular angle, frontal/parietal/occiptal bossing, open fontanels and sutures, multiple impacted teeth. The earlier diagnostic of pycnodysostosis has a fundamental role in general health of the patients. We consider that is very important that the dentist know recognize the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis, which allows correct treatment planning avoiding risks and ensuring better life’s quality to the patients. PMID:24753741

  2. The Expression and Prognostic Roles of MCMs in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ling-Di; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Guo, Song; Fu, Yue; Miao, Yi; Wei, Ji-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins play important roles in DNA replication by interacting with other factors which participate in the regulation of DNA synthesis. Abnormal over-expression of MCMs was observed in numerous malignancies, such as colorectal cancer. However, the expression of MCMs in pancreatic cancer (PC) was less investigated so far. This study was designed to analyze the expression and prognostic roles of MCM1-10 in PC based on the data provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methods Pearson χ2 test was applied to evaluate the association of MCMs expression with clinicopathologic indicators, and biomarkers for tumor biological behaviors. Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank tests were used to assess survival analysis, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to recognize independent prognostic factors. Results MCM1-10 were generally expressed in PC samples. The levels of some molecules were markedly correlated with that of biomarkers for S phase, proliferation, gemcitabine resistance. And part of these molecules over-expression was significantly associated with indicators of disease progression, such as depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, MCM2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 over-expression was remarkably associated with shorter disease free survival time, and MCM2, 4,8, and 10 over-expression was associated with shorter overall survival time. Further multivariate analysis suggested that MCM8 was an independent prognostic factor for PC. Conclusion MCMs abnormal over-expression was significantly associated with PC progression and prognosis. These molecules could be regarded as prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers for PC. The roles of MCMs may be vitally important and the underlying mechanisms need to be furtherinvestigated. PMID:27695057

  3. The prognostic role of desmoplastic stroma in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Soonawalla, Zahir; Liu, Stanley; O'Neill, Eric; Mukherjee, Somnath; McKenna, W. Gillies; Muschel, Ruth; Fokas, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an abundant desmoplastic stroma. We examined the prognostic value of stroma density and activity in patients with resectable PDAC treated with surgery and adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. FFPE-tissue from the pancreatectomy of 145 patients was immunohistochemically stained for haematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome to assess stroma density, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression for activated pancreatic stellate cells. Their expression was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics as well as overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastases free-survival (DMFS). After a mean follow-up of 20 months (range, 2–69 months), the median OS was 21 months and the 3-year OS was 35.7%. In multivariate analysis, highly-dense stroma was an independent prognostic parameter for OS (p = 0.001), PFS (p = 0.007), LPFS (p = 0.001) and DMFS (p = 0.002), while αSMA expression lacked significance. Interestingly, highly-dense stroma retained significance for the four clinical endpoints only in early (pT1–2) but not late (pT3–4) stage tumors. Additionally, late pT-stage (pT3–4), the presence of lymph node metastases (pN+ vs pN0), perineural/neural invasion and administration of adjuvant chemotherapy also correlated with prognosis in multivariate analysis. Altogether, stroma density constitutes an independent prognostic marker in PDAC patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings highlight the dynamic complexity of desmoplasia and indicate that highly-dense stroma is correlated with better outcome. Further validation of the prognostic value of stroma as a biomarker and its role in PDAC patients after adjuvant chemotherapy is warranted and will be performed in a prospective study. PMID:26716653

  4. Baseline nutritional status is prognostic factor after definitive radiochemotherapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Clavier, J-B; Antoni, D; Atlani, D; Ben Abdelghani, M; Schumacher, C; Dufour, P; Kurtz, J-E; Noel, G

    2014-08-01

    Identify prognostic factors for survival and patterns of treatment failure after definitive radiochemotherapy for esophageal cancer. Between 2003 and 2006, 143 patients with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus were retrospectively reviewed. Median age was 65 years (42-81). Median radiation dose was 62.5 Gy (38-72) with 1.8-2 Gy fraction. Median follow-up was 20.8 months (2.8-92.4). Three and 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates were 58.3% and 50.9%. In univariate analysis, traversable esophageal stricture was a prognostic factor. Three, 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival rates were 42.4% and 34.9%. In multivariate analysis, traversable esophageal stricture and stage < IIB were independent prognostic factors. Three and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 30.5% and 25.9%. In multivariate analysis, Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) ≥ 97.5 and performance status (PS) = 0 were independent prognostic factors. Median, 3, and 5-year overall survival rates were 22.1 months, 34.4%, and 19.8%. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were NRI ≥ 97.5 and PS = 0. Median survival times for the NRI classes (no denutrition, moderate and severe denutrition) were 29.5, 19.7, and 12 months (P = 0.0004), respectively. A major impact of baseline NRI was found in terms of survival; it should be included in future prospective trials.

  5. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the Rehabilitation Act of…

  6. The influence of hip rotation on femoral offset in plain radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Frink, Michael; Gulati, Aashish; Murray, David; Renkawitz, Tobias; Bücking, Benjamin; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Boese, Christoph Kolja

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Adequate restoration of femoral offset (FO) is critical for successful outcome after hip arthroplasty or fixation of hip fracture. Previous studies have identified that hip rotation influences the projected femoral offset (FOP) on plain anteroposterior (AP) radiographs, but the precise effect of rotation is unknown. Patients and methods We developed a novel method of assessing rotation-corrected femoral offset (FORC), tested its clinical application in 222 AP hip radiographs following proximal femoral nailing, and validated it in 25 cases with corresponding computed tomography (CT) scans. Results The mean FORC was 57 (29–93) mm, which differed significantly (p < 0.001) from the mean FOP 49 (22–65) mm and from the mean femoral offset determined by the standard method: 49 (23–66) mm. FORC correlated closely with femoral offset assessed by CT (FOCT); the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.88–0.97). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the assessment of FORC by AP hip radiographs correlating the repeated measurements of 1 observer and of 2 independent blinded observers was 1.0 and 1.0, respectively. Interpretation Hip rotation affects the FOP on plain AP radiographs of the hip in a predictable way and should be adequately accounted for. PMID:24954484

  7. Distilling the Verification Process for Prognostics Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Indranil; Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose R.; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The goal of prognostics and health management (PHM) systems is to ensure system safety, and reduce downtime and maintenance costs. It is important that a PHM system is verified and validated before it can be successfully deployed. Prognostics algorithms are integral parts of PHM systems. This paper investigates a systematic process of verification of such prognostics algorithms. To this end, first, this paper distinguishes between technology maturation and product development. Then, the paper describes the verification process for a prognostics algorithm as it moves up to higher maturity levels. This process is shown to be an iterative process where verification activities are interleaved with validation activities at each maturation level. In this work, we adopt the concept of technology readiness levels (TRLs) to represent the different maturity levels of a prognostics algorithm. It is shown that at each TRL, the verification of a prognostics algorithm depends on verifying the different components of the algorithm according to the requirements laid out by the PHM system that adopts this prognostics algorithm. Finally, using simplified examples, the systematic process for verifying a prognostics algorithm is demonstrated as the prognostics algorithm moves up TRLs.

  8. Understanding independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annan, James; Hargreaves, Julia

    2016-04-01

    In order to perform any Bayesian processing of a model ensemble, we need a prior over the ensemble members. In the case of multimodel ensembles such as CMIP, the historical approach of ``model democracy'' (i.e. equal weight for all models in the sample) is no longer credible (if it ever was) due to model duplication and inbreeding. The question of ``model independence'' is central to the question of prior weights. However, although this question has been repeatedly raised, it has not yet been satisfactorily addressed. Here I will discuss the issue of independence and present a theoretical foundation for understanding and analysing the ensemble in this context. I will also present some simple examples showing how these ideas may be applied and developed.

  9. The clinical impact of staging bone marrow examination on treatment decisions and prognostic assessment of lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Painter, Dan; Smith, Alexandra; de Tute, Ruth; Crouch, Simon; Roman, Eve; Jack, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the value of performing a staging bone marrow in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL) and classical hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). The results of 3112 staging bone marrow examinations were assessed for impact on prognostic assessment and critical treatment decisions. The detection of marrow involvement altered the disease-specific prognostic index for 4·3% of DLBCL, 6·2% of FL and 0·6% of CHL but marrow involvement in DLBCL was an independent prognostic factor. Knowing the marrow status potentially changed treatment in 92 patients, detection of these patients would have required 854 examinations to be performed.

  10. Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

  11. Mesiodens: a radiographic study in children.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Kaan; Celenk, Peruze; Zengin, Zeynep; Sümer, Pinar

    2008-09-01

    We analyzed the frequency and radiological features of mesiodens in a group of children in Turkey. The study was based on a radiographic review of 23,000 pediatric patients (male: 12,667 female; 10,333) who visited the Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology during the period 2003-2005 (3 years). The presence of an unerupted supernumerary tooth, or tooth bud between the 2 central incisors or as unilateral or bilateral teeth in the midline of the maxilla was noted as mesiodens on radiographs. Eighty-five cases of mesiodens in 69 patients were found. Complete documentation, including radiographs, for these 69 patients were studied and analyzed. In addition to gender and age, the following information about the mesiodens was recorded: 1) number; 2) shape; 3) position; 4) complications caused by the mesiodens; 5) treatment. Of the 69 patients, the ratio of boys (47 cases) to girls (22 cases) was 2.1:1. Fifty-three (76.8%) of the children had 1 mesiodens, and 16 (23.1%) had 2 mesiodentes bilaterally to the midline. Of the 85 mesiodentes, 67 (78.8%) were fully impacted, 6 (7%) were partially erupted, and 12 (14.1%) were fully erupted. Most of the mesiodentes (55.2%) were found in the vertical position, followed by inverted position (37.6%), and horizontal position (7%). The main complications were delayed eruption of the permanent incisors (38.8%), maxillary midline diastema (17.6%), axial rotation or inclination of erupted permanent incisors (16.4%), and resorption of the adjacent teeth (4.7%) The prevelance of mesiodens has been estimated to be 0.15% to 2.2% of the population. PMID:18818464

  12. Segmentation of ribs in digital chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Lin; Guo, Wei; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Ribs and clavicles in posterior-anterior (PA) digital chest radiographs often overlap with lung abnormalities such as nodules, and cause missing of these abnormalities, it is therefore necessary to remove or reduce the ribs in chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to develop a fully automated algorithm to segment ribs within lung area in digital radiography (DR) for removal of the ribs. The rib segmentation algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, a radiograph was pre-processed for contrast adjustment and noise removal; second, generalized Hough transform was employed to localize the lower boundary of the ribs. In the third step, a novel bilateral dynamic programming algorithm was used to accurately segment the upper and lower boundaries of ribs simultaneously. The width of the ribs and the smoothness of the rib boundaries were incorporated in the cost function of the bilateral dynamic programming for obtaining consistent results for the upper and lower boundaries. Our database consisted of 93 DR images, including, respectively, 23 and 70 images acquired with a DR system from Shanghai United-Imaging Healthcare Co. and from GE Healthcare Co. The rib localization algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 98.2% with 0.1 false positives per image. The accuracy of the detected ribs was further evaluated subjectively in 3 levels: "1", good; "2", acceptable; "3", poor. The percentages of good, acceptable, and poor segmentation results were 91.1%, 7.2%, and 1.7%, respectively. Our algorithm can obtain good segmentation results for ribs in chest radiography and would be useful for rib reduction in our future study.

  13. Systematic review of prognostic factors predicting outcome in non-surgically treated patients with sciatica.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, A J H; Luijsterburg, P A J; Lin, C W C; Jacobs, W C H; Koes, B W; Verhagen, A P

    2013-09-01

    Identification of prognostic factors for surgery in patients with sciatica is important to be able to predict surgery in an early stage. Identification of prognostic factors predicting persistent pain, disability and recovery are important for better understanding of the clinical course, to inform patient and physician and support decision making. Consequently, we aimed to systematically review prognostic factors predicting outcome in non-surgically treated patients with sciatica. A search of Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cinahl, up to March 2012 was performed for prospective cohort studies on prognostic factors for non-surgically treated sciatica. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias. Outcomes were pain, disability, recovery and surgery. A best evidence synthesis was carried out in order to assess and summarize the data. The initial search yielded 4392 articles of which 23 articles reporting on 14 original cohorts met the inclusion criteria. High clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity among studies was found. Reported evidence regarding prognostic factors predicting the outcome in sciatica is limited. The majority of factors that have been evaluated, e.g., age, body mass index, smoking and sensory disturbance, showed no association with outcome. The only positive association with strong evidence was found for leg pain intensity at baseline as prognostic factor for subsequent surgery.

  14. Inspecting Pipe Radiographically Through Asbestos Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianettino, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Welds between sections of insulated steampipe located and inspected radiographically. Unless need to repair defective weld, one avoids cost, time, and hazard of removing asbestos insulation. Enables inspectors to locate and evaluate nondestructively any weld in pipe system, without shutting down steam. Hidden weld joints first located by use of low-power fluoroscope, moved along pipe while technician observes fluoroscopic image. Low-energy x rays from fluoroscope penetrate insulation but not pipe. Weld bead appears in silhouette on fluoroscope screen. Technician then accurately marks weld sites on insulation for later inspection.

  15. A prognostic gene expression signature in infratentorial ependymoma

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Khalida; Armstrong, Terri; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Raghunathan, Aditya; Ellison, David; Gilbertson, Richard; Vaillant, Brian; Goldman, Stewart; Packer, Roger J.; Fouladi, Maryam; Pollack, Ian; Mikkelsen, Tom; Prados, Michael; Omuro, Antonio; Soffietti, Riccardo; Ledoux, Alicia; Wilson, Charmaine; Long, Lihong; Gilbert, Mark; Aldape, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Patients with ependymoma exhibit a wide range of clinical outcomes that is currently unexplained by clinical or histological factors. Little is known regarding molecular biomarkers that could predict clinical behavior. Since recent data suggests that these tumors display biological characteristics according to their location (cerebral vs. infratentorial vs. spinal cord), rather than explore a broad spectrum of ependymoma, we focused on molecular alterations in ependymomas arising in the infratentorial compartment. Unsupervised clustering of available gene expression microarray data revealed two major subgroups of infratentorial ependymoma. Group 1 tumors over expressed genes that were associated with mesenchyme, Group 2 tumors showed no distinct gene ontologies. To assess the prognostic significance of these gene expression subgroups, real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on genes defining the subgroups in a training set. This resulted in a 10-gene prognostic signature. Multivariate analysis showed that the 10-gene signature was an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival after adjusting for clinical factors. Evaluation of an external dataset describing subgroups of infratentorial ependymomas showed concordance of subgroup definition, including validation of the mesenchymal subclass. Importantly, the 10-gene signature was validated as a predictor of recurrence-free survival in this dataset. Taken together, the results indicate a link between clinical outcome and biologically-identified subsets of infratentorial ependymoma and offer the potential for prognostic testing to estimate clinical aggressiveness in these tumors. PMID:22322993

  16. Prognostic role of pneumonia in supracricoid and supraglottic laryngectomies.

    PubMed

    Gallo, O; Deganello, A; Gitti, G; Santoro, R; Senesi, M; Scala, J; Boddi, V; De Campora, E

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify host and tumour factors associated with postoperative pneumonia (PP) in a selected population of laryngeal cancer patients, treated by partial laryngectomy in 20 years at our Institution and to assess its potential prognostic impact. Clinical records of 416 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed. Tobacco consumption, body mass index (BMI), previous pulmonary disease, age, sex, preoperative blood gas analysis values, tumour stage and type of surgery were tested as potential risk factors for PP. Finally, the prognostic impact of these variables, including PP, in terms of disease-free and actuarial survival by Kaplan-Meier and Cox analyses were evaluated. PP developed in 73 patients (16.8%). We identified two groups of patients: 26 patients experienced an early PP within the first 7-9 days after surgery, whilst 44 experienced an ab ingestis PP following attempts of oral food intake restoration, three patients died for PP related sepsis. At multivariate Cox analysis, age older than 60 years and BMI greater than 30 were statistically associated with early PP; whereas male gender and laryngectomy with neck dissection were statistically related to a higher risk of ab ingestis PP. Interestingly, the occurrence of early PP was a negative independent prognostic factor for 5-years disease-free and actuarial survival (p=0.049 and p=0.001, respectively). The occurrence of early-onset pneumonia in laryngeal cancer patients selected for conservative laryngectomies is predictable and associated with poor clinical outcome.

  17. Prognostic Impact of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yuan; Chen, Xiaolei; Zhou, Huixing; Zhu, Wanqiu; Liu, Nian; Geng, Chuanying; Chen, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of specific cytogenetic abnormalities by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (i-FISH) has become a routine procedure for prognostic stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. In this study, the prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) in 229 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients was retrospectively analyzed. Results showed that del (17p), t(4;14), and 1q21 gain were adverse predictors of progression-free survival (PFS). Patients who carried these cytogenetic abnormalities were more likely to have more adverse biological parameters and lower response rate. Multivariate analysis showed that del (17p), t(4;14), and 1q21 gain were statistically independent predictors of PFS, whereas del (17p) was also adverse predictor of overall survival. Multiple coexisting cytogenetic abnormalities also had a negative correlation with PFS. Bortezomib-based therapy could improve the rate and depth of response in patients with t(4;14) translocation and 1q21 gain. Autologous stem cell transplantation could improve, but not overcome the adverse prognostic effect of high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. These results demonstrate that MM patients with iFISH abnormalities, especially del (17p), are more likely to have a poor prognosis. PMID:27175647

  18. A prognostic gene expression signature in infratentorial ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Wani, Khalida; Armstrong, Terri S; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Raghunathan, Aditya; Ellison, David; Gilbertson, Richard; Vaillant, Brian; Goldman, Stewart; Packer, Roger J; Fouladi, Maryam; Pollack, Ian; Mikkelsen, Tom; Prados, Michael; Omuro, Antonio; Soffietti, Riccardo; Ledoux, Alicia; Wilson, Charmaine; Long, Lihong; Gilbert, Mark R; Aldape, Ken

    2012-05-01

    Patients with ependymoma exhibit a wide range of clinical outcomes that are currently unexplained by clinical or histological factors. Little is known regarding molecular biomarkers that could predict clinical behavior. Since recent data suggest that these tumors display biological characteristics according to their location (cerebral vs. infratentorial vs. spinal cord), rather than explore a broad spectrum of ependymoma, we focused on molecular alterations in ependymomas arising in the infratentorial compartment. Unsupervised clustering of available gene expression microarray data revealed two major subgroups of infratentorial ependymoma. Group 1 tumors over expressed genes that were associated with mesenchyme, Group 2 tumors showed no distinct gene ontologies. To assess the prognostic significance of these gene expression subgroups, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on genes defining the subgroups in a training set. This resulted in a 10-gene prognostic signature. Multivariate analysis showed that the 10-gene signature was an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival after adjusting for clinical factors. Evaluation of an external dataset describing subgroups of infratentorial ependymomas showed concordance of subgroup definition, including validation of the mesenchymal subclass. Importantly, the 10-gene signature was validated as a predictor of recurrence-free survival in this dataset. Taken together, the results indicate a link between clinical outcome and biologically identified subsets of infratentorial ependymoma and offer the potential for prognostic testing to estimate clinical aggressiveness in these tumors.

  19. The prognostic role of PRUNE2 in leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin-Ru; Tian, Wei; Wang, Guo-Wen; Chen, Ke-Xin; Yang, Ji-Long

    2013-12-01

    PRUNE2 plays an important role in regulating tumor cell differentiation, proliferation, and invasiveness in neuroblastoma. Our previous study revealed that PRUNE2/OBSCN two-gene relative expression classifer accurately differentiated leiomyosarcoma from gastrointestinal stromal tumor. However, the association between PRUNE2 expression and prognosis in leiomyosarcoma is poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic role of PRUNE2 in leiomyosarcoma. PRUNE2 expression was detected using immunohistochemistry in 30 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded leiomyosarcoma tissues from MD Anderson Cancer Center, and high expression was detected in 36.7% (11/30) of the samples. To validate these results, immunohistochemistry was performed on another cohort of 45 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded leiomyosarcoma tissues from Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute & Hospital, and high PRUNE2 protein expression was detected in 37.8% (17/45) of the samples. Moreover, elevated PRUNE2 expression was significantly associated with tumor size (P = 0.03) and hemorrhage/cyst (P = 0.014), and was an independent favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in leiomyosarcoma patients from Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute & Hospital (P < 0.05). These data suggest that increased PRUNE2 protein expression may serve as a favorable prognostic marker in human leiomyosarcoma.

  20. [Quality of dental radiographs. A sample from 52 general practices].

    PubMed

    Mol, A; Hack, B; van Aken, J; van Straaten, F J; van Foreest, J D

    1989-12-01

    To assess the quality of dental radiographs in general practice, 1000 radiographs in 52 practices were collected and evaluated. The radiographs were judged by two examiners using standard series of X-ray film, showing different degrees of the nine different types of errors studied. Furthermore, the diagnostic quality was assessed; if the diagnostic value was poor, the cause was registered. Only 3.1% of the investigated radiographs met all the criteria, and the quality of 13.4% was found to be poor. The main causes were filmpositioning, density and errors in the category 'residual'. It also appeared that a combination of errors in one radiograph, which were individually not very serious, resulted in an unacceptable radiograph.

  1. Structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis as visualized through radiographs

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Several agents show an effect on reducing radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis. It is tempting to retrospectively compare the effects of these agents on radiographic progression across clinical trials. However, there are several limitations in interpreting and comparing radiographic results across clinical trials. These limitations, including study designs, patient characteristics, durations of follow-up, scoring methodologies, reader reliability, radiograph sequence, handling of missing data, and data presentation, will be discussed. The consequences are illustrated with several examples of recent clinical trials that show an effect on radiographic progression. A guide in the interpretation and clinical relevance of radiographic results is presented, with the Anti-TNF Trial in Rheumatoid Arthritis with Concomitant Therapy used as an example. PMID:12110155

  2. Prognostic value of sarcopenia in liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Cornet, M; Lim, C; Salloum, C; Lazzati, A; Compagnon, P; Pascal, G; Azoulay, D

    2015-11-01

    Current knowledge indicates that malnutrition increases the rate of post-operative complications, particularly respiratory and infectious, after major surgery. Almost all liver surgery is performed in patients with cancer, a factor that increases the risk of malnutrition. The primary risk factors for post-operative complications are pre-operative hypo-albuminemia and a body mass index less than 20 kg/m(2). To improve the prediction of complications in these patients, some teams have suggested measurement of muscle thickness by computed tomography. Muscular mass can thus be quantified by measuring the total surface of the psoas muscle or the total surface of all muscles (i.e. external and internal oblique, transverse, psoas and paravertebral muscles) seen on an axial CT slice at L3. As well, data exist suggesting that sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor of post-operative morbidity and poor long-term survival after resection for cancer. Nonetheless, the literature on the subject is limited, there are no standardized definitions for sarcopenia, and the need of special software to calculate the surfaces limits its usefulness. Lastly, there are little if any data concerning the nutritional or pharmacologic means to treat sarcopenia. This update, based on a literature review, deals with the value and the prognostic impact of sarcopenia in surgery for liver tumors. The current definition of sarcopenia, validated internationally, the methods of measurement, and the consequences of sarcopenia on the outcome of liver resections are detailed in this review. PMID:26476674

  3. Prognostic value of sarcopenia in liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Cornet, M; Lim, C; Salloum, C; Lazzati, A; Compagnon, P; Pascal, G; Azoulay, D

    2015-11-01

    Current knowledge indicates that malnutrition increases the rate of post-operative complications, particularly respiratory and infectious, after major surgery. Almost all liver surgery is performed in patients with cancer, a factor that increases the risk of malnutrition. The primary risk factors for post-operative complications are pre-operative hypo-albuminemia and a body mass index less than 20 kg/m(2). To improve the prediction of complications in these patients, some teams have suggested measurement of muscle thickness by computed tomography. Muscular mass can thus be quantified by measuring the total surface of the psoas muscle or the total surface of all muscles (i.e. external and internal oblique, transverse, psoas and paravertebral muscles) seen on an axial CT slice at L3. As well, data exist suggesting that sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor of post-operative morbidity and poor long-term survival after resection for cancer. Nonetheless, the literature on the subject is limited, there are no standardized definitions for sarcopenia, and the need of special software to calculate the surfaces limits its usefulness. Lastly, there are little if any data concerning the nutritional or pharmacologic means to treat sarcopenia. This update, based on a literature review, deals with the value and the prognostic impact of sarcopenia in surgery for liver tumors. The current definition of sarcopenia, validated internationally, the methods of measurement, and the consequences of sarcopenia on the outcome of liver resections are detailed in this review.

  4. Prevalence of radiographic appearance of pneumoconiosis in an unexposed blue collar population

    SciTech Connect

    Castellan, R.M.; Sanderson, W.T.; Petersen, M.R.

    1985-05-01

    Blue collar employees currently working in environments free from exposure to respiratory hazards were examined with chest radiography and a standard occupational history questionnaire. Workers who had worked for a total of 5 yr or more in previous jobs with possible hazardous respiratory exposures were excluded. Each radiograph was read independently by 3 NIOSH-certified ''B'' readers. For small opacities, the median profusion was accepted as a summary reading. The 1,422 readable films represented a population of 50.6% males, 49.4% females, 52.5% whites, 44.2% blacks, 47.0% current smokers, and 38.5% nonsmokers. The mean age was 33.8 yr, with a range from 16 to 70 yr. Small opacities of profusion greater than or equal to 1/0 were identified in only 3 (0.21%) of the radiographs--2 with small rounded opacities and 1 with small irregular opacities. Small irregular opacities of profusion category greater than or equal to 0/1 were statistically associated with age, gender, and pack-years of smoking. The results suggest that using the median of 3 independent readings should rarely result in interpretation of chest radiographs as ''positive'' for pneumoconiosis in active workers who have not had significant dust exposure.

  5. Prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Shen-Yu; Xu, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in gastric carcinoma (GC) has been widely reported and is still under debate. Here, we evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with GC. 1692 patients with GC who underwent gastrectomy were divided into the training (from January 2005 to December 2011, n = 1024) and the validation (from January 2012 to December 2013, n = 668) cohorts. Positive groups of CA125 (> 13.72 U/ml), CA19-9 (> 23.36 U/ml) and CEA (> 4.28 ng/ml) were significantly associated with more advanced clinicopathological traits and worse outcomes than that of negative groups (all P < 0.01). In Cox regression analysis, tumor size (P < 0.001, P = 0.005), pTNM stage (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) and CA125 (P = 0.026, P = 0.005) were independent prognostic factors both in two cohorts. Nomograms of these two cohorts based on the number of positive serum tumor markers (NPTM) were more accurate in prognostic prediction than TNM stage alone. Our findings suggested that elevated preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA were associated with more advanced clinicopathological traits and less favorable outcomes. In addition, CA125 as an independent prognostic factor should be further investigated. Nomogram based on NPTM could accurately predict the prognosis of GC patients. PMID:27097114

  6. Diagnostic radiographic findings and symptom-free teeth.

    PubMed

    Selden, H S

    1994-02-01

    The determination of whether a symptom-free tooth has pulpal and periapical disease relies heavily on radiographic findings and pulp tests. A case of a symptom-free upper left first molar is presented. The radiographic evidence of pathological changes associated with the endo-antral syndrome coupled with diffuse pulpal calcifications facilitated the diagnosis of chronic pulpal periapical disease. Non-surgical root canal therapy resulted in periapical healing as shown on a follow-up radiograph. PMID:8006564

  7. [Measurement of bone structure on the radiograph. Utopia or reality?].

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, E

    1996-11-01

    A method of computerised analysis of bone structure assessment using a professional image analyser is described. Analyses of experimental radiographs of human radius taken over a period of time in a standard laboratory were performed. The radiographic technique was ascertained as the main source of a precision error. The reproducibility of the analysis using the method described was found to hold a limited range of error. The program Quantitrab makes possible a quantitative description of the bone structure parameters on the radiograph.

  8. Prognostic Analysis System and Methods of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKey, Ryan M. E. (Inventor); Sneddon, Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A prognostic analysis system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, a prognostic analysis system for the analysis of physical system health applicable to mechanical, electrical, chemical and optical systems and methods of operating the system are described herein.

  9. Development of a prognostic scoring system for resectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sposito, Carlo; Di Sandro, Stefano; Brunero, Federica; Buscemi, Vincenzo; Battiston, Carlo; Lauterio, Andrea; Bongini, Marco; De Carlis, Luciano; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To develop a prognostic scoring system for overall survival (OS) of patients undergoing liver resection (LR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS Consecutive patients who underwent curative LR for HCC between 2000 and 2013 were identified. The series was randomly divided into a training and a validation set. A multivariable Cox model for OS was fitted to the training set. The beta coefficients derived from the Cox model were used to define a prognostic scoring system for OS. The survival stratification was then tested, and the prognostic scoring system was compared with the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL)/American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) surgical criteria by means of Harrell’s C statistics. RESULTS A total of 917 patients were considered. Five variables independently correlated with post-LR survival: Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, hepatitis C virus infection, number of nodules, largest diameter and vascular invasion. Three risk classes were identified, and OS for the three risk classes was significantly different both in the training (P < 0.0001) and the validation set (P = 0.0002). Overall, 69.4% of patients were in the low-risk class, whereas only 37.8% were eligible to surgery according to EASL/AASLD. Survival of patients in the low-risk class was not significantly different compared with surgical indication for EASL/AASLD guidelines (77.2 mo vs 82.5 mo respectively, P = 0.22). Comparison of Harrell’s C statistics revealed no significant difference in predictive power between the two systems (-0.00999, P = 0.667). CONCLUSION This study established a new prognostic scoring system that may stratify HCC patients suitable for surgery, expanding surgical eligibility with respect to EASL/AASLD criteria with no harm on survival. PMID:27688661

  10. Development of a prognostic scoring system for resectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sposito, Carlo; Di Sandro, Stefano; Brunero, Federica; Buscemi, Vincenzo; Battiston, Carlo; Lauterio, Andrea; Bongini, Marco; De Carlis, Luciano; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To develop a prognostic scoring system for overall survival (OS) of patients undergoing liver resection (LR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS Consecutive patients who underwent curative LR for HCC between 2000 and 2013 were identified. The series was randomly divided into a training and a validation set. A multivariable Cox model for OS was fitted to the training set. The beta coefficients derived from the Cox model were used to define a prognostic scoring system for OS. The survival stratification was then tested, and the prognostic scoring system was compared with the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL)/American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) surgical criteria by means of Harrell’s C statistics. RESULTS A total of 917 patients were considered. Five variables independently correlated with post-LR survival: Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, hepatitis C virus infection, number of nodules, largest diameter and vascular invasion. Three risk classes were identified, and OS for the three risk classes was significantly different both in the training (P < 0.0001) and the validation set (P = 0.0002). Overall, 69.4% of patients were in the low-risk class, whereas only 37.8% were eligible to surgery according to EASL/AASLD. Survival of patients in the low-risk class was not significantly different compared with surgical indication for EASL/AASLD guidelines (77.2 mo vs 82.5 mo respectively, P = 0.22). Comparison of Harrell’s C statistics revealed no significant difference in predictive power between the two systems (-0.00999, P = 0.667). CONCLUSION This study established a new prognostic scoring system that may stratify HCC patients suitable for surgery, expanding surgical eligibility with respect to EASL/AASLD criteria with no harm on survival.

  11. Histological characterisation and prognostic evaluation of 62 gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaohui; Ye, Yuhong; Shi, Xi; Zhu, Kunshou; Huang, Liming; Zhang, Sheng; Ying, Mingang; Lin, Xuede

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the significance of expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67 and their association with clinicopathological parameters, and to find out the possible prognostic factors in gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (G-NEC). Material and methods We investigated the immunohistochemical features and prognosis of 62 G-NECs, and evaluated the association among expressions of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67, clinicopathological variables, and outcome. Results Chromogranin A expression was found more commonly in small-cell NECs (9/9, 100%) than in large-cell NECs (27/53, 51%) (p = 0.008). No statistical significance was found in Ki-67 (p = 0.494) or synaptophysin (p > 0.1) expression between NEC cell types. Correlation analyses revealed that Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with mid-third disease of stomach (p = 0.005) and vascular involvement (p = 0.006), and had a trend of significant correlation with tumour relapse (p = 0.078). High expression of chromogranin A was significantly associated with histology of small-cell NECs (p = 0.008) and lesser tumour greatest dimension (p = 0.038). The prognostic significance was determined by means of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests, and as a result, early TNM staging and postoperative chemotherapy were found to be correlated with longer overall survival (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis revealed associations between poor prognosis in NECs and several factors, including high TNM staging (p = 0.048), vascular involvement (p = 0.023), relapse (p = 0.004), and microscopic/macroscopic residual tumour (R1/2, p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, relapse was identified as the sole independent prognostic factor. Conclusions No significant correlation between survival and expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, or Ki-67 has been determined in G-NECs. Our study indicated that early diagnosis, no-residual-tumour resection, and postoperative chemotherapy were

  12. Pediatric infratentorial ependymoma: prognostic significance of anaplastic histology.

    PubMed

    Phi, Ji Hoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Il Han; Kim, In-One; Park, Kyung Duk; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Son, Young-Je; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2012-02-01

    Pediatric infratentorial ependymomas are difficult to cure. Despite the availability of advanced therapeutic modalities for brain tumors, total surgical resection remains the most important prognostic factor. Recently, histological grade emerged as an independent prognostic factor for intracranial ependymoma. We retrospectively reviewed the treatment outcome of 33 pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated and relevant prognostic factors were analyzed. Fourteen patients (42%) were under the age of 3 at diagnosis. Gross total resection was achieved in 16 patients (49%). Anaplastic histology was found in 13 patients (39%). Adjuvant therapies were delayed until progression in 12 patients (36%). Actuarial PFS rates were 64% in the first year and 29% in the fifth year. Actuarial OS rates were 91% in the first year and 71% in the fifth year. On univariate analysis, brainstem invasion (P = 0.047), anaplastic histology (P = 0.004), higher mitotic count (P = 0.001), and higher Ki-67 index (P = 0.004) were significantly related to a shorter PFS. Gross total resection (P = 0.029) and a greater age at diagnosis (P = 0.033) were significantly related to a longer PFS. On multivariate analysis, anaplastic histology alone was significantly related to a shorter PFS (P = 0.023). Gross total resection (P = 0.039) was significantly related to a longer overall survival (OS) on multivariate analysis. Anaplastic histology and gross total resection were the most important clinical factors affecting PFS and OS, respectively. Anaplastic histology, mitotic count, and Ki-67 index can be used as universal and easily available prognostic parameters in infratentorial ependymomas.

  13. MRI visualisation by digitally reconstructed radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrurier, Antoine; Bönsch, Andrea; Lau, Robert; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Visualising volumetric medical images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) clients is often achieved by image browsing in sagittal, coronal or axial views or three-dimensional (3D) rendering. This latter technique requires fine thresholding for MRI. On the other hand, computing virtual radiograph images, also referred to as digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR), provides in a single two-dimensional (2D) image a complete overview of the 3D data. It appears therefore as a powerful alternative for MRI visualisation and preview in PACS. This study describes a method to compute DRR from T1-weighted MRI. After segmentation of the background, a histogram distribution analysis is performed and each foreground MRI voxel is labeled as one of three tissues: cortical bone, also known as principal absorber of the X-rays, muscle and fat. An intensity level is attributed to each voxel according to the Hounsfield scale, linearly related to the X-ray attenuation coefficient. Each DRR pixel is computed as the accumulation of the new intensities of the MRI dataset along the corresponding X-ray. The method has been tested on 16 T1-weighted MRI sets. Anterior-posterior and lateral DRR have been computed with reasonable qualities and avoiding any manual tissue segmentations. This proof-of-concept holds for research application for use in clinical PACS.

  14. Algorithm for dual-energy radiographic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.; Chancellor, T.

    1994-12-01

    The use of two or more radiographs of an object taken with different x-ray spectral characteristics to infer quantitative values of material density or Z number has been of interest to both the medical and industrial worlds for some time. One method uses monoenergetic isotopic sources with well defined energies in conjunction with standard step wedges and solving the resulting simultaneous equations. Besides the problem of finding isotopic sources with the appropriate energies, you have to have a priori knowledge of the materials in the object. This paper describes an algorithm that does not impose any limitations on the energy spectrum of the sources nor require any knowledge of the object. The algorithm does require that the different radiographs have perfect spatial registration (within a pixel width) and assumes that the transmitted x-ray intensity spectra is the same (within a multiplicative constant) over the image plane. This paper is just a start in developing multi-energy techniques; objects with three or more materials have not been investigated and it is not clear just how this algorithm should be generalized to the multi-energy case.

  15. Sensitometric responses of selected medical radiographic films.

    PubMed

    Kofler, J M; Gray, J E

    1991-12-01

    Radiographic films produce different densities and contrast when processor changes occur, and the magnitude and rate of change vary with film type. The ability to detect and interpret the clinical importance of film density changes may depend on the method of sensitometry used. The characteristics of several medical radiographic films and various sensitometers were examined under three sensitometric variations and five processing variations. Of all variations used, only exposure with a single-versus a double-sided sensitometer caused a film type to have a marked different response. The results indicate that mismatching the sensitometer spectral output with the spectral sensitivity of the film in most cases does not affect the density changes of the film. The fact that a few films may be sensitive to differences in spectral content of the exposing light and dual- versus single-sided exposure and that only a limited number of film types were tested, however, leads to the prudent conclusion that the exposure conditions for quality control purposes should match clinical exposure conditions as closely as possible. PMID:1947114

  16. Radiographic X-Ray Pulse Jitter

    SciTech Connect

    Mitton, C. V., Good, D. E., Henderson, D. J., Hogge, K. W.

    2011-01-15

    The Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources. Major components of the machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 60-ns. Each source has the following x-ray parameters: 1-mm-diameter spot size, 4-rad at 1 m, 50-ns full width half max. The x-ray pulse is measured with PIN diode detectors. The sources were developed to produce high resolution images on single-shot, high-value experiments. For this application it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. X-ray pulse jitter is a key metric for analysis of reproducibility. We will give measurements of x-ray jitter for each machine. It is expected that x-ray pulse jitter is predominantly due to PFL switch jitter, and therefore a correlation of the two will be discussed.

  17. Susuk - black magic exposed "white" by dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    F, Arishiya Thapasum; Mohammed, Faraz

    2014-07-01

    Susuk or charm needles are a facial cum body art widely practiced among women of Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia. These are small, needle-shaped metallic talismans inserted subcutaneously in different parts of the body. The concealed art of susuk was "exposed" by routine radiographic examination in the oral and maxillofacial region. This paper reports two such cases of unusual incidental radiographic finding in dental radiographs which were taken on a routine basis as part of the diagnostic work up. This article will also primarily enlighten the importance of radiographs in detecting such charm needles as the wearer keeps the body art a "hidden secret" thereby avoiding misdiagnosis. PMID:25177646

  18. Computer Analysis Of ILO Standard Chest Radiographs Of Pneumoconiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. C.; Shu, David B. C.; Tai, H. T.; Hou, W.; Kunkle, G. A.; Wang, Y.; Hoy, R. J.

    1982-11-01

    This paper presents study of computer analysis of the 1980 ILO standard chest radiographs of pneumoconiosis. Algorithms developed for detection of individual small rounded and irregular opacities have been experimented and evaluated on these standard radiographs. The density, shape, and size distribution of the detected objects in the lung field, in spite of false positives, can be used as indicators for the beginning of pneumoconiosis. This approach is potentially useful in computer-assisted screening and early detection process where the annual chest radiograph of each worker is compared with his (her) own normal radiograph obtained previously.

  19. Acute pancreatitis: prognostic value of CT

    SciTech Connect

    Balthazar, E.J.; Ranson, J.H.C.; Naidich, D.P.; Megibow, A.J.; Caccavale, R.; Cooper, M.M.

    1985-09-01

    In 83 patients with acute pancreatitis, the initial computed tomographic (CT) examinations were classified by degree of disease severity (grades A-E) and were correlated with the clinical follow-up, objective prognostic signs, and complications and death. The length of hospitalization correlated well with the severity of the initial CT findings. Abscesses occurred in 21.6% of the entire group, compared with 60.0% of grade E patients. Pleural effusions were also more common in grade E patients. Abscesses were seen in 80.0% of patients with six to eight prognostic signs, compared with 12.5% of those with zero to two. The use of prognostic signs with initial CT findings results in improved prognostic accuracy. Early CT examination of patients with acute pancreatitis is a useful prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality.

  20. Model-Based Prognostics of Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Model-based prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the model-based prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the model-based prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.

  1. Molecular prognostic prediction in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Nicolas; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Hoshida, Yujin

    2015-09-28

    The natural history of cirrhosis varies and therefore prognostic prediction is critical given the sizable patient population. A variety of clinical prognostic indicators have been developed and enable patient risk stratification although their performance is somewhat limited especially within relatively earlier stage of disease. Molecular prognostic indicators are expected to refine the prediction, and potentially link a subset of patients with molecular targeted interventions that counteract poor prognosis. Here we overview clinical and molecular prognostic indicators in the literature, and discuss critical issues to successfully define, evaluate, and deploy prognostic indicators as clinical scores or tests. The use of liver biopsy has been diminishing due to sampling variability on fibrosis assessment and emergence of imaging- or lab test-based fibrosis assessment methods. However, recent rapid developments of genomics technologies and selective molecular targeted agents has highlighted the need for biopsy tissue specimen to explore and establish molecular information-guided personalized/stratified clinical care, and eventually achieve "precision medicine".

  2. [Technical parameters to decrease the radiation dose from conventional and digital radiographs].

    PubMed

    Foulquier, J N

    2010-11-01

    Reducing radiation dose while maintaining adequate image quality on conventional and digital radiographs requires optimal use of the unit. Additional filtration avoids unnecessary tissue exposure and improves photon transmission. Automatic exposure control may reduce exposure and dose. The volume of tissue imaged must be limited by the use of diaphragms and shutters or compression. Sensitive detectors with increased photon detection also contribute to reduce dose. Radiographic films combined to rare-earth screens also afford a good photon-conversion efficiency. Large area flat panel amorphous silicon x-ray sensors may also reduce dose up to 50% compared to films. Finally, calculation of the Kerma-area product independent of the source distance constitutes an important indicator of radiation dose.

  3. A new prognostic score based on the systemic inflammatory response in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lizhen; Li, Xiaofen; Shen, Yanwei; Cao, Ying; Fang, Xuefeng; Chen, Jiaqi; Yuan, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pretreatment systemic inflammatory response has been confirmed to have prognostic value in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Increasing studies show that the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), a prognostic score based on C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin, is a prognostic factor in these patients. This study was aimed at recognizing possible prognostic factors and new prognostic scores of inoperable NSCLC based on pretreatment systemic inflammatory response. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological data of 105 patients with inoperable NSCLC who received first-line chemotherapy as initial treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for prognostic factors and scores were performed. Results The serum CRP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), and pathological type were independent pretreatment prognostic factors for PFS and OS. A new score was assembled by CRP, LDH, and CA125. In multivariate analysis, when the mGPS and the new score were covariates, only the new score retained independent prognostic value for both PFS (P<0.001; hazard ratio =2.12; 95% confidence interval: 1.60–2.82) and OS (P<0.001; hazard ratio =1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.33–2.48). Conclusion The new score based on pretreatment serum level of CRP, LDH, and CA125, indicates the prognosis of both PFS and OS in patients with inoperable NSCLC who were treated with first-line systemic chemotherapy, and it was found to be more effective than mGPS. PMID:27540301

  4. Developing independence.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, A P; Turnbull, H R

    1985-03-01

    The transition from living a life as others want (dependence) to living it as the adolescent wants to live it (independence) is extraordinarily difficult for most teen-agers and their families. The difficulty is compounded in the case of adolescents with disabilities. They are often denied access to the same opportunities of life that are accessible to the nondisabled. They face special problems in augmenting their inherent capacities so that they can take fuller advantage of the accommodations that society makes in an effort to grant them access. In particular, they need training designed to increase their capacities to make, communicate, implement, and evaluate their own life-choices. The recommendations made in this paper are grounded in the long-standing tradition of parens patriae and enlightened paternalism; they seek to be deliberately and cautiously careful about the lives of adolescents with disabilities and their families. We based them on the recent tradition of anti-institutionalism and they are also consistent with some of the major policy directions of the past 15-20 years. These include: normalization, integration, and least-restrictive alternatives; the unity and integrity of the family; the importance of opportunities for self-advocacy; the role of consumer consent and choice in consumer-professional relationships; the need for individualized services; the importance of the developmental model as a basis for service delivery; the value of economic productivity of people with disabilities; and the rights of habilitation, amelioration, and prevention. PMID:3156827

  5. Developing independence.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, A P; Turnbull, H R

    1985-03-01

    The transition from living a life as others want (dependence) to living it as the adolescent wants to live it (independence) is extraordinarily difficult for most teen-agers and their families. The difficulty is compounded in the case of adolescents with disabilities. They are often denied access to the same opportunities of life that are accessible to the nondisabled. They face special problems in augmenting their inherent capacities so that they can take fuller advantage of the accommodations that society makes in an effort to grant them access. In particular, they need training designed to increase their capacities to make, communicate, implement, and evaluate their own life-choices. The recommendations made in this paper are grounded in the long-standing tradition of parens patriae and enlightened paternalism; they seek to be deliberately and cautiously careful about the lives of adolescents with disabilities and their families. We based them on the recent tradition of anti-institutionalism and they are also consistent with some of the major policy directions of the past 15-20 years. These include: normalization, integration, and least-restrictive alternatives; the unity and integrity of the family; the importance of opportunities for self-advocacy; the role of consumer consent and choice in consumer-professional relationships; the need for individualized services; the importance of the developmental model as a basis for service delivery; the value of economic productivity of people with disabilities; and the rights of habilitation, amelioration, and prevention.

  6. Prognostic factors of choroidal melanoma in Slovenia, 1986–2008

    PubMed Central

    Budihna, Marjan; Drnovsek-Olup, Brigita; Andrejcic, Katrina Novak; Zupancic, Irena Brovet; Pahor, Dusica

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye, which frequently metastasizes. The Cancer Registry of Slovenia reported the incidence of choroid melanoma from 1983 to 2009 as stable, at 7.8 cases/million for men and 7.4/million for women. The aim of the retrospective study was to determinate the prognostic factors of survival for choroidal melanoma patients in Slovenia. Patients and methods From January 1986 to December 2008 we treated 288 patients with malignant choroidal melanoma; 127 patients were treated by brachytherapy with beta rays emitting ruthenium-106 applicators; 161 patients were treated by enucleation. Results Patients with tumours thickness < 7.2 mm and base diameter < 16 mm were treated by brachytherapy and had 5- and 10-year overall mortality 13% and 32%, respectively. In enucleated patients, 5- and 10-year mortality was higher, 46% and 69%, respectively, because their tumours were larger. Thirty patients treated by brachytherapy developed local recurrence. Twenty five of 127 patients treated by brachytherapy and 86 of 161 enucleated patients developed distant metastases. Patients of age ≥ 60 years had significantly lower survival in both treatment modalities. For patients treated by brachytherapy the diameter of the tumour base and treatment time were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, for patients treated by enucleation age and histological type of tumour were independent prognosticators. In first few years after either of treatments, the melanoma specific annual mortality rate increased, especially in older patients, and then slowly decreased. Conclusions It seems that particularly younger patients with early tumours can be cured, whereby preference should be given to eyesight preserving brachytherapy over enucleation. PMID:27069456

  7. Model-based segmentation of hand radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Frank; Vogelsang, Frank

    1998-06-01

    An important procedure in pediatrics is to determine the skeletal maturity of a patient from radiographs of the hand. There is great interest in the automation of this tedious and time-consuming task. We present a new method for the segmentation of the bones of the hand, which allows the assessment of the skeletal maturity with an appropriate database of reference bones, similar to the atlas based methods. The proposed algorithm uses an extended active contour model for the segmentation of the hand bones, which incorporates a-priori knowledge of shape and topology of the bones in an additional energy term. This `scene knowledge' is integrated in a complex hierarchical image model, that is used for the image analysis task.

  8. Recovery of silver from radiographic fixer.

    PubMed

    Goshima, T; Hori, K; Yamamoto, A

    1994-06-01

    This study examined the silver content of 10 brands of dental x-ray film that are commercially available in Japan. Kodak Ektaspeed EP-22 (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.) was found to have the highest silver content, and SD 100 Gold X-ray Film (San Dental Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) had the lowest content of silver. Electrolysis and ion exchange were used as the methods of silver recovery from films in the general dental office. Ion exchange was more than 99% efficient in silver recovery from the radiographic fixer and resulted in an 80% reduction in biochemical oxygen demand and a 95% reduction in chemical oxygen demand. However, these levels and other environmental pollutants were still above the limits set by the Japanese Pollutant Control law. PMID:8065739

  9. Radiographic apparatus for photographing entire jaws

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, K.

    1985-01-22

    This disclosure relates to a dental radiographic apparatus for photographing the entire jaw designed to control the rotation of a rotary arm such that the film surface of a film holder mounted at one end of the rotary arm may rotate and move substantially at equal speed substantially equidistantly along the dental arch and that the X-ray beams irradiated upon the film surface from an X-ray generator mounted at the other end of the arm may fall on the dental arch at any point thereof at right angles with the arch. The apparatus makes it possible to obtain a very clear tomographic picture of a curved plane of the entire jaws, the picture being free of a double image of the teeth, partial change in enlargement ratio of the image obtained, and partial difference in the shade of the image obtained.

  10. Evaluation of the quality of duplicated radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Thunthy, K.H.; Weinberg, R.

    1981-04-01

    This experiment evaluated the image quality of duplicated radiographs made at different ultraviolet light exposures. Image quality was measured in terms of ''residual'' film fog, film density, mottle, image contrast, and resolution. The ''residual'' fog density of duplicates decreased with increases in ultraviolet exposures until it was less than the fog density of the original. The density of duplicates decreased with increases in ultraviolet exposures until it leveled off at a certain density, depending on the density of the original film. Mottle was less on lighter duplicates than on darker duplicates. Contrast of duplicates increased initially with increases in ultraviolet exposures and later decreased with further increases in ultraviolet exposures. Resolution of duplicates was nearly the same as the original as long as the duplicate had acceptable ''residual'' fog density.

  11. Temporal stability of digital radiographic detectors.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Timothy A; Irvine, Mike

    2016-03-01

    With the current preference for digital radiographic detectors in modern radiology facilities, there has been increasing demand for baseline technical data for equipment comparison and benchmarking. Key system parameters were monitored in 12 individual digital detectors over a 6 months period following installation, to establish baseline performance fluctuations for current generation indirect digital detectors. Performance criteria monitored included exposure index consistency, detector uniformity, system transfer function, artifact presentation, automatic exposure control reproducibility and dose area product consistency. Two indirect digital detector models were included, with the final set of measurements for each detector taken after routine detector calibrations were completed by technical staff. Suggested performance limits are presented based on observed temporal fluctuations, as well as national and international standards, where applicable.

  12. Dental biometrics: alignment and matching of dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Jain, Anil K

    2005-08-01

    Dental biometrics utilizes dental radiographs for human identification. The dental radiographs provide information about teeth, including tooth contours, elative positions of neighboring teeth, and shapes of the dental work (e.g., crowns, fillings, and bridges). The proposed system has two main stages: feature extraction and matching. The feature extraction stage uses anisotropic diffusion to enhance the images and a Mixture of Gaussians model to segment the dental work. The matching stage has three sequential steps: tooth-level matching, computation of image distances, and subject identification. In the tooth-level matching step, tooth contours are matched using a shape registration method, and the dental work is matched on overlapping areas. The distance between the tooth contours and the distance between the dental work are then combined using posterior probabilities. In the second step, the tooth correspondences between the given query (postmortem) radiograph and the database (antemortem) radiograph are established. A distance based on the corresponding teeth is then used to measure the similarity between the two radiographs. Finally, all the distances between the given postmortem radiographs and the antemortem radiographs that provide candidate identities are combined to establish the identity of the subject associated with the postmortem radiographs.

  13. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conducting industrial radiographic operations. 34.41 Section 34.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  14. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting industrial radiographic operations. 34.41 Section 34.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  15. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conducting industrial radiographic operations. 34.41 Section 34.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  16. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conducting industrial radiographic operations. 34.41 Section 34.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  17. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conducting industrial radiographic operations. 34.41 Section 34.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  18. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.46 Supervision...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1950 Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... purposes to simulate a human body for positioning radiographic equipment. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. A Study of Radiographic Imaging Systems Used for Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Nancy S.

    Thirty-three two-year dental hygiene programs throughout the United States were surveyed to identify the radiographic imaging system most often used and the accompanying rationale for that decision. A literature review identified the three radiographic imaging systems most frequently used and indicated that all dental hygiene programs had the…

  1. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900 Section 892.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section 892.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section 892.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator....

  5. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section 892.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator....

  6. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1950 Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1950 Radiographic...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900 Section 892.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860 Section 892.1860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900 Section 892.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section 892.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1950 Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1950 Radiographic...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section 892.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860 Section 892.1860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860 Section 892.1860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section 892.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator....

  18. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiographic intensifying screen is a device that is a thin radiolucent sheet coated with a luminescent material that transforms incident x-ray photons into visible light and intended for medical purposes to expose radiographic film. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  19. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiographic intensifying screen is a device that is a thin radiolucent sheet coated with a luminescent material that transforms incident x-ray photons into visible light and intended for medical purposes to expose radiographic film. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  20. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiographic intensifying screen is a device that is a thin radiolucent sheet coated with a luminescent material that transforms incident x-ray photons into visible light and intended for medical purposes to expose radiographic film. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  1. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiographic intensifying screen is a device that is a thin radiolucent sheet coated with a luminescent material that transforms incident x-ray photons into visible light and intended for medical purposes to expose radiographic film. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  2. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiographic intensifying screen is a device that is a thin radiolucent sheet coated with a luminescent material that transforms incident x-ray photons into visible light and intended for medical purposes to expose radiographic film. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  3. Video enhancement of X-ray and neutron radiographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    System was devised for displaying radiographs on television screen and enhancing fine detail in picture. System uses analog-computer circuits to process television signal from low-noise television camera. Enhanced images are displayed in black and white and can be controlled to vary degree of enhancement and magnification of details in either radiographic transparencies or opaque photographs.

  4. Prognostic significance of aberrantly silenced ANPEP expression in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, K D; Abildgaard, M O; Haldrup, C; Ulhøi, B P; Kristensen, H; Strand, S; Parker, C; Høyer, S; Borre, M; Ørntoft, T F

    2013-01-01

    Background: Novel biomarkers for prostate cancer (PC) are urgently needed. This study investigates the expression, epigenetic regulation, and prognostic potential of ANPEP in PC. Methods: Aminopeptidase N (APN; encoded by ANPEP) expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays representing 267 radical prostatectomy (RP) and 111 conservatively treated (CT) PC patients. Clinical end points were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS), respectively. The ANPEP promoter methylation levels were determined by bisulphite sequencing or MethyLight analysis in 278 nonmalignant and PC tissue samples, and in cell lines. Results: The APN expression was significantly downregulated in PC compared with nonmalignant prostate tissue samples. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation was frequently observed in PC tissue samples, and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine induced ANPEP expression in three hypermethylated prostate cell lines, suggesting epigenetic silencing. Negative APN immunoreactivity was significantly associated with short RFS and short CSS in the RP and CT cohort, respectively, independently of routine clinicopathological predictors. Combining APN with a known angiogenesis marker (vascular endothelial growth factor or microvessel density) improved risk prediction significantly in both cohorts. Conclusion: Our results suggest negative APN immunoreactivity as a new independent adverse prognostic factor for patients with clinically localised PC and, furthermore, that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in silencing of ANPEP in PC. PMID:23322201

  5. An Integrated Approach for Gear Health Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, David; Bechhoefer, Eric; Dempsey, Paula; Ma, Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated approach for gear health prognostics using particle filters is presented. The presented method effectively addresses the issues in applying particle filters to gear health prognostics by integrating several new components into a particle filter: (1) data mining based techniques to effectively define the degradation state transition and measurement functions using a one-dimensional health index obtained by whitening transform; (2) an unbiased l-step ahead RUL estimator updated with measurement errors. The feasibility of the presented prognostics method is validated using data from a spiral bevel gear case study.

  6. A functional single nucleotide polymorphism of SET8 is prognostic for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ben; Zhang, Xining; Song, Fengju; Liu, Qun; Dai, Hongji; Zheng, Hong; Cui, Ping; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Kexin

    2016-06-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) locus rs16917496 (T > C) within the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of SET8 was associated with susceptibility in several malignancies including breast cancer. To further elucidate the prognostic relevance of this SNP in breast cancer, we conducted a clinical study as well as SET8 expression analysis in a cohort of 1,190 breast cancer patients. We demonstrated the expression levels of SET8 in TT genotype were higher than in CC genotypes, and high levels of SET8 were associated with poor survival. SET8 expression was significantly higher in breast tumor tissue than in paired adjacent normal tissue. In addition, survival analysis in 315 patients showed SNP rs16917496 was an independent prognostic factor of breast cancer outcome with TT genotype associated with poor survival compared with CC/CT genotypes. Thus, this SNP may serve as a genetic prognostic factor and a treatment target for breast cancer. Future studies are warranted.

  7. Prognostic Predictors for Ambulation in Thai Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 18 Years.

    PubMed

    Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy.

  8. Identification of common prognostic gene expression signatures with biological meanings from microarray gene expression datasets.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Zhao, Qi; Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaoming; Yung, W K Alfred; Weinstein, John N

    2012-01-01

    Numerous prognostic gene expression signatures for breast cancer were generated previously with few overlap and limited insight into the biology of the disease. Here we introduce a novel algorithm named SCoR (Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard regression and Random resampling) to apply random resampling and clustering methods in identifying gene features correlated with time to event data. This is shown to reduce overfitting noises involved in microarray data analysis and discover functional gene sets linked to patient survival. SCoR independently identified a common poor prognostic signature composed of cell proliferation genes from six out of eight breast cancer datasets. Furthermore, a sequential SCoR analysis on highly proliferative breast cancers repeatedly identified T/B cell markers as favorable prognosis factors. In glioblastoma, SCoR identified a common good prognostic signature of chromosome 10 genes from two gene expression datasets (TCGA and REMBRANDT), recapitulating the fact that loss of one copy of chromosome 10 (which harbors the tumor suppressor PTEN) is linked to poor survival in glioblastoma patients. SCoR also identified prognostic genes on sex chromosomes in lung adenocarcinomas, suggesting patient gender might be used to predict outcome in this disease. These results demonstrate the power of SCoR to identify common and biologically meaningful prognostic gene expression signatures.

  9. Identification of Common Prognostic Gene Expression Signatures with Biological Meanings from Microarray Gene Expression Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Zhao, Qi; Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaoming; Yung, W. K. Alfred; Weinstein, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous prognostic gene expression signatures for breast cancer were generated previously with few overlap and limited insight into the biology of the disease. Here we introduce a novel algorithm named SCoR (Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard regression and Random resampling) to apply random resampling and clustering methods in identifying gene features correlated with time to event data. This is shown to reduce overfitting noises involved in microarray data analysis and discover functional gene sets linked to patient survival. SCoR independently identified a common poor prognostic signature composed of cell proliferation genes from six out of eight breast cancer datasets. Furthermore, a sequential SCoR analysis on highly proliferative breast cancers repeatedly identified T/B cell markers as favorable prognosis factors. In glioblastoma, SCoR identified a common good prognostic signature of chromosome 10 genes from two gene expression datasets (TCGA and REMBRANDT), recapitulating the fact that loss of one copy of chromosome 10 (which harbors the tumor suppressor PTEN) is linked to poor survival in glioblastoma patients. SCoR also identified prognostic genes on sex chromosomes in lung adenocarcinomas, suggesting patient gender might be used to predict outcome in this disease. These results demonstrate the power of SCoR to identify common and biologically meaningful prognostic gene expression signatures. PMID:23029298

  10. A prognostic scoring system for locoregional control in nasopharyngeal carcinoma following conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.H.; Tsai, S.Y.; Horng, C.-F.; Yen, K.L.; Jian, James J.; Chan, Kwan-Yee; Lin, C.-Y.; Terng, S.-D.; Tsou, M.-H.; Chu, N.-M.; Chen, H.-H.; Hsieh, C.-I.; Tan, T.-D.; Chen, P.-L.; Chung, Y.L.; Huang, Andrew T. |

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: This study established a prognostic scoring system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which estimates the probability of locoregional (LR) control following definitive conformal radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with nondisseminated NPC at initial presentation (n = 630) were enrolled in this study. All patients had magnetic resonance imaging of the head and neck and were treated with conformal radiotherapy. Among them, 93% had concurrent chemotherapy, and 76% had postradiation chemotherapy. The extent of the primary tumor, age at diagnosis, primary tumor size, tumor and nodal classification, histology, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level before treatment were included in the analysis for building a prognostic scoring system. The end point for this study was LR control. Results: The prognostic score was defined as the number of adverse prognostic factors present at diagnosis. Four factors had similarly independent prognostic effects (hazard ratio, 2.0-2.6): age >40 years, histologic WHO type I-II, serum LDH level {>=}410 U/L, and involvement of two or more sites of the following anatomic structures, i.e., sphenoid floor, clivus marrow, clivus cortex, prevertebral muscles, and petrous bone. The score predicted the 5-year probability of LR control as follows: 0 (15% of the patients), 100%; 1 (42% of the patients), 93%; 2 (29% of the patients), 83%; 3 or higher (13% of the patients), 71%. Conclusion: This scoring system is useful in the decision-making for individual patients and the design of clinical trials to improve LR control for advanced-stage NPC.

  11. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Metric Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornhill, Dennis; Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines a set of metrics for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic schemes developed for the Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR), a system-level reasoner that encompasses the multiple levels of large, complex systems such as those for aircraft and spacecraft. VIPR health managers are organized hierarchically and operate together to derive diagnostic and prognostic inferences from symptoms and conditions reported by a set of diagnostic and prognostic monitors. For layered reasoners such as VIPR, the overall performance cannot be evaluated by metrics solely directed toward timely detection and accuracy of estimation of the faults in individual components. Among other factors, overall vehicle reasoner performance is governed by the effectiveness of the communication schemes between monitors and reasoners in the architecture, and the ability to propagate and fuse relevant information to make accurate, consistent, and timely predictions at different levels of the reasoner hierarchy. We outline an extended set of diagnostic and prognostics metrics that can be broadly categorized as evaluation measures for diagnostic coverage, prognostic coverage, accuracy of inferences, latency in making inferences, computational cost, and sensitivity to different fault and degradation conditions. We report metrics from Monte Carlo experiments using two variations of an aircraft reference model that supported both flat and hierarchical reasoning.

  12. Metrics for Offline Evaluation of Prognostic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Prognostic performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. Currently, prognostics concepts lack standard definitions and suffer from ambiguous and inconsistent interpretations. This lack of standards is in part due to the varied end-user requirements for different applications, time scales, available information, domain dynamics, etc. to name a few. The research community has used a variety of metrics largely based on convenience and their respective requirements. Very little attention has been focused on establishing a standardized approach to compare different efforts. This paper presents several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics that were recently introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. These metrics have the capability of incorporating probabilistic uncertainty estimates from prognostic algorithms. In addition to quantitative assessment they also offer a comprehensive visual perspective that can be used in designing the prognostic system. Several methods are suggested to customize these metrics for different applications. Guidelines are provided to help choose one method over another based on distribution characteristics. Various issues faced by prognostics and its performance evaluation are discussed followed by a formal notational framework to help standardize subsequent developments.

  13. On Applying the Prognostic Performance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prognostics performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. As prognostics technology matures and more sophisticated methods for prognostic uncertainty management are developed, a standardized methodology for performance evaluation becomes extremely important to guide improvement efforts in a constructive manner. This paper is in continuation of previous efforts where several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics were introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. Several shortcomings identified, while applying these metrics to a variety of real applications, are also summarized along with discussions that attempt to alleviate these problems. Further, these metrics have been enhanced to include the capability of incorporating probability distribution information from prognostic algorithms as opposed to evaluation based on point estimates only. Several methods have been suggested and guidelines have been provided to help choose one method over another based on probability distribution characteristics. These approaches also offer a convenient and intuitive visualization of algorithm performance with respect to some of these new metrics like prognostic horizon and alpha-lambda performance, and also quantify the corresponding performance while incorporating the uncertainty information.

  14. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  15. Performance of radiographers in mammogram interpretation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, F J H M; Nelemans, P J; Flobbe, K

    2008-02-01

    Radiologists may be relieved from work that could be performed by radiographers. This systematic literature review focuses on the performance of radiographers (also referring to technologists and physician assistants) compared with radiologists in the interpretation of mammograms; the effect of training; and the question whether there are any studies evaluating the effects of involving radiographers in the interpretation of diagnostic mammograms in daily clinical practice on the sensitivity and specificity of cancer detection in breast imaging. Six studies met the inclusion criteria (primary aim of the study has to be the evaluation of the performance of radiographers, sensitivity and specificity have to be reported or calculable and there has to be a sufficient gold standard). The results showed that, in a screening setting, radiographers scored higher false positive rates with a similar sensitivity in the detection of malignancies, compared with radiologists. Furthermore, results suggested that training could improve their performance. No studies were reported assessing the performance of radiographers interpreting diagnostic mammograms in a consecutive patient population in a daily clinical setting. This indicates a need for a well-designed diagnostic study using an adequate gold standard, in order to evaluate the feasibility of deploying radiographers in the interpretation of diagnostic mammograms in a clinical setting. PMID:17764941

  16. Practice Characteristics Associated with Patient-Specific Receipt of Dental Diagnostic Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Weems, Richard A; Litaker, Mark S; Shelton, Brent J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To quantify the role of practice characteristics in patient-specific receipt of dental diagnostic radiographic services. Data Source/Study Setting Florida Dental Care Study (FDCS). Study Design The FDCS was a 48-month prospective observational cohort study of community-dwelling adults. Participants' dentists were asked to complete a questionnaire about their practice characteristics. Data Collection/Extraction Methods In-person interviews and clinical examinations were conducted at baseline, 24, and 48 months, with 6-monthly telephone interviews in between. A single multivariate (four radiographic service outcomes) multivariable (multiple explanatory covariates) logistic regression was used to model service receipts. Principal Findings These practice characteristics were significantly associated with patient-specific receipt of radiographic services: number of different practices attended during follow-up; dentist's rating of how busy the practice was; typical waiting time for a new patient examination; practice size; percentage of patients that the dentist reported as interested in details about the condition of their mouths; percentage of African American patients in the practice; percentage of patients in the practice who do not have dental insurance; and dentist's agreement with a statement regarding whether patients should be dismissed from the practice. Effects had differential magnitudes and directions of effect, depending upon radiograph type. Conclusions Practice characteristics were significantly associated with patient-specific receipt of services. These effects were independent of patient-specific disease level and patient-specific sociodemographic characteristics, suggesting that practitioners do influence receipt of these diagnostic services. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that practitioners act in response to a mix of patients' interests, economic self-interests, and their own treatment preferences. PMID:16987308

  17. Progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Engelmann disease): scintigraphic-radiographic-clinical correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B.; Murphy, W.A.; Whyte, M.P.

    1981-07-01

    Four patients (2 males, 2 females; ages 15-47 yrs.) with variable clinical, radiographic, and scintigraphic manifestations of progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (PDD) or Engelmann disease were studied with 99mTc methylene diphosphonate bone imaging and radiographic skeletal surveys. Comparison of the results of the two imaging procedures showed that some affected bones were scintigraphically normal but radiographically abnormal and vice versa. These findings suggest that the lesions of PDD may mature, causing a significant decrease in disease activity, and that abnormally increased radiopharmaceutical accumulation during bone scintigraphy appears to be a sensitive indicator of disease activity.

  18. Integration of radiographic images with an electronic medical record.

    PubMed Central

    Overhage, J. M.; Aisen, A.; Barnes, M.; Tucker, M.; McDonald, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiographic images are important and expensive diagnostic tests. However, the provider caring for the patient often does not review the images directly due to time constraints. Institutions can use picture archiving and communications systems to make images more available to the provider, but this may not be the best solution. We integrated radiographic image review into the Regenstrief Medical Record System in order to address this problem. To achieve adequate performance, we store JPEG compressed images directly in the RMRS. Currently, physicians review about 5% of all radiographic studies using the RMRS image review function. PMID:11825241

  19. Comparison of radiographic and radionuclide skeletal surveys in battered children

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, W.J.; Faleski, E.J.; Chacko, A.; Jarrett, R.V.

    1983-02-01

    A review of 13 cases of suspected child abuse in which radionuclide (RN) scans, radiographic skeletal surveys, and sufficient follow-up were available showed that the RN scans were insensitive, even though fractures were more than 48 hours old at the time of the scan. Frequently missed lesions included skull and extremity fractures. Furthermore, soft tissue and visceral abnormalities that were identified on radiographic examination went undetected on RN scan. We conclude that, although the RN scan may augment the radiographic examination, it should not be used alone to screen for the battered child.

  20. Image analysis of chest radiographs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, J.L.

    1982-06-01

    The report demonstrates the feasibility of using a computer for automated interpretation of chest radiographs for pneumoconiosis. The primary goal of this project was to continue testing and evaluating the prototype system with a larger set of films. After review of the final contract report and a review of the current literature, it was clear that several modifications to the prototype system were needed before the project could continue. These modifications can be divided into two general areas. The first area was in improving the stability of the system and compensating for the diversity of film quality which exists in films obtained in a surveillance program. Since the system was to be tested with a large number of films, it was impractical to be extremely selective of film quality. The second area is in terms of processing time. With a large set of films, total processing time becomes much more significant. An image display was added to the system so that the computer determined lung boundaries could be verified for each film. A film handling system was also added, enabling the system to scan films continuously without attendance.

  1. Enhancing skeletal features in digitally reconstructed radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dongshan; Kuduvalli, Gopinath

    2006-03-01

    Generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) is a critical part of 2D-3D image registration that is utilized in patient position alignment for image-guided radiotherapy and radiosurgery. The DRRs are generated from a pre-operative CT scan and used as the references to match the X-ray images for determining the change of patient position. Skeletal structures are the primary image features to facilitate the registration between the DRR and X-ray images. In this paper, we present a method to enhance skeletal features of spinal regions in DRRs. The attenuation coefficient at each voxel is first calculated by applying an exponential transformation of the original attenuation coefficient in the CT scan. This is a preprocessing step that is performed prior to DRR generation. The DRR is then generated by integrating the newly calculated attenuation coefficients along the ray that connects the X-ray source and the pixel in the DRR. Finally, the DRR is further enhanced using a weighted top-hat filter. During the entire process, because there is no original CT information lost, even the small skeletal features contributed by low intensity part of CT data are preserved in the enhanced DRRs. Experiments on clinical data were conducted to compare the image quality of DRRs with and without enhancement. The results showed that the image contrast of skeletal features in the enhanced DRRs is significantly improved. This method has potential to be applied for more accurate and robust 2D-3D image registration.

  2. Radiographic association of schwannomas with sensory ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Tryggvason, Geir; Barnett, Andrew; Kim, John; Soken, Hakan; Maley, Joan; Hansen, Marlan R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Clinical experience suggests that the majority of schwannomas arise within sensory ganglia, suggesting that intraganglionic glial cells represent a potential cell of origin for schwannomas. To support this clinical impression, we reviewed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies performed over a 5 year period at our institution to determine the relationship of cranial and spinal nerve schwannomas with the ganglia of the associated nerves. Study design Retrospective cohort study Setting Tertiary referral center Patients Patients undergoing imaging study at our institution over a 5 year period. Intervention(s) Radiographical images at our institution were reviewed as well as published studies to determine the anatomic location of schwannomas. Main outcome measure(s) Anatomical location of schwannomas Results A total of 372 patients were found over the 5-year study period, 31 of those were diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Vestibular schwannomas comprised the greatest number of schwannomas, followed by spinal schwannomas. In NF2 patients, spinal schwannomas were the most common tumor, followed by vestibular schwannomas. In NF2 patients and those with sporadic schwannomas, the overwhelming majority of tumors arose in nerves with a sensory component and were associated with sensory ganglia of the nerves (562/607, 92.6%). Very few tumors arose from pure motor nerves. This is supported by review of published articles on anatomic location of schwannomas. Conclusions Schwannomas are strongly associated anatomically with ganglia of sensory nerves. These findings raise the possibility that intraganglionic glial cells give rise to the majority of schwannomas. PMID:22858714

  3. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is a prognostic marker for patients with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Beilei; Yao, Yuanqing; Yin, Guowu

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains one of the most common malignancies in women. Previous study proved MMP-9 might be prognostic marker for multiple human malignancies. The present study was to investigate the protein expression of MMP-9 in cervical cancer and its association with clinicopathological characteristics as well as prognosis of patients. Cervical cancer specimens from 225 cases who had not received chemotherapy or radiotherapy prior to surgery were collected. Immunochemistry assays were utilized to investigate MMP-9 protein expression. Results showed that MMP-9 expression was increased in cervical cancer and associated with stromal invasion, FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis, and vascular invasion. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with cervical cancer of positive MMP-9 staining tend to have worse overall survival. In multivariate analysis stratified for known prognostic variables, MMP-9 was proved to be an independent prognostic factor. The present study confirmed that MMP-9 expression in cervical cancer was an independent prognostic factor of patients, which might be a potential diagnostic and even therapeutic target of cervical cancer.

  4. Telomere fusion threshold identifies a poor prognostic subset of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Simpson, K; Jones, R E; Grimstead, J W; Hills, R; Pepper, C; Baird, D M

    2015-06-01

    Telomere dysfunction and fusion can drive genomic instability and clonal evolution in human tumours, including breast cancer. Telomere length is a critical determinant of telomere function and has been evaluated as a prognostic marker in several tumour types, but it has yet to be used in the clinical setting. Here we show that high-resolution telomere length analysis, together with a specific telomere fusion threshold, is highly prognostic for overall survival in a cohort of patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (n = 120). The telomere fusion threshold defined a small subset of patients with an extremely poor clinical outcome, with a median survival of less than 12 months (HR = 21.4 (7.9-57.6), P < 0.0001). Furthermore, this telomere length threshold was independent of ER, PGR, HER2 status, NPI, or grade and was the dominant variable in multivariate analysis. We conclude that the fusogenic telomere length threshold provides a powerful, independent prognostic marker with clinical utility in breast cancer. Larger prospective studies are now required to determine the optimal way to incorporate high-resolution telomere length analysis into multivariate prognostic algorithms for patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

  5. Prognostic impact of histological categorisation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, H; Shinto, E; Kajiwara, Y; Fukazawa, S; Shimazaki, H; Yamamoto, J; Hase, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The crosstalk between cancer cells and stroma is involved in the acquired capability for metastasis through the induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). We aimed to clarify the prognostic value of the histological category of EMT in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Tumour EMT was graded into one of three histological categories on the basis of integrated assessment of poorly differentiated clusters and pro-EMT desmoplasia at the leading edge of the primary tumour (HistologyEMT). Stage II and III CRC patients (cohort 1, N=500) and stage IV patients (cohort 2, N=196) were retrospectively analysed. Results: In cohort 1, patients were stratified into three groups with widely different disease-free survival rates (95%, 83% and 39%) on the basis of HistologyEMT (P<0.0001). In cohort 2, HistologyEMT significantly stratified overall survival of patients irrespective of metasectomy. Multivariate analyses indicated that HistologyEMT had a strong prognostic impact independent of staging factors. Statistically, HistologyEMT had a better prognostic stratification power than T and N stages; however, in cohort 2, the power of M substage was superior. Conclusions: A histological model to categorise EMT by integrated assessment of dedifferentiation and desmoplastic environment is a potent prognostic index independent of staging factors. PMID:25247323

  6. Different prognostic models for different patient populations: validation of a new prognostic model for patients with oropharyngeal cancer in Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rietbergen, M M; Witte, B I; Velazquez, E R; Snijders, P J F; Bloemena, E; Speel, E J; Brakenhoff, R H; Kremer, B; Lambin, P; Leemans, C R

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is a major determinant in prognostic risk modelling. Recently, a prognostic model was proposed in which HPV status, comorbidity and nodal stage were the most important prognostic factors to determine high-, intermediate- and low-risk survival groups. Here, we report on the validation of this model using an independent single-institutional cohort. Methods: A total number of 235 patients curatively treated for OPSCC in the period 2000–2011 at the MUMC (Maastricht University Medical Center, The Netherlands) were included. The presence of an oncogenic HPV infection was determined by p16 immunostaining, followed by a high-risk HPV DNA PCR on the p16-positive cases. The model variables included were HPV status, comorbidity and nodal stage. As a measure of model performance, the Harrell's Concordance index (Harrell's C-index) was used. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) estimates were 84.6%, 54.5% and 28.7% in the low-, intermediate- and high-risk group, respectively. The difference between the survival curves was highly significant (P<0.001). The Harrell's C-index was 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63–0.75). Conclusion: In this study a previously developed prognostic risk model was validated. This model will help to personalise treatment in OPSCC patients. This model is publicly available at www.predictcancer.org. PMID:25950384

  7. Prognostic value of microalbuminuria during antihypertensive treatment in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Escrich, Miguel; Gonzalez, Carmen; Redon, Josep

    2014-12-01

    Whether changes over time of urinary albumin excretion have prognostic value is a matter of discussion. The objective was to assess the prognostic value of changes in urinary albumin excretion over time in cardiovascular risk during antihypertensive treatment. Follow-up study of 2835 hypertensives in the absence of previous cardiovascular disease (mean age 55 years, 47% men, BP 138/80 mm Hg, 19.1% diabetics, and calibrated systemic coronary risk estimation 5 or >10.6%). Usual-care of antihypertensive treatment was implemented to maintain blood pressure<140/90 mm Hg. Urinary albumin excretion was assessed yearly, and the values were expressed as the creatinine ratio. Incidence of cardiovascular events, fatal and nonfatal, was recorded during the follow-up. During a median follow-up of 4.7 years (17 028 patients-year), 294 fatal and first nonfatal cardiovascular events were recorded (1.73 CVD per 100 patients/year). Independently of blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, level of cardiovascular risk, and antihypertensive treatment, microalbuminuria at baseline and at any time during the follow-up resulted in higher risk for events, hazard ratio (HR) 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.79) and HR 1.49 (95% CI, 1.14-1.94), respectively. Likewise, development of microalbuminuria (HR 1.60; 95% CI, 1.04-2.46) or persistence from the beginning (1.53; 95% CI, 1.13-2.06) had a significantly higher rate of events than if remained normoalbuminuric (HR 1) or regress to normoalbuminuria (HR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.92-2.06) with an 18%, 18%, 8%, and 11% events, respectively, P<0.001. The study supports the value of urinary albumin excretion assessment as a prognostic factor for cardiovascular risk, but also opens the way to consider it as an intermediate objective in hypertension.

  8. Prognostic Disclosures to Children: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sisk, Bryan A; Bluebond-Langner, Myra; Wiener, Lori; Mack, Jennifer; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-09-01

    Prognostic disclosure to children has perpetually challenged clinicians and parents. In this article, we review the historical literature on prognostic disclosure to children in the United States using cancer as an illness model. Before 1948, there was virtually no literature focused on prognostic disclosure to children. As articles began to be published in the 1950s and 1960s, many clinicians and researchers initially recommended a "protective" approach to disclosure, where children were shielded from the harms of bad news. We identified 4 main arguments in the literature at this time supporting this "protective" approach. By the late 1960s, however, a growing number of clinicians and researchers were recommending a more "open" approach, where children were included in discussions of diagnosis, which at the time was often synonymous with a terminal prognosis. Four different arguments in the literature were used at this time supporting this "open" approach. Then, by the late 1980s, the recommended approach to prognostic disclosure in pediatrics shifted largely from "never tell" to "always tell." In recent years, however, there has been a growing appreciation for the complexity of prognostic disclosure in pediatrics. Current understanding of pediatric disclosure does not lead to simple "black-and-white" recommendations for disclosure practices. As with most difficult questions, we are left to balance competing factors on a case-by-case basis. We highlight 4 categories of current considerations related to prognostic disclosure in pediatrics, and we offer several approaches to prognostic disclosure for clinicians who care for these young patients and their families. PMID:27561728

  9. Prognostic Disclosures to Children: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sisk, Bryan A.; Bluebond-Langner, Myra; Wiener, Lori; Mack, Jennifer; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic disclosure to children has perpetually challenged clinicians and parents. In this article, we review the historical literature on prognostic disclosure to children in the United States using cancer as an illness model. Prior to 1948, there was virtually no literature focused on prognostic disclosure to children. As articles began to be published in the 1950s and 1960s, many clinicians and researchers initially recommended a “protective” approach to disclosure, where children were shielded from the harms of bad news. We identified four main arguments in the literature at this time supporting this “protective” approach. By the late 1960s, however, a growing number of clinicians and researchers were recommending a more “open” approach, where children were included in discussions of diagnosis, which at the time was often synonymous with a terminal prognosis. Four different arguments in the literature were used at this time supporting this “open” approach. Then by the late 1980s, the recommended approach to prognostic disclosure in pediatrics shifted largely from “never tell” to “always tell”. In recent years, however, there has been a growing appreciation for the complexity of prognostic disclosure in pediatrics. Current understanding of pediatric disclosure does not lead to simple “black and white” recommendations for disclosure practices. As with most difficult questions, we are left to balance competing factors on a case-by-case basis. We highlight four categories of current considerations related to prognostic disclosure in pediatrics, and we offer several approaches to prognostic disclosure for clinicians who care for these young patients and their families. PMID:27561728

  10. Susuk - Black Magic Exposed “White” by Dental Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Faraz

    2014-01-01

    Susuk or charm needles are a facial cum body art widely practiced among women of Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia. These are small, needle-shaped metallic talismans inserted subcutaneously in different parts of the body. The concealed art of susuk was “exposed” by routine radiographic examination in the oral and maxillofacial region. This paper reports two such cases of unusual incidental radiographic finding in dental radiographs which were taken on a routine basis as part of the diagnostic work up. This article will also primarily enlighten the importance of radiographs in detecting such charm needles as the wearer keeps the body art a “hidden secret” thereby avoiding misdiagnosis. PMID:25177646

  11. Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.; Kusagaya, Taro; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Radiographic imaging of magma dynamics in a volcanic conduit provides detailed information about ascent and descent of magma, the magma flow rate, the conduit diameter and inflation and deflation of magma due to volatile expansion and release. Here we report the first radiographic observation of the ascent and descent of magma along a conduit utilizing atmospheric (cosmic ray) muons (muography) with dynamic radiographic imaging. Time sequential radiographic images show that the top of the magma column ascends right beneath the crater floor through which the eruption column was observed. In addition to the visualization of this magma inflation, we report a sequence of images that show magma descending. We further propose that the monitoring of temporal variations in the gas volume fraction of magma as well as its position in a conduit can be used to support existing eruption prediction procedures. PMID:24614612

  12. Dental Identification Through Endodontic Radiographic Records: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Ademir; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective of work The present study aims to report a case of successful human identification based on the comparison of ante-mortem and post-mortem records of endodontic treatment. Based on these, the legal value of storing and updating clinical records is highlighted throughout the text. Case report An unknown body was recovered from a traffic accident site. Forensic examination was conducted in order to establish the identity of the victim. Based on the absence of ante-mortem fingerprint registration in the national database, the search for AM data was performed using periapical radiographic records from private dental clinics. A positive dental identification was achieved analyzing evidence of endodontic treatment. Conclusion Dental radiographs play a valuable role as legal tools supporting the criminal demands on the daily forensic practice. Specifically in endodontics, periapical radiographs are essential for a proper treatment. In forensics, these radiographs represent a solid source of ante-mortem data for human identifications.

  13. Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K M; Kusagaya, Taro; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Radiographic imaging of magma dynamics in a volcanic conduit provides detailed information about ascent and descent of magma, the magma flow rate, the conduit diameter and inflation and deflation of magma due to volatile expansion and release. Here we report the first radiographic observation of the ascent and descent of magma along a conduit utilizing atmospheric (cosmic ray) muons (muography) with dynamic radiographic imaging. Time sequential radiographic images show that the top of the magma column ascends right beneath the crater floor through which the eruption column was observed. In addition to the visualization of this magma inflation, we report a sequence of images that show magma descending. We further propose that the monitoring of temporal variations in the gas volume fraction of magma as well as its position in a conduit can be used to support existing eruption prediction procedures.

  14. Radiographic and scintigraphic evaluation of total knee arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, R.; Soudry, M.

    1986-04-01

    Various radiographic and scintigraphic methods are used to supplement clinical findings in the evaluation of total knee arthroplasty and its complications. Serial roentgenograms offer reliable information for diagnosing mechanical loosening. Wide and extensive radiolucency at the cement-bone interface and shift in position and alignment of prosthetic components can be seen in almost all cases by the time revision is necessary. Radiographic abnormalities are usually not present in acute infection, but are often present in chronic infection. Bone scanning has a high sensitivity for diagnosis of infection or loosening, but is nonspecific because increased uptake is often present around asymptomatic total knee arthroplasties with normal radiographs. Differential bone and Gallium scanning and scanning with Indium 111-labeled leukocytes have a greater specificity for diagnosis of infection than does bone or Gallium scanning alone. Routine radiographic and scintigraphic studies have shown a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis in the calf after total knee arthroplasty. Clinically significant pulmonary embolization is infrequent.

  15. A proposed benchmark for simulation in radiographic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenisch, G.-R.; Deresch, A.; Bellon, C.; Schumm, A.; Guerin, P.

    2014-02-18

    The purpose of this benchmark study is to compare simulation results predicted by various models of radiographic testing, in particular those that are capable of separately predicting primary and scatter radiation for specimens of arbitrary geometry.

  16. Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K M; Kusagaya, Taro; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Radiographic imaging of magma dynamics in a volcanic conduit provides detailed information about ascent and descent of magma, the magma flow rate, the conduit diameter and inflation and deflation of magma due to volatile expansion and release. Here we report the first radiographic observation of the ascent and descent of magma along a conduit utilizing atmospheric (cosmic ray) muons (muography) with dynamic radiographic imaging. Time sequential radiographic images show that the top of the magma column ascends right beneath the crater floor through which the eruption column was observed. In addition to the visualization of this magma inflation, we report a sequence of images that show magma descending. We further propose that the monitoring of temporal variations in the gas volume fraction of magma as well as its position in a conduit can be used to support existing eruption prediction procedures. PMID:24614612

  17. Generation and Analysis of Wire Rope Digital Radiographic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakhlov, S.; Anpilogov, P.; Batranin, A.; Osipov, S.; Zhumabekova, Sh; Yadrenkin, I.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealt with different structures of the digital radiographic system intended for wire rope radiography. The scanning geometry of the wire rope is presented and the main stages of its digital radiographic image generation are identified herein. Correction algorithms are suggested for X-ray beam hardening. A complex internal structure of the wire rope is illustrated by its 25 mm diameter image obtained from X-ray computed tomography. The paper considers the approach to the analysis of digital radiographic image algorithms based on the closeness of certain parameters (invariants) of all unit cross-sections of the reference wire rope or its sections with the length equaling to the lay. The main invariants of wire rope radiographic images are identified and compared with its typical defects.

  18. Radiographic appearance of maxillary sinus feed impaction in a horse.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, James E; Carmalt, James L

    2013-01-01

    A 15-year-old Belgian gelding presented in respiratory distress, with bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, and right-sided epistaxis. The horse had a 5-year history of dental disease and had been recently losing weight. Radiographs indicated tooth root abscessation of the right maxillary third molar tooth and probable maxillary sinus feed impaction. These findings were confirmed at surgery and necropsy. The stippled, granular radiographic appearance described here is highly characteristic of sinus feed impaction. PMID:24371923

  19. The 1980 ILO classification of radiographs of the pneumoconioses.

    PubMed

    Shipley, R T

    1992-11-01

    The 1980 ILO classification of radiographs of the pneumoconioses has undergone revision and improvement in response to increases in knowledge and international concerns. Its goal is to standardize the reading and reporting of radiographic manifestations of the inhalation of dust so that international epidemiologic comparisons are possible. It remains an imperfect instrument, but "... although total elimination of variation is impossible, some measure of control can be achieved."

  20. Serum Calcium Concentration Is Inversely Associated With Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Wen-Feng; Xiong, Yi-Lin; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To examine the relationship between serum calcium (Ca) concentration and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study covered a total of 2855 subjects. The serum Ca concentration was detected by the Arsenazo III method. The radiographic OA of the knee was defined as changes equivalent to Kellgren–Lawrence grade 2 on 1 side at least. The serum Ca concentration was categorized into 4 quartiles, which are ≤2.27, 2.28–2.34, 2.35–2.41, and ≥2.42 mmol/L, respectively. The relationship between serum Ca and radiographic knee OA was examined using the multivariable logistic analysis after adjusting a series of potential confounding factors. For each quartile of the relationship between serum Ca concentration and radiographic knee OA, the OR with 95% CI was calculated, and the one with the lowest value was considered to be the reference. An inverse association existed between serum Ca concentration and radiographic OA of the knee in the multivariable model and the model where the factors of age, sex, and BMI were adjusted. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) for radiographic knee OA in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of serum Ca concentration were 1.05 (95% CI: 0.83–1.31), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80–1.27), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.62–1.00), respectively, in comparison with the reference (first) quartile. A trend approaching to statistical significant (P = 0.06) was observed. Meanwhile, the relative odds of radiographic OA of the knee were decreased by 0.79 times in the fourth quartile in comparison with the reference. There is likely to be an inverse association between serum Ca concentration and radiographic OA of the knee. PMID:26871857

  1. Decreasing the density of dark radiographs--a lost art.

    PubMed

    Serman, N J; Padilla, J F

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure that appears to have been lost with time and that reduces excess density [immaterial of the cause] on radiographs. This results in radiographs of greatly improved diagnostic quality. This procedure results in avoiding retakes resulting in a lower radiation dose to the patient and a saving of time. This procedure should not be considered as a substitute for poor radiological or processing techniques.

  2. Development of a portable, high-energy radiographic source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, E. R.; Schonberg, R. G.; Mixon, G. L.; Wenk, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    A two-year program has been undertaken to develop a portable high-energy (3-4 MeV) radiographic system for in-service and repair inspections of components at nuclear power stations. The basic design concept uses a lightweight portable linear accelerator. This paper describes the design objectives, concepts employed, and progress to date. Specific potential applications and accompanying radiographic techniques are discussed, along with novel beam-angulation devices that permit utilization in areas of highly restricted access.

  3. Untreated hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: outcome and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Zeeneldin, Ahmed Abdelmabood; Salem, Salem Eid; Darwish, Amira Diaa; El-Gammal, Mosaad Mahmoud; Hussein, Marwa Mahmoud; Saadeldin, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer worldwide as well as in Egypt with hepatitis C and B, alcohol and aflatoxins being the commonest risk factors. Aim The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS) of untreated HCC in Egypt. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Tanta Cancer Center, Egypt where 288 HCC cases who received no specific therapy and were followed-up until death were identified. The impact of possible prognostic factors on OS was assessed using the log-rank test (univariate analyses) and Cox regression method (multivariate analysis). Results The median OS of untreated HCC was 2.3 months (95% confidence interval: 1.9–2.6). The 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 months OS rates were 84%, 42%, 21%, 9%, and 3%, respectively. All cases had died by 46 months. Male sex, advanced Child-Pugh class, the clinical presentation of ascites, cough, fatigue, and the presence of metastases were associated with poor survival (P<0.05 for all). In multivariate analysis; cough, presence of ascites, and Child-Pugh class were independent predictors of poor survival. Conclusion OS in untreated HCC in Egypt is very short. Many factors interact to produce this dismal survival. PMID:27508189

  4. Prognostic Scoring Index for Patients with Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung Soon; Lee, Hye Sun; Park, Ji Soo; Park, Joon Seong; Lee, Dong Ki; Lee, Se-Joon; Yoon, Dong Sup; Lee, Min Goo; Jeung, Hei-Cheul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study focused on implementation of a prognostic scoring index based on clinico-laboratory parameters measured routinely on admission in metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. Materials and Methods Records from 403 patients of metastatic disease were analyzed retrospectively. Continuous variables were dichotomized according to the normal range or the best cut-off values statistically determined by Contal and O’Quigley method, and then analyzed in association with prognosis—overall survival (OS), using Cox’s proportional hazard model. Scores were calculated by summing the rounded chi-square scores for the factors that emerged in the multivariate analysis. Results Performance status, hemoglobin, leucocyte count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and carcinoembryonic antigen were independent factors for OS. When patients were divided into three risk groups according to these factors, median survival was 11.7, 6.2, and 1.3 months for the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Palliative chemotherapy has a significant survival benefit for low and intermediate-risk patients (median OS; 12.5 months vs. 5.9 months, p < 0.001 and 8.0 months vs. 2.0 months, p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion We advocate the use of a multivariable approach with continuous variables for prognostic modeling. Our index is helpful in accurate patient risk stratification and may aid in treatment selection. PMID:26875200

  5. IGF-IR: a new prognostic biomarker for human glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Maris, C; D'Haene, N; Trépant, A-L; Le Mercier, M; Sauvage, S; Allard, J; Rorive, S; Demetter, P; Decaestecker, C; Salmon, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most common malignant primary brain tumours in adults and are refractory to conventional therapy, including surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is a complex network that includes ligands (IGFI and IGFII), receptors (IGF-IR and IGF-IIR) and high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6). Many studies have reported a role for the IGF system in the regulation of tumour cell biology. However, the role of this system remains unclear in GBMs. Methods: We investigate the prognostic value of both the IGF ligands' and receptors' expression in a cohort of human GBMs. Tissue microarray and image analysis were conducted to quantitatively analyse the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins in 218 human GBMs. Results: Both IGF-IR and IGF-IIR were overexpressed in GBMs compared with normal brain (P<10−4 and P=0.002, respectively). Moreover, with regard to standard clinical factors, IGF-IR positivity was identified as an independent prognostic factor associated with shorter survival (P=0.016) and was associated with a less favourable response to temozolomide. Conclusions: This study suggests that IGF-IR could be an interesting target for GBM therapy. PMID:26291053

  6. A Distributed Prognostic Health Management Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskar, Saha; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a generic distributed prognostic health management (PHM) architecture with specific application to the electrical power systems domain. Current state-of-the-art PHM systems are mostly centralized in nature, where all the processing is reliant on a single processor. This can lead to loss of functionality in case of a crash of the central processor or monitor. Furthermore, with increases in the volume of sensor data as well as the complexity of algorithms, traditional centralized systems become unsuitable for successful deployment, and efficient distributed architectures are required. A distributed architecture though, is not effective unless there is an algorithmic framework to take advantage of its unique abilities. The health management paradigm envisaged here incorporates a heterogeneous set of system components monitored by a varied suite of sensors and a particle filtering (PF) framework that has the power and the flexibility to adapt to the different diagnostic and prognostic needs. Both the diagnostic and prognostic tasks are formulated as a particle filtering problem in order to explicitly represent and manage uncertainties; however, typically the complexity of the prognostic routine is higher than the computational power of one computational element ( CE). Individual CEs run diagnostic routines until the system variable being monitored crosses beyond a nominal threshold, upon which it coordinates with other networked CEs to run the prognostic routine in a distributed fashion. Implementation results from a network of distributed embedded devices monitoring a prototypical aircraft electrical power system are presented, where the CEs are Sun Microsystems Small Programmable Object Technology (SPOT) devices.

  7. Prognostic modeling in pediatric acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vandana; Dhawan, Anil

    2016-10-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the only proven treatment for pediatric acute liver failure (PALF). However, over a period of time, spontaneous native liver survival is increasingly reported, making us wonder if we are overtransplanting children with acute liver failure (ALF). An effective prognostic model for PALF would help direct appropriate organ allocation. Only patients who would die would undergo LT, and those who would spontaneously recover would avoid unnecessary LT. Deriving and validating such a model for PALF, however, encompasses numerous challenges. In particular, the heterogeneity of age and etiology in PALF, as well as a lack of understanding of the natural history of the disease, contributed by the availability of LT has led to difficulties in prognostic model development. Several prognostic laboratory variables have been identified, and the incorporation of these variables into scoring systems has been attempted. A reliable targeted prognostic model for ALF in Wilson's disease has been established and externally validated. The roles of physiological, immunological, and metabolomic parameters in prognosis are being investigated. This review discusses the challenges with prognostic modeling in PALF and describes predictive methods that are currently available and in development for the future. Liver Transplantation 22 1418-1430 2016 AASLD. PMID:27343006

  8. Evaluating Algorithm Performance Metrics Tailored for Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prognostics has taken a center stage in Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) where it is desired to estimate Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of the system so that remedial measures may be taken in advance to avoid catastrophic events or unwanted downtimes. Validation of such predictions is an important but difficult proposition and a lack of appropriate evaluation methods renders prognostics meaningless. Evaluation methods currently used in the research community are not standardized and in many cases do not sufficiently assess key performance aspects expected out of a prognostics algorithm. In this paper we introduce several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics and show that they can effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically four algorithms namely; Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Polynomial Regression (PR) are compared. These algorithms vary in complexity and their ability to manage uncertainty around predicted estimates. Results show that the new metrics rank these algorithms in different manner and depending on the requirements and constraints suitable metrics may be chosen. Beyond these results, these metrics offer ideas about how metrics suitable to prognostics may be designed so that the evaluation procedure can be standardized. 1

  9. Establishing Standards for Side-by-Side Radiographic Comparisons.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ann H; Lanfear, Alicja K; Maxwell, Ashley B

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the use of various anatomical features that are visible in standard radiographs and to develop a standard system of assessing concordant features for making positive identifications through radiographic comparison.The radiographs used in the study include craniofacial (n = 41), chest (n = 100), and proximal femur (n = 49), which were made available by the North Carolina Office of the Chief Medical Examiner. Radiographs were scored for number of concordant features and were analyzed using classification decision trees. The accuracy of the classification tree models was evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic.Two or more points of concordance are required in lateral cranial radiographs for a 97% probability of a positive identification. If more than 1 concordant feature exists on the cervical vertebrae, there is a 99% probability of correct identification. For thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, 4 or more concordant features are required for a 98% probability of correct identification. If there are 1 or more femoral head and neck concordant features, the probability of a correct identification is 94% and 97%, respectively. This study established the minimum number of concordant areas needed to confirm positive identifications in 3 standard radiographic views. PMID:26999427

  10. Radiographic measurement of internal organs in Spix's macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii).

    PubMed

    Rettmer, Helen; Deb, Amrita; Watson, Ryan; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hammer, Sven

    2011-12-01

    Radiology is an important diagnostic instrument in avian medicine, but standard measurement ranges for the objective evaluation of radiographs of birds are rare. To establish radiographic reference ranges for the critically endangered Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), we measured radiographic silhouettes of the heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, proventriculus, and keel of the sternum on 29 radiographs taken under standardized conditions in adult and juvenile, clinically healthy birds. Ratios were determined for the proventricular diameter-to-keel height, the width of the heart to the width of the thorax, and for the "hourglass shape" (ratio of the width of the heart to the width of the liver). No significant differences were found between the sexes among the adult birds. Compared with adult birds, juvenile females had a significantly larger heart width (19.8 +/- 1.4 mm versus 21.2 +/- 0.7 mm), ratio of the heart width to the thorax width (0.86 +/- 0.08 versus 0.94 +/- 0.09), and horizontal width of the spleen (7.7 +/- 0.6 mm versus 8.5 +/- 0.4 mm). Results of radiographic measurements in the Spix's macaws were comparable to those published from other psittacine species. These reference ranges will facilitate a more objective radiographic evaluation of captive Spix's macaws.

  11. Segmentation and determination of joint space width in foot radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, O.; de Muinck Keizer, D. M.; Bernelot Moens, H. J.; Slump, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    Joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis is frequently assessed using radiographs of hands and feet. Evaluation includes measurements of the joint space width (JSW) and detection of erosions. Current visual scoring methods are timeconsuming and subject to inter- and intra-observer variability. Automated measurement methods avoid these limitations and have been fairly successful in hand radiographs. This contribution aims at foot radiographs. Starting from an earlier proposed automated segmentation method we have developed a novel model based image analysis algorithm for JSW measurements. This method uses active appearance and active shape models to identify individual bones. The model compiles ten submodels, each representing a specific bone of the foot (metatarsals 1-5, proximal phalanges 1-5). We have performed segmentation experiments using 24 foot radiographs, randomly selected from a large database from the rheumatology department of a local hospital: 10 for training and 14 for testing. Segmentation was considered successful if the joint locations are correctly determined. Segmentation was successful in only 14%. To improve results a step-by-step analysis will be performed. We performed JSW measurements on 14 randomly selected radiographs. JSW was successfully measured in 75%, mean and standard deviation are 2.30+/-0.36mm. This is a first step towards automated determination of progression of RA and therapy response in feet using radiographs.

  12. Prognostic significance of serum cystatin C in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Nückel, Holger; Langer, Christian; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Wichert, Marc; Assert, Roland; Döhner, Hartmut; Dührsen, Ulrich; Liebisch, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is frequently complicated by renal insufficiency, which is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Serum cystatin C is a new and accurate marker of glomerular filtration rate. Global gene expression analysis has revealed serum cystatin C as one of the most highly upregulated genes in MM. Recent data have shown serum cystatin C as an independent prognostic marker in MM. To further elucidate the prognostic significance of serum cystatin C, we investigated pretreatment serum cystatin C levels in 68 newly diagnosed patients homogeneously treated with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Median serum cystatin C level in MM patients was significantly higher than in the 66 healthy controls (1.07 vs. 0.74 mg/L [p = 0.002]). Median serum cystatin C levels significantly increased with higher International Staging System (ISS) stages (stage I 0.72 mg/L; stage II 0.89 mg/L; stage III 1.28 mg/L; p < 0.0001). Higher serum cystatin C was positively correlated with higher serum levels of creatinine (r = 0.84; p < 0.0001), β2-microglobulin (r = 0.72; p < 0.0001), LDH (r = 0.43; p = 0.0003), white blood cell counts (r = 0.61; p < 0.0001) and calcium (r = 0.29; p = 0.016), and negatively correlated with lower serum albumin levels (r = 0.44; p < 0.0001) and hemoglobin levels (r = 0.31; p = 0.01). Using ROC analysis, patients with serum cystatin C levels ≥0.95 mg/L (n = 24) had a significantly shorter event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) than patients with serum cystatin C levels <0.95 mg/L (median EFS: 26 vs. 44 months, p < 0.0001; median OS: 54 vs. 68 months, p = 0.05). Moreover, the combination of serum cystatin C level and genomic aberrations further refined the prognostic information (EFS and OS) provided by either one of the factors. The level of serum cystatin C is not only a sensitive marker of renal function, but also reflects tumor burden and delivers prognostic information in MM.

  13. Histological characterisation and prognostic evaluation of 62 gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaohui; Ye, Yuhong; Shi, Xi; Zhu, Kunshou; Huang, Liming; Zhang, Sheng; Ying, Mingang; Lin, Xuede

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the significance of expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67 and their association with clinicopathological parameters, and to find out the possible prognostic factors in gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (G-NEC). Material and methods We investigated the immunohistochemical features and prognosis of 62 G-NECs, and evaluated the association among expressions of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67, clinicopathological variables, and outcome. Results Chromogranin A expression was found more commonly in small-cell NECs (9/9, 100%) than in large-cell NECs (27/53, 51%) (p = 0.008). No statistical significance was found in Ki-67 (p = 0.494) or synaptophysin (p > 0.1) expression between NEC cell types. Correlation analyses revealed that Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with mid-third disease of stomach (p = 0.005) and vascular involvement (p = 0.006), and had a trend of significant correlation with tumour relapse (p = 0.078). High expression of chromogranin A was significantly associated with histology of small-cell NECs (p = 0.008) and lesser tumour greatest dimension (p = 0.038). The prognostic significance was determined by means of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests, and as a result, early TNM staging and postoperative chemotherapy were found to be correlated with longer overall survival (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis revealed associations between poor prognosis in NECs and several factors, including high TNM staging (p = 0.048), vascular involvement (p = 0.023), relapse (p = 0.004), and microscopic/macroscopic residual tumour (R1/2, p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, relapse was identified as the sole independent prognostic factor. Conclusions No significant correlation between survival and expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, or Ki-67 has been determined in G-NECs. Our study indicated that early diagnosis, no-residual-tumour resection, and postoperative chemotherapy were

  14. Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas: p53 expression is a significant indicator of prognosis.

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Jørgensen, K E; Bastholt, L; Clausen, P P; Hansen, T P; Hansen, O; Bentzen, S M

    1998-02-01

    To identify clinical and histologic prognostic factors and to investigate whether immunohistochemical detection of p53 expression might contain prognostic information, a retrospective study of patient and tumor characteristics was performed in 225 cases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas. The analyses were based on cause-specific and crude survival. In univariate analysis, age at diagnosis, tumor size, presence of distant metastases, histology (papillary contra follicular type), extrathyroidal invasion, necrosis in primary tumor, and p53 expression were significant prognostic indicators. For 211 patients (96%) all information was available and Cox's proportional hazard model was applied. The authors found that age, distant metastases, necrosis in primary tumor, extrathyroidal invasion, and p53 expression were significant prognostic factors. Analyses of cause-specific and crude survival gave similar results. The authors conclude that age at diagnosis, presence of distant metastases, necrosis in primary tumor, and extrathyroidal invasion are important prognostic factors, and that immunohistochemical detection of p53 protein in the primary tumor is a significant and independent prognostic indicator, which might be of value in the treatment planning in patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas. PMID:9473076

  15. Prognostic Significance of Tumor Size in 2405 Patients With Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lin-Yong; Zhang, Wei-Han; Chen, Xin-Zu; Yang, Kun; Chen, Xiao-Long; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinical prognostic significance of tumor size (Ts) in gastric cancer remains under debate. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic value of Ts in gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy. A total of 2405 patients with gastric cancer, all having received radical resection, were enrolled in this retrospective study from 2000 to 2011. Patients were categorized by minimum P value from log-rank χ2 statistics using X-tile. The relationships between Ts and other clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed, and the survival prediction accuracy was also compared between Ts and T stage. Patients were divided into 5 groups, according to which Ts stage and TsNM stage system were proposed. Ts, an independent prognostic factor identified by univariate and multivariate survival analysis, was significantly associated with sex, age, tumor location, macroscopic type, tumor diffferentiation, vessel invasion, perineural invasion, T stage, N stage, and TNM stage. Compared with T stage system, Ts stage system was found no superiorities in survival prediction. However, for patients with lymph node metastasis and patients with age ≥60, Ts stage system revealed a significant improvement of predictive accuracy in subgroup survival analysis. Furthermore, TsNM stage (c-index = 0.783) system was found to be superior to TNM stage (c-index = 0.743) system in prognostic prediction accuracy (P < 0.05). Ts is significantly correlated with gastric cancer progression, which can be regarded as a reliable prognostic factor, and the TsNM stage system may improve the prognostic prediction accuracy in gastric cancer patients. PMID:26683961

  16. Prognostic and Predictive Model for Stage II Colon Cancer Patients With Nonemergent Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-Dong; Wang, Ji-Nan; Sui, Bai-Qiang; Zeng, Yong-Ji; Chen, Jun-Qing; Dai, Dong-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract No ideal prognostic model has been applied to clearly identify which suitable high-risk stage II colon cancer patients with negative margins undergoing nonemergent surgery should receive adjuvant chemotherapy routinely. Clinicopathologic and prognostic data of 333 stage II colon cancer patients who underwent D2 or D3 lymphadenectomy during nonemergent surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Four pathologically determined factors, including adjacent organ involvement (RR 2.831, P = 0.001), histologic differentiation (RR 2.151, P = 0.009), lymphovascular invasion (RR 4.043, P < 0.001), and number of lymph nodes retrieved (RR 2.161, P = 0.011), were identified as independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. Importantly, a simple cumulative scoring system clearly categorizing prognostic risk groups was generated: risk score = ∑ coefficient’ × status (AOI + histological differentiated + lymphovascular invasion + LNs retrieved). Our new prognostic model may provide valuable information on the impact of lymphovascular invasion, as well as powerfully and reliably predicting prognosis and recurrence for this particular cohort of patients. This model may identify suitable patients with an R0 resection who should receive routine postoperative adjuvant therapy and may help clinicians to facilitate individualized treatment. In this study, we aim to provide an ideal and quantifiable method for clinical decision making in the nonemergent surgical treatment of stage II colon cancer. Our prognostic and predictive model should be applied in multicenter, prospective studies with large sample sizes, in order to obtain a more reliable clinical recommendation. PMID:26735527

  17. Predictive and prognostic value of preoperative serum tumor markers is EGFR mutation-specific in resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Richeng; Wang, Xinyue; Li, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background The predictive and prognostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin-19 fragments (Cyfra21-1), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) has been investigated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, few studies have directly focused on the association between these markers and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status or mutation subtypes. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed 1016 patients with stage I-IIIA NSCLC who underwent complete resection between 2008 and 2012. Correlations between serum tumor marker levels and EGFR mutations and survival parameters were analyzed and prognostic factors were identified. Results Cyfra21-1 levels (P = 0.032 for disease-free survival [DFS]; P < 0.001 for overall survival [OS]) and clinical stage were identified as independent predictive and prognostic factors in EGFR-mutated adenocarcinoma patients. CEA levels (P < 0.001 for DFS; P = 0.002 for OS) and clinical stage were independently predictive and prognostic in EGFR wild-type adenocarcinoma patients. Further stratification analysis revealed that in EGFR exon 19 deletion adenocarcinomas, elevated Cyfra21-1 was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.002). Within the Leu858Arg substitution subgroup, increased CEA (P = 0.005) and clinical stage were predictive factors of DFS, while elevated CEA (P = 0.005) and Cyfra21-1 (P = 0.027) were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion Cyfra21-1 and CEA exhibit different predictive and prognostic values between EGFR-mutated and wild-type adenocarcinomas, as well as between EGFR mutation subtypes. The prognostic impact of preoperative serum tumor markers should be evaluated together with EGFR mutation status. PMID:27072585

  18. Prognostic utility of coronary computed tomographic angiography

    PubMed Central

    Otaki, Yuka; Berman, Daniel S.; Min, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) employing CT scanners of 64-detector rows or greater represents a noninvasive method that enables accurate detection and exclusion of anatomically obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), providing excellent diagnostic information when compared to invasive angiography. There are numerous potential advantages of CCTA beyond simply luminal stenosis assessment including quantification of atherosclerotic plaque volume as well as assessment of plaque composition, extent, location and distribution. In recent years, an array of studies has evaluated the prognostic utility of CCTA findings of CAD for the prediction of major adverse cardiac events, all-cause death and plaque instability. This prognostic information enhances risk stratification and, if properly acted upon, may improve medical therapy and/or behavioral changes that may enhance event-free survival. The goal of the present article is to summarize the current status of the prognostic utility of CCTA findings of CAD. PMID:23809386

  19. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M.

    2009-11-15

    }=0.61 (MF and MG features, p<0.01) and were partially independent of BMD. The correlations were dependent on the choice of the ROI and the texture measure. The best predictive multiregression model for failure load R{sub adj}{sup 2}=0.86 (p<0.001) included a set of recently developed texture methods (MF and SIM) but excluded bone mineral density and commonly used texture measures. Conclusions: The results suggest that texture information contained in trabecular bone structure visualized on radiographs may predict whether an implant anchorage can be used and may determine the local bone quality from preoperative radiographs.

  20. Development of a radiographic index to assess the tarsal involvement in patients with spondyloarthropathies

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Tena, C; Londono, J; Cazarin-Barriento..., J; Martinez, A; Vazquez-Mellado, J; Moctezuma, J; Gonzalez, M; Pineda, C; Cardiel, M; Burgos-Vargas, R

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test an index to evaluate the radiographic changes that occur in the tarsus and adjacent areas of the foot in patients with spondyloarthropathies (SpA). Methods: The spondyloarthropathy tarsal radiographic index (SpA-TRI) was developed in three consecutive steps: (a) detection of descriptors after reviewing 70 radiographic files; (b) descriptor gradation and subsequent modifications performed by a consensus committee, and (c) interobserver variability assessed by three blinded and independent observers on 272 radiographs: anteroposterior 118, lateral 90, oblique 64 from 121 patients with SpA, and intraobserver variability on 75 radiographs from 25 patients with SpA. Statistical analysis included percentage of agreement and κ test. SpA-TRI score ranges from 0 to 4 (0=normal; 1=osteopenia or suspicious findings; 2=definite joint space narrowing, bony erosion(s), periosteal whiskering, or enthesophyte(s) in the plantar fascia or Achilleal tendon attachments; 3=para-articular enthesophyte(s); 4=bony ankylosis (joint space fusion or complete bridging)). Results: Complete agreement for every evaluation was >40%, and discordance >1 grade was <15%. The κ scores among the three observers were acceptable for all the single projections: oblique (0.52, 0.36, 0.35), lateral (0.50, 0.42, 0.56), and anteroposterior (0.40, 0.41, 0.21) views. The combination of lateral and oblique views achieved the highest concordance rates (0.72, 0.33, 0.66), surpassing that of the three projections altogether (0.34, 0.58, 0.37). In every case the concordance was comparable with that of sacroiliac joints (0.47, 0.41, 0.34); intraobserver concordance showed a similar trend. Conclusion: The SpA-TRI is an index that includes the most prominent features of tarsal disease and adjacent areas of the foot in SpA and grades them accordingly, it has an adequate reproducibility, and is suitable for use with two or more projections, preferably the combination of oblique and

  1. Evaluation of Patellar Position before and After Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: Radiographic and Computed Tomography Findings

    PubMed Central

    Moghtadaei, Mehdi; Otoukesh, Babak; Bodduhi, Bahram; Ahmadi, Keyvan; Yeganeh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Genovarum is a common orthopedic problem. Its optimal prompt treatment is an issue of importance. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the radiographic changes in patella bone before and after open wedge high tibial osteotomy. Material and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 43 patients were enrolled and underwent open wedge high tibial osteotomy and the radiographic and CT-scan indices including Q-Angle, Congruence Angle, Insall-Salvati index, and TTTG were measured and compared before and after surgery. Results: The result revealed that all indices including Q-Angle, Congruence Angle, Insull-Salvati index, and TTTG were not significantly differed across the study (P > 0.05). There was no difference between DLFA values before and after the operation (P> 0.05), while MPTA values were significantly different before and after operation (p <0.001). Conclusions: Totally it may be concluded that imaging indices are not differed after open wedge high tibial osteotomy and monitoring for them is not necessary and they would have no prognostic role. PMID:27703292

  2. LOC283731 promoter hypermethylation prognosticates survival after radiochemotherapy in IDH1 wild-type glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mock, Andreas; Geisenberger, Christoph; Orlik, Christian; Warta, Rolf; Schwager, Christian; Jungk, Christine; Dutruel, Céline; Geiselhart, Lea; Weichenhan, Dieter; Zucknick, Manuela; Nied, Ann-Katrin; Friauf, Sara; Exner, Janina; Capper, David; Hartmann, Christian; Lahrmann, Bernd; Grabe, Niels; Debus, Jürgen; von Deimling, Andreas; Popanda, Odilia; Plass, Christoph; Unterberg, Andreas; Abdollahi, Amir; Schmezer, Peter; Herold-Mende, Christel

    2016-07-15

    MGMT promoter methylation status is currently the only established molecular prognosticator in IDH wild-type glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Therefore, we aimed to discover novel therapy-associated epigenetic biomarkers. After enrichment for hypermethylated fractions using methyl-CpG-immunoprecipitation (MCIp), we performed global DNA methylation profiling for 14 long-term (LTS; >36 months) and 15 short-term (STS; 6-10 months) surviving GBM patients. Even after exclusion of the G-CIMP phenotype, we observed marked differences between the LTS and STS methylome. A total of 1,247 probes in 706 genes were hypermethylated in LTS and 463 probes in 305 genes were found to be hypermethylated in STS patients (p values < 0.05, log2 fold change ± 0.5). We identified 13 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with a minimum of four differentially methylated probes per gene. Indeed, we were able to validate a subset of these DMRs through a second, independent method (MassARRAY) in our LTS/STS training set (ADCY1, GPC3, LOC283731/ISLR2). These DMRs were further assessed for their prognostic capability in an independent validation cohort (n = 62) of non-G-CIMP GBMs from the TCGA. Hypermethylation of multiple CpGs mapping to the promoter region of LOC283731 correlated with improved patient outcome (p = 0.03). The prognostic performance of LOC283731 promoter hypermethylation was confirmed in a third independent study cohort (n = 89), and was independent of gender, performance (KPS) and MGMT status (p = 0.0485, HR = 0.63). Intriguingly, the prediction was most pronounced in younger GBM patients (<60 years). In conclusion, we provide compelling evidence that promoter methylation status of this novel gene is a prognostic biomarker in IDH1 wild-type/non-G-CIMP GBMs. PMID:26934681

  3. Expression and prognostic significance of unique ULBPs in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiong; Zhu, Xing-Xing; Xu, Hong; Fang, Heng-Zhong; Zhao, Jin-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide, due to the lack of efficient therapy and difficulty in early diagnosis. ULBPs have been shown to behave as important protectors with prognostic significance in various cancers. Materials and methods Immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to explore the expression of ULBPs in cancer tissue and in serum, while survival analysis was used to evaluate the subsequent clinical value of ULBPs. Results Statistics showed that high expression of membrane ULBP1 was a good biomarker of overall survival (18 months vs 13 months), and a high level of soluble ULBP2 was deemed an independent poor indicator for both overall survival (P<0.001) and disease-free survival (P<0.001). Conclusion ULBP1 provides additional information for early diagnosis, and soluble ULBP2 can be used as a novel tumor marker to evaluate the risk of pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:27621649

  4. A pan-cancer analysis of prognostic genes

    PubMed Central

    Reon, Brian; Chen, Wei-Min; Bekiranov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified prognostic genes in individual cancers, but a thorough pan-cancer analysis has not been performed. In addition, previous studies have mostly used microarray data instead of RNA-SEQ, and have not published comprehensive lists of associations with survival. Using recently available RNA-SEQ and clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas for 6,495 patients, we have investigated every annotated and expressed gene’s association with survival across 16 cancer types. The most statistically significant harmful and protective genes were not shared across cancers, but were enriched in distinct gene sets which were shared across certain groups of cancers. These groups of cancers were independently recapitulated by both unsupervised clustering of Cox coefficients (a measure of association with survival) for individual genes, and for gene programs. This analysis has revealed unappreciated commonalities among cancers which may provide insights into cancer pathogenesis and rationales for co-opting treatments between cancers. PMID:27047702

  5. [Prognostic factors in perforating diverticulitis of the large intestine].

    PubMed

    Hansen, O; Graupe, F; Stock, W

    1998-04-01

    Morbidity and mortality after emergency procedures in 105 patients with perforated colonic diverticulitis were evaluated in a retrospective study. In different stages of diverticulitis (Hinchey classification: I, 8.6%; II, 14.3%; III, 57.1%; IV, 20.0%) mortality was 12.4%. Preoperative sepsis syndrome with leucopenia and disturbed liver function, cardiac risk factors and obesity were independent prognostic factors in multiple logistic regression. Accompanied by immunosuppression the mortality rate remarkably increased to 33%. The stage of peritonitis showed no influence on the prognosis. In multivariate analysis, surgical procedure (primary resection 12.4%. Hartmann's procedure 61.9%, non-resection procedures 25.7%) showed influence only on increased general complications.

  6. Expression and prognostic significance of unique ULBPs in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiong; Zhu, Xing-Xing; Xu, Hong; Fang, Heng-Zhong; Zhao, Jin-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide, due to the lack of efficient therapy and difficulty in early diagnosis. ULBPs have been shown to behave as important protectors with prognostic significance in various cancers. Materials and methods Immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to explore the expression of ULBPs in cancer tissue and in serum, while survival analysis was used to evaluate the subsequent clinical value of ULBPs. Results Statistics showed that high expression of membrane ULBP1 was a good biomarker of overall survival (18 months vs 13 months), and a high level of soluble ULBP2 was deemed an independent poor indicator for both overall survival (P<0.001) and disease-free survival (P<0.001). Conclusion ULBP1 provides additional information for early diagnosis, and soluble ULBP2 can be used as a novel tumor marker to evaluate the risk of pancreatic cancer patients.

  7. Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Progression: Prognostic Factors and Basic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sirica, Alphonse E.; Dumur, Catherine I.; Campbell, Deanna J. W.; Almenara, Jorge A.; Ogunwobi, Olorunseun O.; Dewitt, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we will examine various molecular biomarkers for their potential to serve as independent prognostic factors for predicting survival outcome in postoperative patients with progressive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Specific rodent models of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma that mimic relevant cellular, molecular, and clinical features of the human disease are also described, not only in terms of their usefulness in identifying molecular pathways and mechanisms linked to cholangiocarcinoma development and progression, but also for their potential value as preclinical platforms for suggesting and testing novel molecular strategies for cholangiocarcinoma therapy. Last, recent studies aimed at addressing the role of desmoplastic stroma in promoting intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma progression are highlighted in an effort to underline the potential value of targeting tumor stromal components together with that of cholangiocarcinoma cells as a novel therapeutic option for this devastating cancer. PMID:19896103

  8. Prognostic value of baseline seric Syndecan-1 in initially unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer patients: a simple biological score.

    PubMed

    Jary, Marine; Lecomte, Thierry; Bouché, Olivier; Kim, Stefano; Dobi, Erion; Queiroz, Lise; Ghiringhelli, Francois; Etienne, Hélène; Léger, Julie; Godet, Yann; Balland, Jérémy; Lakkis, Zaher; Adotevi, Olivier; Bonnetain, Franck; Borg, Christophe; Vernerey, Dewi

    2016-11-15

    In first-line metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), baseline prognostic factors allowing death risk and treatment strategy stratification are lacking. Syndecan-1 (CD138) soluble form was never described as a prognostic biomarker in mCRC. We investigated its additional prognostic value for overall survival (OS). mCRC patients with unresectable disease at diagnosis were treated with bevacizumab-based chemotherapy in two independent prospective clinical trials (development set: n = 126, validation set: n = 51, study NCT00489697 and study NCT00544011, respectively). Serums were collected at baseline for CD138 measurement. OS determinants were assessed and, based on the final multivariate model, a prognostic score was proposed. Two independent OS prognostic factors were identified: Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) high level (p = 0.0066) and log-CD138 high level (p = 0.0190). The determination of CD138 binary information (cutoff: 75 ng/mL) allowed the assessment of a biological prognostic score with CD138 and LDH values, identifying three risk groups for death (median OS= 38.9, 30.1 and 19.8 months for the low, intermediate and high risk groups, respectively; p < 0.0001). This score had a good discrimination ability (C-index = 0.63). These results were externally confirmed in the validation set. Our study provides robust evidence in favor of the additional baseline soluble CD138 prognostic value for OS, in mCRC patients. A simple biological scoring system is proposed including LDH and CD138 binary status values.

  9. Novel immunological and nutritional-based prognostic index for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai-Yu; Xu, Jian-Bo; Chen, Shu-Ling; Yuan, Yu-Jie; Wu, Hui; Peng, Jian-Jun; Chen, Chuang-Qi; Guo, Pi; Hao, Yuan-Tao; He, Yu-Long

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prognostic significance of immunological and nutritional-based indices, including the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio in gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 632 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy between 1998 and 2008. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated to compare the predictive ability of the indices, together with estimating the sensitivity, specificity and agreement rate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for overall survival (OS). Propensity score analysis was performed to adjust variables to control for selection bias. RESULTS: Each index could predict OS in gastric cancer patients in univariate analysis, but only PNI had independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis before and after adjustment with propensity scoring (hazard ratio, 1.668; 95% confidence interval: 1.368-2.035). In subgroup analysis, a low PNI predicted a significantly shorter OS in patients with stage II-III disease (P = 0.019, P < 0.001), T3-T4 tumors (P < 0.001), or lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Canton score, a combination of PNI, NLR, and platelet, was a better indicator for OS than PNI, with the largest area under the curve for 12-, 36-, 60-mo OS and overall OS (P = 0.022, P = 0.030, P < 0.001, and P = 0.024, respectively). The maximum sensitivity, specificity, and agreement rate of Canton score for predicting prognosis were 84.6%, 34.9%, and 70.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: PNI is an independent prognostic factor for OS in gastric cancer. Canton score can be a novel preoperative prognostic index in gastric cancer. PMID:26019461

  10. LYMPHOPENIA AS A PROGNOSTIC FACTOR FOR OVERALL SURVIVAL IN ADVANCED CARCINOMAS, SARCOMAS AND LYMPHOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Cropet, Claire; Van Glabbeke, Martine; Sebban, Catherine; Le Cesne, Axel; Judson, Ian; Tredan, Olivier; Verweij, Jaap; Biron, Pierre; Labidi, Inthidar; Guastalla, Jean-Paul; Bachelot, Thomas; Perol, David; Chabaud, Sylvie; Hogendoorn, Pancras C.W.; Cassier, Philippe; Dufresne, Armelle; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Lymphopenia is frequent in advanced cancers and predicts the toxicity of chemotherapy. Its impact on relapse and survival is uncertain. Its prognostic value for survival was analyzed in 3 databases of previously reported prospective multicenter studies: 1) FEC chemotherapy in metastatic breast carcinoma; 2) CYVADIC in advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (EORTC-STBSG 62791); 3) prospective, consecutive phase III studies of aggressive diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas conducted at Bérard center between 1987 and 1993. Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for survival were performed. The incidence of lymphopenia <1000/μL before treatment was constant among series: 25%, 24%, 27% respectively. Lymphopenia was significantly more frequent (p<0.05) in metastatic breast cancer patients with performance status (PS)>1, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients with international prognostic index (IPI)>0, and advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and metastatic breast cancer patients with bone metastases. In univariate analysis, lymphopenia <1000/μL significantly correlated to overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer (median 10 vs. 14 months, p <0.0001), advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (median 5 vs. 10 months, p <0.01), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (median 11 vs. 94 months, p <0.0001). In multivariate analysis (Cox model), lymphopenia was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer (RR: 1.8; 95%CI 1.3–2.4) along with liver metastases and PS; in advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (RR: 1.46; 95%CI 1.0–2.1) along with liver metastases, lung metastases and PS; and in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (RR: 1.48; 95%CI 1.03–2.1) along with IPI. Our findings demonstrate that lymphopenia is an independent prognostic factor for overall and progression-free survival in several cancers. PMID:19549917

  11. Cervical Scoliosis: Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Addisu; Bakhsh, Wajeeh R.; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Cervical scoliosis is a rare condition that can arise from various etiologies. Few reports on the surgical management of cervical scoliosis exist. Our objective was to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes following surgical management of cervical scoliosis. Methods We evaluated our cervical spine surgical database for patients with cervical scoliosis (Cobb angle > 10 degrees) from 2005 to 2010. Demographic data including age, gender, diagnoses, and primary versus revision surgery was collected. Surgical data including procedure (anterior versus posterior), estimated blood loss (EBL), length of surgery, length of hospitalization, and complications was recorded. Preoperative and postoperative Cobb angle measurements and Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores were recorded. Results Cervical scoliosis was identified in 18 patients. We excluded 5, leaving 5 men and 8 women with an average age of 50.7 (median 52, range 25 to 65). The average follow-up was 40 months (median 36.5, range 5 to 87). An anterior-only approach was used in 6 cases (average 4 levels fused), 5 cases were posterior-only approach (average 8.7 levels fused), and 2 cases were combined anterior-posterior approach. The EBL was an average of 286 mL (median 150, range 50 to 900), the average surgical time was 266 minutes (median 239, range 136 to 508), and the average hospital stay was 2.7 days (median 2, range 1 to 7). Complications occurred in 7 patients, and 2 developed adjacent segment pathology. The average coronal Cobb angle preoperatively was 35.1 degrees (median 31, range 13 to 63) and corrected was 15.7 degrees (median 10.5, range 2 to 59) postoperatively (p < 0.005). The average NDI preoperatively was 24.9 (median 26, range 6 to 37) and was reduced to 17.8 (median 18, range 7 to 30) postoperatively (p < 0.02). Conclusion Surgical management of cervical scoliosis can result in deformity correction and improvement in patient

  12. Prognostic Factors in Childhood Leukemia (ALL or AML)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for childhood leukemias Prognostic factors in childhood leukemia (ALL or AML) Certain factors that can affect a ... myelogenous leukemia (AML). Prognostic factors for children with ALL Children with ALL are often divided into risk ...

  13. KIAA1522 is a novel prognostic biomarker in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Hai; Cao, Jian; Jiang, Yan-Yi; Hao, Jia-Jie; Xu, Xin; Cai, Yan; Wang, Ming-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, no robust biomarkers have been applied to clinical practice to provide prognostic evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aims to identify new potential prognostic biomarkers for NSCLC. In the present work, KIAA1522 is screened out from two independent GEO datasets as aberrantly up-regulated gene in NSCLC tissues. We evaluate KIAA1522 expression immunohistochemically in 583 NSCLC tissue samples and paired non-tumor tissues. KIAA1522 displays stronger staining in NSCLC cases than in adjacent normal lung tissues. Importantly, patients with KIAA1522 overexpression had a significantly shorter overall survival compared to those with low expression (P < 0.00001). Multivariate Cox regression analyses show that KIAA1522 is an independent prognostic indicator, even for early-stage NSCLCs (P = 0.00025, HR = 2.317, 95%CI: 1.477–3.635). We also found that high expression of KIAA1522 is a significant risk factor for decreased overall survival of the patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and functional studies reveal that KIAA1522 is associated with oncogenic KRAS pathways. Taken together, high expression of KIAA1522 can be used as an independent biomarker for predication of poor survival and platinum-resistance of NSCLC patients, and aberrant KIAA1522 might be a new target for the therapy of the disease. PMID:27098511

  14. Radiographic dental implants recognition for geographic evaluation in human identification.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Lusito, S; Solarino, B; Di Vella, G

    2008-06-01

    Dental implants for prosthetic rehabilitation with fixed crown or mobile partial/total dentures is a very common oral treatment among the population in Italy as elsewhere. There is a great number of implant systems of different designs. However, a catalogue of radiographic images and a description of the dental implants available in Italy would be useful in order to identify the manufacturer and the type of implant encountered in forensic casework. When an unidentified body is found with one or more implants in the jaws, and no dental record is available, clues gleaned from the type of implants used could give direction to the investigation. In this study Italian implant manufactures were contacted and asked to provide specimen implants. Digital radiographs were taken of all the implants donated at 0º, 30º, and 60º horizontal rotation, combined with -20º, -10º, 0º, +10º, and +20º vertical inclination relative to the radiographic beam and the X-ray sensor. A total of 15 images per implant were taken and examined to identify consistent, unique features that would aid in implant recognition. Only those observations made from radiographs between -10º and +10º vertical inclination would ever be used for definite identification of any implant. The information from this study should be considered a survey of the commercial distribution of dental implants in Italy through their digital radiographic images. It is also a starting point for a wider geographical evaluation of different manufacturers in other countries and continents. The radiographic images provided should help both the forensic odontologist and the prosthodontist to identify pre-existing implants which they may discover from their radiographic images. PMID:22689351

  15. Melanoma Prognostic Model Using Tissue Microarrays and Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Gould Rothberg, Bonnie E.; Berger, Aaron J.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Subtil, Antonio; Krauthammer, Michael O.; Camp, Robert L.; Bradley, William R.; Ariyan, Stephan; Kluger, Harriet M.; Rimm, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose As a result of the questionable risk-to-benefit ratio of adjuvant therapies, stage II melanoma is currently managed by observation because available clinicopathologic parameters cannot identify the 20% to 60% of such patients likely to develop metastatic disease. Here, we propose a multimarker molecular prognostic assay that can help triage patients at increased risk of recurrence. Methods Protein expression for 38 candidates relevant to melanoma oncogenesis was evaluated using the automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) method for immunofluorescence-based immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from a cohort of 192 primary melanomas collected during 1959 to 1994. The prognostic assay was built using a genetic algorithm and validated on an independent cohort of 246 serial primary melanomas collected from 1997 to 2004. Results Multiple iterations of the genetic algorithm yielded a consistent five-marker solution. A favorable prognosis was predicted by ATF2 ln(non-nuclear/nuclear AQUA score ratio) of more than –0.052, p21WAF1 nuclear compartment AQUA score of more than 12.98, p16INK4A ln(non-nuclear/nuclear AQUA score ratio) of ≤ −0.083, β-catenin total AQUA score of more than 38.68, and fibronectin total AQUA score of ≤ 57.93. Primary tumors that met at least four of these five conditions were considered a low-risk group, and those that met three or fewer conditions formed a high-risk group (log-rank P < .0001). Multivariable proportional hazards analysis adjusting for clinicopathologic parameters shows that the high-risk group has significantly reduced survival on both the discovery (hazard ratio = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.46 to 5.49; P = .002) and validation (hazard ratio = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.12 to 6.58; P = .027) cohorts. Conclusion This multimarker prognostic assay, an independent determinant of melanoma survival, might be beneficial in improving the selection of stage II patients for adjuvant therapy. PMID:19884546

  16. Prognostic value of DNA repair based stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhuo; Xu, Shi-Hao; Wang, Hai-Qing; Cai, Yi-Jing; Ying, Li; Song, Mei; Wang, Yu-Qun; Du, Shan-Jie; Shi, Ke-Qing; Zhou, Meng-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of DNA repair is frequently associated with tumor progression and response to therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bioinformatics analyses of HCC data in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were performed to define DNA repair based molecular classification that could predict the prognosis of patients with HCC. Furthermore, we tested its predictive performance in 120 independent cases. Four molecular subgroups were identified on the basis of coordinate DNA repair cluster (CDRC) comprising 15 genes in TCGA dataset. Increasing expression of CDRC genes were significantly associated with TP53 mutation. High CDRC was significantly correlated with advanced tumor grades, advanced pathological stage and increased vascular invasion rate. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the molecular subgrouping was an independent prognostic parameter for both overall survival (p = 0.004, hazard ratio (HR): 2.989) and tumor-free survival (p = 0.049, HR: 3.366) in TCGA dataset. Similar results were also obtained by analyzing the independent cohort. These data suggest that distinct dysregulation of DNA repair constituents based molecular classes in HCC would be useful for predicting prognosis and designing clinical trials for targeted therapy. PMID:27174663

  17. Visceral adipose tissue is prognostic for survival of diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with frontline R-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Yeop; Kim, Areumnuri; Byun, Byung Hyun; Moon, Hansol; Kim, Soyeun; Ko, Young-Jin; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Hyo-Rak; Kang, Hye-Jin; Na, Im Il; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung Sook; Yang, Sung-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The potential role of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) as a prognostic factor in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with frontline rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) immunochemotherapy was explored. Total adipose tissue and VAT were measured by analyzing positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) images obtained during the initial staging of patients with DLBCL. The VAT ratio was calculated as follows: VAT ratio = VAT area/total adipose tissue area. Body mass index (BMI), sex, and International Prognostic Index (IPI) were also incorporated as co-variates in the final model of multivariate Cox regression analysis for survival. A total of 156 patients with DLBCL, who were treated with frontline R-CHOP, were enrolled in our study. The median patient age was 61 years, and 81 patients were male (51.9 %). The median cycle of R-CHOP was six. The IPI risk group was a strong prognostic factor for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001). Obese BMIs were an independent prognostic factor for PFS, but not for OS in multivariate analyses, compared to patients with normal BMIs (HR = 0.43, 95 % CI = 0.19-0.98, and p = 0.046 for PFS). A high VAT ratio (third tertile) was an independent adverse prognostic factor for PFS and OS in multivariate analyses (HR = 2.87 and 2.66, 95 % CI = 1.30-6.32 and 1.30-5.44, and p = 0.009 and 0.007 for PFS and OS, respectively). VAT ratio was an independent prognostic factor for patients with DLBCL treated with first-line R-CHOP; thus, additional large prospective studies are warranted. PMID:26658607

  18. Reassessing the standard chest radiograph for intraparenchymal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Putman, C.E.; Hoeck, B.

    1986-01-01

    The results concerning the activity or inactivity of the alveolitis determined with our proposed scoring system were comparable to those determined with gallium scanning in 68.2% of the patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis in our study. Certainly, further evaluation of a larger series of patients over a longer period of time will be required to more adequately evaluate this classification method. We also believe this methodology is reproducible and can be utilized by experienced interpreters of chest radiographs. If we closely reevaluate the 32% of the cases in which the radiographic results disagreed with the gallium assessment of activity, two points worthy of mention become evident. In one group the gallium indices were borderline for activity whereas in the other group the radiographic criteria were most likely indicative of irreversible parenchymal changes. When the radiographs for the latter group were reevaluated for signs of fibrosis such as volume loss, cystic changes, and alteration in vascular patterns, it was possible to delineate a significant false-positive group of patients. We will be reporting the long-term results of our observations over the next several years as well as adding more groups of patients to our initial study analysis. At that time, correlation with all other measurable parameters in determining high-intensity alveolitis versus low-intensity alveolitis will be compared to these new chest radiographic profiles.

  19. Radiologists remember mountains better than radiographs, or do they?

    PubMed

    Evans, Karla K; Marom, Edith M; Godoy, Myrna C B; Palacio, Diana; Sagebiel, Tara; Cuellar, Sonia Betancourt; McEntee, Mark; Tian, Charles; Brennan, Patrick C; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2016-01-01

    Expertise with encoding material has been shown to aid long-term memory for that material. It is not clear how relevant this expertise is for image memorability (e.g., radiologists' memory for radiographs), and how robust over time. In two studies, we tested scene memory using a standard long-term memory paradigm. One compared the performance of radiologists to naïve observers on two image sets, chest radiographs and everyday scenes, and the other radiologists' memory with immediate as opposed to delayed recognition tests using musculoskeletal radiographs and forest scenes. Radiologists' memory was better than novices for images of expertise but no different for everyday scenes. With the heterogeneity of image sets equated, radiologists' expertise with radiographs afforded them better memory for the musculoskeletal radiographs than forest scenes. Enhanced memory for images of expertise disappeared over time, resulting in chance level performance for both image sets after weeks of delay. Expertise with the material is important for visual memorability but not to the same extent as idiosyncratic detail and variability of the image set. Similar memory decline with time for images of expertise as for everyday scenes further suggests that extended familiarity with an image is not a robust factor for visual memorability.

  20. SURGICAL CROWN LENGTHENING: A 12-MONTH STUDY - RADIOGRAPHIC RESULTS*

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Daniela Eleutério; Okuda, Kalizia Marcela; Fonseca, Clarissa Ribeiro; Gonzalez, Marly Kimie Sonohara; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; do Valle, Accácio Lins; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to perform a radiographic follow-up evaluation after a 12-month healing period, following crown lengthening surgery. Material and methods Twenty-three periodontally healthy subjects (mean age 32.5 years) that required crown lengthening surgery in premolars were recruited. In a total of 30 premolars, full thickness flaps, osseous resection, and flap suturing were performed. The restorative margin was defined in the pre-surgical phase and maintained unaltered during the healing period, serving as a reference point. Standardized bitewing radiographs were taken before and after osseous reduction, and at 2, 3, 6, and 12-month healing periods. Results Intact lamina dura was observed at both mesial and distal alveolar crests only from the 3rd month. At 12-months, all alveolar crests presented lamina dura. The overall mean distance from the restorative margin to the alveolar crest achieved after osseous resection was 3.28±0.87 mm at mesial and 2.81±0.51 mm at distal sites. No significant radiographic changes in the bone crest were observed during a 12-month healing period. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the radiographic proximal bone level observed on bitewing radiographs following crown lengthening surgery can be used as a reference to predict the future level of the healed alveolar crest. PMID:19089145

  1. Radiologists remember mountains better than radiographs, or do they?

    PubMed

    Evans, Karla K; Marom, Edith M; Godoy, Myrna C B; Palacio, Diana; Sagebiel, Tara; Cuellar, Sonia Betancourt; McEntee, Mark; Tian, Charles; Brennan, Patrick C; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2016-01-01

    Expertise with encoding material has been shown to aid long-term memory for that material. It is not clear how relevant this expertise is for image memorability (e.g., radiologists' memory for radiographs), and how robust over time. In two studies, we tested scene memory using a standard long-term memory paradigm. One compared the performance of radiologists to naïve observers on two image sets, chest radiographs and everyday scenes, and the other radiologists' memory with immediate as opposed to delayed recognition tests using musculoskeletal radiographs and forest scenes. Radiologists' memory was better than novices for images of expertise but no different for everyday scenes. With the heterogeneity of image sets equated, radiologists' expertise with radiographs afforded them better memory for the musculoskeletal radiographs than forest scenes. Enhanced memory for images of expertise disappeared over time, resulting in chance level performance for both image sets after weeks of delay. Expertise with the material is important for visual memorability but not to the same extent as idiosyncratic detail and variability of the image set. Similar memory decline with time for images of expertise as for everyday scenes further suggests that extended familiarity with an image is not a robust factor for visual memorability. PMID:26870748

  2. [Transparency regime: semiotics of radiographical images in urological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H

    2012-10-01

    Shortly after Röntgen discovered x-rays urology became one of the main test fields for the application of this new technology. Initial scepticism among physicians, who were inclined to cling to traditional manual methods of diagnosing, was replaced by enthusiasm for radiographic technologies and the new method soon became the standard in, for example the diagnosis of concrements. Patients favoring radiographic procedures over the use of probes and a convincing documentation of stones in radiograms were factors that impacted the relatively rapid integration of radiology into urology. The radiographic representation of soft tissues and body cavities was more difficult and the development of contrast agents in particular posed a serious problem. Several patients died during this research. A new diagnostic dimension was revealed when radiography and cystography were combined to form the method of retrograde pyelography. However, the problem of how urologists could learn how to read the new images remained. In order to allow trainee physicians to practice interpreting radiograms atlases were produced which offered explanatory texts and drawings for radiographic images of the kidneys, the bladder etc. Thus, urologists developed a self-contained semiotics which facilitated the appropriation of a unique urological radiographical gaze.

  3. Identifying prognostic factors for drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).

    PubMed

    Wei, Chia-Hung; Chung-Yee Hui, Rosaline; Chang, Chee-Jen; Ho, Hsin-Chun; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chung, Wen-Hung

    2011-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe cutaneous drug reaction. Although the severity-of-illness score (SCORTEN) has been proposed for toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) for 10 years, a prognostic score for DRESS is still lacking. To identify prognostic factors of DRESS patients during hospitalization in one medical health system in Taiwan. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with DRESS diagnosed by dermatologists in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMGH) Health System from 2001 to 2010. To study prognostic factors, we collected data at early disease and maximal disease stages. 91 individuals, including 13 dead patients, were evaluated. Five independent prognostic factors of death were found: heart rate > 90/min, white blood cells >12,000/mm(3) and respiratory rate >20/min (at early disease stage), coagulopathy and gastrointestinal bleeding (at maximal disease stage). In addition, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) occurred at a much higher percentage among non-survivors throughout hospitalization. We found tachycardia, leukocytosis, tachypnea, coagulopathy, gastrointestinal bleeding and SIRS were associated with a poor outcome in DRESS patients. DRESS patients with persistent SIRS during hospitalization were also associated with a higher mortality risk. Early recognition and prompt intervention in these factors may improve outcome.

  4. The prognostic significance of OCT4 expression in patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Takeo; Mikami, Shuji; Yoshimine, Shunsuke; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Daimon, Tatsuaki; Kikuchi, Eiji; Miyajima, Akira; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that OCT4 participates in tumorigenicity and malignancy in human cancers. However, the prognostic significance of OCT4 expression in prostate cancer (PCa) or predictive significance of OCT4 in docetaxel sensitivity in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of OCT4 expression in PCa. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records and evaluated the OCT4 expression in 205 patients with PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy. We examined the change of OCT4 expression in 3 patients with CRPC who underwent transurethral resection for local progression before and after docetaxel chemotherapy. OCT4 expression was significantly associated with higher pathological T stage (P < .001). The 5-year prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free survival rate was 56.8% in patients with higher OCT4 expression and 90.6% in patients with lower OCT4 expression (P < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that high OCT4 expression was an independent prognostic indicator of prostate-specific antigen recurrence (P < .001). Elevated strong OCT4 expression in residual CRPC cells after docetaxel chemotherapy was observed in all CRPC patients, compared with before chemotherapy in corresponding specimens. Higher OCT4 expression represents a clinically relevant predictor of patient prognosis in PCa and may be a new biomarker that will provide additional prognostic information in CRPC when treated with docetaxel. PMID:27067776

  5. Abnormal pancreatic enzymes and their prognostic role after acute paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Meng; Gao, Yanxia; Yang, Wen; Xu, Qun; Eddleston, Michael; Li, Li; Yu, Xuezhong

    2015-11-25

    Ingestion of paraquat causes multi-organ failure. Prognosis is best estimated through measurement of blood paraquat concentrations but this facility is not available in most hospitals. We studied the prognostic significance of abnormal pancreatic enzymes for survival. Patients with acute paraquat poisoning were recruited. An extensive series of blood tests including serum amylase were serially checked. Patients were sorted according to their serum amylase activity (normal [<220 U/L], mildly elevated [220 to 660 U/L], elevated [>660 U/L]), and survival compared between groups. 177 patients were enrolled to the study, of whom 67 died and 110 survived. 122 (70.62%), 27 (15.25%) and 25 (14.13%) patients were in the normal, mildly elevated and elevated amylase activity groups, respectively. The case fatality in the elevated group was 100% compared to 17% in the normal group (P < 0.001). We found four independent factors for paraquat death prediction: amylase, PaCO2, leukocyte number, and neutrophil percentage. Models using pancreatic enzyme activity showed good prediction power. We have found that abnormal pancreatic enzymes are useful prognostic marker of death after acute paraquat poisoning. Including serum amylase activity into a prognostic model provides a good prognostication.

  6. Prognostic factors in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. (Gruppo Interregionale Cooperativo di Oncologia Ginecologica (GICOG)).

    PubMed

    Marsoni, S; Torri, V; Valsecchi, M G; Belloni, C; Bianchi, U; Bolis, G; Bonazzi, C; Colombo, N; Epis, A; Favalli, G

    1990-09-01

    The data on 914 patients enrolled in four randomised trials in advanced ovarian cancer, consecutively conducted by the same cooperative group between 1978 and 1986, were analysed with the aims of: (1) determining the impact of selected prognostic variables on survival; (2) finding, from the interaction of favourable prognostic factors and treatment, an approximate estimate of the magnitude of the survival advantage associated with the use of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. The overall 3-year survival in this series of patients is twice that reported historically (22%; 95% CL 18.7-25.4). The proportional hazard regression model was used to perform the analysis on survival. Residual tumour size, age, FIGO stage and cell type were all independent determinants of survival. Differences in survival from the various prognostic groups were impressive with 5-year survival rates ranging from 7 to 62%. However, these differences were not qualitative (i.e. the kinetics of survival were similar for the best and the worst groups) suggesting that current prognostic factors are of little use for selecting 'biologically' different sub-populations. Platinum-based regimens were associated to an overall prolonged median survival, but this benefit was not observable in the subgroup with most favourable prognosis (less than 2 cm residual tumour size). The implications of these observations for clinical research and ovarian cancer patients care are discussed.

  7. Abnormal pancreatic enzymes and their prognostic role after acute paraquat poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Wang, Meng; Gao, Yanxia; Yang, Wen; Xu, Qun; Eddleston, Michael; Li, Li; Yu, Xuezhong

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of paraquat causes multi-organ failure. Prognosis is best estimated through measurement of blood paraquat concentrations but this facility is not available in most hospitals. We studied the prognostic significance of abnormal pancreatic enzymes for survival. Patients with acute paraquat poisoning were recruited. An extensive series of blood tests including serum amylase were serially checked. Patients were sorted according to their serum amylase activity (normal [<220 U/L], mildly elevated [220 to 660 U/L], elevated [>660 U/L]), and survival compared between groups. 177 patients were enrolled to the study, of whom 67 died and 110 survived. 122 (70.62%), 27 (15.25%) and 25 (14.13%) patients were in the normal, mildly elevated and elevated amylase activity groups, respectively. The case fatality in the elevated group was 100% compared to 17% in the normal group (P < 0.001). We found four independent factors for paraquat death prediction: amylase, PaCO2, leukocyte number, and neutrophil percentage. Models using pancreatic enzyme activity showed good prediction power. We have found that abnormal pancreatic enzymes are useful prognostic marker of death after acute paraquat poisoning. Including serum amylase activity into a prognostic model provides a good prognostication. PMID:26603772

  8. Prognostic Factors for Surgically Resected N2 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Keishi; Sato, Yasunori; Suzuki, Yoshio; Saito, Haruhisa; Nomura, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) with pathologically documented ipsilateral mediastinal lymph node (LN) metastases (pN2) are a broad spectrum of diseases. We retrospectively analyzed prognostic factors for cases of pN2 NSCLC treated by surgical resection. Methods: Clinicopathological data were reviewed for consecutive 121 patients who underwent anatomical pulmonary resection with mediastinal LN sampling or dissection for pN2 NSCLC over a 15-year period. Results: The 5-year survival rate for all patients was 29.9%. Clinical N status, curability, surgical procedure and adjuvant chemotherapy were favorable prognostic factors in univariate analysis, with 5-year survival rates of 35.0% for cN0/1 vs. 17.7% for cN2/3 cases; 33.1% for R0 vs. 14.7% for R1/2 resection; 31.5% for lobectomy vs. 25.0% for bilobectomy and 15.6% for pneumonectomy; and 72.7% with adjuvant chemotherapy vs. 23.8% without adjuvant chemotherapy. Survival did not differ significantly based on gender, age, smoking status, clinical T status, tumor location, histology, skip metastasis, subcarinal LN metastasis, or number of involved N2 levels. In multivariate analysis, adjuvant chemotherapy, R0 resection, and lobectomy emerged as independent favorable prognostic factors. Conclusion: Complete resection using lobectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy are favorable prognostic factors in cases of pN2 NSCLC. PMID:25641029

  9. Prognostic factors in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. (Gruppo Interregionale Cooperativo di Oncologia Ginecologica (GICOG)).

    PubMed Central

    Marsoni, S.; Torri, V.; Valsecchi, M. G.; Belloni, C.; Bianchi, U.; Bolis, G.; Bonazzi, C.; Colombo, N.; Epis, A.; Favalli, G.

    1990-01-01

    The data on 914 patients enrolled in four randomised trials in advanced ovarian cancer, consecutively conducted by the same cooperative group between 1978 and 1986, were analysed with the aims of: (1) determining the impact of selected prognostic variables on survival; (2) finding, from the interaction of favourable prognostic factors and treatment, an approximate estimate of the magnitude of the survival advantage associated with the use of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. The overall 3-year survival in this series of patients is twice that reported historically (22%; 95% CL 18.7-25.4). The proportional hazard regression model was used to perform the analysis on survival. Residual tumour size, age, FIGO stage and cell type were all independent determinants of survival. Differences in survival from the various prognostic groups were impressive with 5-year survival rates ranging from 7 to 62%. However, these differences were not qualitative (i.e. the kinetics of survival were similar for the best and the worst groups) suggesting that current prognostic factors are of little use for selecting 'biologically' different sub-populations. Platinum-based regimens were associated to an overall prolonged median survival, but this benefit was not observable in the subgroup with most favourable prognosis (less than 2 cm residual tumour size). The implications of these observations for clinical research and ovarian cancer patients care are discussed. PMID:2119684

  10. Fuzzy logic-based prognostic score for outcome prediction in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Yu; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Fang, Chun-Hsiung; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2012-11-01

    Given the poor prognosis of esophageal cancer and the invasiveness of combined modality treatment, improved prognostic scoring systems are needed. We developed a fuzzy logic-based system to improve the predictive performance of a risk score based on the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin in a cohort of 271 patients with esophageal cancer before radiotherapy. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were employed to validate the independent prognostic value of the fuzzy risk score. To further compare the predictive performance of the fuzzy risk score with other prognostic scoring systems, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used. Application of fuzzy logic to the serum values of CRP and albumin increased predictive performance for 1-year overall survival (AUC=0.773) compared with that of a single marker (AUC=0.743 and 0.700 for CRP and albumin, respectively), where the AUC denotes the area under curve. This fuzzy logic-based approach also performed consistently better than the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) (AUC=0.745). Thus, application of fuzzy logic to the analysis of serum markers can more accurately predict the outcome for patients with esophageal cancer.

  11. Prognostic Analysis of the Tactical Quiet Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, Lee M

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.

  12. Requirements Flowdown for Prognostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai; Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) principles have considerable promise to change the game of lifecycle cost of engineering systems at high safety levels by providing a reliable estimate of future system states. This estimate is a key for planning and decision making in an operational setting. While technology solutions have made considerable advances, the tie-in into the systems engineering process is lagging behind, which delays fielding of PHM-enabled systems. The derivation of specifications from high level requirements for algorithm performance to ensure quality predictions is not well developed. From an engineering perspective some key parameters driving the requirements for prognostics performance include: (1) maximum allowable Probability of Failure (PoF) of the prognostic system to bound the risk of losing an asset, (2) tolerable limits on proactive maintenance to minimize missed opportunity of asset usage, (3) lead time to specify the amount of advanced warning needed for actionable decisions, and (4) required confidence to specify when prognosis is sufficiently good to be used. This paper takes a systems engineering view towards the requirements specification process and presents a method for the flowdown process. A case study based on an electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (e-UAV) scenario demonstrates how top level requirements for performance, cost, and safety flow down to the health management level and specify quantitative requirements for prognostic algorithm performance.

  13. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Prognostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janicce Leshay

    2014-01-01

    The project implements prognostics capabilities to predict when a component, system or subsystem will no longer meet desired functional or performance criteria, called the "end of life." The capability also provides an assessment of the "remaining useful life" of a hardware component.

  14. Influence of study design in receiver operating characteristics studies: sequential versus independent reading.

    PubMed

    Schalekamp, Steven; van Ginneken, Bram; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2014-04-01

    Observer studies to assess new image processing devices or computer-aided diagnosis techniques are often performed, but little is known about the effect of the study design on observer performance results. We investigated the effect of the sequential and independent reading design on observer study results with respect to reader performance and their statistical power. For this we performed an observer study for the detection of lung nodules with bone-suppressed images (BSIs) compared with original chest radiographs. In a fully crossed observer study, eight observers assessed a series of 300 radiographs four times, including one assessment of the original radiograph with sequential BSI and two independent reading sessions with BSI. Observer performance was compared using multireader multicase receiver operating characteristics. No significant difference between the effect of BSI in the sequential and the independent reading sessions could be found ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]). Compared with the original radiographs, increased performance with BSI was significant in the sequential and one of the independent reading sessions ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), and nonsignificant in the other independent reading session ([Formula: see text]). A strong increase of uncorrelated variance components was found in the independent reading sessions, masking the ability to demonstrate differences in observer performance across modalities. Therefore, the sequential reading design is the preferred design because it is less burdensome and has more statistical power.

  15. Prognostic features of renal sarcomas (Review)

    PubMed Central

    ÖZTÜRK, HAKAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present review was to evaluate the prognostic features of primary sarcomas of the kidney. A literature review was conducted using a number of databases, including Medline (PubMed) and Scopus, for studies published between January 1992 and December 2013. Of the studies published in English, those describing the prognostic features of primary sarcomas of the kidney were recorded. The electronic search was limited to the following keywords: Sarcoma, renal sarcoma, prognosis, diagnosis, immunohistochemistry, genetic and survey. Subsequent to the search, no review articles and/or meta-analyses associated with the prognosis of primary sarcomas of the kidney were identified. In total, 31 studies, which consisted of case studies, case series and studies concerned with the overall prognosis of urological soft-tissue sarcomas, were reviewed. Primary sarcoma of the kidney has a poor prognosis compared with other sarcomas of the urogenital system. In addition to the surgical excision of renal sarcomas, pathological, molecular and genetic prognostic factors are also considered. Due to the small number of cases, previous studies have not randomized the prognostic features of primary sarcomas of the kidney. The elucidation of the so-called ‘chaotic’ genetic and molecular basis of renal sarcomas will help to predict patient prognoses. Surgical excision is the most significant parameter for determining the prognosis of sarcomas of the kidney. However, sarcomas also exhibit prognostic features that are based upon pathological, genetic and molecular factors. The present review suggests that additional factors may be important in predicting the prognosis of patients with renal sarcomas, and that clinicians should plan treatment and follow-up regimens according to these factors. PMID:25663853

  16. Characterization and Prognostic Significance of Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase Deficiency in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Hong-Lin; Lee, Ying-En; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Lee, Sung-Wei; Chen, Tzu-Ju; Li, Chien-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Identification of cancer-associated genes by genomic profiling contributes to the elucidation of tumor development and progression. The methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) gene, located at chromosome 9p21, plays a critical role in tumorigenicity and disease progression in a wide variety of cancers. However, the prognostic impact of MTAP in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains obscured. Through data mining from published transcriptomic database, MTAP was first identified as a differentially downregulated gene in NPC. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the expression of MTAP in NPC and to clarify its prognostic significance. MTAP immunohistochemistry was retrospectively performed and analyzed in biopsy specimens from 124 NPC patients who received standard treatment without distant metastasis at initial diagnosis. The immunoexpression status was correlated with the clinicopathological variables, disease-specific survival (DSS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and local recurrence-free survival (LRFS). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to measure MTAP gene dosage. In some cases, we also performed methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing to assess the status of promoter methylation. MTAP deficiency was significantly associated with advanced tumor stages (P = 0.023) and univariately predictive of adverse outcomes for DSS, DMFS, and LRFS. In the multivariate comparison, MTAP deficiency still remained prognostically independent to portend worse DSS (P = 0.021, hazard ratio = 1.870) and DMFS (P = 0.009, hazard ratio = 2.154), together with advanced AJCC stages III to IV. Homozygous deletion or promoter methylation of MTAP gene were identified to be significantly associated with MTAP protein deficiency (P < 0.001). MTAP deficiency was correlated with an aggressive phenotype and independently predictive of worse DSS and DMFS, suggesting its role in disease progression and as an

  17. Differentiating Pneumothorax from the Common Radiographic Skinfold Artifact.

    PubMed

    Kattea, M Obadah; Lababede, Omar

    2015-06-01

    Pneumothorax can be a critical medical condition. The radiographic curvilinear appearance of pneumothorax can be mimicked by a skinfold artifact. Radiographic differentiation of the two entities is achieved in most cases by careful analysis of the characteristics of the linear shadow and its course. A thin, sharply defined opaque density representing the visceral pleura is the hallmark of pneumothorax. The added density of a skinfold presents as a broad opacity, which is outlined laterally by a sharply defined lucent line as a result of the Mach band effect and adjacent air. Unlike pneumothorax, a skinfold produces a line that does not follow the expected course of visceral pleura. Additional features, such as the absence of increased lucency laterally and the projection of lung markings across the curvilinear shadow, can help in the correct identification of skinfolds. Repeating the chest radiograph or using other imaging modalities can be considered in difficult cases.

  18. Osteochondroma of mandibular condyle: A clinic-radiographic correlation

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B.; Gupta, Swati

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondroma (OC) of temporo mandibular joint is a rare, slow growing, benign tumor that causes a progressive enlargement of the condyle, usually resulting in facial asymmetry, temporo mandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction, limited mouth opening and malocclusion. Pain is rarely associated with this tumor. OC is composed of cartilaginous and osseous tissues. Radiographically, there is unilaterally enlarged condyle usually with an exophytic outgrowth of the tumor from the condylar head. We present a rare case of osteochondroma of right mandibular condyle in a 45-year-old male who reported with painless swelling over TMJ area and progressive limited mouth opening. Panoramic radiograph and computed tomography (CT) was performed for better evaluation of the pathological condition. This paper describes the clinico-radiographic features and differential diagnosis of OC. PMID:24082753

  19. Comparisons of NIF convergent ablation simulations with radiograph data.

    PubMed

    Olson, R E; Hicks, D G; Meezan, N B; Koch, J A; Landen, O L

    2012-10-01

    A technique for comparing simulation results directly with radiograph data from backlit capsule implosion experiments will be discussed. Forward Abel transforms are applied to the kappa*rho profiles of the simulation. These provide the transmission ratio (optical depth) profiles of the simulation. Gaussian and top hat blurs are applied to the simulated transmission ratio profiles in order to account for the motion blurring and imaging slit resolution of the experimental measurement. Comparisons between the simulated transmission ratios and the radiograph data lineouts are iterated until a reasonable backlighter profile is obtained. This backlighter profile is combined with the blurred, simulated transmission ratios to obtain simulated intensity profiles that can be directly compared with the radiograph data. Examples will be shown from recent convergent ablation (backlit implosion) experiments at the NIF.

  20. Cemented total hip prosthesis: Radiographic and scintigraphic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Aliabadi, P.; Tumeh, S.S.; Weissman, B.N.; McNeil, B.J. )

    1989-10-01

    Conventional radiographs, technetium-99m bone scans, and gallium-67 scans were reviewed in 44 patients who had undergone cemented total hip joint replacement and were imaged because of suspicion of prosthesis loosening or infection. A complete radiolucent line of 2 mm or wider along the bone-cement interface or metal-cement lucency on conventional radiographs was used as the criterion for prosthetic loosening with or without infection and proved to be 54% sensitive and 96% specific. Scintigraphic criteria for prosthetic loosening were increased focal uptake of the radiopharmaceutical for the femoral component and increased focal or diffuse uptake for the acetabular component. For bone scintigraphy, sensitivity was 73% and specificity was 96%. Combining the results of conventional radiographs and bone scans increased sensitivity to 84% and decreased specificity to 92% for the diagnosis of loosening, infection, or both. The study also showed that Ga-67 scintigraphy has a low sensitivity for the detection of infection.

  1. EVALUATION OF TRADITIONAL AND NOVEL RADIOGRAPHIC VERTEBRAL RATIOS IN GREAT DANES WITH VERSUS WITHOUT CERVICAL SPONDYLOMYELOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Vaquero, Paula; Da Costa, Ronaldo C.

    2014-01-01

    Great Danes are predisposed to osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (Wobbler syndrome). The first aim of this prospective study was to compare values measured using previously published intravertebral and intervertebral ratio methods and a novel ventrodorsal ratio method in radiographs of clinically normal and affected Great Danes. The second aim was to determine whether these ratios could be used as predictors of sites of spinal cord compression based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty dogs (15 normal, 15 affected) were prospectively enrolled. Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs were obtained and six measurements were recorded from C3-T1. For each vertebral location, intravertebral ratios and intervertebral ratios were calculated from lateral views, and the ratio of the distance between the articular process joints vs. vertebral body width (novel ventrodorsal ratio) was calculated from ventrodorsal views. Values for these three ratios were compared, by vertebral location and dog group. Intravertebral and intervertebral ratios did not differ between dog groups. The ventrodorsal ratio was significantly smaller in affected Great Danes at C5–6 (P = 0.005) and C6–7 (P <0.001). The ventrodorsal ratio was significantly associated with MRI presence of spinal cord compression. For each 0.1 unit increase in this ratio value, there was a 65% decrease in the odds of spinal cord compression being present at that site, independent of vertebral location (P = 0.002). Findings from this study supported use of the novel ventrodorsal ratio as an initial radiographic screening method for Great Danes with suspected cervical spondylomyelopathy. PMID:24698393

  2. Soft drink intake and progression of radiographic knee osteoarthritis: data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bing; Ahmad, Oneeb; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Driban, Jeffrey B; Duryea, Jeffrey; Lapane, Kate L; McAlindon, Timothy; Eaton, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We examine the prospective association of soft drink consumption with radiographic progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting This study used data from the osteoarthritis initiative (OAI). Participants In OAI, 2149 participants with radiographic knee OA and having dietary data at baseline were followed up to 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. Measures The soft drink consumption was assessed with a Block Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire completed at baseline. To evaluate knee OA progression, we used quantitative medial tibiofemoral joint space width (JSW) based on plain radiographs. The multivariate linear models for repeated measures were used to test the independent association between soft drink intake and the change in JSW over time, while adjusting for body mass index and other potential confounding factors. Results In stratified analyses by gender, we observed a significant dose–response relationship between baseline soft drink intake and adjusted mean change of JSW in men. With increasing levels of soft drink intake (none, ≤1, 2–4 and ≥5 times/week), the mean decreases of JSW were 0.31, 0.39, 0.34 and 0.60 mm, respectively. When we further stratified by obesity, a stronger dose–response relationship was found in non-obese men. In obese men, only the highest soft drink level (≥5 times/week) was associated with increased change in JSW compared with no use. In women, no significant association was observed. Conclusions Our results suggest that frequent consumption of soft drinks may be associated with increased OA progression in men. Replication of these novel findings in other studies demonstrating the reduction in soft drink consumption leads to delay in OA progression is needed. PMID:23872291

  3. Prediction of osteoporosis using dental radiographs and age in females

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Guduba; Chitroda, Parita K.; Katti, Girish; Shahbaz, Syed; Baba, Irfan; Bhuvaneshwari

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the role of dental radiograph as a screening tool for diagnosis of osteoporosis in females. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 50 women between the age group of 40-60 were recruited, and patients with systemic disorder and taking calcium supplements, and women who are not willing for investigation were excluded. Their detailed medical history was obtained and dental radiographs were made, bone mineral density was measured at left radial bone using ultrasound. The radiographs were subjected to image analysis method using manual tracing of gonial angle, antegonial angle, antegonial depth, antegonial index, mental index and mandibular cortical index. Statistical discrimination analysis was applied to predict the presence of osteoporosis. With use of these indices, the sensitivity and specificity of orthopantomograph (OPG) radiograph to assess age-related changes in bone were compared. Radiomorphometric indices (RMI) were also scrutinized to depict the sensitivity and specificity of each index in the prediction of osteoporosis. Results: Study results showed no significant differences between bone mineral density (BMD) and radiomorphometric analysis in the diagnoses of osteoporotic females. Out of 29, diagnosed as osteoporotic by radiograph 23 were confirmed by BMD and six were diagnosed as osteopenic. Among the six indices used, AGA and AGD showed more reproducible results. Conclusion: With our study results, we come to an arrival that OPG radiographs show overall sensitivity of 0.75 or 75% and specificity of 0.81 or 81% in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, and that anti gonial angle (AGA) and anti gonial depth (AGD) are the most reliable indices. Hence, we conclude that panoramic-based RMI can be used as an ancillary method in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. PMID:26167057

  4. Independent Peer Reviews

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-16

    Independent Assessments: DOE's Systems Integrator convenes independent technical reviews to gauge progress toward meeting specific technical targets and to provide technical information necessary for key decisions.

  5. Theoretical Analysis of Radiographic Images by Nonstationary Poisson Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Yamada, Isao; Uchida, Suguru

    1980-12-01

    This paper deals with the noise analysis of radiographic images obtained in the usual fluorescent screen-film system. The theory of nonstationary Poisson processes is applied to the analysis of the radiographic images containing the object information. The ensemble averages, the autocorrelation functions, and the Wiener spectrum densities of the light-energy distribution at the fluorescent screen and of the film optical-density distribution are obtained. The detection characteristics of the system are evaluated theoretically. Numerical examples of the one-dimensional image are shown and the results are compared with those obtained under the assumption that the object image is related to the background noise by the additive process.

  6. Skeletal metastases of melanoma: radiographic, scintigraphic, and clinical review

    SciTech Connect

    Fon, G.T.; Wong, W.S.; Gold, R.H.; Kaiser, L.R.

    1981-07-01

    The radiographic manifestations of 127 skeletal metastases in 50 patients with melanoma were reviewed and correlated with the scintigraphic findings. Although the features of most of the metastases were nonspecific and appeared similar to those of other osteolytic metastases, several of them had unusual features, including expansion, subarticular location, osteosclerosis, and a thin, sclerotic rim. These features could result in some of the metastases being mistaken for other lesions. The radionuclide bone scans were more sensitive in that they detected the lesions earlier and in greater numbers than the radiographs. Prognosis was poor once skeletal metastasis was diagnosed, the mean survival time being 4.7 months.

  7. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  8. Distributed Prognostic Health Management with Gaussian Process Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Sankalita; Saha, Bhaskar; Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2010-01-01

    Distributed prognostics architecture design is an enabling step for efficient implementation of health management systems. A major challenge encountered in such design is formulation of optimal distributed prognostics algorithms. In this paper. we present a distributed GPR based prognostics algorithm whose target platform is a wireless sensor network. In addition to challenges encountered in a distributed implementation, a wireless network poses constraints on communication patterns, thereby making the problem more challenging. The prognostics application that was used to demonstrate our new algorithms is battery prognostics. In order to present trade-offs within different prognostic approaches, we present comparison with the distributed implementation of a particle filter based prognostics for the same battery data.

  9. Comprehensive validation of published immunohistochemical prognostic biomarkers of prostate cancer—what has gone wrong? A blueprint for the way forward in biomarker studies

    PubMed Central

    Huber, F; Montani, M; Sulser, T; Jaggi, R; Wild, P; Moch, H; Gevensleben, H; Schmid, M; Wyder, S; Kristiansen, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Treatment planning of localised prostate cancer remains challenging. Besides conventional parameters, a wealth of prognostic biomarkers has been proposed so far. None of which, however, have successfully been implemented in a routine setting so far. The aim of our study was to systematically verify a set of published prognostic markers for prostate cancer. Methods: Following an in-depth PubMed search, 28 markers were selected that have been proposed as multivariate prognostic markers for primary prostate cancer. Their prognostic validity was examined in a radical prostatectomy cohort of 238 patients with a median follow-up of 60 months and biochemical progression as endpoint of the analysis. Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using previously published cut-off values, but allowing for optimisation if necessary. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression were used to determine the prognostic value of biomarkers included in this study. Results: Despite the application of various cut-offs in the analysis, only four (14%) markers were verified as independently prognostic (AKT1, stromal AR, EZH2, and PSMA) for PSA relapse following radical prostatectomy. Conclusions: Apparently, many immunohistochemistry-based studies on prognostic markers seem to be over-optimistic. Codes of best practice, such as the REMARK guidelines, may facilitate the performance of conclusive and transparent future studies. PMID:25422912

  10. Effect of non-erupted 3rd molars on distal roots and supporting structures of approximal teeth. A radiographic survey of 202 cases.

    PubMed

    Nemcovsky, C E; Libfeld, H; Zubery, Y

    1996-09-01

    Root resorption of 2nd molars in proximity to non-erupted 3rd molars has been widely reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of root resorption in second molars adjacent to non-erupted third molars. Its association to age and gender of the patient, location and inclination of the non-erupted third molar and to distal bone support of the 2nd molars was analyzed. A radiographic survey of 202 periapical radiographs taken in patients with clinically missing third molars was conducted. 3 examiners independently evaluated the radiographs and only those cases where at least 2 observers agreed were included in this report. Statistical analysis was performed on 186 radiographs. Associations were analyzed with the Pearson chi 2 test. Radiographic evidence of root resorption was found in 45 2nd molars (24.2%) of which 12 (6.5%) showed moderate to complete root resorption. Non-erupted tooth apical position and mesio-inclination of 60 degrees or more relative to the distal root of the second molar were significantly associated with root resorption (p = 0.01368 and p = 0.0194, respectively). Resorption was positively associated with age of patient (p = 0.00606). These results may support early extraction of impacted 3rd molars especially in cases with a mesio-angulation of 60 degrees or more and an apical location in proximity to the distal root of the 2nd molar. PMID:8891930

  11. Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of

  12. Preliminayr Study on Diffraction Enhanced Radiographic Imaging for a Canine Model of Cartilage Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Muehleman,C.; Li, J.; Zhong, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the ability of a novel radiographic technique, Diffraction Enhanced Radiographic Imaging (DEI), to render high contrast images of canine knee joints for identification of cartilage lesions in situ. Methods: DEI was carried out at the X-15A beamline at Brookhaven National Laboratory on intact canine knee joints with varying levels of cartilage damage. Two independent observers graded the DE images for lesions and these grades were correlated to the gross morphological grade. Results: The correlation of gross visual grades with DEI grades for the 18 canine knee joints as determined by observer 1 (r2=0.8856, P=0.001) and observer 2 (r2=0.8818, P=0.001) was high. The overall weighted ? value for inter-observer agreement was 0.93, thus considered high agreement. Conclusion: The present study is the first study for the efficacy of DEI for cartilage lesions in an animal joint, from very early signs through erosion down to subchondral bone, representing the spectrum of cartilage changes occurring in human osteoarthritis (OA). Here we show that DEI allows the visualization of cartilage lesions in intact canine knee joints with good accuracy. Hence, DEI may be applicable for following joint degeneration in animal models of OA.

  13. Prognostic significance of CT-emphysema score in patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Saing; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Cho, Eun Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Although emphysema is a known independent risk factor of lung cancer, no study has addressed the prognostic impact of computed tomography (CT)-emphysema score in advanced stage lung cancer. Methods For 84 consecutive patients with stage IIIB and IV squamous cell lung cancer that underwent palliative chemotherapy, severity of emphysema was semi-quantitatively scored using baseline chest CT images according to the Goddard scoring system (possible scores range, 0–24). The cutoff of high CT-emphysema score was determined using the maximum chi-squared test and the prognostic significance of the high CT-emphysema score was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results The median CT-emphysema score was 5 (range, 0–22). Patients with a high CT-emphysema score (≥4) tended to have poorer overall survival (OS) (median: 6.3 vs. 13.7 months) than those with a score of <4 (P=0.071). Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher CT-emphysema score was a significant independent prognostic factor for poor OS [hazard ratio (HR) =2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24–3.41; P=0.005), along with no response to first-line therapy (P=0.009) and no second-line therapy (P<0.001). Conclusions CT-emphysema score is significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer. PMID:27621848

  14. Prognostic Impact of PHIP Copy Number in Melanoma: Linkage to Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Nosrati, Mehdi; Tong, Schuyler; Wu, Clayton; Thummala, Suresh; Dar, Altaf A.; Leong, Stanley P.L.; Cleaver, James E.; Sagebiel, Richard W.; Miller, James R.; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Ulceration is an important prognostic factor in melanoma whose biologic basis is poorly understood. Here we assessed the prognostic impact of pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) copy number and its relationship to ulceration. PHIP copy number was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a tissue microarray cohort of 238 melanomas. Elevated PHIP copy number was associated with significantly reduced DMFS (P = 0.01) and DSS (P = 0.009) by Kaplan-Meier analyses. PHIP FISH scores were independently predictive of DMFS (P = 0.03) and DSS (P = 0.03). Increased PHIP copy number was an independent predictor of ulceration status (P = 0.04). The combined impact of increased PHIP copy number and tumor vascularity on ulceration status was highly significant (P< 0.0001). Stable suppression of PHIP in human melanoma cells resulted in significantly reduced glycolytic activity in vitro, with lower expression of LDH5, HIF1A, and VEGF, and was accompanied by reduced microvessel density in vivo. These results provide further support for PHIP as a molecular prognostic marker of melanoma, and reveal a significant linkage between PHIP levels and ulceration. Moreover, they suggest that ulceration may be driven by increased glycolysis and angiogenesis. PMID:24005052

  15. Prognostic impact of PHIP copy number in melanoma: linkage to ulceration.

    PubMed

    Bezrookove, Vladimir; De Semir, David; Nosrati, Mehdi; Tong, Schuyler; Wu, Clayton; Thummala, Suresh; Dar, Altaf A; Leong, Stanley P L; Cleaver, James E; Sagebiel, Richard W; Miller, James R; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2014-03-01

    Ulceration is an important prognostic factor in melanoma whose biologic basis is poorly understood. Here we assessed the prognostic impact of pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) copy number and its relationship to ulceration. PHIP copy number was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a tissue microarray cohort of 238 melanomas. Elevated PHIP copy number was associated with significantly reduced distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; P=0.01) and disease-specific survival (DSS; P=0.009) by Kaplan-Meier analyses. PHIP FISH scores were independently predictive of DMFS (P=0.03) and DSS (P=0.03). Increased PHIP copy number was an independent predictor of ulceration status (P=0.04). The combined impact of increased PHIP copy number and tumor vascularity on ulceration status was highly significant (P<0.0001). Stable suppression of PHIP in human melanoma cells resulted in significantly reduced glycolytic activity in vitro, with lower expression of lactate dehydrogenase 5, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha subunit, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and was accompanied by reduced microvessel density in vivo. These results provide further support for PHIP as a molecular prognostic marker of melanoma, and reveal a significant linkage between PHIP levels and ulceration. Moreover, they suggest that ulceration may be driven by increased glycolysis and angiogenesis. PMID:24005052

  16. Evaluation of prognostic factors following flow-cytometric DNA analysis after cytokeratin labelling: II. Cervical and endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Wimberger, Pauline; Hillemanns, Peter; Kapsner, Thomas; Hepp, Hermann; Kimmig, Rainer

    2002-01-01

    In gynecologic oncology valid prognostic factors are necessary to define biologically similar subgroups for analysis of therapeutic efficacy. This study is the first published prospective study concerning prognostic significance of DNA ploidy and S-phase fraction in cervical and endometrial cancer following enrichment of tumor cells by cytokeratin labelling. Epithelial cells were labeled by FITC-conjugated cytokeratin antibody (CK 5, 6, 8, and CK 17) prior to flow cytometric cell cycle analysis in 91 specimens of cervical cancer and 73 samples of endometrial cancer. In cervical cancer neither DNA-ploidy nor S-phase fraction were relevant prognostic parameters. But CV of the G(0)G(1)-peak showed prognostic relevance in cervical cancer cells, even in multivariate analysis. This interesting observation, however, seems to have no therapeutic consequence due to the small discrimination capacity of CV. In endometrial carcinoma, gross DNA-aneuploidy (DNA-index > 1.3) and a high percentage of proliferating cells (>75th percentile) were univariate and multivariate highly significant prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival. Especially DNA-aneuploidy (DI>1.3) is one of the most important independent molecular biological prognostic factors. While diagnostic curettage we could identify risk patients even preoperatively by determination of the prognostic factors like histologic tumor type, grading, cervical involvement and DNA-ploidy. Thereby these patients could be treated primarily in an oncologic center. In conclusion, our investigations showed that the determination of DNA-ploidy should be done in endometrial carcinoma. In cervical cancer no clinical significance for determination of DNA-parameters was found.

  17. Presence of anemia and poor prognostic factors in patients with endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wilairat, Wanitchar; Benjapibal, Mongkol

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) and prognostic factors in Thai patients with endometrial cancer. Medical records of 228 patients who had undergone surgery between January 2005 and December 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Associations between clinicopathological variables and pretreatment Hb levels were described using Pearson's chi square test or two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Survival analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier estimates. Univariate and Cox-regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic impact of various factors, including Hb levels, in term of disease-free survival. The median duration of follow-up was 38.2 months. Eighty-nine patients (39%) had a preoperative Hb level of <12 g/dL, these having significantly higher rates of non-endometrioid histology, advanced FIGO stage, lymphovascular space invasion, cervical involvement, adnexal involvement, positive peritoneal cytology, and lymph node involvement than patients with Hb ≥12 g/dL. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival were significantly lower in patients with pretreatment Hb levels <12 g/dL compared with those with Hb ≥12 g/dL (79.3% vs. 89.2%, p=0.044 and 87.6% vs. 99.3%, p<0.001, respectively). In the multivariate analysis only histology, myometrial invasion, and lymphovascular invasion proved to be independent prognostic factors, whereas tumor grading, stage, cervical involvement, adnexal involvement, positive peritoneal cytology, lymph node involvement, and low Hb were not. In conclusion, presence of anemia before treatment may reflect poor prognostic factors in patients with endometrial cancer and low pretreatment hemoglobin level may have a prognostic impact on clinical outcome.

  18. Whole-brain radiotherapy with or without efaproxiral for the treatment of brain metastases: Determinants of response and its prognostic value for subsequent survival

    SciTech Connect

    Stea, Baldassarre . E-mail: bstea@azcc.arizona.edu; Suh, John H.; Boyd, Adam P. M.S.; Cagnoni, Pablo J.; Shaw, Edward

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the prognostic factors for radiographic response and its prognostic value for subsequent survival in patients undergoing whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Five hundred fifteen eligible patients were randomized in a phase III trial evaluating WBRT and supplemental oxygen with or without efaproxiral, an allosteric modifier of hemoglobin that reduces hemoglobin oxygen-binding affinity and enhances tumor oxygenation, potentially increasing tumor radiosensitivity. Brain images were obtained at baseline and at scheduled follow-up visits after WBRT. Landmark analysis was used to assess the ability of response at selected time points to predict subsequent survival. Logistic regression was used to assess determinants of response at 3 months. Results: Treatment arm, Karnofsky Performance Status, presence or absence of liver metastases, and primary site were all determinants of response at the 3-month follow-up visit, with patients in the efaproxiral arm experiencing a 67% greater odds of response at this visit (p = 0.02). Response at 3 and 6 months was a significant prognostic factor for longer subsequent survival. Conclusions: The 3-month scan is a valuable prognostic factor for subsequent survival in patients with brain metastases treated with WBRT. Patients in the efaproxiral arm had a higher response rate at 3 and 6 months than those in the control arm.

  19. Prognostic Role of Pulmonary Arterial Capacitance in Advanced Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Matthias; Mullens, Wilfried; Skouri, Hadi N.; Abrahams, Zuheir; Wu, Yuping; Taylor, David O.; Starling, Randall C.; Tang, W. H. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Background RV dysfunction frequently occurs and independently prognosticates in left-sided HF. It is not clear which right ventricular (RV) afterload measure has the greatest impact on RV function and prognosis. We examined the determinants, prognostic role and response to treatment of pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC, ratio of stroke volume over pulmonary pulse pressure), in relation to pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in heart failure (HF). Methods and Results We reviewed 724 consecutive patients with HF who underwent right heart catheterization between 2000 and 2005. Changes in PAC were explored in an independent cohort of 75 subjects treated for acute decompensated HF. PAC showed a strong inverse relation with PVR (r=−0.64) and wedge pressure (r=−0.73), and provides stronger prediction of significant RV failure than PVR (AUC ROC 0.74 vs 0.67 respectively, p = 0.003). During a mean follow-up of 3.2 ± 2.2 years, both lower PAC (p<0.0001) and higher PVR (p<0.0001) portend more adverse clinical events (all-cause mortality and cardiac transplantation). In multivariate analysis, PAC (but not PVR) remains an independent predictor (Hazard ratio =0.92 [95% confidence interval: 0.84–1.0, p=0.037]). Treatment of HF resulted in a decrease in PVR (270±165 to 211±88 dynes·sec·cm−5, p=0.002), a larger increase in PAC (1.65±0.64 to 2.61±1.42 ml/mmHg, p<0.0001), leading to an increase in pulmonary arterial time constant (PVR × PAC) (0.29±0.12 to 0.37±0.15 sec, p<0.0001). Conclusions PAC bundles the effects of PVR and left sided filling pressures on RV afterload, explaining its strong relation with RV dysfunction, poor long-term prognosis, and response to therapy. PMID:23087402

  20. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Serilmez, Murat; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2013-03-01

    Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are supposed to be associated with higher risk of invasion, metastases and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for lung cancer patients. The study comprised 110 lung cancer patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, aPTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between D-Dimer levels and histological subtypes of NSCLC, pointing an elevated plasma D-dimer level in squamous cell cancer (p = 0.035). Patients with extensive stage SCLC exhibited evidently higher levels of D-Dimer, INR and PLT (p = 0.037, p = 0.042, p = 0.04, respectively). Prolongation of PT and INR had statistically significant adverse effect on survival (p = 0.05 and p = 0.014, respectively). Although prolonged aPTT and high levels of D-dimer was associated with worse survival, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.117, p = 0.104). Multivariate analysis revealed INR as the sole independent prognostic variable among coagulation parameters (p = 0.05). In conclusion, elevation of PT and INR are associated with decreased survival in lung cancer patients.

  1. Microvessel density is a prognostic marker of human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong-Chuan; Qin, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Xin; Sheng, Xia; Wu, Ji-Feng; Wang, Dao-Bin; Chen, Gui-Hua

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether microvessel density (MVD) is related with prognosis in gastric cancer patients, and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vessel endothelial growth factor (VEGF) so as to determine the possible role of COX-2 and VEGF in gastric cancer angiogenesis. METHODS: Forty-seven formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of gastric cancer were evaluated for COX-2, VEGF by immunohistochemical staining. To assess tumor angiogenesis, MVD was determined by immunohistochemical staining of endothelial protein factor VIII-related antigen. The relationship among COX-2 and VEGF expression, MVD, and clinicopathologic parameters was analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 67 samples, high MVD was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival. Multivariate survival analysis showed that MVD value and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors. The expression rate of COX-2 and VEGF was significantly higher than that of the adjacent tissues. COX-2 and VEGF expression in gastric cancer was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation and depth of invasion, but not with survival. The mean MVD value of COX-2 or VEGF positive tumors was higher than that of COX-2 or VEGF negative tumors. A significant correlation was found between the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF. CONCLUSION: MVD may be one of the important prognostic factors for gastric cancer patients. COX-2 and VEGF may play an important role in tumor progression by stimulating angiogenesis. VEGF might play a main role in the COX-2 angiogenic pathway. The inhibition of angiogenesis or COX-2, VEGF activity may have an important therapeutic benefit in the control of gastric cancer. PMID:17171787

  2. A Prognostic Model Using Inflammation- and Nutrition-Based Scores in Patients With Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma Treated With Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Meng-Che; Wang, Shih-Hor; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lan, Jui; Rau, Kun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The outcomes of patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC) are poor. Recent studies have identified the prognostic impact of inflammatory response and nutritional status on survival for patients with gastric cancer. This study aims to create a prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores to predict survival in patients with mGC treated with chemotherapy. After institutional review board approval, patients who had mGC and were treated with chemotherapy from 2007 to 2012 at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Significantly predictive factors were identified by multivariate Cox regression analyses. Based on these variables, a prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores was constructed to predict survival. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to estimate overall survival. The c-statistic values with 95% confidence interval (CI) were also calculated to access their predicting performances. Our study consisted of 256 patients with a median age of 60 years and a median follow-up visit of 18.5 months. Multivariate analyses showed that neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) were independently related to survival. After computing these scores, patients were classified into favorable-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups. The median overall survival were 27.6 versus 13.2 versus 8.2 months in favorable, intermediate, and poor-risk groups, respectively. The 2-year survival rate was 52% versus 16% versus 3% in favorable-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups, respectively. (P < 0.001). The c-statistic value of our model at 2 years is 0.8 (95% CI, 0.75–0.86). NLR, mGPS, and PG-SGA were independently related to survival. Our prognostic model using inflammatory- and nutrition-based scores could provide prognostic information to patients and physicians. PMID:27124056

  3. Prognostic score systems and community-acquired bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Spindler, C; Ortqvist, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three score systems: the pneumonia severity index (PSI); CURB-65 (confusion; urea >7 mM; respiratory rate > or =30 breaths x min(-1); blood pressure <90 mmHg systolic or < or =60 mmHg diastolic; aged > or =65 yrs old); and modified American Thoracic Society rule for predicting intensive care unit (ICU) need and mortality due to bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia. All adult patients (n = 114) with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia at the Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden, 1999-2000, were included in the study. Severity scores were calculated and the independent prognostic importance of different variables was analysed by multiple regression analyses. PSI > or = IV, CURB-65 > or = 2, and the presence of one major or more than one minor risk factor in mATS all had a high sensitivity, but somewhat lower specificity for predicting death and ICU need. The death rate was 12% (13 out of 114). Severity score and treatment in departments other than the Dept of Infectious Diseases were the only factors independently correlated to death. Patients treated in other departments more often had severe underlying illnesses and were more severely ill on admission. However, a significant difference in death rates remained after adjustment for severity between the two groups. In conclusion, all score systems were useful for predicting the need for intensive care unit treatment and death due to bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. The pneumonia severity index was the most sensitive, but CURB-65 was easier to use.

  4. An individualized prognostic signature and multi-omics distinction for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma patients with surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Lu; Song, Xuekun; Li, Xiangyu; Tong, Mengsha; Guo, You; Li, Jing; Li, Hongdong; Cai, Hao; Li, Mengyao; Guan, Qingzhou; Yan, Haidan; Guo, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Previously reported prognostic signatures for predicting the prognoses of postsurgical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are commonly based on predefined risk scores, which are hardly applicable to samples measured by different laboratories. To solve this problem, using gene expression profiles of 170 stage I/II HCC samples, we identified a prognostic signature consisting of 20 gene pairs whose within-sample relative expression orderings (REOs) could robustly predict the disease-free survival and overall survival of HCC patients. This REOs-based prognostic signature was validated in two independent datasets. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the patients with high-risk of recurrence were characterized by the activations of pathways related to cell proliferation and tumor microenvironment, whereas the low-risk patients were characterized by the activations of various metabolism pathways. We further investigated the distinct epigenomic and genomic characteristics of the two prognostic groups using The Cancer Genome Atlas samples with multi-omics data. Epigenetic analysis showed that the transcriptional differences between the two prognostic groups were significantly concordant with DNA methylation alternations. The signaling network analysis identified several key genes (e.g. TP53, MYC) with epigenomic or genomic alternations driving poor prognoses of HCC patients. These results help us understand the multi-omics mechanisms determining the outcomes of HCC patients. PMID:27006471

  5. Genome-wide profiling of transfer RNAs and their role as novel prognostic markers for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Preethi; Ghosh, Sunita; Wang, Bo; Heyns, Mieke; Li, Dongping; Mackey, John R.; Kovalchuk, Olga; Damaraju, Sambasivarao

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs, key molecules in protein synthesis) have not been investigated as potential prognostic markers in breast cancer (BC), despite early findings of their dysregulation and diagnostic potential. We aim to comprehensively profile tRNAs from breast tissues and to evaluate their role as prognostic markers (Overall Survival, OS and Recurrence Free Survival, RFS). tRNAs were profiled from 11 normal breast and 104 breast tumor tissues using next generation sequencing. We adopted a Case-control (CC) and Case-Only (CO) association study designs. Risk scores constructed from tRNAs were subjected to univariate and multivariate Cox-proportional hazards regression to investigate their prognostic value. Of the 571 tRNAs profiled, 76 were differentially expressed (DE) and three were significant for OS in the CC approach. We identified an additional 11 tRNAs associated with OS and 14 tRNAs as significant for RFS in the CO approach, indicating that CC alone may not capture all discriminatory tRNAs in prognoses. In both the approaches, the risk scores were significant in the multivariate analysis as independent prognostic factors, and patients belonging to high-risk group were associated with poor prognosis. Our results confirmed global up-regulation of tRNAs in BC and identified tRNAs as potential novel prognostic markers for BC. PMID:27604545

  6. Prognostic value of preoperative inflammatory response biomarkers in patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma and the establishment of a nomogram

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Liangyou; Ma, Xin; Li, Hongzhao; Chen, Luyao; Xie, Yongpeng; Zhao, Chaofei; Luo, Guoxiong; Zhang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    To examine the prognostic role of inflammatory response biomarkers in sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC). From January 2004 to May 2015, 103 patients with sRCC were enrolled in this study. Preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) were analyzed. Besides well-established clinicopathological prognostic factors, we evaluated the prognostic value of this four markers using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models. Additionally, a nomogram was established to predict the prognosis of sRCC patients. Elevated NLR, dNLR and PLR were significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS), nevertheless, elevated LMR showed an adverse effect on reduced OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that NLR (HR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.50–11.00, P = 0.006) retained as independent factor. Incorporation of the NLR into a prognostic model including T stage, M stage, tumor necrosis and percentage of sarcomatoid generated a nomogram, which accurately predicted OS for sRCC patients. Preoperative NLR may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker in patients with sRCC and may help with clinical decisions about treatment intervention in clinical practice. The proposed nomogram can be used for the prediction of OS in patients with sRCC. PMID:27035802

  7. Prognostic Role of 14F7 Mab Immunoreactivity against N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Adanays; Torres, Griselda; Rengifo, Charles E.; Quintero, Santiago; Arango, María del Carmen; Danta, Debora; Vázquez, José M.; Escobar, Xiomara; Carr, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the prognostic role of 14F7 Mab immunoreactivity, against N-Glycolyl GM3 ganglioside, in patients with colon cancer (CC) and to evaluate the relationship between its expression and clinicopathological features. Methods. Paraffin-embedded specimens were retrospectively collected from 50 patients with CC operated between 2004 and 2008. 14F7 Mab staining was determined by immunohistochemistry technique and its relation with survival and clinicopathologic features was evaluated. Results. The reactivity of 14F7 Mab was detected in all cases. Most cases had high level of immunostaining (70%) that showed statistical correlation with TNM stage (P = 0.025). In univariate survival analysis, level of 14F7 Mab immunoreactivity (P = 0.0078), TNM Stage (P = 0.0007) and lymphovascular invasion (0.027) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Among these variables, level of 14F7 Mab immunoreactivity (HR = 0.268; 95% CI  0.078–0.920; P = 0.036) and TNM stage (HR = 0.249; 95% CI 0.066–0.932; P = 0.039) were independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. This study is the first approach on the prognostic significance of 14F7 Mab immunoreactivity in patients with colon adenocarcinoma and this assessment might be used in the prognostic estimate of CC, although further studies will be required to validate these findings. PMID:24639871

  8. Genome-wide profiling of transfer RNAs and their role as novel prognostic markers for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Preethi; Ghosh, Sunita; Wang, Bo; Heyns, Mieke; Li, Dongping; Mackey, John R; Kovalchuk, Olga; Damaraju, Sambasivarao

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs, key molecules in protein synthesis) have not been investigated as potential prognostic markers in breast cancer (BC), despite early findings of their dysregulation and diagnostic potential. We aim to comprehensively profile tRNAs from breast tissues and to evaluate their role as prognostic markers (Overall Survival, OS and Recurrence Free Survival, RFS). tRNAs were profiled from 11 normal breast and 104 breast tumor tissues using next generation sequencing. We adopted a Case-control (CC) and Case-Only (CO) association study designs. Risk scores constructed from tRNAs were subjected to univariate and multivariate Cox-proportional hazards regression to investigate their prognostic value. Of the 571 tRNAs profiled, 76 were differentially expressed (DE) and three were significant for OS in the CC approach. We identified an additional 11 tRNAs associated with OS and 14 tRNAs as significant for RFS in the CO approach, indicating that CC alone may not capture all discriminatory tRNAs in prognoses. In both the approaches, the risk scores were significant in the multivariate analysis as independent prognostic factors, and patients belonging to high-risk group were associated with poor prognosis. Our results confirmed global up-regulation of tRNAs in BC and identified tRNAs as potential novel prognostic markers for BC. PMID:27604545

  9. Prognostic factors in anal squamous carcinoma: a multivariate analysis of clinical, pathological and flow cytometric parameters in 235 cases.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, N A; Scholefield, J H; Love, S B; England, J; Northover, J M

    1990-06-01

    Clinical, pathological and flow cytometric parameters have been analysed by univariate and multivariate analysis to define those parameters of important prognostic influence in 235 cases of surgically treated squamous carcinoma of the anus and perianal skin. Patients had been treated by anorectal excision (166 patients) or by local excision (69). Analyses were carried out on five data sets--the two surgical subgroups, two groups distinguished by site of tumour and on all 235 patients. Univariate analysis showed many parameters to be of prognostic influence, although histological typing of tumours into the more common histological subtypes was of no prognostic value. Parameters of independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis were those indicating depth of spread, inguinal lymph node involvement and DNA-ploidy. In this study the subdivision of the rarer types of anal canal tumour, such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, microcystic squamous carcinoma and small cell anaplastic carcinoma, was relevant confirming that these tumours have a poor prognosis. It is now felt that surgery should not be employed as primary treatment in most cases of anal cancer and the results of this study have to be interpreted with caution when applied to patients treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that the most useful prognostic information can be gleaned from accurate clinical staging and an assessment of DNA-ploidy status. PMID:2376397

  10. Prognostic Value of Residual Disease after Interval Debulking Surgery for FIGO Stage IIIC and IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Marianne J; Sonke, Gabe S; Westermann, Anneke M; van Driel, Willemien J; Trum, Johannes W; Kenter, Gemma G; Buist, Marrije R

    2015-01-01

    Although complete debulking surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is more often achieved with interval debulking surgery (IDS) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), randomized evidence shows no long-term survival benefit compared to complete primary debulking surgery (PDS). We performed an observational cohort study of patients treated with debulking surgery for advanced EOC to evaluate the prognostic value of residual disease after debulking surgery. All patients treated between 1998 and 2010 in three Dutch referral gynaecological oncology centres were included. The prognostic value of residual disease after surgery for disease specific survival was assessed using Cox-regression analyses. In total, 462 patients underwent NACT-IDS and 227 PDS. Macroscopic residual disease after debulking surgery was an independent prognostic factor for survival in both treatment modalities. Yet, residual tumour less than one centimetre at IDS was associated with a survival benefit of five months compared to leaving residual tumour more than one centimetre, whereas this benefit was not seen after PDS. Leaving residual tumour at IDS is a poor prognostic sign as it is after PDS. The specific prognostic value of residual tumour seems to depend on the clinical setting, as minimal instead of gross residual tumour is associated with improved survival after IDS, but not after PDS.

  11. Obtaining digital files from radiographic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavena, Leonardo B.; Romero, Amanda G.; DePaul, Anibal; Rocha, Luis A.; Olivera, Viviana I. Rotger y. Juan M.

    2007-11-01

    Digitizing images with low cost off-the-shelf technology arises as an alternative to storage films in developing countries. The objective of this work is to determine a low-cost method to digitize Rx films for educative and remote-consult purposes. To this aim, different ways of digitizing were compared against conventional methods to determine the feasibility to have a simple-low cost method that is quality independent from facilities and operator. Different images from digital photo cameras and scanners (with or without transparency adapter at different resolutions and color depth) were analyzed. We present preliminary results for digitizing Rx films with a fast and simple inexpensive system that capture quality images, and optimal sizes for storage in basic PCs in hospitals, with the possibility of asking for a second opinion via e-mail or through a web-based service. It must be noted that in many cases the only way of communication is via dial-up telephone line.

  12. Thermal neutron image intensifier tube provides brightly visible radiographic pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, H.; Kraska, I.; Niklas, W.; Schmidt, A.

    1967-01-01

    Vacuum-type neutron image intensifier tube improves image detection in thermal neutron radiographic inspection. This system converts images to an electron image, and with electron acceleration and demagnification between the input target and output screen, produces a bright image viewed through a closed circuit television system.

  13. Reliable Radiographic Inspection of Flexible Risers for the Oil Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Rômulo M.; Rebello, Joao Marcos A.; Vaz, Murilo A.

    2010-02-01

    Flexible risers are composite tubular structures manufactured by the concentric assemblage of cylindrical polymeric and helically wound metallic layers employed to convey pressurized fluids such as oil, gas and water in the ocean environment. The metallic layers account for the flexible risers' structural strength and are dimensioned according to the static and dynamic loads. They are usually installed in a free hanging catenary configuration and are subjected to the direct action of waves and marine currents and wave induced motions from the oil production platform. The fatigue rupture of wire armours in the end fitting or within the riser segment protected by the bend stiffener is an object of major concern. Integrity models have been developed, however inspection techniques are mandatory to ensure that failure is detected. Gammagraphy has been used as a common inspection technique in all regions of the flexible riser, mainly with the single wall-single view method. On the other side, there is not any qualified radiographic procedure to this kind of structure. Radiographic simulation was adopted and its validation with actual gammagraphies and establishment of radiographic parameters to complex radiation geometries were done. Results show the viability of the radiographic inspection analyzing the armour wires' rupture and the displacement between wires.

  14. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation. PMID:24665152

  15. Information content of low-dose radiographs: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    The previous paper described the concept of using the net number of information bits transmitted in a radiographic image as a measure of the contrast parameter of image quality. The concept is particularly useful when the image contrast is limited by the statistics of the photon fluence incident on the detector (low doses). The Wolfram Research Mathematica program (described in Ref. 1) that was used to simulate a noisy image of an object with two thicknesses and to calculate the resulting IC (information content). The only noise source in the simulation was fluctuations in the photon fluence incident on the detector. The results from the simulation were compared to data obtained from actual radiographs of a copper step wedge radiographed with 10 and 50 pulses from a 150-p, V x-ray machine. Good agreement between the simulation and experiment was obtained when the photon fluence was considered a free, adjustable parameter. This report extends the simulation described in Ref. 1 and shows how IC varies as the following radiographic parameters change: object thickness; object Z number; x-ray energy; and incident x-ray fluence.

  16. PHERMEX: Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X rays

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The PHERMEX facility used to provide flash radiographs of explosives and explosive-driven metal systems is described. With this facility, precision radiographs of large objects containing materials with high atomic number and high density are attainable. PHERMEX encompasses the high-current, three-cavity, 30-MeV linear electron accelerator; the 50-MHz-radiofrequency power source to drive the cavities; timing, firing, and signal detection system; and a data-acquisition system. Some unique features of PHERMEX are reliability; very intensive submicrosecond bremsstrahlung source rich in 4- to 8-MeV x rays; less than 1.0-mm-diam spot size; precision determination of edges, discontinuities, and areal-mass distribution; and flash radiographs of large explosive systems close to the x-ray target. Some aspects of the PHERMEX-upgrading program are discussed. The program will result (1) in an increased electron-beam energy to about 50 MeV, (2) the use of an electron-gun pulser that is capable of producing three time-adjustable pulses for obtaining three radiographic pictures of a single explosive event, (3) an increased electron injection energy of 1.25 MeV, (4) the capability for recording high-speed signals, and (5) the use of computers to assist the monitoring and control of the data-acquisition system and the PHERMEX accelerator.

  17. Radiographic appearance of commonly used cements in implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pette, Gregory A; Ganeles, Jeffrey; Norkin, Frederic J

    2013-01-01

    Cement-retained restorations allow for a conventional fixed partial denture approach to restoring dental implants. However, inadequate removal of excess cement at the time of cementation may introduce a severe complication: cement-induced peri-implantitis. Radiopaque cements are more easily detected on radiographs and should improve the recognition of extravasated cement at the time of insertion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of commercially available cements in vitro. Eighteen different cements commonly used for luting restorations to implants were tested at both 0.5- and 1.0-mm thicknesses. The cements examined were zinc oxide eugenol, zinc oxide, zinc polycarboxylate, zinc phosphate, resin-reinforced glass ionomer, urethane resin, resin, and composite resin. Two samples of each cement thickness underwent standardized radiography next to an aluminum step wedge as a reference. The mean grayscale value of each of the nine 1-mm steps in the step wedge were used as reference values and compared to each of the cement samples. Temp Bond Clear (resin), IMProv (urethane resin), Premier Implant Cement (resin), and Temrex NE (resin) were not radiographically detectable at either sample thickness. Cements containing zinc were the most detectable upon radiographic analysis. There are significant differences in the radiopacity of many commonly used cements. Since cementinduced peri-implantitis can lead to late implant failure, cements that can be visualized radiographically may reduce the incidence of this problem.

  18. Optical versus radiographic magnification for fine-detail skeletal radiography.

    PubMed

    Genant, H K; Doi, K; Mall, J C

    1975-01-01

    Fine-detail radiographic techniques for peripheral skeletal imaging have gained wide clinical acceptance. In this study, the imaging properties and clinical applications of the optical magnification technique, which employs fine-grain industrial film and a large focal spot, are compared quantitatively and qualitatively with those of three slow screen-film techniques, namely, contact exposure with a large focal spot, 2 times radiographic magnification with a 0.3 mm focal spot, and 4 times radiographic magnification with a 50 mu focal spot. The modulation transfer functions (MTF's) of the recording systems and focal spots are obtained and film sensitometry performed. Clinical comparisons are made for patients with metabolic, arthritic, and neoplastic skeletal disorders. The results illustrate the superiority of the optical magnification technique over contact or 2 times magnification techniques using slow screen-film systems. If a microfocus tube is used, however, direct radiographic magnification may provide images comparable in resolution, noise and contrast to those made with the optical magnification technique, and at lower radiation exposure to the patient. PMID:46857

  19. Radiographic skills learning: procedure simulation using adaptive hypermedia.

    PubMed

    Costaridou, L; Panayiotakis, G; Pallikarakis, N; Proimos, B

    1996-10-01

    The design and development of a simulation tool supporting learning of radiographic skills is reported. This tool has by textual, graphical and iconic resources, organized according to a building-block, adaptive hypermedia approach, which is described and supported by an image base of radiographs. It offers interactive user-controlled simulation of radiographic imaging procedures. The development is based on a commercially available environment (Toolbook 3.0, Asymetrix Corporation). The core of the system is an attributed precedence (priority) graph, which represents a task outline (concept and resources structure), which is dynamically adjusted to selected procedures. The user interface imitates a conventional radiography system, i.e. operating console, tube, table, patient and cassette. System parameters, such as patient positioning, focus-to-patient distance, magnification, field dimensions, tube voltage and mAs are under user control. Their effects on image quality are presented, by means of an image base acquired under controlled exposure conditions. Innovative use of hypermedia, computer based learning and simulation principles and technology in the development of this tool resulted in an enhanced interactive environment providing radiographic parameter control and visualization of parameter effects on image quality. PMID:9038530

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ADVANCED RADIOGRAPHIC CAPABILITY FRONT END ON NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, C; Heebner, J; Dawson, J; Fochs, S; Shverdin, M; Crane, J K; Kanz, V K; Halpin, J; Phan, H; Sigurdsson, R; Brewer, W; Britten, J; Brunton, G; Clark, W; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Nguyen, H; Shaw, B; Hackel, R; Hermann, M; Tietbohl, G; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-07-15

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  1. Localized Fisher vector representation for pathology detection in chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geva, Ofer; Lieberman, Sivan; Konen, Eli; Greenspan, Hayit

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we present a novel framework for automatic detection of abnormalities in chest radiographs. The representation model is based on the Fisher Vector encoding method. In the representation process, we encode each chest radiograph using a set of extracted local descriptors. These include localized texture features that address typical local texture abnormalities as well as spatial features. Using a Gaussian Mixture Model, a rich image descriptor is generated for each chest radiograph. An improved representation is obtained by selection of features that correspond to the relevant region of interest for each pathology. Categorization of the X-ray images is conducted using supervised learning and the SVM classifier. The proposed system was tested on a dataset of 636 chest radiographs taken from a real clinical environment. We measured the performance in terms of area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results show an AUC value of 0.878 for abnormal mediastinum detection, and AUC values of 0.827 and 0.817 for detection of right and left lung opacities, respectively. These results improve upon the state-of-the-art as compared with two alternative representation models.

  2. Analysis of physiological impact while reading stereoscopic radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Yasuko Y.; Tajima, Takashi; Kuwabara, Takao; Hasegawa, Akira; Natsui, Nobutaka; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Hatada, Toyohiko

    2011-03-01

    A stereoscopic viewing technology is expected to improve diagnostic performance in terms of reading efficiency by adding one more dimension to the conventional 2D images. Although a stereoscopic technology has been applied to many different field including TV, movies and medical applications, physiological fatigue through reading stereoscopic radiographs has been concerned although no established physiological fatigue data have been provided. In this study, we measured the α-amylase concentration in saliva, heart rates and normalized tissue hemoglobin index (nTHI) in blood of frontal area to estimate physiological fatigue through reading both stereoscopic radiographs and the conventional 2D radiographs. In addition, subjective assessments were also performed. As a result, the pupil contraction occurred just after the reading of the stereoscopic images, but the subjective assessments regarding visual fatigue were nearly identical for the reading the conventional 2D and stereoscopic radiographs. The α-amylase concentration and the nTHI continued to decline while examinees read both 2D and stereoscopic images, which reflected the result of subjective assessment that almost half of the examinees reported to feel sleepy after reading. The subjective assessments regarding brain fatigue showed that there were little differences between 2D and stereoscopic reading. In summary, this study shows that the physiological fatigue caused by stereoscopic reading is equivalent to the conventional 2D reading including ocular fatigue and burden imposed on brain.

  3. Automatic Evaluation of Welded Joints Using Image Processing on Radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Ch.

    2003-03-01

    Radiography is frequently used to detect discontinuities in welded joints (porosity, cracks, lack of penetration). Perfect knowledge of the geometry of these defects is an important step which is essential to appreciate the quality of the weld. Because of this, an action improving the interpretation of radiographs by image processing has been undertaken. The principle consists in making a radiograph of the welded joint and of a depth step wedge penetrameter in the material. The radiograph is then finely digitized and an automatic processing of the radiograph of the penetrameter image allows the establishment of a correspondence between grey levels and material thickness. An algorithm based on image processing is used to localize defects in the welded joints and to isolate them from the original image. First, defects detected by this method are characterized in terms of dimension and equivalent thickness. Then, from the image of the healthy welded joint (that is to say without the detected defects), characteristic values of the weld are evaluated (thickness reduction, width).

  4. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... purposes to simulate a human body for positioning radiographic equipment. (b) Classification. Class I... Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part 820 of this...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... purposes to simulate a human body for positioning radiographic equipment. (b) Classification. Class I... Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part 820 of this...

  6. Radiographer Delivered Fluoroscopy Reduces Radiation Exposure During Endoscopic Urological Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hennessey, DB; Young, M; Pahuja, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The 1999 Ionising Radiation Regulations recommend that medical professionals using ionising radiation should aim to keep exposure as ‘low as reasonably practicable’. Urologists regularly use fluoroscopy during endoscopic surgical procedures. In some institutions, this is delivered by a radiographer whereas in others, it is delivered by the urological surgeon. Objectives To determine if radiographer-delivered fluoroscopy can reduce the exposure to ionising radiation during urological procedures. Methods An analysis of 395 consecutive patients, who underwent endoscopic urological procedures requiring fluoroscopy, was performed simultaneously across two institutions, over a 4 month period. 321 patients were matched and included in the analysis. Results Radiographer delivered fluoroscopy was associated with reduced ionising radiation exposure for retrograde pyelography procedures ED 0.09626 vs. 1.323 mSev, p= 0.0003, and endoscopic stone surgeries ED 0.3066 Vs. 0.5416 mSev, p=0.0039, but not for ureterorenoscopic stone surgeries 0.4880 vs. 0.2213 mSev, p=0.8292. Conclusion Radiographer delivered fluoroscopy could reduce the patient’s exposure to ionising radiation for some urological procedures. PMID:27158158

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic biomarkers in cancer.

    PubMed

    Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Montezuma, Diana; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Growing cancer incidence and mortality worldwide demands development of accurate biomarkers to perfect detection, diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring. Urologic (prostate, bladder, kidney), lung, breast and colorectal cancers are the most common and despite major advances in their characterization, this has seldom translated into biomarkers amenable for clinical practice. Epigenetic alterations are innovative cancer biomarkers owing to stability, frequency, reversibility and accessibility in body fluids, entailing great potential of assay development to assist in patient management. Several studies identified putative epigenetic cancer biomarkers, some of which have been commercialized. However, large multicenter validation studies are required to foster translation to the clinics. Herein we review the most promising epigenetic detection, diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for the most common cancers.

  8. [Prognostic factors of early breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Almagro, Elena; González, Cynthia S; Espinosa, Enrique

    2016-02-19

    Decision about the administration of adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer depends on the evaluation of prognostic factors. Lymph node status, tumor size and grade of differentiation are classical variables in this regard, and can be complemented by hormonal receptor status and HER2 expression. These factors can be combined into prognostic indexes to better estimate the risk of relapse or death. Other factors are less important. Gene profiles have emerged in recent years to identify low-risk patients who can forgo adjuvant chemotherapy. A number of profiles are available and can be used in selected cases. In the future, gene profiling will be used to select patients for treatment with new targeted therapies.

  9. [Prognostic factors of early breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Almagro, Elena; González, Cynthia S; Espinosa, Enrique

    2016-02-19

    Decision about the administration of adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer depends on the evaluation of prognostic factors. Lymph node status, tumor size and grade of differentiation are classical variables in this regard, and can be complemented by hormonal receptor status and HER2 expression. These factors can be combined into prognostic indexes to better estimate the risk of relapse or death. Other factors are less important. Gene profiles have emerged in recent years to identify low-risk patients who can forgo adjuvant chemotherapy. A number of profiles are available and can be used in selected cases. In the future, gene profiling will be used to select patients for treatment with new targeted therapies. PMID:25726309

  10. Prognostics for Electronics Components of Avionics Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

    2009-01-01

    Electronics components have and increasingly critical role in avionics systems and for the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research filed as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management. This paper reports on a prognostics application for electronics components of avionics systems, in particular, its application to the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). The remaining useful life prediction for the IGBT is based on the particle filter framework, leveraging data from an accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. The accelerated aging test provided thermal-electrical overstress by applying thermal cycling to the device. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of the steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

  11. Digital correction of computed X-radiographs for coral densitometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, H.; Duprey, N.; Jiménez, C.

    2011-12-01

    Corals are widely used for environmental and climatic changes assessment as their skeletal growth is influenced by the surrounding environment. Variations in skeletal density are sensitive to environmental variations (water temperature, nutrients concentration etc.). Digitized X-radiographs have been used for coral skeleton density measurements since the 1980s. However, the shape of the X-ray beam emitted during the irradiation process is strongly distorted due to spherical spreading (inverse square law) and heel effect. Consequently, the X-ray intensity intersecting the surface of the sensitive film or the electronic sensor (e.g. PSL plate) is heterogeneous. These heterogeneities are characterized by an asymmetrical concentric pattern of decreasing intensity from the center to the edges of the X-radiographs. It commonly generates an error on density measurements that may reach up to 40%. This is twice as much as the seasonal density variations that are usually found in corals. Until now, extra X-ray images or aluminum standards were used to correct X-radiographs. Such corrective methods may be constraining when working with a high number of coral samples. We present an inexpensive, straightforward, and accurate method to correct strong heterogeneities of X-ray irradiation that affect X-ray images. The method relies on the relation between optical density (OD) and skeletal density; it is non-destructive, and provides high-resolution measurements. Our method was applied to measure density variations on Caribbean reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea from Costa Rica. The basic assumption is that the X-radiograph background, i.e., areas without objects, records the asymmetrical concentric pattern of X-ray intensity. A full image of this pattern was created with a natural neighbor interpolation. The resulting modeled image was then subtracted from the original X-ray image, permitting thus a reliable OD measurement directly on the corrected X-ray image. This Digital

  12. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Cornhill, Dennis; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Mack, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A systems view is necessary to detect, diagnose, predict, and mitigate adverse events during the flight of an aircraft. While most aircraft subsystems look for simple threshold exceedances and report them to a central maintenance computer, the vehicle integrated prognostic reasoner (VIPR) proactively generates evidence and takes an active role in aircraft-level health assessment. Establishing the technical feasibility and a design trade-space for this next-generation vehicle-level reasoning system (VLRS) is the focus of our work.

  13. New prognostic biomarkers in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Szudy-Szczyrek, Aneta; Szczyrek, Michał; Soroka-Wojtaszko, Maria; Hus, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant neoplastic disease, characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, which is usually connected with production of a monoclonal protein. It is the second most common hematologic malignancy. It constitutes approximately 1% of all cancers and 10% of hematological malignancies. Despite the huge progress that has been made in the treatment of multiple myeloma in the past 30 years including the introduction of new immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors, it is still an incurable disease. According to current data, the five-year survival rate is 45%. Multiple myeloma is a very heterogeneous disease with a very diverse clinical course, which is expressed by differences in effectiveness of therapeutic strategies and ability to develop chemoresistance. This diversity implies the need to define risk stratification factors that would help to create personalized and optimized therapy and thereby improve treatment outcomes. Prognostic markers that aim to objectively evaluate the risk of a poor outcome, relapse and the patient's overall outcome are useful for this purpose. The existing, widely used prognostic classifications, such as the Salmon-Durie classification or ISS, do not allow for individualization of treatment. As a result of the development of diagnostic techniques, especially cytogenetics and molecular biology, we were able to discover a lot of new, more sensitive and specific prognostic factors. The paper presents recent reports on the role of molecular, cytogenetic and biochemical alterations in pathogenesis and prognosis of the disease. PMID:27463592

  14. Radiographic diagnosis of dental restoration misfit: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Liedke, G S; Spin-Neto, R; da Silveira, H E D; Wenzel, A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on the use of radiographic methods for the diagnosis of misfit in dental prostheses and restorations. The MEDLINE bibliographic database was searched from 1950 to February 2014 for reports on the radiographic diagnosis of misfits. The search strategy was limited to English-language publications using the following combined MeSH terms in the search strategy: (Dental Restoration OR Dental Prosthesis OR Crown OR Inlays OR Dental Abutments) and (Dental Leakage OR Prosthesis Fitting OR Dental Marginal Adaptation OR Surface Properties) and (Radiography, Dental OR Radiography, Dental, Digital OR Cone-Beam Computed Tomography). Twenty-eight publications were identified and read in full text, and 14 studies fulfilled criteria for inclusion. Information regarding the use of radiographic methods for the diagnosis of misfits in dental prosthesis and restorations, and in which the methodology/results comprised information regarding how the sample was collected/prepared, the method, imaging protocol, presence of a reference test and the outcomes were evaluated. QUADAS criteria was used to rate the studies in high, moderate or low quality. The evidence supporting the use of radiographic methods for the diagnosis of misfits in dental prosthesis and restorations is limited to low-/moderate-quality studies. The well-established intra-oral orthogonal projection is still under investigation and considered the most appropriate method, both when evaluating the relation between dental restoration to tooth and abutment to implant. Studies using digital radiographs have not evaluated the effect of image post-processing, and tomography has not been evaluated. PMID:25142004

  15. Radiographic diagnosis of dental restoration misfit: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Liedke, G S; Spin-Neto, R; da Silveira, H E D; Wenzel, A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on the use of radiographic methods for the diagnosis of misfit in dental prostheses and restorations. The MEDLINE bibliographic database was searched from 1950 to February 2014 for reports on the radiographic diagnosis of misfits. The search strategy was limited to English-language publications using the following combined MeSH terms in the search strategy: (Dental Restoration OR Dental Prosthesis OR Crown OR Inlays OR Dental Abutments) and (Dental Leakage OR Prosthesis Fitting OR Dental Marginal Adaptation OR Surface Properties) and (Radiography, Dental OR Radiography, Dental, Digital OR Cone-Beam Computed Tomography). Twenty-eight publications were identified and read in full text, and 14 studies fulfilled criteria for inclusion. Information regarding the use of radiographic methods for the diagnosis of misfits in dental prosthesis and restorations, and in which the methodology/results comprised information regarding how the sample was collected/prepared, the method, imaging protocol, presence of a reference test and the outcomes were evaluated. QUADAS criteria was used to rate the studies in high, moderate or low quality. The evidence supporting the use of radiographic methods for the diagnosis of misfits in dental prosthesis and restorations is limited to low-/moderate-quality studies. The well-established intra-oral orthogonal projection is still under investigation and considered the most appropriate method, both when evaluating the relation between dental restoration to tooth and abutment to implant. Studies using digital radiographs have not evaluated the effect of image post-processing, and tomography has not been evaluated.

  16. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs.

  17. Microinstability of the Hip and the Splits Radiograph.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Gerrie, Brayden J; Lintner, David M; Varner, Kevin E; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    A normal hip has a natural tendency toward stability because of both osseous and soft tissue structures. Hip motion is primarily rotational around a center of rotation. When the femoral head and its center of rotation translate, with or without rotation, the inherent stability of the femoroacetabular articulation may be lost. The spectrum of hip instability ranges from subtle microinstability to traumatic dislocation. Microinstability may be the cause or the effect of several other hip pathologies. Soft tissue contributions to stability include the static capsule, dynamic musculotendinous units, and underlying generalized connective tissue (eg, Ehlers-Danlos). Osseous contributions include multiple femoral and acetabular radiographic coverage parameters. Iatrogenic contributions include an unrepaired capsulotomy, overresection of the acetabular rim (iatrogenic dysplasia), overresection of cam osteochondroplasty, iliopsoas tenotomy, labral debridement, and ligamentum teres debridement. Patients with hip microinstability often have deep groin pain, exhibited by a C sign. These patients frequently participate in flexibility sports and activities, such as ballet, gymnastics, figure skating, and martial arts. On physical examination, generalized hypermobility syndromes should be assessed, as should loss of log-roll external rotation recoil, excessive abduction, trochanteric-pelvic impingement, and abductor fatigue. Standard imaging, including plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography, should be analyzed for all causes of hip pain. A new plain radiograph, the splits radiograph is introduced here, consistently showing lateral femoral head translation and creation of a vacuum sign, showing hip microinstability. The splits radiograph is illustrated in a 22-year-old female dancer who presented with bilateral deep anterolateral groin pain. PMID:26730687

  18. Novel recurrently mutated genes and a prognostic mutation signature in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jun; Wu, William K K; Li, Xiangchun; He, Jun; Li, Xiao-Xing; Ng, Simon S M; Yu, Chang; Gao, Zhibo; Yang, Jie; Li, Miao; Wang, Qiaoxiu; Liang, Qiaoyi; Pan, Yi; Tong, Joanna H; To, Ka F; Wong, Nathalie; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Jie; Lu, Youyong; Lai, Paul B S; Chan, Francis K L; Li, Yingrui; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jun; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2015-01-01

    Background Characterisation of colorectal cancer (CRC) genomes by next-generation sequencing has led to the discovery of novel recurrently mutated genes. Nevertheless, genomic data has not yet been used for CRC prognostication. Objective To identify recurrent somatic mutations with prognostic significance in patients with CRC. Method Exome sequencing was performed to identify somatic mutations in tumour tissues of 22 patients with CRC, followed by validation of 187 recurrent and pathway-related genes using targeted capture sequencing in additional 160 cases. Results Seven significantly mutated genes, including four reported (APC, TP53, KRAS and SMAD4) and three novel recurrently mutated genes (CDH10, FAT4 and DOCK2), exhibited high mutation prevalence (6–14% for novel cancer genes) and higher-than-expected number of non-silent mutations in our CRC cohort. For prognostication, a five-gene-signature (CDH10, COL6A3, SMAD4, TMEM132D, VCAN) was devised, in which mutation(s) in one or more of these genes was significantly associated with better overall survival independent of tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging. The median survival time was 80.4 months in the mutant group versus 42.4 months in the wild type group (p=0.0051). The prognostic significance of this signature was successfully verified using the data set from the Cancer Genome Atlas study. Conclusions The application of next-generation sequencing has led to the identification of three novel significantly mutated genes in CRC and a mutation signature that predicts survival outcomes for stratifying patients with CRC independent of TNM staging. PMID:24951259

  19. Prognostic and therapeutic value of mitochondrial serine hydroxyl-methyltransferase 2 as a breast cancer biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lahong; Chen, Zhaojun; Xue, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Xiyong; Luh, Frank; Hong, Liquan; Zhang, Hang; Pan, Feng; Liu, Yuhua; Chu, Peiguo; Zheng, Shu; Lou, Guoqiang; Yen, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial serine hydroxylmethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2) is a key enzyme in the serine/glycine synthesis pathway. SHMT2 has been implicated as a critical component for tumor cell survival. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value and efficiency of SHMT2 as a biomarker in patients with breast cancer. Individual and pooled survival analyses were performed on five independent breast cancer microarray datasets. Gene signatures enriched by SHMT2 were also analyzed in these datasets. SHMT2 protein expression was detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay in 128 breast cancer cases. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that SHMT2 was significantly associated with gene signatures of mitochondrial module, cancer invasion, metastasis and poor survival among breast cancer patients (p<0.05). The clinical relevance of SHMT2 was validated on IHC data. The mitochondrial localization of SHMT2 protein was visualized on IHC staining. Independent and pooled analysis confirmed that SHMT2 expression was associated with breast cancer tumor aggressiveness (TNM staging and Elson grade) in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). The prognostic performance of SHMT2 mRNA was comparable to other gene signatures and proved superior to TNM staging. Further analysis results indicated that SHMT2 had better prognostic value for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer patients, compared to ER-positive patients. In cases involving stage IIb breast cancer, chemotherapy significantly extended survival time among patients with high SHMT2 expression. These results indicate that SHMT2 may be a valuable prognostic biomarker in ER-negative breast cancer cases. Furthermore, SHMT2 may be a potential target for breast cancer treatment and drug discovery. PMID:27666119

  20. Methyl-CpG-binding domain sequencing reveals a prognostic methylation signature in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Decock, Anneleen; Ongenaert, Maté; Cannoodt, Robrecht; Verniers, Kimberly; De Wilde, Bram; Laureys, Geneviève; Van Roy, Nadine; Berbegall, Ana P.; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie; Bown, Nick; Clément, Nathalie; Combaret, Valérie; Haber, Michelle; Hoyoux, Claire; Murray, Jayne; Noguera, Rosa; Pierron, Gaelle; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Schulte, Johannes H.; Stallings, Ray L.; Tweddle, Deborah A.; De Preter, Katleen; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of neuroblastoma outcome prediction remains challenging. Therefore, this study aims at establishing novel prognostic tumor DNA methylation biomarkers. In total, 396 low- and high-risk primary tumors were analyzed, of which 87 were profiled using methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) sequencing for differential methylation analysis between prognostic patient groups. Subsequently, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assays were developed for 78 top-ranking differentially methylated regions and tested on two independent cohorts of 132 and 177 samples, respectively. Further, a new statistical framework was used to identify a robust set of MSP assays of which the methylation score (i.e. the percentage of methylated assays) allows accurate outcome prediction. Survival analyses were performed on the individual target level, as well as on the combined multimarker signature. As a result of the differential DNA methylation assessment by MBD sequencing, 58 of the 78 MSP assays were designed in regions previously unexplored in neuroblastoma, and 36 are located in non-promoter or non-coding regions. In total, 5 individual MSP assays (located in CCDC177, NXPH1, lnc-MRPL3-2, lnc-TREX1-1 and one on a region from chromosome 8 with no further annotation) predict event-free survival and 4 additional assays (located in SPRED3, TNFAIP2, NPM2 and CYYR1) also predict overall survival. Furthermore, a robust 58-marker methylation signature predicting overall and event-free survival was established. In conclusion, this study encompasses the largest DNA methylation biomarker study in neuroblastoma so far. We identified and independently validated several novel prognostic biomarkers, as well as a prognostic 58-marker methylation signature. PMID:26646589

  1. Prognostic role of CA15.3 in 7942 patients with operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sandri, M T; Salvatici, M; Botteri, E; Passerini, R; Zorzino, L; Rotmensz, N; Luini, A; Mauro, C; Bagnardi, V; Cassatella, M C; Bottari, F; Casadio, C; Colleoni, M

    2012-02-01

    To assess the prognostic value of presurgical CA15.3 in a large cohort of patients with early breast cancer. A total of 7.942 consecutive patients with breast cancer operated at the European Institute of Oncology between 1998 and 2005 and with presurgical values of CA 15.3 available were included. We explored patterns of recurrence by baseline CA 15.3 values. Mean CA15.3 was 17.0 U/ml. CA15.3 was associated with age, tumor size, nodal involvement, Ki-67 labeling index, grade, HER2 expression, molecular subtype, and perivascular invasion. CA15.3 was independently associated with distant metastases [HR > 20 U/ml vs. ≤ 20 U/ml: 1.34 (95% CI 1.15-1.56)] and death [HR > 20 U/ml vs. ≤ 20 U/ml: 1.30 (95% CI 1.11-1.53)]. When considering CA15.3 as continuous variable, we observed a constant risk of metastasis and death from the lowest values to about 15-20 U/ml, and then a significantly increasing risk with increasing values of CA15.3. Finally, CA15.3 provided significant additional information to the common prognostic factors to predict the occurrence of metastases (C-index P value 0.04). In patients with operable breast cancer, presurgical CA15.3 value is an independent prognostic factor for metastases and deaths. CA15.3 provides additional information to the common prognostic factors and should be considered in the adjuvant therapeutic algorithm.

  2. Evaluation of dental panoramic radiographic findings in edentulous jaws: A retrospective study of 743 patients "Radiographic features in edentulous jaws"

    PubMed Central

    Kose, Taha Emre; Cakir Karabas, Hulya; Ozcan, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of significant panoramic radiographic findings and eventual treatment requirements before conventional or implant supported prosthetic treatment in asymptomatic edentulous patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 743 asymptomatic edentulous patients were retrospectively evaluated using a digital panoramic system. We analyzed the radiographic findings, including impacted teeth, retained root fragments, foreign bodies, severe atrophy of the posterior maxillary alveolar bone, mucous retention cysts, soft tissue calcifications and radiopaque-radiolucent conditions. RESULTS Four-hundred-eighty-seven (65.6%) patients had no radiographic finding. A total of 331 radiographic findings were detected in 256 (34%) patients. In 52.9% (n=175) of these conditions, surgical treatment was required before application of implant-supported fixed prosthesis. However, before application of conventional removable prosthesis surgical treatment was required for 6% (n=20) of these conditions. CONCLUSION The edentulous patients who will have implant placement for implant-supported fixed prosthesis can frequently require additional surgical procedures to eliminate pathological conditions. PMID:26576254

  3. Sun exposure and melanoma prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    GANDINI, SARA; MONTELLA, MAURIZIO; AYALA, FABRIZIO; BENEDETTO, LUCIA; ROSSI, CARLO RICCARDO; VECCHIATO, ANTONELLA; CORRADIN, MARIA TERESA; DE GIORGI, VINCENZO; QUEIROLO, PAOLA; ZANNETTI, GUIDO; GIUDICE, GIUSEPPE; BORRONI, GIOVANNI; FORCIGNANÒ, ROSACHIARA; PERIS, KETTY; TOSTI, GIULIO; TESTORI, ALESSANDRO; TREVISAN, GIUSTO; SPAGNOLO, FRANCESCO; ASCIERTO, PAOLO A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between sun exposure and the increased survival of patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM). The present study analyzed the association between ultraviolet (UV) light exposure and various prognostic factors in the Italian Clinical National Melanoma Registry. Clinical and sociodemographic features were collected, as well as information concerning sunbed exposure and holidays with sun exposure. Analyses were performed to investigate the association between exposure to UV and melanoma prognostic factors. Between December 2010 and December 2013, information was obtained on 2,738 melanoma patients from 38 geographically representative Italian sites. A total of 49% of the patients were >55 years old, 51% were men, 50% lived in the north of Italy and 57% possessed a high level of education (at least high school). A total of 8 patients had a family history of melanoma and 56% had a fair phenotype (Fitzpatrick skin type I or II). Of the total patients, 29% had been diagnosed with melanoma by a dermatologist; 29% of patients presented with a very thick melanoma (Breslow thickness, >2 mm) and 25% with an ulcerated melanoma. In total, 1% of patients had distant metastases and 13% exhibited lymph node involvement. Holidays with sun exposure 5 years prior to CM diagnosis were significantly associated with positive prognostic factors, including lower Breslow thickness (P<0.001) and absence of ulceration (P=0.009), following multiple adjustments for factors such as sociodemographic status, speciality of doctor performing the diagnosis and season of diagnosis. Sunbed exposure and sun exposure during peak hours of sunlight were not significantly associated with Breslow thickness and ulceration. Holidays with sun exposure were associated with favorable CM prognostic factors, whereas no association was identified between sunbed use and sun exposure during peak hours of sunlight with favorable CM prognostic factors. However, the results of the

  4. A new Leukemia Prognostic Scoring System for refractory/relapsed adult acute myelogeneous leukaemia patients: a GOELAMS study.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, P; Labopin, M; Turlure, P; Prebet, T; Pigneux, A; Hunault, M; Filanovsky, K; Cornillet-Lefebvre, P; Luquet, I; Lode, L; Richebourg, S; Blanchet, O; Gachard, N; Vey, N; Ifrah, N; Milpied, N; Harousseau, J-L; Bene, M-C; Mohty, M; Delaunay, J

    2011-06-01

    A simplified prognostic score is presented based on the multivariate analysis of 138 refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients (median age 55 years, range: 19-70) receiving a combination of intensive chemotherapy+Gemtuzumab as salvage regimen. Overall, 2-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 29±4% and 36±4%, respectively. Disease status (relapse <12 months, including refractory patients), FLT3-ITD-positive status and high-risk cytogenetics were the three strongest independent adverse prognostic factors for OS and EFS in this series. We then defined three subgroups with striking different outcomes at 2 years: no adverse factor (favourable, N=36): OS 58%, EFS 45%; one adverse factor (intermediate, N=54): OS 37%, EFS 31%; two or three adverse factors (poor, N=43): OS 12%, EFS 12% (P<10(-4), P=0.001). This new simplified Leukemia Prognostic Scoring System was then validated on an independent cohort of 111 refractory/relapsed AML patients. This new simplified prognostic score, using three clinical and biological parameters routinely applied, allow to discriminate around two third of the patients who should benefit from a salvage intensive regimen in the setting of refractory/relapsed AML patients. The other one third of the patients should receive investigational therapy.

  5. Complex molecular genetic abnormalities involving three or more genetic mutations are important prognostic factors for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wakita, S; Yamaguchi, H; Ueki, T; Usuki, K; Kurosawa, S; Kobayashi, Y; Kawata, E; Tajika, K; Gomi, S; Koizumi, M; Fujiwara, Y; Yui, S; Fukunaga, K; Ryotokuji, T; Hirakawa, T; Arai, K; Kitano, T; Kosaka, F; Tamai, H; Nakayama, K; Fukuda, T; Inokuchi, K

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of 28 recurrently mutated genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 271 patients with de novo AML. Co-mutations were frequently detected in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group, at an average of 2.76 co-mutations per patient. When assessing the prognostic impact of these co-mutations in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group, overall survival (OS) was found to be significantly shorter (P=0.0006) and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) significantly higher (P=0.0052) in patients with complex molecular genetic abnormalities (CMGAs) involving three or more mutations. This trend was marked even among patients aged ⩽65 years who were also FLT3-ITD (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplications)-negative (OS: P=0.0010; CIR: P=0.1800). Moreover, the multivariate analysis revealed that CMGA positivity was an independent prognostic factor associated with OS (P=0.0007). In stratification based on FLT3-ITD and CEBPA status and 'simplified analysis of co-mutations' using seven genes that featured frequently in CMGAs, CMGA positivity retained its prognostic value in transplantation-aged patients of the intermediate cytogenetic risk group (OS: P=0.0002. CIR: P<0.0001). In conclusion, CMGAs in AML were found to be strong independent adverse prognostic factors and simplified co-mutation analysis to have clinical usefulness and applicability.

  6. Prognostic Value of Plasma D-dimer in Patients with Resectable Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ji-Feng; Yang, Xun; Chen, Sheng; Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Qi-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plasma D-dimer is closely related to prognosis in several cancers. The aim of the current study was to determine the prognostic value of plasma D-dimer in patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: A total of 337 patients with resectable ESCC were enrolled in this retrospective study. The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic factors. A nomogram model was also performed to predict the cancer prognosis. Results: In our study, there were 242 patients (71.8%) with plasma D-dimer ≤ 0.5 μg/ml and 95 patients (28.2%) with plasma D-dimer > 0.5 μg/ml. There was a significantly better 5-year CSS in patients with plasma D-dimer ≤ 0.5 μg/ml than patients with plasma D-dimer > 0.5 μg/ml (35.5% vs. 21.1%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses reported that plasma D-dimer was an independent prognostic factor in patients with resectable ESCC (P < 0.001). In addition, a nomogram was also performed to predict the CSS. The Harrell's c-index was 0.68. Conclusion: We conclude that plasma D-dimer was an independent prognostic biomarker in patients with resectable ESCC.

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is a prognostic factor for radiotherapy outcome in advanced carcinoma of the cervix

    PubMed Central

    Loncaster, J A; Cooper, R A; Logue, J P; Davidson, S E; Hunter, R D; West, C M L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate VEGF expression in tumour biopsies as a prognostic factor for radiotherapy outcome in advanced carcinoma of the cervix. A retrospective study was carried out on 100 patients. Pre-treatment tumour VEGF expression was examined immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies using a widely available commercial antibody. A semi-quantitative analysis was made using a scoring system of 0, 1, 2, and 3, for increasing intensity of staining. High VEGF expression was associated with a poor prognosis. A univariate log rank analysis found a significant relationship with overall survival (P = 0.0008) and metastasis-free survival (P = 0.0062), but not local control (P = 0.23). There was no correlation between VEGF expression and disease stage, tumour differentiation, patient age, or tumour radiosensitivity (SF2). In a Cox multivariate analysis of survival VEGF expression was the most significant independent prognostic factor (P = 0.001). After allowing for VEGF only SF2 was a significant prognostic factor (P = 0.003). In conclusion, immunohistochemical analysis of VEGF expression is a highly significant and independent prognostic indicator of overall and metastasis-free survival for patients treated with radiotherapy for advanced carcinoma of the cervix. It is also a rapid and easy method that could be used in the clinical setting, to identify patients at high risk of failure with conventional radiotherapy who may benefit from novel approaches or chemoradiotherapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10944602

  8. Prognostic microRNAs modulate the RHO adhesion pathway: A potential therapeutic target in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Wong, Philip; Hui, Angela; Su, Jie; Yue, Shijun; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Gokgoz, Nalan; Xu, Wei; Bruce, Jeff; Williams, Justin; Catton, Charles; Wunder, Jay S; Andrulis, Irene L; Gladdy, Rebecca; Dickson, Brendan; O'Sullivan, Brian; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2015-11-17

    A common and aggressive subtype of soft-tissue sarcoma, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) was examined to determine the role of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) in modulating distant metastasis. Following histopathologic review, 110 fresh frozen clinically annotated UPS samples were divided into two independent cohorts for Training (42 patients), and Validation (68 patients) analyses. Global miRNA profiling on the Training Set and functional analysis in vitro suggested that miRNA-138 and its downstream RHO-ROCK cell adhesion pathway was a convergent target of miRNAs associated with the development of metastasis. A six-miRNA signature set prognostic of distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was developed from Training Set miRNA expression values. Using the six-miRNA signature, patients were successfully categorized into high- and low-risk groups for DMFS in an independent Validation Set, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.25 (p = 0.048). After adjusting for other known prognostic variables such as age, gender, tumor grade, size, depth, and treatment with radiotherapy, the six-miRNA signature retained prognostic value with a HR of 3.46 (p < 0.001). A prognostic miRNA biomarker for clinical validation was thus identified along with a functional pathway that modulates UPS metastatic phenotype. PMID:25970788

  9. Prognostic value of health-related quality of life for death risk stratification in patients with unresectable glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Brice; Vernerey, Dewi; Chauffert, Bruno; Dabakuyo, Sandrine; Feuvret, Loic; Taillandier, Luc; Frappaz, Didier; Taillia, Hervé; Schott, Roland; Ducray, François; Fabbro, Michel; Tennevet, Isabelle; Ghiringhelli, François; Guillamo, Jean-Sébastien; Durando, Xavier; Castera, Daniel; Frenay, Marc; Campello, Chantal; Dalban, Cécile; Skrzypski, Jérome; Chinot, Olivier; Anota, Amélie; Bonnetain, Franck

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. Baseline health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a major subject of concern for these patients. We aimed to assess the independent prognostic value of HRQoL in unresectable glioblastoma (UGB) patients for death risk stratification. One hundred and thirty-four patients with UGB were enrolled from the TEMAVIR trial. HRQoL was evaluated at baseline using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BN20 brain cancer module. Clinical and HRQoL parameters were evaluated in univariable and multivariable Cox analysis as prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Performance assessment and internal validation of the final model were evaluated with Harrel's C-index, calibration plot, and bootstrap sample procedure. Two OS independent predictors were identified: future uncertainty and sensitivity deficit. The final model exhibited good calibration and acceptable discrimination (C statistic = 0.63). The internal validity of the model was verified with robust uncertainties around the hazard ratio. The prognostic score identified three groups of patients with distinctly different risk profiles with median OS estimated at 16.2, 9.2, and 4.5 months. We demonstrated the additional prognostic value of HRQoL in UGB for death risk stratification and provided a score that may help to guide clinical management and stratification in future clinical trials.

  10. Development and validation of a prognostic nomogram based on the log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaofang; Li, Shuaijie; Huang, Xiaojia; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the prognostic effect of log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) and develop a nomogram for survival prediction in breast cancer patients at the time of surgery. Results LODDS was an independent risk factor for cancer-related death in breast cancer (hazard ratio: 1.582, 95%CI: 1.190-2.104). Menopausal status, tumor size, pathological lymph node staging, estrogen receptor status and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status were also included in the nomogram. The calibration plots indicated optimal agreement between the nomogram prediction and actual observation. Discrimination of nomogram was superior to the seventh edition TNM staging system [C-index: 0.745 vs. 0.721 (p = 0.03) in training cohort; 0.796 vs. 0.726 (p < 0.01) in validation cohort]. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 2023 breast cancer patients from Jan 2002 to Dec 2008 at our center. The cohort was randomly divided into training cohort and validation cohort. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors, and nomogram was established using Cox regression model in training cohort. External validation of the nomogram was performed in the validation cohort. Conclusions The LODDS is an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer and the novel nomogram can provide individual prediction of cancer-specific survival and help prognostic assessment for breast cancer patients. PMID:26992235

  11. NADPH Oxidase 1 and NADPH Oxidase 4 Have Opposite Prognostic Effects for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sang Yun; Paik, Yong-Han; Yang, Jung Wook; Lee, Min Ju; Bae, Hyunsik; Park, Cheol-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)-mediated reactive oxygen species contribute to various liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Uncertainties remain regarding the prognostic relevance of NOX1 and NOX4 protein expression in HCC. Methods NOX1 and NOX4 protein expression was examined by using immunohistochemistry in tumor tissue from 227 HCC patients who underwent hepatectomy. Results High immunoreactivity for NOX1 was observed in 197 (86.8%) of the 227 HCC cases and low immunoreactivity for NOX4 in 112 (49.3%). NOX1 and NOX4 proteins had opposite prognostic effects. High NOX1 expression was an independent predictor of both shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) (p<0.01) and shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.01). Low NOX4 expression was an independent predictor of both shorter RFS (p<0.01) and shorter OS (p=0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that, among patients with normal α-fetoprotein levels, patients with tumor size ≤5.0 cm and patients in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A, high NOX1 expression had unfavorable effects on RFS, whereas low NOX4 expression had unfavorable effects on both RFS and OS. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that NOX1 and NOX4 protein expression had opposite prognostic effects for HCC patients. Moreover, both proteins had prognostic value in HCC patients with normal α-fetoprotein levels or with early-stage HCC. PMID:27282266

  12. Particle filter-based prognostics: Review, discussion and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouin, Marine; Gouriveau, Rafael; Hissel, Daniel; Péra, Marie-Cécile; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2016-05-01

    Particle filters are of great concern in a large variety of engineering fields such as robotics, statistics or automatics. Recently, it has developed among Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) applications for diagnostics and prognostics. According to some authors, it has ever become a state-of-the-art technique for prognostics. Nowadays, around 50 papers dealing with prognostics based on particle filters can be found in the literature. However, no comprehensive review has been proposed on the subject until now. This paper aims at analyzing the way particle filters are used in that context. The development of the tool in the prognostics' field is discussed before entering the details of its practical use and implementation. Current issues are identified, analyzed and some solutions or work trails are proposed. All this aims at highlighting future perspectives as well as helping new users to start with particle filters in the goal of prognostics.

  13. Correlation between broiler lameness and anatomical measurements of bone using radiographical projections with assessments of consistency across and within radiographs.

    PubMed

    Toscano, M J; Nasr, M A F; Hothersall, B

    2013-09-01

    Lameness represents a major welfare and production issue in the poultry industry with a recent survey estimating 27% of birds lame and 3% unable to walk by 40 d of age. A variety of factors may induce lameness and are typically grouped into 2 broad classes on the basis of being infectious or skeletal in nature with the latter accounting for the majority of cases. The current work sought to build upon a large body of literature assessing the anatomical properties of bone in lame birds. Our specific objectives sought to identify relationships between relevant anatomical properties of the tibia and metatarsus using digital quantification from radiographs of legs and a measure of walking difficulty. Resulting output was statistically analyzed to assess 1) observer reliability for consistency in placing the leg during the radiograph procedure and quantification of the various measures within a radiograph, 2) the relationship between the various measurements of anatomical bone properties and sex, bird mass, and gait score, and 3) the relationship between each measurement and leg symmetry. Our anatomical bone measures were found to be reliable (intra-rater and test-retest reliabilities < 0.75) within radiograph for all measures and 8 of the 10 measures across radiographs. Several measures of bone properties in the tibia correlated to difficulty walking as measured by gait score (P < 0.05), indicating greater angulations with increasing lameness. Of the measures that manifested a gait score × bird mass interaction, heavier birds appeared to exhibit less angulation with increasing difficulty walking with lighter birds the opposite. These interactions suggest possibilities for influencing effects of activity or feed intake on bone mineralization with the bone angulation observed. Our efforts agree with that of others and indicate that angulation of the tibia may be related to lameness, though subsequent efforts involving comprehensive measures of bird activity, growth rates

  14. 21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. 892.1880 Section 892.1880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radiographic cassette holder. (a) Identification. A wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. 892... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer programmer is...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. 892... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer programmer is...

  17. Immunohistochemical analysis of RTKs expression identified HER3 as a prognostic indicator of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ema, Akira; Yamashita, Keishi; Ushiku, Hideki; Kojo, Ken; Minatani, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mariko; Mieno, Hiroaki; Moriya, Hiromitsu; Hosoda, Kei; Katada, Natsuya; Kikuchi, Shiro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2014-12-01

    Standard treatment in Japan for the 13th Japanese Gastric Cancer Association stage II/III advanced gastric cancer is postoperative adjuvant S-1 administration after curative surgery. High expression of receptor type tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has repeatedly represented poor prognosis for cancers. However it has not been demonstrated whether RTKs have prognostic relevance for stage II/III gastric cancer with standard treatment. Tumor tissues were obtained from 167 stage II/III advanced gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery and received postoperative S-1 chemotherapy from 2000 to 2010. Expression of the RTKs including EGFR, HER2, HER3, IGF-1R, and EphA2 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Analysis using a multivariate proportional hazard model identified the most significant RTKs that represented independent prognostic relevance. When tumor HER3 expression was classified into IHC 1+/2+ (n = 98) and IHC 0 (n = 69), the cumulative 5-year Relapse Free Survival (5y-RFS) was 56.5 and 82.9%, respectively (P = 0.0034). Significant prognostic relevance was similarly confirmed for IGF-1R (P = 0.014), and EGFR (P = 0.030), but not for EphA2 or HER2 expression. Intriguingly, HER3 expression was closely correlated with IGF-1R (P < 0.0001, R = 0.41), and EphA2 (P < 0.0001, R = 0.34) expression. Multivariate proportional hazard model analysis identified HER3 (IHC 1+/2+) (HR; 1.53, 95% CI, 1.11-2.16, P = 0.0078) as the sole RTK that was a poor prognostic factor independent of stage. Of the 53 patients who recurred, 40 patients (75.5%) were HER3-positive. Thus, of the RTKs studied, HER3 was the only RTK identified as an independent prognostic indicator of stage II/III advanced gastric cancer with standard treatment.

  18. Chitinase 3-like 1: prognostic biomarker in clinically isolated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Ester; Tintoré, Mar; Villar, Luisa M; Costa, Carme; Nurtdinov, Ramil; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Arrambide, Georgina; Reverter, Ferran; Deisenhammer, Florian; Hegen, Harald; Khademi, Mohsen; Olsson, Tomas; Tumani, Hayrettin; Rodríguez-Martín, Eulalia; Piehl, Fredrik; Bartos, Ales; Zimova, Denisa; Kotoucova, Jolana; Kuhle, Jens; Kappos, Ludwig; García-Merino, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio José; Saiz, Albert; Blanco, Yolanda; Hintzen, Rogier; Jafari, Naghmeh; Brassat, David; Lauda, Florian; Roesler, Romy; Rejdak, Konrad; Papuc, Ewa; de Andrés, Clara; Rauch, Stefan; Khalil, Michael; Enzinger, Christian; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Teunissen, Charlotte; Sánchez, Alex; Rovira, Alex; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) has been proposed as a biomarker associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndromes, based on the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels in clinically isolated syndrome patients who later converted to multiple sclerosis compared to those who remained as clinically isolated syndrome. Here, we aimed to validate CHI3L1 as a prognostic biomarker in a large cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndrome. This is a longitudinal cohort study of clinically isolated syndrome patients with clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid data prospectively acquired. A total of 813 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinically isolated syndrome were recruited from 15 European multiple sclerosis centres. Cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels and time to conversion to multiple sclerosis and time to reach Expanded Disability Status Scale 3.0. CHI3L1 levels were higher in patients who converted to clinically definite multiple sclerosis compared to patients who continued as clinically isolated syndrome (P = 8.1 × 10(-11)). In the Cox regression analysis, CHI3L1 levels were a risk factor for conversion to multiple sclerosis (hazard ratio = 1.7; P = 1.1 × 10(-5) using Poser criteria; hazard ratio = 1.6; P = 3.7 × 10(-6) for McDonald criteria) independent of other covariates such as brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and presence of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands, and were the only significant independent risk factor associated with the development of disability (hazard ratio = 3.8; P = 2.5 × 10(-8)). High CHI3L1 levels were associated with shorter time to multiple sclerosis (P = 3.2 × 10(-9) using Poser criteria; P = 5.6 × 10(-11) for McDonald criteria

  19. Radiographic knee osteoarthritis in ex-elite table tennis players

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Table tennis involves adoption of the semi-flexed knee and asymmetrical torsional trunk movements creating rotational torques on the knee joint which may predispose players to osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. This study aims to compare radiographic signs of knee OA and associated functional levels in ex-elite male table tennis players and control subjects. Methods Study participants were 22 ex-elite male table tennis players (mean age 56.64 ± 5.17 years) with 10 years of involvement at the professional level and 22 non-athletic males (mean age 55.63 ± 4.08 years) recruited from the general population. A set of three radiographs taken from each knee were evaluated by an experienced radiologist using the Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) scale (0-4) to determine radiographic levels of OA severity. The intercondylar distance was taken as a measure of lower limb angulation. Participants also completed the pain, stiffness, and physical function categories of the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) 3.1 questionnaire. Results The results showed 78.3% of the ex-elite table tennis players and 36.3% of controls had varying signs of radiographic knee OA with a significant difference in the prevalence levels of definite radiographic OA (KL scale > 2) found between the two groups (P ≤ 0.001). Based on the WOMAC scores, 68.2% of the ex-elite table tennis players reported symptoms of knee pain compared with 27.3% of the controls (p = 0.02) though no significant differences were identified in the mean physical function or stiffness scores between the two groups. In terms of knee alignment, 73.7% of the ex-elite athletes and 32% of the control group had signs of altered lower limb alignment (genu varum) (p = 0.01). Statistical differences were found in subjects categorized as having radiographic signs of OA and altered lower limb alignment (p = 0.03). Conclusions Ex-elite table tennis players were found to have increased levels of

  20. Radiographic abnormalities in long-tenure Vermont granite workers and the permissible exposure limit for crystalline silica.

    PubMed

    Graham, W G; Vacek, P M; Morgan, W K; Muir, D C; Sisco-Cheng, B

    2001-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of radiographic abnormalities consistent with silicosis in a group of 600 retired granite workers who were receiving pensions. Files of regional clinics and hospitals were searched for chest radiographs taken on these men, and 470 x-ray films suitable for interpretation were located. After exclusions (women, and men who had worked in the granite industry elsewhere), 408 x-ray films were independently read by three experienced readers using the 1980 International Labour Office scheme. Dust exposures were estimated for workers hired after 1940, when the dust-control standard of 10 million particles per cubic foot (mppcf) (equivalent to 0.1 mg/m3) was put in place and monitored by the Vermont Division of Industrial Hygiene. Dust levels were initially high but were gradually reduced from 1940 to 1954, after which average quartz exposures stabilized to a mean of approximately 0.05 to 0.06 mg/m3; however, about 10% to 15% of samples after 1954 exceeded 0.1 mg/m3. Of the 408 x-ray films, 58 were taken on workers hired before dust controls were instituted in 1940, and 25.9% showed abnormalities (a profusion score of 1/0 or greater). A total of 350 x-ray films were taken on workers hired in 1940 or after, and the prevalence in this group was 5.7%. The radiographic changes in workers hired after 1940 are likely due to excessive exposures during the first 15 years of dust control. We conclude that if the exposure standard of 0.1 mg/m3 is rigorously observed in the workplace, radiographic abnormalities caused by quartz dust in long-term workers will be rare.