Science.gov

Sample records for independent seismic evaluation

  1. Independent review of Oak Ridge HCTW test program and development of seismic evaluation criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Many of the existing buildings at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant are steel frame construction with unreinforced hollow clay tile infill walls (HCTW). The HCTW infill provides some lateral seismic resistance to the design/evaluation basis earthquake; however acceptance criteria for this construction must be developed. The basis for the development of seismic criteria is the Oak Ridge HCTW testing and analysis program and the target performance goals of DOE 5480.28 and DOE-STD-1020-94. This report documents and independent review of the testing and analysis program and development of recommended acceptance criteria for Oak Ridge HCTW construction. The HCTW test program included ``macro`` wall in-plane and out-of-plane tests, full-scale wall in-plane and out-of-plane tests, in-situ out-of-plane test, shake table tests, and masonry component tests.

  2. Independent seismic evaluation of the 24-580-680 south connector ramps

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.

    1997-05-01

    Site response analyses were performed using the computer program SHAKE at the I-24/580/980 site to provide seismic ground motions for independent evaluations of the freeway interchange structure. Analytical models and soil parameters for SHAKE analysis were developed from geotechnical data obtained from several site investigation programs conducted at the site in 1960, 1991 and 1995. Two sets of rock outcropping input motions were used: (1) modified Santa Cruz earthquake records provided by Caltrans, and (2) LLNL synthetic strong ground motions. The LLNL synthetic ground motions were developed using LLNL Empirical Green functions method simulating strong earthquakes of moment magnitude 7.25 from the nearby Hayward Fault about 4 km from the site. Calculated ground surface motions using LLNL median rock input-motions are compatible with Caltrans design/evaluation motions.

  3. Independent seismic evaluation of the Diablo Canyon Unit 1 containment annulus structure and selected piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Reich, M.; Bezler, P.; Miller, C.; Wang, Y.K.; Subudhi, M.; Shteyngart, S.; Brown, P.

    1982-08-01

    An independent review and development of the vertical floor spectra for the Unit 1 containment annulus structure of the Diablo Canyon Power Plant was carried out using a detailed three-dimensional model. The developed floor spectra were then utilized for confirmatory evaluations of two selected piping systems. The latter were evaluated by the envelope response spectrum method, and by the independent support motion response spectrum method. ASME class 2 evaluations of the two systems were also performed. Finally, a confirmatory evaluation was carried out for the model utilized by URS/Blume for the development of the vertical floor response spectra. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of the report summarize the work scope and the results of the study. Details pertaining to the specific areas of the work are given in sections 2 to 8.

  4. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, J.

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  5. B341 Seismic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, J.

    2014-01-02

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3. Based on our evaluation the building does not meet a Life Safety performance level for the BSE- 1E earthquake ground shaking hazard. The BSE-1E is the recommended seismic hazard level for evaluation of existing structures and is based on a 20% probability of exceedence in 50 years.

  6. Stress drop with constant, scale independent seismic efficiency and overshoot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    To model dissipated and radiated energy during earthquake stress drop, I calculate dynamic fault slip using a single degree of freedom spring-slider block and a laboratory-based static/kinetic fault strength relation with a dynamic stress drop proportional to effective normal stress. The model is scaled to earthquake size assuming a circular rupture; stiffness varies inversely with rupture radius, and rupture duration is proportional to radius. Calculated seismic efficiency, the ratio of radiated to total energy expended during stress drop, is in good agreement with laboratory and field observations. Predicted overshoot, a measure of how much the static stress drop exceeds the dynamic stress drop, is higher than previously published laboratory and seismic observations and fully elasto-dynamic calculations. Seismic efficiency and overshoot are constant, independent of normal stress and scale. Calculated variation of apparent stress with seismic moment resembles the observational constraints of McGarr [1999].

  7. Source-independent full waveform inversion of seismic data

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha

    2006-02-14

    A set of seismic trace data is collected in an input data set that is first Fourier transformed in its entirety into the frequency domain. A normalized wavefield is obtained for each trace of the input data set in the frequency domain. Normalization is done with respect to the frequency response of a reference trace selected from the set of seismic trace data. The normalized wavefield is source independent, complex, and dimensionless. The normalized wavefield is shown to be uniquely defined as the normalized impulse response, provided that a certain condition is met for the source. This property allows construction of the inversion algorithm disclosed herein, without any source or source coupling information. The algorithm minimizes the error between data normalized wavefield and the model normalized wavefield. The methodology is applicable to any 3-D seismic problem, and damping may be easily included in the process.

  8. Seismic evaluation of municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hovind, C.; Slyh, R.

    1995-12-31

    With the promulgation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery (RCRA) Subtitle D, landfills situated within seismic impact zones must be evaluated for seismic hazards to demonstrate that the containment structures of the landfill can resist the maximum horizontal acceleration in lithified earth materials (bedrock) for the site. If a landfill is sited on saturated soils, it must also be evaluated for liquefaction and lateral spreading. In 1994, EMCON evaluated the seismic hazard for a landfill located along the Columbia River in southwestern Washington. The landfill was founded on dredge fill over natural alluvial deposits. Laboratory testing and state-of-the-art engineering analyses indicated that the sand unit below the landfill had a high potential for liquefaction. The seismic hazard evaluation for the site included a site-specific seismic response analysis, a liquefaction potential analysis, and seismic stability and deformation analysis. The seismic response analysis was conducted for nonliquefied, partially liquefied, and fully liquefied foundation soil conditions. Results are described.

  9. Functional seismic evaluation of hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, L. T.

    2003-04-01

    Functional collapse of hospitals (FCH) occurs when a medical complex, or part of it, although with neither structural nor nonstructural damage, is unable to provide required services for immediate attention to earthquake victims and for the recovery of the affected community. As it is known, FCH during and after an earthquake, is produced, not only by the damage to nonstructural components, but by an inappropriate or deficient distribution of essential and supporting medical spaces. This paper presents some conclusions on the analysis of the traditional architectural schemes for the design and construction of hospitals in the 20th Century and some recommendations for the establishment of evaluation parameters for the remodeling and seismic upgrade of existing hospitals in seismic zones based on the new concepts of: a) the relative location of each essential service (ES) into the medical complex, b) the capacity of each of these spaces for housing temporary activities required for the attention of a massive emergency (ME); c) the relationship between ES and the supporting services (SS); d) the flexibility of transformation of nonessential services into complementary spaces for the attention of extraordinary number of victims; e) the dimensions and appropriateness of evacuation routes; and d) the appropriate supply and maintenance of water, electricity and vital gases emergency installations.

  10. Evaluation of seismic energy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Emilian Toader, Victorin; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    The program analyzes seismicity on a defined area with the use of bulletins (event information) provided by ANTELOPE software. These include earthquake localization (moment, latitude, longitude, magnitude, depth, P and S for each station and other parameters). The evolution of the calculated energy from the Richter magnitude is characterized by steps which can be linearly interpolated. In this way tendencies of energy accumulation / release through tectonic movement can be estimated. Also, it will be calculated and displayed the 'b' coefficient from the Gutenberg - Richter law. The results will be saved as a HTML list which allows global and individual visualization of the seismic forecasts accompanied by the epicenter position on the map. The ANTELOPE users are the first beneficiaries but the program could be modified for other formats of data which include the same information related to the earthquakes localization. The software allows to select the analysis area in which the epicenters are located. In this respect, we are using the free Google Static Maps service (in this case an internet connection is necessary) as well as there is an offline option. In a configuration file the coordinates of the epicenter area has to be defined, the zoom level and the map type if Google Maps is used. The user may redefine the investigation area in online mode. Furthermore, the program allows the selection of the time interval during which the analysis is performed, the configuration of the magnitude and depth intervals, the folders in which the ANTELOPE bulletins are located and where the results will be saved in HTML format. In a separate panel the time intervals between 2 seismic events, the resulted energy from the magnitude conversion (Ml or Md) and magnitudes - depths evolution at which the earthquakes took place can be visualized. During the analysis of the seismic bulletins generated by ANTELOPE, the epicenters are displayed dynamically in the original selected area

  11. Seismic performance evaluation of substation structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.H.M.; Huo, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an approach for evaluating seismic hazards at the site and generating fragility curves for structures such as the capacitor bank in one of the major substations in the Memphis electric transmission system. The results from this study will be used to determine the adequacy of electric supply to several major hospitals in downtown Memphis after a large New Madrid earthquake.

  12. Seismic Performance Evaluation of Concentrically Braced Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Po-Chien

    Concentrically braced frames (CBFs) are broadly used as lateral-load resisting systems in buildings throughout the US. In high seismic regions, special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) where ductility under seismic loading is necessary. Their large elastic stiffness and strength efficiently sustains the seismic demands during smaller, more frequent earthquakes. During large, infrequent earthquakes, SCBFs exhibit highly nonlinear behavior due to brace buckling and yielding and the inelastic behavior induced by secondary deformation of the framing system. These response modes reduce the system demands relative to an elastic system without supplemental damping. In design the re reduced demands are estimated using a response modification coefficient, commonly termed the R factor. The R factor values are important to the seismic performance of a building. Procedures put forth in FEMAP695 developed to R factors through a formalized procedure with the objective of consistent level of collapse potential for all building types. The primary objective of the research was to evaluate the seismic performance of SCBFs. To achieve this goal, an improved model including a proposed gusset plate connection model for SCBFs that permits accurate simulation of inelastic deformations of the brace, gusset plate connections, beams and columns and brace fracture was developed and validated using a large number of experiments. Response history analyses were conducted using the validated model. A series of different story-height SCBF buildings were designed and evaluated. The FEMAP695 method and an alternate procedure were applied to SCBFs and NCBFs. NCBFs are designed without ductile detailing. The evaluation using P695 method shows contrary results to the alternate evaluation procedure and the current knowledge in which short-story SCBF structures are more venerable than taller counterparts and NCBFs are more vulnerable than SCBFs.

  13. Seismic evaluation of a hot cell structure

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A.

    1995-07-01

    The evaluation of the structural capacity of and the seismic demand on an existing hot cell structure in a nuclear facility is described. An ANSYS finite-element model of the cell was constructed, treating the walls as plates and the floor and ceiling as a system of discrete beams. A modal analysis showed that the fundamental frequencies of the cell walls lie far above the earthquake frequency range. An equivalent static analysis of the structure was performed. Based on the analysis it was demonstrated that the hot cell structure, would readily withstand the evaluation basis earthquake.

  14. Independent Evaluation: Insights from Public Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Klerman, Jacob Alex

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maintaining the independence of contract government program evaluation presents significant contracting challenges. The ideal outcome for an agency is often both the impression of an independent evaluation "and" a glowing report. In this, independent evaluation is like financial statement audits: firm management wants both a public…

  15. Standards for the testing and evaluation of seismic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.W.; Chung, R.M.; Shenton, H.W.

    1995-12-01

    Draft guidelines for the testing and evaluation of seismic isolation systems have recently been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These guidelines are organized into three sections: pre-qualification, prototype, and quality control testing. The guidelines are broadly applicable, since they are independent of the type of isolation system and superstructure. The guidelines will serve as a resource document for industry, and as a basis for developing future standards for testing of isolation systems. This paper gives an overview of the NIST draft guidelines, emphasizing the philosophy behind the development of the guidelines. A brief summary of the contents of the guidelines is also presented.

  16. Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Independent Review of Seismic Structural Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-09-22

    The following separate reports and correspondence pertains to the independent review of the seismic analysis. The original analysis was performed by GEC-Alsthom Engineering Systems Limited (GEC-ESL) under subcontract to Foster-Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWEC) who was the prime integration contractor to the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project for the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). The original analysis was performed to the Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) response spectra using 5% damping as required in specification, HNF-S-0468 for the 90% Design Report in June 1997. The independent review was performed by Fluor-Daniel (Irvine) under a separate task from their scope as Architect-Engineer of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in 1997. The comments were issued in April 1998. Later in 1997, the response spectra of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) was revised according to a new soil-structure interaction analysis and accordingly revised the response spectra for the MHM and utilized 7% damping in accordance with American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) NOG-1, ''Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Multiple Girder).'' The analysis was re-performed to check critical areas but because manufacturing was underway, designs were not altered unless necessary. FWEC responded to SNF Project correspondence on the review comments in two separate letters enclosed. The dispositions were reviewed and accepted. Attached are supplier source surveillance reports on the procedures and process by the engineering group performing the analysis and structural design. All calculation and analysis results are contained in the MHM Final Design Report which is part of the Vendor Information File 50100. Subsequent to the MHM supplier engineering analysis, there was a separate analyses for nuclear safety accident concerns that used the electronic input data files provided by FWEC/GEC-ESL and are contained in document SNF-6248

  17. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  18. 7 CFR 1214.61 - Independent evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Promotion, Research and Information § 1214.61 Independent evaluation. The Board shall, not less often than once every five years, authorize and fund, from funds otherwise available to the Board, an independent evaluation...

  19. Time-Independent Annual Occurence Rates Computed for Seismic Hazard Assessment in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murru, M.; Falcone, G.

    2016-12-01

    In 2015 the Italian Department of Civil Protection, started a project for upgrading the Italian seismic hazard map released between 2004 and 2006 (MPS04-S1; zonesismiche.mi.ingv.it and esse1.mi.ingv.it) inviting the Italian scientific community to participate in a joint effort for its realization. Each participating research group was requested to provide spatially variable time-independent (Poisson) long-term occurrence rates of seismic events from an Mw4.5 minimum magnitude, considering bins of 0.1 magnitude units in geographical cells of 0.1° x 0.1° on the entire Italian territory. In our model, for each of the three considered data sets (recent versions of the historical and instrumental seismic catalogs, and the data base of the individual seismogenic sources) we determined a distinct annual rate value for each cell. The following criterion was adopted: if the cell falls within one of the recognized seismogenic faults, we adopted the respective value of occurrence rate, only referred to the magnitude bin of the characteristic event. This value was divided by the number of grid cells that fall on the horizontal projection of the source. If, instead, the cell falls outside of any seismic source, we considered the rates of earthquakes exceeding an Mw4.5 minimum magnitude obtained from the historical and the instrumental catalog, using the smoothing method introduced by Frankel (1995). In order to give an average rate, the two rates were first normalized to the same period of time and then merged together by a weighted average based on the temporal duration of the catalogs. The obtained value was then scaled in magnitude by the Gutenberg-Richter relationship in order to give the average rate of background seismicity for each magnitude bin from M4.5 up to higher values. Here we present the final results of our study to be used for the new Italian seismic hazard map.

  20. Independent seismic evaluation of the 24-580-980 south connector ramps response to the south connector ramps to a magnitude 7.25 Hayward Fault earthquake. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, D. B.; Gerhard, M. A.; Trummer, D. J.; Murray, R. C.

    1996-11-01

    The 24/580/980 interchange is located near Oakland California on the Eastern perimeter of the San Francisco Bay (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). This interchange is a major artery in the Eastern San Francisco Bay area and provides a critical link between major bay area highways. The main Concord line of the Bay Area Rapid Transit System (BART), with ridership of approximately 270,000 per day, runs underneath the interchange. The interchange site is approximately 4 Km from the Hayward fault and 16 Km from the San Andreas fault. The reinforced concrete interchange was designed and constructed in the mid 1960`s and thus the asphalt structure has many of the vulnerabilities associated with typical pre-1970`s concrete structures (Roberts [1], Zefinski [2], Chai et. al. [3], Priestly and Seible [4]). In 1980 some of the seismic vulnerabilities were addressed as the interchange was retrofit with deck hinge restrainers as part of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) state-wide seismic retrofit of bridge expansion joints. The interchange was subjected to earthquake motion during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and sustained minor damage in some of the concrete diaphragms which support the hinge restrainer forces [5]. Caltrans engineers, working together with their external consultants Imbsen and Associates, have recently completed a seismic retrofit design for portions of the interchange. The retrofit is primarily intended to fix inadequacies in many of the 1960`s vintage reinforced concrete elements which constitute the bridge superstructure and foundations.

  1. The Illusion of Independence in Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Terry Cobb

    Values and beliefs underlying assumptions concerning the independent evaluations of persons and programs involved in the educational process are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on M. Scriven's treatise on bias in evaluation (1976). Works by E. R. House, R. E. Stake, L. Stenhouse, M. Parlett and D. Hamilton, and D. L. Stufflebeam are also…

  2. Including foreshocks and aftershocks in time-independent probabilistic seismic hazard analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.

    2012-01-01

    Time‐independent probabilistic seismic‐hazard analysis treats each source as being temporally and spatially independent; hence foreshocks and aftershocks, which are both spatially and temporally dependent on the mainshock, are removed from earthquake catalogs. Yet, intuitively, these earthquakes should be considered part of the seismic hazard, capable of producing damaging ground motions. In this study, I consider the mainshock and its dependents as a time‐independent cluster, each cluster being temporally and spatially independent from any other. The cluster has a recurrence time of the mainshock; and, by considering the earthquakes in the cluster as a union of events, dependent events have an opportunity to contribute to seismic ground motions and hazard. Based on the methods of the U.S. Geological Survey for a high‐hazard site, the inclusion of dependent events causes ground motions that are exceeded at probability levels of engineering interest to increase by about 10% but could be as high as 20% if variations in aftershock productivity can be accounted for reliably.

  3. Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana; Coppari, Sandro

    2008-07-01

    In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

  4. Evaluation Of The Seismic Vulnerability of Fortified Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana; Coppari, Sandro

    2008-07-08

    In the paper a prompt method to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of an ancient structure has been applied to the seismic vulnerability of the fortified structures in Italy, having as basics the elaboration of rather gross information about the state, the consistency and the history of the considered population of fabrics. The procedure proves to be rather effective and able to produce reliable results, despite the poor initial data.

  5. Independent Analysis of Seismicity and Rock fall Scenarios for the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Apted, M.J.; Kemeny, J.M.; Martin, C.D.; James, R.J.

    2006-07-01

    Yucca Mountain is located in the somewhat seismically active Basin and Range province. Future seismic activity is identified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US National Academy of Sciences as a key scenario for safety assessment of a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. As part of its on-going program of conducting independent analyses of scientific and technical issues that could be important to the licensing of the Yucca Mountain repository, EPRI has conducted an analysis of the combined scenarios of seismic activity and stability of emplacement drifts with respect to the long-term repository safety. In this paper we present the results of 3D finite element simulations of both static and dynamic loading of a degraded waste package. For the static case, the expected maximum static load is determined by utilizing relationships between cave height and the bulking factor. A static load representing 30 meters of broken rock was simulated using the finite element model. For the dynamic case, block size and velocity data from the most recent Drift Degradation AMR are used. Based on this, a rock block with a volume of 3.11 m{sup 3} and with an impact velocity of 4.81 m/s was simulated using the finite element model. In both cases, the results indicate that the waste package remains intact. (authors)

  6. Revision of Time-Independent Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, Robert L.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Bufe, Charles G.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    We present here time-independent probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Alaska and the Aleutians for peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 second spectral acceleration at probability levels of 2 percent in 50 years (annual probability of 0.000404), 5 percent in 50 years (annual probability of 0.001026) and 10 percent in 50 years (annual probability of 0.0021). These maps represent a revision of existing maps based on newly obtained data and assumptions reflecting best current judgments about methodology and approach. These maps have been prepared following the procedures and assumptions made in the preparation of the 2002 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the lower 48 States. A significant improvement relative to the 2002 methodology is the ability to include variable slip rate along a fault where appropriate. These maps incorporate new data, the responses to comments received at workshops held in Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in May, 2005, and comments received after draft maps were posted on the National Seismic Hazard Mapping Web Site. These maps will be proposed for adoption in future revisions to the International Building Code. In this documentation we describe the maps and in particular explain and justify changes that have been made relative to the 1999 maps. We are also preparing a series of experimental maps of time-dependent hazard that will be described in future documents.

  7. Seismic body wave separation in volcano-tectonic activity inferred by the Convolutive Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; De Lauro, Enza; De Martino, Salvatore; Falanga, Mariarosaria; Petrosino, Simona

    2015-04-01

    One of the main challenge in volcano-seismological literature is to locate and characterize the source of volcano/tectonic seismic activity. This passes through the identification at least of the onset of the main phases, i.e. the body waves. Many efforts have been made to solve the problem of a clear separation of P and S phases both from a theoretical point of view and developing numerical algorithms suitable for specific cases (see, e.g., Küperkoch et al., 2012). Recently, a robust automatic procedure has been implemented for extracting the prominent seismic waveforms from continuously recorded signals and thus allowing for picking the main phases. The intuitive notion of maximum non-gaussianity is achieved adopting techniques which involve higher-order statistics in frequency domain., i.e, the Convolutive Independent Component Analysis (CICA). This technique is successful in the case of the blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. In seismological framework, indeed, seismic signals are thought as the convolution of a source function with path, site and the instrument response. In addition, time-delayed versions of the same source exist, due to multipath propagation typically caused by reverberations from some obstacle. In this work, we focus on the Volcano Tectonic (VT) activity at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the 2006 ground uplift (Ciaramella et al., 2011). The activity was characterized approximately by 300 low-magnitude VT earthquakes (Md < 2; for the definition of duration magnitude, see Petrosino et al. 2008). Most of them were concentrated in distinct seismic sequences with hypocenters mainly clustered beneath the Solfatara-Accademia area, at depths ranging between 1 and 4 km b.s.l.. The obtained results show the clear separation of P and S phases: the technique not only allows the identification of the S-P time delay giving the timing of both phases but also provides the independent waveforms of the P and S phases. This is an enormous

  8. Delineation of tectonic provinces of New York state as a component of seismic-hazard evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fakundiny, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Seismic-hazard evaluations in the eastern United States must be based on interpretations of the composition and form of Proterozoic basement-rock terranes and overlying Paleozoic strata, and on factors that can cause relative movements among their units, rather than Phanerozoic orogenic structures, which may be independent of modern tectonics. The tectonic-province concept is a major part of both probabilistic and deterministic seismic-hazard evaluations, yet those that have been proposed to date have not attempted to geographically correlate modern earthquakes with regional basement structure. Comparison of basement terrane (megablock) boundaries with the spatial pattern of modern seismicity may lead to the mechanically sound definition of tectonic provinces, and thus, better seismic-hazard evaluation capability than is currently available. Delineation of megablock boundaries will require research on the many factors that affect their structure and movement. This paper discusses and groups these factors into two broad categories-megablock tectonics in relation to seismicity and regional horizontal-compressive stresses, with megablock tectonics divided into subcategories of basement, overlying strata, regional lineaments, basement tectonic terranes, earthquake epicenter distribution, and epeirogeny, and compressive stresses divided into pop-ups and the contemporary maximum horizontal-compressive stress field. A list presenting four to nine proposed research topics for each of these categories is given at the end.

  9. Application of remote sensing image interpretation in seismic safety evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Wei, Wen-xia; Wang, Gang

    2005-10-01

    As one of essential design gist in important engineering projects, the seismic safety evaluation on choosing engineering site has been applied widely. Using remote sensing images, the analysis to regional seismotectonic environment can bring macroscopic, integrative, dynamic and high efficiency information, so the application of remote sensing technology in seismic safety evaluation of engineering site has fine prospect and will bring great benefit. In this paper, based on remote sensing interpretation to Landsat7 ETM images, also using GIS and field geological investigations, as a case study in Qingdao City, we analyze the physiognomy environment, new tectonic movement, faults activities, and the distributing of deleterious geological objects around the site. Then we find this method can provide good basic geological information for seismic safety evaluation.

  10. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, J. J.; Klein, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  11. Blind Source Separation of Seismic Events with Independent Component Analysis: CTBT related exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, Mikhail; Kitov, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods used in signal recovery applications are attractive for they use minimal a priori information about the signals they are dealing with. Homomorphic deconvolution and cepstrum estimation are probably the only methods used in certain extent in CTBT applications that can be attributed to the given branch of technology. However Expert Technical Analysis (ETA) conducted in CTBTO to improve the estimated values for the standard signal and event parameters according to the Protocol to the CTBT may face problems which cannot be resolved with certified CTBTO applications and may demand specific techniques not presently used. The problem to be considered within the ETA framework is the unambiguous separation of signals with close arrival times. Here, we examine two scenarios of interest: (1) separation of two almost co-located explosions conducted within fractions of seconds, and (2) extraction of explosion signals merged with wavetrains from strong earthquake. The importance of resolving the problem related to case 1 is connected with the correct explosion yield estimation. Case 2 is a well-known scenario of conducting clandestine nuclear tests. While the first case can be approached somehow with the means of cepstral methods, the second case can hardly be resolved with the conventional methods implemented at the International Data Centre, especially if the signals have close slowness and azimuth. Independent Component Analysis (in its FastICA implementation) implying non-Gaussianity of the underlying processes signal's mixture is a blind source separation method that we apply to resolve the mentioned above problems. We have tested this technique with synthetic waveforms, seismic data from DPRK explosions and mining blasts conducted within East-European platform as well as with signals from strong teleseismic events (Sumatra, April 2012 Mw=8.6, and Tohoku, March 2011 Mw=9.0 earthquakes). The data was recorded by seismic arrays of the

  12. Seismic Performance Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Frames Subjected to Seismic Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zameeruddin, Mohd.; Sangle, Keshav K.

    2017-06-01

    Ten storied-3 bays reinforced concrete bare frame designed for gravity loads following the guidelines of IS 456 and IS 13920 for ductility is subjected to seismic loads. The seismic demands on this building were calculated by following IS 1893 for response spectra of 5% damping (for hard soil type). Plastic hinges were assigned to the beam and column at both ends to represent the failure mode, when member yields. Non-linear static (pushover) analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of the building in reference to first (ATC 40), second (FEMA 356) and next-generation (FEMA 440) performance based seismic design procedures. Base shear against top displacement curve of structure, known as pushover curve was obtained for two actions of plastic hinge behavior, force-controlled (brittle) and deformation-controlled (ductile) actions. Lateral deformation corresponding to performance point proves the building capability to sustain a certain level of seismic loads. The failure is represented by a sequence of formation of plastic hinges. Deformation-controlled action of hinges showed that building behaves like strong-column-weak-beam mechanism, whereas force-controlled action showed formation of hinges in the column. The study aims to understand the first, second and next generation performance based design procedure in prediction of actual building responses and their conservatism into the acceptance criteria.

  13. Structural evaluation of the 2736Z Building for seismic loads

    SciTech Connect

    Giller, R.A.

    1994-09-23

    The 2736Z building structure is evaluated for high-hazard loads. The 2736Z building is analyzed herein for normal and seismic loads and is found to successfully meet the guidelines of UCRL-15910 along with the related codes requirements.

  14. 78 FR 13097 - Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic Evaluation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Resolution of Fukushima Near-Term Task Force Recommendation 2.1: Seismic,'' Revision 0, hereafter referred to... Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident,'' dated March 12, 2012. The NRC issued the RFI following the NRC staff's evaluation of the earthquake and tsunami, and resulting nuclear accident, at the...

  15. Evaluating Model Misspecification in Independent Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonjoo; Caffo, Brian S.; Lakshmanan, Balaji; Pham, Dzung L.

    2014-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a popular blind source separation technique used in many scientific disciplines. Current ICA approaches have focused on developing efficient algorithms under specific ICA models, such as instantaneous or convolutive mixing conditions, intrinsically assuming temporal independence or autocorrelation of the sources. In practice, the true model is not known and different ICA algorithms can produce very different results. Although it is critical to choose an ICA model, there has not been enough research done on evaluating mixing models and assumptions, and how the associated algorithms may perform under different scenarios. In this paper, we investigate the performance of multiple ICA algorithms under various mixing conditions. We also propose a convolutive ICA algorithm for echoic mixing cases. Our simulation studies show that the performance of ICA algorithms is highly dependent on mixing conditions and temporal independence of the sources. Most instantaneous ICA algorithms fail to separate autocorrelated sources, while convolutive ICA algorithms depend highly on the model specification and approximation accuracy of unmixing filters. PMID:25642002

  16. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for... NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. This action is...

  17. Age-independent seismic anisotropy under oceanic plates explained by strain history in the asthenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedjazian, Navid; Garel, Fanny; Davies, D. Rhodri; Kaminski, Edouard

    2017-02-01

    The depth of the oceanic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), as inferred from shear wave velocities, increases with lithospheric age, in agreement with models of cooling oceanic lithosphere. On the other hand, the distribution of radial anisotropy under oceanic plates is almost age-independent. In particular, radial anisotropy shows a maximum positive gradient at a depth of ∼70 km, which, if used as a proxy, indicates an age-independent LAB depth. These contrasting observations have fueled a controversy on the seismological signature of the LAB. To better understand the discrepancy between these observations, we model the development of lattice preferred orientation (LPO) in upper mantle crystal aggregates and predict the seismic anisotropy produced by plate-driven mid-ocean ridge flows. The model accounts for the progressive cooling of the lithosphere with age and can incorporate both diffusion and dislocation creep deformation mechanisms. We find that an age-independent distribution of radial anisotropy is the natural consequence of these simple flows. The depth and strength of anisotropy is further controlled by the deformation regime - dislocation or diffusion creep - experienced by crystals during their ascent towards, and subsequent motion away from, the ridge axis. Comparison to surface wave tomography models yield constraints on rheological parameters such as the activation volume. Although not excluded, additional mechanisms proposed to explain some geophysical signatures of the LAB, such as the presence of partial melt or changes in water content, are not required to explain the radial anisotropy proxy. Our prediction, that the age-independent radial anisotropy proxy marks the transition to flow-induced asthenospheric anisotropy, provides a way to reconcile thermal, mechanical and seismological views of the LAB.

  18. Seismic risk evaluation aided by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinzato, E.; Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Petracca, A.

    2009-05-01

    Conservation of buildings in areas at seismic risk must take prevention into account. The safeguard architectonic heritage is an ambitious objective, but a priority for planning programmes at varying levels of decision making. Preservation and restoration activities must be optimized to cover a vast and widespread historical and architectonic heritage present in many countries. Masonry buildings requires an adequate level of knowledge based on the importance of structural geometry, which may include the damage, details of construction and properties of materials. For identification and classification of masonry is necessary to find shape, type and size of the elements, texture, size of mortar joints, assemblage. The recognition can be done through a visual inspection of the surface of walls, which can be examined, where is not visible, removing a layer of plaster. Thermography is an excellent tool for a fast survey and collection of vital information for this purpose, but it is extremely important define a precise procedure in the development of more efficient monitoring tools. Thermography is a non-destructive method that allows recognizing the structural damage below plaster, detecting the presence of discontinuity in masonry, for added storeys, cavity, filled openings, and repairs. Furthermore, the fast identification of subsurface state allows to select areas where other methods either more penetrating or partially destructive have to be applied. The paper reports experimental results achieved in the mainframe of the European project RECES Modiquus. The main aim of the project is to improve methods, techniques and instruments for facing antiseismic options. Both passive and active thermographic techniques have been applied in different weather conditions and time schemes. A dedicated algorithm has been developed to enhance the visibility of wall bonding.

  19. 76 FR 69294 - Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating... public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. The public... for public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors...

  20. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF HYDROCARBON SATURATION IN DEEP-WATER RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; O. Djordjevic

    2003-03-20

    The ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342) began September 1, 2002. During this second quarter: A Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator (DHI) symposium was held at UH; Current DHI methods were presented and forecasts made on future techniques; Dr. Han moved his laboratory from HARC to the University of Houston; Subcontracts were re-initiated with UH and TAMU; Theoretical and numerical modeling work began at TAMU; Geophysical Development Corp. agreed to provide petrophysical data; Negotiations were begun with Veritas GDC to obtain limited seismic data; Software licensing and training schedules were arranged with Paradigm; and Data selection and acquisition continues. The broad industry symposium on Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators was held at the University of Houston as part of this project. This meeting was well attended and well received. A large amount of information was presented, not only on application of the current state of the art, but also on expected future trends. Although acquisition of appropriate seismic data was expected to be a significant problem, progress has been made. A 3-D seismic data set from the shelf has been installed at Texas A&M University and analysis begun. Veritas GDC has expressed a willingness to provide data in the deep Gulf of Mexico. Data may also be available from TGS.

  1. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF HYDROCARBON SATURATION IN DEEP-WATER RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James

    2005-08-12

    We are now entering the final stages of our ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342). We have now developed several techniques to help distinguish economic hydrocarbon deposits from false ''Fizz'' gas signatures. These methods include using the proper in situ rock and fluid properties, evaluating interference effects on data, and doing better constrained inversions for saturations. We are testing these techniques now on seismic data from several locations in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we are examining the use of seismic attenuation as indicated by frequency shifts below potential reservoirs. During this quarter we have: Began our evaluation of our latest data set over the Neptune Field; Developed software for computing composite reflection coefficients; Designed and implemented stochastic turbidite reservoir models; Produced software & work flow to improve frequency-dependent AVO analysis; Developed improved AVO analysis for data with low signal-to-noise ratio; and Examined feasibility of detecting fizz gas using frequency attenuation. Our focus on technology transfer continues, both by generating numerous presentations for the upcoming SEG annual meeting, and by beginning our planning for our next DHI minisymposium next spring.

  2. Evaluating the Gutenberg-Richter Relationship for Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymchak, M. P.; Flewelling, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Large volumes of flowback and produced water generated from hydraulic fracturing and oil and gas production have led to increased wastewater disposal through underground injection wells. Several recent studies have linked recently felt seismic events to underground injection wells in Arkansas, Ohio, Texas and Oklahoma, among others. However, in some cases, such as in Oklahoma, there is a lack of consensus as to whether the earthquakes were the result of fluid injection (Keranan et al., 2013), natural tectonic processes (Oklahoma Geological Survey, 2013), or were related to remote events (van der Elst et al., 2013). Moreover, it is unclear why earthquakes have occurred near some injection wells but not others, with apparently similar geology, target reservoirs, and injection rates (e.g., Frohlich, 2012). In instances where injection occurred near a fault (e.g., Rangely, CO), the timing and distribution of seismic events was well correlated to fluid volumes, and the interaction between injection and induced seismicity was easily resolved. In other cases (e.g., Oklahoma, Texas), it appears more difficult to interpret whether a particular injection well was related to observed seismic events. Therefore, metrics are needed as diagnostic tools to help differentiate between natural and induced seismicity. It has been well established that the frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes follows the Gutenberg-Richter distribution log N(M) = a - bM, where the slope (b-value) is typically near one. However, in some instances of deep fluid injection, b-values may vary, depending on specific injection activities, such as enhanced geothermal or hydraulic fracturing (Dinske and Shapiro, 2013). In some cases, b-values may vary during successive fracture stages of a single horizontal well (e.g., Williams and Calvarez, 2013), and seismicity associated with hydraulic fracturing may deviate from the Gutenberg-Richter relationship altogether (Hurd and Zoback, 2012). We evaluate

  3. 34 CFR 300.502 - Independent educational evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Independent educational evaluation. 300.502 Section 300... Independent educational evaluation. (a) General. (1) The parents of a child with a disability have the right under this part to obtain an independent educational evaluation of the child, subject to paragraphs (b...

  4. 34 CFR 300.502 - Independent educational evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Independent educational evaluation. 300.502 Section 300... Independent educational evaluation. (a) General. (1) The parents of a child with a disability have the right under this part to obtain an independent educational evaluation of the child, subject to paragraphs...

  5. Uncertainties in evaluation of hazard and seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Ortanza Cioflan, Carmen; Manea, Elena-Florinela

    2015-04-01

    Two methods are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment: probabilistic (PSHA) and deterministic(DSHA) seismic hazard analysis.Selection of a ground motion for engineering design requires a clear understanding of seismic hazard and risk among stakeholders, seismologists and engineers. What is wrong with traditional PSHA or DSHA ? PSHA common used in engineering is using four assumptions developed by Cornell in 1968:(1)-Constant-in-time average occurrence rate of earthquakes; (2)-Single point source; (3).Variability of ground motion at a site is independent;(4)-Poisson(or "memory - less") behavior of earthquake occurrences. It is a probabilistic method and "when the causality dies, its place is taken by probability, prestigious term meant to define the inability of us to predict the course of nature"(Nils Bohr). DSHA method was used for the original design of Fukushima Daichii, but Japanese authorities moved to probabilistic assessment methods and the probability of exceeding of the design basis acceleration was expected to be 10-4-10-6 . It was exceeded and it was a violation of the principles of deterministic hazard analysis (ignoring historical events)(Klügel,J,U, EGU,2014, ISSO). PSHA was developed from mathematical statistics and is not based on earthquake science(invalid physical models- point source and Poisson distribution; invalid mathematics; misinterpretation of annual probability of exceeding or return period etc.) and become a pure numerical "creation" (Wang, PAGEOPH.168(2011),11-25). An uncertainty which is a key component for seismic hazard assessment including both PSHA and DSHA is the ground motion attenuation relationship or the so-called ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) which describes a relationship between a ground motion parameter (i.e., PGA,MMI etc.), earthquake magnitude M, source to site distance R, and an uncertainty. So far, no one is taking into consideration strong nonlinear behavior of soils during of strong earthquakes. But

  6. New Evaluation of Seismic Hazard in Cental America and la Hispaniola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, B.; Camacho, E. I.; Rojas, W.; Climent, A.; Alvarado-Induni, G.; Marroquin, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Belizaire, D.; Pierristal, G.; Torres, Y.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; García, R.; Zevallos, F.

    2013-05-01

    The results from seismic hazard studies carried out in two seismic scenarios, Central America Region (CA) and La Hispaniola Island, are presented here. Both cases follow the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology and they are developed in terms of PGA, and SA (T), for T of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2s. In both anaysis, hybrid zonation models are considered, integrated by seismogenic zones and faults where data of slip rate and recurrence time are available. First, we present a new evaluation of seismic hazard in CA, starting with the results of a previous study by Benito et al (2011). Some improvements are now included, such as: updated catalogue till 2011, corrections in the zonning model in particular for subduction regime taken into account the variation of the dip in Costa Rica and Panama, and modelization of some faults as independent units for the hazard estimation. The results allow us to carry out a sensitivity analysis comparing the ones obtained with and without faults. In a second part we present the results of the PSHA in La Hispaniola, carried out as part of the cooperative project SISMO-HAITI supported by UPM and developed in cooperation with ONEV. It started a few months after the 2010 event, as an answer to a required help from the Haitian government to UPM. The study was aimed at obtaining results suitable for seismic design purposes and started with the elaboration of a seismic catalogue for the Hispaniola, requiring an exhaustive revision of data reported by around 30 seismic agencies, apart from these from Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic Seismic Networks. Seismotectonic models for the region were reviewed and a new regional zonation was proposed, taking into account different geophysical data. Attenuation models for subduction and crustal zones were also reviewed and the more suitable were calibrated with data recorded inside the Caribbean plate. As a result of the PSHA, different maps were generated for the quoted parameters

  7. Seismic evaluation criteria for existing critical industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Manrod, W.E.; Hall, W.J.; Beavers, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines for the development of seismic evaluation criteria for existing critical industrial facilities are presented. Critical industrial facilities are considered as those facilities that, if damaged by natural phenomena, could result in the release of substances harmful to the public or the environment, or that could result in what owners consider as unacceptable financial losses. The guidelines are intended to assist in developing evaluation criteria for such facilities, which will result in realistic assessments that are representative of the state-of-the-art.

  8. Seismic evaluation of vulnerability for SAMA educational buildings in Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Omid Nassiri; Amiri, Javad Vaseghi

    2008-07-01

    Earthquake is a destructive phenomenon that trembles different parts of the earth yearly and causes many destructions. Iran is one of the (high seismicity) quack- prone parts of the world that has received a lot of pecuniary damages and life losses each year, schools are of the most important places to be protected during such crisis. There was no special surveillance on designing and building of school's building in Tehran till the late 70's, and as Tehran is on faults, instability of such buildings may cause irrecoverable pecuniary damages and especially life losses, therefore preventing this phenomenon is in an urgent need. For this purpose, some of the schools built during 67-78 mostly with Steel braced frame structures have been selected, first, by evaluating the selected Samples, gathering information and Visual Survey, the prepared questionnaires were filled out. With the use of ARIA and SABA (Venezuela) Methods, new modified combined method for qualified evaluations was found and used. Then, for quantified evaluation, with the use of computer 3D models and nonlinear statically analysis methods, a number of selected buildings of qualified evaluation, were reevaluated and finally with nonlinear dynamic analysis method the real behavior of structures on the earthquakes is studied. The results of qualified and quantified evaluations were compared and a proper Pattern for seismic evaluation of Educational buildings was presented. Otherwise the results can be a guidance for the person in charge of retrofitting or if necessary rebuilding the schools.

  9. Seismic evaluation of vulnerability for SAMA educational buildings in Tehran

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Omid Nassiri; Amiri, Javad Vaseghi

    2008-07-08

    Earthquake is a destructive phenomenon that trembles different parts of the earth yearly and causes many destructions. Iran is one of the (high seismicity) quack- prone parts of the world that has received a lot of pecuniary damages and life losses each year, schools are of the most important places to be protected during such crisis.There was no special surveillance on designing and building of school's building in Tehran till the late 70's, and as Tehran is on faults, instability of such buildings may cause irrecoverable pecuniary damages and especially life losses, therefore preventing this phenomenon is in an urgent need.For this purpose, some of the schools built during 67-78 mostly with Steel braced frame structures have been selected, first, by evaluating the selected Samples, gathering information and Visual Survey, the prepared questionnaires were filled out. With the use of ARIA and SABA (Venezuela) Methods, new modified combined method for qualified evaluations was found and used.Then, for quantified evaluation, with the use of computer 3D models and nonlinear statically analysis methods, a number of selected buildings of qualified evaluation, were reevaluated and finally with nonlinear dynamic analysis method the real behavior of structures on the earthquakes is studied.The results of qualified and quantified evaluations were compared and a proper Pattern for seismic evaluation of Educational buildings was presented. Otherwise the results can be a guidance for the person in charge of retrofitting or if necessary rebuilding the schools.

  10. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our

  11. 7 CFR 1217.61 - Independent evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.61 Independent...

  12. Robust control of seismic structures using independent modal-space techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Kerry S.; Rao, Vittal S.; Cheng, Franklin Y.

    1996-04-01

    Active robust structural controls have been utilized in the control of aerospace structures for many years but they have only been recently investigated in the context of control for civil engineering structures. The results of an investigation of the utilization of these methods on building-like structures are presented in this paper. The closed-loop systems take into account the limited available actuation force and are inherently insensitive to parameter variations and modeling uncertainties. Independent modal-space control (IMSC) is a structural control technique where the multi-input-multi-output configuration-space system is transformed into a set of uncoupled single-input-single-output modal-space systems. A modal controller is designed for each modal-space system and the set of modal controllers is transformed back into configuration-space. By combining IMSC with robust control techniques such as LQG/LTR or H(infinity ), a robust structural control design technique is proposed in this paper. Robust IMSC techniques are employed for control of seismic structures where a small number of actuators are used to control the first few modes of the structure. We have designed and implemented robust IMSC controllers on an experimental building-like structure. This structure utilizes torque motor driven active tendons as actuators and rests on a shaking table which is capable of providing one dimensional base excitation similar to earthquake ground motion. A three input-three output model of the structure, including the torque motor actuators, was developed using experimental data. The experimental structural identification technique, based on standard modal analysis methods, provides the mathematical model that describes the behavior of the structure. An H(infinity ) based IMSC controller has been designed and implemented on this structure using a dSPACE control development system. The results show that the performance of the system is satisfactory in the presence of

  13. Evaluating 1d Seismic Models of the Lunar Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y.; Thorne, M. S.; Weber, R. C.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    A four station seismic network was established on the Moon from 1969 to 1977 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP). A total of nine 1D seismic velocity models were generated using a variety of different techniques. In spite of the fact that these models were generated from the same data set, significant differences exist between them. We evaluate these models by comparing predicted travel-times to published catalogs of lunar events. We generate synthetic waveform predictions for 1D lunar models using a modified version of the Green's Function of the Earth by Minor Integration (GEMINI) technique. Our results demonstrate that the mean square errors between predicted and measured P-wave travel times are smaller than those for S-wave travel times in all cases. Moreover, models fit travel times for artificial and meteoroid impacts better than for shallow and deep moonquakes. Overall, models presented by Nakamura [Nakamura, 1983] and Garcia et al. [Garcia et al., 2011] predicted the observed travel times better than all other models and were comparable in their explanation of travel-times. Nevertheless, significant waveform differences exist between these models. In particular, the seismic velocity structure of the lunar crust and regolith strongly affect the waveform characteristics predicted by these models. Further complexity is added by possible mantle discontinuity structure that exists in a subset of these models. We show synthetic waveform predictions for these models demonstrating the role that crustal structure has in generating long duration seismic coda inherent in the lunar waveforms.

  14. Development of a Combination Approach for Seismic Hazard Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huai-zhong; Zhou, Fa-ren; Zhu, Qing-yong; Zhang, Xiao-tao; Zhang, Yong-xian

    2016-01-01

    We developed a synth esis approach to augment current techniques for seismic hazard evaluation by combining four previously unrelated subjects: the pattern informatics (PI), load/unload response ratio (LURR), state vector (SV), and accelerating moment release (AMR) methods. Since the PI is proposed in the premise that the change in the seismicity rate is a proxy for the change in the tectonic stress, this method is used to quantify localized changes surrounding the epicenters of large earthquakes to objectively quantify the anomalous areas (hot spots) of the upcoming events. On the short-to-intermediate-term estimation, we apply the LURR, SV, and AMR methods to examine the hazard regions derived from the PI hot spots. A predictive study of the 2014 earthquake tendency in Chinese mainland, using the seismic data from 1970-01-01 to 2014-10-01, shows that, during Jan 01 to Oct 31, 2014, most of the M > 5.0 earthquakes, especially the Feb 12 M7.3 Yutian, May 30 M6.1 Yingjiang, Aug. 03 M6.5 Ludian, and Oct 07 M6.6 earthquakes, occurred in the seismic hazard regions predicted. Comparing the predictions produced by the PI and combination approaches, it is clear that, by using the combination approach, we can screen out the false-alarm regions from the PI estimation, without reducing the hit rate, and therefore effectively augment the predictive power of current techniques. This provided evidence that the multi-method combination approach may be a useful tool to detect precursory information of future large earthquakes.

  15. Sensitivity of seismic hazard evaluations to uncertainties determined from seismic source characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Behrooz

    The sensitivity and overall uncertainty in peak ground acceleration (PGA)estimates have been calculated for the city of Tabriz, northwestern Iran byusing a specific randomized blocks design. Eight seismic hazard models andparameters with randomly selected uncertainties at two levels have beenconsidered and then a linear model between predicted PGA at a givenprobability level and the uncertainties has been performed. The inputmodels and parameters are those related to the attenuation, magnituderupture-length and recurrence relationships with their uncertainties.Application of this procedure to the studied area indicates that effects ofthe simultaneous variation of all eight input models and parameters on thesensitivity of the seismic hazard can be investigated with a decreasingnumber of computations for all possible combinations at a fixed annualprobability. The results show that the choice of a mathematical model ofthe source mechanism, attenuation relationships and the definition ofseismic parameters are most critical in estimating the sensitivity of seismichazard evaluation, in particular at low levels of probability of exceedance.The overall uncertainty in the expected PGA for an annual probability of0.0021 (10% exceedence in 50 yr) is expressed by a coefficient ofvariation (CV) of about 34% at 68% confidence level for a distance ofabout 5km from the field of the major faults. The CV will decrease withincreasing site-source distance and remains constant, CV = 15%, fordistances larger than 15 km. Finally, treating alternative models on theoverall uncertainty are investigated by additional outliers in input decision.

  16. Contracting for Independent Evaluation: Approaches to an Inherent Tension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerman, Jacob Alex

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been discussion of whether independent contract evaluation is possible. This article acknowledges the inherent tension in contract evaluation and in response suggests a range of constructive approaches to improving the independence of contract evaluation. In particular, a clear separation between the official evaluation report…

  17. Contracting for Independent Evaluation: Approaches to an Inherent Tension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerman, Jacob Alex

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been discussion of whether independent contract evaluation is possible. This article acknowledges the inherent tension in contract evaluation and in response suggests a range of constructive approaches to improving the independence of contract evaluation. In particular, a clear separation between the official evaluation report…

  18. Evaluation of induced seismicity forecast models in the Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Király, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Zechar, Jeremy; Doetsch, Joseph; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. Here, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models that incorporate a different mix of physical understanding and stochastic representation of the induced sequences: Shapiro in Space (SiS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). SiS is based on three pillars: the seismicity rate is computed with help of the seismogenic index and a simple exponential decay of the seismicity; the magnitude distribution follows the Gutenberg-Richter relation; and seismicity is distributed in space based on smoothing seismicity during the learning period with 3D Gaussian kernels. The HySei model describes seismicity triggered by pressure diffusion with irreversible permeability enhancement. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. HySei forecasts the seismicity rate well, but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distribution. On the other hand, SiS forecasts the spatial distribution well but not the seismicity rate. The shut-in phase is a difficult moment for both models in both reservoirs: the models tend to underpredict the seismicity rate around, and shortly after, shut-in. Ensemble models that combine HySei's rate forecast with SiS's spatial forecast outperform each individual model.

  19. Nurturing Professional Growth: A Peer Review Model for Independent Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Sally L.; Ray, Marilyn L.

    2006-01-01

    There has been a recent groundswell of support in the American Evaluation Association's Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG) for evaluating evaluators' work just as evaluators evaluate the work of their clients. To facilitate this self-evaluation, the IC TIG elected to create a peer review process that focuses on written…

  20. Evaluation of Seismic Performance and Effectiveness of Multiple Slim-Type Damper System for Seismic Response Control of Building Structures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, David; Sung, Eun Hee; Park, Kwan-Soon; Park, Jaegyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of a multiple slim-type damper system developed for the vibration control of earthquake excited buildings. The multiple slim-type damper (MSD) that consists of several small slim-type dampers and linkage units can control damping capacity easily by changing the number of small dampers. To evaluate the performance of the MSD, dynamic loading tests are performed with three slim-type dampers manufactured at a real scale. Numerical simulations are also carried out by nonlinear time history analysis with a ten-story earthquake excited building structure. The seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of the MSD system are investigated according to the various installation configurations of the MSD system. From the results of numerical simulation and cost-effectiveness evaluation, it is shown that combinations of the MSD systems can effectively improve the seismic performance of earthquake excited building structures. PMID:25301387

  1. Evaluation of seismic performance and effectiveness of multiple slim-type damper system for seismic response control of building structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, David; Sung, Eun Hee; Park, Kwan-Soon; Park, Jaegyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of a multiple slim-type damper system developed for the vibration control of earthquake excited buildings. The multiple slim-type damper (MSD) that consists of several small slim-type dampers and linkage units can control damping capacity easily by changing the number of small dampers. To evaluate the performance of the MSD, dynamic loading tests are performed with three slim-type dampers manufactured at a real scale. Numerical simulations are also carried out by nonlinear time history analysis with a ten-story earthquake excited building structure. The seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of the MSD system are investigated according to the various installation configurations of the MSD system. From the results of numerical simulation and cost-effectiveness evaluation, it is shown that combinations of the MSD systems can effectively improve the seismic performance of earthquake excited building structures.

  2. Evaluation of the Deployable Seismic Verification System at the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.B.

    1993-08-01

    The intent of this report is to examine the performance of the Deployable Seismic Verification System (DSVS) developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) through its national laboratories to support monitoring of underground nuclear test treaties. A DSVS was installed at the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility (PSRF) near Boulder, Wyoming during 1991 and 1992. This includes a description of the system and the deployment site. System performance was studied by looking at four areas: system noise, seismic response, state of health (SOH) and operational capabilities.

  3. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF HYDROCARBON SATURATION IN DEEP-WATER RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James

    2005-01-22

    During this last quarter of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we have moved forward on several fronts, including data acquisition as well as analysis and application. During this quarter we have: (1) Completed our site selection (finally); (2) Measured fluid effects in Troika deep water sand sample; (3) Applied the result to Ursa ''fizz gas'' zone; (4) Compared thin layer property averaging on AVO response; (5) Developed target oriented NMO stretch correction; (6) Examined thin bed effects on A-B crossplots; and (7) Begun incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models. Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Reservoirs composed of thin bed effects will broaden the reflection amplitude distribution with incident angle. Normal move out (NMO) stretch corrections based on frequency shifts can be applied to offset this effect. Tuning will also disturb the location of extracted amplitudes on AVO intercept and gradient (A-B) plots. Many deep water reservoirs fall this tuning thickness range. Our goal for the remaining project period is to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration.

  4. Seismic Evaluation of Hydorcarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James

    2005-10-31

    During this last quarter of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we have moved forward on several fronts, including data acquisition as well as analysis and application. During this quarter we have: (1) Completed our site selection (finally); (2) Measured fluid effects in Troika deep water sand sample; (3) Applied the result to Ursa ''fizz gas'' zone; (4) Compared thin layer property averaging on AVO response; (5) Developed target oriented NMO stretch correction; (6) Examined thin bed effects on A-B crossplots; and (7) Begun incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models. Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Reservoirs composed of thin bed effects will broaden the reflection amplitude distribution with incident angle. Normal move out (NMO) stretch corrections based on frequency shifts can be applied to offset this effect. Tuning will also disturb the location of extracted amplitudes on AVO intercept and gradient (A-B) plots. Many deep water reservoirs fall this tuning thickness range. Our goal for the remaining project period is to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration.

  5. Using a physics-based earthquake simulator to evaluate seismic hazard in NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaverdian, A.; Zafarani, H.; Rahimian, M.

    2016-07-01

    NW Iran is a region of active deformation in the Eurasia-Arabia collision zone. This high strain field has caused intensive faulting accompanied by several major (M > 6.5) earthquakes as it is evident from historical records. Whereas seismic data (i.e. instrumental and historical catalogues) are either short, or inaccurate and inhomogeneous, physics-based long-term simulations are beneficial to better assess seismic hazard. In this study, a deterministic seismicity model, which consists of major active faults, is first constructed, and used to generate a synthetic catalogue of large-magnitude (M > 5.5) earthquakes. The frequency-magnitude distribution of the synthetic earthquake catalogue, which is based on the physical characteristic and slip rate of the mapped faults, is consistent with the empirical distribution evaluated using record of instrumental and historical events. The obtained results are also in accordance with palaeoseismic studies and other independent kinematic deformation models of the Iranian Plateau. Using the synthetic catalogue, characteristic magnitude for all 16 active faults in the study area is determined. Magnitude and epicentre of these earthquakes are comparable with the historical records. Large earthquake recurrence times and their variations are evaluated, either for an individual fault or for the region as a whole. Goodness-of-fitness tests revealed that recurrence times can be well described by the Weibull distribution. Time-dependent conditional probabilities for large earthquakes in the study area are also estimated for different time intervals. The resulting synthetic catalogue can be utilized as a useful data set for hazard and risk assessment instead of short, incomplete and inhomogeneous available catalogues.

  6. Independent Consulting and the American Evaluation Association: Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Deborah G.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG). The TIG goes back a joint meeting held in San Francisco in 1984 of the Evaluation Network (ENet) and the Evaluation Research Society (ERS), two years before the organizations merged to become the AEA. On the fringes…

  7. Independent Consulting and the American Evaluation Association: Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Deborah G.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG). The TIG goes back a joint meeting held in San Francisco in 1984 of the Evaluation Network (ENet) and the Evaluation Research Society (ERS), two years before the organizations merged to become the AEA. On the fringes…

  8. Evaluating the Use of Declustering for Induced Seismicity Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; Michael, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The recent dramatic seismicity rate increase in the central and eastern US (CEUS) has motivated the development of seismic hazard assessments for induced seismicity (e.g., Petersen et al., 2016). Standard probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) relies fundamentally on the assumption that seismicity is Poissonian (Cornell, BSSA, 1968); therefore, the earthquake catalogs used in PSHA are typically declustered (e.g., Petersen et al., 2014) even though this may remove earthquakes that may cause damage or concern (Petersen et al., 2015; 2016). In some induced earthquake sequences in the CEUS, the standard declustering can remove up to 90% of the sequence, reducing the estimated seismicity rate by a factor of 10 compared to estimates from the complete catalog. In tectonic regions the reduction is often only about a factor of 2. We investigate how three declustering methods treat induced seismicity: the window-based Gardner-Knopoff (GK) algorithm, often used for PSHA (Gardner and Knopoff, BSSA, 1974); the link-based Reasenberg algorithm (Reasenberg, JGR,1985); and a stochastic declustering method based on a space-time Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence model (Ogata, JASA, 1988; Zhuang et al., JASA, 2002). We apply these methods to three catalogs that likely contain some induced seismicity. For the Guy-Greenbrier, AR earthquake swarm from 2010-2013, declustering reduces the seismicity rate by factors of 6-14, depending on the algorithm. In northern Oklahoma and southern Kansas from 2010-2015, the reduction varies from factors of 1.5-20. In the Salton Trough of southern California from 1975-2013, the rate is reduced by factors of 3-20. Stochastic declustering tends to remove the most events, followed by the GK method, while the Reasenberg method removes the fewest. Given that declustering and choice of algorithm have such a large impact on the resulting seismicity rate estimates, we suggest that more accurate hazard assessments may be found using the complete catalog.

  9. Best Estimate Method vs Evaluation Method: a comparison of two techniques in evaluating seismic analysis and design

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, S.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Smith, P.D.

    1980-05-01

    The concept of how two techniques, Best Estimate Method and Evaluation Method, may be applied to the traditional seismic analysis and design of a nuclear power plant is introduced. Only the four links of the seismic analysis and design methodology chain (SMC) - seismic input, soil-structure interaction, major structural response, and subsystem response - are considered. The objective is to evaluate the compounding of conservatisms in the seismic analysis and design of nuclear power plants, to provide guidance for judgments in the SMC, and to concentrate the evaluation on that part of the seismic analysis and design which is familiar to the engineering community. An example applies the effects of three-dimensional excitations on a model of a nuclear power plant structure. The example demonstrates how conservatisms accrue by coupling two links in the SMC and comparing those results to the effects of one link alone. The utility of employing the Best Estimate Method vs the Evaluation Method is also demonstrated.

  10. Application of time-independent and time-dependent occurrence models on the seismic hazard estimations in the Marmara region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murru, M.; Akinci, A.; Console, R.; Falcone, G.; Pucci, S.

    2014-12-01

    We show the effect of time-independent and time-dependent occurrence models on the seismic hazard estimations. The time-dependence is introduced by 1) the Brownian Passage Time (BPT) probability model that is based on a simple physical model of the earthquake cycle, and 2) the fusion of the BPT renewal model with a physical model that considers the earthquake probability perturbation for interacting faults by static Coulomb stress changes We treat the uncertainties in the fault parameters (e.g. slip rate, characteristic magnitude and aperiodicity) of the statistical distribution associated to each examined fault source by a Monte Carlo technique. For a comparison among the results obtained from three different models, we give the probabilities of occurrence of earthquakes Mw > 6.5 for individual fault sources in the Marmara region, over the future 5-10-30 and 50 years, starting on January 1, 2013, considering the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the Monte Carlo distribution. In order to evaluate the impact of the earthquake probability models to ground motion hazard we attempt to calculate the fault-based probabilistic seismic hazard maps (PSHA) of mean Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) having 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years on rock site condition. We adopted only one Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) for the active shallow crustal region for assessing the ground shaking hazard in the Marmara region. We observed that the impact of the different occurrence models on the seismic hazard estimate of selected sites is quite high: the hazard may increase by more than 70% or decrease by as much as 70%, depending on the applied model in the selected sites. This difference mostly depends on the time elapsed after the latest major earthquake on a specific fault. We demonstrate that the estimated average recurrence time and the associated magnitude, together with the elapsed time, are crucial parameters in the earthquake probability calculations.

  11. Seismic evaluation of the U1a complex at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    McCamant, R R; Davito, A M; Hahn, K R; Murray, R C; Ng, D S; Sahni, V K; Schnechter, K M; Van Dyke, M

    1998-10-16

    As part of an overall safety evaluation of the Ula Complex, a seismic evaluation of structures, systems, and components (SSC) was conducted. A team of seismic, safety, and operation engineers from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Bechtel Nevada (BN) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was chartered to perform the seismic evaluation. The UlA Complex is located in Area 1 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada. The complex is a test facility for physics experiments in support of the Science Based Stockpile Stewardship Program. The Ula Complex consists of surface and subsurface facilities. The subsurface facility is a tunnel complex located 963 feet below the surface. The seismic evaluation of U 1 a Complex is required to comply with the DOE Natural Phenomena Policy. This policy consists of an order, an implementing guide, and standards which provide guidance for design and evaluation of SSCs, categorization of SSCs, characterization of site, and hazard level definition.

  12. Seismic hazard evaluation of the Oman India pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.W.; Thenhaus, P.C.; Mullee, J.E.; Preston, R.

    1996-12-31

    The proposed Oman India pipeline will traverse approximately 1,135 km of the northern Arabian Sea floor and adjacent continental shelves at depths of over 3 km on its route from Ra`s al Jifan, Oman, to Rapar Gadhwali, India. The western part of the route crosses active faults that form the transform boundary between the Arabian and Indian tectonic plates. The eastern terminus of the route lies in the vicinity of the great (M {approximately} 8) 1829 Kutch, India earthquake. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis was used to estimate the values of peak ground acceleration (PGA) with return periods of 200, 500 and 1,000 years at selected locations along the pipeline route and the submarine Indus Canyon -- a possible source of large turbidity flows. The results defined the ground-shaking hazard along the pipeline route and Indus Canyon for evaluation of risks to the pipeline from potential earthquake-induced geologic hazards such as liquefaction, slope instability, and turbidity flows. 44 refs.

  13. Evaluation of Horizontal Seismic Hazard of Shahrekord, Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Amiri, G. Ghodrati; Dehkordi, M. Raeisi; Amrei, S. A. Razavian; Kamali, M. Koohi

    2008-07-08

    This paper presents probabilistic horizontal seismic hazard assessment of Shahrekord, Iran. It displays the probabilistic estimate of Peak Ground Horizontal Acceleration (PGHA) for the return period of 75, 225, 475 and 2475 years. The output of the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is based on peak ground acceleration (PGA), which is the most common criterion in designing of buildings. A catalogue of seismic events that includes both historical and instrumental events was developed and covers the period from 840 to 2007. The seismic sources that affect the hazard in Shahrekord were identified within the radius of 150 km and the recurrence relationships of these sources were generated. Finally four maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Shahrekord in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines for different hazard levels by using SEISRISK III software.

  14. Seismic evaluation of an underground reinforced concrete tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.N.

    1993-02-01

    An underground reinforced concrete tunnel under the influence of seismic wave propagation was analyzed. Methods previously developed for underground steel pipes were extended to assess the structural integrity of the underground reinforced concrete tunnel.

  15. Independent Living Evaluation-Training Program. Reprint Series No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Soest, Eileen; And Others

    Intended to be used both as a guide for general program direction and as an individual evaluation and training tool this rehabilitation training guide includes materials and evaluation devices for use with mentally and/or physically handicapped clients on basic, intermediate and advanced living center levels. The eight independent living skill…

  16. Program Evaluation Development in the Newly Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimov, Afar; Borovykh, Alexander; Kuzmin, Alexey; Abdykadyrova, Asel; Efendiev, Djahangir; Greshnova, Ekaterina; Konovalova, Elena; Frants, Inessa; Palivoda, Liubov; Usifli, Seymour; Balakirev, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of the development of program evaluation in CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) countries. We start by telling a story that describes how evaluation appeared in the scene, how it developed and who the key players were in its development. We discuss the issue of demand for and supply of evaluation…

  17. STABILITY EVALUATION OF METAL CASK ATTACHED TO A TRANSFER PALLET DURING LONG-PERIOD SEISMIC MOTIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Shohei; Shirai, Koji; Kanazawa, Kenji

    Rocking behavior of unfixed body is affected by center of mass, material coefficient of restitution and so on. 2/5 scale metal cask model considering these parameter was used for seismic test to evaluate stability of grounding metal cask attached to a transfer pallet under the influence of long-period earthquake motion. The newest knowledge from seismic test indicates seismic motion with high velocity over 100 kine not always cause the raise of response velocity of metal cask because of energy consumption by cask sliding and impact deformation of concrete. And new estimation method (called "Window energy spectrum method") of earthquake response spectrum gives suitable evaluation of response energy.

  18. Contracting for independent evaluation: approaches to an inherent tension.

    PubMed

    Klerman, Jacob Alex

    2010-08-01

    There has recently been discussion of whether independent contract evaluation is possible. This article acknowledges the inherent tension in contract evaluation and in response suggests a range of constructive approaches to improving the independence of contract evaluation. In particular, a clear separation between the official evaluation report and a contractor's own publication of analysis from the underlying evaluation appears to be a promising approach. In this approach, the funder would retain almost unfettered rights to the official contract report (including the right never to publish but not the right to change the contractor's text while leaving the contractor's authorship) and the contractor would retain clearly defined rights to publish any findings from the evaluation (subject only to the limitations of human subjects and proprietary data and some minimal notice).

  19. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF ATYPICAL SPECIAL PLATE SHEAR WALLS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark J. Russell; Robert E. Spears; Ryan G. Kobbe

    2007-07-01

    The structure of a building undergoing a seismic reevaluation at the Idaho National Laboratory includes a number of steel plate walls and a roof liner which will act as shear diaphragms during an earthquake. Since the facility was designed and built long before such criteria were formulated, it is not surprising that these walls are not configured to meet all of the recently formulated requirements for such structures. To take advantage of this unusual structural feature, nonlinear analysis was used to ensure accurate modeling of the plate walls in a linear elastic seismic analysis of the full superstructure. The modeling was also used to establish the capacity of the plate.

  20. Seismic evaluation of K basin bridge cranes (HOI-320 & HOI-418) and supporting structure

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, B.V.; Kanjilad, S.K.

    1996-03-01

    The Safety Class 1 100-K fuel storage basins are vulnerable to impact damage if a bridge crane were to fall during a seismic event. The pupose of this report is to address the adequacy of the K Basin bridge cranes to resist a seismic-induced fall. The approach used to demonstrate adequacy against falling, was to evaluate the crane structural components relative to requirements specified in ASME NOG-1, Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes. Additionally, wheel lift-off and the adequacy of the crane supporting structure, are addressed. Seismic adequacy of the mechanical hoist equipment is not addressed in this report.

  1. Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Margaret E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the four planes of development and the periods of creation and crystallization within each plane. Identifies the type of independence that should be achieved by the end of the first two planes of development. Maintains that it is through individual work on the environment that one achieves independence. (KB)

  2. An evaluation of the seismic- window theory for earthquake prediction.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNutt, M.; Heaton, T.H.

    1981-01-01

    Reports studies designed to determine whether earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay area respond to a fortnightly fluctuation in tidal amplitude. It does not appear that the tide is capable of triggering earthquakes, and in particular the seismic window theory fails as a relevant method of earthquake prediction. -J.Clayton

  3. Evaluation of the RSTN (Regional Seismic Test Network) Network and Further Improvement to Automatic Association.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-30

    received at CSS and partly recorded at SCARS. A description of RSTN station localities is contained in Taylor and Qualheim (1983). All RSTN stations...Laboratory, Alexandria, Va. Taylor, S. R. and B. J. Qualheim (1983). Regional Seismic Test Network Site Descriptions , Lawrence Livermore Laboratory...RD-A146 395 EVALUATION OF THE RSTN (REGIONAL SEISMIC TEST NETWORK) 1/ NET44ORK AND FURTHE (U) TELEDYNE GEOTECH ALEXANDRIA VA ALEXANDRIA LABS R R

  4. Seismic hazard evaluation for Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.K.; Toro, G.F.; Hunt, R.J.

    1992-09-30

    This study presents the results of an investigation of seismic hazard at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations (K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Oak Ridge is located in eastern Tennessee, in an area of moderate to high historical seismicity. Results from two separate seismic hazard analyses are presented. The EPRI/SOG analysis uses the input data and methodology developed by the Electric Power Research Institute, under the sponsorship of several electric utilities, for the evaluation of seismic hazard in the central and eastern United States. The LLNL analysis uses the input data and methodology developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Both the EPRI/SOG and LLNL studies characterize earth-science uncertainty on the causes and characteristics of earthquakes in the central and eastern United States. This is accomplished by considering multiple hypotheses on the locations and parameters of seismic source zones and by considering multiple attenuation functions for the prediction of ground shaking given earthquake size and location. These hypotheses were generated by multiple expert teams and experts. Furthermore, each team and expert was asked to generate multiple hypotheses in order to characterize his own internal uncertainty. The seismic-hazard calculations are performed for all hypotheses. Combining the results from each hypothesis with the weight associated to that hypothesis, one obtains an overall representation of the seismic hazard at the Oak Ridge site and its uncertainty.

  5. Evaluation of a seismic quiescence pattern in southeastern sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, F.; Broccio, F.; Achilli, V.; Baldi, P.

    1985-07-01

    Southeastern Sicily experienced a very peculiar seismic activity in historic times, with a long series of ruinous earthquakes. A last large event, with magnitude probably in excess of 7.5, occurred on Jan., 11, 1693, totally destroying the city of Catania and killing 60,000 people. Only a few moderate events were reported since then, and a seismic gap issue has been proposed on this basis. A close scrutiny of the available data further shows that all significant seismic activity ceased after year 1850, suggesting one of the largest quiescence patterns ever encountered. This is examined together with the complex tectonic setting of the region, characterized by a wrenching mechanism with most significant seismicity located in its northern graben structure. An attempt to ascertain the imminence and the size of a future earthquake through commonly accepted empirical relations based on size and duration of the quiescence pattern did not provide any feasible result. A precision levelling survey which we recently completed yielded a relative subsidence of ~ 3 mm/yr, consistent with an aseismic slip on the northern graben structure at a rate of ~ 15 mm/yr. Comparing these results with sedimentological and tidal data suggests that the area is undergoing an accelerated deformation process; this issue is further supported by Rikitake's ultimate strain statistics. If the imminence of a damaging ( M = 5.4) event is strongly favoured by Weibull statistics applied to the time series of occurrence of large events, the accumulated strain does not appear sufficient for a large earthquake ( M ⪸ 7.0). Within the limits of reliability of present semi-empirical approaches we conclude that the available evidence is consistent with the occurrence of a moderate-to-large ( M ≅ 6.0) event in the near future. Several questions regarding the application of simple models to real (and complex) tectonic settings remain nevertheless unanswered.

  6. 78 FR 29159 - Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic Evaluation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Guidance: EPRI Guidance for the Resolution of Fukushima Near-Term Task Force Recommendation 2.1: Seismic... 2.1, 2.3, and 9.3, of the Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi... Recommendations 2.1, 2.3, and 9.3, of the Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) Review of Insights from the Fukushima...

  7. Evaluation of feasibility of mapping seismically active faults in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, L. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A previously unmapped seismically active fault has been identified in south-central Alaska on the basis of ERTS-1 imagery. It can be traced for at least 120 km. An unmapped fault was found on the northwest flank of Mt. Sanford that is apparently a reverse fault. A large scale, seismically active fracture system has been identified in central Alaska on the basis of MSS imagery. The system consists of two sets of fractures which intersect at an angle of about 55 degrees. The dominant feature of the system is the Minook Creek fault, on which an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 occurred on October 29, 1968. A possible related feature is a 60 km long lineament near the Toklat River north of Mt. McKinley. These areas are all moderately seismically active. Focal mechanism studies of the 1968 earthquake revealed that left-lateral displacement had occurred on the Minook Creek fault due to compressive stress. A similarly oriented direction of compressive stress could be responsible for the entire fracture system.

  8. Evaluating the impact of seismic prospecting on artisanal shrimp fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriguetto-Filho, José M.; Ostrensky, Antonio; Pie, Marcio R.; Silva, Ubiratã A.; Boeger, Walter A.

    2005-09-01

    The constant need to discover new hydrocarbon deposits is causing the use of air-guns to become a very widespread method of seismic prospecting. However, there is still disagreement regarding their impact on the marine environment. This uncertainty is particularly severe in the case of shellfish, which account for a substantial share of commercial fisheries and seafood trade in many parts of the world. In this paper we report on the first study to explicitly assess the impact of seismic prospecting on shrimp resources. We measured bottom trawl yields of a nonselective commercial shrimp fishery comprising the Southern white shrimp, Litopenaeus schmitti, the Southern brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Atlantic Seabob, Xyphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda: Penaeidae), before and after the use of an array of four synchronized air-guns, each with 635 in 3 of total capacity, 2.000 psi, and peak pressure of 196 dB (re 1 μPa at 1 m). Our results did not detect significant deleterious impact of seismic prospecting on the studied species, suggesting that shrimp stocks are resilient to the disturbance by air-guns under our experimental conditions.

  9. Seismic demand evaluation of medium ductility RC moment frames using nonlinear procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffarzadeh, Hosein; Talebian, Nima; Kohandel, Roya

    2013-09-01

    Performance-based earthquake engineering is a recent focus of research that has resulted in widely developed design methodologies due to its ability to realistically simulate structural response characteristics. Precise prediction of seismic demands is a key component of performance-based design methodologies. This paper presents a seismic demand evaluation of reinforced concrete moment frames with medium ductility. The accuracy of utilizing simplified nonlinear static analysis is assessed by comparison against the results of time history analysis on a number of frames. Displacement profiles, drift demand and maximum plastic rotation were computed to assess seismic demands. Estimated seismic demands were compared to acceptance criteria in FEMA 356. The results indicate that these frames have sufficient capacity to resist interstory drifts that are greater than the limit value.

  10. Development and implementation of seismic design and evaluation criteria for NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, S.C.; MacCalden, P.B.

    1998-03-17

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is being built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as an international research center for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This paper will provide an overview of NIF, review NIF seismic criteria, and briefly discuss seismic analyses of NIF optical support structures that have been performed by LLNL and the Ralph M. Parsons Company, the Architect and Engineer (A&E) for NIF. The NIF seismic design and evaluation criteria is based on provisions in DOE Standard 1020 (DOE-STD-1020), the Uniform Building Code (UBC), and the LLNL Mechanical Engineering Design Safety Standards (MEDSS). Different levels of seismic requirements apply to NIF structures, systems, and components (SSCs) based on their function. The highest level of requirements are defined for optical support structures and SSCs which could influence the performance of optical support structures, while the minimum level of requirements are Performance Category 2 (PC2) requirements in DOE-STD-1020. To demonstrate that the NIF seismic criteria is satisfied, structural analyses have been performed by LLNL and Parsons to evaluate the responses of optical support structures and other SSCs to seismic-induced forces.

  11. A comprehensive approach for evaluating network performance in surface and borehole seismic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, T. A.; Iannaccone, G.; Zollo, A.; Lomax, A.; Ferulano, M. F.; Vetri, M. L. V.; Barzaghi, L. P.

    2013-02-01

    The accurate determination of locations and magnitudes of seismic events in a monitored region is important for many scientific, industrial and military studies and applications; for these purposes a wide variety of seismic networks are deployed throughout the world. It is crucial to know the performance of these networks not only in detecting and locating seismic events of different sizes throughout a specified source region, but also by evaluating their location errors as a function of the magnitude and source location. In this framework, we have developed a method for evaluating network performance in surface and borehole seismic monitoring. For a specified network geometry, station characteristics and a target monitoring volume, the method determines the lowest magnitude of events that the seismic network is able to detect (Mwdetect), and locate (Mwloc) and estimates the expected location and origin time errors for a specified magnitude. Many of the features related to the seismic signal recorded at a single station are considered in this methodology, including characteristics of the seismic source, the instrument response, the ambient noise level, wave propagation in a layered, anelastic medium and uncertainties on waveform measures and the velocity model. We applied this method to two different network typologies: a local earthquake monitoring network, Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), installed along the Campania-Lucania Apennine chain in Southern Italy, and a hypothetic borehole network for monitoring microfractures induced during the hydrocarbon extraction process in an oil field. The method we present may be used to aid in enhancing existing networks and/or understanding their capabilities, such as for the ISNet case study, or to optimally design the network geometry in specific target regions, as for the borehole network example.

  12. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 90-168-2248, Independence Police Department Indoor Range, Independence, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, R.D.; Almaguer, D.; Klein, M.K.; Crouch, K.G.

    1992-08-01

    On February 14, 1990, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request from a management representative of the Independence, Missouri, Police Department Headquarters for a Health Hazard Evaluation. The Police Department requested NIOSH to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly redesigned air handling system installed inside their indoor firing range. On August 6, 1991, NIOSH investigators met with the firing range supervisor and toured the facility. On August 8, ten personal breathing-zone (PBZ) air samples and 3 area air samples were collected on filters inside the range and the filters were subsequently analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Surface lead contamination inside the firing range was measured in two locations and hand (dermal) lead contamination was measured on two instructors and two field officers. These samples were also analyzed for lead by AAS.

  13. Seismic fragility evaluation of a piping system in a nuclear power plant by shaking table test and numerical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M. K.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, I. K.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, a seismic fragility evaluation of the piping system in a nuclear power plant was performed. For the evaluation of seismic fragility of the piping system, this research was progressed as three steps. At first, several piping element capacity tests were performed. The monotonic and cyclic loading tests were conducted under the same internal pressure level of actual nuclear power plants to evaluate the performance. The cracks and wall thinning were considered as degradation factors of the piping system. Second, a shaking tale test was performed for an evaluation of seismic capacity of a selected piping system. The multi-support seismic excitation was performed for the considering a difference of an elevation of support. Finally, a numerical analysis was performed for the assessment of seismic fragility of piping system. As a result, a seismic fragility for piping system of NPP in Korea by using a shaking table test and numerical analysis. (authors)

  14. Re-evaluation and updating of the seismic hazard of Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijer, Carla; Harajli, Mohamed; Sadek, Salah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the implications of the newly mapped offshore Mount Lebanon Thrust (MLT) fault system on the seismic hazard of Lebanon and the current seismic zoning and design parameters used by the local engineering community. This re-evaluation is critical, given that the MLT is located at close proximity to the major cities and economic centers of the country. The updated seismic hazard was assessed using probabilistic methods of analysis. The potential sources of seismic activities that affect Lebanon were integrated along with any/all newly established characteristics within an updated database which includes the newly mapped fault system. The earthquake recurrence relationships of these sources were developed from instrumental seismology data, historical records, and earlier studies undertaken to evaluate the seismic hazard of neighboring countries. Maps of peak ground acceleration contours, based on 10 % probability of exceedance in 50 years (as per Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1997), as well as 0.2 and 1 s peak spectral acceleration contours, based on 2 % probability of exceedance in 50 years (as per International Building Code (IBC) 2012), were also developed. Finally, spectral charts for the main coastal cities of Beirut, Tripoli, Jounieh, Byblos, Saida, and Tyre are provided for use by designers.

  15. Seismic hazards of the Iberian Peninsula - evaluation with kernel functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, M. J.; Martínez, F.; Martí, J.

    2013-08-01

    The seismic hazard of the Iberian Peninsula is analysed using a nonparametric methodology based on statistical kernel functions; the activity rate is derived from the catalogue data, both its spatial dependence (without a seismogenetic zonation) and its magnitude dependence (without using Gutenberg-Richter's law). The catalogue is that of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional, supplemented with other catalogues around the periphery; the quantification of events has been homogenised and spatially or temporally interrelated events have been suppressed to assume a Poisson process. The activity rate is determined by the kernel function, the bandwidth and the effective periods. The resulting rate is compared with that produced using Gutenberg-Richter statistics and a zoned approach. Three attenuation laws have been employed, one for deep sources and two for shallower events, depending on whether their magnitude was above or below 5. The results are presented as seismic hazard maps for different spectral frequencies and for return periods of 475 and 2475 yr, which allows constructing uniform hazard spectra.

  16. Seismic hazard of the Iberian Peninsula: evaluation with kernel functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, M. J.; Martínez, F.; Martí, J.

    2014-05-01

    The seismic hazard of the Iberian Peninsula is analysed using a nonparametric methodology based on statistical kernel functions; the activity rate is derived from the catalogue data, both its spatial dependence (without a seismogenic zonation) and its magnitude dependence (without using Gutenberg-Richter's relationship). The catalogue is that of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional, supplemented with other catalogues around the periphery; the quantification of events has been homogenised and spatially or temporally interrelated events have been suppressed to assume a Poisson process. The activity rate is determined by the kernel function, the bandwidth and the effective periods. The resulting rate is compared with that produced using Gutenberg-Richter statistics and a zoned approach. Three attenuation relationships have been employed, one for deep sources and two for shallower events, depending on whether their magnitude was above or below 5. The results are presented as seismic hazard maps for different spectral frequencies and for return periods of 475 and 2475 yr, which allows constructing uniform hazard spectra.

  17. Independent Evaluation of Air Filter Media from Chornobyl

    SciTech Connect

    MD Hoover; AF Fencl; GJ Vargo

    1999-12-21

    An independent evaluation was performed to assess the morphology, pressure drop characteristics, alpha spectroscopy characteristics, and collection efficiency of an air sampling filter media and two types of aerosol face masks provided from Chernobyl by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The evaluation included characterizing the filter morphology by scqg electron microscopy; measuring the filter pressure drop as a function of air flowrate; evaluating the spectroscopy characteristics of the filter for alpha-emitting radionuclides by sampling ambient radon progeny aerosols in an Eberline Alpha-6A alpha continuous air monitor; determining the particle collection efficiency of the filter media for 0.3 {micro}m aerodynamic diameter monodisperse particles at 1 and 2 cfm; and comparing the apparent construction, durability, and performance similarities of the filter media to other media commonly used for monitoring airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides.

  18. Seismic Performance Evaluation of Steel Moment Resisting Frames with WUF-B Connections

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ki-Hoon; Han, Sang-Whan

    2008-07-08

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of the moment resisting steel frames having Welded Unreinforced Flange-Bolted web (WUF-B) connections. The connections are designed and detailed in compliance with FEMA 350 recommended seismic design criteria. To conduct the seismic performance evaluation this study developed an analytical model for the pre- and post-Northridge connections based on test results. Three different frames are considered which have three-, nine- and twenty-story. Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA is conducted to estimate limit state capacities The performance of the frames having either pre- or post-Northridge connections is compared with the corresponding frame with ductile connections which do not experience connection fracture. The analytical results showed that buildings with post-Northridge WUF-B connections provide superior strength and interstory drift ratio capacity than buildings with pre-Northridge WUF-B connections.

  19. Evaluation Of The Seismic Performance Of Masonry Buildings Of The Type 'Gaioleiro', Lisbon (Portugal)

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, Nuno; Lourenco, Paulo B.

    2008-07-08

    This paper presents a numerical study that aims at the seismic evaluation of the performance of typical Portuguese 'gaioleiro' 19{sup th} century buildings. Numerical analysis was performed using a finite element model and was calibrated with experimental results obtained in 1:3 reduced scale tests done in the LNEC 3D shaking table.With the purpose of defining an adequate strategy for seismic performance evaluation, nonlinear dynamical analysis with time integration and pushover analyses were carried out. In the dynamic analysis, each earthquake is composed by two uncorrected artificial accelerograms compatible with the design response spectrum of EC8. In the pushover analyses it was considered that the seismic action is simulated through a set of horizontal forces proportional to the mass of structure and to the 1{sup st} vibration mode according to the direction being studied.

  20. Best estimate method versus evaluation method: a comparison of two techniques in evaluating seismic analysis and design. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, S.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Smith, P.D.

    1980-07-01

    The concept of how two techniques, Best Estimate Method and Evaluation Method, may be applied to the tradditional seismic analysis and design of a nuclear power plant is introduced. Only the four links of the seismic analysis and design methodology chain (SMC)--seismic input, soil-structure interaction, major structural response, and subsystem response--are considered. The objective is to evaluate the compounding of conservatisms in the seismic analysis and design of nuclear power plants, to provide guidance for judgments in the SMC, and to concentrate the evaluation on that part of the seismic analysis and design which is familiar to the engineering community. An example applies the effects of three-dimensional excitations on the model of a nuclear power plant structure. The example demonstrates how conservatisms accrue by coupling two links in the SMC and comparing those results to the effects of one link alone. The utility of employing the Best Estimate Method vs the Evauation Method is also demonstrated.

  1. Style-independent document labeling: design and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Song; Kim, Jong Woo; Thoma, George R.

    2003-12-01

    The Medical Article Records System or MARS has been developed at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) for automated data entry of bibliographical information from medical journals into MEDLINE, the premier bibliographic citation database at NLM. Currently, a rule-based algorithm (called ZoneCzar) is used for labeling important bibliographical fields (title, author, affiliation, and abstract) on medical journal article page images. While rules have been created for medical journals with regular layout types, new rules have to be manually created for any input journals with arbitrary or new layout types. Therefore, it is of interest to label any journal articles independent of their layout styles. In this paper, we first describe a system (called ZoneMatch) for automated generation of crucial geometric and non-geometric features of important bibliographical fields based on string-matching and clustering techniques. The rule based algorithm is then modified to use these features to perform style-independent labeling. We then describe a performance evaluation method for quantitatively evaluating our algorithm and characterizing its error distributions. Experimental results show that the labeling performance of the rule-based algorithm is significantly improved when the generated features are used.

  2. Independent safety evaluation of the enriched uranium oxide test UO-1

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1989-11-01

    The UO-1 test is designed to provide information on the performance of D9 clad, enriched uranium oxide fuel in FFTF. The Series IV FFTF driver fuel will utilize enriched uranium oxide fuel with D9 cladding. Irradiation data are needed for computer code calibration to support the FSAR analysis effort for the series IV fuel. The UO-1 assembly consists of a 217-pin bundle with the same pin and duct dimensions as a standard driver fuel assembly. The test consists of seven UO{sub 2} pins, 30 mixed oxide test pins, and 180 driver type pins. The test will be irradiated for approximately 250 EFPD. An Independent Safety Evaluation (ISE) of the test has been conducted. Information has been taken from the Test Design Documents, but independent calculations have been made of the safety-related parameters. The scope includes all items specified in the Users` Guide for Irradiation of Experiments in the FTR. Areas investigated include Technical Specification Compliance, Steady State Operation, Transient Operation, Failure Consequences, Stress and Seismic, HCDA, and Test Handling and Criticality Considerations.

  3. Evaluation of collapse resistance of RC frame structures for Chinese schools in seismic design categories B and C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Baoxin; Lu, Xinzheng; Ye, Lieping; Shi, Wei

    2011-09-01

    According to the Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (GB50011-2001), ten typical reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures, used as school classroom buildings, are designed with different seismic fortification intensities (SFIs) (SFI=6 to 8.5) and different seismic design categories (SDCs) (SDC=B and C). The collapse resistance of the frames with SDC=B and C in terms of collapse fragility curves are quantitatively evaluated and compared via incremental dynamic analysis (IDA). The results show that the collapse resistance of structures should be evaluated based on both the absolute seismic resistance and the corresponding design seismic intensity. For the frames with SFI from 6 to 7.5, because they have relatively low absolute seismic resistance, their collapse resistance is insufficient even when their corresponding SDCs are upgraded from B to C. Thus, further measures are needed to enhance these structures, and some suggestions are proposed.

  4. SNES - Seismic Network Evaluation through Simulation: an application to the Italian RSNC-INGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Luzio, Dario; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Mangano, Giorgio; Messina, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    In this work we present a new method to evaluate the location performance of a seismic network through earthquakes simulation (SNES - Seismic Networks Evaluation through Simulation). To be applied, the SNES method require: P and S velocity models, seismic attenuation law, seismic stations positions and their experimental noise spectra and, finally, an empirical law that link the variance of the residual times of a station to the hypocenter position. This method allow to map the confidence interval estimates of the hypocentral parameters as function of magnitude, focus depth and confidence level. The simulation was carried out assuming that the epicentres of synthetic earthquakes are located in the knots of a square grid which was covering the investigated area. For each synthetic earthquake, the seismic spectrum was calculated in every station to determine the local Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR): the set of active stations in the location procedure and the relative azimuthal gap was determined by a threshold value of this parameter. Finally, the covariance matrix of synthetic data and the partial derivatives of the model were determined and used to estimate the covariance matrix of the hypocentral parameters. This method was applied to the Italian RSNC-INGV to evaluate its location performance, with a 95% confidence level. This simulation was carried out for small magnitude earthquakes (1.5seismic network. We show how the Ocean Bottom Seismometers can play an important role in this network improvement.

  5. A GLE multi-block model for the evaluation of seismic displacements of slopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, V.; Cascone, E.; Biondi, G.

    2008-07-08

    The paper describes a multi-block displacement model for the evaluation of seismic permanent displacements of natural slopes with slip surface of general shape. A rigorous limit equilibrium method of stability analysis is considered and an application to an ideal clay slope is presented including the effect of excess pore pressure build-up on the displacement response.

  6. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.O.; Zook, B.J.; Sturdivant, V.R.

    1994-06-01

    The work reported herein represents the third year work in evaluating high-resolution interwell seismic logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. The objective of this project is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and rock physical properties. The work involves a balanced study of theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing at controlled field conditions. The field applications of this reservoir probing concept are aimed at demonstrating high resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. The first part of this third year project efforts was devoted to thoroughly evaluating interwell seismic logging and reverse VSP in a hydrocarbon-bearing formation at the Buckhorn test site in Illinois. Specifically, the data from the experiments conducted in the second year of this project were analyzed to delineate geological structures and to extract rock physical parameters. The second part of this project is devoted to the evaluation of continuity logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir continuity. Specifically, this part of the project includes the evaluation of methods of measurements, modeling and data processing to delineate the reservoir architecture and relate dispersion and attenuation measurements to rock physical properties.

  7. Probabilistic evaluation of seismic isolation effect with respect to siting of a fusion reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Masatoshi; Komura, Toshiyuki; Hirotani, Tsutomu; Ohkawa, Yoshinao; Akutsu, Youich

    1995-12-01

    Annual failure probabilities of buildings and equipment were roughly evaluated for two fusion-reactor-like buildings, with and without seismic base isolation, in order to examine the effectiveness of the base isolation system regarding siting issues. The probabilities are calculated considering nonlinearity and rupture of isolators. While the probability of building failure for both buildings on the same site was almost equal, the function failures for equipment showed that the base-isolated building had higher reliability than the non-isolated building. Even if the base-isolated building alone is located on a higher seismic hazard area, it could compete favorably with the ordinary one in reliability of equipment.

  8. Seismic hazard for the Savannah River Site: A comparative evaluation of the EPRI and LLNL assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wingo, H.E.

    1992-05-20

    This report was conducted to: (1) develop an understanding of causes for the vast differences between the two comprehensive studies, and (2) using a methodology consistent with the reconciled methods employed in the two studies, develop a single seismic hazard for the Savannah River Site suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments with emphasis on the K Reactor. Results are presented for a rock site which is a typical because detailed evaluations of soil characteristics at the K Reactor are still in progress that account for the effects of a soil stablizing grouting program. However when the soils analysis is completed, the effects of soils can be included with this analysis with the addition of a single factor that will decrease slightly the seismic hazard for a rock site.

  9. EVALUATION ON SEISMIC DAMAGE OF TRANSPORTATION NETWORK BASED ON FRAGILITY CURVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimi, Toshio; Mazda, Taiji; Mizokami, Shoshi; Kiyota, Reo

    This paper evaluates the seismic damage probabilistically. The target area of this study is Kumamoto urban road network. The procedures of this study are making the fragility curve, and then calculating indirect traffic damage based on fragility curve. Making the fragility curve includes three types of bridge pier. GUIDELINE FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGE SEISMIC DESIGN in 1972, SPECIFICATION FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES Part V Seismic design in 1980 and 1990. To calculate traffic damage, it is considered scenario earthquake and the model of traffic assignment. Scenario earthquake is of Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone. The model of assignment is User Equilibrium Assignment. This study has yielded two results as the distribution of indirect traffic damage is normal, and there are 69 bridges in the area has failure probability, which are designed before 1980, and exist within 10km from the epicenter.

  10. Evaluating the Relationship Between Seismicity and Subsurface Well Activity in Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajoie, L. J.; Bennett, S. E. K.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between seismicity and subsurface well activity is crucial to evaluating the seismic hazard of transient, non-tectonic seismicity. Several studies have demonstrated correlations between increased frequency of earthquake occurrence and the injection/production of fluids (e.g. oil, water) in nearby subsurface wells in intracontinental settings (e.g. Arkansas, Colorado, Ohio, Oklahoma, Texas). Here, we evaluate all earthquake magnitudes for the past 20-30 years across the diverse seismotectonic settings of Utah. We explore earthquakes within 5 km and subsequent to completion dates of oil and gas wells. We compare seismicity rates prior to well establishment with rates after well establishment in an attempt to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic earthquakes in areas of naturally high background seismicity. In a few central Utah locations, we find that the frequency of shallow (0-10 km) earthquakes increased subsequent to completion of gas wells within 5 km, and at depths broadly similar to bottom hole depths. However, these regions typically correspond to mining regions of the Wasatch Plateau, complicating our ability to distinguish between earthquakes related to either well activity or mining. We calculate earthquake density and well density and compare their ratio (earthquakes per area/wells per area) with several published metrics of seismotectonic setting. Areas with a higher earthquake-well ratio are located in relatively high strain regions (determined from GPS) associated with the Intermountain Seismic Belt, but cannot be attributed to any specific Quaternary-active fault. Additionally, higher ratio areas do not appear to coincide with anomalously high heat flow values, where rocks are typically thermally weakened. Incorporation of timing and volume data for well injection/production would allow for more robust temporal statistical analysis and hazard analysis.

  11. Evaluation of feasibility of mapping seismically active faults in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, L. D. (Principal Investigator); Vanwormer, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery is proving to be exceptionally useful in delineating structural features in Alaska which have never been recognized on the ground. Previously unmapped features such as seismically active faults and major structural lineaments are especially evident. Among the more significant results of this investigation is the discovery of an active strand of the Denali fault. The new fault has a history of scattered activity and was the scene of a magnitude 4.8 earthquake on October 1, 1972. Of greater significance is the disclosure of a large scale conjugate fracture system north of the Alaska Range. This fracture system appears to result from compressive stress radiating outward from around Mt. McKinley. One member of the system was the scene of a magnitude 6.5 earthquake in 1968. The potential value of ERTS-1 imagery to land use planning is reflected in the fact that this earthquake occurred within 10 km of the site which was proposed for the Rampart Dam, and the fault on which it occurred passes very near the proposed site for the bridge and oil pipeline crossing of the Yukon River.

  12. Evaluation of feasibility of mapping seismically active faults in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, L. D.; Vanwormer, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The sharp bend in the Alaska Range near 65 deg N, 150 deg W in now thought to enclose a corner of the northwesterly migrating north Pacific lithospheric plate. Subduction of the plate beneath the continent is believed, on the basis of hypocentral distribution, to occur along Cook Inlet and the eastern flanks of the Aleutian and Alaska Ranges as far northward as Mt. McKinley. The nature of tectonic deformation here, particularly in the area of the bend in the Alaska Range, is understandably complex. The Denali fault is thought to be a transform character in the vicinity of Mt. McKinley (i.e., it is thought to be the surface along which the oceanic plate separates from the continental plate). On the ERTS-1 imagery, however, it appears that there are a number of sub-parallel faults which branch off of the Denali fault in a southwesterly direction. Slippage along these would tend to squeeze material around the inside of the band rather than the plate being directly underthrust. All of these sub-parallel faults are seismically active. The right-lateral fault-plane solution obtained for this event is consistent with the concept of slippage around the bend on a set of sub-parallel faults in the manner postulated. The best images to show these features are 1066-20444 and 1266-20572.

  13. The Contribution of Paleoseismology to Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Kurt; Guerrieri, Luca; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of site evaluation/re-evaluation procedures for nuclear power plants (NPP), paleoseismology plays an essential role not only for Fault Displacement Hazard Assessment (FDHA) but also for Seismic Hazard Assessment (SHA). The relevance of paleoseismology is recommended in the reference IAEA Safety Guide (IAEA SSG-9) and has been dramatically confirmed in recent time especially after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP caused by the disastrous great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami occurred on 11 March 2011. After this event, the IAEA International Seismic Safety Center promoted a technical document aimed at encouraging and supporting Member States, especially from newcomer countries, to include paleoseismic investigations into the geologic database, highlighting the value of earthquake geology studies and paleoseismology for nuclear safety and providing standard methodologies to perform such investigations. In detail, paleoseismic investigations in the context of site evaluation of nuclear installations have the following main objectives: i) identification of seismogenic structures based on the recognition of effects of past earthquakes in the regional area; ii) improvement of the completeness of earthquake catalogs, through the identification and dating of ancient moderate to large earthquakes, whose trace has been preserved in the geologic records; iii) estimation of the maximum seismic potential associated with an identified seismogenic structure/source, typically on the basis of the amount of displacement per event (evaluable in paleoseismic trenches), as well as of the geomorphic and stratigraphic features interpretable as the cumulative effect of repeated large seismic events (concept of "seismic landscape"); iv) rough calibration of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), by using the recurrence interval of large earthquakes detectable by paleoseismic investigations, and providing a "reality check" based on direct observations of

  14. Seismic and tornado evaluation of Building 221H at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-30

    This report summarizes the results of the seismic and tornado evaluation of Building 221-H and Penthouse Additions 221-SH, TH, and UH at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The main objective of this project was to determine whether Building 221-H and the two-story penthouse addition over Sections 2 through 6 meet the established acceptance criteria for the criterion seismic and tornado loadings. The analyses and evaluations of three related structures -- the exhaust stack 291-H, sand filters 294-H/294-lH, and the connecting air tunnel -- are presented in a separate report. During the progress of the project, both the scope of work and the acceptance criteria for the seismic analyses of Building 221-H went through several revisions since the original criteria were established. As a result, linear elastic, quasi-nonlinear, and nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed to assess the building. The seismic criteria was based on the design response spectrum developed by Dr. George W. Housner with a Design Basis Earthquake ground acceleration of 0.2g and an Operating Basis Earthquake ground acceleration of 0.1g. Chapter 1 discusses the seismic analysis history of this project and the various analysis phases performed. The tornado analysis was performed for a Design Basis Tornado. The analyses considered the effects of wind velocity pressure, atmospheric pressure drop, and missile impact for structural response effects. The evaluation for wind velocity pressure and atmospheric pressure drop effects included consideration of both local and overall structural adequacy. The evaluation of missile impact effects included consideration of overall structural and individual panel response.

  15. Shallow prospect evaluation in Shahbazpur structure using seismic attributes analysis, Southern Bangladesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shahbazpur structure is located within the Hatia trough a southern extension of prolific Surma Basin, where lies all of the largest Gas fields of Bangladesh. A method is established to delineate the structural mapping precisely by interpreting four 2D seismic lines that are acquired over Shahbazpur structure. Moreover direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHI) related attributes analyzed for further confirmation of presence of hydrocarbon. To do this synthetic generation, seismic well tie, velocity modelling and depth conversion has been performed. Seismic attribute analysis used in this study is mostly related to bright spot identification in reservoir zones as well as to identify the similar response in both below and above of the reservoir zones. Seismic interpretation shows that Shahbazpur structure is roughly an oval shaped anticline with simple four way dip closure which will be a good trap for hydrocarbon accumulation. A limited number of seismic attributes functions that are available in an academic version of Petrel software are applied to analyze attributes. Taking in consideration of possible interpretation pitfalls, attributes analysis confirmed that bright spots exist in the shallower part of the structure above the present reservoir zones which might be a potential shallow gas reserve. The bright spots are located within Shahbazpur sequence I of Dupi Tila Group of Pleistocene age and Shahbazpur sequence II of Tipam Group of Pleistocene-Pliocene age. This signature will play a very important role in next well planning on the same structure to test the shallow accumulation of hydrocarbon. For better understanding of this shallow reserve, it is suggested to acquire 3D seismic data over Shahbazpur structure which will help to evaluate the hydrocarbon accumulation and to identify gas migration pathways.

  16. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    SciTech Connect

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-05-15

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements.

  17. Evaluation of seismic design spectrum based on UHS implementing fourth-generation seismic hazard maps of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ali; Hasan, Rafiq; Pekau, Oscar A.

    2016-12-01

    Two recent developments have come into the forefront with reference to updating the seismic design provisions for codes: (1) publication of new seismic hazard maps for Canada by the Geological Survey of Canada, and (2) emergence of the concept of new spectral format outdating the conventional standardized spectral format. The fourth -generation seismic hazard maps are based on enriched seismic data, enhanced knowledge of regional seismicity and improved seismic hazard modeling techniques. Therefore, the new maps are more accurate and need to incorporate into the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC) for its next edition similar to its building counterpart National Building Code of Canada (NBCC). In fact, the code writers expressed similar intentions with comments in the commentary of CHBCD 2006. During the process of updating codes, NBCC, and AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington (2009) lowered the probability level from 10 to 2% and 10 to 5%, respectively. This study has brought five sets of hazard maps corresponding to 2%, 5% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years developed by the GSC under investigation. To have a sound statistical inference, 389 Canadian cities are selected. This study shows the implications of the changes of new hazard maps on the design process (i.e., extent of magnification or reduction of the design forces).

  18. Independent evaluation of the California Tobacco Education Program.

    PubMed Central

    Elder, J P; Edwards, C C; Conway, T L; Kenney, E; Johnson, C A; Bennett, E D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To monitor the implementation of tobacco control programs and research in accordance with California's Proposition 99, approved by the voters in 1988, which increased the state's cigarette tax by 25 cents and designated one quarter of the increased revenue-approximately $100 million per year-to develop statewide media campaigns and to fund local health departments, community-based organizations, schools, and agencies working with high risk populations. METHODS. The authors evaluated the extent and the effectiveness of the implementation independently with standardized forms developed to track any tobacco-related information and activities, local media campaigns, changes in local policies and ordinances, training sessions, and prevention and cessation programs. Activities were reported on the forms to the authors monthly or quarterly. RESULTS. The evaluation indicated that local health departments, community-based organizations, and other group produced an exceedingly high volume of diverse tobacco control activities throughout the state. They reached a variety of ethnic groups and high risk populations with their programs. The data also show that local health departments and competitive grantees responded with an overall shift in their approach to tobacco control and moved from interventions focused primarily on individual people to broader, more community- and environment-oriented interventions. Additionally, analysis of the wholesale tobacco tax revenues revealed that per capita purchasing continued to decline in California at a rate greater than in the rest of the United States. CONCLUSION. The evaluation demonstrated that Proposition 99 accomplished much of what it set out to do-reducing tobacco prevalence, reaching out to underserved populations, and heightening the awareness of the dangers of environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:8711104

  19. Test definitions for the evaluation of seismic sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kromer, Richard Paul; Hart, Darren M.; Harris, James Mark

    2007-07-01

    Most test methodologies referenced in this Test Definition and Test Procedures were designed by Sandia specifically for geophysical instrumentation evaluation. When appropriate, test instrumentation calibration is traceable to the National Institute for Standards Technology (NIST).

  20. Protocol for the effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after six months sick leave: a randomized controlled trial of independent medical evaluation versus treatment as usual in Norway.

    PubMed

    Husabo, Elisabeth; Monstad, Karin; Holmås, Tor Helge; Oyeflaten, Irene; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje

    2017-06-14

    It has been discussed whether the relationship between a patient on sick leave and his/her general practitioner (GP) is too close, as this may hinder the GP's objective evaluation of need for sick leave. Independent medical evaluation involves an independent physician consulting the patient. This could lead to new perspectives on sick leave and how to follow-up the patient. The current study is a randomized controlled trial in a Norwegian primary care context, involving an effect evaluation, a cost/benefit analysis, and a qualitative evaluation. Independent medical evaluation will be compared to treatment as usual, i.e., the physicians' and social insurance agencies' current management of long-term sick-listed patients. Individuals aged 18-65 years, sick listed by their GP and on full or partial sick leave for the past 6 months in Hordaland county will be included. Exclusion criteria are pregnancy, cancer, dementia or an ICD-10 diagnosis. A total sample of 3800 will be randomly assigned to either independent medical evaluation or treatment as usual. Official register data will be used to measure the primary outcome; change in sickness benefits at 7, 9 and 12 months. Sick listed in other counties will serve as a second control group, if appropriate under the "common trend" assumption. The Norwegian effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after 6 months sick leave is a large randomized controlled trial, and the first of its kind, to evaluate this type of intervention as a means of getting people back to work after long-term sickness absence. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02524392 . Registered June 23, 2015.

  1. An evaluation of generalized likelihood Ratio Outlier Detection to identification of seismic events in Western China

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.; Hartse, H.E.

    1996-09-24

    The Generalized Likelihood Ratio Outlier Detection Technique for seismic event identification is evaluated using synthetic test data and frequency-dependent P{sub g}/L{sub g} measurements from western China. For most seismic stations that are to be part of the proposed International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, there will be few or no nuclear explosions in the magnitude range of interest (e.g. M{sub b} < 4) on which to base an event-identification system using traditional classification techniques. Outlier detection is a reasonable alternative approach to the seismic discrimination problem when no calibration explosions are available. Distance-corrected P{sub g}/L{sub g} data in seven different frequency bands ranging from 0.5 to 8 Hz from the Chinese Digital Seismic Station WMQ are used to evaluate the technique. The data are collected from 157 known earthquakes, 215 unknown events (presumed earthquakes and possibly some industrial explosions), and 18 known nuclear explosions (1 from the Chinese Lop Nor test site and 17 from the East Kazakh test site). A feature selection technique is used to find the best combination of discriminants to use for outlier detection. Good discrimination performance is found by combining a low-frequency (0.5 to 1 Hz) P{sub g}/L{sub g} ratio with high-frequency ratios (e.g. 2 to 4 and 4 to 8 Hz). Although the low-frequency ratio does not discriminate between earthquakes and nuclear explosions well by itself, it can be effectively combined with the high-frequency discriminants. Based on the tests with real and synthetic data, the outlier detection technique appears to be an effective approach to seismic monitoring in uncalibrated regions.

  2. An Algorithm for Evaluating Fresnel-Zone Textural Roughness for Seismic Facies Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, H.; Gao, D.

    2014-12-01

    In reflection seismic interpretation, a 1-D convolutional model is commonly used to interpret amplitude variations based on the geometric ray theory assuming seismic wave to reflect at a reflection point; however, the propagation of seismic waves actually occurs in a finite zone around the geometric ray path and gets reflected from a zone known as Fresnel zone. The collected signal at the surface turns out to be the superposition of reflections from within the Fresnel zone, which is a function of texture. Generally, for a rough texture such as sandstone, the dominant reflection is from the zone margin, while for a smooth texture such as marine shale, the dominant reflection is from the zone center. Based on this concept, Fresnel-zone texture directly affects amplitude variations with offset (AVO), azimuth (AVAZ), and frequency (AVF). Here we develop a computer algorithm for evaluating Fresnel-zone textural roughness. The algorithm starts with dividing the Fresnel zone into a set of micro-zones. It then builds an initial texture model to be convolved with an extracted wavelet. By comparing the synthetic signal from a Fresnel zone to the real seismic signal within an analysis window at a target location, the model is adjusted and updated until both synthetic and real signals match best. The roughness is evaluated as the correlation coefficient between the generated texture model within the Fresnel zone and the ideal model for a rough texture medium. Our new algorithm is applied to a deep-water 3D seismic volume over offshore Angola, west Africa. The results show that a rough texture is associated with channel sands, whereas a smooth texture with marine shale.

  3. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

  4. Seismicity and seismic hazard parameters evaluation in the island of Crete and the surrounding area inferred from mixed data files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakou, Maria V.; Tsapanos, Theodoros M.

    2000-05-01

    A study of the spatial distribution of seismicity and seismic hazard is undertaken for Crete and the surrounding area (CISA). For the estimation of seismicity parameters, CISA is divided in rectangular subregions. By applying the centroid of strain energy technique, we obtain seismicity parameter maps closely related to the tectonics of the area. The b-value from the magnitude-frequency distribution is calculated by a maximum likelihood technique ( Page, 1968. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 58, 1131-1168), as well as by Gumbel's first asymptotic distribution of extreme values technique. The b-value shows consistent spatial variation along CISA for both techniques. Low b-values are dominant in the western part of CISA, while higher b-values are present to the east side, forming a pattern like a 'sleeping letter S'. This pattern may be attributed to the variation of the regional velocity of deformation. Finally, we performed seismic hazard analysis for shallow and intermediate events. From mixed (historical and instrumental) data files, we estimated the regional maximum magnitude M̂max, as well as the other parameters like the activity rate of seismic events λ̂ and the well-known b̂ parameter ( Kijko and Sellevoll, 1989. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 79, 645-654).

  5. An Ensemble Approach for Improved Short-to-Intermediate-Term Seismic Potential Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huaizhong; Zhu, Qingyong; Zhou, Faren; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Yongxian

    2017-06-01

    Pattern informatics (PI), load/unload response ratio (LURR), state vector (SV), and accelerating moment release (AMR) are four previously unrelated subjects, which are sensitive, in varying ways, to the earthquake's source. Previous studies have indicated that the spatial extent of the stress perturbation caused by an earthquake scales with the moment of the event, allowing us to combine these methods for seismic hazard evaluation. The long-range earthquake forecasting method PI is applied to search for the seismic hotspots and identify the areas where large earthquake could be expected. And the LURR and SV methods are adopted to assess short-to-intermediate-term seismic potential in each of the critical regions derived from the PI hotspots, while the AMR method is used to provide us with asymptotic estimates of time and magnitude of the potential earthquakes. This new approach, by combining the LURR, SV and AMR methods with the choice of identified area of PI hotspots, is devised to augment current techniques for seismic hazard estimation. Using the approach, we tested the strong earthquakes occurred in Yunnan-Sichuan region, China between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. We found that most of the large earthquakes, especially the earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.0 occurred in the seismic hazard regions predicted. Similar results have been obtained in the prediction of annual earthquake tendency in Chinese mainland in 2014 and 2015. The studies evidenced that the ensemble approach could be a useful tool to detect short-to-intermediate-term precursory information of future large earthquakes.

  6. A Comprehensive Approach for Evaluating Network Performance in Surface and Borehole Seismic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, T.; Iannaccone, G.; Zollo, A.; Lomax, A.; Ferulano, M.; Vetri, M.; Barzaghi, L.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new method for evaluating network performance in surface and borehole seismic monitoring. For a specified network geometry, station characteristics and a target monitoring volume, the method determines the lowest magnitude of events that the seismic network is able to detect (Mwdetect) and locate (Mwloc), and estimates the expected location and origin time errors for a specified magnitude. Many features of the seismic signal recorded at a single station are considered, including characteristics of the seismic source, the instrument response, the ambient noise level, and wave propagation in a layered, anelastic medium using asymptotic ray-theory. In application of the methodology, P and S signal-to-noise ratio thresholds are defined and, based on synthetic waveforms, a count is made of the number of stations that can detect and pick P or S phase arrivals in the presence of noise. Then, Mwdetect and Mwloc are determined by the smallest magnitude events, which have a specified number of phase detections and phase picks, respectively. Finally, we map expected location errors using the prediction analysis formalism of Peters and Crosson (1972), extended to include P-wave polarization uncertainties (of both the azimuth and the inclination angles) in addition to velocity model uncertainties and the P- and S-wave arrival time uncertainties for each station of the network. We applied this method to two different network typologies: a local earthquake monitoring network, ISNet (Irpinia Seismic Network) installed along the Campania-Lucania Apennine chain in Southern Italy, and a hypothetic borehole network for monitoring micro-fractures induced during the hydrocarbon extraction process in an oil field. The method can be used to improve existing networks and understand their capabilities, such as for the ISNet case study, or to optimally design the network geometry in specific target regions, as for the borehole network example.

  7. The ESI scale, an ethical approach to the evaluation of seismic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana; Alessio, Giuliana; Guerrieri, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The dissemination of correct information about seismic hazard is an ethical duty of scientific community worldwide. A proper assessment of a earthquake severity and impact should not ignore the evaluation of its intensity, taking into account both the effects on humans, man-made structures, as well as on the natural evironment. We illustrate the new macroseismic scale that measures the intensity taking into account the effects of earthquakes on the environment: the ESI 2007 (Environmental Seismic Intensity) scale (Michetti et al., 2007), ratified by the INQUA (International Union for Quaternary Research) during the XVII Congress in Cairns (Australia). The ESI scale integrates and completes the traditional macroseismic scales, of which it represents the evolution, allowing to assess the intensity parameter also where buildings are absent or damage-based diagnostic elements saturate. Each degree reflects the corresponding strength of an earthquake and the role of ground effects, evaluating the Intensity on the basis of the characteristics and size of primary (e.g. surface faulting and tectonic uplift/subsidence) and secondary effects (e.g. ground cracks, slope movements, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes, anomalous waves, tsunamis, trees shaking, dust clouds and jumping stones). This approach can be considered "ethical" because helps to define the real scenario of an earthquake, regardless of the country's socio-economic conditions and level of development. Here lies the value and the relevance of macroseismic scales even today, one hundred years after the death of Giuseppe Mercalli, who conceived the homonymous scale for the evaluation of earthquake intensity. For an appropriate mitigation strategy in seismic areas, it is fundamental to consider the role played by seismically induced effects on ground, such as active faults (size in length and displacement) and secondary effects (the total area affecting). With these perspectives two different cases

  8. Evaluation of seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings under near-field earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniri, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Near-field ground motions are significantly severely affected on seismic response of structure compared with far-field ground motions, and the reason is that the near-source forward directivity ground motions contain pulse-long periods. Therefore, the cumulative effects of far-fault records are minor. The damage and collapse of engineering structures observed in the last decades' earthquakes show the potential of damage in existing structures under near-field ground motions. One important subject studied by earthquake engineers as part of a performance-based approach is the determination of demand and collapse capacity under near-field earthquake. Different methods for evaluating seismic structural performance have been suggested along with and as part of the development of performance-based earthquake engineering. This study investigated the results of illustrious characteristics of near-fault ground motions on the seismic response of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, by the use of Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis (IDA) method. Due to the fact that various ground motions result in different intensity-versus-response plots, this analysis is done again under various ground motions in order to achieve significant statistical averages. The OpenSees software was used to conduct nonlinear structural evaluations. Numerical modelling showed that near-source outcomes cause most of the seismic energy from the rupture to arrive in a single coherent long-period pulse of motion and permanent ground displacements. Finally, a vulnerability of RC building can be evaluated against pulse-like near-fault ground motions effects.

  9. Evaluation of seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings under near-field earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniri, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Near-field ground motions are significantly severely affected on seismic response of structure compared with far-field ground motions, and the reason is that the near-source forward directivity ground motions contain pulse-long periods. Therefore, the cumulative effects of far-fault records are minor. The damage and collapse of engineering structures observed in the last decades' earthquakes show the potential of damage in existing structures under near-field ground motions. One important subject studied by earthquake engineers as part of a performance-based approach is the determination of demand and collapse capacity under near-field earthquake. Different methods for evaluating seismic structural performance have been suggested along with and as part of the development of performance-based earthquake engineering. This study investigated the results of illustrious characteristics of near-fault ground motions on the seismic response of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, by the use of Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis (IDA) method. Due to the fact that various ground motions result in different intensity-versus-response plots, this analysis is done again under various ground motions in order to achieve significant statistical averages. The OpenSees software was used to conduct nonlinear structural evaluations. Numerical modelling showed that near-source outcomes cause most of the seismic energy from the rupture to arrive in a single coherent long-period pulse of motion and permanent ground displacements. Finally, a vulnerability of RC building can be evaluated against pulse-like near-fault ground motions effects.

  10. A case study of hydrocarbon prospect evaluation in north Exito field by using seismic attribute and seismic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, A.; Fakhri, M. K.; Isniarny, N.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Exito field is one of the oil fields which located in the Mahakam Delta, East Borneo. Geological structures that control in this field is a subducted anticline structure towards the north. The wells drilling in this area is only conducted in the southern part of the Exito field. This study is focused only on the interval Gamma Exito Field. This interval has the most reservoir unit and productive one. The interval Gamma is bounded on the top and the bottom marker. This study aims to interpret seismic attribute and seismic inversion. The seismic attribute that is used in this study is the root mean square (RMS) attribute. The application of this seismic attribute is carried out to see the direction of paleo sediment pattern of the reservoir. On the other hand, the seismic inversion is used to describe the porosity of the reservoir. In addition, the data from the interval Gamma dipmeter is used to validate the analysis of paleo sediment patterns. The result shows that the northern part of the Exito Fields has good prospects in terms of porosity and paleo sediment pattern.

  11. Probabilistic seismic and geotechnical evaluation at a dam site

    SciTech Connect

    Vanmarcke, E.H.

    1983-09-01

    This report examines the use of probabilistic methods in dealing with the problem of potential earthquake-induced liquefaction of foundation soils at an example dam site located in the central United States, near the New Madrid earthquake zone. The example dam is assumed to be a 1-mile long rolled-filled embankment founded on a 100-ft deep deposit of interbedded alluvial gravels, sands, silts, and clays. The study is seen as an opportunity to examine probabilistic concepts and procedures in the framework of an example engineering project. In this context, the main practical value of a probabilistic approach is that it permits more informed decision making about further data acquisition, additional engineering analysis, and if necessary, remedial action. The specific aim of the study is to show how probabilistic procedures complement and help to reinterpret the results of deterministic (earthquake-induced) liquefaction analysis. The procedures focus on evaluating the impact of the different sources of variability (in the input parameters) on the uncertainty in performance predictions, and they permit results of the liquefaction analyses to be seen in the broader framework of assessment of earthquake-related dam failure risks.

  12. Using Ambient Noise for Investigating Cultural Heritage Sites and Evaluating Seismic Site Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, S.; Farrugia, D.; Galea, P. M.; Ruben, B. P., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    Recordings of ambient noise as well as use of the HVSR technique represent a common tool for evaluating seismic site response. In this study we applied such techniques to several cultural heritage sites located on the Maltese archipelago (Central Mediterranean). In particular, two of the Maltese watchtowers, built by the Knights of St. John between 1637 and 1659, were investigated together with the megalithic temple site of Mnajdra. Array data were acquired using the Micromed SoilSpy Rosina™ equipped with 4.5 Hz vertical geophones, setting the array in an L-shaped configuration. The Extended Spatial Autocorrelation (ESAC) technique was used to extract Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves. Moreover, single-station data close to the array was collected using a Tromino 3-component seismograph (www.tromino.eu), and the H/V curves were extracted. The dispersion curves and the H/V curves were jointly inverted using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain the shear-wave velocity profile. A fixed number of layers was used in the inversion and ranges for the layer thickness, P-wave and S-wave velocity, and density were specified. The obtained velocity profiles were used to compute the amplification function for the site based on the square root of the effective seismic impedance, also known as the quarter-wavelength approximation. This was used in the simulation of ground motion parameters at the site for various earthquakes using the stochastic one-dimensional site response analysis algorithm, Extended Source Simulation (EXSIM). In addition, the fundamental period and the damping ratio of the watchtowers was obtained by recording ambient vibrations. In the megalithic temples we were also able to evaluate the coverage of the soil deposits within the structure, comparing our results with previous study that used different geophysical techniques. In conclusion, this study enables us to map the seismic amplification hazard and provides primary data on the seismic risk assessment of

  13. [Independent ethics committees for clinical research in Argentina. An evaluation and a system to guarantee their independence].

    PubMed

    Gonorazky, Sergio E

    2008-01-01

    The Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica de la República Argentina (ANMAT) requires that an independent ethics committee of sponsors and/or researchers must previously evaluate and approve all the new pharmacological research protocols carried out on human beings. However, due to the lucrative nature of the evaluation, and because the selection of the Independent Ethics Committee is carried out by the sponsors and/or researchers, the assumed autonomy of the former can be reduced to merely a relationship of "service provider-customer". The Institutional Review Board of the Mar del Plata s Community Hospital has evaluated, between 2005 and 2006, thirty three research protocols (with their corresponding information sheets for patients and informed consent forms) previously approved by a non-institutional Independent Ethics Committee. The median number of objections made by the Institutional Review Board, which prompted the previously mentioned protocols to be modified in order to be approved, was of three per protocol. In other words, the accreditation of an Independent Ethics Committee requires a system that guarantees actual independence from the sponsors and/or researchers, as well as management control mechanisms that may lead them into an eventual loss of accreditation. Several measures are proposed in order to correct the deficiencies of the present system.

  14. A Study on Seismic Hazard Evaluation at the Nagaoka CO2 Storage Site, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, S.

    2015-12-01

    RITE carried out the first Japanese pilot-scale CO2 sequestration project from July, 2003 to January, 2005 in Nagaoka City.Supercritical CO2 was injected into an onshore saline aquifer at a depth of 1,100m. CO2 was injected at a rate of 10,400 tonnes. 'Mid Niigata Prefecture Earthquake in 2004' (Mw6.6) and 'The Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007' (Mw6.6) occurred during the CO2 injection-test and after the completion of injection-test. Japan is one of the world's major countries with frequent earthquakes.This paper presents a result of seismic response analysis, and reports of seismic hazard evaluation of a reservoir and a caprock. In advance of dynamic response analysis, the earthquake motion recorded on the earth surface assumed the horizontally layer model, and set up the input wave from a basement layer by SHAKE ( = One-Dimensional Seismic Response Analysis). This wave was inputted into the analysis model and the equation of motion was solved using the direct integral calculus by Newmark Beta Method. In Seismic Response Analysis, authors have used Multiple Yield Model (MYM, Iwata, et al., 2013), which can respond also to complicated geological structure. The intensity deformation property of the foundation added the offloading characteristic to the composition rule of Duncan-Chang model in consideration of confining stress dependency, and used for and carried out the nonlinear repetition model. And the deformation characteristic which made it depend on confining stress with the cyclic loadings and un-loadings, and combined Mohr-Coulomb's law as a strength characteristic.The maximum dynamic shearing strain of caprock was generated about 1.1E-04 after the end of an earthquake. Although the dynamic safety factor was 1.925 on the beginning, after the end of an earthquake fell 0.05 point. The dynamic safety factor of reservoir fell to 1.20 from 1.29. As a result of CO2 migration monitoring by the seismic cross-hole tomography, CO2 has stopped in the reservoir

  15. Independent Evaluators of Federal Programs: Approaches, Devices, and Examples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-16

    Stufflebeam , “Joint Standards for Education Evaluation,” in Encyclopedia of Evaluation, pp. 213-214. 18 Among the many GAO products that demonstrate...28 See Stufflebeam , “Joint Committee for Education Evaluation.” 29 Joint Committee, Program Evaluation Standards, pp. 223-224

  16. ESP Toolbox: A Computational Framework for Precise, Scale-Independent Analysis of Bulk Elastic and Seismic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. E.; Vel, S. S.; Cook, A. C.; Song, W. J.; Gerbi, C. C.; Okaya, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Owing to the abundance of highly anisotropic minerals in the crust, the Voigt and Reuss bounds on the seismic velocities can be separated by more than 1 km/s. These bounds are determined by modal mineralogy and crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) of the constituent minerals, but where the true velocities lie between these bounds is determined by other fabric parameters such as the shapes, shape-preferred orientations, and spatial arrangements of grains. Thus, the calculation of accurate bulk stiffness relies on explicitly treating the grain-scale heterogeneity, and the same principle applies at larger scales, for example calculating accurate bulk stiffness for a crustal volume with varying proportions and distributions of folds or shear zones. We have developed stand-alone GUI software - ESP Toolbox - for the calculation of 3D bulk elastic and seismic properties of heterogeneous and polycrystalline materials using image or EBSD data. The GUI includes a number of different homogenization techniques, including Voigt, Reuss, Hill, geometric mean, self-consistent and asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) methods. The AEH method, which uses a finite element mesh, is most accurate since it explicitly accounts for elastic interactions of constituent minerals/phases. The user need only specify the microstructure and material properties of the minerals/phases. We use the Toolbox to explore changes in bulk elasticity and related seismic anisotropy caused by specific variables, including: (a) the quartz alpha-beta phase change in rocks with varying proportions of quartz, (b) changes in modal mineralogy and CPO fabric that occur during progressive deformation and metamorphism, and (c) shear zones of varying thickness, abundance and geometry in continental crust. The Toolbox allows rapid sensitivity analysis around these and other variables, and the resulting bulk stiffness matrices can be used to populate volumes for synthetic wave propagation experiments that

  17. Seismic stability evaluation of Alben Barkley Lock and Dam Project. Volume 1. Summary report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, R.E.; Bluhm, P.F.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of seismological, geological, laboratory, field, and analytical investigations conducted to evaluate the seismic stability of two earth embankment sections of the Alben Barkley Lock and Dam Project, Kentucky. These represent typical sections of the powerhouse/switch-yard area and the main embankment. Detailed documentation of each of the major topical areas of this study are contained in Volumes 2 through 5 of this series of reports. The design earthquake, from the New Madrid Seismic Zone, had a body-wave magnitude of 7.5. Of particular interest in this study, was the seismic performance of silty sands in the foundation and their overall effect on the stability of these embankment sections. The results of this study indicate that large scale deformations and/or slope failure which would result in the loss of reservoir are not deformations on the order of 2 to 3 ft are expected. These deformations are relatively small in light of the fact that 28 ft of freeboard are expected to be available during the design earthquake.

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Lecture versus Independent Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaRosa, Debra A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The impacts of independent study and the lecture approach on student test scores and study time were compared for 205 medical students studying surgery. Learning objective, multiple-choice, and essay questions were developed for selected topics related to surgery. Findings support increased individual active learning strategies and decreased…

  19. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for reservoir characterization. [Quarterly report], July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.O.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this three-year research program is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and pore fluid permeability. This work involves a balanced study of advanced theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of reservoir wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing of measurements at controlled sites as well as in full-scale reservoirs. This reservoir probing concept is aimed at demonstrating unprecedented high-resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. Progress reports are presented by Task 3 conduct full-scale experimental field test and Task 4 data processing studies. For Task 3, interwell seismic experiments were conducted in the month of September at the University of Oklahoma Gypsy test site which is located in Pawnee County, Oklahoma. During the field test a full suite of interwell seismic data were acquired and will be used to extract rock porosity and permeability. In particular, interwell seismic experiments were conducted using two borehole hydrophone arrays (streamers) consisting of twelve detector channels (i.e., simultaneous source-to-detector measurements were made in two boreholes pairs having different separation distances) for source-independent seismic attenuation and dispersion studies.

  20. Grouted support plates in reactor buildings at the Savannah River Site: Field investigation, tests, and seismic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.; Maryak, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) conducted a seismic evaluation of the grouted support plates in the reactor buildings at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in response to issues raised from an earlier analysis. Researchers conducted the tests in a reactor building that was no longer in use and transferred the results to other reactor buildings. This paper discusses tests, results, analysis, and modifications made to achieve seismic qualification. 4 refs.

  1. Grouted support plates in reactor buildings at the Savannah River Site: Field investigation, tests, and seismic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.; Maryak, M.E.

    1991-12-31

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) conducted a seismic evaluation of the grouted support plates in the reactor buildings at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in response to issues raised from an earlier analysis. Researchers conducted the tests in a reactor building that was no longer in use and transferred the results to other reactor buildings. This paper discusses tests, results, analysis, and modifications made to achieve seismic qualification. 4 refs.

  2. Seismic stability evaluation of Alben Barkley Lock and Dam roject; Volume 5. Stability evaluation of geotechnical structures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bluhm, P.F.; Wahl, R.E.; Olsen, R.S.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the procedures used to interpret the data obtained from field investigations to determine the liquefaction potential and post-earthquake strengths of the foundation soils at the Alben Barkley Lock and Dam Project, Kentucky. The basic components of the report include the interpretation of field data to characterize the site and evaluate the foundation stratigraphy dynamic response analyses of two representative embankment sections, the analysis and interpretation of Cone and Standard Penetration Test data to determine the cyclic strengths for the evaluation of the liquefaction potential and the post earthquake strengths were input to the seismic stability analysis documented in Volume 5 of this series of reports.

  3. Real-time Seismicity Evaluation as a Tool for the Earthquake and Tsunami Short-Term Hazard Assessment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic activity is a 3-D process varying in the space-time-magnitude domains. When in a target area the short-term activity deviates significantly from the usual (background) seismicity, then the modes of activity may include swarms, temporary quiescence, foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, doublets and multiplets. This implies that making decision for civil protection purposes requires short-term seismic hazard assessment and evaluation. When a sizable earthquake takes place the critical question is about the nature of the event: mainshock or a foreshock which foreshadows the occurrence of a biger one? Also, the seismicity increase or decrease in a target area may signify either precursory changes or just transient seismicity variations (e.g. swarms) which do not conclude with a strong earthquake. Therefore, the real-time seismicity evaluation is the backbone of the short-term hazard assessment. The algorithm FORMA (Foreshock-Mainshock-Aftershock) is presented which detects and updates automatically and in near real-time significant variations of the seismicity according to the earthquake data flow from the monitoring center. The detection of seismicity variations is based on an expert system which for a given target area indicates the mode of seismicity from the variation of two parameters: the seismicity rate, r, and the b-value of the magnitude-frequency relation. Alert levels are produced according to the significance levels of the changes of r and b. The good performance of FORMA was verified retrospectively in several earthquake cases, e.g. for the L’ Aquila, Italy, 2009 earthquake sequence (Mmax 6.3) (Papadopoulos et al., 2010). Real-time testing was executed during January 2010 with the strong earthquake activity (Mmax 5.6) in the Corinth Rift, Central Greece. Evaluation outputs were publicly documented on a nearly daily basis with successful results. Evaluation of coastal and submarine earthquake activity is also of crucial importance for the

  4. Independent Panel Evaluation of Dry Sludge PISA Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.F.

    1999-10-20

    Dr. Kirk Yeager and Mr. Marvin Banks from Energetic Material Research and Technology Center (EMRTC) evaluated the Savannah River Site (SRS) efforts in the Dry Sludge program. They evaluated four program areas: energetic material formation, stability, initiation, and propagation. The panel evaluation included a site visit (July 13, 1999 and July 14, 1999) as well as a review of various reports and presentations by researchers involved in the program.

  5. Seismic Stability Evaluation of Alben Barkley Dam and Lake Project. Volume 2. Geological and Seismological Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    On his second visit to the United States, Sir Charles Lyell spent a few days in the New Madrid area late in March, 1846, and reported this earthquake...agreed exactly with the time when my companion had felt the motion. ( Lyell , Sir Charles : A Second Visit to the United States of America, Second...34 (in preparation), Paper presented at the New Madrid Seismic Zone Symposium, Cape Girardeau, Mo. Stearns, Richard G., and Wilson, Charles W., Jr. 1972

  6. Navy's "Full Ship Shock Trials" as Opportunities for USGS/CTBTO Seismic System Evaluation and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jih, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    as the 100-ton "Omega" explosions carried out by the United States and Kazakhstan in 1997-2001 for the purpose of destroying the unused Soviets shafts and adits at Semipalatinsk. Navy's FSSTs have similar potential for evaluation and calibration of the seismic (and/or hydroacoustic) systems operated by the USGS and CTBTO.

  7. An engineering rock classification to evaluate seismic rock-fall susceptibility and its application to the Wasatch front

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, E.L.; Noble, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    The authors examine the characteristics of rock slopes that make them susceptible to failures caused by earthquakes. They discuss these characteristics, namely the fracture and joint properties that define the structural behavior of a rock mass at the surface, and then present an empirical engineering classification or ranking system that rates the relative seismic susceptibility of rock masses. They next apply the engineering classification in a case study of seismically-triggered rock falls in the Mammoth Lakes area. The engineering classification is correlated with the concentration of seismically-triggered rock falls, and the resulting statistical model can be used to predict the probability of a rock fall for a given magnitude earthquake. Finally, they apply the classification and probability analysis to similar slopes in the Wasatch Range near Salt Lake City and evaluate the relative susceptibility of slopes in this area to seismically-induced failure.

  8. Independent seismic evaluation of the 24-580-980 south connector ramps

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.J.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Jarpe, S.P.; Foxall, W.

    1997-05-01

    The interchange for highways 24, 580, and 980 (the Stack) in Oakland, California, lies 4.3 km from the surface expression of the Hayward fault and 26 km from the San Andreas fault. The purpose of this project is to compute realistic, linear, strong ground motion (rock outcrop motion) likely to affect this interchange during a hazardous earth-quake on the Hayward fault. With the exception of very long period ( >20 sec) motion, the Hayward fault will be the controlling deterministic ground motion hazard to this structure. We identified a magnitude M = 7.25 earthquake that ruptures 82 km of the Hayward fault as the principal hazard to the Stack; it has a moment of 8.5 x 10{sup 26} dyne-cm. Moment magnitudes (Hanks and Kanamori, 1979) are used in this report. Our goal is to produce realistic synthesized ground motion for three components and the full wavetrain and for frequencies from 0.05 to 33.0 Hz.

  9. Proceedings of Conference XIII, evaluation of regional seismic hazards and risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charonnat, Barbara B.

    1981-01-01

    The participants in the conference concluded that a great deal of useful research has been performed in the national Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program by USGS and non-USGS scientists and engineers and that the state-of-knowledge concerning the evaluation of seismic hazards and risk has been advanced substantially. Many of the technical issues raised during the conference are less controversial now because of new information and insights gained during the first three years of the expanded research program conducted under the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act. Utilization of research results by many groups of users has also improved during this period and further improvement in utilization appears likely. Additional research is still required to resolve more completely the many complex technical issues summarized above and described in the papers contained in the proceedings. Improved certainty of research results on the evaluation of regional seismic hazards and risk is required before full utilization can be made by state and local governments who deal. with people frequently having a different perception of the hazard and its risk to them than that perceived by scientists or engineers. Each of the papers contained in the proceedings contain throughtful recommendations for improving the state-of-knowledge. Two papers, in particular, focussed on this particular theme. The first was presented by Lynn Sykes in the Geologic Keynote Address. He identified geographic areas throughout the world which may be considered as counterparts or analogues of seismic zones in the United States. He concluded that much can be learned about prediction, tectonic settings, earthquake hazards, and earthquake risk for sites in the United States by studying their tectonic analogues in other countries. The second paper was presented by John Blume in the Engineering Keynote Address. He suggested 20 specific research topics that, in his opinion, will significantly advance the state

  10. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL.

  11. An independent evaluation of the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Surovell, Todd A; Holliday, Vance T; Gingerich, Joseph A M; Ketron, Caroline; Haynes, C Vance; Hilman, Ilene; Wagner, Daniel P; Johnson, Eileen; Claeys, Philippe

    2009-10-27

    Based on elevated concentrations of a set of "impact markers" at the onset of the Younger Dryas stadial from sedimentary contexts across North America, Firestone, Kennett, West, and others have argued that 12.9 ka the Earth experienced an impact by an extraterrestrial body, an event that had devastating ecological consequences for humans, plants, and animals in the New World [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:16016-16021]. Herein, we report the results of an independent analysis of magnetic minerals and microspherules from seven sites of similar age, including two examined by Firestone et al. We were unable to reproduce any results of the Firestone et al. study and find no support for Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact.

  12. Covariance Matrix Evaluations for Independent Mass Fission Yields

    SciTech Connect

    Terranova, N.; Serot, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.

    2015-01-15

    Recent needs for more accurate fission product yields include covariance information to allow improved uncertainty estimations of the parameters used by design codes. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility to generate more reliable and complete uncertainty information on independent mass fission yields. Mass yields covariances are estimated through a convolution between the multi-Gaussian empirical model based on Brosa's fission modes, which describe the pre-neutron mass yields, and the average prompt neutron multiplicity curve. The covariance generation task has been approached using the Bayesian generalized least squared method through the CONRAD code. Preliminary results on mass yields variance-covariance matrix will be presented and discussed from physical grounds in the case of {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f) reactions.

  13. An independent evaluation of the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Surovell, Todd A.; Holliday, Vance T.; Gingerich, Joseph A. M.; Ketron, Caroline; Haynes, C. Vance; Hilman, Ilene; Wagner, Daniel P.; Johnson, Eileen; Claeys, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Based on elevated concentrations of a set of “impact markers” at the onset of the Younger Dryas stadial from sedimentary contexts across North America, Firestone, Kennett, West, and others have argued that 12.9 ka the Earth experienced an impact by an extraterrestrial body, an event that had devastating ecological consequences for humans, plants, and animals in the New World [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:16016–16021]. Herein, we report the results of an independent analysis of magnetic minerals and microspherules from seven sites of similar age, including two examined by Firestone et al. We were unable to reproduce any results of the Firestone et al. study and find no support for Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact. PMID:19822748

  14. Numerical evaluation of seismic response of shallow foundation on loose silt and silty sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, Ali; Golshani, Aliakbar; Bagheri, Mohsen

    2014-03-01

    This study includes the results of a set of numerical simulations carried out for sands containing plastic/non-plastic fines, and silts with relative densities of approximately 30-40% under different surcharges on the shallow foundation using FLAC 2D. Each model was subjected to three ground motion events, obtained by scaling the amplitude of the El Centro (1940), Kobe (1995) and Kocaeli (1999) Q12earthquakes. Dynamic behaviour of loose deposits underlying shallow foundations is evaluated through fully coupled nonlinear effective stress dynamic analyses. Effects of nonlinear soil structure interaction (SSI) were also considered by using interface elements. This parametric study evaluates the effects of soil type, structure weight, liquefiable soil layer thickness, event parameters (e.g., moment magnitude of earthquake ( M w ), peak ground acceleration PGA, PGV/PGA ratio and the duration of strong motion ( D 5-95) and their interactions on the seismic responses. Investigation on the effects of these parameters and their complex interactions can be a valuable tool to gain new insights for improved seismic design and construction.

  15. Evaluation of seismic hazard in Marmara region based on the new datasets developed in the EU-MARSITE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesetyan, Karin; Akinci, Aybige; Betül Demircioglu, Mine

    2016-04-01

    Several studies with various degrees of sophistication have been conducted for the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard in the Marmara Region (e.g. Atakan et al., 2002; Erdik et al., 2004; Kalkan et al., 2008; Gülerce and Ocak, 2013),. The common point of these studies was that they have all addressed the hazard in the region in terms of both time-independent probabilistic (simple Poissonian) and time-dependent probabilistic (renewal) models. This tendency was governed by the following considerations: 1) the region has experienced a considerable number of large magnitude events in the history, which have also shown some periodicity; 2) the existing seismic gap and the post-1999 earthquake stress transfer at the western portion of the 1000km-long NAFZ indicates a high probability of having a M>7 event in the near future close to the city of Istanbul; 3)the seismic history of the region was well documented and studied and there have been, especially in the aftermath of the 1999 Kocaeli and Düzce events, several geological investigations both on-shore and off-shore aiming to obtain a regional fault model as complete as possible, which were reflected in the fault segmentation models of the PSHA studies. Task 5.5. of the MARSITE Project aimed at a reassessment of the probabilistic seismic hazard of the Marmara region in the light of the new datasets compiled in the project. The improvement of the knowledge on the seismotectonic regime of the Marmara region paved the path for the development of alternative source models for the improvement of the existing probabilistic seismic hazard maps. In this connection, the most recent findings and outputs of different work packages of the project, in terms of seismicity, fault segmentation and slip rate data are utilized. A revised fault segementation model and associated Poisson and renewal recurrence models as well as recently emerged global and regional ground motion prediction equations are used to assessed the seismic

  16. Soil depth mapping using seismic surface waves: Evaluation on eroded loess covered hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardie, Severine; Samyn, Kevin; Cerdan, Olivier; Grandjean, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The purposes of the multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project are the integration and improvement of in situ and proximal technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators. Foreseen developments concern sensor technologies, data processing and their integration to applications of (digital) soil mapping (DSM). Among available techniques, the seismic one is, in this study, particularly tested for characterising soil vulnerability to erosion. The spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method is an in situ seismic technique used for evaluation of the stiffnesses (G) and associated depth in layered systems. A profile of Rayleigh wave velocity versus frequency, i.e., the dispersion curve, is calculated from each recorded seismogram before to be inverted to obtain the vertical profile of shear wave velocity Vs. Then, the soil stiffness can easily be calculated from the shear velocity if the material density is estimated, and the soil stiffness as a function of depth can be obtained. This last information can be a good indicator to identify the soil bedrock limit. SASW measurements adapted to soil characterisation is proposed in the DIGISOIL project, as it produces in an easy and quick way a 2D map of the soil. This system was tested for the digital mapping of the depth of loamy material in a catchment of the European loess belt. The validation of this methodology has been performed with the realisation of several acquisitions along the seismic profiles: - Several boreholes were drilled until the bedrock, permitting to get the geological features of the soil and the depth of the bedrock; - Several laboratory measurements of various parameters were done on samples taken from the boreholes at various depths, such as dry density, solid density, and water content; - Dynamic penetration tests were also conducted along the seismic profile, until the bedrock is attained. Some empirical correlations between the parameters measured with laboratory tests

  17. Seismic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Textron Systems (Textron) has been using geophones for target detection for many years. This sensing capability was utilized for detection and classification purposes only. Recently Textron has been evaluating multiaxis geophones to calculate bearings and track targets more specifically personnel. This capability will not only aid the system in locating personnel in bearing space or cartesian space but also enhance detection and reduce false alarms. Textron has been involved in the testing and evaluation of several sensors at multiple sites. One of the challenges of calculating seismic bearing is an adequate signal to noise ratio. The sensor signal to noise ratio is a function of sensor coupling to the ground, seismic propagation and range to target. The goals of testing at multiple sites are to gain a good understanding of the maximum and minimum ranges for bearing and detection and to exploit that information to tailor sensor system emplacement to achieve desired performance. Test sites include 10A Site Devens, MA, McKenna Airfield Ft. Benning, GA and Yuma Proving Ground Yuma, AZ. Geophone sensors evaluated include a 28 Hz triax spike, a 15 Hz triax spike and a hybrid triax spike consisting of a 10 Hz vertical geophone and two 28 Hz horizontal geophones. The algorithm uses raw seismic data to calculate the bearings. All evaluated sensors have triaxial geophone configuration mounted to a spike housing/fixture. The suite of sensors also compares various types of geophones to evaluate benefits in lower bandwidth. The data products of these tests include raw geophone signals, seismic features, seismic bearings, seismic detection and GPS position truth data. The analyses produce Probability of Detection vs range, bearing accuracy vs range, and seismic feature level vs range. These analysis products are compared across test sites and sensor types.

  18. Evaluating Late Pleistocene and Holocene Rupture, Seismic Hazards and Ground Motion in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmauder, Gretchen Cathleen

    Chapter two in this study is a reevaluation of active faulting across the Tahoe basin a combination of airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) imagery, high-resolution seismic CHIRP profiles, multibeam bathymetric mapping, and field mapping. The combined lateral and vertical resolution has allowed a straight forward identification of the landward extension of fault scarps associated with the three major active fault zones in the Tahoe basin: the West Tahoe-Dollar Point fault, Stateline-North Tahoe fault, and Incline Village fault. Chapter 3 in this study evaluates seismic hazard within the basin as a result of earthquake rupture on the faults identified in the first part of this study. The Ground motions modeled using Nevada ShakeZoning, a physics-based method incorporating geotechnical information and basin shape determined from geophysical methods, peak ground velocity (PGV) maps considerably different (and more accurate) than those obtained from ShakeMap, a standard USGS tool for ground motion estimation. Although ShakeMap over-predicts ground shaking outside the Lake Tahoe basin, it substantially under-predicts ground motions within the basin. eWave propagation models indicate strong, sustained shaking in the basin, threatening several communities. Annual rates of exceedance maps show the higher rates of exceedance of key ground-motion levels strongly correlate with the basin shape. The purpose of this study is to provide both better ground motion estimates and more useful shaking maps to local communities. Chapter 4 begins the validation process of the models developed as part of Chapter 3 to events recorded at Nevada Seismological Laboratory seismic stations.

  19. Development of Independence: Locus of Control, Achievement Motivation and Self vs. Adult Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickie, Jane R.; Mast, Vicki A.

    The development and interrelationship of various measures of independence in children ages 3-12 are examined. Subjects were scored on measures of locus of control and achievement motivation and were rated by teachers on independence and achievement. Subjects were also scored on reliance on adult evaluation and self-evaluation. The results showed…

  20. NRC-BNL Benchmark Program on Evaluation of Methods for Seismic Analysis of Coupled Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chokshi, N.; DeGrassi, G.; Xu, J.

    1999-03-24

    A NRC-BNL benchmark program for evaluation of state-of-the-art analysis methods and computer programs for seismic analysis of coupled structures with non-classical damping is described. The program includes a series of benchmarking problems designed to investigate various aspects of complexities, applications and limitations associated with methods for analysis of non-classically damped structures. Discussions are provided on the benchmarking process, benchmark structural models, and the evaluation approach, as well as benchmarking ground rules. It is expected that the findings and insights, as well as recommendations from this program will be useful in developing new acceptance criteria and providing guidance for future regulatory activities involving licensing applications of these alternate methods to coupled systems.

  1. NRC-BNL BENCHMARK PROGRAM ON EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF COUPLED SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.

    1999-08-15

    A NRC-BNL benchmark program for evaluation of state-of-the-art analysis methods and computer programs for seismic analysis of coupled structures with non-classical damping is described. The program includes a series of benchmarking problems designed to investigate various aspects of complexities, applications and limitations associated with methods for analysis of non-classically damped structures. Discussions are provided on the benchmarking process, benchmark structural models, and the evaluation approach, as well as benchmarking ground rules. It is expected that the findings and insights, as well as recommendations from this program will be useful in developing new acceptance criteria and providing guidance for future regulatory activities involving licensing applications of these alternate methods to coupled systems.

  2. An Evaluation of Seismic Reflection Studies in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGovern, Thomas F.; Introduction by Pankratz, L. W.; Ackermann, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a total geophysical evaluation of Yucca Mountain for use as a Nuclear Waste Repository the seismic reflection technique has been applied. This study has been conducted to analyze the historical and technical efforts which have been used by three geophysical contractors employing a wide variety of techniques ranging from the most simple to very elaborate 3-D surveys. In each case elaborate noise studies were conducted, and based upon their evaluation parameters were chosen for multifold CDP recording. In every case, the signal-to-noise ratio was such that no reflections were discernable. Since the reflections cannot be separated from the noise even using very elaborate noise suppression techniques and up to 384 fold multiplicity it is apparent that in this volcanic terrain reflection surveys, can not work.

  3. Evaluation of seismic damage to bridges and highway systems in Shelby County, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernigan, John Bailey

    Past earthquakes have demonstrated that bridges are one of the most vulnerable components of highway transportation systems. In addition to bridges, roadways may also be subject to damage, particularly in an area prone to earthquake-induced liquefaction. As a consequence, the highway transportation systems after an earthquake might be impaired and the post-earthquake emergency response might be compromised. Furthermore, the impact on the regional economy might be very significant from the damage to highway systems. Since highway transportation systems are critical lifelines for people living in an urban area, it is important to evaluate the vulnerability of bridges and highway systems in earthquake-prone regions. Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee are located close to the southwestern segment of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). This zone produced three of the largest earthquakes in North America in 1811--1812. Presently, the NMSZ is still active and is considered by engineers, seismologists, and public officials as the most hazardous seismic zone in the central and eastern United States. Bridges in the Memphis area were generally not designed for seismic resistance until 1990. Therefore, the majority of existing bridges might suffer damage from earthquakes occurring in the NMSZ. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the expected damage to bridges and roadways on the major routes in Memphis and Shelby County resulting from New Madrid earthquakes with the aid of geographic information system (GIS) technology. The road network selected for this study includes all the Interstate highway system, all the primary and secondary routes maintained by the state, and most of the major arterial routes. There are 452 bridges on the selected roadway systems and data pertinent to these bridges and roadway systems were collected and implemented as a GIS database. The bridges in the Memphis area were classified into several types and damage states were determined

  4. Implementation of seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    In the fall of 1992, a draft of the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the Department of Energy (DOE) High-level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances was issued. The guidelines were prepared by the Tanks Seismic Experts Panel (TSEP) and this task was sponsored by DOE, Environmental Management. The TSEP is comprised of a number of consultants known for their knowledge of seismic ground motion and expertise in the analysis of structures, systems and components subjected to seismic loads. The development of these guidelines was managed by staff from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Engineering Research and Applications Division, Department of Nuclear Energy. This paper describes the process used to incorporate the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the DOE High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances into the design criteria for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Project at the Hanford Site. This project will design and construct six new high-level waste tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. This paper also discusses the vehicles used to ensure compliance to these guidelines throughout Title 1 and Title 2 design phases of the project as well as the strategy used to ensure consistent and cost-effective application of the guidelines by the structural analysts. The paper includes lessons learned and provides recommendations for other tank design projects which might employ the TSEP guidelines.

  5. Relative Evaluation of the Independent Volume Measures of Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    MUNSON,DARRELL E.

    2000-08-01

    Throughout the construction and operation of the caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), three types of cavern volume measurements have been maintained. These are: (1) the calculated solution volume determined during initial construction by solution mining and any subsequent solutioning during oil transfers, (2) the calculated sonar volume determined through sonar surveys of the cavern dimensions, and (3) the direct metering of oil to determine the volume of the cavern occupied by the oil. The objective of this study is to compare these measurements to each other and determine, if possible, the uncertainties associated with a given type of measurement. Over time, each type of measurement has acquired a customary, or an industry accepted, stated uncertainty. This uncertainty is not necessarily the result of a technical analysis. Ultimately there is one definitive quantity, the oil volume measure by the oil custody transfer meters, taken by all parties to the transfer as the correct ledger amount and for which the SPR Project is accountable. However, subsequent transfers within a site may not be with meters of the same accuracy. In this study, a very simple theory of the perfect relationship is used to evaluate the correlation (deviation) of the various measures. This theory permits separation of uncertainty and bias. Each of the four SPR sites are examined, first with comparisons between the calculated solution volumes and the sonar volumes determined during construction, then with comparisons of the oil inventories and the sonar volumes obtained either by surveying through brine prior to oil filling or through the oil directly.

  6. Simulation of complete seismic surveys for evaluation of experiment design and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Oezdenvar, T.; McMechan, G.A.; Chaney, P.

    1996-03-01

    Synthesis of complete seismic survey data sets allows analysis and optimization of all stages in an acquisition/processing sequence. The characteristics of available survey designs, parameter choices, and processing algorithms may be evaluated prior to field acquisition to produce a composite system in which all stages have compatible performance; this maximizes the cost effectiveness for a given level of accuracy, or for targets with specific characteristics. Data sets synthesized for three salt structures provide representative comparisons of time and depth migration, post-stack and prestack processing, and illustrate effects of varying recording aperture and shot spacing, iterative focusing analysis, and the interaction of migration algorithms with recording aperture. A final example demonstrates successful simulation of both 2-D acquisition and processing of a real data line over a salt pod in the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Seismic review of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Ma, S.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-11-15

    A limited seismic reassessment of Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The reassessment focused generally on the reactor coolant pressure boundary and on those systems and components necessary to shut down the reactor safety and to maintain it in a safe shutdown condition following a postulated earthquake characterized by a peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.22 g. Unlike a comprehensive design analysis, the reassessment was limited to structures and components deemed representative of generic classes. Conclusions and recommendations about the ability of selected structures, equipment, and piping to withstand the postulated earthquake are presented. 86 refs., 44 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Seismic Stability Evaluation of Folsom Dam and Reservoir Project. Report 6. Right and Left Wing Dams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Al 6 /4 4-t,- E! __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ .11’, Akio’ :,jon qt)cc..t’ A___ & 0 sv,& SECTON THRU ALIP BUCKErT CTO cr. ix0 Figure 9. Typical sections of...revel Woar-t ai poer929. o 5 Al 1 holes are (oaeaf Und .or l shafes sv 6 All ?F b009 0 .4r d14lodp a1 F010 31-I, 211. MIS G 7-*0mt *714:relar ew-r. p...FOR GRAVEL ___u - 6 /(used in this study) m!rom Seedl i . et al . 1983) , 0 .2 1 1.4 1 Cn Figure A4. Cn curves used in the seismic stability evaluation of

  9. Evaluation of fall and fall recovery in a simulated seismic environment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O; Akar, Hassan A; Assaf, Elie H; Al-Qadiri, Mohamad N; Youssef, Elssy G

    2010-01-01

    Fall-related injuries, disabilities, and fatalities are known to seriously affect the healthcare and industry sectors. Nevertheless, an abled individual, as well as a trained senior citizen, is believed to be capable of withstanding and overcoming unusual environmental variations in terms of postural stability and balance. Understanding the biomechanics of fall and fall recovery through quantitative measurements could provide academic and methodical means to maintain human postural stability, of various ages, in such environments. This study assesses human performance and endurance in the most hazardous environment of a simulated violent seismic activity of a magnitude of 6.5 degrees on the Richter's scale. The objective is to evaluate fall and fall recovery in young abled adults using dynamic plantar pressure measurements. The obtained results support the hypothesis that falls in young adults could be prevented via exercise intervention programs. Further investigation is done by our research group to validate the same concept for senior citizens.

  10. Investigations on local seismic phases and evaluation of body waves magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffet, Stephane; Massinon, Bernard; Mechler, Pierre; Riviere, Florence

    1988-09-01

    For near events, synthetics seismograms are computed using BOUCHON's method, for various heterogeneous structures. A special emphasis is put on topographic irregularities. This work was presented in the poster session at the 10th annual DARPA/AFGL SEISMIC RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (2 to 5 May 1988). The programs used for this work are now implemented on our new SUN 3/280 system. For teleseisms, the main effort was first to obtain attenuation models between Eastern Kazakh and several regions in France. The application of those results to source functions for a series of events recorded in France is currently being done. A first by-product from this study was a re-evaluation of the magnitude of all events and a determination of stations corrections.

  11. Pattern recognition applied to seismic signals of Llaima volcano (Chile): An evaluation of station-dependent classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curilem, Millaray; Huenupan, Fernando; Beltrán, Daniel; San Martin, Cesar; Fuentealba, Gustavo; Franco, Luis; Cardona, Carlos; Acuña, Gonzalo; Chacón, Max; Khan, M. Salman; Becerra Yoma, Nestor

    2016-04-01

    Automatic pattern recognition applied to seismic signals from volcanoes may assist seismic monitoring by reducing the workload of analysts, allowing them to focus on more challenging activities, such as producing reports, implementing models, and understanding volcanic behaviour. In a previous work, we proposed a structure for automatic classification of seismic events in Llaima volcano, one of the most active volcanoes in the Southern Andes, located in the Araucanía Region of Chile. A database of events taken from three monitoring stations on the volcano was used to create a classification structure, independent of which station provided the signal. The database included three types of volcanic events: tremor, long period, and volcano-tectonic and a contrast group which contains other types of seismic signals. In the present work, we maintain the same classification scheme, but we consider separately the stations information in order to assess whether the complementary information provided by different stations improves the performance of the classifier in recognising seismic patterns. This paper proposes two strategies for combining the information from the stations: i) combining the features extracted from the signals from each station and ii) combining the classifiers of each station. In the first case, the features extracted from the signals from each station are combined forming the input for a single classification structure. In the second, a decision stage combines the results of the classifiers for each station to give a unique output. The results confirm that the station-dependent strategies that combine the features and the classifiers from several stations improves the classification performance, and that the combination of the features provides the best performance. The results show an average improvement of 9% in the classification accuracy when compared with the station-independent method.

  12. Seismic hazard evaluation for the high-flux isotope reactor (HFIR) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.K.; Toro, G.R. )

    1991-09-01

    This study investigates the probabilistic hazard of earthquake-induced ground shaking at the HFIR facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These results will be used to calculate plant response and potential effects in a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). For this purpose, several guidelines apply to this work. First, both the frequency of exceedance and the uncertainty in frequency of exceedance of various ground motion levels must be represented. These are required by the PRA so that the frequency and uncertainty of various possible plant states can be expressed. Second, there is a deliberate attempt to provide an unbiased distribution of frequencies of exceedance, i.e. to present results that are neither conservative nor unconservative. This is consistent with the goals of a PRA, to provide unbiased estimates of plant effects from which appropriate decisions (for instance about evaluating existing levels of seismic design) can be reached. Recent intensive studies of seismic hazard in the central and eastern United States (CEUS) have been completed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). These studies represent major efforts to characterize the seismic hazard for nuclear power plants in the CEUS, and use the most recent, up-to-date understandings of seismicity and ground motion relations for the region. With these studies as a resource, the current effort relies exclusively on the seismicity and ground motion assumptions therein to formulate seismic hazard curves for the HFIR facility. The interpretation of these studies to derive seismic hazard curves in a format suitable for input to a PRA is described in this report. 29 refs., 40 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. Numerical Evaluation Of Shape Memory Alloy Recentering Braces In Reinforced Concrete Buildings Subjected To Seismic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Winsbert Curt

    Seismic protective techniques utilizing specialized energy dissipation devices within the lateral resisting frames have been successfully used to limit inelastic deformation in reinforced concrete buildings by increasing damping and/or altering the stiffness of these structures. However, there is a need to investigate and develop systems with self-centering capabilities; systems that are able to assist in returning a structure to its original position after an earthquake. In this project, the efficacy of a shape memory alloy (SMA) based device, as a structural recentering device is evaluated through numerical analysis using the OpenSees framework. OpenSees is a software framework for simulating the seismic response of structural and geotechnical systems. OpenSees has been developed as the computational platform for research in performance-based earthquake engineering at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER). A non-ductile reinforced concrete building, which is modelled using OpenSees and verified with available experimental data is used for the analysis in this study. The model is fitted with Tension/Compression (TC) SMA devices. The performance of the SMA recentering device is evaluated for a set of near-field and far-field ground motions. Critical performance measures of the analysis include residual displacements, interstory drift and acceleration (horizontal and vertical) for different types of ground motions. The results show that the TC device's performance is unaffected by the type of ground motion. The analysis also shows that the inclusion of the device in the lateral force resisting system of the building resulted in a 50% decrease in peak horizontal displacement, and inter-story drift elimination of residual deformations, acceleration was increased up to 110%.

  14. A provisional effective evaluation when errors are present in independent variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurin, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Algorithms are examined for evaluating the parameters of a regression model when there are errors in the independent variables. The algorithms are fast and the estimates they yield are stable with respect to the correlation of errors and measurements of both the dependent variable and the independent variables.

  15. Seismic hazard for the Savannah River Site: A comparative evaluation of the EPRI and LLNL assessments. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wingo, H.E.

    1992-05-20

    This report was conducted to: (1) develop an understanding of causes for the vast differences between the two comprehensive studies, and (2) using a methodology consistent with the reconciled methods employed in the two studies, develop a single seismic hazard for the Savannah River Site suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments with emphasis on the K Reactor. Results are presented for a rock site which is a typical because detailed evaluations of soil characteristics at the K Reactor are still in progress that account for the effects of a soil stablizing grouting program. However when the soils analysis is completed, the effects of soils can be included with this analysis with the addition of a single factor that will decrease slightly the seismic hazard for a rock site.

  16. Seismic shake table testing program for hollow clay tile wall evaluation at DOE facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.; Stone, N.E. ); Bennett, R.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    A seismic test facility located at the K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been refurbished after shutdown since 1985. The facility shake table is being recertified in order to provide seismic testing capability to an extensive multi-year evaluation program of hollow clay tile walls in buildings at the DOE site in Oak Ridge. The program, directed by teh Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., the managing contractor for DOE in Oak Ridge, is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the recertification efforts for the seismic test facility, and results of facility and specimen testing to data are discussed and plans for future testing are reviewed. Features and capabilities of the shake table are presented. The dynamic testing of masonry structures is reviewed, and a hollow clay tile wall testing program is projected based on the shake table capability. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Source term evaluation during seismic events in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Schmidt, R.W.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1996-12-30

    The 00 buildings are expected to collapse (per guidance from structure evaluation) during a seismic event in which acceleration level exceeds 0.15g. All roof beams may slip off supports, and collapse. Equipment may slip off from supports and fall onto the floor. The cell floor is also supposed to collapse due to structural instability and distortion due to excessive acceleration forces. Following structure collapse, expansion joints in the process piping and joints between the piping and equipment are expected to fail. Preliminary analysis showed that converters are likely to remain intact. The UF{sub 6} gas released from the break will rapidly interact with moisture in the air to produce UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and HF with exothermic energy released of {approximately}0.32 MJ/kg of UF{sub 6} reacted. Depending on the degree of mixing between UF{sub 6} gas, its reaction products, air and freon (R-114), there may occur a strong buoyancy force to disperse UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosol particles that are subjected to the gravitational force for settling. Such a chemical reaction will also occur inside the converters. A substantial amount of UF{sub 6} must be stagnated at the bottom of the converters. At the interface between this stagnated UF{sub 6} and air, UF{sub 6} gas will diffuse into the air, undergo the chemical reaction with moisture there, and eventually be released through the break. Furthermore, lubricant oil fire in the building, if it occurs, will enhance the UF{sub 6} release into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to evaluate source term (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and HF) during such a seismic event. This study takes an approach using multiple steps as follows: (1) Source term evaluation at the break due to mixing between UF{sub 6} and air along with thermal buoyancy induced by chemical reaction energy, (2) Evaluation of additional source term from the converters in which a substantial UF{sub 6} vapor remains, and (3) Source term evaluation with lubricant oil

  18. Broadband Waveform Modeling to Evaluate the USGS Seismic Velocity Model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A.; Petersson, A.; Nilsson, S.; Sjogreen, B.; McCandless, K.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake centenary, the USGS developed a three-dimensional seismic velocity and attenuation model for Northern California based on detailed geologic and geophysical constraints. The model was used to predict ground motions for the 1906 rupture. In this study we evaluate the model to assess its ability to accurately predict ground motions from moderate earthquakes recorded on broadband stations. Satisfactory prediction of ground motions from these events will provide hope for accurate modeling of future scenario earthquakes. Simulations were performed on large parallel computer(s) with a new elastic finite difference code developed at LLNL. We simulated broadband ground motions (0-0.25 Hz) for several moderate (magnitude 3.5-5.0) earthquakes in the region observed at Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) broadband stations. These events are well located and can be modeled with simple point moment tensor sources (taken from the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory catalog), helping to isolate the effects of structure on the waveforms. These data sample the region's diverse tectonic structures, such as the bay muds, sedimentary basins and hard rock complexes. Preliminary results indicate that the simulations reproduce many important features in the data. For example, observed long duration surface waves are often predicted for complex paths (traveling across contrasting structures) and through sedimentary basins. Excellent waveform fits were frequently obtained for long-period comparisons (0.02-0.1) and good fits were often obtained for shorter periods. We will attempt higher frequency simulations to test the ability of the model to match the high frequency response. Finally, we performed large scenario earthquake simulations for the Hayward Fault. These simulations predict large amplifications across the Santa Clara and San Ramon/Livermore Valley sedimentary basins and with the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta.

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of induced seismicity mitigation: Numerical modeling of wastewater injection near Greeley, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Megan R. M.; Ge, Shemin; Sheehan, Anne F.; Nakai, Jenny S.

    2017-08-01

    Mitigation of injection-induced seismicity in Greeley, Colorado, is based largely on proximity of wastewater disposal wells to seismicity and consists of cementation of the bottom of wells to eliminate connection between the disposal interval and crystalline basement. Brief injection rate reductions followed felt events, but injection rates returned to high levels, >250,000 barrels/month, within 6 months. While brief rate reduction reduces seismicity in the short term, overall seismicity is not reduced. We examine contributions to pore pressure change by injection from 22 wells within 30 km of the center of seismicity. The combined injection rate of seven disposal wells within 15 km of the seismicity (Greeley Wells) is correlated with the seismicity rate. We find that injection from NGL-C4A, the well previously suspected as the likely cause of the induced seismicity, is responsible for 28% of pore pressure increase. The other six Greeley Wells contribute 28% of pore pressure increase, and the 15 Far-field Wells between 15 and 30 km from the seismicity contribute 44% of pore pressure increase. Modeling results show that NGL-C4A plays the largest role in increased pore pressure but shows that the six other Greeley Wells have approximately the same influence as NGL-C4A. Furthermore, the 15 Far-field Wells have significant influence on pore pressure near the seismicity. Since the main mitigation action of cementing the bottom of wells has not decreased seismicity, mitigation based on reduced injection rates and spacing wells farther apart would likely have a higher potential for success.

  20. 76 FR 54507 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... individual plant examinations of external events (IPEEE) and Generic Issue (GI)-199, ``Implications of.... ML051450456), that the ] issue of increased seismic hazard estimates in the CEUS be examined under the GIP. GI... initial screening analysis for GI-199 suggested that estimates of the seismic hazard for some currently...

  1. Evaluation and developmental studies of possible active seismic experiments during the post-Apollo period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic velocity studies pertinent to the lunar crust and mantle are briefly summarized. The compressional and shear wave velocities in loose aggregates are discussed along with the effects of temperature on seismic velocity in compacted powders. Abstracts of papers concerning the lunar structure are included.

  2. Evaluation of seismic hazard of the Gökova bay in terms of seismotectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Erkoç, Ebru Aktepe; Uluğ, Atilla

    2016-04-18

    While discovering the seismicity of our country, knowing the array of earthquake occurrence which reflects the characteristic tectonic features of each region makes vital contributions to the earthquakes that have occurred and to the pursuit of the processes which might occur in the future. When considering the region’s seismic activity, the presence of active faults that create earthquake within the bay is obvious. Many active fault parts in the Gulf of Gökova region continues their seismic activity with the opening effect that is generally prevailing in Western Anatolia. The region has generally been continuing its seismic activity under the control of normal faults. Considering the marine studies that are made and marine continuity of the faults which are on land in addition to the seismological and tectonic studies, the determination of seismic hazard in the Gulf of Gökova and its surroundings is also important in terms of introducing the earthquake scenarios with minimized errors.

  3. The social psychology of seismic hazard adjustment: re-evaluating the international literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solberg, C.; Rossetto, T.; Joffe, H.

    2010-08-01

    The majority of people at risk from earthquakes do little or nothing to reduce their vulnerability. Over the past 40 years social scientists have tried to predict and explain levels of seismic hazard adjustment using models from behavioural sciences such as psychology. The present paper is the first to synthesise the major findings from the international literature on psychological correlates and causes of seismic adjustment at the level of the individual and the household. It starts by reviewing research on seismic risk perception. Next, it looks at norms and normative beliefs, focusing particularly on issues of earthquake protection responsibility and trust between risk stakeholders. It then considers research on attitudes towards seismic adjustment attributes, specifically beliefs about efficacy, control and fate. It concludes that an updated model of seismic adjustment must give the issues of norms, trust, power and identity a more prominent role. These have been only sparsely represented in the social psychological literature to date.

  4. Evaluation of seismic hazard of the Gökova bay in terms of seismotectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkoç, Ebru Aktepe; Uluǧ, Atilla

    2016-04-01

    While discovering the seismicity of our country, knowing the array of earthquake occurrence which reflects the characteristic tectonic features of each region makes vital contributions to the earthquakes that have occurred and to the pursuit of the processes which might occur in the future. When considering the region's seismic activity, the presence of active faults that create earthquake within the bay is obvious. Many active fault parts in the Gulf of Gökova region continues their seismic activity with the opening effect that is generally prevailing in Western Anatolia. The region has generally been continuing its seismic activity under the control of normal faults. Considering the marine studies that are made and marine continuity of the faults which are on land in addition to the seismological and tectonic studies, the determination of seismic hazard in the Gulf of Gökova and its surroundings is also important in terms of introducing the earthquake scenarios with minimized errors.

  5. Evaluation of Jumping and Creeping Regularization Approaches Applied to 3D Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Ramachandran, K.

    2011-12-01

    Regularization deals with the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. The under-determined part of the problem is controlled by providing a priori knowledge on the physical solution in the form of additional constraints that the solution must satisfy. The final model is constrained to fit the data and also to satisfy some additional property. In seismic tomography, this property is selected such that the final model is as smooth as possible. This concept is physically meaningful as smooth models are sought that include only structure that is required to fit the data according to its uncertainty. The motivation for seeking a smooth model is that features present in the model should be essential to match the observations. Such a class of models is referred to as minimum structure models. The amount of structure in the estimated model parameters is measured in terms of roughness. In seismic tomography, second spatial derivatives are generally employed to quantify the model roughness. In this kind of regularized inversion, an objective function is minimized which includes norms that measure model roughness and data misfit. A tradeoff parameter is selected that provides the model with the least structure for a given level of data misfit. The regularized inverse problem that solves for model perturbation and also constrains perturbation flatness or smoothness during the inversion is known as creeping approach. The disadvantage of the creeping approach is that the final model will have no special properties and will be just a sum of smooth deviations added to the starting model. The regularized inverse problem that solves for model perturbation and also constrains model properties during the inversion is known as creeping approach. In the jumping approach, the final model can be constructed to have properties such as flatness or smoothness, since the regularization implements smoothing constraints on the model and not on the perturbation. The jumping and creeping approaches

  6. Dynamic evaluation of seismic hazard and risks based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Nekrasova, A.

    2016-12-01

    We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A + B•(6 - M) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L, A characterizes the average annual rate of strong (M = 6) earthquakes, B determines the balance between magnitude ranges, and C estimates the fractal dimension of seismic locus in projection to the Earth surface. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to assess, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity or paleo data), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks for population, cities, and infrastructures. The hazard maps for a given territory change dramatically, when the methodology is applied to a certain size moving time window, e.g. about a decade long for an intermediate-term regional assessment or exponentially increasing intervals for a daily local strong aftershock forecasting. The of dynamical seismic hazard and risks assessment is illustrated by applications to the territory of Greater Caucasus and Crimea and the two-year series of aftershocks of the 11 October 2008 Kurchaloy, Chechnya earthquake which case-history appears to be encouraging for further systematic testing as potential short-term forecasting tool.

  7. Evaluation of the imminence of a tsunami based on real-time seismic source parameter estimates - a Bayesian network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaser, Lilian; Ohrnberger, Matthias; Scherbaum, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Tsunami early warnings are based on co-seismic evidences being the earliest available information from a hazardous earthquake with the potential of causing a tsunami. Evaluations are generally done by applying rules derived from historic observation and making use of seismological expertise regarding regional tectonic contexts, faulting styles, occurrence frequency of large earthquakes and more. However, the co-seismic generation of a tsunami as well as the estimation of a potentially tsunamigenic event is prone to various uncertainties. As Bayesian networks (BNs) allow for integration and quantification of the uncertainties within the framework of probabilistic graphical models, we propose the usage of BNs for evaluating the imminence of a tsunami based on real-time seismic source parameter estimates. Earthquake parameter estimates (including uncertainties) are evaluated in real-time and the probabilities of tsunami threat levels are calculated and updated whenever new co-seismic evidence is available. The fast and efficient method gives an important additional information for the staff members at tsunami warning centers as it provides a probabilistic overview on the imminence of a tsunami for some particular costal region. In our work, we have developed a preliminary BN tsunami warning system for the region of Sumatra by extracting knowledge from a set of formulas describing the physical process from earthquake rupture to sea-floor deformation to tsunami wave propagation and finally shoaling at the coast. The physical knowledge was transformed by ancestral sampling to a synthetic database and thereof BNs were learned for several sites of interest along the Sumatran coast and the fore-arc islands. To determine the conditional probability of the tsunami amplitude a set of seven co-seismic variables was defined: epicenter, centroid, magnitude, hypocentral depth, rupture direction, rupture length and width. We illustrate the advantages of this approach by case

  8. Combination of Remote Sensing and Ground Data for Evaluation of Seismic Hazards in Tartous Region (Syria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Khachian, E.

    In the past centuries many disaster earthquakes have been taken place in the western part of Syria. These earthquakes are connected to the main Fault system called Dead Sea Fault System (DSFS). The reoccurrence period of these earthquakes is 200-300 years. To minimize the loss of casualties caused by such natural disaster, microzonations studies are much needed in northern western side of Syria. The coastal area is considered as very dangerous region. This region conducted to zone No.IV (PGA = 0.4g) by Syrian code. The aim of this study is to study the local soils characteristics and to evaluate the seismic hazard in Tartous region by integrating different data input. Different layers have been used to classify the area into four zones with respect to: Geology, Geomorphology, tectonic and dynamic soil characteristics. In this study, to evaluate the geologic, tectonic, and geomorphic setting the Landsat remote sensing Panchromatic (PAN) and Multispectral (MSS) data have been used. To study dynamic soil characteristics more than 29 reports have been chosen from different engineering previous work. These reports provided us with basic elements like: Deformation Modulus (E), density (ho ), and (μ ) passion Factor for each borings. The other dynamic properties (Vs and Ts) calculated based on (Khachian, 2000) and (Okomoto, 1980) assumptions. By integrating all inputs data used the results show the need of adjusting the Syrian construction code for coastal region especially for study area. The classified image differentiates among four different soil types with their respect to their behaviors under earthquake forces. The study of soil properties is very important for earthquake engineers. These kinds of study show us the behavior of soil under earthquakes forces. Actually knowing the soil periods show what kind of building or project we have to construct, and sometimes save a lot of souls and money. Microzonation studies only can give us a clear idea about the area

  9. An evaluation of applicability of seismic refraction method in identifying shallow archaeological features A case study at archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangardi, Morteza; Hafezi Moghaddas, Naser; Keivan Hosseini, Sayyed; Garazhian, Omran

    2015-04-01

    We applied the seismic refraction method at archaeological site, Tepe Damghani located in Sabzevar, NE of Iran, in order to determine the structures of archaeological interests. This pre-historical site has special conditions with respect to geographical location and geomorphological setting, so it is an urban archaeological site, and in recent years it has been used as an agricultural field. In spring and summer of 2012, the third season of archaeological excavation was carried out. Test trenches of excavations in this site revealed that cultural layers were often disturbed adversely due to human activities such as farming and road construction in recent years. Conditions of archaeological cultural layers in southern and eastern parts of Tepe are slightly better, for instance, in test trench 3×3 m²1S03, third test trench excavated in the southern part of Tepe, an adobe in situ architectural structure was discovered that likely belongs to cultural features of a complex with 5 graves. After conclusion of the third season of archaeological excavation, all of the test trenches were filled with the same soil of excavated test trenches. Seismic refraction method was applied with12 channels of P geophones in three lines with a geophone interval of 0.5 meter and a 1.5 meter distance between profiles on test trench 1S03. The goal of this operation was evaluation of applicability of seismic method in identification of archaeological features, especially adobe wall structures. Processing of seismic data was done with the seismic software, SiesImager. Results were presented in the form of seismic section for every profile, so that identification of adobe wall structures was achieved hardly. This could be due to that adobe wall had been built with the same materials of the natural surrounding earth. Thus, there is a low contrast and it has an inappropriate effect on seismic processing and identifying of archaeological features. Hence the result could be that application of

  10. Importance of independent evaluation of initial anatomic results after endovascular coiling for ruptured cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Taki, Waro; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2013-04-01

    Initial incomplete occlusion is been an important predictor of aneurysm recurrence, rebleeding or retreatment after endovascular coiling. In 129 patients in the Prospective Registry of Subarachnoid Aneurysms Treatment (PRESAT) cohort, ruptured aneurysms were coiled within 14days of onset, and initial post-coiling and 1-year follow-up aneurysm-occlusion status were evaluated by both local investigators and independent reviewers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported evaluations of initial aneurysm occlusion by treating physicians predicted incomplete aneurysm occlusion at 1year after coiling for ruptured cerebral aneurysms as well as that done by independent evaluations. The relationships between self-reported or independent evaluations of initial anatomic results and 1-year incomplete aneurysm occlusion (retreatment within 1year, or residual aneurysms at 1year) were determined. Both initial and 1-year aneurysm-occlusion status were judged significantly worse by independent reviewers than by local investigators (p<0.001). One-year incomplete aneurysm occlusion was identified in 59 patients: 10 patients, including two patients with re-ruptured aneurysms, were retreated and 49 other patients were judged to have residual aneurysms by independent reviewers. On immediate post-coiling angiograms, both residual neck or aneurysm judged by local investigators, and residual aneurysm judged by independent reviewers, were predictive for 1-year incomplete aneurysm occlusion on univariate analyses. However, multivariate analyses found that the initial aneurysm occlusion status judged by independent reviewers (p=0.02, odds ratio=2.83, 95% confidence interval=1.15-6.95), but not by local investigators, was a significant predictor for 1-year incomplete aneurysm occlusion. This study demonstrates the importance of independent evaluations of aneurysm occlusion status for management of coiled aneurysms.

  11. Characterization and performance evaluation of a vertical seismic isolator using link and crank mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiuchi, N.; Ito, A.; Sekiya, Y.; Nan, C.; Yasuda, M.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, various seismic isolators have been developed to prevent earthquake damage to valuable art and other rare objects. Many seismic isolators only defend against horizontal motions, which are the usual cause of falling objects. However, the development of a seismic isolator designed for vertical vibration is necessary since such great vertical vibration earthquakes as the 2004 Niigata Prefecture Chuetsu Earthquake have occurred, and their increased height characteristics are undesirable. In this study, we developed a vertical seismic isolator that can be installed at a lower height and can support loads using a horizontal spring without requiring a vertical spring. It has a mechanism that combines links and cranks. The dynamic model was proposed and the frequency characteristics were simulated when the sine waves were the input. Shaking tests were also performed. The experimental value of the natural frequency was 0.57 Hz, and the theoretical values of the frequency characteristics were close to the experimental values. In addition, we verified this vertical seismic isolator's performance through shaking tests and simulation for typical seismic waves in Japan. We verified the seismic isolation's performance from the experimental result because the average reduction rate of the acceleration was 0.21.

  12. Communicating and Evaluating the Causes of Seismicity in Oklahoma Using ArcGIS Online Story Map Web Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justman, D.; Rose, K.; Bauer, J. R.; Miller, R., III; Vasylkivska, V.; Romeo, L.

    2016-12-01

    ArcGIS Online story maps allows users to communicate complex topics with geospatially enabled stories. This story map web application entitled "Evaluating the Mysteries of Seismicity in Oklahoma" has been employed as part of a broader research effort investigating the relationships between spatiotemporal systems and seismicity to understand the recent increase in seismicity by reviewing literature, exploring, and performing analyses on key datasets. It offers information about the unprecedented increase in seismic events since 2008, earthquake history, the risk to the population, physical mechanisms behind earthquakes, natural and anthropogenic earthquake factors, and individual & cumulative spatial extents of these factors. The cumulative spatial extents for natural, anthropogenic, and all combined earthquake factors were determined using the Cumulative Spatial Impact Layers (CSILs) tool developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Results show positive correlations between the average number of influences (datasets related to individual factors) and the number of earthquakes for every 100 square mile grid cell in Oklahoma, along with interesting spatial correlations for the individual & cumulative spatial extents of these factors when overlaid with earthquake density and a hotspot analysis for earthquake magnitude from 2010 to 2015.

  13. EVALUATION OF SEISMIC INDUCED WALL PRESSURES FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.

    SciTech Connect

    XU, J.; MILLER, C.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.; GRAVES, H.

    2005-03-30

    The extent to which finite element models of partially buried nuclear power plant structures may be used to compute seismic induced wall pressures is investigated in this paper. Stresses in three dimensional finite elements modeling the soil adjacent to the structure are used and stresses in these elements are used to evaluate wall pressures. Depths of burial of the structure varying from 1/4 to 1 times the height of the structure are considered. The SASSI computer code is used to perform the analyses. The wall pressures for the shallower depths of burial are found to depend on the inertial interaction loads, while the pressures for the deeper embedded structures are found to depend on kinematic interaction loads. The input ground motion for the study has a ZPA equal to 0.3 g. The maximum wall pressures are examined to determine whether non linear effects (separation of the wall and soil or slippage of the soil relative to the wall) are important. Non-linear effects are found to occur for depths of burial less than one half of the height and are found to occur over one half of the buried depth.

  14. Probabilistic stability evaluation and seismic triggering scenarios of submerged slopes in Lake Zurich (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupler, M.; Hilbe, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Kopf, A. J.; Fleischmann, T.; Strasser, M.

    2017-06-01

    Subaqueous landslides and their consequences, such as tsunamis, can cause serious damage to offshore infrastructure and coastal communities. Stability analyses of submerged slopes are therefore crucial, yet complex steps for hazard assessment, as many geotechnical and morphological factors need to be considered. Typically, deterministic models with data from a few sampling locations are used for the evaluation of slope stabilities, as high efforts are required to ensure high spatial data coverage. This study presents a simple but flexible approach for the probabilistic stability assessment of subaqueous slopes that takes into account the spatial variability of geotechnical data. The study area ( 2 km2) in Lake Zurich (northern Switzerland) shows three distinct subaquatic landslides with well-defined headscarps, translation areas (i.e. the zone where translational sliding occurred) and mass transport deposits. The ages of the landslides are known ( 2,210 and 640 cal. yr BP, and 1918 AD), and their triggers have been assigned to different mechanisms by previous studies. A combination of geophysical, geotechnical, and sedimentological methods served to analyse the subaquatic slope in great spatial detail: 3.5 kHz pinger seismic reflection data and a 300 kHz multibeam bathymetric dataset (1 m grid) were used for the detection of landslide features and for the layout of a coring and an in situ cone penetration testing campaign. The assignment of geotechnical data to lithological units enabled the construction of a sediment-mechanical stratigraphy that consists of four units, each with characteristic profiles of bulk density and shear strength. The thickness of each mechanical unit can be flexibly adapted to the local lithological unit thicknesses identified from sediment cores and seismic reflection profiles correlated to sediment cores. The sediment-mechanical stratigraphy was used as input for a Monte Carlo simulated limit-equilibrium model on an infinite slope for

  15. Evaluation of the southern California seismic velocity models through simulation of recorded events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Khoshnevis, Naeem; Cheng, Keli

    2016-06-01

    Significant effort has been devoted over the last two decades to the development of various seismic velocity models for the region of southern California, United States. These models are mostly used in forward wave propagation simulation studies, but also as base models for tomographic and source inversions. Two of these models, the community velocity models CVM-S and CVM-H, are among the most commonly used for this region. This includes two alternative variations to the original models, the recently released CVM-S4.26 which incorporates results from a sequence of tomographic inversions into CVM-S, and the user-controlled option of CVM-H to replace the near-surface profiles with a VS30-based geotechnical model. Although either one of these models is regarded as acceptable by the modeling community, it is known that they have differences in their representation of the crustal structure and sedimentary deposits in the region, and thus can lead to different results in forward and inverse problems. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of these models when used to predict the ground motion in the greater Los Angeles region by means of an assessment of a collection of simulations of recent events. In total, we consider 30 moderate-magnitude earthquakes (3.5 < Mw < 5.5) between 1998 and 2014, and compare synthetics with data recorded by seismic networks during these events. The simulations are done using a finite-element parallel code, with numerical models that satisfy a maximum frequency of 1 Hz and a minimum shear wave velocity of 200 m s-1. The comparisons between data and synthetics are ranked quantitatively by means of a goodness-of-fit (GOF) criteria. We analyse the regional distribution of the GOF results for all events and all models, and draw conclusions from the results and how these correlate to the models. We find that, in light of our comparisons, the model CVM-S4.26 consistently yields better results.

  16. VS30 mapping and soil classification for seismic site effect evaluation in Dinar region, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismet Kanlı, Ali; Tildy, Péter; Prónay, Zsolt; Pınar, Ali; Hermann, László

    2006-04-01

    The Dinar earthquake (MS= 6.1) of 1995 October 1 killed 90 people and destroyed more than 4000 buildings. Despite the moderate size of the earthquake, the level of damage was extremely high, which led to many studies that were carried out in the region. The majority of these studies concluded that the main reasons for the damage were the construction errors and the poor soil conditions. However, at that time no appropriate soil condition map based on extended, high density measurements was available. Shear wave velocity is an important parameter for evaluating the dynamic behaviour of soil in the shallow subsurface. Thus site characterization in calculating seismic hazards is usually based on the near surface shear wave velocity values. The average shear wave velocity for the top 30 m of soil is referred to as VS30. For earthquake engineering design purposes, both the Uniform Building Code (UBC) and Eurocode 8 (EC8) codes use VS30 to classify sites according to the soil type. The Vs30 values calculated by using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) were used to create a new soil classification map of the Dinar region. Surface seismic measurements were carried out at 50 locations mostly in Dinar city and its surroundings. The dispersion data of the recorded Rayleigh waves were inverted using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) method to obtain shear wave velocity profiles of the investigated sites. Thus the derived Vs30 map of the Dinar region was transformed to the UBC and EC8 standards. Soil classification results show that most parts of the region, located in alluvial basin, have low shear wave velocity values. These values are within the range of 160-240 m s-1 and thus fall into the SD and SE categories according to the UBC and the C and D categories according to EC8. Within the region, some parts located on the hill zone and the transition zone have better soil conditions [corresponding to SC (UBC) and B (EC8) categories] and have comparatively high shear wave

  17. Probabilistic stability evaluation and seismic triggering scenarios of submerged slopes in Lake Zurich (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupler, M.; Hilbe, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Kopf, A. J.; Fleischmann, T.; Strasser, M.

    2017-01-01

    Subaqueous landslides and their consequences, such as tsunamis, can cause serious damage to offshore infrastructure and coastal communities. Stability analyses of submerged slopes are therefore crucial, yet complex steps for hazard assessment, as many geotechnical and morphological factors need to be considered. Typically, deterministic models with data from a few sampling locations are used for the evaluation of slope stabilities, as high efforts are required to ensure high spatial data coverage. This study presents a simple but flexible approach for the probabilistic stability assessment of subaqueous slopes that takes into account the spatial variability of geotechnical data. The study area ( 2 km2) in Lake Zurich (northern Switzerland) shows three distinct subaquatic landslides with well-defined headscarps, translation areas (i.e. the zone where translational sliding occurred) and mass transport deposits. The ages of the landslides are known ( 2,210 and 640 cal. yr BP, and 1918 AD), and their triggers have been assigned to different mechanisms by previous studies. A combination of geophysical, geotechnical, and sedimentological methods served to analyse the subaquatic slope in great spatial detail: 3.5 kHz pinger seismic reflection data and a 300 kHz multibeam bathymetric dataset (1 m grid) were used for the detection of landslide features and for the layout of a coring and an in situ cone penetration testing campaign. The assignment of geotechnical data to lithological units enabled the construction of a sediment-mechanical stratigraphy that consists of four units, each with characteristic profiles of bulk density and shear strength. The thickness of each mechanical unit can be flexibly adapted to the local lithological unit thicknesses identified from sediment cores and seismic reflection profiles correlated to sediment cores. The sediment-mechanical stratigraphy was used as input for a Monte Carlo simulated limit-equilibrium model on an infinite slope for

  18. Comparative Application of Capacity Models for Seismic Vulnerability Evaluation of Existing RC Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Faella, C.; Lima, C.; Martinelli, E.; Nigro, E.

    2008-07-08

    Seismic vulnerability assessment of existing buildings is one of the most common tasks in which Structural Engineers are currently engaged. Since, its is often a preliminary step to approach the issue of how to retrofit non-seismic designed and detailed structures, it plays a key role in the successful choice of the most suitable strengthening technique. In this framework, the basic information for both seismic assessment and retrofitting is related to the formulation of capacity models for structural members. Plenty of proposals, often contradictory under the quantitative standpoint, are currently available within the technical and scientific literature for defining the structural capacity in terms of force and displacements, possibly with reference to different parameters representing the seismic response. The present paper shortly reviews some of the models for capacity of RC members and compare them with reference to two case studies assumed as representative of a wide class of existing buildings.

  19. Evaluation of the effect of pressurized bushings on seismic qualification of SF sub 6 circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, M.; Setoyama, T.; Murase, S. ); Hellested, R. )

    1990-04-01

    Stresses on the porcelain of high voltage switchgear under seismic vibration are statically biased by internal pressure. However, restrictions from the seismic test facility pose some difficulties in practical procedure of test with pressure. This paper discusses the effect of pressure on the strain and proposes an equivalent test method to simulate a pressurized condition without actually filling the SF{sub 6} gas to the operating pressure.

  20. Evaluation of functional independence after discharge from the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Curzel, Juliane; Forgiarini Junior, Luiz Alberto; Rieder, Marcelo de Mello

    2013-01-01

    Objective 1) To evaluate the functional independence measures immediately after discharge from an intensive care unit and to compare these values with the FIMs 30 days after that period. 2) To evaluate the possible associated risk factors. Methods The present investigation was a prospective cohort study that included individuals who were discharged from the intensive care unit and underwent physiotherapy in the unit. Functional independence was evaluated using the functional independence measure immediately upon discharge from the intensive care unit and 30 days thereafter via a phone call. The patients were admitted to the Hospital Santa Clara intensive care unit during the period from May 2011 to August 2011. Results During the predetermined period of data collection, 44 patients met the criteria for inclusion in the study. The mean age of the patients was 55.4±10.5 years. Twenty-seven of the subjects were female, and 15 patients were admitted due to pulmonary disease. The patients exhibited an functional independence measure of 84.1±24.2. When this measure was compared to the measure at 30 days after discharge, there was improvement across the functional independence variables except for that concerned with sphincter control. There were no significant differences when comparing the gender, age, clinical diagnosis, length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of mechanical ventilation, and the presence of sepsis during this period. Conclusion Functional independence, as evaluated by the functional independence measure scale, was improved at 30 days after discharge from the intensive care unit, but it was not possible to define the potentially related factors. PMID:23917973

  1. Parent Leadership Training Project, October 1, 1970-September 30, 1972. Independent Evaluator's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arter, Rhetta M.

    The Parent Leadership Training Project (PLTP) through Adult Basic Education was established as a two-year demonstration project designed to increase the reading skills of adults (16 and over) through a language-experience approach, using topics selected by the participants. The independent project evaluation covers the entire operational period…

  2. Evaluation Report of the Harlandale Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    The 1973 report evaluates the Bilingual Education Program of Harlandale Independent School District. The bilingual program is designed for Spanish speaking pupils in grades K-5 (1,517 children in 8 of the district's 15 elementary schools) who have limited English-speaking ability. The 1972-73 project involved (1) development and revision of…

  3. Chapter 1 Regular Even Start Project. Independent Evaluation Report, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Macias, Ana

    The report presents an evaluation of the Ysleta Independent School District (Texas) state-funded Even Start Project, a comprehensive family literacy program consisting of adult education (basic skills, English as a second language, citizenship, transition to college), intergenerational literacy classes with preschool children, early childhood…

  4. Edgewood Independent School District, Title VII Bilingual Education Program. Final Evaluation Report, 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgewood Independent School District, San Antonio, TX.

    The 1970-71 evaluation of the Title VII bilingual education program in the Edgewood Independent School District in San Antonio, Texas, is presented in this report. The report discusses the program with regard to (1) curriculum development, (2) staff development, (3) community involvement, and (4) the pre- and post-tests given to the students. The…

  5. Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    The San Marcos Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program for 1972-73 was evaluated in this report. The program consisted of 684 students in grades K-5 in 4 elementary schools. The majority of these students were Mexican American with only 18% monolingual English speakers. The program's objectives were, first, to provide bilingual…

  6. An Independent Evaluation of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo. Evaluation Center.

    This document contains the executive summary and the detailed report which provide an independent evaluation of Kentucky's new system for assessing student performance, the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). The summary gauges progress to date, highlights some strengths to be built on and problems to be solved, and provides…

  7. Oregon Small Schools Program: A Title III Project. Independent Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Coordinates Northwest, Salem, OR.

    An independent evaluation report (May 1971) by Educational Coordinates Northwest, this document examines the Oregon Small Schools Program (a Title III project of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act). Three major areas were considered: the extent to which member schools implemented methodological and organizational changes, the established…

  8. Support vector machine for evaluating seismic-liquefaction potential using shear wave velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samui, Pijush; Kim, Dookie; Sitharam, T. G.

    2011-01-01

    The use of the shear wave velocity data as a field index for evaluating the liquefaction potential of sands is receiving increased attention because both shear wave velocity and liquefaction resistance are similarly influenced by many of the same factors such as void ratio, state of stress, stress history and geologic age. In this paper, the potential of support vector machine (SVM) based classification approach has been used to assess the liquefaction potential from actual shear wave velocity data. In this approach, an approximate implementation of a structural risk minimization (SRM) induction principle is done, which aims at minimizing a bound on the generalization error of a model rather than minimizing only the mean square error over the data set. Here SVM has been used as a classification tool to predict liquefaction potential of a soil based on shear wave velocity. The dataset consists the information of soil characteristics such as effective vertical stress (σ‧v0), soil type, shear wave velocity (Vs) and earthquake parameters such as peak horizontal acceleration (amax) and earthquake magnitude (M). Out of the available 186 datasets, 130 are considered for training and remaining 56 are used for testing the model. The study indicated that SVM can successfully model the complex relationship between seismic parameters, soil parameters and the liquefaction potential. In the model based on soil characteristics, the input parameters used are σ‧v0, soil type, Vs, amax and M. In the other model based on shear wave velocity alone uses Vs, amax and M as input parameters. In this paper, it has been demonstrated that Vs alone can be used to predict the liquefaction potential of a soil using a support vector machine model.

  9. EVALUATIONS BY QUESTIONNAIRES ABOUT SIMPLE METHODS OF SEISMIC STRENGTHENING AND SETBACK OF HOUSES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Norio; Miyajima, Masakatsu

    Law on promotion of renovation for earthquake-resistant structures was revised in 2006. Since then administrative agencies have been promoting seismic diagnosis and retrofit of houses. But citizens living in densely built-up areas cannot rebuild their houses because of their economic reasons and Building Standards Act regulations. Therefore, we conducted questionnaire surveys of construction companies located in Ishikawa Prefecture and citizens living in Kanazawa City. The results of surveys show that many construction companies are not in favor of simple method of seismic retrofit, and that width of roads hardly influence the citizens' consciousness to renovation for earthquake-resistant structures.

  10. Looking back on the London Olympics: Independent outcome and hindsight effects in decision evaluation.

    PubMed

    Blank, Hartmut; Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    Outcome bias and hindsight bias are related, but how exactly? To remedy theoretical ambiguity and non-existent directly relevant empirical research, we contrast an older idea (Baron & Hershey, 1988, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 54, 569) that sees outcome bias as partly mediated through hindsight bias with the idea that the two biases independently affect decision evaluations. In an Internet study of retrospections on the 2012 London Olympics, evaluations of the Games' success and its foreseeability had independent effects on evaluations of the International Olympic Committee's decision to award the Olympics to London; there was no evidence of mediation. Further theoretical discussion emphasizes the need to distinguish between a holistic assessment of decisions and a more specific assessment of the decision-making process in future outcome bias research. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Acoustic monitoring of co-seismic changes in gas bubble rupture rate in a hydrothermal reservoir: field evaluation of a possible precursor and mechanism for remote seismic triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Remotely triggered seismicity is a phenomenon in which an earthquake at one location triggers others over distances up to thousands of kilometers. The mechanism by which low-amplitude dynamic oscillations of the confining stress can produce such an effect, often after a time delay of minutes-to-days, is unclear, but a concentration of remotely triggered seismic events in carbon-dioxide-rich volcanic and geothermal regions suggests that an increase in pore fluid pressure associated with the nucleation and growth of carbon-dioxide gas bubbles may reduce the effective stress in critically loaded geologic faults. While this hypothesis has been tested in bench-scale laboratory experiments, field detection of seismically initiated gas bubble growth in groundwater may provide further evidence for this remote triggering mechanism. In the present study, a hydrophone continuously records the acoustic power spectrum in CH-10B, a hydrothermal well located in Long Valley Caldera, California - a site that is susceptible to remotely seismic triggering. This well exhibits co-seismic changes in water level in response to near and distant earthquakes, including every magnitude-six or greater at any location on Earth. Exploiting the inverse relationship between gas bubble radius and the peak acoustic frequency emitted when a gas bubble ruptures, this investigation seeks to detect changes in the acoustic power spectrum arising from a shift in the size-distribution or count rate of rupturing gas bubbles, coincident with a distant earthquake. By resolving the timing and intensity of the onset of a change in gas bubble rupture rate after the passage of seismic wave from a distant source, it may be possible to establish the extent to which seismically initiated gas bubble growth contributes to co-seismic borehole water level response, pore fluid pressure perturbations, and the onset of remotely triggered seismicity.

  12. Transition to Independence. A Vocational Evaluation Curriculum To Enhance the Independence of Secondary Students with Physical, Sensory, and Mental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlock, Jeanne M.

    This vocational needs course is specific to the needs of disabled students, with teaching units focusing on all areas of independent living. Introductory information includes the following: curriculum implementation, course description, classroom requirements, staff training, field testing, competency records, handicaps and people with…

  13. Evaluation of the rockburst potential in longwall coal mining using passive seismic velocity tomography and image subtraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Navid

    2017-09-01

    Rockburst is a typical dynamic disaster in underground coal mines which its occurrences relate to the mechanical quality of coal seam and surrounding rock mass and also the condition of stress distribution. The main aim of this paper is to study the potential of rockburst in a longwall coal mine by using of passive seismic velocity tomography and image subtraction technique. For this purpose, first by mounting an array of receivers on the surface above the active panel, the mining-induced seismic data as a passive source for several continuous days were recorded. Then, the three-dimensional tomograms using simultaneous iteration reconstruction technique (SIRT) for each day are created and by employing the velocity filtering, the overstressed zones are detected. In addition, the two-dimensional seismic velocity tomograms in coal seam level by slicing the three-dimensional tomograms are obtained. Then the state of stress changes in successive days by applying the image subtraction technique on these two-dimensional tomograms is considered. The results show that the compilation of filtered three-dimensional tomograms and subtracted images is an appropriate approach for detecting the overstressed zones around the panel and subsequent evaluation of rockburst potential. The research conclusion proves that the applied approach in this study in combination with field observations of rock mass status can effectively identify the rockburst-prone areas during the mining operation and help to improve the safety condition.

  14. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

    1995-10-01

    This document provides seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground high-level waste storage tanks. The guidelines reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in defining seismic ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads, dynamic soil pressures and other loads for underground tank structures, piping and equipment. The application of the guidelines is illustrated with examples. The guidelines are developed for a specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document. The original version of this document was published in January 1993. Since then, additional studies have been performed in several areas and the results are included in this revision. Comments received from the users are also addressed. Fundamental concepts supporting the basic seismic criteria contained in the original version have since then been incorporated and published in DOE-STD-1020-94 and its technical basis documents. This information has been deleted in the current revision.

  15. Re-evaluation of Apollo 17 Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffels, Alexandra; Knapmeyer, Martin; Oberst, Jürgen; Haase, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    We re-analyzed Apollo 17 Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) data to improve our knowledge of the subsurface structure of this landing site. We use new geometrically accurate 3-D positions of the seismic equipment deployed by the astronauts, which were previously derived using high-resolution images by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in combination with Apollo astronaut photography. These include coordinates of six Explosive Packages (EPs) and four geophone stations. Re-identified P-wave arrival times are used to calculate two- and three-layer seismic velocity models. A strong increase of seismic velocity with depth can be confirmed, in particular, we suggest a more drastic increase than previously thought. For the three-layer model the P-wave velocities were calculated to 285, 580, and 1825 m/s for the uppermost, second, and third layer, respectively, with the boundaries between the layers being at 96 and 773 m depth. When compared with results obtained with previously published coordinates, we find (1) a slightly higher velocity (+4%) for the uppermost layer, and (2) lower P-wave velocities for the second and third layers, representing a decrease of 34% and 12% for second and third layer, respectively. Using P-wave arrival time readings of previous studies, we confirm that velocities increase when changing over from old to new coordinates. In the three-layer case, this means using new coordinates alone leads to thinned layers, velocities rise slightly for the uppermost layer and decrease significantly for the layers below.

  16. Seismic velocity deviation log: An effective method for evaluating spatial distribution of reservoir pore types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirmohamadi, Mohamad; Kadkhodaie, Ali; Rahimpour-Bonab, Hossain; Faraji, Mohammad Ali

    2017-04-01

    Velocity deviation log (VDL) is a synthetic log used to determine pore types in reservoir rocks based on a combination of the sonic log with neutron-density logs. The current study proposes a two step approach to create a map of porosity and pore types by integrating the results of petrographic studies, well logs and seismic data. In the first step, velocity deviation log was created from the combination of the sonic log with the neutron-density log. The results allowed identifying negative, zero and positive deviations based on the created synthetic velocity log. Negative velocity deviations (below - 500 m/s) indicate connected or interconnected pores and fractures, while positive deviations (above + 500 m/s) are related to isolated pores. Zero deviations in the range of [- 500 m/s, + 500 m/s] are in good agreement with intercrystalline and microporosities. The results of petrographic studies were used to validate the main pore type derived from velocity deviation log. In the next step, velocity deviation log was estimated from seismic data by using a probabilistic neural network model. For this purpose, the inverted acoustic impedance along with the amplitude based seismic attributes were formulated to VDL. The methodology is illustrated by performing a case study from the Hendijan oilfield, northwestern Persian Gulf. The results of this study show that integration of petrographic, well logs and seismic attributes is an instrumental way for understanding the spatial distribution of main reservoir pore types.

  17. Evaluation of the Seismic Characterision of Select Engineered Nanoparticles in Saturated Glass Beads

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory testing apparatus was developed for the study of seismic body wave propagation through nanoparticles dispersed in pore fluid that is essentially saturating glass beads. First, the responses of water-saturated glass bead specimens were studied to establish baseline si...

  18. Evaluation of the Seismic Characterision of Select Engineered Nanoparticles in Saturated Glass Beads

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory testing apparatus was developed for the study of seismic body wave propagation through nanoparticles dispersed in pore fluid that is essentially saturating glass beads. First, the responses of water-saturated glass bead specimens were studied to establish baseline si...

  19. Array analysis methods for detection, classification and location of seismic sources: a first evaluation for aftershock analysis using dense temporary post-seismic array network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiata, N.; Satriano, C.; Vilotte, J.; Bernard, P.

    2012-12-01

    Detection, separation, classification and location of distributed non stationary seismic sources in broadband noisy environment is an important problem in seismology, in particular for monitoring the high-level post-seismic activity following large subduction earthquakes, like the off-shore Maule (Mw 8.8, 2010) earthquake in Central Chile. Multiple seismic arrays, and local antenna, distributed over a region allow exploiting frequency selective coherence of the signals that arrive at widely-separated array stations, leading to improved detection, convolution blind source separation, and location of distributed non stationary sources. We present here first results on the investigation of time-frequency adaptive array analysis techniques for detection and location of broadband distributed seismic events recorded by the dense temporary seismic network (International Maule Aftershock Deployment, IMAD) installed for monitoring the high-level seismic activity following the 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake (Mw 8.8). This seismic network is characterized by a large aperture, with variable inter-station distances, corroborated with a high level of distributed near and far field seismic source activity and noise. For this study, we first extract from the post-seismic network a number of seismic arrays distributed over the region covered by this network. A first aspect is devoted to passive distributed seismic sources detection, classification and separation. We investigate a number of narrow and wide band signal analysis methods both in time and time-frequency domains for energy arrival detection and tracking, including time adaptive higher order statistics, e.g. like kurtosis, and multiband band-pass filtering, together with adaptive time-frequency transformation and extraction techniques. We demonstrate that these techniques provide superior resolution and robustness than classical STA/LTA techniques in particular in the case of distributed sources with potential signal

  20. Use of SRTM and Landsat-7 to evaluate seismic hazards, Kodiak Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, G.; Sauber, J.; Lettis, W. R.; Witter, R. C.

    2003-04-01

    We have used SRTM and Landsat-7 digital data and paleoseismic techniques to identify active faults and evaluate seismic hazards on the northeast coast of Kodiak Island, Alaska. Kodiak Island is located in the eastern Aleutian subduction zone forearc and is above the down-dip limit of the great 1964 Prince William Sound earthquake (Mw 9.2) rupture segment. Along the north coast of the island a raised terrace is a prominent feature of the SRTM DEM (digital elevation map, 30 meter resolution). This terrace, interpreted to reflect the oxygen isotope stage 5e (133-120 ka) shoreline, increases in elevation uniformly from about 15 m on the west side of the island to about 40 m on the east side, representing long-term uplift rates of about 0.15 m/ky (west side) to 0.3 m/ky (east side). However, at Narrow Cape on Kodiak's northeast coast the elevation of the terrace is about 80 m and it is 100 m on nearby Ugak Island. We interpret the anomalously high elevation of the terrace at Narrow Cape and Ugak Island to be the result of upper-plate faulting. Landsat-7 images and air photos of Narrow Cape and Ugak Island show many lineaments crossing the terrace. These lineaments are parallel to the Aleutian trench and the dominant structural grain of the island. Mapping and trenching studies of four of the lineaments show evidence for late Pleistocene and Holocene surface fault rupture. The largest of the lineaments corresponds with the Narrow Cape fault, the contact between the early Tertiary Ghost Rocks Formation and the late Tertiary Narrow Cape Formation. The fault vertically displaces the stage 5e terrace by about 240 m and a linear scarp coincident with the fault is developed in latest Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. Several streams are offset left laterally up to 35 m where they cross the fault. Three additional lineaments at Narrow Cape have been investigated and also found to be associated with Holocene faults, the Bear Paw, Bison, and Claudia faults. Trenches across the

  1. Effect of prior performance on subsequent performance evaluation by field independent-dependent raters.

    PubMed

    Sisco, Howard; Leventhal, Gloria

    2007-12-01

    The importance of accurate performance appraisals is central to many aspects of personnel activities in organizations. This study examined threats due to past performance to accuracy of evaluation of subsequent performance by raters differing in scores on field dependence. 162 college students were classified as Field-dependent (n = 81) or Field-independent (n = 81), using a median split on the Group Embedded Figures Test. Past performance (a lecture) was good or poor, presented directly via a videotape or indirectly via a written evaluation to the Field-independent or Field-dependent groups. Analysis indicated the hypothesized contrast effect (ratings in the opposite direction from that of prior ratings) in the Direct condition and an unexpected, albeit smaller, contrast effect in the Indirect condition. There were also differential effects of performance, presentation, and field dependency on rating of lecturer's style and ability.

  2. Bayesian identification of multiple seismic change points and varying seismic rates caused by induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya-Noguera, Silvana; Wang, Yu

    2017-04-01

    The Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) has experienced an abnormal increase in seismic activity, which is believed to be related to anthropogenic activities. The U.S. Geological Survey has acknowledged this situation and developed the CEUS 2016 1 year seismic hazard model using the catalog of 2015 by assuming stationary seismicity in that period. However, due to the nonstationary nature of induced seismicity, it is essential to identify change points for accurate probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). We present a Bayesian procedure to identify the most probable change points in seismicity and define their respective seismic rates. It uses prior distributions in agreement with conventional PSHA and updates them with recent data to identify seismicity changes. It can determine the change points in a regional scale and may incorporate different types of information in an objective manner. It is first successfully tested with simulated data, and then it is used to evaluate Oklahoma's regional seismicity.

  3. Independent evaluation of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions to better than 10.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Jocelyn Christine; Keller, Elizabeth D; Norris, Margaret W; Wiltshire, Rachael M

    2016-09-13

    Independent estimates of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are key to ensuring that emission reductions and regulations are effective and provide needed transparency and trust. Point source emissions are a key target because a small number of power plants represent a large portion of total global emissions. Currently, emission rates are known only from self-reported data. Atmospheric observations have the potential to meet the need for independent evaluation, but useful results from this method have been elusive, due to challenges in distinguishing CO2ff emissions from the large and varying CO2 background and in relating atmospheric observations to emission flux rates with high accuracy. Here we use time-integrated observations of the radiocarbon content of CO2 ((14)CO2) to quantify the recently added CO2ff mole fraction at surface sites surrounding a point source. We demonstrate that both fast-growing plant material (grass) and CO2 collected by absorption into sodium hydroxide solution provide excellent time-integrated records of atmospheric (14)CO2 These time-integrated samples allow us to evaluate emissions over a period of days to weeks with only a modest number of measurements. Applying the same time integration in an atmospheric transport model eliminates the need to resolve highly variable short-term turbulence. Together these techniques allow us to independently evaluate point source CO2ff emission rates from atmospheric observations with uncertainties of better than 10%. This uncertainty represents an improvement by a factor of 2 over current bottom-up inventory estimates and previous atmospheric observation estimates and allows reliable independent evaluation of emissions.

  4. Independent evaluation of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions to better than 10%

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Jocelyn Christine; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Norris, Margaret W.; Wiltshire, Rachael M.

    2016-01-01

    Independent estimates of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are key to ensuring that emission reductions and regulations are effective and provide needed transparency and trust. Point source emissions are a key target because a small number of power plants represent a large portion of total global emissions. Currently, emission rates are known only from self-reported data. Atmospheric observations have the potential to meet the need for independent evaluation, but useful results from this method have been elusive, due to challenges in distinguishing CO2ff emissions from the large and varying CO2 background and in relating atmospheric observations to emission flux rates with high accuracy. Here we use time-integrated observations of the radiocarbon content of CO2 (14CO2) to quantify the recently added CO2ff mole fraction at surface sites surrounding a point source. We demonstrate that both fast-growing plant material (grass) and CO2 collected by absorption into sodium hydroxide solution provide excellent time-integrated records of atmospheric 14CO2. These time-integrated samples allow us to evaluate emissions over a period of days to weeks with only a modest number of measurements. Applying the same time integration in an atmospheric transport model eliminates the need to resolve highly variable short-term turbulence. Together these techniques allow us to independently evaluate point source CO2ff emission rates from atmospheric observations with uncertainties of better than 10%. This uncertainty represents an improvement by a factor of 2 over current bottom-up inventory estimates and previous atmospheric observation estimates and allows reliable independent evaluation of emissions. PMID:27573818

  5. Providing Seismic Data to the Public: Evaluation and Impact of IRIS/USGS Museum Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.

    2004-12-01

    IRIS data has had an important impact on the public understanding of geophysics as well as on research advances. One example of this is the IRIS/USGS museum display program, where 16 million museum visitors per year can view near-real-time earthquake locations and ground motions. An evaluation of displays at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City (AMNH) and the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC (NMNH) was conducted in the summer of 2004 to assess the display's ability to increase the public's understanding of seismology and to determine how the displays might be improved. The evaluation involved tracking and timing museum visitors to see what attracted them and what held their attention. The tracking and timing was conducted within a single gallery in both museums. Visitors were also interviewed in order to learn what they liked and disliked about the display, and to assess what they learned about seismology. The results show that the IRIS/USGS display was the top attraction in both the AMNH and NMNH galleries (in terms of the percentage of visitors that stopped at the exhibit). It was also first at both galleries for cumulative visitor stop time (the sum of the time spent by all visitors) and in the total number of visitors counted in front of the display during random sweeps of the gallery. In both galleries, visitors were attracted to the display most often by the map on a large plasma monitor that shows the last 2 weeks of seismicity with alternating views of the of the world and the continental US. Smaller numbers of visitors were attracted by the triple-drum recorder. When asked what they liked about the display, the greatest number of visitors (31% at each museum) replied that they liked that it is real-time/up to date. Visitors also liked the map of recent earthquakes, the list of earthquakes on the small monitor and the triple drum. A large majority of the visitors were interested to know that

  6. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2009-01-14

    failure leading to global buckling of the tank under increased vacuum) could occur. After releasing Revision 0 of this report, an independent review of the Double Shell Tanks (DST) Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TaLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis was conducted by Dr. Robert P. Kennedy of RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting and Dr. Anestis S. Veletsos of Rice University. Revision I was then issued to address their review comments (included in Appendix D). Additional concerns involving the evaluation of concrete anchor loads and allowables were found during a second review by Drs. Kennedy and Veletsos (see Appendix G). Extensive additional analysis was performed on the anchors, which is detailed by Deibler et al. (2008a, 2008b). The current report (Revision 2) references this recent work, and additional analysis is presented to show that anchor loads do not concentrate significantly in the presence of a local buckle.

  7. Quantifying loss of independent joint control in acute stroke with a robotic evaluation of reaching workspace.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael D; Kottink, Anke I R; Prange, Gerdienke B; Rietman, Johan S; Buurke, Jaap H; Dewald, Julius P A

    2011-01-01

    Early recovery after stroke is significant for slow emergence of volitional movement. Initial movements are constrained by stereotypical co-activation of muscle groups such as shoulder abductors and distal limb flexors resulting in the loss of independent joint control. The objective of this study was to utilize new quantitative methods to evaluate the emergence and progression of the loss of independent joint control in the acute phase of recovery from stroke. Fifteen participants have been followed a maximum range of 2 to 32 weeks post-stroke. Participants underwent weekly and monthly robotic evaluations of horizontal plane reaching workspace as a function of abduction loading (0%-200% of limb weight). The magnitude of loss of independent joint control, indicated by the rate of work area reduction as a function of abduction loading, was evident even as early as 2 weeks post-stroke. Group analysis indicated that individuals with mild stroke show immediate presence of the impairment with an exponential rate of recovery over time while individuals with severe stroke show persistent impairment. Early detection and quantification of reaching impairments, such as the loss of independent joint control, will allow clinicians to more efficiently identify patients who would benefit from impairment-based targeted interventions. For example, patients with severe loss of independent joint control will likely benefit from early administration of an intervention attempting to reduce abnormal shoulder abductor/distal limb flexor co-activations during reaching. The field of rehabilitation robotics has demonstrated such interventions to be promising in the chronic severe stroke population.

  8. Are we past peak pressure in Oklahoma? A hydrogeologic evaluation of reduced saltwater injection rates on induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, M.; Zoback, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    In early 2016, the Oklahoma Corporation Commission (OCC) began the largest field-scale induced seismicity experiment in scientific history. Over a 10,000 km2 area, designated the Area Of Interest (AOI), in central and northern Oklahoma, the OCC mandated a 40% reduction from 2014 injection volume for more than 600 injection wells. This mandate is aimed at reducing the likelihood of induced seismicity by reducing the reservoir pressure perturbation from injection. Several questions of importance remain: (1) where and over what timescale will reservoir pressure perturbation decrease? (2) where and over what time scale will induced seismicity rates respond? To answer these questions we built a reservoir model that simulates past injection into the Arbuckle formation from 1997 - Dec. 2015. We then extend the reservoir model to simulate four future scenarios of AOI injection over the next ten years. The four modeled injection scenarios, starting in 2016, are as follows: (1) assume the 40% reduction from 2014 levels continue over the full period, (2) injection is further reduced to pre-2008 levels, (3) injection rates return to 2014 levels by 2019, (4) all injection wells are shut-in for the entire period. To evaluate our model results, we define the term 'peak pressure' as the maximum reservoir pressure change a given point in space experiences through time. We hypothesize that once a given location is past 'peak pressure', the seismicity rate will begin to decline. In management scenarios 1, 2, and 4, where injection rates are reduced, we observe a general reduction from 'peak pressure' in areas where the largest pressure perturbations were observed prior to the start of management. We expect pressure diffusion to temporarily increase observed pressures at distance from injection wells. Sensitivity analysis simulating a range of reservoir permeabilities either lengths or shortens the delay time to reduced reservoir pressure at distance. Scenario 3, which gradually

  9. Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M.

    2008-07-08

    A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS). Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign.

  10. Non Linear Analyses for the Evaluation of Seismic Behavior of Mixed R.C.-Masonry Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Liberatore, Laura; Tocci, Cesare; Masiani, Renato

    2008-07-08

    In this work the seismic behavior of masonry buildings with mixed structural system, consisting of perimeter masonry walls and internal r.c. frames, is studied by means of non linear static (pushover) analyses. Several aspects, like the distribution of seismic action between masonry and r.c. elements, the local and global behavior of the structure, the crisis of the connections and the attainment of the ultimate strength of the whole structure are examined. The influence of some parameters, such as the masonry compressive and tensile strength, on the structural behavior is investigated. The numerical analyses are also repeated on a building in which the r.c. internal frames are replaced with masonry walls.

  11. Response of a 2-story test-bed structure for the seismic evaluation of nonstructural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soroushian, Siavash; Maragakis, E. "Manos"; Zaghi, Arash E.; Rahmanishamsi, Esmaeel; Itani, Ahmad M.; Pekcan, Gokhan

    2016-03-01

    A full-scale, two-story, two-by-one bay, steel braced-frame was subjected to a number of unidirectional ground motions using three shake tables at the UNR-NEES site. The test-bed frame was designed to study the seismic performance of nonstructural systems including steel-framed gypsum partition walls, suspended ceilings and fire sprinkler systems. The frame can be configured to perform as an elastic or inelastic system to generate large floor accelerations or large inter story drift, respectively. In this study, the dynamic performance of the linear and nonlinear test-beds was comprehensively studied. The seismic performance of nonstructural systems installed in the linear and nonlinear test-beds were assessed during extreme excitations. In addition, the dynamic interactions of the test-bed and installed nonstructural systems are investigated.

  12. Milwaukee Independent Charter Schools Study: Final Report on Four-Year Achievement Gains. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Carlson, Deven; Dean, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The general purpose of this five-year evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of Milwaukee's independent charter schools in promoting student achievement growth. Independent charter schools are authorized by nonschool-district entities and are considered "independent" because they are not a part of the Milwaukee Public School District…

  13. Seismic Evaluation and Preliminary Design of Regular Setback Masonry Infilled Open Ground Storey RC Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, Arshad K.

    2016-06-01

    Current seismic code presents certain stringent factors for defining frame as regular and irregular. Thereby these stringent factors only decide the type of analysis (i.e. equivalent static analysis or dynamic analysis) to be done. On the contrary, development of new simplified methods such as pushover analysis can give lateral load capacity of any structure (e.g. regular or irregular frame etc.) easily. Design by iterative procedure with the help of pushover analysis for serviceability requirement (i.e. inter storey drift limitation) provided by present seismic code, can provide an alternative to present practicing procedure. Present paper deals with regular setback frame in combination with vulnerable layout of masonry infill walls over the frame elevation (i.e. probable case of "Vertical Stiffness Irregularities"). Nonlinear time history analysis and Capacity Spectrum Method have been implemented to investigate the seismic performance of these frames. Finally, recently developed preliminary design procedure satisfying the serviceability criterion of inter storey drift limitation has been employed for the preliminary design of these frames.

  14. Seismic performance evaluation of an MR elastomer-based smart base isolation system using real-time hybrid simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eem, S. H.; Jung, H. J.; Koo, J. H.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, magneto-rheological (MR) elastomer-based base isolation systems have been actively studied as alternative smart base isolation systems because MR elastomers are capable of adjusting their modulus or stiffness depending on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. By taking advantage of the MR elastomers’ stiffness-tuning ability, MR elastomer-based smart base isolation systems strive to alleviate limitations of existing smart base isolation systems as well as passive-type base isolators. Until now, research on MR elastomer-based base isolation systems primarily focused on characterization, design, and numerical evaluations of MR elastomer-based isolators, as well as experimental tests with simple structure models. However, their applicability to large civil structures has not been properly studied yet because it is quite challenging to numerically emulate the complex behavior of MR elastomer-based isolators and to conduct experiments with large-size structures. To address these difficulties, this study employs the real-time hybrid simulation technique, which combines physical testing and computational modeling. The primary goal of the current hybrid simulation study is to evaluate seismic performances of an MR elastomer-based smart base isolation system, particularly its adaptability to distinctly different seismic excitations. In the hybrid simulation, a single-story building structure (non-physical, computational model) is coupled with a physical testing setup for a smart base isolation system with associated components (such as laminated MR elastomers and electromagnets) installed on a shaking table. A series of hybrid simulations is carried out under two seismic excitations having different dominant frequencies. The results show that the proposed smart base isolation system outperforms the passive base isolation system in reducing the responses of the structure for the excitations considered in this study.

  15. 3-D visualisation and interpretation of seismic attributes extracted from large 3-D seismic datasets: Subregional and prospect evaluation, deepwater Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Sola, M.; Haakon Nordby, L.; Dailey, D.V.; Duncan, E.A.

    1996-12-31

    High resolution 3-D visualization of horizon interpretation and seismic attributes from large 3-D seismic surveys in deepwater Nigeria has greatly enhanced the exploration team`s ability to quickly recognize prospective segments of subregional and prospect specific scale areas. Integrated workstation generated structure, isopach and extracted horizon consistent, interval and windowed attributes are particularly useful in illustrating the complex structural and stratigraphical prospectivity of deepwater Nigeria. Large 3-D seismic volumes acquired over 750 square kilometers can be manipulated within the visualization system with attribute tracking capability that allows for real time data interrogation and interpretation. As in classical seismic stratigraphic studies, pattern recognition is fundamental to effective depositions facies interpretation and reservoir model construction. The 3-D perspective enhances the data interpretation through clear representation of relative scale, spatial distribution and magnitude of attributes. In deepwater Nigeria, many prospective traps rely on an interplay between syndepositional structure and slope turbidite depositional systems. Reservoir systems in many prospects appear to be dominated by unconfined to moderately focused slope feeder channel facies. These units have spatially complex facies architecture with feeder channel axes separated by extensive interchannel areas. Structural culminations generally have a history of initial compressional folding with late in extensional collapse and accommodation faulting. The resulting complex trap configurations often have stacked reservoirs over intervals as thick as 1500 meters. Exploration, appraisal and development scenarios in these settings can be optimized by taking full advantage of integrating high resolution 3-D visualization and seismic workstation interpretation.

  16. 3-D visualisation and interpretation of seismic attributes extracted from large 3-D seismic datasets: Subregional and prospect evaluation, deepwater Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Sola, M.; Haakon Nordby, L.; Dailey, D.V.; Duncan, E.A. )

    1996-01-01

    High resolution 3-D visualization of horizon interpretation and seismic attributes from large 3-D seismic surveys in deepwater Nigeria has greatly enhanced the exploration team's ability to quickly recognize prospective segments of subregional and prospect specific scale areas. Integrated workstation generated structure, isopach and extracted horizon consistent, interval and windowed attributes are particularly useful in illustrating the complex structural and stratigraphical prospectivity of deepwater Nigeria. Large 3-D seismic volumes acquired over 750 square kilometers can be manipulated within the visualization system with attribute tracking capability that allows for real time data interrogation and interpretation. As in classical seismic stratigraphic studies, pattern recognition is fundamental to effective depositions facies interpretation and reservoir model construction. The 3-D perspective enhances the data interpretation through clear representation of relative scale, spatial distribution and magnitude of attributes. In deepwater Nigeria, many prospective traps rely on an interplay between syndepositional structure and slope turbidite depositional systems. Reservoir systems in many prospects appear to be dominated by unconfined to moderately focused slope feeder channel facies. These units have spatially complex facies architecture with feeder channel axes separated by extensive interchannel areas. Structural culminations generally have a history of initial compressional folding with late in extensional collapse and accommodation faulting. The resulting complex trap configurations often have stacked reservoirs over intervals as thick as 1500 meters. Exploration, appraisal and development scenarios in these settings can be optimized by taking full advantage of integrating high resolution 3-D visualization and seismic workstation interpretation.

  17. Seismic stability evaluation of Alben Barkley Lock and Dam Project. Volume 4. Liquefaction susceptibility evaluation and post-earthquake strength determination. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, R.E.; Olsen, R.S.; Bluhm, P.F.; Yule, D.E.; Hynes, M.E.

    1992-09-01

    This report documents the results of seismological, geological, laboratory, field, and analytical investigations conducted to evaluate the liquefaction potential of two earth embankment sections of the Alben Barkley Lock and Dam Project, Kentucky. these sections are representative of those of the main embankment and powerhouse/switch-yard areas. The design earthquake, from the New Madrid Seismic Zone, had a body-wave magnitude of 7.5. Of particular interest in this study was the evaluation of the liquefaction potential of silty sands in the foundation.

  18. Independent safety evaluation of the CR562 (CR6) control rod test

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1988-10-01

    This report documents the Independent Safety Evaluation performed for the CR562 control rod. CR562 is a reference Series II control rod which has been designated as an experiment (CR-6) since post- irradiation examination has been planned as part of the surveillance program for FFTF control rods. Prior analysis as an experiment has not been required since the test operated within the Technical Specification Limits up to this time. The control rod will be operated beyond the Technical Specification fluence limit during the last 30 days of Cycle 10B. A TDD-1A has been written to support this extension, and this ISE documents the independent review. A similar procedure was used for the CR544 control rod. 9 refs.

  19. Integration of independent component analysis with near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of rice freshness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yung-Kun; Chen, Suming; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Lo, Y. Martin; Tsai, Chao-Yin; Yang, I.-Chang; Hu, Yi-Ping

    2012-05-01

    Determination of freshness is an important issue for rice quality. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, a rapid nondestructive inspection method based on specific absorptions within a given range of wavelengths corresponding to the constituents in the sample, has been widely applied for evaluation of internal quality of agricultural products. Since NIR spectra of a mixture may be approximated as the linear addition of individual spectra of the constituents in the mixture, such a mixture spectrum thus can be regarded as 'blind sources' as the proportion of constituents in the samples remains unknown. A multiuse statistical approach, independent component analysis (ICA), is capable of disassembling the mixture signals of Gaussian distribution into non-Gaussian independent constituents, and (with assumption of independent constituent spectral response) can give a complete explanation about the property of constituents in the mixture. By example, a total of 180 white rice samples were collected from 6 crop seasons (from 2006 to 2010) for the purpose of developing an ICA NIR based procedure for rice freshness. , Values of pH were determined by a conventional (bromothymol blue methyl red) method. The calibration model of white rice yielded Rc = 0.939, SEC = 0.202, rp = 0.803 and SEP = 0.233 using original full wavelength range (400 to 2498 nm) spectra and 5 independent components (ICs). Freshness of the white rice can be distinguished either visually by 3-dimensional diagram composed from ICs 2, 3 and 4, or statistically by a calibration model. The results show that ICA with NIR can quickly identify and effectively quantify the pH value in white rice with high predictability, and has the potential to be a useful tool for evaluating rice freshness.

  20. Evaluation of an oral function promotion programme for the independent elderly in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hakuta, Chiyoko; Mori, Chisato; Ueno, Masayuki; Shinada, Kayoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an oral function promotion programme for the independent elderly and evaluate the changes in oral health status and oral function. Few studies have scientifically analysed and evaluated the effectiveness of oral function promotion programmes provided for the independent elderly. The subjects were independent elderly females (mean age: 74.6 +/- 6.3) recruited from senior citizens' centres in Tokyo. The intervention group (n = 79) received a 3-month oral function promotion programme, which included facial muscle and tongue exercises and salivary gland massages. The control group (n = 62) did not receive this programme. In the intervention group, the tongue coating scores decreased and the organoleptic score of oral malodour fell. The amount of food debris in the oral cavity decreased and the tongue dryness improved. Furthermore, the salivary flow rate increased. The length of time for maintaining the tongue in the forward position increased from 11.2 s to 18.7 s, and the number of times for moving the tip of the tongue in a clockwise circular motion, counter-clockwise circular motion and side-to-side motion within 30 s, increased from 14.5 to 20.6, 14.5 to 20.2, and 17.2 to 23.3 respectively. The number of times for movement of the lips significantly improved from 23.0 to 28.8 and the pronunciation of words was observed to be clearer. An oral function promotion programme was effective in improving the oral health status and oral function of an independent elderly population.

  1. Stereotyping and evaluation in implicit race bias: evidence for independent constructs and unique effects on behavior.

    PubMed

    Amodio, David M; Devine, Patricia G

    2006-10-01

    Implicit stereotyping and prejudice often appear as a single process in behavior, yet functional neuroanatomy suggests that they arise from fundamentally distinct substrates associated with semantic versus affective memory systems. On the basis of this research, the authors propose that implicit stereotyping reflects cognitive processes and should predict instrumental behaviors such as judgments and impression formation, whereas implicit evaluation reflects affective processes and should predict consummatory behaviors, such as interpersonal preferences and social distance. Study 1 showed the independence of participants' levels of implicit stereotyping and evaluation. Studies 2 and 3 showed the unique effects of implicit stereotyping and evaluation on self-reported and behavioral responses to African Americans using double-dissociation designs. Implications for construct validity, theory development, and research design are discussed. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Bridge pier foundation evaluation using cross-hole seismic tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butchibabu, B.; Sandeep, N.; Sivaram, Y. V.; Jha, P. C.; Khan, P. K.

    2017-09-01

    An ambitious project connecting Jammu and Srinagar through a railway link in tectonically active and geologically complex Himalayan Mountain terrain is under progress. Under this project, the world's highest (359 m) railway arch-bridge is under construction across the River Chenab in the northern territory of India. This mega engineering structure has a two-fold ribbed arch design, comprising of steel girders. During the excavation for one of the concrete pillars on the right abutment, wide open joints and weak/shear zones were noticed. The width of these joints varies from 30 to 50 cm, trending along N170° with a dip of 65°. The foundation area of this pillar is 13 m × 24 m and on the cut slopes of the right bank of Chenab River. These exposed joints and weak zones were treated with consolidation grouting to strengthen the foundation area. To delineate the extent of these joints and weak zones below the foundation level, seismic tomography was carried out in five boreholes drilled for this purpose to cover the 300 sq-m area. The results of cross-hole seismic tomography reveals the presence of three low velocity (≤ 2600 m/s) anomalous zones below the foundation area. This also ascertained the efficacy of grouting in consolidating the joints and weak zones. Later, rock-mass quality (Q) was determined based on the relationship between the P-wave velocity and the Q-value (Barton, 2002) to infer the support system for the slope stabilization below the foundation. 3-D visualization of the seismic velocity demarcates the extent of weak or untreated zones. This methodology facilitates to update the design parameters according to Q-values during the construction stage and estimate the required level of reinforcement and support system. Similar methodology can be applicable in other areas under same site conditions.

  3. Evaluation of Semanggol Formation (Permian Facies) Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Seismic Refraction Tomography Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisham, Hazrul; Nordiana, M. M., Dr.; Jia, Teoh Ying, Dr.

    2017-04-01

    Outcrop studies are a fascinating part of geology as it evidently shows the aftermath of how the earth forming processes billion years ago. Outcrops do not cover majority of the Earth’s land surface as it is covered by soils or vegetation thus cannot be seen clearly. In Kedah, Malaysia, there are many outcrops exposed in the state. The aim of this research studies was to correlate the parameters of geophysical survey with the properties of the Permian facies of Semanggol Formation in Kedah. The Permian facies consists of bedded chert and claystone. Two geophysical technique, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) were applied at the same line on top of the outcrop at Bukit Kukus beside Kulim - Baling (Kedah) road. The arrays used for ERT are Pole-dipole and Wenner-Schlumberger. The spacing between electrodes for ERT is 1.5 m while the geophone spacing for SRT is 2 m. Both ERT and SRT line is 60 m and 46 m respectively. Based on the results of both geophysical techniques, relating the porosity and permeability (poroperm) with geophysical parameters, it can be concluded that the bedded chert of low poroperm having seismic velocity and resistivity values at range of 1500 m/s - 2500 m/s and 1400 Ωm - 45000 Ωm. Whereas for claystone, it is very soft and laminated, concluding having high poroperm with seismic velocity between 600 m/s - 1200 m/s and resistivity values between 400 Ωm - 1000 Ωm.

  4. Rapid evaluation of induced seismicity using slip tendency analysis and well hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. P.; Ferrill, D. A.; Price, A. M.; Walter, G. R.; Mcginnis, R. N.

    2015-12-01

    Three ingredients for inducing seismicity are (i) fault or faults capable of slipping seismically, (ii) non-hydrostatic stress state, and (iii) pore fluid pressure perturbation. Slip tendency is the ratio of shear to normal stress for any surface experiencing a three-dimensional stress state. Its value depends on the relative magnitudes of the principal stresses and the orientation of the surface of interest; it is a measure of the likelihood that a surface will experience slip. The value of slip tendency that generates slip is variable and depends on rock type and fault zone characteristics. We investigate geologic scenarios coupling slip tendency analysis with established models of well hydraulics to generate pressure histories throughout a rock volume. Because it is sensitive to both stress and fault geometry, slip tendency is an efficient measure of the propensity of a fault to slip, and is a better predictive tool for induced seismicity than pore fluid pressure, or pore fluid pressure change. Our modeling suggests reasons why the most energetic earthquakes that are linked to subsurface fluid injection in the United States are likely the result of reactivated basement faults. Low permeabilities tend to increase the magnitude of the pore pressure perturbation, which in turn increases slip tendency. For much of the USA, "basement" connotes crystalline rock with low intrinsic permeability, and hence fault and fracture zones are often the primary conductive features within a low permeability host. Many such faults are long-lived, may have experienced repeated reactivation and have been modified by chemically active fluids, they are thus likely to have developed characteristics such as foliation and phyllosilicate mineralogies that reduce their frictional strength. The combination of high slip tendency and low friction renders these faults susceptible to relatively small perturbations in pore fluid pressure.

  5. Agreement between therapists, parents, patients, and independent evaluators on clinical improvement in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Adam B.; Peris, Tara S.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective Independent evaluators (IE) are employed widely in clinical trials to make unbiased determinations of treatment response. By virtue of being kept blind to treatment condition, however, IEs are also kept unaware of many pertinent clinical details that are relevant for decisions about clinical improvement. In this study, agreement among raters (children, parents, therapists, and IEs) about treatment response over the course of a 14-week clinical trial for pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) was examined in order to determine the utility of non-blind clinician and patient ratings of treatment response. Method Participants were 71 youth (mean age= 12.2 years; 63.4% female) with a primary diagnosis of OCD and their parents participating in a psychotherapy trial. Independent evaluators provided response ratings (Clinician's Global Impressions-Improvement Scale; CGI-I) at weeks 4, week 8 and 14 and therapists, children and parents completed independent CGI-I ratings at weeks 2, 4, 8 and 14. Results Nonlinear mixed models revealed differences in rating parties, with therapists and IEs slower to rate treatment improvement compared to children and parents and growth curve models suggested that therapists and IEs produced generally consistent ratings. In addition, no evidence was found for an evaluator-by-treatment interaction, indicating that raters displayed these differences consistently across both active and placebo conditions. Conclusions Youth and parents may be able to provide accurate ratings of global improvement; non-blinded treating clinicians (with training in research-oriented assessment) can offer global improvement ratings commensurate with blinded IEs. Findings suggest that alternatives (or additions) to the blinded-IE model may be appropriate for assessing global improvement, especially with the growing emphasis on dissemination and effectiveness trials. PMID:22963592

  6. Seismic evaluation of the Devonian Ohio Shale in the Big Ugly area, southwestern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Li; Wilson, T. )

    1991-08-01

    The Devonian Ohio Shale was studied in the Big Ugly area of southwestern West Virginia by reprocessing and interpreting existing seismic and geologic data. These data suggest the presence of detached structures above three decollement zones and cross-strike discontinuities associated with the Alleghanian deformation west of Mann Mountain anticline. A basement growth structure, the Griffithsville basement high, localized detached structures along its southeast flank. High producing trends of gas from the Devonian Ohio Shale occur either near northwest-trending cross-strike structural discontinuities or in the northeast-trending detached structures where fracture density should be increased.

  7. Seismic Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Seismic methods are the most commonly conducted geophysical surveys for engineering investigations. Seismic refraction provides engineers and geologists with the most basic of geologic data via simple procedures with common equipment.

  8. Re-evaluating seismic hazard along the southern Longmen Shan, China: Insights from the 1970 Dayi and 2013 Lushan earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhigang; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Almeida, Rafael; Hubbard, Judith; Sun, Chuang; Yi, Guixi

    2017-10-01

    Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the seismic hazard (i.e. whether earthquakes with M ≥ 7 occur) of the southern Longmen Shan (LMS). This region did not rupture during the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, but later generated the 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan earthquake. Currently, the maximum possible earthquake magnitude, its average recurrence interval, and the seismogenic structure of the southern LMS, remain poorly documented. This study aims to re-evaluate seismogenic structures and seismic hazard along the southern LMS. We first describe the sub-surface structural geometry, as well as the total slip and Quaternary activity of the Range Front blind thrust (RFBT), using high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, borehole data, and intensity-derived macroscopic epicenters. This thrust, which generated the 1970 Ms 6.2 Dayi and 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan earthquakes, extends for > 250 km along the LMS range front. Integrating new evidence of active faulting and folding and previous quantitative horizontal shortening rate results, we estimate that the Quaternary slip rate of the RFBT is nearly 1 mm/yr, with a minimum total slip of 5 km since 8-5 Ma. Furthermore, we calculate the accumulation rate of seismic moment, 8.04 (± 2.09) × 1017 N·m/yr, for the main active thrusts on the southern LMS, to compare with the moment release rate for earthquakes in the region. When we combine this with the Gutenberg-Richter distribution obtained from historical and instrumental catalogs, we estimate that the potential maximum moment magnitude of an earthquake in the southern LMS is 7.7. Finally, we conclude that the entire southern LMS is capable of generating much larger earthquakes (Mw 7.3-7.7) than seen recently, with an average frequency of once every 1000-1400 years. Therefore, our findings confirm that there is potential for large earthquakes in the southern LMS, especially on the RFBT, which extends beneath the densely populated Chengdu Plain.

  9. Seismic hazard in the Istanbul metropolitan area: A preliminary re-evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, E.; Gulkan, Polat; Ozturk, N.Y.; Celebi, M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, two destructive earthquakes (M7.4 Kocaeli and M7.2 Duzce) occurred in the north west of Turkey and resulted in major stress-drops on the western segment of the North Anatolian Fault system where it continues under the Marmara Sea. These undersea fault segments were recently explored using bathymetric and reflection surveys. These recent findings helped to reshape the seismotectonic environment of the Marmara basin, which is a perplexing tectonic domain. Based on collected new information, seismic hazard of the Marmara region, particularly Istanbul Metropolitan Area and its vicinity, were re-examined using a probabilistic approach. Two seismic source and alternate recurrence models combined with various indigenous and foreign attenuation relationships were adapted within a logic tree formulation to quantify and project the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. The hazard maps show the peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral acceleration at 1.0 s. These acceleration levels were computed for 2 and 10 % probabilities of transcendence in 50 years.

  10. Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M.

    2008-07-01

    A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS) [1]. Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign.

  11. Evaluation of the seismic reflection method as a monitoring tool during primary and enhanced coalbed methane production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lespinasse Fung, Diane Jael

    In this thesis I present an evaluation of the seismic reflection method as a monitoring tool during coalbed methane (CBM) production and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production by CO2 injection. This evaluation is based on a workflow previously developed for monitoring CO2 storage in the Big George coalbeds in the Powder River Basin. I study the changes in seismic and the AVO response associated with coalbeds during primary production using a data set from the Mannville coals, which represent one of the most important CBM resources in the Province of Alberta. Using published data, I perform a single well flow simulation to make an assessment of its production forecast in a 10 year period. The flow simulation provides information on methane saturation and reservoir pressure during production, while the changes in porosity and permeability due to depletion are estimated according to the Palmer and Mansoori permeability model. Using well log data of the Corbett Field and the results of the flow simulation, I complete a Gassmann fluid substitution to replace brine by a mixture of brine and methane in the pore space and estimate the variations in Vp, Vs and density due to changes in fluid saturation. I evaluate offset dependent synthetic seismograms before and after fluid substitution, and I use different coalbed thicknesses to establish resolution limits. To observe significant changes in the character and phase of the wavelet due to the replacement of brine by methane I find that coalbed thickness must be at least 10 m, also in terms of AVO I observe that there is a decrease in amplitude with offset caused by the presence of methane in the pore space. Using the same methodology and production data from the Fruitland Coals Fairway in the North of the San Juan Basin U.S.A, which is considered the most productive CBM reservoir in the world, I evaluate Elastic Impedance (EI) and Elastic Impedance Coefficient (EC) response during ECBM by CO2 injection. In this case, I

  12. Seismic and well logging interpretation for evaluation of the lower Bahariya reservoir, southwest Qarun (SWQ) Field, Gindi Basin, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhan, Mohammad Abdelfattah; Basal, A. M. K.; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on seismic and well log interpretations for evaluating the sandstones of the Cenomanian Bahariya Formation in the southwest Qarun Field, Gindi Basin, northern Western Desert of Egypt. The seismic profiles display a clear anticlinal structure intersected by reverse faults in the study area. This faulted anticline has been interpreted to be one of the Syrian arc system folds formed by Upper Cretaceous tectonic inversion, which resulted from the NW movement of the African Plate relative to Laurasia. This anticline has been recommended as a target for exploration by the present work as it may represent a structural trap for hydrocarbon accumulation. The sandstones of the Lower Bahariya Formation in the southwest Qarun Field display good reservoir characteristics. The interpretation of the available well log data for the SWQ-21 and SWQ-25 wells for the Lower Bahariya Formation reflects a good reservoir quality for oil production in its topmost part. This reservoir possesses low SW (<50%), high porosity (16%), low SW/SXO and low BVW (<0.09) which all reflect a high potential for oil production.

  13. Seismic and well logging interpretation for evaluation of the lower Bahariya reservoir, southwest Qarun (SWQ) Field, Gindi Basin, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhan, Mohammad Abdelfattah; Basal, A. M. K.; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    This paper focuses on seismic and well log interpretations for evaluating the sandstones of the Cenomanian Bahariya Formation in the southwest Qarun Field, Gindi Basin, northern Western Desert of Egypt. The seismic profiles display a clear anticlinal structure intersected by reverse faults in the study area. This faulted anticline has been interpreted to be one of the Syrian arc system folds formed by Upper Cretaceous tectonic inversion, which resulted from the NW movement of the African Plate relative to Laurasia. This anticline has been recommended as a target for exploration by the present work as it may represent a structural trap for hydrocarbon accumulation. The sandstones of the Lower Bahariya Formation in the southwest Qarun Field display good reservoir characteristics. The interpretation of the available well log data for the SWQ-21 and SWQ-25 wells for the Lower Bahariya Formation reflects a good reservoir quality for oil production in its topmost part. This reservoir possesses low SW (<50%), high porosity (16%), low SW/SXO and low BVW (<0.09) which all reflect a high potential for oil production.

  14. Independent evaluation of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) 'dot' dosemeters for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Bindu; Gesell, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) 'dot' dosemeters (manufactured by Landauer®) are reported to have a high degree of environmental stability, high level of sensitivity and provide wide range of dose measuring capabilities from 0.05 mGy to 100 Gy. The optical read out method is fast and relatively simple and permits repeated read out, but few studies have been performed about its application in monitoring radiation in the environment. This study was initiated to independently test the performance of OSL dot dosemeters for the application of measuring doses of radiation in the outdoor environment. Testing was performed in the laboratory to evaluate reproducibility and stability and in the field to evaluate accuracy relative to calibrated high-pressure ionisation chambers. The results showed that OSL dot dosemeters had good reproducibility and stability in both laboratory and field tests and met the performance requirements of standards of the American National Standards Institute.

  15. An Independent Inter- and Intraobserver Agreement Evaluation of the AOSpine Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Julio; Zamora, Tomas; Yurac, Ratko; Campos, Mauricio; Palma, Joaquin; Mobarec, Sebastian; Prada, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    An agreement study. The aim of this study was to perform an independent interobserver and intraobserver agreement assessment of the AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system. The AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system was recently described. It showed substantial inter- and intraobserver agreement in the study describing it; however, an independent evaluation has not been performed. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging of 65 patients with acute traumatic subaxial cervical spine injuries were selected and classified using the morphologic grading of the subaxial cervical spine injury classification system by 6 evaluators (3 spine surgeons and 3 orthopedic surgery residents). After a 6-week interval, the 65 cases were presented to the same evaluators in a random sequence for repeat evaluation. The kappa coefficient (κ) was used to determine the inter- and intraobserver agreement. The interobserver agreement was substantial when considering the fracture main types (A, B, C, or F), with κ = 0.61 (0.57-0.64), but moderate when considering the subtypes: κ = 0.57 (0.54-0.60). The intraobserver agreement was substantial considering the fracture types, with κ = 0.68 (0.62-0.74) and considering subtypes, κ = 0.62 (0.57-0.66). No significant differences were observed between spine surgeons and orthopedic residents in the overall inter- and intraobserver agreement, or in the inter- and intraobserver agreement of specific A, B, C, or F type of injuries. This classification allows adequate agreement among different observers and by the same observer on separate occasions. Future prospective studies should determine whether this classification allows surgeons to decide the best treatment for patients with subaxial cervical spine injuries. 3.

  16. Probabilistic stability evaluation of submerged slopes in Lake Zurich (Switzerland) and seismic triggering scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupler, Michael; Hilbe, Michael; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Kopf, Achim J.; Fleischmann, Timo; Strasser, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The consequences of subaquatic slope failures both in the marine and the lacustrine realm can be very serious. For hazard assessments, stability analyses of submerged slopes are therefore crucial steps, yet very complex ones, as they require knowledge of several geotechnical and morphological factors. Traces of subaquatic mass movements are often used to extract paleoseismological information. For Lake Zurich, a perialpine lake in Northern Switzerland, coeval subaquatic landslide occurrences along distinct time-correlative horizons have been previously interpreted as earthquake-triggered. The 'Oberrieden' study area (˜2 km2) shows three distinct, dated subaquatic landslides with well-defined headscarps, translation areas and mass-transport deposits. The respective failures have been assigned to different trigger mechanisms ranging from human-induced shore loading to earthquake shaking. However, the local shaking intensities leading to slope failures are unknown. A 3.5 kHz pinger seismic reflection dataset and a 300 kHz multibeam bathymetric dataset (1 m grid) were used for the detection of landslide features and for the layout of a coring campaign and in situ geotechnical testing. A total of 8 Kullenberg-system piston cores (4 cores /km2) and 22 short gravity cores (11 cores /km2) were taken and 39 in situ Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) (˜20 CPT /km2) were performed. The high density of sediment cores and CPT sites in a well-known area allows us to include the spatial variability in the slope model. With a probabilistic back analysis of the earthquake-triggered ˜2210 BP subaquatic landslide and an assessment of the actual stability of the neighbouring, unfailed sediment drape, we analyse different scenarios of slope stability under static conditions and under seismic shaking in order to quantitatively constrain failure mechanisms and triggers. We apply a Monte Carlo two-dimensional limit-equilibrium infinite-slope stability model that includes a sediment

  17. Evaluation of Overall Insolation Fluctuation Property Considering Insolation Fluctuation Independence among Various Points in Large Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Inoue, Takato; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Power output fluctuation of photovoltaic power generation systems (PVSs) of high penetration may cause negative impact on the load frequency control (LFC) of existing electric power utility. For the cost-effective mitigation, the proper evaluation of power output fluctuation of PVSs dispersed in large-area is very important. Based on the independence in insolation fluctuation among various points, this paper discusses the practical usability of the standard deviation (STD) of total power output fluctuation of PVSs simply calculated as 1/√N value of STD at the representative point. The statistical evaluation using the insolation observed at 5 points within 25km × 25km reveals that STD with simplified calculation would be useful to evaluate STD of ensemble average of insolation on average for a certain period. Besides, the probability density of STD with simplified calculation is almost the same with that of STD of ensemble average for the period with large STD. As a result, the simplified calculation of STD would be useful for the stochastic evaluation of STD of ensemble average insolation among area at least 25km × 25km.

  18. Seismic performance evaluation of multi-span existing masonry arch bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laterza, Michelangelo; D'Amato, Michele; Casamassima, Vito Michele

    2017-07-01

    Existing old masonry arch bridges represent an architectural and cultural heritage of inestimable value, assuming nowadays an important strategic role since most of them are still in service and link roads of primary importance for vehicular traffic. They were mostly built in the last century without considering any horizontal action, and nowadays are serving roads characterized by a transit loads certainly heavier and more frequent than the ones of past. Moreover, very often due to absence of maintenance and to weathering conditions, the elements deteriorate more and more with a consequent loss of integrity and reduction of their carrying capacity. In this paper the seismic assessment of an old multi span masonry arch bridge still in service is illustrated. Pushover analyses are performed with the aim to investigate the numerical model sensitivity and the influence on the global nonlinear response of the bridge components.

  19. Evaluation of Sloped Bottom Tuned Liquid Damper for Reduction of Seismic Response of Tall Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, G. R.; Singh, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Due to migration of people to urban area, high land costs and use of light weight materials modern buildings tend to be taller, lighter and flexible. These buildings possess low damping. This increases the possibility of failure during earthquake ground motion and also affect the serviceability during wind vibrations. Out of many available techniques today, to reduce the response of structure under dynamic loading, Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) is a recent technique to mitigate seismic response. However TLD has been used to mitigate the wind induced structural vibrations. Flat bottom TLD gives energy back to the structure after event of dynamic loading and it is termed as beating. Beating affects the performance of TLD. Study attempts to analyze the effectiveness of sloped bottom TLD for reducing seismic vibrations of structure. Concept of equivalent flat bottom LD has been used to analyze sloped bottom TLD. Finite element method (EM) is used to model the structure and the liquid in the TLD. MATLAB code is developed to study the response of structure, the liquid sloshing in the tank and the coupled fluid-structure interaction. A ten storey two bay RC frame is analyzed for few inputs of ground motion. A sinusoidal ground motion corresponding to resonance condition with fundamental frequency of frame is analyzed. In the analysis the inherent damping of structure is not considered. Observations from the study shows that sloped bottom TLD uses less amount of liquid than flat bottom TLD. Also observed that efficiency of sloped bottom TLD can be improved if it is properly tuned.

  20. Martian seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.; Grimm, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The design and ultimate success of network seismology experiments on Mars depends on the present level of Martian seismicity. Volcanic and tectonic landforms observed from imaging experiments show that Mars must have been a seismically active planet in the past and there is no reason to discount the notion that Mars is seismically active today but at a lower level of activity. Models are explored for present day Mars seismicity. Depending on the sensitivity and geometry of a seismic network and the attenuation and scattering properties of the interior, it appears that a reasonable number of Martian seismic events would be detected over the period of a decade. The thermoelastic cooling mechanism as estimated is surely a lower bound, and a more refined estimate would take into account specifically the regional cooling of Tharsis and lead to a higher frequency of seismic events.

  1. Design and development of safety evaluation system of buildings on a seismic field based on the network platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baitao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiangzhao; Zhang, Xinghua

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a set of on-site earthquake safety evaluation systems for buildings, which were developed based on a network platform. The system embedded into the quantitative research results which were completed in accordance with the provisions from Post-earthquake Field Works, Part 2: Safety Assessment of Buildings, GB18208.2 -2001, and was further developed into an easy-to-use software platform. The system is aimed at allowing engineering professionals, civil engineeing technicists or earthquake-affected victims on site to assess damaged buildings through a network after earthquakes. The authors studied the function structure, process design of the safety evaluation module, and hierarchical analysis algorithm module of the system in depth, and developed the general architecture design, development technology and database design of the system. Technologies such as hierarchical architecture design and Java EE were used in the system development, and MySQL5 was adopted in the database development. The result is a complete evaluation process of information collection, safety evaluation, and output of damage and safety degrees, as well as query and statistical analysis of identified buildings. The system can play a positive role in sharing expert post-earthquake experience and promoting safety evaluation of buildings on a seismic field.

  2. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

    1993-01-01

    This document provides guidelines for the design and evaluation of underground high-level waste storage tanks due to seismic loads. Attempts were made to reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in the areas of defining the ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads and dynamic soil pressures for underground tank structures. The application of the analysis approach is illustrated with an example. The guidelines are developed for specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document.

  3. Seismic review of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant as part of the systematic evaluation program. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Ma, S.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1981-04-01

    A limited seismic reassessment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The reassessment focused generally on the reactor coolant pressure boundary and on those systems and components necessary to shut down the reactor safely and to maintain it in a safe shutdown condition following a postulated earthquake characterized by a peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.22 g. Unlike a comprehensive design analysis, the reassessment was limited to structures and components deemed representative of generic classes. Conclusions and recommendations about the ability of selected structures, equipment, and piping to withstand the postulated earthquake are presented.

  4. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

    1993-01-01

    This document provides guidelines for the design and evaluation of underground high-level waste storage tanks due to seismic loads. Attempts were made to reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in the areas of defining the ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads and dynamic soil pressures for underground tank structures. The application of the analysis approach is illustrated with an example. The guidelines are developed for specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document.

  5. Potential use of river suspended-sediment observations to evaluate the effects of seismic shaking on sediment yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avşar, Ulaş

    2014-05-01

    It has been empirically proved that large earthquakes (M>6) trigger landslides and shattering of landscapes, which increase the sediment yield in drainage basins and hence sediment delivery to the rivers. Besides the historical records reporting eyewitness accounts of muddy rivers after earthquakes, this phenomenon was also supported by quantitative analyses on the suspended sediment load of rivers before and after the Chi-Chi Earthquake (Mw=7.6) in 1999 in Taiwan. Observations and understanding of this phenomenon is crucial to trace the sedimentological fingerprints of paleoearthquakes in marine and lacustrine sedimentary sequences. This study presents the evaluation of the publicly available river discharge and suspended-sediment concentration measurements to assess the possible effects of earthquakes on sediment yields in Turkey. For this purpose, measurements from 10 hydrometric stations are utilized, which are located near the epicentres of the 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake (Mw=6.2), the 1999 İzmit Earthquake (Mw=7.4) and the 1999 Düzce Earthquake (Mw=7.2). The dataset contains ca. 1600 measurements between 1991 and 2005. At only a few stations, anomalies in sediment concentration are observed immediately after the earthquakes. On the other hand, at most of the stations, the data through longer periods after the earthquakes (3-4 years) reveal slight increases in sediment concentration. The low temporal resolution of the measurements (every 20-30 days) limits the observation of possible sudden increase in sediment concentration immediately after the earthquakes. According to the preliminary results, sediment yield seems to be affected from seismic shaking. However, for more robust results, longer-term measurements with higher temporal resolution are required. The future study will focus on a quantitative evaluation and modelling on expected sediment yield after seismic shaking.

  6. An Independent Psychometric Evaluation of the PROMS Measure of Music Perception Skills.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Profile of Music Perception Skills (PROMS) is a recently developed measure of perceptual music skills which has been shown to have promising psychometric properties. In this paper we extend the evaluation of its brief version to three kinds of validity using an individual difference approach. The brief PROMS displays good discriminant validity with working memory, given that it does not correlate with backward digit span (r = .04). Moreover, it shows promising criterion validity (association with musical training (r = .45), musicianship status (r = .48), and self-rated musical talent (r = .51)). Finally, its convergent validity, i.e. relation to an unrelated measure of music perception skills, was assessed by correlating the brief PROMS to harmonic closure judgment accuracy. Two independent samples point to good convergent validity of the brief PROMS (r = .36; r = .40). The same association is still significant in one of the samples when including self-reported music skill in a partial correlation (rpartial = .30; rpartial = .17). Overall, the results show that the brief version of the PROMS displays a very good pattern of construct validity. Especially its tuning subtest stands out as a valuable part for music skill evaluations in Western samples. We conclude by briefly discussing the choice faced by music cognition researchers between different musical aptitude measures of which the brief PROMS is a well evaluated example.

  7. An Independent Psychometric Evaluation of the PROMS Measure of Music Perception Skills

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Roel M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Profile of Music Perception Skills (PROMS) is a recently developed measure of perceptual music skills which has been shown to have promising psychometric properties. In this paper we extend the evaluation of its brief version to three kinds of validity using an individual difference approach. The brief PROMS displays good discriminant validity with working memory, given that it does not correlate with backward digit span (r = .04). Moreover, it shows promising criterion validity (association with musical training (r = .45), musicianship status (r = .48), and self-rated musical talent (r = .51)). Finally, its convergent validity, i.e. relation to an unrelated measure of music perception skills, was assessed by correlating the brief PROMS to harmonic closure judgment accuracy. Two independent samples point to good convergent validity of the brief PROMS (r = .36; r = .40). The same association is still significant in one of the samples when including self-reported music skill in a partial correlation (rpartial = .30; rpartial = .17). Overall, the results show that the brief version of the PROMS displays a very good pattern of construct validity. Especially its tuning subtest stands out as a valuable part for music skill evaluations in Western samples. We conclude by briefly discussing the choice faced by music cognition researchers between different musical aptitude measures of which the brief PROMS is a well evaluated example. PMID:27398805

  8. Exploiting the information revolution: call for independent evaluation of the latest English national experiment.

    PubMed

    Scott, Philip

    2015-02-19

    The English National Health Service (NHS) has a long history of national experiments with information technology; some successful, others less so. The NHS England Five Year Forward View aspires to 'Exploit the information revolution' through the transformational work of the National Information Board (NIB). NIB has published a 'Framework for Action' that promotes citizen empowerment, information availability, transparency, public trust, innovation, informatics skills and societal value. The framework sets out many laudable and common sense ambitions, but is light on evidence to support its aspirations, or plans for its evaluation. Considerable resource was invested in evaluation studies in the later stages of the National Programme for IT in England, but the analyses do not seem to have been included. Most of the cited evidence is from an unpublished report by management consultants rather than independent peer-reviewed work. National experiments of this importance should be evidence based and properly evaluated so that each iteration of 'information revolution' produces an evidence base to inform subsequent generations of care provision models and technology innovation. Evaluation should be planned from the very start rather than added in as an afterthought. Like any good business plan there should be defined critical success factors for health and social care, and a declaration of how they might be measured. Unintended consequences should be qualitatively explored. Evaluation should also consider critical-interpretive social perspectives to understand the human factors in technology deployment and should seek a theoretically informed insight into the mechanisms of change. The NHS Five Year Forward View and the NIB framework set out challenging ambitions based on transformative use of information technology and collaborative partnerships with commissioners and providers. The framework stands up very well against the Hayes principles, but the learning opportunities

  9. An Independent Evaluation of the FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis Alternative Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    The present instruments of safety and reliability risk control for a majority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs/projects consist of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Critical Items List (CIL), and Hazard Report (HR). This extensive analytical approach was introduced in the early 1970's and was implemented for the Space Shuttle Program by NHB 5300.4 (1D-2. Since the Challenger accident in 1986, the process has been expanded considerably and resulted in introduction of similar and/or duplicated activities in the safety/reliability risk analysis. A study initiated in 1995, to search for an alternative to the current FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis methodology generated a proposed method on April 30, 1996. The objective of this Summer Faculty Study was to participate in and conduct an independent evaluation of the proposed alternative to simplify the present safety and reliability risk control procedure.

  10. 2010 Solar Program Peer Review Report: An Independent Evaluation of Program Activities for FY2009 and FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program's 2010 Program Review meeting, held on May 24?27, 2010, in Washington, D.C.

  11. Re-evaluation Of The Shallow Seismicity On Mt Etna Applying Probabilistic Earthquake Location Algorithms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuve, T.; Mostaccio, A.; Langer, H. K.; di Grazia, G.

    2005-12-01

    A recent research project carried out together with the Italian Civil Protection concerns the study of amplitude decay laws in various areas on the Italian territory, including Mt Etna. A particular feature of seismic activity is the presence of moderate magnitude earthquakes causing frequently considerable damage in the epicentre areas. These earthquakes are supposed to occur at rather shallow depth, no more than 5 km. Given the geological context, however, these shallow earthquakes would origin in rather weak sedimentary material. In this study we check the reliability of standard earthquake location, in particular with respect to the calculated focal depth, using standard location methods as well as more advanced approaches such as the NONLINLOC software proposed by Lomax et al. (2000) using it with its various options (i.e., Grid Search, Metropolis-Gibbs and Oct-Tree) and 3D velocity model (Cocina et al., 2005). All three options of NONLINLOC gave comparable results with respect to hypocenter locations and quality. Compared to standard locations we note a significant improve of location quality and, in particular a considerable difference of focal depths (in the order of 1.5 - 2 km). However, we cannot find a clear bias towards greater or lower depth. Further analyses concern the assessment of the stability of locations. For this purpose we carry out various Monte Carlo experiments perturbing travel time reading randomly. Further investigations are devoted to possible biases which may arise from the use of an unsuitable velocity model.

  12. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies: impacts on risk assessment of uniform hazard spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.C.; Sewell, R.T.

    1996-07-01

    Conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates are studied: effects of uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) are examined for deriving probabilistic estimates of risk and in-structure demand levels, as compared to the more-exact use of realistic time history inputs (of given probability) that depend explicitly on magnitude and distance. This approach differs from the conventional in its exhaustive treatment of the ground-motion threat and in its more detailed assessment of component responses to that threat. The approximate UH-ISS (in-structure spectrum) obtained based on UHS appear to be very close to the more-exact results directed computed from scenario earthquakes. This conclusion does not depend on site configurations and structural characteristics. Also, UH-ISS has composite shapes and may not correspond to the characteristics possessed a single earthquake. The shape is largely affected by the structural property in most cases and can be derived approximately from the corresponding UHS. Motions with smooth spectra, however, will not have the same damage potential as those of more realistic motions with jagged spectral shapes. As a result, UHS-based analysis may underestimate the real demands in nonlinear structural analyses.

  13. Seismic hazard evaluation for design and/or verification of a high voltage system

    SciTech Connect

    Grases, J.; Malaver, A.; Lopez, S.; Rivero, P.

    1995-12-31

    The Venezuelan capital, Caracas, with a population of about 5 million, is within the area of contact of the Caribbean and South American tectonic plates. Since 1567, the valley where it lies and surroundings have been shaken by at leas six destructive events from different seismogenic sources. Electric energy is served to the city by a high voltage system consisting of 4 power stations, 20 substations (230 KV downwards) and 80 km of high voltage lines, covering an area of about 135 x 60 km{sup 2}. Given the variety of soil conditions, topographical irregularities and proximity to potentially active faults, it was decided to perform a seismic hazard study. This paper gives the results of that study synthesized by two hazard-parameter maps, which allow a conservative characterization of the acceleration on firm soils. Specific site coefficients allow for changes in soil conditions and topographical effects. Sites whose proximity to fault lines is less than about 2 km, require additional field studies in order to rule out the possibility of permanent ground displacements.

  14. Evaluation of infrasound signals from the shuttle Atlantis using a large seismic network.

    PubMed

    de Groot-Hedlin, Catherine D; Hedlin, Michael A H; Walker, Kristoffer T; Drob, Douglas P; Zumberge, Mark A

    2008-09-01

    Inclement weather in Florida forced the space shuttle "Atlantis" to land at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California on June 22, 2007, passing near three infrasound stations and several hundred seismic stations in northern Mexico, southern California, and Nevada. The high signal-to-noise ratio, broad receiver coverage, and Atlantis' positional information allow for the testing of infrasound propagation modeling capabilities through the atmosphere to regional distances. Shadow zones and arrival times are predicted by tracing rays that are launched at right angles to the conical shock front surrounding the shuttle through a standard climatological model as well as a global ground to space model. The predictions and observations compare favorably over much of the study area for both atmospheric specifications. To the east of the shuttle trajectory, there were no detections beyond the primary acoustic carpet. Infrasound energy was detected hundreds of kilometers to the west and northwest (NW) of the shuttle trajectory, consistent with the predictions of ducting due to the westward summer-time stratospheric jet. Both atmospheric models predict alternating regions of high and low ensonifications to the NW. However, infrasound energy was detected tens of kilometers beyond the predicted zones of ensonification, possibly due to uncertainties in stratospheric wind speeds.

  15. Response assessment in lymphoma: Concordance between independent central review and local evaluation in a clinical trial setting.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Ajay K; Pro, Barbara; Connors, Joseph M; Younes, Anas; Engert, Andreas; Shustov, Andrei R; Chi, Xuedong; Larsen, Emily K; Kennedy, Dana A; Sievers, Eric L

    2016-10-01

    Independent central review of clinical imaging remains the standard for oncology clinical trials with registration potential. A limited independent central review strategy has been proposed for solid tumor trials based on concordance between central and local evaluation of response. Concordance between independent central review and local evaluation of response in hematological malignancies is not known. We retrospectively evaluated concordance between prospectively performed central and local assessments of response using the Revised Response Criteria for Malignant Lymphoma across two international, open-label, single-arm, registration studies of brentuximab vedotin in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (N = 102) or systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (N = 58). Overall objective response rates were similar between assessors for both the trial in Hodgkin lymphoma (75% independent central review, 72% local evaluation) and the trial in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (86% independent central review, 83% local evaluation). Patient-specific objective response concordance was also substantial (Hodgkin lymphoma: kappa = 0.68; anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: kappa = 0.74). Median progression-free survival was similar between assessors for patients with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (14.3 months by independent central review (95% confidence interval: 6.9, -); 14.5 months by local evaluation (95% confidence interval: 9.4, -)), but longer by local evaluation in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (5.8 months by independent central review (95% confidence interval: 5.0, 9.0); 9.0 months by local evaluation (95% confidence interval: 7.1, 12.0)). Median duration of response was longer by local evaluation in both malignancies, which was primarily attributable to earlier computed tomography and positron emission tomography-based scoring of progression by independent central review. A limited independent review audit strategy for clinical

  16. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Independent School Teacher Development Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the author examined the psychometrics of an instrument, the Independent School Teacher Development Inventory, designed to assess the professional learning opportunities in U.S. independent schools. The inventory was sent to 3,422 independent school administrators and of these, 2,474 returned completed surveys. Exploratory factor…

  17. INDEPENDENT REVIEW OF THE X-701B GROUNDWATER REMEDY, PORTSMOUTH, OHIO: TECHNICAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Costanza, J.; Rossabi, J.; Early, T.; Skubal, K.; Magnuson, C.

    2008-12-15

    The Department of Energy Portsmouth Paducah Project Office requested assistance from Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM-22) to provide independent technical experts to evaluate past and ongoing remedial activities at the Portsmouth facility that were completed to address TCE contamination associated with the X-701B groundwater plume and to make recommendations for future efforts. The Independent Technical Review team was provided with a detailed and specific charter. The charter requested that the technical team first review the past and current activities completed for the X-701B groundwater remedy for trichloroethene (TCE) in accordance with a Decision Document that was issued by Ohio EPA on December 8, 2003 and a Work Plan that was approved by Ohio EPA on September 22, 2006. The remedy for X-701B divides the activities into four phases: Phase I - Initial Source Area Treatment, Phase II - Expanded Source Area Treatment, Phase III - Evaluation and Reporting, and Phase IV - Downgradient Remediation and Confirmation of Source Area Treatment. Phase I of the remedy was completed during FY2006, and DOE has now completed six oxidant injection events within Phase II. The Independent Technical Review team was asked to evaluate Phase II activities, including soil and groundwater results, and to determine whether or not the criteria that were defined in the Work Plan for the Phase II end point had been met. The following criteria are defined in the Work Plan as an acceptable Phase II end point: (1) Groundwater samples from the identified source area monitoring wells have concentrations below the Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) for TCE in groundwater, or (2) The remedy is no longer effective in removing TCE mass from the source area. In addition, the charter specifies that if the Review Team determines that the Phase II endpoint has not been reached, then the team should address the following issues: (1) If additional injection events are

  18. Culture-Independent Evaluation of Nonenveloped-Virus Infectivity Reduced by Free-Chlorine Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takatomo; Nakamura, Arata; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Okabe, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The inability of molecular detection methods to distinguish disinfected virions from infectious ones has hampered the assessment of infectivity for enteric viruses caused by disinfection practices. In the present study, the reduction of infectivity of murine norovirus S7-PP3 and mengovirus vMC0, surrogates of human noroviruses and enteroviruses, respectively, caused by free-chlorine treatment was characterized culture independently by detecting carbonyl groups on viral capsid protein. The amount of carbonyls on viral capsid protein was evaluated by the proportion of biotinylated virions trapped by avidin-immobilized gel (percent adsorbed). This culture-independent approach demonstrated that the percent adsorbed was significantly correlated with the logarithm of the infectious titer of tested viruses. Taken together with the results of previous reports, the result obtained in this study indicates that the amount of carbonyls on viral capsid protein of four important families of waterborne pathogenic viruses, Astroviridae, Reoviridae, Caliciviridae, and Picornaviridae, is increased in proportion to the received oxidative stress of free chlorine. There was also a significant correlation between the percent adsorbed and the logarithm of the ratio of genome copy number to PFU, which enables estimation of the infectious titer of a subject virus by measuring values of the total genome copy number and the percent adsorbed. The proposed method is applicable when the validation of a 4-log reduction of viruses, a requirement in U.S. EPA guidelines for virus removal from water, is needed along with clear evidence of the oxidation of virus particles with chlorine-based disinfectants. PMID:25681178

  19. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    J. T. Case; M. L. Renfro

    1998-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

  20. Seismic response evaluation of base-isolated reinforced concrete buildings under bidirectional excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagat, Satish; Wijeyewickrema, Anil C.

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the seismic response of base-isolated reinforced concrete buildings, which considers various isolation system parameters under bidirectional near-fault and far-fault motions. Three-dimensional models of 4-, 8-, and 12-story base-isolated buildings with nonlinear effects in the isolation system and the superstructure are investigated, and nonlinear response history analysis is carried out. The bounding values of isolation system properties that incorporate the aging effect of isolators are also taken into account, as is the current state of practice in the design and analysis of base-isolated buildings. The response indicators of the buildings are studied for near-fault and far-fault motions weight-scaled to represent the design earthquake (DE) level and the risk-targeted maximum considered earthquake (MCER) level. Results of the nonlinear response history analyses indicate no structural damage under DE-level motions for near-fault and far-fault motions and for MCER-level far-fault motions, whereas minor structural damage is observed under MCER-level near-fault motions. Results of the base-isolated buildings are compared with their fixed-base counterparts. Significant reduction of the superstructure response of the 12-story base-isolated building compared to the fixed-base condition indicates that base isolation can be effectively used in taller buildings to enhance performance. Additionally, the applicability of a rigid superstructure to predict the isolator displacement demand is also investigated. It is found that the isolator displacements can be estimated accurately using a rigid body model for the superstructure for the buildings considered.

  1. Predicting occupancy for pygmy rabbits in Wyoming: an independent evaluation of two species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germaine, Stephen S.; Ignizio, Drew; Keinath, Doug; Copeland, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models are an important component of natural-resource conservation planning efforts. Independent, external evaluation of their accuracy is important before they are used in management contexts. We evaluated the classification accuracy of two species distribution models designed to predict the distribution of pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis habitat in southwestern Wyoming, USA. The Nature Conservancy model was deductive and based on published information and expert opinion, whereas the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database model was statistically derived using historical observation data. We randomly selected 187 evaluation survey points throughout southwestern Wyoming in areas predicted to be habitat and areas predicted to be nonhabitat for each model. The Nature Conservancy model correctly classified 39 of 77 (50.6%) unoccupied evaluation plots and 65 of 88 (73.9%) occupied plots for an overall classification success of 63.3%. The Wyoming Natural Diversity Database model correctly classified 53 of 95 (55.8%) unoccupied plots and 59 of 88 (67.0%) occupied plots for an overall classification success of 61.2%. Based on 95% asymptotic confidence intervals, classification success of the two models did not differ. The models jointly classified 10.8% of the area as habitat and 47.4% of the area as nonhabitat, but were discordant in classifying the remaining 41.9% of the area. To evaluate how anthropogenic development affected model predictive success, we surveyed 120 additional plots among three density levels of gas-field road networks. Classification success declined sharply for both models as road-density level increased beyond 5 km of roads per km-squared area. Both models were more effective at predicting habitat than nonhabitat in relatively undeveloped areas, and neither was effective at accounting for the effects of gas-energy-development road networks. Resource managers who wish to know the amount of pygmy rabbit habitat present in an

  2. A Clash of Cultures: Improving the "Fit" between Evaluative Independence and the Political Requirements of a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelimsky, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a plenary address wherein the author talks about cultural clashes, about what happens when evaluation meets politics. In her address, the author talks about the kinds of clashes that occur on a regular basis between evaluative independence and the political culture it challenges, along with possible ways to predict, parry, or…

  3. A Clash of Cultures: Improving the "Fit" between Evaluative Independence and the Political Requirements of a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelimsky, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a plenary address wherein the author talks about cultural clashes, about what happens when evaluation meets politics. In her address, the author talks about the kinds of clashes that occur on a regular basis between evaluative independence and the political culture it challenges, along with possible ways to predict, parry, or…

  4. American Academy of School Psychology Survey on the Independent Educational Evaluation for a Specific Learning Disability: Results and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Fredrick A.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Caterino, Linda C.; Desrochers, John

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a survey of the Fellows of the American Academy of School Psychology (Academy; AASP) regarding the independent educational evaluation (IEE) for a specific learning disability (SLD). Academy Fellows were asked about important components of the IEE, desirable evaluator qualifications, and recommended criteria for…

  5. Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Jacket Type Offshore Platforms through Incremental Dynamic Analysis considering Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Asgarian, Behrouz; Shokrgozar, Hamed R.; Talarposhti, Ali Shakeri

    2008-07-08

    Of great interest in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) is the accurate estimation of the seismic performance of structures. A performance prediction and evaluation procedure is based on nonlinear dynamics and reliability theory. In this method, a full integration over the three key stochastic models is as follow: ground motion hazard curve, nonlinear dynamic displacement demand, and displacement capacity. Further, both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are evaluated and carried through the analysis.In this paper, jacket and soil-pile system have been modeled using Finite Element program (OpenSees) and the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) are performed to investigate nonlinear behavior of offshore platforms. The system demand is determined by performing time history response analyses of the jacket under a suite of FEMA/SAC uniform hazard ground motions. The system capacity in terms of the drift ratio against incipient collapse is generally difficult to predict since the structural response goes into nonlinear range before collapse. All the analyses are performed in two directions and the results are compared with each others. The confidence level of a jacket in each direction for a given hazard level is calculated using the procedure described.

  6. Prediction of rockburst probability given seismic energy and factors defined by the expert method of hazard evaluation (MRG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornowski, Jerzy; Kurzeja, Joanna

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we suggest that conditional estimator/predictor of rockburst probability (and rockburst hazard, P T(t)) can be approximated with the formula P T(t) = P 1(θ 1)…P N(θ N)·P dynT(t), where P dynT(t) is a time-dependent probability of rockburst given only the predicted seismic energy parameters, while P i(θ i) are amplifying coefficients due to local geologic and mining conditions, as defined by the Expert Method of (rockburst) Hazard Evaluation (MRG) known in the Polish mining industry. All the elements of the formula are (approximately) calculable (on-line) and the resulting P T value satisfies inequalities 0 ≤ P T(t) ≤ 1. As a result, the hazard space (0-1) can be always divided into smaller subspaces (e.g., 0-10-5, 10-5-10-4, 10-4-10-3, 10-3-1), possibly named with symbols (e.g., A, B, C, D, …) called "hazard states" — which saves the prediction users from worrying of probabilities. The estimator P T can be interpreted as a formal statement of (reformulated) Comprehensive Method of Rockburst State of Hazard Evaluation, well known in Polish mining industry. The estimator P T is natural, logically consistent and physically interpretable. Due to full formalization, it can be easily generalized, incorporating relevant information from other sources/methods.

  7. Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Jacket Type Offshore Platforms through Incremental Dynamic Analysis considering Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgarian, Behrouz; Shokrgozar, Hamed R.; Talarposhti, Ali Shakeri

    2008-07-01

    Of great interest in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) is the accurate estimation of the seismic performance of structures. A performance prediction and evaluation procedure is based on nonlinear dynamics and reliability theory. In this method, a full integration over the three key stochastic models is as follow: ground motion hazard curve, nonlinear dynamic displacement demand, and displacement capacity. Further, both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are evaluated and carried through the analysis. In this paper, jacket and soil-pile system have been modeled using Finite Element program (OpenSees) and the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) are performed to investigate nonlinear behavior of offshore platforms. The system demand is determined by performing time history response analyses of the jacket under a suite of FEMA/SAC uniform hazard ground motions. The system capacity in terms of the drift ratio against incipient collapse is generally difficult to predict since the structural response goes into nonlinear range before collapse. All the analyses are performed in two directions and the results are compared with each others. The confidence level of a jacket in each direction for a given hazard level is calculated using the procedure described.

  8. The spectral analysis of photoplethysmography to evaluate an independent cardiovascular risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Pratiksha G; Rao, Gundu HR

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we evaluate homeostatic markers correlated to autonomic nervous and endothelial functions in a population of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients versus a control group. Since CAD is the highest risk marker for sudden cardiac death, the study objective is to determine whether an independent cardiovascular risk score based on these markers can be used alongside known conventional cardiovascular risk markers to strengthen the understanding of a patient’s vascular state. Materials and methods Sixty-five subjects (13 women) with a mean age of 62.9 years (range 40–80 years) who were diagnosed with CAD using coronary angiography (group 1) and seventy-two subjects (29 women) with a mean age of 45.1 years (range 18–85 years) who claimed they were healthy (group 2) were included in the study. These subjects underwent examination with the TM-Oxi and SudoPath systems at IPC Heart Care Centers in Mumbai, India. The TM-Oxi system takes measurements from a blood pressure device and a pulse oximeter. The SudoPath measures galvanic skin response to assess the sudomotor pathway function. Spectral analysis of the photoplethysmograph (PTG) waveform and electrochemical galvanic skin response allow the TM-Oxi and SudoPath systems to calculate several homeostatic markers, such as the PTG index (PTGi), PTG very low frequency index (PTGVLFi), and PTG ratio (PTGr). The focus of this study was to evaluate these markers (PTGi, PTGVLFi, and PTGr) in CAD patients against a control group, and to calculate an independent cardiovascular risk factor score: the PTG cardiovascular disease risk score (PTG CVD), calculated solely from these markers. We compared PTGi, PTGVLFi, PTGr, and PTG CVD scores between the CAD patient group and the healthy control group. Statistical analyses were performed using receiver operating characteristic curves to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the markers to detect CAD at optimal cutoff values for PTGi, PTGVLFi, PTGr, and

  9. Reprocessing of seismic reflection data using a macro velocity model independent imaging method - New insight into the crustal structure of northern Germany from Common Reflection Surface stack (CRS) sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, M.; Baykulov, M.; Duemmong, S.; Brink, H. J.; Gajewski, D.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper we present new seismic images of the North German Basin that resulted from intensive reprocessing of industrial seismic reflection data. The data sets were already acquired and processed in the early 80ies. The main focus was set on the sedimentary fill of the basin. During reprocessing the focus was moved to lower crustal structures in order to investigate the influence of old deep rooted processes on the evolution of the Central European Basin System (CEBS). During reprocessing the Common Reflection Surface (CRS) stack method was applied. This method is an entirely data-oriented approach which is macro velocity model independent (Mueller et al., 1998; Mueller, 1998). It has already been successfully applied to reflection data from sedimentary basins (Trappe et al., 2001; Menyoli, 2004), but yet it was not used to investigate the crystalline crust and deeper structures. In the reprocessed time sections the image quality of the lower and middle crust as well as the visibility of the Moho could be significantly improved. The latter appears as a flat reflection band contrary to former results where an east dipping Moho was observed. The flat Moho is in conflict with the currently supported extension model of the Glueckstadt Graben. However, the flat Moho topography would be in good agreement with other observations from the CEBS, e.g. DEKORP profiles (DEKORP-BASIN Research Group, 1999) or the Dniepr-Donets basin, Ukraine (Maystrenko et al., 2003). Furthermore, multiples could be succesfully suppressed using a macro velocity model as apriori information during iterative CRS stack procedure. The presented real data examples show that the CRS stack method provides a promising tool for imaging crustal and subcrustal features as well as for multiple suppression.

  10. The Home Independence Program with non-health professionals as care managers: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Gill; Concanen, Karyn; Youens, David

    2016-01-01

    The Home Independence Program (HIP), an Australian restorative home care/reablement service for older adults, has been shown to be effective in reducing functional dependency and increasing functional mobility, confidence in everyday activities, and quality of life. These gains were found to translate into a reduced need for ongoing care services and reduced health and aged care costs over time. Despite these positive outcomes, few Australian home care agencies have adopted the service model - a key reason being that few Australian providers employ health professionals, who act as care managers under the HIP service model. A call for proposals from Health Workforce Australia for projects to expand the scope of practice of health/aged care staff then provided the opportunity to develop, implement, and evaluate a service delivery model, in which nonprofessionals replaced the health professionals as Care Managers in the HIP service. Seventy older people who received the HIP Coordinator (HIPC) service participated in the outcomes evaluation. On a range of personal outcome measures, the group showed statistically significant improvement at 3 and 12 months compared to baseline. On each outcome, the improvement observed was larger than that observed in a previous trial in which the service was delivered by health professionals. However, differences in the timing of data collection between the two studies mean that a direct comparison cannot be made. Clients in both studies showed a similarly reduced need for ongoing home care services at both follow-up points. The outcomes achieved by HIPC, with non-health professionals as Care Managers, were positive and can be considered to compare favorably with the outcomes achieved in HIP when health professionals take the Care Manager role. These findings will be of interest to managers of home care services and to policy makers interested in reducing the long-term care needs of older community dwelling individuals.

  11. The Home Independence Program with non-health professionals as care managers: an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Gill; Concanen, Karyn; Youens, David

    2016-01-01

    The Home Independence Program (HIP), an Australian restorative home care/reablement service for older adults, has been shown to be effective in reducing functional dependency and increasing functional mobility, confidence in everyday activities, and quality of life. These gains were found to translate into a reduced need for ongoing care services and reduced health and aged care costs over time. Despite these positive outcomes, few Australian home care agencies have adopted the service model – a key reason being that few Australian providers employ health professionals, who act as care managers under the HIP service model. A call for proposals from Health Workforce Australia for projects to expand the scope of practice of health/aged care staff then provided the opportunity to develop, implement, and evaluate a service delivery model, in which nonprofessionals replaced the health professionals as Care Managers in the HIP service. Seventy older people who received the HIP Coordinator (HIPC) service participated in the outcomes evaluation. On a range of personal outcome measures, the group showed statistically significant improvement at 3 and 12 months compared to baseline. On each outcome, the improvement observed was larger than that observed in a previous trial in which the service was delivered by health professionals. However, differences in the timing of data collection between the two studies mean that a direct comparison cannot be made. Clients in both studies showed a similarly reduced need for ongoing home care services at both follow-up points. The outcomes achieved by HIPC, with non-health professionals as Care Managers, were positive and can be considered to compare favorably with the outcomes achieved in HIP when health professionals take the Care Manager role. These findings will be of interest to managers of home care services and to policy makers interested in reducing the long-term care needs of older community dwelling individuals. PMID:27382264

  12. Independent evaluator knowledge of treatment in a multicenter comparative treatment study of panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Roll, David; Ray, Susan E; Marcus, Sue M; Passarelli, Vincent; Money, Roy; Barlow, David H; Woods, Scott W; Shear, M Katherine; Gorman, Jack M

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine independent evaluators' (IEs) blindness to treatment condition during a Multicenter Comparative Treatment Study of Panic Disorder. IEs were 15 doctoral- and masters-level clinicians in psychology, social work, and medicine. They conducted three post-treatment assessments with each patient. Immediately after each assessment interview, IEs completed a form indicating which of the five possible treatments they believed the patient had received and any specific information that provided IEs with information about a patient's treatment condition. These forms were completed for 170 patients. Analyses were conducted to determine the accuracy of guesses about treatment condition by IEs during post-treatment assessments, the relationship between accuracy of IE guessing and actual treatment assignment, the relationship between accurate guessing and outcome ratings, and contributors to the breaking of the blind. A significant relationship was found between IE guesses and actual treatment at all three assessment points, across individual IEs, treatment sites, and IE professional affiliations. IEs were no more accurate in their guessing about patients taking medication than those receiving behavior therapy. Patients and project staff inadvertently provided information to IEs that enhanced the rates of accurate guessing. Implications of these findings on interpretation of the treatment study are discussed, and recommendations are made for improving blindness procedures.

  13. Independent Technical Review of the X-740 Groundwater Remedy, Portsmouth, Ohio: Technical Evaluation and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Rhia, B.; Jackson, D.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2010-04-30

    Two major remedial campaigns have been applied to a plume of trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated groundwater near the former X-740 facility at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon Ohio. The two selected technologies, phytoremediation using a stand of hybrid poplar trees from 1999-2007 and in situ chemical oxidation using modified Fenton's Reagent from 2008-2009, have proven ineffective in achieving remedial action objectives (RAOs). The 'poor' performance of these technologies is a direct result of site specific conditions and the local contaminant hydrogeology. Key among these challenges is the highly heterogeneous subsurface geology with a thin contaminated aquifer zone (the Gallia) - the behavior of the contamination in the Gallia is currently dominated by slow release of TCE from the clay of the overlying Minford formation, from the sandstone of the underlying Berea formation, and from clayey layers within the Gallia itself. In response to the remediation challenges for the X-740 plume, the Portsmouth team (including the US Department of Energy (DOE), the site contractor (CDM), and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA)) is evaluating the feasibility of remediation at this site and identifying specific alternatives that are well matched to site conditions and that would maximize the potential for achieving RAOs. To support this evaluation, the DOE Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation (EM-32) assembled a team of experts to serve as a resource and provide input and recommendations to Portsmouth. Despite the challenging site conditions and the failure of the previous two remediation campaigns to adequately move the site toward RAOs, the review team was unanimous in the conclusion that an effective combination of cost effective technologies can be identified. Further, the team expressed optimism that RAOs can be achieved if realistic timeframes are accepted by all parties. The initial efforts of the review team focused on reviewing the

  14. Seismic Safety Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarz, F J; Coats, D W

    2006-05-16

    During the past three decades, the Laboratory has been proactive in providing a seismically safe working environment for its employees and the general public. Completed seismic upgrades during this period have exceeded $30M with over 24 buildings structurally upgraded. Nevertheless, seismic questions still frequently arise regarding the safety of existing buildings. To address these issues, a comprehensive study was undertaken to develop an improved understanding of the seismic integrity of the Laboratory's entire building inventory at the Livermore Main Site and Site 300. The completed study of February 2005 extended the results from the 1998 seismic safety study per Presidential Executive Order 12941, which required each federal agency to develop an inventory of its buildings and to estimate the cost of mitigating unacceptable seismic risks. Degenkolb Engineers, who performed the first study, was recontracted to perform structural evaluations, rank order the buildings based on their level of seismic deficiencies, and to develop conceptual rehabilitation schemes for the most seriously deficient buildings. Their evaluation is based on screening procedures and guidelines as established by the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC). Currently, there is an inventory of 635 buildings in the Laboratory's Facility Information Management System's (FIMS's) database, out of which 58 buildings were identified by Degenkolb Engineers that require seismic rehabilitation. The remaining 577 buildings were judged to be adequate from a seismic safety viewpoint. The basis for these evaluations followed the seismic safety performance objectives of DOE standard (DOE STD 1020) Performance Category 1 (PC1). The 58 buildings were ranked according to three risk-based priority classifications (A, B, and C) as shown in Figure 1-1 (all 58 buildings have structural deficiencies). Table 1-1 provides a brief description of their expected performance and damage state

  15. Seismic analysis of the Par Pond Dam: Study of slope failure and liquefaction. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Reich, M.

    1994-07-01

    Stability concerns of the Par Pond Dam, an embankment structure in the Savannah River Site complex, resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the state of its integrity. Specifically, excessive seepage through the embankment, slope failure due to an earthquake event as well as liquefaction potential of the embankment and the foundation are addressed and the potential of failure is evaluated. Lastly, remedial benefits of the addition of a berm structure are also assessed.

  16. Evaluation of soil-foundation-structure interaction effects on seismic response demands of multi-story MRF buildings on raft foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Raheem, Shehata E.; Ahmed, Mohamed M.; Alazrak, Tarek M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Soil conditions have a great deal to do with damage to structures during earthquakes. Hence the investigation on the energy transfer mechanism from soils to buildings during earthquakes is critical for the seismic design of multi-story buildings and for upgrading existing structures. Thus, the need for research into soil-structure interaction (SSI) problems is greater than ever. Moreover, recent studies show that the effects of SSI may be detrimental to the seismic response of structure and neglecting SSI in analysis may lead to un-conservative design. Despite this, the conventional design procedure usually involves assumption of fixity at the base of foundation neglecting the flexibility of the foundation, the compressibility of the underneath soil and, consequently, the effect of foundation settlement on further redistribution of bending moment and shear force demands. Hence the SSI analysis of multi-story buildings is the main focus of this research; the effects of SSI are analyzed for typical multi-story building resting on raft foundation. Three methods of analysis are used for seismic demands evaluation of the target moment-resistant frame buildings: equivalent static load; response spectrum methods and nonlinear time history analysis with suit of nine time history records. Three-dimensional FE model is constructed to investigate the effects of different soil conditions and number of stories on the vibration characteristics and seismic response demands of building structures. Numerical results obtained using SSI model with different soil conditions are compared to those corresponding to fixed-base support modeling assumption. The peak responses of story shear, story moment, story displacement, story drift, moments at beam ends, as well as force of inner columns are analyzed. The results of different analysis approaches are used to evaluate the advantages, limitations, and ease of application of each approach for seismic analysis.

  17. South Carolina Family Independence Program Process Evaluation: Overall Findings, Context, and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pindus, Nancy; Koralek, Robin

    The Family Independence (FI) program transformed South Carolina's welfare program into a transitional assistance program emphasizing engagement in socially responsible behavior and participation in employment and employment-related activities. It helps families become economically independent through reform of: employment and training, welfare…

  18. Evaluation of geological conditions for coalbed methane occurrence based on 3D seismic information: a case study in Fowa region, Xinjing coal mine, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juanjuan; Li, Fanjia; Hu, Mingshun; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Dongming

    2017-04-01

    The research on geological conditions of coalbed methane (CBM) occurrence is of great significance for predicting the high abundance CBM rich region and gas outburst risk area pre-warning. The No. 3 coal seam, in Yangquan coalfield of Qinshui basin, is the research target studied by 3D seismic exploration technique. The geological factors which affect CBM occurrence are interpreted based on the 3D seismic information. First, the geological structure (faults, folds, and collapse columns) is found out by the 3D seismic structural interpretation and the information of buried depth and thickness of the coal seam is calculated by the seismic horizons. Second, 3D elastic impedance (EI) and natural gamma attribute volumes are generated by prestack EI inversion and multi-attribute probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion techniques which reflect the information of coal structure types and lithology of the roof and floor. Then, the information of metamorphic degree of seam and hydrogeology conditions can be obtained by the geological data. Consequently, geological conditions of CBM occurrence in No. 3 coal seam are evaluated which will provide scientific reference for high abundance CBM rich region prediction and gas outburst risk area pre-warning.

  19. Evaluation of geological conditions for coalbed methane occurrence based on 3D seismic information: a case study in Fowa region, Xinjing coal mine, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juanjuan; Li, Fanjia; Hu, Mingshun; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Dongming

    2017-03-01

    The research on geological conditions of coalbed methane (CBM) occurrence is of great significance for predicting the high abundance CBM rich region and gas outburst risk area pre-warning. The No. 3 coal seam, in Yangquan coalfield of Qinshui basin, is the research target studied by 3D seismic exploration technique. The geological factors which affect CBM occurrence are interpreted based on the 3D seismic information. First, the geological structure (faults, folds, and collapse columns) is found out by the 3D seismic structural interpretation and the information of buried depth and thickness of the coal seam is calculated by the seismic horizons. Second, 3D elastic impedance (EI) and natural gamma attribute volumes are generated by prestack EI inversion and multi-attribute probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion techniques which reflect the information of coal structure types and lithology of the roof and floor. Then, the information of metamorphic degree of seam and hydrogeology conditions can be obtained by the geological data. Consequently, geological conditions of CBM occurrence in No. 3 coal seam are evaluated which will provide scientific reference for high abundance CBM rich region prediction and gas outburst risk area pre-warning.

  20. Evaluation of Seismicity Using Density Analysis of 2000-2015 Earthquakes in The West Coastal Zone of Anatolia (Turkey) And Its Correlation with Geothermal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakak, Özde

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the seismic activity using the density analysis methods (point density and Kernel density analysis) for 2000-2015 earthquake catalogue belonging to the study area surrounded by Qanakkale to the north, Fethiye to the south and Denizli (Buharkent) to the east, and also to apply its correlation with geothermal regions. The earthquake data, in total 6.675 earthquakes with M>3 magnitudes were obtained from DDA Catalogue of Prime Ministry Disaster & Emergency Management Authority (AFAD) official website. In this survey, data analysis and maps were prepared using ArcGIS (version_10.1) program. The analysis maps present (1) the intensity clustered earthquakes dominant in Sigacik and Gokova Gulfs, (2) regions which have high seismic risk were determined according to Buffer analysis for 2 km distance, (3) geothermal areas (21.4-153°C) in the west coastal zone of Anatolia were mapped, (4) regions the most affected by seismic activity for the last 15 years were detected from 2015 population data, and as latest (5) Seferihisar, Urla, Gulbahge, Demircili, Bodrum, and Datga provinces are identified as areas having high seismic activity for the last 15 years. Consequently, all analysis results were compared with the geothermal areas, and the review made that earthquake catalogue has not the relationship with hot regions and also these shocks triggered by active faults in this region using ArcGIS program. the author recommends that these regions should be investigated the earthquake sensitivity analysis in the near future.

  1. Marine Controlled Source Electromagnetics for Gas Hydrate Evaluation on the Cascadia Margin: Correlation Between Resistivity Anomalies and Seismic Blank Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalenberg, K.; Edwards, R. N.; Willoughby, E. C.; Mir, R.; Yuan, J.; Spence, G.

    2004-12-01

    The gas hydrate deposits on the Cascadia Margin have been the focus of a vast number of projects and marine experiments to investigate the distribution and concentration of this potential future energy resource. Gas hydrate or frozen gas consists mainly of methane and water molecules. It is stable at low temperatures and high pressures and forms in pore space within the hydrate stability zone in marine sediments. Hydrate itself is electrical insulating and replaces conductive pore fluid, which subsequently increases the bulk resistivity of a hydrate formation. Accurate measurements of the seafloor resistivity can be a useful tool for hydrate estimation, which is essential for resource and environmental hazard evaluation. The instrument - a development of the University of Toronto - is basically an inline dipole-dipole configuration dragged along the seafloor. It has been successfully applied in previous experiments on the Cascadia Margin and on the Chilean Margin. Here we present a promising new data set collected in summer 2004. Measurements have been conducted along three profiles. For the first time data have been collected with the marine controlled source electromagnetic method in water depths shallower than required for hydrate stability (i.e. below 500m). These data are important as a reference site for hydrate assessment. The second profile covers the bullseye, a vent site in vicinity of ODP site 889B that correlates with a region of seismic blanking and recovered hydrate outcrops. The 7km long profile also covers another series of seismically identified vent sites. The average amplitudes of the measured electric fields and thus the related apparent resistivities along the first profile (no hydrate) are smaller than along the second profile (vent sites). This is consistent with the idea of an increased resistivity in hydrate rich zones. Two pronounced anomalies occur along the second profile in spatial agreement with the bullseye and the other series of

  2. Seismicity-Hydrology Relationships in the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, C.; Brandmayr, E.; Vlahovic, G.

    2016-12-01

    Causes of seismicity in the eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ), the second most active intraplate seismic zone in the United States, remain unclear. Hydroseismicity proposes that intraplate seismic events can result from surface-driven pore-fluid pressure transients triggering failure in pre-stressed crust. Alternative explanations to hydrology-seismicity correlations invoke crustal loading. Seismic strain (the square root of energy) in the ETSZ was evaluated for periodicity and relationships with river discharge using 1,580 seismic events from 1977 to 2015 located within the 55,430 km2 watershed of a Tennessee River streamgage near Chattanooga. Initial findings differ from many other seismic zones, including the nearby Central Virginia Seismic Zone, where discharge correlates positively with seismicity. In the ETSZ, by contrast, interpolated strain and discharge residuals anti-correlate (r = -0.61). Cross-correlation shows discharge leading strain by 1 year (r = -0.65) and lagging strain by 8 years (r = 0.75). Geodetic data from 2008 to 2015 show crustal displacement lagging residual discharge by 1 year (r = -0.71) and residual energy by 0 days (r = 0.74). Autocorrelation shows strong annual and weak decadal periodicities in both strain and discharge. Average monthly strain and discharge residuals anti-correlate at r = -0.65, and a monthly preference was found for seismic energy release (χ2 = 43.3, p < 0.01), although not for occurrence of seismic events (χ2 = 17.5, p = 0.10), suggesting interaction with the pronounced seasonal hydrologic cycle. The shared decadal cycle between seismicity and discharge could result from the interaction of seismic and hydrologic cycles or from coincidental temporal overlap of separate physical cycles. The decrease in seismicity as discharge and subsidence increase implies crustal loading rather than pore-fluid pressure transients as a control on seismicity in the ETSZ. The ETSZ may differ from other seismic zones with respect

  3. A reappraisal of seismic Q evaluated at Mt. Etna volcano. Receipt for the application to risk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca; Giampiccolo, Elisabetta; Tusa, Giuseppina; Tuvé, Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    A new approach in dealing with seismic risk in the volcanic areas of Italy, by taking into account the possible occurrence of damaging pre- or syn-eruptive seismic events, is exciting the scientific interest and is actually the topic developed in several research projects funded by the European Community (e.g., UPStrat-MAFA, www.upstrat-mafa.ov.ingv.it/UPstrat/) and the Civil Defense Department of Italy. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the local attenuation-distance relations. In the present paper, we make a survey of the estimates of the seismic quality factor of the medium reported in literature for the Etna area. In the framework of a similar paper published for the Campi Flegrei zone in Southern Italy, we first review the results on seismic attenuation already obtained for Etna and then apply a standard technique to separately measure intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients from passive seismic data recorded by the Etna seismological network. Indications are then given for the correct utilization of the attenuation parameters to obtain the best candidate quality factor Q to be used in this area for seismic risk purposes.

  4. Evaluation of the Hilbert-Huang transform application for the recognition of seismic precursory phenomena by the analysis of VLF transmission signals of the European Network.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeberis, C.; Xenos, T. D.; Arabelos, D. N.; Spatalas, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors evaluate the suitability of the Hilber-Huang transformation (Empirical Mode Decomposition) in the recognition of seismic precursory phenomena from the analysis of signals which are transmitted by European station in the VLF frequency band. So, the results of the measurements and analysis of the received signals for the time periods of the earthquake occurrence in the area of Greece and the effectiveness of the method is being discussed.(in Greeks)

  5. An evaluation of methodology for seismic qualification of equipment, cable trays, and ducts in ALWR plants by use of experience data

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kana, D.D.; Kennedy, R.P.; Schiff, A.J.

    1997-07-01

    Advanced Reactor Corporation (ARC) has developed a methodology for seismic qualification of equipment, cable trays and ducts in Advanced Light Water Reactor plants. A Panel (members of which acted as individuals) supported by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has evaluated this methodology. The review approach and observations are included in this report. In general, the Panel supports the ARC methodology with some exceptions and provides recommendations for further improvements. 26 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Seismic Vulnerability Evaluations Within The Structural And Functional Survey Activities Of The COM Bases In Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Zuccaro, G.; Cacace, F.; Albanese, V.; Mercuri, C.; Papa, F.; Pizza, A. G.; Sergio, S.; Severino, M.

    2008-07-08

    The paper describes technical and functional surveys on COM buildings (Mixed Operative Centre). This activity started since 2005, with the contribution of both Italian Civil Protection Department and the Regions involved. The project aims to evaluate the efficiency of COM buildings, checking not only structural, architectonic and functional characteristics but also paying attention to surrounding real estate vulnerability, road network, railways, harbours, airports, area morphological and hydro-geological characteristics, hazardous activities, etc. The first survey was performed in eastern Sicily, before the European Civil Protection Exercise 'EUROSOT 2005'. Then, since 2006, a new survey campaign started in Abruzzo, Molise, Calabria and Puglia Regions. The more important issue of the activity was the vulnerability assessment. So this paper deals with a more refined vulnerability evaluation technique by means of the SAVE methodology, developed in the 1st task of SAVE project within the GNDT-DPC programme 2000-2002 (Zuccaro, 2005); the SAVE methodology has been already successfully employed in previous studies (i.e. school buildings intervention programme at national scale; list of strategic public buildings in Campania, Sicilia and Basilicata). In this paper, data elaborated by SAVE methodology are compared with expert evaluations derived from the direct inspections on COM buildings. This represents a useful exercise for the improvement either of the survey forms or of the methodology for the quick assessment of the vulnerability.

  7. Selecting services for a service robot: evaluating the problematic activities threatening the independence of elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Bedaf, Sandra; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc; Syrdal, Dag; Lehmann, Hagen; Amirabdollahian, Farshid; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Hewson, David

    2013-06-01

    Sustaining independent living for the elderly is desirable both for the individual as well as for societies as a whole. Substantial care interventions are provided to citizens supporting their independent living. Currently, such interventions are primarily based on human care provision, but due to demographic changes the demand for such support is continuously increasing. Assistive Robotics has the potential to answer this growing demand. The notions research towards service robots that support the independence of elderly people has been given increased attention. The challenge is to develop robots that are able to adequately support with those activities that pose the greatest problems for elderly people seeking to remain independent. In order to develop the capabilities of the Care-O-bot 3 in the ACCOMPANY project, problematic activities that may threaten continued independent living of elderly people were studied. Focus groups were conducted in the Netherlands, UK, and France and included three separate user groups: (1) elderly (N=41), (2) formal caregivers (N=40), and (3) informal caregivers (N=32). This resulted in a top 3 of problematic activity domains that received the highest priority: (1) Mobility, (2) Self-care, and (3) Social isolation. The findings inform the further development of the Care-O-bot. In the ACCOMPANY project the Care-O-bot 3 will be developed further to enable it to support independently living older persons in one of these domains.

  8. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double shell waste tanks. The analysis is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raise by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review (in April and May 2001) of work being performed on the double-shell tank farms, and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system.

  9. Seismic seiches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, Arthur; Gupta, Harsh K.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic seiche is a term first used by Kvale (1955) to discuss oscillations of lake levels in Norway and England caused by the Assam earthquake of August 15, 1950. This definition has since been generalized to apply to standing waves set up in closed, or partially closed, bodies of water including rivers, shipping channels, lakes, swimming pools and tanks due to the passage of seismic waves from an earthquake.

  10. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-31

    for second-order Sturm - Liouville boundary-value problems, such a count of eigenvalues may be established in terms of the number of zero crossings of...will be operational during the next six months. Section 11 describes a series of activities in the development and imple- mentation of the seismic...element of seismic research. with emphasis on those areas directly related to tho operations of the SDC. Substantial progress has been made in the

  11. 76 FR 28781 - Independent Scientific Peer Review Panel Report: Evaluation of the Validation Status of an In...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... methods (ICCVAM, 2003b). ICCVAM and the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods... HUMAN SERVICES Independent Scientific Peer Review Panel Report: Evaluation of the Validation Status of an In Vitro Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activation Test Method for Endocrine Disruptor Chemical...

  12. Agreement between Therapists, Parents, Patients, and Independent Evaluators on Clinical Improvement in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Adam B.; Peris, Tara S.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Independent evaluators (IE) are used widely in clinical trials to make unbiased determinations of treatment response. By virtue of being kept blind to treatment condition, however, IEs are also kept unaware of many pertinent clinical details that are relevant for decisions about clinical improvement. In this study, agreement among…

  13. Agreement between Therapists, Parents, Patients, and Independent Evaluators on Clinical Improvement in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Adam B.; Peris, Tara S.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Independent evaluators (IE) are used widely in clinical trials to make unbiased determinations of treatment response. By virtue of being kept blind to treatment condition, however, IEs are also kept unaware of many pertinent clinical details that are relevant for decisions about clinical improvement. In this study, agreement among…

  14. Understanding the Influence of Independent Civil Society Monitoring and Evaluation at the District Level: A Case Study of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildemyn, Marie

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, an increasing number of civil society organizations (CSOs) engage in independent monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of government programs and policies. Most CSOs rely on a range of M&E tools in combination with advocacy strategies to hold government accountable and improve the implementation of programs and policies.…

  15. Language-Independent and Language-Specific Aspects of Early Literacy: An Evaluation of the Common Underlying Proficiency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying…

  16. Understanding the Influence of Independent Civil Society Monitoring and Evaluation at the District Level: A Case Study of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildemyn, Marie

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, an increasing number of civil society organizations (CSOs) engage in independent monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of government programs and policies. Most CSOs rely on a range of M&E tools in combination with advocacy strategies to hold government accountable and improve the implementation of programs and policies.…

  17. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2007-02-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to global

  18. Evaluation of technology-based service scenarios for supporting independent living.

    PubMed

    Kentta, Outi; Merilahti, Juho; Petäkoski-Hult, Tuula; Ikonen, Veikko; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2007-01-01

    To develop technology -based service solutions for supporting the independent living of elderly citizens, we conducted a user assessment study. Six different service scenarios were created and analyzed in six focus groups by young adults, elderly, and health-care professionals (n=29). Results show that safety was viewed as the most significant aspect. The study also showed that independent of age, most individuals take interest in health related issues only when a clear threat is posed, even though health in general is considered an important issue in life.

  19. Joining statistics and geophysics for assessment and uncertainty quantification of three-dimensional seismic Earth models

    DOE PAGES

    Larmat, Carene; Maceira, Monica; Higdon, David M.; ...

    2017-08-29

    Seismic inversions produce seismic models, which are 3-dimensional (3D) images of wave velocity of the entire planet retrieved by fitting seismic measurements made on records of past earthquakes or other seismic events. Computing power of the TeraFlop era, along with the dataflow from new, very dense, seismic arrays, has led to a new generation of 3D seismic Earth models with an unprecedented level of resolution. Here we compare two recent models of western United States from the Dynamic North America (DNA) seismic imaging effort. The two models only differ in the wave propagation that was used for their inversion: onemore » is based on ray theory (RT), and the other on finite frequency (FF). We evaluate the two models using an independent numerical method and statistical tests. We show that they differ in how they produce seismic signals from a subset of earthquakes that were used in the original inversion and were recorded on the US array. This is especially true for measurements done in the Yellowstone area which has a large negative seismic anomaly. This result is of importance for seismologists who have been debating on the practical benefit of using FF in ill-posed Earth inversions. Model evaluation, such as the one reported here, represents an opportunity for collaboration between geophysical and statistical communities. Finally, more opportunities should arise with the upcoming Exascale era, which will provide enough computational power to explore together several sources of errors in models with thousands of parameters, opening the way of uncertainty quantification of seismic models.« less

  20. Application of seismic surface-waves in concrete bridge-deck evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetrat, Farhad

    Accurate and timely condition assessment of bridge decks is essential for economic management of aging highway bridges. The ability to evaluate concrete modulus profile in a bridge deck can help the detection of early signs of deterioration and optimize the bridge maintenance procedures. This study presents a new method for modulus profiling of concrete bridge decks. The stiffness matrix method is used to simulate wave propagation in a layered media. The results are compared to numerical finite element models. Dispersion analysis is done using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and phase-shift methods. The characteristics of dispersion surface are analyzed and the effects of model parameters on dispersion surface are examined through a series of parametric studies. An inversion technique is proposed for a fast inversion of surface-wave data collected on bridge decks. This technique utilizes a database of pre-calculated dispersion surfaces and takes advantage of the observed patterns in the parametric study as a priori information for the inversion process.

  1. Analysis of the LaSalle Unit 2 nuclear power plant: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP). Volume 8, Seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, J.E.; Lappa, D.A.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Chuang, T.Y.; Johnson, J.J.; Campbell, R.D.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Tiong, L.W.; Ravindra, M.K.; Kincaid, R.H.; Sues, R.H.; Putcha, C.S.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the methodology used and the results obtained from the application of a simplified seismic risk methodology to the LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station Unit 2. This study is part of the Level I analysis being performed by the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP). Using the RMIEP developed event and fault trees, the analysis resulted in a seismically induced core damage frequency point estimate of 6.OE-7/yr. This result, combined with the component importance analysis, indicated that system failures were dominated by random events. The dominant components included diesel generator failures (failure to swing, failure to start, failure to run after started), and condensate storage tank.

  2. A Seismic Shift: Evaluating Changes in Scientists' Attitudes Regarding Journalists and Science Communication After Media Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, S.; Herbulock, D.

    2015-12-01

    Providing natural hazards scientists the opportunity to question and engage directly with journalists in a workshop setting proved effective at shifting scientists' attitudes on their role in media and public communication during natural disasters. Scientists surveyed after the encounter expressed a more responsive attitude to communicating during crises, increased willingness to support scientific peers' communication efforts and more realistic perspectives on journalists' needs and objectives. Geoscientists experienced unprecedented and intensive media and public scrutiny during the Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes of 2010-2012. Following major quakes and aftershocks, there was a sustained high level of public demand for information and expert analysis of the underlying geological events and ongoing hazards and risks. Once the crisis ended, a period of reflection gave rise to understanding of the need for further media and communication training amongst natural hazards scientists. A workshop designed to explore scientists' attitudes to public communication during disasters and challenge their views on media, press offices and the expectations of the public was developed and implemented by the Science Media Centre, New Zealand and Massey University. This research was developed as an evaluation of this workshop. Quantitative analysis with some qualititive analysis were the methods used. Some findings include: a shift in how journalists were perceived by scientists after the workshop, largely influenced by perspectives shared during a panel where invited journalists reflected on their own experiences and answered questions from scientists. discussions on different spokespeople from different science institutions contributing to the public discussion showed a change in perception from a preference for one central spokesperson to increased support for a variety of perspectives from multiple scientists. This was influenced by insight provided by journalists during

  3. Evaluating Independent Proportions for Statistical Difference, Equivalence, Indeterminacy, and Trivial Difference Using Inferential Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Warren W.; Lewis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Tryon presented a graphic inferential confidence interval (ICI) approach to analyzing two independent and dependent means for statistical difference, equivalence, replication, indeterminacy, and trivial difference. Tryon and Lewis corrected the reduction factor used to adjust descriptive confidence intervals (DCIs) to create ICIs and introduced…

  4. Promoting Autonomy and Independence among Older People: An Evaluation of Educational Programmes in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, Charles; Davies, Sue; Ellis, Lorraine; Laker, Sara; Philp, Ian; Walker, Alan; Warnes, Anthony

    A study explored the relationship between the content of educational programs in nursing and the quality of nursing care for older people, especially the extent to which nurses promote autonomy and independence. Activities included an analysis of curricula for pre- and postregistration nursing education programs in Britain, investigation of…

  5. Striving for Independence: Two-Year Impact Findings from the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skemer, Melanie; Valentine, Erin Jacobs

    2016-01-01

    Large numbers of young people in the United States were in foster care or in juvenile justice custody as teenagers, and many of them have a difficult time making a successful transition to independent adulthood as they leave these systems. Most of them faced a number of disadvantages during childhood and often have poor outcomes across several…

  6. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for reservoir characterization. [Quarterly report], April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.O.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this three-year research program is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and rock physical properties. This work involves a balanced study of advanced theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of reservoir wells combined with experimental dam acquisition and processing of measurements at controlled sites as well as in full-scale reservoirs. This reservoir probing concept is aimed at demonstrating high-resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. In this quarterly report technical progress is summarized for Task 3, data processing and analysis of: preliminary interpretation of interwell seismic data from wells 5-7 and 7-7 at the Gypsy Test Site; and the response of a thin layer in an anistropic shale.

  7. Development and implementation of an independence rating scale and evaluation process for nursing orientation of new graduates.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of evaluation formats are available for new graduate nurses, but most of them are single-point evaluation tools that do not provide a clear picture of progress for orientee or educator. This article describes the development of a Web-based evaluation tool that combines learning taxonomies with the Synergy model into a rating scale based on independent performance. The evaluation tool and process provides open 24/7 access to evaluation documentation for members of the orientation team, demystifying the process and clarifying expectations. The implementation of the tool has proven to be transformative in the perceptions of evaluation and performance expectations of new graduates. This tool has been successful at monitoring progress, altering education, and opening dialogue about performance for over 125 new graduate nurses since inception.

  8. Annual Hanford seismic report -- fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

    1996-12-01

    Seismic monitoring (SM) at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the US Atomic Energy Commission. Since 1980, the program has been managed by several contractors under the US Department of Energy (USDOE). Effective October 1, 1996, the Seismic Monitoring workscope, personnel, and associated contracts were transferred to the USDOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SM is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection and archives of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) located on and encircling the Hanford Site. SM is also tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data compiled are used by SM, Waste Management, and engineering activities at the Hanford Site to evaluate seismic hazards and seismic design for the Site.

  9. Seismic hazard estimation of northern Iran using smoothed seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshnevis, Naeem; Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Cramer, Chris H.

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a seismic hazard assessment for northern Iran, where a smoothed seismicity approach has been used in combination with an updated seismic catalog and a ground motion prediction equation recently found to yield good fit with data. We evaluate the hazard over a geographical area including the seismic zones of Azerbaijan, the Alborz Mountain Range, and Kopeh-Dagh, as well as parts of other neighboring seismic zones that fall within our region of interest. In the chosen approach, seismic events are not assigned to specific faults but assumed to be potential seismogenic sources distributed within regular grid cells. After performing the corresponding magnitude conversions, we decluster both historical and instrumental seismicity catalogs to obtain earthquake rates based on the number of events within each cell, and smooth the results to account for the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of future earthquakes. Seismicity parameters are computed for each seismic zone separately, and for the entire region of interest as a single uniform seismotectonic region. In the analysis, we consider uncertainties in the ground motion prediction equation, the seismicity parameters, and combine the resulting models using a logic tree. The results are presented in terms of expected peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps and hazard curves at selected locations, considering exceedance probabilities of 2 and 10% in 50 years for rock site conditions. According to our results, the highest levels of hazard are observed west of the North Tabriz and east of the North Alborz faults, where expected PGA values are between about 0.5 and 1 g for 10 and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, respectively. We analyze our results in light of similar estimates available in the literature and offer our perspective on the differences observed. We find our results to be helpful in understanding seismic hazard for northern Iran, but recognize that additional efforts are necessary to

  10. Seismic hazard estimation of northern Iran using smoothed seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshnevis, Naeem; Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Cramer, Chris H.

    2017-07-01

    This article presents a seismic hazard assessment for northern Iran, where a smoothed seismicity approach has been used in combination with an updated seismic catalog and a ground motion prediction equation recently found to yield good fit with data. We evaluate the hazard over a geographical area including the seismic zones of Azerbaijan, the Alborz Mountain Range, and Kopeh-Dagh, as well as parts of other neighboring seismic zones that fall within our region of interest. In the chosen approach, seismic events are not assigned to specific faults but assumed to be potential seismogenic sources distributed within regular grid cells. After performing the corresponding magnitude conversions, we decluster both historical and instrumental seismicity catalogs to obtain earthquake rates based on the number of events within each cell, and smooth the results to account for the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of future earthquakes. Seismicity parameters are computed for each seismic zone separately, and for the entire region of interest as a single uniform seismotectonic region. In the analysis, we consider uncertainties in the ground motion prediction equation, the seismicity parameters, and combine the resulting models using a logic tree. The results are presented in terms of expected peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps and hazard curves at selected locations, considering exceedance probabilities of 2 and 10% in 50 years for rock site conditions. According to our results, the highest levels of hazard are observed west of the North Tabriz and east of the North Alborz faults, where expected PGA values are between about 0.5 and 1 g for 10 and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, respectively. We analyze our results in light of similar estimates available in the literature and offer our perspective on the differences observed. We find our results to be helpful in understanding seismic hazard for northern Iran, but recognize that additional efforts are necessary to

  11. Seismic ruggedness of relays

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report complements EPRI report NP-5223 Revision 1, February 1991, and presents additional information and analyses concerning generic seismic ruggedness of power plant relays. Existing and new test data have been used to construct Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectra (GERS) which can be used in identifying rugged relays during seismic re-evaluation of nuclear power plants. This document is an EPRI tier 1 report. The results of relay fragility tests for both old and new relays are included in an EPRI tier 2 report with the same title. In addition to the presentation of relay GERS, the tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to relays of older vintage, discusses the important identifying nomenclature for each relay type, and examines relay adjustment effects on seismic ruggedness. 9 refs., 3 figs, 1 tab.

  12. Seismic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

  13. Simplified seismic collapse capacity-based evaluation and design of frame buildings with and without supplemental damping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidia, Mohammad Javad

    A simplified procedure is developed for estimating the seismic sidesway collapse capacity of frame building structures. The procedure is then extended to quantify the seismic collapse capacity of buildings incorporating supplemental damping systems. The proposed procedure is based on a robust database of seismic peak displacement responses of viscously damped nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom systems for various seismic intensities and uses nonlinear static (pushover) analysis without the need for nonlinear time history dynamic analysis. The proposed procedure is assessed by comparing its collapse capacity predictions on 1470 different building models with those obtained from incremental nonlinear dynamic analyses. A straightforward unifying collapse capacity based design procedure aimed at achieving a pre-determined probability of collapse under maximum considered earthquake event is also introduced for structures equipped with viscous dampers (linear and nonlinear) and hysteretic dampers. The proposed simplified procedure offers a simple, yet efficient, computational/analytical tool that is capable of predicting collapse capacities with acceptable accuracy for a wide variety of frame building structures incorporate several types of supplemental damping systems.

  14. Seismic response analyses for reactor facilities at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.A. Costantino, C.J. ); Xu, J. )

    1991-01-01

    The reactor facilities at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) were designed during the 1950's. The original seismic criteria defining the input ground motion was 0.1 G with UBC (uniform building code) provisions used to evaluate structural seismic loads. Later ground motion criteria have defined the free field seismic motion with a 0.2 G ZPA (free field acceleration) and various spectral shapes. The spectral shapes have included the Housner spectra, a site specific spectra, and the US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) Reg. Guide 1.60 shape. The development of these free field seismic criteria are discussed in the paper. The more recent seismic analyses have been of the following type: fixed base response spectra, frequency independent lumped parameter soil/structure interaction (SSI), frequency dependent lumped parameter SSI, and current state of the art analyses using computer codes such as SASSI. The results from these computations consist of structural loads and floor response spectra (used for piping and equipment qualification). These results are compared in the paper and the methods used to validate the results are discussed. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Automatic classification of seismic events within a regional seismograph network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiira, Timo; Kortström, Jari; Uski, Marja

    2015-04-01

    A fully automatic method for seismic event classification within a sparse regional seismograph network is presented. The tool is based on a supervised pattern recognition technique, Support Vector Machine (SVM), trained here to distinguish weak local earthquakes from a bulk of human-made or spurious seismic events. The classification rules rely on differences in signal energy distribution between natural and artificial seismic sources. Seismic records are divided into four windows, P, P coda, S, and S coda. For each signal window STA is computed in 20 narrow frequency bands between 1 and 41 Hz. The 80 discrimination parameters are used as a training data for the SVM. The SVM models are calculated for 19 on-line seismic stations in Finland. The event data are compiled mainly from fully automatic event solutions that are manually classified after automatic location process. The station-specific SVM training events include 11-302 positive (earthquake) and 227-1048 negative (non-earthquake) examples. The best voting rules for combining results from different stations are determined during an independent testing period. Finally, the network processing rules are applied to an independent evaluation period comprising 4681 fully automatic event determinations, of which 98 % have been manually identified as explosions or noise and 2 % as earthquakes. The SVM method correctly identifies 94 % of the non-earthquakes and all the earthquakes. The results imply that the SVM tool can identify and filter out blasts and spurious events from fully automatic event solutions with a high level of confidence. The tool helps to reduce work-load in manual seismic analysis by leaving only ~5 % of the automatic event determinations, i.e. the probable earthquakes for more detailed seismological analysis. The approach presented is easy to adjust to requirements of a denser or wider high-frequency network, once enough training examples for building a station-specific data set are available.

  16. Evaluation of stress and saturation effects on seismic velocity and electrical resistivity - laboratory testing of rock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    Repository, located in a deep geological formation, is today considered the most suitable solution for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The geological formations, in combination with an engineered barrier system, should ensure isolation of the waste from the environment for thousands of years. For long-term monitoring of such underground excavations special monitoring systems are developed. In our research we developed and tested monitoring system based on repeated ultrasonic time of flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). As a test site Bedřichov gallery in the northern Bohemia was selected. This underground gallery in granitic rock was excavated using Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). The seismic high-frequency measurements are performed by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock wall using one seismic source and three receivers in the distances of 1, 2 and 3 m. The ERT measurement is performed also on the rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes is 20 centimeters. An analysis of relation of seismic velocity and electrical resistivity on water saturation and stress state of the granitic rock is necessary for the interpretation of both seismic monitoring and ERT. Laboratory seismic and resistivity measurements were performed. One series of experiments was based on uniaxial loading of dry and saturated granitic samples. The relation between stress state and ultrasonic wave velocities was tested separately for dry and saturated rock samples. Other experiments were focused on the relation between electrical resistivity of the rock sample and its saturation level. Rock samples with different porosities were tested. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA 0302408

  17. Integration of high-resolution seismic and aeromagnetic data for earthquake hazards evaluations: An example from the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liberty, L.M.; Trehu, A.M.; Blakely, R.J.; Dougherty, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and high-resolution seismic reflection data were integrated to place constraints on the history of seismic activity and to determine the continuity of the possibly active, yet largely concealed Mount Angel fault in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Recent seismic activity possibly related to the 20-km-long fault includes a swarm of small earthquakes near Woodburn in 1990 and the magnitude 5.6 Scotts Mills earthquake in 1993. Newly acquired aeromagnetic data show several large northwest-trending anomalies, including one associated with the Mount Angel fault. The magnetic signature indicates that the fault may actually extend 70 km across the Willamette Valley to join the Newberg and Gales Creek faults in the Oregon Coast Range. We collected 24-fold high-resolution seismic reflection data along two transects near Woodburn, Oregon, to image the offset of the Miocene-age Columbia River Basalts (CRB) and overlying sediments at and northwest of the known mapped extent of the Mount Angel fault. The seismic data show a 100-200-m offset in the CRB reflector at depths from 300 to 700 m. Folded or offset sediments appear above the CRB with decreasing amplitude to depths as shallow as were imaged (approximately 40 m). Modeling experiments based on the magnetic data indicate, however, that the anomaly associated with the Mount Angel fault is not caused solely by an offset of the CRB and overlying sediments. Underlying magnetic sources, which we presume to be volcanic rocks of the Siletz terrane, must have vertical offsets of at least 500 m to fit the observed data. We conclude that the Mount Angel fault appears to have been active since Eocene age and that the Gales Creek, Newberg, and Mount Angel faults should be considered a single potentially active fault system. This fault, as well as other parallel northwest-trending faults in the Willamette Valley, should be considered as risks for future potentially damaging earthquakes.

  18. Procedures for computing site seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferritto, John

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared as part of the Navy's Seismic Hazard Mitigation Program. The Navy has numerous bases located in seismically active regions throughout the world. Safe effective design of waterfront structures requires determining expected earthquake ground motion. The Navy's problem is further complicated by the presence of soft saturated marginal soils that can significantly amplify the levels of seismic shaking as evidenced in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command's seismic design manual, NAVFAC P355.l, requires a probabilistic assessment of ground motion for design of essential structures. This report presents the basis for the Navy's Seismic Hazard Analysis procedure that was developed and is intended to be used with the Seismic Hazard Analysis computer program and user's manual. This report also presents data on geology and seismology to establish the background for the seismic hazard model developed. The procedure uses the historical epicenter data base and available geologic data, together with source models, recurrence models, and attenuation relationships to compute the probability distribution of site acceleration and an appropriate spectra. This report discusses the developed stochastic model for seismic hazard evaluation and the associated research.

  19. Evaluation of a microwave resonator for predicting grain moisture independent of bulk density

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work evaluated the ability of a planar whispering mode resonator to predict moisture considering moisture and densities expected in an on-harvester application. A calibration model was developed to accurately predict moisture over the moisture, density and temperature ranges evaluated. This mod...

  20. Independent evaluation plan (IEP) for sealed nickel-cadmium (NICAD) battery support

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-07

    Test objectives were (1) to evaluate the POC and direct exchange procedures to provide responsive and effective battery support under combat conditions, and (2) to evaluate whether or not the PP-7286/U battery charger can charge the volume and diversity of type batteries under conditions utilizing the POC and established direct exchange procedures.

  1. Effectiveness and safety of independent pediatric nurse practitioners in evaluating plagiocephaly.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Anna A; Bergquist, Curtis; Crupi, Lisa; Oliverio, Maureen; Selden, Nathan R

    2013-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics Back to Sleep program in 1992 dramatically increased the incidence of posterior plagiocephaly in infants. In 2000, the craniofacial disorders program at Oregon Health & Science University established a plagiocephaly screening clinic staffed by pediatric nurse practitioners. Electronic medical records of patients seen in a single accredited craniofacial disorders clinic from 2005 to 2011 were reviewed retrospectively to identify patients screened independently by pediatric nurse practitioners for positional plagiocephaly versus synostosis. Over a 7-year period, 1228 patients were independently screened. Over half [638 patients (52 percent)] were followed through subsequent visits for craniofacial disorders without any direct surgeon input. Of these, 169 (26 percent) were treated with orthotic consultation for a molding helmet, 385 (60 percent) received a combination of counseling and/or physical therapy for torticollis, and 84 (13 percent) were lost to follow-up. No patient managed by pediatric nurse practitioners was identified to have cranial synostosis and no patient underwent early or delayed surgery. All returning patients [n=554 (86 percent)] showed improvement in, or resolution of, their presenting deformity. The remaining 590 patients (48 percent) were referred by the pediatric nurse practitioner for surgical consultation. Computed tomographic imaging revealed synostosis in 121 patients. Pediatric nurse practitioners accurately screened over half of patients referred to a high-volume craniofacial disorders program for positional plagiocephaly versus synostosis, without surgeon input. Based on available information, no synostosis diagnosis was overlooked using this approach. With specific training, pediatric nurse practitioners working in a craniofacial disorders program can safely and independently screen for positional versus synostotic plagiocephaly. Diagnostic, III.

  2. Independent Living Capacity Evaluation in Home-Based Primary Care: Considerations and Outcomes of a Quality Improvement Project

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Michelle C.; Murphy, Margaret R.; Mlinac, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This article describes results of a quality improvement project review of 5 years of capacity evaluations for independent living conducted in one Home-Based Primary Care (HBPC) Program. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all patients evaluated for independent living capacity through the Boston VA HBPC Program (N = 25) to identify differences in outcomes for those with and without capacity. Descriptive information included referral sources, capacity decisions, time remaining in the home, and trajectory of patients following evaluation. Results All patients evaluated had been diagnosed with a cognitive disorder, and on average, a relatively lower prevalence of mental illness compared with the national HBPC population. Referrals were made primarily by the HBPC team. Patients with capacity were found to have remained in their home longer than those who lacked capacity. Conclusions Referral for a higher level of care was typically only recommended when no further intervention could be implemented and active risk in the home could not be managed. Clinical Implications In home capacity evaluations are complex and challenging, yet results help family and HBPC team support patients’ preferences for staying in their own home as long as possible. PMID:28111494

  3. 77 FR 35408 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Process Evaluation of the Early Independence Award (EIA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Process Evaluation of..., and Strategic Initiatives (DPCPSI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), will publish periodic...

  4. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-31

    dyn-cm. It can be seen that there is a wide range of the potential con- tribution of different seismic zones to excitation of the Chandler wobble ...Correction to the Excitation of the Chandler Wobble by Earthquakes," Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 32, 203-217 (1973). 22. S. C. Solomon, N. H. Sleep

  5. Seismic Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Don L.; Dziewonski, Adam M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how seismic tomography is used to analyze the waves produced by earthquakes. The information obtained from the procedure can then be used to map the earth's mantle in three dimensions. The resulting maps are then studied to determine such information as the convective flow that propels the crustal plates. (JN)

  6. Seismic Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Don L.; Dziewonski, Adam M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how seismic tomography is used to analyze the waves produced by earthquakes. The information obtained from the procedure can then be used to map the earth's mantle in three dimensions. The resulting maps are then studied to determine such information as the convective flow that propels the crustal plates. (JN)

  7. Seismic Symphonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano

    2015-04-01

    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  8. Characterization of landslides dynamics using the generated seismic signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; de Rosny, Julien; Toussaint, Renaud; Trinh, Phuong-Thu

    2017-04-01

    Landslides, rock avalanche and debris flows represent a major natural hazard in steep environments. However, owing to the lack of visual observations, the dynamics of these gravitational events is still not well understood. A burning challenge is to deduce the landslide dynamics from the characteristics of the generated seismic signal. Laboratory experiments of granular columns collapse are conducted on an inclined plane. The seismic signal generated by the collapse is recorded by piezoelectric accelerometers sensitive in a wide frequency range (1 Hz - 56 kHz). The granular column is constituted with steel beads of same diameter that are initially contained in a cylinder. The column collapses when the cylinder is removed. A layer of steel beads is glued on the surface of the plane to provide basal roughness. We distinguish two successive phases of rise and decay in the seismic signal generated by the granular collapses. The rise phase of the seismic amplitude and its maximum are shown to be independent of the slope angle. The maximum seismic amplitude coincides with the maximum flow speed in the direction normal to the slope but not with the maximum downslope speed. The decay phase of the seismic amplitude lasts significantly longer as slope angle increases over a critical value. The decay becomes exponential for high slope angles > 15°. This change of signal shape on steep slopes seems to be related to the development of a different flow regime: a saltating front whose amplitude and duration also increase with slope angle. In addition, we propose a semi-empirical scaling law to describe how the seismic energy radiated by a granular flow increases when the slope angle increases. The fit of this law with the seismic data allows us to retrieve the friction angle of the granular material, which is a crucial rheological parameter. Finally, the conversion of the flows potential energy into radiated seismic energy is evaluated from 0.2% to 1%. It decreases as time

  9. An Evaluation of Attitude-Independent Magnetometer-Bias Determination Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, J. A.; Deutschmann, Julie

    1996-01-01

    Although several algorithms now exist for determining three-axis magnetometer (TAM) biases without the use of attitude data, there are few studies on the effectiveness of these methods, especially in comparison with attitude dependent methods. This paper presents the results of a comparison of three attitude independent methods and an attitude dependent method for computing TAM biases. The comparisons are based on in-flight data from the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). The effectiveness of an algorithm is measured by the accuracy of attitudes computed using biases determined with that algorithm. The attitude accuracies are determined by comparison with known, extremely accurate, star-tracker-based attitudes. In addition, the effect of knowledge of calibration parameters other than the biases on the effectiveness of all bias determination methods is examined.

  10. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 94-0182-2519, Little Blue Valley Sewer District, Independence, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Marlow, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    In response to a confidential request, an investigation was begun into possible hazardous working conditions at the Little Blue Valley Sewer District wastewater treatment facility (SIC-4952), Independence, Missouri. Complaints received included gastrointestinal disurbances, sore throats, fatigue, headaches, eye irritation, and coughing among those working in the belt press room. Personal breathing zone samples for total particulate ranged from 0.03 to 0.28mg/m3. Measurements also indicated a range of 2.50 to 6.82 endotoxin units per cubic meter of air. Sludge samples containing 40% solids had the highest concentrations and largest variety of volatile organic compounds. Analysis indicated that the belt room workers were exposed to hydrogen-sulfide at concentrations which exceeded the NIOSH 10 minute ceiling of 10 parts per million (ppm) in eight of 13 breathing zone samples; three also exceeded the OSHA limit of 20ppm. The author concludes that workers were overexposed to hydrogen-sulfide.

  11. Design and Evaluation of a Medication Adherence Application with Communication for Seniors in Independent Living Communities.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Dipanwita; Johnson, Reid A; Chaudhry, Beenish; Reeves, Kimberly G; Willaert, Patty; Chawla, Nitesh V

    2016-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a pressing concern among seniors, leading to a lower quality of life and higher healthcare costs. While mobile applications provide a viable medium for medication management, their utility can be limited without tackling the specific needs of seniors and facilitating the active involvement of care providers. To address these limitations, we are developing a tablet-based application designed specifically for seniors to track their medications and a web portal for their care providers to track medication adherence. In collaboration with a local Aging in Place program, we conducted a three-month study with sixteen participants from an independent living facility. Our study found that the application helped participants to effectively track their medications and improved their sense of wellbeing. Our findings highlight the importance of catering to the needs of seniors and of involving care providers in this process, with specific recommendations for the development of future medication management applications.

  12. Design and Evaluation of a Medication Adherence Application with Communication for Seniors in Independent Living Communities

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Dipanwita; Johnson, Reid A.; Chaudhry, Beenish; Reeves, Kimberly G.; Willaert, Patty; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2016-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a pressing concern among seniors, leading to a lower quality of life and higher healthcare costs. While mobile applications provide a viable medium for medication management, their utility can be limited without tackling the specific needs of seniors and facilitating the active involvement of care providers. To address these limitations, we are developing a tablet-based application designed specifically for seniors to track their medications and a web portal for their care providers to track medication adherence. In collaboration with a local Aging in Place program, we conducted a three-month study with sixteen participants from an independent living facility. Our study found that the application helped participants to effectively track their medications and improved their sense of wellbeing. Our findings highlight the importance of catering to the needs of seniors and of involving care providers in this process, with specific recommendations for the development of future medication management applications. PMID:28269843

  13. Independent evaluation of conflicting microspherule results from different investigations of the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis.

    PubMed

    LeCompte, Malcolm A; Goodyear, Albert C; Demitroff, Mark N; Batchelor, Dale; Vogel, Edward K; Mooney, Charles; Rock, Barrett N; Seidel, Alfred W

    2012-10-30

    Firestone et al. sampled sedimentary sequences at many sites across North America, Europe, and Asia [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:16016-16021]. In sediments dated to the Younger Dryas onset or Boundary (YDB) approximately 12,900 calendar years ago, Firestone et al. reported discovery of markers, including nanodiamonds, aciniform soot, high-temperature melt-glass, and magnetic microspherules attributed to cosmic impacts/airbursts. The microspherules were explained as either cosmic material ablation or terrestrial ejecta from a hypothesized North American impact that initiated the abrupt Younger Dryas cooling, contributed to megafaunal extinctions, and triggered human cultural shifts and population declines. A number of independent groups have confirmed the presence of YDB spherules, but two have not. One of them [Surovell TA, et al. (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:18155-18158] collected and analyzed samples from seven YDB sites, purportedly using the same protocol as Firestone et al., but did not find a single spherule in YDB sediments at two previously reported sites. To examine this discrepancy, we conducted an independent blind investigation of two sites common to both studies, and a third site investigated only by Surovell et al. We found abundant YDB microspherules at all three widely separated sites consistent with the results of Firestone et al. and conclude that the analytical protocol employed by Surovell et al. deviated significantly from that of Firestone et al. Morphological and geochemical analyses of YDB spherules suggest they are not cosmic, volcanic, authigenic, or anthropogenic in origin. Instead, they appear to have formed from abrupt melting and quenching of terrestrial materials.

  14. Seismic review of the R. E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Ng, D.S.; Liaw, C.Y.; Levin, H.A.; Cheng, T.M.

    1980-05-27

    This paper is a progress report on work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform a limited seismic reassessment of the Robert E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant. The reassessment is being done for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program. The reassessment focuses generally on the reactor coolant pressure boundary and on those systems and components necessary to shut down the reactor safely and to maintain it in a safe shutdown condition following a postulated earthquake characterized by a peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.2 g. Methods and modeling procedures used to analyze a complex of interconnected buildings are highlighted.

  15. Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Kardamakis, Andreas A; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten

    2013-09-17

    The basal ganglia are critical for selecting actions and evaluating their outcome. Although the circuitry for selection is well understood, how these nuclei evaluate the outcome of actions is unknown. Here, we show in lamprey that a separate evaluation circuit, which regulates the habenula-projecting globus pallidus (GPh) neurons, exists within the basal ganglia. The GPh neurons are glutamatergic and can drive the activity of the lateral habenula, which, in turn, provides an indirect inhibitory influence on midbrain dopamine neurons. We show that GPh neurons receive inhibitory input from the striosomal compartment of the striatum. The striosomal input can reduce the excitatory drive to the lateral habenula and, consequently, decrease the inhibition onto the dopaminergic system. Dopaminergic neurons, in turn, provide feedback that inhibits the GPh. In addition, GPh neurons receive direct projections from the pallium (cortex in mammals), which can increase the GPh activity to drive the lateral habenula to increase the inhibition of the neuromodulatory systems. This circuitry, thus, differs markedly from the "direct" and "indirect" pathways that regulate the pallidal (e.g., globus pallidus) output nuclei involved in the control of motion. Our results show that a distinct reward-evaluation circuit exists within the basal ganglia, in parallel to the direct and indirect pathways, which select actions. Our results suggest that these circuits are part of the fundamental blueprint that all vertebrates use to select actions and evaluate their outcome.

  16. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for reservoir characterization. [Quarterly report], January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.O.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this three-year research program is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and pore fluid permeability. This work involves a balanced study of advanced theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of reservoir wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing of measurements at controlled sites as well as in full-scale reservoirs. This reservoir probing concept is aimed at demonstrating unprecedented high-resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. Technical progress for the past quarter is summarized for Task 3, data processing and analysis of geological and petrophysical analysis of the interval from 800 to 1100 feet in five wells at the Gypsy Test Site.

  17. A reappraisal of seismic Q evaluated in Campi Flegrei caldera. Receipt for the application to risk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The civil defense of Italy and the European community have planned to reformulate the volcanic risk in several volcanic areas of Italy, among which Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, by taking into account the possible occurrence of damaging pre- or syn-eruptive seismic events. Necessary to achieve this goal is the detailed knowledge of the local attenuation-distance relations. In the present note, we make a survey of the estimates of seismic quality factor (the inverse is proportional to the attenuation coefficient with distance) reported in literature for the area of Campi Flegrei where many, but sometimes contradictory results have been published on this topic. We try to review these results in order to give indications for their correct use when calculating the attenuation laws for this area.

  18. Seismic detection and evaluation of delta and turbidite sequences: their application to exploration for the subtle trap

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, O.R.

    1982-09-01

    Energy conditions at the seaward edge of deltas allow their division into fluvial-dominated, wave-dominated, and tide-dominated deltas. Each kind of delta has a distinct framework orientation and depositional pattern which results in a characteristic seismic reflection pattern. Certain seismic events and reflection patterns occurring in various combinations may suggest the presence of turbidites. These indicators include troughs, submarine canyons, mounds, prograded fluvial-dominated delta reflection patterns which vary in thickness, and onlap-offlap patterns on depositional slopes. Regional studies provide the best means of identifying and mapping depositional sequences. Examples from the North Sea, Gulf Coast, and Sacramento Valley illustrate the geologic and geophysical expression of delta and turbidite sequences and their interrelations.

  19. Seismic Stability Evaluation of Folsom Dam and Reservoir Project. Report 8. Mormon Island Auxiliary Dam. Phase 2. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    map, the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin areas are identified. Tectonic studies of the Sierran block indicate an extensional stress regime which suggests...located at a distance of about 15 km from the site. This fault zone has an extensional tectonic setting and 19 a seismic source mechanism that is normal...fault nor does it pass through the foundation of Mormon Island Auxiliary Dam (Tierra Engineering Consultants, Inc. 1983). 19. Tectonic studies of the

  20. Performance evaluation of shape memory alloy/rubber-based isolation systems for seismic response mitigation of bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbulut, Osman E.; Hurlebaus, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Base isolation is an effective method of reducing seismic response of bridges during an earthquake. Rubber isolators are one of the most common types of base isolation systems. As an alternative to conventional rubber isolators such as high damping rubber bearing and lead rubber bearing, smart rubber bearing systems with shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been proposed in recent years. As a class of smart materials, shape memory alloys shows excellent re-centering and considerable damping capabilities which can be exploited to obtain an efficient seismic isolation system. This paper explores effectiveness of shape memory alloy/rubber-based isolation systems for protecting bridges against seismic loads by performing a sensitivity analysis. The isolation system considered in this study consists of a laminated rubber bearing which provides lateral flexibility while supplying high vertical load-carrying capacity and an auxiliary device made of multiple loops SMA wires. The SMA device offers additional energy dissipating and re-centering capability. A threespan continuous bridge is modeled with SMA/rubber-based isolation system. Numerical simulations of the bridge are conducted for various historical ground motions that are spectrally matched to a target design spectrum. The normalized yield strength, yield displacement and pre-stress level of the SMA device and ambient temperature are selected as parameters of the sensitivity study. The variation of seismic response of the bridge with considered parameters is assessed. The optimum values of the normalized yield strength and the yield displacement of the SMA device is found to be in the range of 0.20-0.25 and 40-50 mm, respectively. Also, the SMA/rubber-based isolation system is observed to be more effective when the SMA device is pre-stressed. In addition, it is found that ambient temperature considerably affects the performance of the bridge isolated by SMA/rubber-based isolators.

  1. Independent Children's Social Work Practice Pilots: Evaluating Practitioners' Job Control and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Ridley, Julie; Austerberry, Helen; Farrelly, Nicola; Larkins, Cath; Bilson, Andy; Stanley, Nicky

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether a new model that delegates some out-of-home care services from the public to the private and not-for-profit sectors in England enhances practitioners' job control and stress levels. Methods: A 3-year longitudinal matched-control evaluation examined changes in Karasek demand-control model and Maslach burnout…

  2. Independent Thinkers and Learners: A Critical Evaluation of the "Growing Together Schools Programme"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Darren

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on primary data following an evaluative research project examining an innovative outdoor learning programme in the South East of England with pupils from year six in a primary school. The programme focused on enhancing the skills, experiences and personal attributes of children and young people to cope better with the…

  3. Independent Thinkers and Learners: A Critical Evaluation of the "Growing Together Schools Programme"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Darren

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on primary data following an evaluative research project examining an innovative outdoor learning programme in the South East of England with pupils from year six in a primary school. The programme focused on enhancing the skills, experiences and personal attributes of children and young people to cope better with the…

  4. Further Evaluation of Response-Independent Delivery of Preferred Stimuli and Child Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Matthew P.; Beaulieu, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a fixed-time (FT) schedule involving the delivery of preferred stimuli prior to the issuance of a low-probability instruction was evaluated with 2 young children with autism. The FT schedule was introduced according to a reversal design with 3 target instructions, 1 for the first child and 2 for the second child. Compliance increased…

  5. Integration of independent component analysis with near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of rice freshness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Determination of freshness is an important issue for rice quality. Near infrared spectroscopy, a rapid non-destructive inspection method based on specific absorptions within a given range of wavelengths, has been widely applied for evaluation of internal quality of agricultural products. For the pur...

  6. Independent Children's Social Work Practice Pilots: Evaluating Practitioners' Job Control and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Ridley, Julie; Austerberry, Helen; Farrelly, Nicola; Larkins, Cath; Bilson, Andy; Stanley, Nicky

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether a new model that delegates some out-of-home care services from the public to the private and not-for-profit sectors in England enhances practitioners' job control and stress levels. Methods: A 3-year longitudinal matched-control evaluation examined changes in Karasek demand-control model and Maslach burnout…

  7. On Neglect of the Independent Variable in Program Evaluation. Project MITT Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, W. W., Jr.; Jones, John E.

    This paper illustrates the need for full description and measurement of differences between "experimental" and "control" situations in school program evaluation studies. Two studies were completed at the University of Oregon involving the innovative program--differentiated staffing (DS). The first study, a doctoral investigation, sought to assess…

  8. A Site Characterization Protocol for Evaluating the Potential for Triggered or Induced Seismicity Resulting from Wastewater Injection and Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, R. J.; Zoback, M. D.; Gupta, A.; Baker, J.; Beroza, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory and governmental agencies, individual companies and industry groups and others have recently proposed, or are developing, guidelines aimed at reducing the risk associated with earthquakes triggered by waste water injection or hydraulic fracturing. While there are a number of elements common to the guidelines proposed, not surprisingly, there are also some significant differences among them and, in a number of cases, important considerations that are not addressed. The goal of this work is to develop a comprehensive protocol for site characterization based on a rigorous scientific understanding of the responsible processes. Topics addressed will include the geologic setting (emphasizing faults that might be affected), historical seismicity, hydraulic characterization of injection and adjacent intervals, geomechanical characterization to identify potentially active faults, plans for seismic monitoring and reporting, plans for monitoring and reporting injection (pressure, volumes, and rates), other factors contributing to risk (potentially affected population centers, structures, and facilities), and implementing a modified Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The guidelines will be risk based and adaptable, rather than prescriptive, for a proposed activity and region of interest. They will be goal oriented and will rely, to the degree possible, on established best practice procedures, referring to existing procedures and recommendations. By developing a risk-based site characterization protocol, we hope to contribute to the development of rational and effective measures for reducing the risk posed by activities that potentially trigger earthquakes.

  9. Inversion of ambient seismic noise HVSR to evaluate velocity and structural models of the Lower Tagus Basin, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, J. F.; Silva, H. G.; Torres, R. J. G.; Caldeira, B.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Furtado, J. A.; Carvalho, J.

    2016-07-01

    During its history, several significant earthquakes have shaken the Lower Tagus Valley (Portugal). These earthquakes were destructive; some strong earthquakes were produced by large ruptures in offshore structures located southwest of the Portuguese coastline, and other moderate earthquakes were produced by local faults. In recent years, several studies have successfully obtained strong-ground motion syntheses for the Lower Tagus Valley using the finite difference method. To confirm the velocity model of this sedimentary basin obtained from geophysical and geological data, we analysed the ambient seismic noise measurements by applying the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method. This study reveals the dependence of the frequency and amplitude of the low-frequency (HVSR) peaks (0.2-2 Hz) on the sediment thickness. We have obtained the depth of the Cenozoic basement along a profile transversal to the basin by the inversion of these ratios, imposing constraints from seismic reflection, boreholes, seismic sounding and gravimetric and magnetic potentials. This technique enables us to improve the existing three-dimensional model of the Lower Tagus Valley structure. The improved model will be decisive for the improvement of strong motion predictions in the earthquake hazard analysis of this highly populated basin. The methodology discussed can be applied to any other sedimentary basin.

  10. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for reservoir characterization. [Quarterly report], April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.O.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this three-year research program is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and pore fluid permeability. This work involves a balanced study of advanced theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of reservoir wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing of measurements at controlled sites as well as in full-scale reservoirs. This reservoir probing concept is, aimed at demonstrating unprecedented high-resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. Part of the numerical model task is to investigate the sensitivity of the in-situ rock-physical properties of the formation such as porosity and permeability on three-component seismograms, and the pressure, as well as phase velocity and attenuation. For this purpose we have developed software to simulate synthetic seismograins associated with a point-source (compressional wave), and a point force (shear wave), in stratified fluid-filled porous media. In addition, we have developed software to calculate phase velocity and attenuation from interwell seismic waveforms. To demonstrate the use of these capabilities we present examples to simulate seismograms and dispersion and attenuation curves.

  11. Geologic site evaluation for siting of municipal solid waste landfill in the southeast Missouri seismic impact zone of Stoddard County

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, J.B. )

    1993-03-01

    A combined permit application and design report for a 5 E6 cubic yard (50-ac) private-sector municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) was submitted to Missouri Department of Natural Resources in June 1992. This facility is located in a seismic impact zone (as defined under 40 CFR 257 and 258; the new [Oct. 1992] USEPA Subtitle D regulations). These zones are considered to represent potential ground motions > 0.10 g. Subtitle D regulations generally preclude siting of MSWLFs in seismic impact zones, unless a waiver can be obtained through demonstration of appropriate seismic-withstand design, as based on site geologic conditions. The proposed MSWLF lies in an area expected to experience a potential maximum horizontal ground acceleration of 0.3 g. The current permit application is based on favorable site geologic conditions; (1) relatively deep ground water, (2) dense, cohesive foundation soil, (3) considerable natural subgrade depths of 13 to 18 feet of Paleocene-aged Porters Creek Formation. Above the natural clay subgrade of in-situ hydraulic conductivity of 10--8 cm/sec., a Porter Creek high-plasticity, fat-clay (CH; USCS) liner will be recompacted to a 2-ft-thickness.

  12. Evaluation of 3D modality-independent elastography for breast imaging: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, J. J.; Ong, R. E.; Yankeelov, T. E.; Miga, M. I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and preliminary testing of a three-dimensional implementation of an inverse problem technique for extracting soft-tissue elasticity information via non-rigid model-based image registration. The modality-independent elastography (MIE) algorithm adjusts the elastic properties of a biomechanical model to achieve maximal similarity between images acquired under different states of static loading. A series of simulation experiments with clinical image sets of human breasts were performed to test the ability of the method to identify and characterize a radiographically occult stiff lesion. Because boundary conditions are a critical input to the algorithm, a comparison of three methods for semi-automated surface point correspondence was conducted in the context of systematic and randomized noise processes. The results illustrate that 3D MIE was able to successfully reconstruct elasticity images using data obtained from both magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography systems. The lesion was localized correctly in all cases and its relative elasticity found to be reasonably close to the true values (3.5% with the use of spatial priors and 11.6% without). In addition, the inaccuracies of surface registration performed with thin-plate spline interpolation did not exceed empiric thresholds of unacceptable boundary condition error.

  13. Seismic Gradiometry using Ambient Seismic Noise in an Anisotropic Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, S. A. L.; Curtis, A.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a wavefield gradiometry technique to estimate both isotropic and anisotropic local medium characteristics from short recordings of seismic signals by inverting a wave equation. The method exploits the information in the spatial gradients of a seismic wavefield that are calculated using dense deployments of seismic arrays. The application of the method uses the surface wave energy in the ambient seismic field. To estimate isotropic and anisotropic medium properties we invert an elliptically anisotropic wave equation. The spatial derivatives of the recorded wavefield are evaluated by calculating finite differences over nearby recordings, which introduces a systematic anisotropic error. A two step approach corrects this error: finite difference stencils are first calibrated, then the output of the wave-equation inversion is corrected using the linearized impulse response to the inverted velocity anomaly. We test the procedure on ambient seismic noise recorded in a large and dense ocean bottom cable array installed over Ekofisk field. The estimated azimuthal anisotropy forms a circular geometry around the production-induced subsidence bowl. This conforms with results from studies employing controlled sources, and with interferometry correlating long records of seismic noise. Yet in this example, the results where obtained using only a few minutes of ambient seismic noise.

  14. Seismic gradiometry using ambient seismic noise in an anisotropic Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, S. A. L.; Curtis, A.

    2017-05-01

    We introduce a wavefield gradiometry technique to estimate both isotropic and anisotropic local medium characteristics from short recordings of seismic signals by inverting a wave equation. The method exploits the information in the spatial gradients of a seismic wavefield that are calculated using dense deployments of seismic arrays. The application of the method uses the surface wave energy in the ambient seismic field. To estimate isotropic and anisotropic medium properties we invert an elliptically anisotropic wave equation. The spatial derivatives of the recorded wavefield are evaluated by calculating finite differences over nearby recordings, which introduces a systematic anisotropic error. A two-step approach corrects this error: finite difference stencils are first calibrated, then the output of the wave-equation inversion is corrected using the linearized impulse response to the inverted velocity anomaly. We test the procedure on ambient seismic noise recorded in a large and dense ocean bottom cable array installed over Ekofisk field. The estimated azimuthal anisotropy forms a circular geometry around the production-induced subsidence bowl. This conforms with results from studies employing controlled sources, and with interferometry correlating long records of seismic noise. Yet in this example, the results were obtained using only a few minutes of ambient seismic noise.

  15. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brain B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  16. Evaluation of the Most Frequently Prescribed Extemporaneously Compounded Veterinary Medications at a Large Independent Community Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Karara, Adel H; Hines, Ryan; Demir, Zehra; Nnorom, Bethran; Horsey, Robert; Twigg, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Extemporaneous drug formulation is essential to provide optimal pharmaceutical care to veterinary patients. The need for this is exacerbated by the fact that commercially produced veterinary-specific products, without a human indication, require specialty veterinary manufacturing facilities and a new animal drug application process to gain marketing approval. This study examined the prescription patterns of extemporaneously compounded veterinary preparations in the compounding department at a large independent community pharmacy. Data was obtained from a total of 1348 prescriptions requiring extemporaneous compounding over the course of a two-year period (2014-2015). A database was constructed and each compounded prescription was allocated to a therapeutic category based on the American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information. Data analysis showed that the most commonly prescribed preparations belonged to the central nervous system (39%), anti-infective agents (21%), and hormones (12%) therapeutic categories. Overall, suspensions were the most dispensed (47%), extemporaneously compounded dosage forms followed by solutions (28%), and capsules (10%). The majority (88%) of compounded preparations were administered by the oral route. The top three drugs that are compounded for veterinary medicine were (1) potassium bromide oral solution for canine epilepsy, (2) methimazole solution used to treat hyperthyroidism in cats, and (3) metronidazole suspension, an antibiotic for the treatment of diarrhea and other infections in dogs and cats. Remarkably, our findings are in good agreement with previously published survey data on the top drugs that are compounded for veterinary medicine. In the era of personalized medicine, veterinary extemporaneous compounding for specialized needs will continue to play an important role providing optimum therapy for veterinary patients.

  17. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-31

    Determining Phase and Group Velocities of Surface Seismic Waves 21 B. Group-Velocity Measurements Across Eurasia from Mashad SRO 22 C. Group-Velocity...Albuquerque), MAIO ( Mashad ), GUMO (Guam), NWAO (Australia), SNZO (New Zealand), and TATO (Taiwan). Fairly extensive data are now a|ailable for the...include a new rapid algorithm for the determination of group and phase velocity, a series of observations of Rayleigh-wave dispersion at the Mashad

  18. Seismic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, S.

    1981-10-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) research programs in seismic testing to improve earthquake design guidelines lowers the safety-design costs of nuclear power plants. Explosive tests that simulate earthquakes help to determine how structures respond to ground motion and how these are related to soil and geologic conditions at a specific site. Explosive tests develop data for simulation using several computer codes. Photographs illustrate testing techniques. 6 references. (DCK)

  19. FURTHER EVALUATION OF RESPONSE-INDEPENDENT DELIVERY OF PREFERRED STIMULI AND CHILD COMPLIANCE

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Matthew P; Beaulieu, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a fixed-time (FT) schedule involving the delivery of preferred stimuli prior to the issuance of a low-probability instruction was evaluated with 2 young children with autism. The FT schedule was introduced according to a reversal design with 3 target instructions, 1 for the first child and 2 for the second child. Compliance increased for 2 of the 3 cases. A high-probability instruction sequence and guided compliance were implemented for the second instruction targeted for 1 child, with compliance increasing with guided compliance. PMID:21941401

  20. Evaluation and Implementation of Media-Independent Handover in Hastily Formed Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    IEEE 802 technologies (802.11, 802.3 and 802.16) and cellular networks such as 3GPP and 3GPP2. Many efforts were made to evaluate, improve, and test...describing network cost, throughput , and link quality. C. PRESENTATION OF THE IEEE 802.21 STANDARD 1. General Architecture This section presents the...as defined by IEEE 802.21 standard (Lopez & Robert, 2010). The figure shows a MN that has two interfaces, a 3GPP interface and an 802 interface that

  1. An evaluation of energy-independent heavy ion transport coefficient approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Utilizing a one-dimensional transport theory for heavy ion propagation, evaluations of typical energy-dependent transport coefficient approximations are made by comparing theoretical depth-dose predictions to published experimental values for incident 670 MeV/nucleon Ne-20 beams in water. Results are presented for cases where the input nuclear absorption cross sections, or input fragmentation parameters, or both, are fixed. The lack of fragment charge and mass concentration resulting from the use of Silberberg-Tsao fragmentation parameters continues to be the main source of disagreement between theory and experiment.

  2. Culture-Independent Evaluation of the Appendix and Rectum Microbiomes in Children with and without Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Katherine P.; Fraser, Claire M.; Sandler, Anthony D.; Zeichner, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The function of the appendix is largely unknown, but its microbiota likely contributes to function. Alterations in microbiota may contribute to appendicitis, but conventional culture studies have not yielded conclusive information. We conducted a pilot, culture-independent 16S rRNA-based microbiota study of paired appendix and rectal samples. Methods We collected appendix and rectal swabs from 21 children undergoing appendectomy, six with normal appendices and fifteen with appendicitis (nine perforated). After DNA extraction, we amplified and sequenced 16S rRNA genes and analyzed sequences using CLoVR. We identified organisms differing in relative abundance using ANOVA (p<0.05) by location (appendix vs. rectum), disease (appendicitis vs. normal), and disease severity (perforated vs. non-perforated). Results We identified 290 taxa in the study's samples. Three taxa were significantly increased in normal appendices vs. normal rectal samples: Fusibacter (p = 0.009), Selenomonas (p = 0.026), and Peptostreptococcus (p = 0.049). Five taxa were increased in abundance in normal vs. diseased appendices: Paenibacillaceae (p = 0.005), Acidobacteriaceae GP4 (p = 0.019), Pseudonocardinae (p = 0.019), Bergeyella (p = 0.019) and Rhizobium (p = 0.045). Twelve taxa were increased in the appendices of appendicitis patients vs. normal appendix: Peptostreptococcus (p = 0.0003), Bilophila (p = 0.0004), Bulleidia (p = 0.012), Fusobacterium (p = 0.018), Parvimonas (p = 0.003), Mogibacterium (p = 0.012), Aminobacterium (p = 0.019), Proteus (p = 0.028), Actinomycineae (p = 0.028), Anaerovorax (p = 0.041), Anaerofilum (p = 0.045), Porphyromonas (p = 0.010). Five taxa were increased in appendices in patients with perforated vs. nonperforated appendicitis: Bulleidia (p = 0.004), Fusibacter (p = 0.005), Prevotella (p = 0.021), Porphyromonas (p = 0.030), Dialister (p = 0.035). Three taxa

  3. A Device-Independent Evaluation of Carbonyl Emissions from Heated Electronic Cigarette Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenhao; Liao, Jiawen; Matsuo, Toshiki; Ito, Kazuhide; Fowles, Jeff; Shusterman, Dennis; Mendell, Mark; Kumagai, Kazukiyo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate how the two main electronic (e-) cigarette solvents—propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GL)—modulate the formation of toxic volatile carbonyl compounds under precisely controlled temperatures in the absence of nicotine and flavor additives. Methods PG, GL, PG:GL = 1:1 (wt/wt) mixture, and two commercial e-cigarette liquids were vaporized in a stainless steel, tubular reactor in flowing air ranging up to 318°C to simulate e-cigarette vaping. Aerosols were collected and analyzed to quantify the amount of volatile carbonyls produced with each of the five e-liquids. Results Significant amounts of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were detected at reactor temperatures ≥215°C for both PG and GL. Acrolein was observed only in e-liquids containing GL when reactor temperatures exceeded 270°C. At 318°C, 2.03±0.80 μg of formaldehyde, 2.35±0.87 μg of acetaldehyde, and a trace amount of acetone were generated per milligram of PG; at the same temperature, 21.1±3.80 μg of formaldehyde, 2.40±0.99 μg of acetaldehyde, and 0.80±0.50 μg of acrolein were detected per milligram of GL. Conclusions We developed a device-independent test method to investigate carbonyl emissions from different e-cigarette liquids under precisely controlled temperatures. PG and GL were identified to be the main sources of toxic carbonyl compounds from e-cigarette use. GL produced much more formaldehyde than PG. Besides formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, measurable amounts of acrolein were also detected at ≥270°C but only when GL was present in the e-liquid. At 215°C, the estimated daily exposure to formaldehyde from e-cigarettes, exceeded United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) acceptable limits, which emphasized the need to further examine the potential cancer and non-cancer health risks associated with e-cigarette use. PMID:28076380

  4. Assessment of seismic loss dependence using copula.

    PubMed

    Goda, Katsuichiro; Ren, Jiandong

    2010-07-01

    The catastrophic nature of seismic risk is attributed to spatiotemporal correlation of seismic losses of buildings and infrastructure. For seismic risk management, such correlated seismic effects must be adequately taken into account, since they affect the probability distribution of aggregate seismic losses of spatially distributed structures significantly, and its upper tail behavior can be of particular importance. To investigate seismic loss dependence for two closely located portfolios of buildings, simulated seismic loss samples, which are obtained from a seismic risk model of spatially distributed buildings by taking spatiotemporally correlated ground motions into account, are employed. The characterization considers a loss frequency model that incorporates one dependent random component acting as a common shock to all buildings, and a copula-based loss severity model, which facilitates the separate construction of marginal loss distribution functions and nonlinear copula function with upper tail dependence. The proposed method is applied to groups of wood-frame buildings located in southwestern British Columbia. Analysis results indicate that the dependence structure of aggregate seismic losses can be adequately modeled by the right heavy tail copula or Gumbel copula, and that for the considered example, overall accuracy of the proposed method is satisfactory at probability levels of practical interest (at most 10% estimation error of fractiles of aggregate seismic loss). The developed statistical seismic loss model may be adopted in dynamic financial analysis for achieving faster evaluation with reasonable accuracy.

  5. Histological changes caused by meclofenamic acid in androgen independent prostate cancer tumors: evaluation in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Soriano-Hernández, Alejandro D.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Alejandrina; Galvan-Salazar, Héctor R.; Montes-Galindo, Daniel A.; Martinez-Martinez, Rafael; Valdez-Velazquez, Laura L.; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Rafael; Espinoza-Gómez, Francisco; Newton-Sanchez, Oscar A.; Lara-Esqueda, Agustín; Guzman-Esquivel, Jose

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meclofenamic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has shown therapeutic potential for different types of cancers, including androgen-independent prostate neoplasms. The antitumor effect of diverse nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been shown to be accompanied by histological and molecular changes that are responsible for this beneficial effect. The objective of the present work was to analyze the histological changes caused by meclofenamic acid in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Tumors were created in a nude mouse model using PC3 cancerous human cells. Meclofenamic acid (10 mg/kg/day; experimental group, n=5) or saline solution (control group, n=5) was administered intraperitoneally for twenty days. Histological analysis was then carried out on the tumors, describing changes in the cellular architecture, fibrosis, and quantification of cellular proliferation and tumor vasculature. Meclofenamic acid causes histological changes that indicate less tumor aggression (less hypercellularity, fewer atypical mitoses, and fewer nuclear polymorphisms), an increase in fibrosis, and reduced cellular proliferation and tumor vascularity. Further studies are needed to evaluate the molecular changes that cause the beneficial and therapeutic effects of meclofenamic acid in androgen-independent prostate cancer. PMID:26689527

  6. Language-Independent and Language-Specific Aspects of Early Literacy: An Evaluation of the Common Underlying Proficiency Model.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying proficiency model for the early literacy skills of Spanish-speaking language-minority children using confirmatory factor analysis. Eight hundred fifty-eight Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers (mean age = 60.83 months, 50.2% female) participated in this study. Results indicated that bifactor models that consisted of language-independent as well as language-specific early literacy factors provided the best fits to the data for children's phonological awareness and print knowledge skills. Correlated factors models that only included skills specific to Spanish and English provided the best fits to the data for children's oral language skills. Children's language-independent early literacy skills were significantly related across constructs and to language-specific aspects of early literacy. Language-specific aspects of early literacy skills were significantly related within but not across languages. These findings suggest that language-minority preschoolers have a common underlying proficiency for code-related skills but not language-related skills that may allow them to transfer knowledge across languages.

  7. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-12-03

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  8. Evaluation of high frequency ghost cavitation emissions for two different seismic air-gun arrays using numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodabandeloo, Babak; Landrø, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Sound is deployed by marine mammals for variety of vital purposes such as finding food, communication, echolocation, etc. On the other hand human activities generate underwater noise. One major type of acoustic source is marine seismic acquisition which is carried out to image layers beneath the seabed exploiting reflected acoustic and elastic waves. Air-gun arrays are the most common and efficient marine seismic sources. Field measurements using broad band hydrophones have revealed that acoustic energies emitted by air-gun arrays contains frequencies from a few Hz up to tens of kHz. Frequencies below 200 Hz benefit seismic imaging and the rest is normally considered as wasted energy. On the other hand, the high frequency range (above 200 Hz) overlaps with hearing curves of many marine mammals and especially toothed whales and may have an impact on their behavior. A phenomenon called ghost cavitation is recently recognized to be responsible for a major part of these high frequencies (> 5 kHz). Acoustic pressure waves of individual air guns reflected from sea surface can cause the hydrostatic pressure to drop towards zero close to the source array. In these regions there is a high probability for water vapor cavity growth and subsequent collapse. We have simulated ghost cavitation cloud using numerical modelling and the results are validated by comparing with field measurements. The model is used to compare the amount of high frequency noise due to ghost cavitation for two different air gun arrays. Both of the arrays have three subarrays but the array distance for the one with 2730 in3 air volume is 6 meters and for the slightly bigger array (3250 in3 in air volume) the subarrays are separated by 8 meters. Simulation results indicate that the second array, despite larger subarray distance, generates stronger ghost cavitation signal.

  9. OAK FOREST CARBON AND WATER SIMULATIONS: MODEL INTERCOMPARISONS AND EVALUATIONS AGAINST INDEPENDENT DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Paul J; Amthor, Jeffrey S; Wullschleger, Stan D; Wilson, K.; Grant, Robert F.; Hartley, Anne; Hui, D.; HuntJr., E. Raymond; Johnson, Dale W.; Kimball, John S.; King, Anthony Wayne; Luo, Yiqi; McNulty, Steven G.; Sun, G.; Thornton, Peter; Wang, S.; Williams, M.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Cushman, Robert Michael

    2004-01-01

    Models represent our primary method for integration of small-scale, processlevel phenomena into a comprehensive description of forest-stand or ecosystem function. They also represent a key method for testing hypotheses about the response of forest ecosystems to multiple changing environmental conditions. This paper describes the evaluation of 13 stand-level models varying in their spatial, mechanistic, and temporal complexity for their ability to capture intra- and interannual components of the water and carbon cycle for an upland, oak-dominated forest of eastern Tennessee. Comparisons between model simulations and observations were conducted for hourly, daily, and annual time steps. Data for the comparisons were obtained from a wide range of methods including: eddy covariance, sapflow, chamber-based soil respiration, biometric estimates of stand-level net primary production and growth, and soil water content by time or frequency domain reflectometry. Response surfaces of carbon and water flux as a function of environmental drivers, and a variety of goodness-of-fit statistics (bias, absolute bias, and model efficiency) were used to judge model performance. A single model did not consistently perform the best at all time steps or for all variables considered. Intermodel comparisons showed good agreement for water cycle fluxes, but considerable disagreement among models for predicted carbon fluxes. The mean of all model outputs, however, was nearly always the best fit to the observations. Not surprisingly, models missing key forest components or processes, such as roots or modeled soil water content, were unable to provide accurate predictions of ecosystem responses to short-term drought phenomenon. Nevertheless, an inability to correctly capture short-term physiological processes under drought was not necessarily an indicator of poor annual water and carbon budget simulations. This is possible because droughts in the subject ecosystem were of short duration and

  10. Independent Evaluation of the integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness Strategy in Malawi Using a National Evaluation Platform Design.

    PubMed

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Kanyuka, Mercy; Hazel, Elizabeth; Heidkamp, Rebecca; Marsh, Andrew; Mleme, Tiope; Munthali, Spy; Park, Lois; Banda, Benjamin; Moulton, Lawrence H; Black, Robert E; Hill, Kenneth; Perin, Jamie; Victora, Cesar G; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the impact of integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) on careseeking for childhood illness and child mortality in Malawi, using a National Evaluation Platform dose-response design with 27 districts as units of analysis. "Dose" variables included density of iCCM providers, drug availability, and supervision, measured through a cross-sectional cellular telephone survey of all iCCM-trained providers. "Response" variables were changes between 2010 and 2014 in careseeking and mortality in children aged 2-59 months, measured through household surveys. iCCM implementation strength was not associated with changes in careseeking or mortality. There were fewer than one iCCM-ready provider per 1,000 under-five children per district. About 70% of sick children were taken outside the home for care in both 2010 and 2014. Careseeking from iCCM providers increased over time from about 2% to 10%; careseeking from other providers fell by a similar amount. Likely contributors to the failure to find impact include low density of iCCM providers, geographic targeting of iCCM to "hard-to-reach" areas although women did not identify distance from a provider as a barrier to health care, and displacement of facility careseeking by iCCM careseeking. This suggests that targeting iCCM solely based on geographic barriers may need to be reconsidered. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Seismic-stability evaluation of Folsom Dam and Reservoir Project. Report 4. Mormon Island Auxiliary Dam. Phase 1. Technical report, 1982-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes-Griffin, M.E.; Wahl, R.E.; Donaghe, R.T.; Tsuchida, T.

    1988-03-01

    The man-made water retaining structures at the Folsom Dam and Reservoir Project, located on the American River about 20 miles upstream of the City of Sacramento, Calif., were evaluated for their seismic safety in the event of a Magnitude 6.5 earthquake occurring on the East Branch of the Bear Mountains Fault Zone at a distance of about 15 km. This report documents the Phase I study of Mormon Island Auxiliary Dam, one of the zoned embankment dams at the Folsom Project. The evaluation process involved extensive review of construction records, field and laboratory investigations, and analytical studies. It was determined that Mormon Island Auxiliary Dam will not perform satisfactorily. Remedial or hazard-mitigating action is recommended as well as a Phase II study which consists of additional field investigation and analyses to determine the lateral extent of remedial action necessary. The Phase II studies are documented in Report 8 of this series.

  12. In-depth evaluation of software tools for data-independent acquisition based label-free quantification.

    PubMed

    Kuharev, Jörg; Navarro, Pedro; Distler, Ute; Jahn, Olaf; Tenzer, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Label-free quantification (LFQ) based on data-independent acquisition workflows currently experiences increasing popularity. Several software tools have been recently published or are commercially available. The present study focuses on the evaluation of three different software packages (Progenesis, synapter, and ISOQuant) supporting ion mobility enhanced data-independent acquisition data. In order to benchmark the LFQ performance of the different tools, we generated two hybrid proteome samples of defined quantitative composition containing tryptically digested proteomes of three different species (mouse, yeast, Escherichia coli). This model dataset simulates complex biological samples containing large numbers of both unregulated (background) proteins as well as up- and downregulated proteins with exactly known ratios between samples. We determined the number and dynamic range of quantifiable proteins and analyzed the influence of applied algorithms (retention time alignment, clustering, normalization, etc.) on quantification results. Analysis of technical reproducibility revealed median coefficients of variation of reported protein abundances below 5% for MS(E) data for Progenesis and ISOQuant. Regarding accuracy of LFQ, evaluation with synapter and ISOQuant yielded superior results compared to Progenesis. In addition, we discuss reporting formats and user friendliness of the software packages. The data generated in this study have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with identifier PXD001240 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001240). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. An Independent Evaluation of a Novel Peptide Mimetic, Brilacidin (PMX30063), for Ocular Anti-Infective

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Eric G.; Yates, Kathleen A.; Mah, Francis S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Brilacidin (BRI), a novel defensin mimetic, was evaluated as an ocular anti-infective. Methods: In vitro: Potency based on MIC90s was compared for 50 Staphylococcus aureus (SA), 50 Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), and 25 each of Streptococcus pneumonia (SP), Streptococcus viridans (SV), Moraxella (MS), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and Serratia marcescens (SM). In vivo: Using established methods, ocular toxicity was graded with Draize testing. For efficacy testing, both corneas of 24 rabbits were infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), whereas the corneal epithelium was removed in the left eye. After 4 h, 21 topical drops over 5 h were administered to 4 groups: BRI 0.5%, vancomycin (VAN) 5%, saline, and no treatment. The eyes were clinically graded and the corneas were harvested for colony counts. Results: In vitro: Both SA and SE had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations among the bacterial groups. The MIC90s to BRI for SP, SV, MS, HI, PA, and SM were 4, 32, 256, 32, 16, and 128-fold higher, respectively, than SA and SE. In vivo: Draize testing determined BRI 0.5% to be minimally irritating. For abraded corneas, BRI was not statistically different from VAN for reducing MRSA. BRI was bactericidal. For intact corneas, VAN reduced more CFU than BRI. BRI reduced CFU in abraded corneas more than intact corneas suggesting poor corneal penetration. Conclusions: BRI has Gram-positive in vitro activity; topical BRI 0.5% was minimally irritating; and BRI 0.5% was equally efficacious as VAN in a MRSA keratitis model when the corneal epithelium was removed. PMID:26501484

  14. Reliability of chemotherapy preparation processes: Evaluating independent double-checking and computer-assisted gravimetric control.

    PubMed

    Carrez, Laurent; Bouchoud, Lucie; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine; Combescure, Christophe; Falaschi, Ludivine; Sadeghipour, Farshid; Bonnabry, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    Background and objectives Centralized chemotherapy preparation units have established systematic strategies to avoid errors. Our work aimed to evaluate the accuracy of manual preparations associated with different control methods. Method A simulation study in an operational setting used phenylephrine and lidocaine as markers. Each operator prepared syringes that were controlled using a different method during each of three sessions (no control, visual double-checking, and gravimetric control). Eight reconstitutions and dilutions were prepared in each session, with variable doses and volumes, using different concentrations of stock solutions. Results were analyzed according to qualitative (choice of stock solution) and quantitative criteria (accurate, <5% deviation from the target concentration; weakly accurate, 5%-10%; inaccurate, 10%-30%; wrong, >30% deviation). Results Eleven operators carried out 19 sessions. No final preparation (n = 438) contained a wrong drug. The protocol involving no control failed to detect 1 of 3 dose errors made and double-checking failed to detect 3 of 7 dose errors. The gravimetric control method detected all 5 out of 5 dose errors. The accuracy of the doses measured was equivalent across the control methods ( p = 0.63 Kruskal-Wallis). The final preparations ranged from 58% to 60% accurate, 25% to 27% weakly accurate, 14% to 17% inaccurate and 0.9% wrong. A high variability was observed between operators. Discussion Gravimetric control was the only method able to detect all dose errors, but it did not improve dose accuracy. A dose accuracy with <5% deviation cannot always be guaranteed using manual production. Automation should be considered in the future.

  15. [Evaluation of a child protecting team by an independent cooperation partner - suggestions for an optimized procedure].

    PubMed

    Verocai, E; Kitzelmann, I; Juen, F; Simma, B

    2013-07-01

    Cooperation between different institutions in cases of child abuse is essential for the children and their families. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cooperation between the Child Protection Team (CPT) and the Youth Welfare Agency (YWF) in an academic teaching hospital. Is the child or the family already be known to the YWF? Was the suspicion of child abuse confirmed by the CPT? What impact did the CPT's report to the YWF have on the situation of the children, their families, and the members of the YWF?Between 1999 and 2009 196 cases were investigated by the CPT; 80 of them had been reported to the YWF. In 45 of the 80 cases, structured interviews were completed by the YWF social workers. In the remaining 35, the questionnaires were not fully completed (n=15), the responsible social workers not present (n=6), or data were not available due to change of -residence (n=14).Maltreatment was suspected in 21/45 (47%), child abuse in 7 (16%), child neglect in 12 (26%), and a combination of the above in 5 (11%) children. Of the children, 26/45 (58%) were already known to the YWF before being contacted by the CPT, and in 34/45 (75%) children either institutions reported the case to the criminal prosecution authorities. Positive changes were seen in 35/45 (78%) children and in 19/45 (42%) families and the CPT's report was considered helpful for the social workers in 41/45 (91%) children.A CPT is able to correctly identify new cases of child abuse. The activity of the CPT has a positive influence on the situation of affected children, their families, and the respective staff members of the YWF. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Mitigating the consequences of extreme events on strategic facilities: evaluation of volcanic and seismic risk affecting the Caspian oil and gas pipelines in the Republic of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Pasquarè, F A; Tormey, D; Vezzoli, L; Okrostsvaridze, A; Tutberidze, B

    2011-07-01

    In this work we identify and quantify new seismic and volcanic risks threatening the strategic Caspian oil and gas pipelines through the Republic of Georgia, in the vicinity of the recent Abuli Samsari Volcanic Ridge, and evaluate risk reduction measures, mitigation measures, and monitoring. As regards seismic risk, we identified a major, NW-SE trending strike-slip fault; based on the analysis of fault planes along this major transcurrent structure, an about N-S trend of the maximum, horizontal compressive stress (σ1) was determined, which is in good agreement with data instrumentally derived after the 1986, M 5.6 Paravani earthquake and its aftershock. Particularly notable is the strong alignment of volcanic vents along an about N-S trend that suggests a magma rising controlled by the about N-S-directed σ1. The original pipeline design included mitigation measures for seismic risk and other geohazards, including burial of the pipeline for its entire length, increased wall thickness, block valve spacing near recognized hazards, and monitoring of known landslide hazards. However, the design did not consider volcanic risk or the specific seismic hazards revealed by this study. The result of our analysis is that the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline, as well as the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzerum South Caucasian natural gas pipeline (SCP) were designed in such a way that they significantly reduce the risk posed by the newly-identified geohazards in the vicinity of the Abuli-Samsari Ridge. No new measures are recommended for the pipeline itself as a result of this study. However, since the consequences of long-term shut-down would be very damaging to the economies of Western Europe, we conclude that the regionally significant BTC and SCP warrant greater protections, described in the final section of or work. The overall objective of our effort is to present the results in a matrix framework that allows the technical information to be used further in the decision

  17. Seismic sequence stratigraphy and basin modelling: An integrated approach to acreage evaluation in the Western Niger Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Odoemenem, F.K.; Chukwueke, C.C.; Laux, S.J.

    1995-08-01

    The OML, 42 and 44 licences cover an area of 950 sq. km. in the Central Swamp Belt of the onshore Niger Delta. The Blocks contain several large airfields with combined ultimate recoverable reserves estimates of some 1.8 billion barrels oil and condensate and 7.1 trillion standard cubic feet gas. Blanket 3D seismic coverage was acquired over the area during the period 1989-1992. The present study was initiated to the remaining potential of the Blocks, particularly with respect to stratigraphic traps, deep plays and hydrocarbon type. A complete stratigraphic framework for the area down to the parasequence set level was first established using an integrated seismo-stratigraphic, well log and biostratigraphic approach. 3D seismic horizon maps were then generated on the main flooding surfaces and the assumed top main source rock (Akata shale) horizon. Amplitude extractions performed at these flooding surfaces reveal channelling features and hydrocarbon related amplitude anomalies. Calibration from nearby field data indicate their stratigraphic trapping potential. Isopach and stacked amplitude maps of the various parasequence sets also reveal the stratigraphic trapping potential of sand pinchout plays on the flanks of major growth faults. Finally, hydrocarbon charge into the various structural and stratigraphic prospects is estimated using a combination of basin modelling and geochemical oil typing/finger-printing techniques.

  18. Use of a structured functional evaluation process for independent medical evaluations of claimants presenting with disabling mental illness: rationale and design for a multi-center reliability study.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Monica; de Boer, Wout; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Leibold, Andrea; Marelli, Renato; Jeger, Joerg; Hoffmann-Richter, Ulrike; Mager, Ralph; Schaad, Heinz; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Vogel, Nicole; Bänziger, Oskar; Busse, Jason W; Fischer, Katrin; Kunz, Regina

    2016-07-29

    Work capacity evaluations by independent medical experts are widely used to inform insurers whether injured or ill workers are capable of engaging in competitive employment. In many countries, evaluation processes lack a clearly structured approach, standardized instruments, and an explicit focus on claimants' functional abilities. Evaluation of subjective complaints, such as mental illness, present additional challenges in the determination of work capacity. We have therefore developed a process for functional evaluation of claimants with mental disorders which complements usual psychiatric evaluation. Here we report the design of a study to measure the reliability of our approach in determining work capacity among patients with mental illness applying for disability benefits. We will conduct a multi-center reliability study, in which 20 psychiatrists trained in our functional evaluation process will assess 30 claimants presenting with mental illness for eligibility to receive disability benefits [Reliability of Functional Evaluation in Psychiatry, RELY-study]. The functional evaluation process entails a five-step structured interview and a reporting instrument (Instrument of Functional Assessment in Psychiatry [IFAP]) to document the severity of work-related functional limitations. We will videotape all evaluations which will be viewed by three psychiatrists who will independently rate claimants' functional limitations. Our primary outcome measure is the evaluation of claimant's work capacity as a percentage (0 to 100 %), and our secondary outcomes are the 12 mental functions and 13 functional capacities assessed by the IFAP-instrument. Inter-rater reliability of four psychiatric experts will be explored using multilevel models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additional analyses include subgroups according to mental disorder, the typicality of claimants, and claimant perceived fairness of the assessment process. We hypothesize that a

  19. Time-dependent seismic tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Of methods for measuring temporal changes in seismic-wave speeds in the Earth, seismic tomography is among those that offer the highest spatial resolution. 3-D tomographic methods are commonly applied in this context by inverting seismic wave arrival time data sets from different epochs independently and assuming that differences in the derived structures represent real temporal variations. This assumption is dangerous because the results of independent inversions would differ even if the structure in the Earth did not change, due to observational errors and differences in the seismic ray distributions. The latter effect may be especially severe when data sets include earthquake swarms or aftershock sequences, and may produce the appearance of correlation between structural changes and seismicity when the wave speeds are actually temporally invariant. A better approach, which makes it possible to assess what changes are truly required by the data, is to invert multiple data sets simultaneously, minimizing the difference between models for different epochs as well as the rms arrival-time residuals. This problem leads, in the case of two epochs, to a system of normal equations whose order is twice as great as for a single epoch. The direct solution of this system would require twice as much memory and four times as much computational effort as would independent inversions. We present an algorithm, tomo4d, that takes advantage of the structure and sparseness of the system to obtain the solution with essentially no more effort than independent inversions require. No claim to original US government works Journal compilation ?? 2010 RAS.

  20. An Attempt at Evaluation of the Remnant Influence On the Occurrence of Seismic Phenomena in a Room-and-Pillar Mining System with Roof Deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adach-Pawelus, Karolina; Butra, Jan; Pawelus, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Experience gained until now underground mining worldwide and in Poland indicates that remnants may have an impact on the occurrence of seismic phenomena. Remnants are stress concentration sites encompassing both the deposit and the layers of rock mass located above and below the undisturbed rock. In the case where stresses in the remnant exceed its strength, it may collapse, and under unfavourable geomechanical conditions, stress-induced rockburst may occur. Remnants may also cause breaking of strong roof layers above their edges, which results in the occurrence of high-energy shocks (Salustowicz [30], Adach [3], Adach and Butra [4]). This article presents the possibility of utilizing numerical modeling to evaluate the influence of remnant upon the occurrence of seismic phenomena. The results of numerical calculations performed for a model room-and-pillar mining system with roof deflection under the conditions of copper ore mines in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGOM) are presented. Numerical calculations in a plane strain state were performed by means of Phase2 v. 8.0 software for the analyzed mining system in which remnant was left behind. The results of numerical modeling showed that sudden fracturing of roof layers above the mined out space may occur on the edge of the remnant. This may cause a shock with very high energy, and under the appropriate conditions, this may lead to the rockburst phenomenon.

  1. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. An Independent Human Factors Analysis and Evaluation of the Emergency Medical Protocol Checklist for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Whitmore, Mihriban; Ortiz, Rosie; Segal, Michele; Smart, Kieran; Hughes, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Emergency medical capabilities aboard the ISS include a Crew Medical Officer (CMO) (not necessarily a physician), and back-up, resuscitation equipment, and a medical checklist. It is essential that CMOs have reliable, usable and informative medical protocols that can be carried out independently in flight. The study evaluates the existing ISS Medical Checklist layout against a checklist updated to reflect a human factors approach to structure and organization. Method: The ISS Medical checklist was divided into non-emergency and emergency sections, and re-organized based on alphabetical and a body systems approach. A desk-top evaluation examined the ability of subjects to navigate to specific medical problems identified as representative of likely non-emergency events. A second evaluation aims to focus on the emergency section of the Medical Checklist, based on the preliminary findings of the first. The final evaluation will use Astronaut CMOs as subjects comparing the original checklist against the updated layout in the task of caring for a "downed crewmember" using a Human Patient Simulator [Medical Education Technologies, Inc.]. Results: Initial results have demonstrated a clear improvement of the re-organized sections to determine the solution to the medical problems. There was no distinct advantage for either alternative, although subjects stated having a preference for the body systems approach. In the second evaluation, subjects will be asked to identify emergency medical conditions, with measures including correct diagnosis, time to completion and solution strategy. The third evaluation will compare the original and fully updated checklists in clinical situations. Conclusions: Initial findings indicate that the ISS Medical Checklist will benefit from a reorganization. The present structure of the checklist has evolved over recent years without systematic testing of crewmember ability to diagnose medical problems. The improvements are expected to enable ISS

  3. Historical seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dengler, L.

    1992-01-01

    The North Coast region of California in the vicinity of Cape Mendocino is one of the state's most seismically active areas, accounting for 25 percent of seismic energy release in California during the last 50 years. the region is located in a geologically dynamic are surrounding the Mendocino triple junction where three of the Earth's tectonic plates join together ( see preceding article by Sam Clarke). In the historic past the North Coast has been affected by earthquakes occurring on the San Andreas fault system to the south, the Mendocino fault to the southwest, and intraplate earthquakes within both the Gorda and North American plates. More than sixty of these earthquakes have caused damage since the mid-1800's. Recent studies indicate that California's North Coast is also at risk with respect to very large earthquakes (magnitude >8) originating along the Cascadia subduction zone. Although the subduction zone has not generated great earthquakes in historic time, paleoseismic evidence suggests that such earthquakes have been generated by the subduction zone in the recent prehistoric past. 

  4. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

  5. Evaluation of artificial neural network algorithms for predicting METs and activity type from accelerometer data: validation on an independent sample.

    PubMed

    Freedson, Patty S; Lyden, Kate; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Staudenmayer, John

    2011-12-01

    Previous work from our laboratory provided a "proof of concept" for use of artificial neural networks (nnets) to estimate metabolic equivalents (METs) and identify activity type from accelerometer data (Staudenmayer J, Pober D, Crouter S, Bassett D, Freedson P, J Appl Physiol 107: 1330-1307, 2009). The purpose of this study was to develop new nnets based on a larger, more diverse, training data set and apply these nnet prediction models to an independent sample to evaluate the robustness and flexibility of this machine-learning modeling technique. The nnet training data set (University of Massachusetts) included 277 participants who each completed 11 activities. The independent validation sample (n = 65) (University of Tennessee) completed one of three activity routines. Criterion measures were 1) measured METs assessed using open-circuit indirect calorimetry; and 2) observed activity to identify activity type. The nnet input variables included five accelerometer count distribution features and the lag-1 autocorrelation. The bias and root mean square errors for the nnet MET trained on University of Massachusetts and applied to University of Tennessee were +0.32 and 1.90 METs, respectively. Seventy-seven percent of the activities were correctly classified as sedentary/light, moderate, or vigorous intensity. For activity type, household and locomotion activities were correctly classified by the nnet activity type 98.1 and 89.5% of the time, respectively, and sport was correctly classified 23.7% of the time. Use of this machine-learning technique operates reasonably well when applied to an independent sample. We propose the creation of an open-access activity dictionary, including accelerometer data from a broad array of activities, leading to further improvements in prediction accuracy for METs, activity intensity, and activity type.

  6. Evaluation of artificial neural network algorithms for predicting METs and activity type from accelerometer data: validation on an independent sample

    PubMed Central

    Lyden, Kate; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Staudenmayer, John

    2011-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory provided a “proof of concept” for use of artificial neural networks (nnets) to estimate metabolic equivalents (METs) and identify activity type from accelerometer data (Staudenmayer J, Pober D, Crouter S, Bassett D, Freedson P, J Appl Physiol 107: 1330–1307, 2009). The purpose of this study was to develop new nnets based on a larger, more diverse, training data set and apply these nnet prediction models to an independent sample to evaluate the robustness and flexibility of this machine-learning modeling technique. The nnet training data set (University of Massachusetts) included 277 participants who each completed 11 activities. The independent validation sample (n = 65) (University of Tennessee) completed one of three activity routines. Criterion measures were 1) measured METs assessed using open-circuit indirect calorimetry; and 2) observed activity to identify activity type. The nnet input variables included five accelerometer count distribution features and the lag-1 autocorrelation. The bias and root mean square errors for the nnet MET trained on University of Massachusetts and applied to University of Tennessee were +0.32 and 1.90 METs, respectively. Seventy-seven percent of the activities were correctly classified as sedentary/light, moderate, or vigorous intensity. For activity type, household and locomotion activities were correctly classified by the nnet activity type 98.1 and 89.5% of the time, respectively, and sport was correctly classified 23.7% of the time. Use of this machine-learning technique operates reasonably well when applied to an independent sample. We propose the creation of an open-access activity dictionary, including accelerometer data from a broad array of activities, leading to further improvements in prediction accuracy for METs, activity intensity, and activity type. PMID:21885802

  7. Time-Dependent Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, B. R.

    2008-12-01

    Temporal changes in seismic wave speeds in the Earth's crust have been measured at several locations, notably The Geysers geothermal area in California, in studies that used three-dimensional seismic tomography. These studies have used conventional tomography methods to invert multiple seismic-wave arrival time data sets independently and assumed that any differences in the derived structures reflect real temporal variations. Such an assumption is dangerous because the results of repeated tomography experiments would differ even if the structure did not change, simply because of variation in the seismic ray distribution caused by the natural variation in earthquake locations. This problem can be severe when changes in the seismicity distribution are systematic, as, for example, at the onset of an aftershock sequence. The sudden change in the ray distribution can produce artifacts that mimic changes in the seismic wave speeds at the time of a large earthquake. Even if the source locations did not change (if only explosion data were used, for example), derived structures would inevitably differ because of observational errors. A better approach to determining what temporal changes are truly required by the data is to invert multiple data sets simultaneously, imposing constraints to minimize differences between the models for different epochs. This problem is similar to that of seeking models similar to some a priori initial assumption, and a method similar to "damped least squares" can solve it. The order of the system of normal equations for inverting data from two epochs is twice as large as that for a single epoch, and solving it by standard methods requires eight times the computational labor. We present an algorithm for reducing this factor to two, so that inverting multiple epochs simultaneously is comparable in difficulty to inverting them independently, and illustrate its performance using synthetic arrival times and observed data from several areas in

  8. An evaluation of the seismicity of the Nevada Test Site and vicinity; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vortman, L.J.

    1991-12-01

    Two USGS catalogs of earthquakes in the Southern Great Basin were edited to remove man-made seisms. Editing reduced 11,988 entries to 8,161. Known location of underground nuclear explosions provided an opportunity to assess location accuracy showing that accuracy differed according to the source of earthquake data. No evidence was found of explosions triggering earthquakes distant from the working points. Relationships are developed between earthquake magnitude and explosion yield for explosions at Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat. Comparison of the number of underground nuclear explosions with the number of earthquakes of comparable magnitude shows the former exceeds the latter when magnitude is greater than four. Edited catalogs are recommended for hazard analysis relative to repository siting because unedited catalogs tend to greatly exaggerate seismicity of the region.

  9. Romanian Educational Seismic Network Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataru, Dragos; Ionescu, Constantin; Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Tibu, Speranta; Popa, Mihaela; Borleanu, Felix; Toma, Dragos; Brisan, Nicoleta; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dobre, Daniela; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin

    2013-04-01

    will be installed in several schools in the most important seismic areas (Vrancea, Dobrogea), vulnerable cities (Bucharest, Ploiesti, Iasi) or high populated places (Cluj, Sibiu, Timisoara, Zalău). All the elements of the seismic station are especially designed for educational purposes and can be operated independently by the students and teachers themselves. The first stage of ROEDUSEIS project was centered on the work of achievement of educational materials for all levels of pre-university education (kindergarten, primary, secondary and high school). A study of necessity preceded the achievement of educational materials. This was done through a set of questionnaires for teachers and students sent to participating schools. Their responses formed a feedback instrument for properly materials editing. The topics covered within educational materials include: seismicity (general principles, characteristics of Romanian seismicity, historical local events), structure of the Earth, measuring of earthquakes, seismic hazard and risk.

  10. 3D joint inversion using seismic data and marine controlled-source electromagnetic data for evaluating gas hydrate concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Byun, J.; Seol, S. J.; Jeong, S.; Chung, Y.; Kwon, T.

    2015-12-01

    For many decades, gas hydrates have been received great attention as a potential source of natural gas. Therefore, the detailed information of structures of buried gas hydrates and their concentrations are prerequisite for the production for the gas hydrate as a reliable source of alternate energy. Recently, for this reason, a lot of gas hydrate assessment methods have been proposed by many researchers. However, it is still necessary to establish as new method for the further improvement of the accuracy of the 3D gas hydrate distribution. In this study, we present a 3D joint inversion method that provides superior quantitative information of gas hydrate distributions using 3D seismic data obtained by ocean-bottom cable (OBC) and marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. To verify our inversion method, we first built the general 3D gas hydrate model containing vertical methane-flow pathways. With the described model, we generated synthetic 3D OBC data and marine CSEM data using finite element modeling algorithms, respectively. In the joint inversion process, to obtain the high-resolution volumetric P-wave velocity structure, we applied the 3D full waveform inversion algorithm to the acquired OBC data. After that, the obtained P-wave velocity model is used as the structure constraint to compute cross-gradients with the updated resistivity model in the EM inversion process. Finally, petrophysical relations were applied to estimate volumetric gas hydrate concentrations. The proposed joint inversion process makes possible to obtain more precise quantitative gas hydrate assessment than inversion processes using only seismic or EM data. This technique can be helpful for accurate decision-making in gas hydrate development as well as in their production monitoring.

  11. Causality between expansion of seismic cloud and maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukuhira, Yusuke; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Ito, Takatoshi; Häring, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Occurrence of induced seismicity with large magnitude is critical environmental issues associated with fluid injection for shale gas/oil extraction, waste water disposal, carbon capture and storage, and engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Studies for prediction of the hazardous seismicity and risk assessment of induced seismicity has been activated recently. Many of these studies are based on the seismological statistics and these models use the information of the occurrence time and event magnitude. We have originally developed physics based model named "possible seismic moment model" to evaluate seismic activity and assess seismic moment which can be ready to release. This model is totally based on microseismic information of occurrence time, hypocenter location and magnitude (seismic moment). This model assumes existence of representative parameter having physical meaning that release-able seismic moment per rock volume (seismic moment density) at given field. Seismic moment density is to be estimated from microseismic distribution and their seismic moment. In addition to this, stimulated rock volume is also inferred by progress of microseismic cloud at given time and this quantity can be interpreted as the rock volume which can release seismic energy due to weakening effect of normal stress by injected fluid. Product of these two parameters (equation (1)) provide possible seismic moment which can be released from current stimulated zone as a model output. Difference between output of this model and observed cumulative seismic moment corresponds the seismic moment which will be released in future, based on current stimulation conditions. This value can be translated into possible maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in future. As this way, possible seismic moment can be used to have feedback to hydraulic stimulation operation in real time as an index which can be interpreted easily and intuitively. Possible seismic moment is defined as equation (1), where D

  12. Evaluation of an independent linear model for acoustic noise on a conventional MRI scanner and implications for acoustic noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziyue; Kim, Yoon-Chul; Khoo, Michael C K; Nayak, Krishna S

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate an independent linear model for gradient acoustic noise on a conventional MRI scanner, and to explore implications for acoustic noise reduction in routine imaging. Acoustic noise generated from each physical gradient axis was modeled as the prescribed gradient waveform passed through a linear time-invariant system. Homogeneity and superposition properties were experimentally determined. We also developed a new method to correct relative time shifts between the measured impulse responses for different physical gradient axes. Model accuracy was determined by comparing predicted and measured sound using normalized energy difference. Transfer functions were also measured in subjects with different body habitus and at multiple microphone locations. Both superposition and homogeneity held for each physical gradient axis with errors less than 3%. When all gradients were on simultaneous sound prediction, error was reduced from 32% to 4% after time-shift correction. Transfer functions also showed high sensitivity to body habitus and microphone location. The independent linear model predicts MRI acoustic noise with less than 4% error. Acoustic transfer functions are highly sensitive to body habitus and position within the bore, making it challenging to produce a general approach to acoustic noise reduction based on avoiding system resonance peaks. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. An independent evaluation on the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of Toyama classification system for cervical dumbbell tumors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Mengchen; Huang, Quan; Sun, Zhengwang; Gao, Xin; Chen, Guanghui; He, Shaohui; Xia, Ye; Ma, Junming; Mo, Wen; Xiao, Jianru

    2017-03-01

    Dumbbell tumors can not only cause the compression of cervical cord and nerve root, but also invade the important structures and the surrounding organs, causing great harm to the patient. Toyama classification that is commonly used has not been evaluated and still requires independent validation.The objectives of this study were to evaluate and analyze the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of Toyama classification system, explore the differences, discover the shortages, and evaluate the clinical value for diagnosis.One hundred sixty-five consecutive patients of a cervical dumbbell tumor with complete clinical and radiologic data were enrolled. Six surgeons determined the classification according to Toyama system. The classification was repeated 12 weeks later. Correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa coefficient (κ) test were used to determine interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility.The interobserver reliability for Toyama classification was moderate with a value of 0.432. The interobserver reproducibility for Toyama classification was moderate with a value of 0.608.The Toyama classification has landmark value in clinical practice, but it is a relatively cumbersome system. This study shows that it has low reliability and reproducibility. Accordingly, surgical management of the resection of dumbbell cervical tumors raises several problems, including preservation of the cervical nerve root, control of the vertebral artery, and maintenance of spine. There is a need to optimize the classification in the future.

  14. An independent evaluation on the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of Toyama classification system for cervical dumbbell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Mengchen; Huang, Quan; Sun, Zhengwang; Gao, Xin; Chen, Guanghui; He, Shaohui; Xia, Ye; Ma, Junming; Mo, Wen; Xiao, Jianru

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dumbbell tumors can not only cause the compression of cervical cord and nerve root, but also invade the important structures and the surrounding organs, causing great harm to the patient. Toyama classification that is commonly used has not been evaluated and still requires independent validation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and analyze the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of Toyama classification system, explore the differences, discover the shortages, and evaluate the clinical value for diagnosis. One hundred sixty-five consecutive patients of a cervical dumbbell tumor with complete clinical and radiologic data were enrolled. Six surgeons determined the classification according to Toyama system. The classification was repeated 12 weeks later. Correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa coefficient (κ) test were used to determine interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility. The interobserver reliability for Toyama classification was moderate with a value of 0.432. The interobserver reproducibility for Toyama classification was moderate with a value of 0.608. The Toyama classification has landmark value in clinical practice, but it is a relatively cumbersome system. This study shows that it has low reliability and reproducibility. Accordingly, surgical management of the resection of dumbbell cervical tumors raises several problems, including preservation of the cervical nerve root, control of the vertebral artery, and maintenance of spine. There is a need to optimize the classification in the future. PMID:28272207

  15. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  16. AN INDEPENDENT EVALUATION OF THE 1962 SUMMER INSTITUTE PROGRAM OF THE COMMISSION ON ENGLISH OF THE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION BOARD, WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE INSTITUTES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GERBER, JOHN C.

    THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO EVALUATE THE 1962 SUMMER INSTITUTE PROGRAM OF THE COMMISSION ON ENGLISH OF THE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION BOARD (CEEB). EACH OF THE 20 INSTITUTES WAS EVALUATED SEPARATELY SINCE EACH WAS RELATIVELY INDEPENDENT. AS PART OF THE EFFORT, AN ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO EVALUATE THE EFFECT OF THE INSTITUTE TRAINING UPON THE PARTICIPANTS…

  17. Electrical conduction of organic ultrathin films evaluated by an independently driven double-tip scanning tunneling microscope.

    PubMed

    Takami, K; Tsuruta, S; Miyake, Y; Akai-Kasaya, M; Saito, A; Aono, M; Kuwahara, Y

    2011-11-02

    The electrical transport properties of organic thin films within the micrometer scale have been evaluated by a laboratory-built independently driven double-tip scanning tunneling microscope, operating under ambient conditions. The two tips were used as point contact electrodes, and current in the range from 0.1 pA to 100 nA flowing between the two tips through the material can be detected. We demonstrated two-dimensional contour mapping of the electrical resistance on a poly(3-octylthiophene) thin films as shown below. The obtained contour map clearly provided an image of two-dimensional electrical conductance between two point electrodes on the poly(3-octylthiophene) thin film. The conductivity of the thin film was estimated to be (1-8) × 10(-6) S cm(-1). Future prospects and the desired development of multiprobe STMs are also discussed.

  18. Who is Responsible for Evaluating the Safety and Effectiveness of Medical Devices? The Role of Independent Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Amy J.; Karliner, Leah S.; Tice, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The global medical technology industry brings thousands of devices to market every year. However, significant gaps persist in the scientific literature, in the medical device approval process, and in the realm of postmarketing surveillance. Although thousands of drugs obtain approval only after review in randomized controlled trials, relatively few new medical devices are subject to comparable scrutiny. Objective To improve health outcomes, we must enhance our scrutiny of medical devices, and, without simply deferring to the Food and Drug Administration, we must ask ourselves: Who is responsible for evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical devices? Conclusions Technology assessments by independent organizations are a part of the solution to this challenge and may motivate further research focused on patient outcomes. PMID:18095046

  19. Global environment facility: Independent evaluation of the pilot phase; Fonds pour l`environnement mondial: evaluation independante de la phase pilote

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This study responds to a request by participants in the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for an independent evaluation of the pilot phase. It profiles the GEF, discusses its policy framework, and reviews project development procedures and the strategies and projects in each of the GEF`s four focal areas. The study concludes that fundamental changes must occur and recommends specific reforms, such as articulating more clearly the GEF`s mandate, objectives, and strategies; addressing deficiencies in meeting its global focus; improving capacities and procedures within implementing agencies for managing the portfolio; and increasing non-government organization (NGO), country and community-level participation.

  20. Infrasound Generation from the HH Seismic Hammer.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kyle Richard

    2014-10-01

    The HH Seismic hammer is a large, "weight-drop" source for active source seismic experiments. This system provides a repetitive source that can be stacked for subsurface imaging and exploration studies. Although the seismic hammer was designed for seismological studies it was surmised that it might produce energy in the infrasonic frequency range due to the ground motion generated by the 13 metric ton drop mass. This study demonstrates that the seismic hammer generates a consistent acoustic source that could be used for in-situ sensor characterization, array evaluation and surface-air coupling studies for source characterization.

  1. Seismic performance evaluation of an historical concrete deck arch bridge using survey and drawing of the damages, in situ tests, dynamic identification and pushover analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamo, Otello; Russo, Eleonora; Lodolo, Fabio

    2017-07-01

    The paper describes the performance evaluation of a retrofit historical multi-span (RC) deck arch bridge analyzed with in situ tests, dynamic identification and FEM analysis. The peculiarity of this case study lies in the structural typology of "San Felice" bridge, an historical concrete arch bridge built in the early 20th century, a quite uncommon feature in Italy. The preservation and retrofit of historic cultural heritage and infrastructures has been carefully analyzed in the international codes governing seismic response. A complete survey of the bridge was carried out prior to sketching a drawing of the existing bridge. Subsequently, the study consists in four steps: material investigation and dynamic vibration tests, FEM analysis and calibration, retrofit assessment, pushover analysis. The aim is to define an innovative approach to calibrate the FEM analysis through modern experimental investigations capable of taking structural deterioration into account, and to offer an appropriate and cost-effective retrofitting strategy.

  2. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1987-04-20

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

  3. Performance of the PointCare NOW System for CD4 Counting in HIV Patients Based on Five Independent Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Tao; Sitoe, Nadia E.; Westerman, Larry E.; Stokx, Jocelijn; Jani, Ilesh V.; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Scott, Lesley; De Weggheleire, Anja; Boel, Luc; Stevens, Wendy S.; Glencross, Deborah K.; Peter, Trevor F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing can improve access to treatment by enabling decentralization and reducing patient loss-to-follow-up. As new POC CD4 technologies become available, their performance should be assessed before widespread deployment. This study reports the findings of five independent evaluations of the PointCare NOW CD4 system. Materials/Methods Evaluations were conducted in Southern Africa (Mozambique, South Africa) and North America (Canada, USA). 492 blood samples (55 from HIV-negative blood donors and 437 from HIV-infected patients, including 20 children aged between 12 and 59 months) were tested with both the PointCare NOW and reference flow cytometry instruments. Assessment of bias, precision and levels of clinical misclassification for absolute and percent CD4 count was conducted. Results PointCare NOW significantly overestimated CD4 absolute counts with a mean relative bias of +35.0%. Bias was greater in samples with CD4 counts below ≤350cells/µl (+51.3%) than in the CD4 >350cells/µl stratum (15.1%). Bias in CD4% had a similar trend with an overall relative mean bias of +25.6% and a larger bias for low CD4 stratum (+40.2%) than the higher CD4 stratum (+5.8%). Relative bias for CD4% in children was −6.8%. In terms of repeatability, PointCare NOW had a coefficient of variation of 11%. Using a threshold of 350cells/µl, only 47% of patients who qualified for antiretroviral therapy with reference CD4 testing, would have been eligible for treatment with PointCare NOW test results. This was 39% using a 200cells/µl threshold. Agreement with infant samples was higher, with 90% qualifying at a 25% eligibility threshold. Conclusion The performance of the PointCare NOW instrument for absolute and percent CD4 enumeration was inadequate for HIV clinical management in adults. In children, the small sample size was not large enough to draw a conclusion. This study also highlights the importance of independent evaluation of new diagnostic

  4. Milwaukee Independent Charter Schools Study: Report on Two- and Three-Year Achievement Gains. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation. Report # 25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Dean, Alicia; Carlson, Deven

    2011-01-01

    The general purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Milwaukee's independent charter schools in promoting student achievement growth. Independent charter schools are authorized by non-school district entities and are considered "independent" because they are not a part of the Milwaukee Public School District (MPS).…

  5. Evaluation of the seismic response of historical masonry bell towers located in South-East Lombardy, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Marco; Milani, Gabriele; Shehu, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of two existing masonry towers located in South-East Lombardy, Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities that justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analyzed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, with non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both the X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some results presented in this paper show the high vulnerability of ancient masonry towers under horizontal loads.

  6. An engineering rock classification to evaluate seismic rock-fall susceptibility and its application to the Wasatch Front

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.; Noble, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Investigations of earthquakes world wide show that rock falls are the most abundant type of landslide that is triggered by earthquakes. An engineering classification originally used in tunnel design, known as the rock mass quality designation (Q), was modified for use in rating the susceptibility of rock slopes to seismically-induced failure. Analysis of rock-fall concentrations and Q-values for the 1980 earthquake sequence near Mammoth Lakes, California, defines a well-constrained upper bound that shows the number of rock falls per site decreases rapidly with increasing Q. Because of the similarities of lithology and slope between the Eastern Sierra Nevada Range near Mammoth Lakes and the Wasatch Front near Salt Lake City, Utah, the probabilities derived from analysis of the Mammoth Lakes region were used to predict rock-fall probabilities for rock slopes near Salt Lake City in response to a magnitude 6.0 earthquake. These predicted probabilities were then used to generalize zones of rock-fall susceptibility. -from Authors

  7. Progress in Evaluating Potential EM Earthquake Precursors: Comparison of Independent Ultra Low-Frequency Electro-Magnetic (ULFEM) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Glen, J. M. G.; Klemperer, S. L.; Christman, L.; Bleier, T.; Dunson, J. C.; DeKlotz, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ultra-low frequency anomalies in the magnetic and electric fields have been reported prior to several earthquakes. Because most prominent ULFEM anomalies have thus far only been observed on individual stations, some authors have argued that some of these anomalies have an instrumental cause, rather than being earthquake precursors. Two independent ULFEM networks are presently operating in the greater San Francisco Bay Area; one managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Stanford University and the other by QuakeFinder (QF).The case that these anomalies are not instrumental would be strengthened by a demonstration that identical anomalies are seen on the two networks, despite their different components (magnetometers, digitizers and telemetry). A detailed comparison of the two systems will allow data from each of the two networks to be used to confirm anomalies and to evaluate potential precursor signals. To provide this comparison, the USGS-Stanford and QF acquired data on two independent ULFEM systems at the USGS-Stanford ULFEM station located at the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, CA, from March 31-May 13, 2014. The two systems were set up~50m from each other and away from potential sources of noise. Both systems recorded the magnetic field with induction coils oriented along the three cardinal directions aligned with magnetic north. The results of this experiment reveal that the two systems have very similar response functions and comparable noise and drift characteristics. Both complex "noise" (a, b) and single discrete pulses (c, d) were recorded with essentially identical characteristics by the two systems. We also found, in a few instances, where the signals were observed on one system but were absent on the other, clearly indicating either internal system noise or reflecting extremely local site phenomena affecting a single system. Future efforts will involve analyses of pulses, spectral characteristics, correlation coefficients and noise.

  8. Evaluation of Ki-67 Staining Levels as an Independent Biomarker of Biochemical Recurrence After Salvage Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Alexander S.; Heckman, Michael G.; Wu, Kevin J.; Crook, Julia E.; Hilton, Tracy W.; Pisansky, Thomas M.; Bernard, Johnny R.; Schild, Steven E.; Khor, Li Yan; Hammond, Elizabeth H.; Pollack, Alan; Buskirk, Steven J.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: We recently published a scoring algorithm to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) after salvage radiation therapy (SRT) for prostate cancer. Currently, this algorithm is based on clinicopathologic features and does not incorporate information from tumor-based biomarkers. Herein, we evaluate the ability of Ki-67 staining in primary prostate cancer to independently aid in the prediction of BCR among men undergoing SRT. Methods and Materials: We identified 147 patients who were treated with SRT between July 1987 and July 2003 at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN; Jacksonville, FL; Scottsdale, AZ). Staining levels of Ki-67 in primary tumor samples were detected by use of a monoclonal antibody and quantified by use of a computer-assisted method. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association of Ki-67 staining and BCR in single-variable models and after multivariable adjustment. Results: The risk of BCR for men with tumors in the highest tertile of Ki-67 staining is approximately two times that for men with tumors in the lower two tertiles (relative risk, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-3.32; p = 0.005) after adjustment for the features in our original scoring algorithm. Further adjustment for additional covariates did not attenuate this association. Evidence from concordance index values supports that Ki-67 staining adds to the predictive ability of our existing scoring algorithm. Conclusions: Our data suggest that higher levels of Ki-67 staining are associated with increased risk of BCR after SRT, independent of existing clinicopathologic covariates. Future studies involving larger numbers of patients are required to validate these results and also explore possible means of combining this biomarker with existing prognostic tools.

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is an independent predictor of urinary tract infections in an ambulatory cirrhotic population: a prospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Carrie; Kumar, Deepali; Carbonneau, Michelle; Keough, Adam; Ma, Mang; Tandon, Puneeta

    2014-07-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a risk factor for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in many patients without liver disease. It remains unclear whether a diagnosis of ASB in an outpatient with cirrhosis could be utilized to predict the subsequent development of a UTI. We undertook this study to determine the prevalence and incidence of ASB in an outpatient population and its association with UTI. We prospectively evaluated 108 adult outpatients with cirrhosis over a 6-month period. Monthly midstream urines (MSU) were performed to detect the occurrence of UTI and ASB (culture of ≥10(8) CFU/L of a urinary pathogen in the absence of UTI symptoms). Of 108 patients enrolled, 99 completed at least one MSU, for a total of 489 MSUs. Total follow-up was 44 person-years. The incidences of ASB and UTI were 181 and 250 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The prevalences of ASB and UTI on the first MSU were 5 and 1%, respectively. In total, 8% of patients developed an episode of ASB and 11% developed a UTI during the study period. Univariate predictors of UTI were female gender, primary biliary cirrhosis, number of previous UTIs and preceding ASB. Preceding ASB was the only independent predictor of UTI on multivariate analysis, with an odds ratio of 6.2 (1.1-34.3), P = 0.04. Cirrhotic patients have higher rates of ASB and UTI than reported in the general population. ASB is an independent predictor of UTI. Further studies are necessary to determine whether routine screening and antimicrobial treatment of ASB is warranted. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Quantitative profiling of polar metabolites in herbal medicine injections for multivariate statistical evaluation based on independence principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Miaomiao; Jiao, Yujiao; Wang, Yuefei; Xu, Lei; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Buchang; Jia, Lifu; Pan, Hao; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei

    2014-01-01

    Botanical primary metabolites extensively exist in herbal medicine injections (HMIs), but often were ignored to control. With the limitation of bias towards hydrophilic substances, the primary metabolites with strong polarity, such as saccharides, amino acids and organic acids, are usually difficult to detect by the routinely applied reversed-phase chromatographic fingerprint technology. In this study, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) profiling method was developed for efficient identification and quantification of small polar molecules, mostly primary metabolites in HMIs. A commonly used medicine, Danhong injection (DHI), was employed as a model. With the developed method, 23 primary metabolites together with 7 polyphenolic acids were simultaneously identified, of which 13 metabolites with fully separated proton signals were quantified and employed for further multivariate quality control assay. The quantitative 1H NMR method was validated with good linearity, precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy. Based on independence principal component analysis (IPCA), the contents of 13 metabolites were characterized and dimensionally reduced into the first two independence principal components (IPCs). IPC1 and IPC2 were then used to calculate the upper control limits (with 99% confidence ellipsoids) of χ2 and Hotelling T2 control charts. Through the constructed upper control limits, the proposed method was successfully applied to 36 batches of DHI to examine the out-of control sample with the perturbed levels of succinate, malonate, glucose, fructose, salvianic acid and protocatechuic aldehyde. The integrated strategy has provided a reliable approach to identify and quantify multiple polar metabolites of DHI in one fingerprinting spectrum, and it has also assisted in the establishment of IPCA models for the multivariate statistical evaluation of HMIs.

  11. Evaluation of cognitively accessible software to increase independent access to cellphone technology for people with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Stock, S E; Davies, D K; Wehmeyer, M L; Palmer, S B

    2008-12-01

    There are over two billion telephones in use worldwide. Yet, for millions of Americans with intellectual disabilities (ID), access to the benefits of cellphone technology is limited because of deficits in literacy, numerical comprehension, the proliferation of features and shrinking size of cellphone hardware and user interfaces. Developments in smart phone technology and PDA-based cellphones provide an opportunity to make the social and safety benefits of cellphones more independently accessible to this population. This project involved employment of universal design and other specialised software development methods to create a multimedia cellphone interface prototype which was compared with a typical mainstream cellphone in a usability evaluation for individuals with ID. Participants completed a structured set of incoming/outgoing phone tasks using both the experimental and control conditions. Usability measurements included the amount of assistance needed and errors made in completing the cellphone use sequence. A total of 22 individuals with ID participated in the research by engaging in a series of incoming and outgoing cellphone calls using both the multimedia cellphone prototype system and a mainstream Nokia 6360 cellphone. Test subjects required significantly less help (P = 0.001) and made significantly fewer errors (P < 0.001) when completing eight calls using the specialised multimedia phone system as compared with the mainstream phone. The statistical evidence of both usability results provide promising evidence of the feasibility of implementing universal design and other specialised software development methodologies for increasing independent access to the benefits of cellphone technologies for students and adults with ID. Issues related to designing cognitively accessible interfaces, study limitations and future directions are discussed.

  12. Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry. Part 2; Evaluation of Estimates Using Independent Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Olson, William S.; Wang, Jian-Jian; Bell, Thomas L.; Smith, Eric A.; Kummerow, Christian D.

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall rate estimates from space-borne k&ents are generally accepted as reliable by a majority of the atmospheric science commu&y. One-of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRh4M) facility rain rate algorithms is based upon passive microwave observations fiom the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). Part I of this study describes improvements in the TMI algorithm that are required to introduce cloud latent heating and drying as additional algorithm products. Here, estimates of surface rain rate, convective proportion, and latent heating are evaluated using independent ground-based estimates and satellite products. Instantaneous, OP5resolution estimates of surface rain rate over ocean fiom the improved TMI algorithm are well correlated with independent radar estimates (r approx. 0.88 over the Tropics), but bias reduction is the most significant improvement over forerunning algorithms. The bias reduction is attributed to the greater breadth of cloud-resolving model simulations that support the improved algorithm, and the more consistent and specific convective/stratiform rain separation method utilized. The bias of monthly, 2.5 deg. -resolution estimates is similarly reduced, with comparable correlations to radar estimates. Although the amount of independent latent heating data are limited, TMI estimated latent heating profiles compare favorably with instantaneous estimates based upon dual-Doppler radar observations, and time series of surface rain rate and heating profiles are generally consistent with those derived from rawinsonde analyses. Still, some biases in profile shape are evident, and these may be resolved with: (a) additional contextual information brought to the estimation problem, and/or; (b) physically-consistent and representative databases supporting the algorithm. A model of the random error in instantaneous, 0.5 deg-resolution rain rate estimates appears to be consistent with the levels of error determined from TMI comparisons to collocated radar

  13. Seismic assessment of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Chaar, G.; Brady, P.; Fernandez, G.

    1995-12-31

    A structure and its lifelines are closely linked because the disruption of lifeline systems will obstruct emergency service functions that are vitally needed after an earthquake. As an example of the criticality of these systems, the Association of Bay Area Government (ABAG) recorded thousands of leaks in pipelines that resulted in more than twenty million gallons of hazardous materials being released in several recorded earthquakes. The cost of cleaning the spills from these materials was very high. This information supports the development of seismic protection of lifeline systems. The US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) has, among its missions, the responsibility to develop seismic vulnerability assessment procedures for military installations. Within this mission, a preliminary research program to assess the seismic vulnerability of buried pipeline systems on military installations was initiated. Phase 1 of this research project resulted in two major studies. In the first, evaluating current procedures to seismically design or evaluate existing lifeline systems, the authors found several significant aspects that deserve special consideration and need to be addressed in future research. The second was focused on identifying parameters related to buried pipeline system vulnerability and developing a generalized analytical method to relate these parameters to the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing pipeline systems.

  14. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharam, T. G.; James, Naveen; Vipin, K. S.; Raj, K. Ganesha

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

  15. Post-Earthquake People Loss Evaluation Based on Seismic Multi-Level Hybrid Grid: A Case Study on Yushu Ms 7.1 Earthquake in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaohong; Xie, Zhong; Ling, Feng; Luo, Xiangang; Zhong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    People loss is one of the most important information that the government concerns after an earthquake, because it affects appropriate rescue levels. However, existing evaluation methods often consider an entire stricken region as a whole assessment area but disregard the spatial disparity of influencing factors. As a consequence, results are inaccurately evaluated. In order to address this problem, this paper proposes a post-earthquake evaluation approach of people loss based on the seismic multi-level hybrid grid (SMHG). In SMHG, the whole area is divided into grids at different levels with various sizes. In this manner, the efficiency of data management is improved. With SMHG, disaster statistics can be easily counted under both the administrative unit and per unit area. The proposed approach was then applied to investigate Yushu Ms7.1 earthquake in China. Results revealed that the number of deaths varied with different exposure grids. Among all the different grids, we found that using the 50×50 exposure grid can get the most satisfactory results, and the estimated number of deaths was 2,203, with an 18.3% deviation from the actual loss. People loss results obtained through the proposed approach were more accurate than those obtained through traditional GIS-based methods.

  16. Evaluation of the "e-rater"® Scoring Engine for the "TOEFL"® Independent and Integrated Prompts. Research Report. ETS RR-12-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramineni, Chaitanya; Trapani, Catherine S.; Williamson, David M.; Davey, Tim; Bridgeman, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Scoring models for the "e-rater"® system were built and evaluated for the "TOEFL"® exam's independent and integrated writing prompts. Prompt-specific and generic scoring models were built, and evaluation statistics, such as weighted kappas, Pearson correlations, standardized differences in mean scores, and correlations with…

  17. Three-month performance evaluation of the Nanometrics, Inc., Libra Satellite Seismograph System in the northern California Seismic Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppenheimer, David H.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) purchased a Libra satellite seismograph system from Nanometrics, Inc to assess whether this technology was a cost-effective and robust replacement for their analog microwave system. The system was purchased subject to it meeting the requirements, criteria and tests described in Appendix A. In early 2000, Nanometrics began delivery of various components of the system, such as the hub and remote satellite dish and mounting hardware, and the NCSN installed and assembled most equipment in advance of the arrival of Nanometrics engineers to facilitate the configuration of the system. The hub was installed in its permanent location, but for logistical reasons the "remote" satellite hardware was initially configured at the NCSN for testing. During the first week of April Nanometrics engineers came to Menlo Park to configure the system and train NCSN staff. The two dishes were aligned with the satellite, and the system was fully operational in 2 days with little problem. Nanometrics engineers spent the remaining 3 days providing hands-on training to NCSN staff in hardware/software operation, configuration, and maintenance. During the second week of April 2000, NCSN staff moved the entire remote system of digitizers, dish assembly, and mounting hardware to Mammoth Lakes, California. The system was reinstalled at the Mammoth Lakes water treatment plant and communications successfully reestablished with the hub via the satellite on 14 April 2000. The system has been in continuous operation since then. This report reviews the performance of the Libra system for the three-month period 20 April 2000 through 20 July 2000. The purpose of the report is to assess whether the system passed the acceptance tests described in Appendix A. We examine all data gaps reported by NCSN "gap list" software and discuss their cause.

  18. Expanding Conventional Seismic Stratigrphy into the Multicomponent Seismic Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Innocent Aluka

    2008-08-31

    Multicomponent seismic data are composed of three independent vector-based seismic wave modes. These wave modes are, compressional mode (P), and shear modes SV and SH. The three modes are generated using three orthogonal source-displacement vectors and then recorded using three orthogonal vector sensors. The components travel through the earth at differing velocities and directions. The velocities of SH and SV as they travel through the subsurface differ by only a few percent, but the velocities of SV and SH (Vs) are appreciably lower than the P-wave velocity (Vp). The velocity ratio Vp/Vs varies by an order of magnitude in the earth from a value of 15 to 1.5 depending on the degree of sedimentary lithification. The data used in this study were acquired by nine-component (9C) vertical seismic profile (VSP), using three orthogonal vector sources. The 9C vertical seismic profile is capable of generating P-wave mode and the fundamental S-wave mode (SH-SH and SV-SV) directly at the source station and permits the basic components of elastic wavefield (P, SH-SH and SV-SV) to be separated from one another for the purposes of imaging. Analysis and interpretations of data from the study area show that incident full-elastic seismic wavefield is capable of reflecting four different wave modes, P, SH , SV and C which can be utilized to fully understand the architecture and heterogeneities of geologic sequences. The conventional seismic stratigraphy utilizes only reflected P-wave modes. The notation SH mode is the same as SH-SH; SV mode means SV-SV and C mode which is a converted shear wave is a special SV mode and is the same as P-SV. These four wave modes image unique geologic stratigraphy and facies and at the same time reflect independent stratal surfaces because of the unique orientation of their particle-displacement vectors. As a result of the distinct orientation of individual mode's particle-displacement vector, one mode may react to a critical subsurface sequence more

  19. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, Michael A.; Cook, Neville G. W.; McEvilly, Thomas V.; Majer, Ernest L.; Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.

  20. On the distribution of seismic reflection coefficients and seismic amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, S.; Paterson, L.; Beresford, G.

    1995-07-01

    Reflection coefficient sequences from 14 wells in Australia have a statistical character consistent with a non-Gaussian scaling noise model based on the Levy-stable family of probability distributions. Experimental histograms of reflection coefficients are accurately approximated by symmetric Levy-stable probability density functions with Levy index between 0.99 and 1.43. These distributions have the same canonical role in mathematical statistics as the Gaussian distribution, but they have slowly decaying tails and infinite moments. The distribution of reflection coefficients is independent of the spatial scale (statistically self-similar), and the reflection coefficient sequences have long-range dependence. These results suggest that the logarithm of seismic impedance can be modeled accurately using fractional Levy motion, which is a generalization of fractional Brownian motion. Synthetic seismograms produced from the authors` model for the reflection coefficients also have Levy-stable distributions. These isolations include transmission losses, the effects of reverberations, and the loss of resolution caused by band-limited wavelets, and suggest that actual seismic amplitudes with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio should also have a Levy-stable distribution. This prediction is verified using post-stack seismic data acquired in the Timor Sea and in the continental USA. However, prestack seismic amplitudes from the Timor Sea are nearly Gaussian. They attribute the difference between prestack and poststack data to the high level of measurement noise in the prestack data.

  1. A metastasis or a second independent cancer? Evaluating the clonal origin of tumors using array copy number data.

    PubMed

    Ostrovnaya, Irina; Olshen, Adam B; Seshan, Venkatraman E; Orlow, Irene; Albertson, Donna G; Begg, Colin B

    2010-07-10

    When a cancer patient develops a new tumor it is necessary to determine if it is a recurrence (metastasis) of the original cancer, or an entirely new occurrence of the disease. This is accomplished by assessing the histo-pathology of the lesions. However, there are many clinical scenarios in which this pathological diagnosis is difficult. Since each tumor is characterized by a distinct pattern of somatic mutations, a more definitive diagnosis is possible in principle in these difficult clinical scenarios by comparing the two patterns. In this article we develop and evaluate a statistical strategy for this comparison when the data are derived from array copy number data, designed to identify all of the somatic allelic gains and losses across the genome. First a segmentation algorithm is used to estimate the regions of allelic gain and loss. The correlation in these patterns between the two tumors is assessed, and this is complemented with more precise quantitative comparisons of each plausibly clonal mutation within individual chromosome arms. The results are combined to determine a likelihood ratio to distinguish clonal tumor pairs (metastases) from independent second primaries. Our data analyses show that in many cases a strong clonal signal emerges. Sensitivity analyses show that most of the diagnoses are robust when the data are of high quality.

  2. Active seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

  3. Review on Seismic Rehabilitation of a 56-Story RC Tall Building having Shear Wall System Based on A Nonlinear Dynamic Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Epackachi, S.; Esmaili, O.; Mirghaderi, S. R.; Taheri, A. A.

    2008-07-08

    Tehran tower is a 56 story reinforced concrete tall building consisting of three wings with identical plan dimensions each approximately 48 meters by 22 meters. The three wings are at 120 degree from each other and have no expansions/seismic Joints. This paper contains the consideration of the retrofitting of the Tehran tower based on the findings of an exhaustive investigation of the nonlinear performance evaluation efforts. It has tried to show the procedure followed, methodologies utilized, and the results obtained for life-safety and collapse-prevention evaluation of the building. More over the weak zones of the structure due to analysis results are introduced and appropriate retrofit technique for satisfaction related life-safety and collapse-prevention criteria is presented. Actually in this project to improve the local behavior of coupling panels which are located regularly in main walls and definitely have been recognized as the most vulnerable structural elements, making use of steel plates which are connected to concrete members by chemical anchors has been used as the best retrofitting method for this case. Therefore in the final section of this paper it has been tried to explain the professional practical method utilized to perform the mentioned retrofitting project.

  4. A BENCHMARK PROGRAM FOR EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR COMPUTING SEISMIC RESPONSE OF COUPLED BUILDING-PIPING/EQUIPMENT WITH NON-CLASSICAL DAMPING.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Degrassi, G.; Chokshi, N.

    2001-03-22

    Under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a comprehensive program to evaluate state-of-the-art methods and computer programs for seismic analysis of typical coupled nuclear power plant (NPP) systems with nonclassical damping. In this program, four benchmark models of coupled building-piping/equipment systems with different damping characteristics were analyzed for a suite of earthquakes by program participants applying their uniquely developed methods and computer programs. This paper presents the results of their analyses, and their comparison to the benchmark solutions generated by BNL using time domain direct integration methods. The participant's analysis results established using complex modal time history methods showed good comparison with the BNL solutions, while the analyses produced with either complex-mode response spectrum methods or classical normal-mode response spectrum method, in general, produced more conservative results, when averaged over a suite of earthquakes. However, when coupling due to damping is significant, complex-mode response spectrum methods performed better than the classical normal-mode response spectrum method. Furthermore, as part of the program objectives, a parametric assessment is also presented in this paper, aimed at evaluation of the applicability of various analysis methods to problems with different dynamic characteristics unique to coupled NPP systems. It is believed that the findings and insights learned from this program will be useful in developing new acceptance criteria and providing guidance for future regulatory activities involving licensing applications of these alternate methods to coupled systems.

  5. Review on Seismic Rehabilitation of a 56-Story RC Tall Building having Shear Wall System Based on A Nonlinear Dynamic Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epackachi, S.; Esmaili, O.; Mirghaderi, S. R.; Taheri, A. A.

    2008-07-01

    Tehran tower is a 56 story reinforced concrete tall building consisting of three wings with identical plan dimensions each approximately 48 meters by 22 meters. The three wings are at 120 degree from each other and have no expansions/seismic Joints. This paper contains the consideration of the retrofitting of the Tehran tower based on the findings of an exhaustive investigation of the nonlinear performance evaluation efforts. It has tried to show the procedure followed, methodologies utilized, and the results obtained for life-safety and collapse-prevention evaluation of the building. More over the weak zones of the structure due to analysis results are introduced and appropriate retrofit technique for satisfaction related life-safety and collapse-prevention criteria is presented. Actually in this project to improve the local behavior of coupling panels which are located regularly in main walls and definitely have been recognized as the most vulnerable structural elements, making use of steel plates which are connected to concrete members by chemical anchors has been used as the best retrofitting method for this case. Therefore in the final section of this paper it has been tried to explain the professional practical method utilized to perform the mentioned retrofitting project.

  6. Novel naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium compound pellets based on acid-independent mechanism: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Kan, Shuling; Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Wenli; Liu, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the novel naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium compound pellets (novel-NAP/EMZ) depending on EMZ acid-independent mechanism which has been proved to be predominate in the mechanism of co-therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The novel-NAP/EMZ compound pellets, composed of NAP colon-specific pellets (NAP-CSPs) and EMZ modified-release pellets (EMZ-MRPs), were prepared by fluid-bed coating technology with desired in vitro release profiles. The resulting pellets were filled into hard gelatin capsules for in vivo evaluation in rats and compared with the reference compound pellets, consisted of NAP enteric-coated pellets (NAP-ECPs) and EMZ immediate-release pellets (EMZ-IRPs). The reference compound pellets were prepared simulating the drug delivery system of VIMOVO(®). In vivo pharmacokinetics, EMZ-MRPs had significantly larger AUC0-t (p < 0.01), 1.67 times more than that of EMZ-IRPs, and prolonged mean residence time (7.55 ± 0.12 h) than that of IRPs (1.46 ± 0.39 h). NAP-CSPs and NAP-ECPs showed similar AUC0-t. Compared to the reference compound pellets, the novel-NAP/EMZ compound pellets did not show distinct differences in histological mucosal morphology. However, biochemical tests exhibited enhanced total antioxidant capacity, increased nitric oxide content and reduced malondialdehyde level for novel-NAP/EMZ compound pellets, indicating that the acid-independent action took effect. The gastric pH values of novel-NAP/EMZ compound pellets were at a low and stable level, which could ensure normal physiological range of human gastric pH. As a result, the novel-NAP/EMZ compound pellets may be a more suitable formulation with potential advantages by improving bioavailability of drug and further reducing undesirable gastrointestinal damages.

  7. Evaluating the Use of Seismic Methods to Map the Extent of AN In-Situ Lignite-Gasification Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, David Francis

    Seismic reflection data were collected in 1981 at the In-Situ Lignite-Gasification site located near Rockdale, Texas managed by the Petroleum Engineering Department at Texas A&M University. The three zero-offset-VSP data sets recorded at the site were used to derive a P-wave velocity profile. The data from 10 offset sources recorded in one of the VSP wells were used to map the shape of the interpreted fracture chimney resulting from the break-up of the strata over the gasification zone. P-to-S converted waves gave the most information about the geometry of the fracture chimney. The S-wave velocity profile and geometry of the fracture chimney were determined by iterative ray tracing. Traveltimes of the P-to-S events in the model data were matched to those in the field data to within +/-10 milliseconds. The traveltime errors seemed to have been more sensitive to the S-wave velocity profile than to changes in the geometry of the fracture chimney. The useable bandwidth for the two surface lines was increased from 30 Hertz to 130 Hertz by applying spectrum equalization and deconvolution processes to the data. The effects in the surface data, resulting from the cavity and/or fracture chimney, were not obvious; but could be interpreted. For future applications, the sources and receivers should be spaced at a maximum of ten percent of the expected size of the gasification cavity. Also, sufficient areal extent to image the gasification must be obtained. The fact that converted P-to-S wave energy was the most dominant energy in the VSP data dictates the need to acquire orthogonal, three-component data (one vertical, and two horizontal components). Zero-offset, P-wave and S-wave VSP data need to be acquired to accurately determine the velocity profiles for both wave types at the site. Given accurate velocity profiles, the VSP data can be used to determine the effects of gasification in the subsurface by matching traveltimes between field and model data via iteration on the

  8. High-precision geologic mapping to evaluate the potential for seismic surface rupture at TA-55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.N.; Lavine, A.; Vaniman, D.; WoldeGabriel, G.

    1998-06-01

    In this report the authors document results of high-precision geologic mapping in the vicinity of TA-55 that has been done to identify parts of the southern portion of the Rendija Canyon Fault, or any other faults, with the potential for seismic surface rupture. To assess the potential for surface rupture at TA-55, an area of approximately 3 square miles that includes the Los Alamos County Landfill and Twomile, Mortandad, and Sandia Canyons has been mapped in detail. Map units are mostly cooling or flow units within the Tshirege Member (1.2 Ma) of the Bandelier Tuff. Stratigraphic markers that are useful for determining offsets in the map area include a distinct welding break at or near the cooling Unit 2-Unit 3 contact, and the Unit 3-Unit 4 contact. At the County Landfill the contact between the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff and overlying Quaternary alluvium has also been mapped. The mapping indicates that there is no faulting in the near-surface directly below TA-55, and that the closest fault is about 1500 feet west of the Plutonium Facility. Faulting is more abundant on the western edge of the map area, west of TA-48 in uppermost Mortandad Canyon, upper Sandia Canyon, and at the County Landfill. Measured vertical offsets on the faults range from 1 to 8 feet on mapped Bandelier Tuff contacts. Faulting exposed at the Los Alamos County Landfill has deformed a zone over 1000 feet wide, and has a net vertical down-to-the-west displacement of at least 15 feet in the Bandelier Tuff. Individual faults at the landfill have from less than 1 foot to greater than 15 feet of vertical offset on the Bandelier Tuff. Most faults in the landfill trend N-S, N20W, or N45E. Results of the mapping indicate that the Rendija Canyon Fault does not continue directly south to TA-55. At present, the authors have insufficient data to connect faulting they have mapped to areas of known faulting to the north or south of the study area.

  9. An evaluation of density-dependent and density-independent influences on population growth rates in Weddell seals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Hadley, G.L.; Garrott, R.A.; Proffitt, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Much of the existing literature that evaluates the roles of density-dependent and density-independent factors on population dynamics has been called into question in recent years because measurement errors were not properly dealt with in analyses. Using state-space models to account for measurement errors, we evaluated a set of competing models for a 22-year time series of mark-resight estimates of abundance for a breeding population of female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) studied in Erebus Bay, Antarctica. We tested for evidence of direct density dependence in growth rates and evaluated whether equilibrium population size was related to seasonal sea-ice extent and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). We found strong evidence of negative density dependence in annual growth rates for a population whose estimated size ranged from 438 to 623 females during the study. Based on Bayes factors, a density-dependence-only model was favored over models that also included en! vironmental covariates. According to the favored model, the population had a stationary distribution with a mean of 497 females (SD = 60.5), an expected growth rate of 1.10 (95% credible interval 1.08-1.15) when population size was 441 females, and a rate of 0.90 (95% credible interval 0.87-0.93) for a population of 553 females. A model including effects of SOI did receive some support and indicated a positive relationship between SOI and population size. However, effects of SOI were not large, and including the effect did not greatly reduce our estimate of process variation. We speculate that direct density dependence occurred because rates of adult survival, breeding, and temporary emigration were affected by limitations on per capita food resources and space for parturition and pup-rearing. To improve understanding of the relative roles of various demographic components and their associated vital rates to population growth rate, mark-recapture methods can be applied that incorporate both

  10. "The Most Important Thing Is to Learn the Way to Learn": Evaluating the Effectiveness of Independent Learning by Perceptual Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The mission of universities today is not only to nurture experts in various professions, but also to cultivate lifelong autonomous learners. Independent learning and pedagogies that aim to foster learner autonomy have grown in importance over the past decade. However, the extent to which independent learning is successful in fostering autonomy has…

  11. "The Most Important Thing Is to Learn the Way to Learn": Evaluating the Effectiveness of Independent Learning by Perceptual Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The mission of universities today is not only to nurture experts in various professions, but also to cultivate lifelong autonomous learners. Independent learning and pedagogies that aim to foster learner autonomy have grown in importance over the past decade. However, the extent to which independent learning is successful in fostering autonomy has…

  12. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    . An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified

  13. Seismic Reflection Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Seismic methods are the most commonly conducted geophysical surveys for engineering investigations. Seismic refraction provides engineers and geologists with the most basic of geologic data via simple procedures with common equipment.

  14. Seismic safety of high concrete dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houqun

    2014-08-01

    China is a country of high seismicity with many hydropower resources. Recently, a series of high arch dams have either been completed or are being constructed in seismic regions, of which most are concrete dams. The evaluation of seismic safety often becomes a critical problem in dam design. In this paper, a brief introduction to major progress in the research on seismic aspects of large concrete dams, conducted mainly at the Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) during the past 60 years, is presented. The dam site-specific ground motion input, improved response analysis, dynamic model test verification, field experiment investigations, dynamic behavior of dam concrete, and seismic monitoring and observation are described. Methods to prevent collapse of high concrete dams under maximum credible earthquakes are discussed.

  15. Evaluation of a moderate resolution, satellite-based impervious surface map using an independent, high-resolution validation data set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.W.; Jarnagin, T.

    2009-01-01

    Given the relatively high cost of mapping impervious surfaces at regional scales, substantial effort is being expended in the development of moderate-resolution, satellite-based methods for estimating impervious surface area (ISA). To rigorously assess the accuracy of these data products high quality, independently derived validation data are needed. High-resolution data were collected across a gradient of development within the Mid-Atlantic region to assess the accuracy of National Land Cover Data (NLCD) Landsat-based ISA estimates. Absolute error (satellite predicted area - "reference area") and relative error [satellite (predicted area - "reference area")/ "reference area"] were calculated for each of 240 sample regions that are each more than 15 Landsat pixels on a side. The ability to compile and examine ancillary data in a geographic information system environment provided for evaluation of both validation and NLCD data and afforded efficient exploration of observed errors. In a minority of cases, errors could be explained by temporal discontinuities between the date of satellite image capture and validation source data in rapidly changing places. In others, errors were created by vegetation cover over impervious surfaces and by other factors that bias the satellite processing algorithms. On average in the Mid-Atlantic region, the NLCD product underestimates ISA by approximately 5%. While the error range varies between 2 and 8%, this underestimation occurs regardless of development intensity. Through such analyses the errors, strengths, and weaknesses of particular satellite products can be explored to suggest appropriate uses for regional, satellite-based data in rapidly developing areas of environmental significance. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  16. Evaluation of long-term surgical site occurrences in ventral hernia repair: implications of preoperative site independent MRSA infection.

    PubMed

    Baucom, R B; Ousley, J; Oyefule, O O; Stewart, M K; Phillips, S E; Browman, K K; Sharp, K W; Holzman, M D; Poulose, B K

    2016-10-01

    Previous work demonstrated that prior MRSA infection [MRSA(+)] is associated with 30-day surgical site infection (SSI) following ventral hernia repair (VHR). We aimed to determine the impact of MRSA(+) on long-term wound outcomes after VHR. A retrospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary center between July 11, 2005, and May 18, 2012, of patients undergoing elective VHR with class I wounds. Patients with documented preoperative MRSA infection at any site (urinary, bloodstream, SSI, etc.) were considered MRSA(+). Primary outcome was 2-year surgical site occurrence (SSO), defined as SSI, cellulitis, necrosis, nonhealing wound, seroma, hematoma, dehiscence, or fistula. SSOs were subdivided into those that required procedural intervention (SSOPI) and those that did not. Among 632 patients, 46 % were female with average age 53 ± 13 years. There were 368 SSOs in 193 patients (31 %); an SSOPI occurred in 9.8 % (n = 62). The most common SSOs were cellulitis (91/632), seroma (91/632), and serous drainage (58/632). The rate of 2-year SSO was higher with MRSA(+) compared to those without (46 vs. 29 %, p = 0.023), attributed to increased soft tissue necrosis, purulent drainage, serous drainage, cellulitis, and fistula. In multivariable analysis, MRSA(+) was not associated with 2-year SSO (HR 1.5, 95 % CI 0.91-2.55, p = 0.113); factors associated with SSO included obesity, immunosuppression, mesh repair, and operative times. This study is the first to evaluate long-term SSOs and SSOPIs after VHR, highlighting the importance of long-term follow-up. Though not independently associated with SSOs, MRSA(+) may be a marker of hernia complexity.

  17. Novel 3-D cell culture system for in vitro evaluation of anticancer drugs under anchorage-independent conditions.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Ayako; Abe, Natsuki; Saruhashi, Koichiro; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Nishino, Taito

    2016-12-01

    Anticancer drug discovery efforts have used 2-D cell-based assay models, which fail to forecast in vivo efficacy and result in a lower success rate of clinical approval. Recent 3-D cell culture models are expected to bridge the gap between 2-D and in vivo models. However, 3-D cell culture methods that are available for practical anticancer drug screening have not yet been fully attained. In this study, we screened several polymers for their ability to suspend cells or cell spheroids homogeneously in a liquid medium without changing the viscosity behavior, and identified gellan gum (FP001), as the most potent polymer. FP001 promoted cell dispersion in the medium and improved the proliferation of a wide range of cancer cell lines under low attachment conditions by inhibiting the formation of large-sized spheroids. In addition, cancer cells cultured with FP001-containing medium were more susceptible to inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling than those cultured under attachment conditions. We also showed that ligands of the EGF receptor family clearly enhance proliferation of SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cells under anchorage-independent conditions with FP001. Consistent with this result, the cells grown with FP001 showed higher EGF receptor content compared with cells cultured under attachment conditions. In conclusion, we developed a novel 3-D cell culture system that is available for high throughput screening of anticancer agents, and is suitable for evaluation of molecular-targeted anticancer drugs. Three-dimensional cell culture using FP001 will be of value in the development of useful technologies for anticancer drug discovery.

  18. Evaluation of the Revised International Staging System in an independent cohort of unselected patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kastritis, Efstathios; Terpos, Evangelos; Roussou, Maria; Gavriatopoulou, Maria; Migkou, Magdalini; Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, Evangelos; Fotiou, Despoina; Ziogas, Dimitrios; Panagiotidis, Ioannis; Kafantari, Eftychia; Giannouli, Stavroula; Zomas, Athanasios; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.

    2017-01-01

    The Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) was recently introduced in order to improve risk stratification over that provided by the widely used standard International Staging System. In addition to the parameters of the standard system, the R-ISS incorporates the presence of chromosomal abnormalities detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization [t(4;14), t(14;16) and del17p] and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase. The R-ISS was formulated on the basis of a large dataset of selected patients who had participated in clinical trials and has not been validated in an independent cohort of unselected patients. Thus, we evaluated the R-ISS in 475 consecutive, unselected patients, treated in a single center. Our patients were older and more often had severe renal dysfunction than those in the original publication on the R-ISS. As regards distribution by group, 18% had R-ISS-1, 64.5% R-ISS-2 and 18% R-ISS-3. According to R-ISS group, the 5-year survival rate was 77%, 53% and 19% for R-ISS-1, -2 and -3, respectively (P<0.001). The R-ISS could identify three groups with distinct outcomes among patients treated with or without autologous stem cell transplantation, among those treated with either bortezomib-based or immunomodulatory drug-based primary therapy and in patients ≤65, 66–75 or >75 years. However, in patients with severe renal dysfunction the distinction between groups was less clear. In conclusion, our data in consecutive, unselected patients, with differences in the characteristics and treatment approaches compared to the original International Myeloma Working Group cohort, verified that R-ISS is a robust tool for risk stratification of newly diagnosed patients with symptomatic myeloma. PMID:27789676

  19. Ground motion simulations for seismic stations in southern and eastern Romania and seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Florin; Vacareanu, Radu

    2017-03-01

    This research focuses on the evaluation of soil conditions for seismic stations in southern and eastern Romania, their influence on stochastic finite-fault simulations, and the impact of using them on the seismic hazard assessment. First, the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) are evaluated using ground motions recorded in 32 seismic stations during small magnitude (M W ≤ 6.0) Vrancea seismic events. Most of the seismic stations situated in the southern part of Romania exhibit multiple HVSR peaks over a broad period range. However, only the seismic stations in the eastern-most part of Romania have clear short-period predominant periods. Subsequently, stochastic finite-fault simulations are performed in order to evaluate the influence of the soil conditions on the ground motion amplitudes. The analyses show that the earthquake magnitude has a larger influence on the computed ground motion amplitudes for the short- and medium-period range, while the longer-period spectral ordinates tend to be influenced more by the soil conditions. Next, the impact of the previously evaluated soil conditions on the seismic hazard results for Romania is also investigated. The results reveal a significant impact of the soil conditions on the seismic hazard levels, especially for the sites characterized by long-period amplifications (sites situated mostly in southern Romania), and a less significant influence in the case of sites which have clear short predominant periods.

  20. Ground motion simulations for seismic stations in southern and eastern Romania and seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Florin; Vacareanu, Radu

    2017-09-01

    This research focuses on the evaluation of soil conditions for seismic stations in southern and eastern Romania, their influence on stochastic finite-fault simulations, and the impact of using them on the seismic hazard assessment. First, the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) are evaluated using ground motions recorded in 32 seismic stations during small magnitude ( M W ≤ 6.0) Vrancea seismic events. Most of the seismic stations situated in the southern part of Romania exhibit multiple HVSR peaks over a broad period range. However, only the seismic stations in the eastern-most part of Romania have clear short-period predominant periods. Subsequently, stochastic finite-fault simulations are performed in order to evaluate the influence of the soil conditions on the ground motion amplitudes. The analyses show that the earthquake magnitude has a larger influence on the computed ground motion amplitudes for the short- and medium-period range, while the longer-period spectral ordinates tend to be influenced more by the soil conditions. Next, the impact of the previously evaluated soil conditions on the seismic hazard results for Romania is also investigated. The results reveal a significant impact of the soil conditions on the seismic hazard levels, especially for the sites characterized by long-period amplifications (sites situated mostly in southern Romania), and a less significant influence in the case of sites which have clear short predominant periods.

  1. Seismic intrusion detector system

    DOEpatents

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  2. Pics d'accélération du mouvement sismique observés lors du séisme de Chichi à Taiwan : application à l'estimation de l'aléa sismiqueAnalysis of peak ground accelerations during the Chichi earthquake, Taiwan: application to seismic hazard evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tsui-Yu; Cotton, Fabrice; Angelier, Jacques; Shin, Tzay-Chyn

    2001-07-01

    Attenuation laws are widely used in order to estimate the peak ground acceleration that may occur at a given locality during an earthquake, for hazard evaluation purposes. However, these simplified laws should be regarded acceptable only in the first approximation, because numerous significant parameters at the local and regional scales are often ignored. We examined the relationship between distance and peak acceleration based on examples from the dense accelerometric network of Taiwan, specifically for the Chichi destructive earthquake. We thus observed significant discrepancies between the predicted and observed accelerations, resulting from (1) near-field saturation, (2) amplification in sedimentary basins, and (3) hanging wall effect. We mapped the residual accelerations (difference between observed and predicted peak ground accelerations). This highlights the role of the regional structure, independently revealed by the geological analysis, as a significant factor that controls the transmission of the seismic accelerations.

  3. Evaluation of Cross-Correlation Methods on a Massive Scale for Accurate Relocation of Seismic Events in East Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-21

    evaluate the stability of the double-difference solutions . In addition to the regional models listed in Table 3, a standard crustal model is used (IASP9 1...use of ground truth information for a subset of events, and/or by use of a good 3D travel-time model . Preliminary Results for Four Different Regions...Evaluation of Solution Quality 11 Conclusions 15 Acknowledgments 16 Section Two: Double-Difference Relocation of Earthquakes in Central- Western China 33

  4. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  5. Understanding through seeing - the role of seismic in an integrated study of a mature Nigerian field

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, M.

    1996-12-31

    The impact of integration of both data and disciplines is presented in the case of an Nigerian field, with particular emphasis on the central role of seismic data: A pre-requisite for any seismic interpretation is a reliable well-to-seismic tie. Due to log data availability and quality, this match was only achieved by generating synthetic seismograms based on acoustic impedance models. The seismic time interpretation was guided by the geological framework following sequence stratigraphical principles. Depth conversion and evaluation of volumetric uncertainties were based on all data. The resulting STOIIP estimates have been compared to the volumes derived independently from production data. It then became possible to explain apparent mismatches seen in some reservoirs by modifying the best-estimate volumes within the uncertainties and by comparison with analogue reservoirs Channel-like amplitude features encountered in shallow reservoirs helped to explain variable production performance and consequently to identify appraisal and development opportunities. Some of the deeper, shoreface sands seem to behave in a more tank-like manner. This is not only confirmed by recent RST-logs, but also by seismic flatspots. The flatspots are conformable to structure and reflect the remaining oil distribution. These results highlight the value of continuous integration of data and disciplines to the petroleum engineering study.

  6. Understanding through seeing - the role of seismic in an integrated study of a mature Nigerian field

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, M.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of integration of both data and disciplines is presented in the case of an Nigerian field, with particular emphasis on the central role of seismic data: A pre-requisite for any seismic interpretation is a reliable well-to-seismic tie. Due to log data availability and quality, this match was only achieved by generating synthetic seismograms based on acoustic impedance models. The seismic time interpretation was guided by the geological framework following sequence stratigraphical principles. Depth conversion and evaluation of volumetric uncertainties were based on all data. The resulting STOIIP estimates have been compared to the volumes derived independently from production data. It then became possible to explain apparent mismatches seen in some reservoirs by modifying the best-estimate volumes within the uncertainties and by comparison with analogue reservoirs Channel-like amplitude features encountered in shallow reservoirs helped to explain variable production performance and consequently to identify appraisal and development opportunities. Some of the deeper, shoreface sands seem to behave in a more tank-like manner. This is not only confirmed by recent RST-logs, but also by seismic flatspots. The flatspots are conformable to structure and reflect the remaining oil distribution. These results highlight the value of continuous integration of data and disciplines to the petroleum engineering study.

  7. 2015 USGS Seismic Hazard Model for Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, M. D.; Mueller, C. S.; Moschetti, M. P.; Hoover, S. M.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Llenos, A. L.; Michael, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past several years, the seismicity rate has increased markedly in multiple areas of the central U.S. Studies have tied the majority of this increased activity to wastewater injection in deep wells and hydrocarbon production. These earthquakes are induced by human activities that change rapidly based on economic and policy decisions, making them difficult to forecast. Our 2014 USGS National Seismic Hazard Model and previous models are intended to provide the long-term hazard (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years) and are based on seismicity rates and patterns observed mostly from tectonic earthquakes. However, potentially induced earthquakes were identified in 14 regions that were not included in the earthquake catalog used for constructing the 2014 model. We recognized the importance of considering these induced earthquakes in a separate hazard analysis, and as a result in April 2015 we released preliminary models that explored the impact of this induced seismicity on the hazard. Several factors are important in determining the hazard from induced seismicity: period of the catalog that optimally forecasts the next year's activity, earthquake magnitude-rate distribution, earthquake location statistics, maximum magnitude, ground motion models, and industrial drivers such as injection rates. The industrial drivers are not currently available in a form that we can implement in a 1-year model. Hazard model inputs have been evaluated by a broad group of scientists and engineers to assess the range of acceptable models. Results indicate that next year's hazard is significantly higher by more than a factor of three in Oklahoma, Texas, and Colorado compared to the long-term 2014 hazard model. These results have raised concern about the impacts of induced earthquakes on the built environment and have led to many engineering and policy discussions about how to mitigate these effects for the more than 7 million people that live near areas of induced seismicity.

  8. Updated seismic solar model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W. A.; Goode, Philip R.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.; Sienkiewicz, R.

    1995-05-01

    Recently released low-l solar oscillation data from the BISON network are combined with BBSO data to obtain an updated solar seismic model of the Sun's interior. For the core, the solar seismic model from the new data is more consistent with the current standard solar models than our earlier seismic model. An astrophysical solution to the solar neutrino problem fades away.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of thin-layer thickness and CO2 mass utilizing seismic complex decomposition at the Ketzin CO2 storage site, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fei; Juhlin, Christopher; Han, Li; Kempka, Thomas; Lüth, Stefan; Zhang, Fengjiao

    2016-10-01

    Determining thin layer thickness is very important for reservoir characterization and CO2 quantification. Given its high time-frequency resolution and robustness, the complex spectral decomposition method was applied on time-lapse 3-D seismic data from the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage to evaluate the frequency-dependent characteristics of thin layers at the injection level. Higher temporal resolution and more stratigraphic details are seen in the all-frequency and monochromatic reflectivity amplitude sections obtained by complex spectral decomposition compared to the stacked sections. The mapped geologic discontinuities within the reservoir are consistent with the preferred orientation of CO2 propagation. Tuning frequency mapping shows the thicknesses of the reservoir sandstone and gaseous CO2 is consistent with the measured thickness of the sandstone unit from well logging. An attempt to discriminate between pressure effects and CO2 saturation using the extracted tuning frequency indicates that CO2 saturation is the main contributor to the amplitude anomaly at the Ketzin site. On the basis of determined thickness of gaseous CO2 in the reservoir, quantitative analysis of the amount of CO2 was performed and shows a discrepancy between the injected and calculated CO2 mass. This may be explained by several uncertainties, like structural reservoir heterogeneity, a limited understanding of the complex subsurface conditions, error of determined tuning frequency, the presence of ambient noise and ongoing CO2 dissolution.

  10. Identification of a gene set to evaluate the potential effects of loud sounds from seismic surveys on the ears of fishes: a study with Salmo salar

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, C D; Payne, J F; Rise, M L

    2014-01-01

    identified the transcript encoding growth hormone I as up-regulated by loud sound, supporting previous evidence linking growth hormone to hair cell regeneration in fishes. Quantitative (q) reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses confirmed dysregulation of some microarray-identified transcripts and in some cases revealed a high level of biological variability in the exposed group. These results support the potential utility of molecular biomarkers to evaluate the effect of seismic surveys on fishes with studies on the ears being placed in a priority category for development of exposure–response relationships. Knowledge of such relationships is necessary for addressing the question of potential size of injury zones. PMID:24814183

  11. Identification of a gene set to evaluate the potential effects of loud sounds from seismic surveys on the ears of fishes: a study with Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Andrews, C D; Payne, J F; Rise, M L

    2014-06-01

    identified the transcript encoding growth hormone I as up-regulated by loud sound, supporting previous evidence linking growth hormone to hair cell regeneration in fishes. Quantitative (q) reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses confirmed dysregulation of some microarray-identified transcripts and in some cases revealed a high level of biological variability in the exposed group. These results support the potential utility of molecular biomarkers to evaluate the effect of seismic surveys on fishes with studies on the ears being placed in a priority category for development of exposure-response relationships. Knowledge of such relationships is necessary for addressing the question of potential size of injury zones.

  12. Seismic electromagnetic study in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Seismo-electromagnetism is becoming a hot interdisciplinary study in both geosciences and electromagnetism. Numerous electromagnetic changes at a broad range of frequencies associated with earthquakes have been reported independently. There are some attempts of applying such electromagnetic data to short-term earthquake prediction. Although due to the complexity of seismogenic process and underground structure, the seismic electromagnetic phenomena cannot be fully understood, the seismic electromagnetic study plays a key role in the mitigation of seismic hazard. China is one of the countries which have the earliest reports on seismo-electromagnetic phenomena. The seismic electromagnetic study in China started in late 1960's. There are almost 50 years continuous observation data up to now, which provides a unique database for seismo-electromagnetic study not only in China, but also in the world. Therefore, seismo-electromagnetic study in China is interested broadly by international communities of geosciences and electromagnetism. I present here a brief review on seismic electromagnetic study in China, especially focusing on geo-electromagnetic observation and empirical prediction based on the observation data. After summarizing various electromagnetic observations such as apparent resistivity, geoelectric potential, geomagnetic field, electromagnetic disturbance, and so on, I show the cases of the empirical prediction based on the observed electromagnetic data associated with some earthquakes in China. Finally, based on the above review, I propose an integrated research scheme of earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena, which includes the interaction between appropriate observations, robust methodology of data processing, and theoretical model analysis. This study is supported partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB845903).

  13. Some considerations for establishing seismic design criteria for nuclear plant piping

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.P.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) is providing assistance to the U.S. NRC in developing regulatory positions on the seismic analysis of piping. As part of this effort, ETEC previously performed reviews of the ASME Code, Section III piping seismic design criteria as revised by the 1994 Addenda. These revised criteria were based on evaluations by the ASME Special Task Group on Integrated Piping Criteria (STGIPC) and the Technical Core Group (TCG) of the Advanced Reactor Corporation (ARC) of the earlier joint Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/NRC Piping & Fitting Dynamic Reliability (PFDR) program. Previous ETEC evaluations reported at the 23rd WRSM of seismic margins associated with the revised criteria are reviewed. These evaluations had concluded, in part, that although margins for the timed PFDR tests appeared acceptable (>2), margins in detuned tests could be unacceptable (<1). This conclusion was based primarily on margin reduction factors (MRFs) developed by the ASME STGIPC and ARC/TCG from realistic analyses of PFDR test 36. This paper reports more recent results including: (1) an approach developed for establishing appropriate seismic margins based on PRA considerations, (2) independent assessments of frequency effects on margins, (3) the development of margins based on failure mode considerations, and (4) the implications of Code Section III rules for Section XI.

  14. Lessons learned from the ``5.12'' Wenchuan Earthquake: evaluation of earthquake performance objectives and the importance of seismic conceptual design principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yayong

    2008-09-01

    Many different types of buildings were severely damaged or collapsed during the May 12, 2008 Great Wenchuan Earthquake. Based on survey data collected in regions that were subjected to moderate to severe earthquake intensities, a comparison between the observed building damage, and the three earthquake performance objectives and seismic conceptual design principles specifi ed by the national “Code for Seismic Design of Buildings GB50011-2001,” was carried out. Actual damage and predicted damage for a given earthquake level for different types of structures is compared. Discussions on seismic conceptual design principles, with respect to multiple defense lines, strong column-weak beam, link beam of shear walls, ductility detailing of masonry structures, exits and staircases, and nonstructural elements, etc. are carried out. Suggestions for improving the seismic design of structures are also proposed. It is concluded that the seismic performance objectives for three earthquake levels, i.e., “no failure under minor earthquake level,” “repairable damage under moderate earthquake level” and “no collapse under major earthquake level” can be achieved if seismic design principles are carried out by strictly following the code requirements and ensuring construction quality.

  15. Evaluation of seismic reflection data in the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area, Paradox Basin, Utah. [Faults, folds, joints, and collapse structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kitcho, C.A.; Wong, I.G.; Turcotte, F.T.

    1986-08-01

    Seismic reflection data purchased from petroleum industry brokers and acquired through group speculative surveys were interpreted for information on the regional subsurface geologic structure and stratigraphy within and surrounding the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. Structures of interest were faults, folds, joints, and collapse structures related to salt dissolution. The seismic reflection data were used to interpret stratigraphy by identifying continuous and discontinuous reflectors on the seismic profiles. Thickening and thinning of strata and possible areas of salt flowage or dissolution could be identified from the seismic data. Identifiable reflectors included the tops of the Precambrian and Mississippian, a distinctive interbed close to the middle of the Pennsylvanian Paradox salt formation (probably the interval between Salt Cycles 10 and 13), and near the top of the Paradox salt. Of the 56 faults identified from the seismic reflection interpretation, 33 trend northwest, west-northwest, or west, and most affect only the deeper part of the stratigraphic section. These faults are part of the deep structural system found throughout the Paradox Basin, including the fold and fault belt in the northeast part of the basin. The faults bound basement Precambrian blocks that experienced minor activity during Mississippian and early Pennsylvanian deposition, and showed major displacement during early Paradox salt deposition as the Paradox Basin subsided. Based on the seismic data, most of these faults appear to have an upward terminus between the top of the Mississippian and the salt interbed reflector.

  16. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  17. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  18. Seismic Data for Evaluation of Ground Motion Hazards in Las Vegas in Support of Test Site Readiness Ground Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A

    2008-01-16

    In this report we describe the data sets used to evaluate ground motion hazards in Las Vegas from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. This analysis is presented in Rodgers et al. (2005, 2006) and includes 13 nuclear explosions recorded at the John Blume and Associates network, the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and a temporary deployment of broadband station in Las Vegas. The data are available in SAC format on CD-ROM as an appendix to this report.

  19. An Integrated Approach to Seismic Event Location. 1. Evaluating How Method of Location Affects the Volume of Groups of Hypocenters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-12

    1985: and Pujol , 1988). 3) Methods for evaluating errors in event locations. The classical approach to error analysis utilizes a formal statistical...minimum volume polyhedron as a practical enclosure for a set of points has not been suggested previously in the seismological or geological literature. 4 2...Set of Points in Space Background: There exist’numerous applications in seismology and geology where it is useful to define a volume in space which

  20. Seismic exploration system

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.H.

    1983-02-08

    Seismic exploration method in arctic regions involving the generation of a seismic disturbance in the water beneath the ice in areas where conventional marine and land exploration methods are functionally inadequate. Seismic disturbances are generated by an air gun assembly which automatically executes lowering air guns through apertures in the ice and retrieving them while carrying out preventive measures against freeze-ups. Seismic sensing and recording equipment are positioned within an appropriate range to detect seismic data in the form of reflective or diffractive signals generated in response to the seismic disturbance after actuating the air gun array, wherein the seismic data is indicative of sub-surface structural formations existing below the body of water.

  1. Three Independent Evaluations of Healthy Kids Programs Find Substantial Gains in Children's Dental Health Care. In Brief, September 2008, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Dana; Howell, Embry; Trenholm, Christopher; Hill, Ian; Dubay, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This brief presents highlights from rigorous, independent evaluations of the Healthy Kids programs in three California counties: Los Angeles, San Mateo, and Santa Clara. Launched by Children's Health Initiatives (CHIs) in these counties between 2001 and 2003, the three Healthy Kids programs provide children with comprehensive health insurance…

  2. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Webb Consolidated Independent School District in Bruni, TX - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Webb Consolidated Independent School District (Webb CISD) in Bruni, TX. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effect...

  3. An Independent Psychometric Evaluation of a Speech and Language Tool for Two-Year-Old Children from a Sure Start Trailblazer Site in the West Midlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N.; Patel, Reena; Sallah, David K.

    2009-01-01

    Speech and language difficulties can be indicative of other cognitive, social and developmental problems. Tools used in the UK have not (1) targeted two-year-old children, (2) included both parents' reports and independent observations, and (3) simultaneously evaluated expression, understanding and speech. This cross-sectional study of two…

  4. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Webb Consolidated Independent School District in Bruni, TX - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Webb Consolidated Independent School District (Webb CISD) in Bruni, TX. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effect...

  5. Seismicity prior to the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, Kazuyoshi Z.; Izutsu, Jun; Orihara, Yoshiaki; Furuse, Nobuhiro; Togo, Shoho; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Okada, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Rika; Kamogawa, Masashi; Nagao, Toshiyasu

    2016-11-01

    We report precursory seismic patterns prior to the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes, as measured by four different methods based on changes in seismicity that can be used for earthquake forecasting: the b-value method, two methods of seismic quiescence evaluation, and an analysis of seismicity density in space and time. The spatial extent of precursory patterns differs from one method to the other and ranges from local scales (typically, asperity size) to regional scales (e.g., 2° × 3° around the source zone). The earthquakes were preceded by periods of pronounced anomalies, which lasted in yearly scales (1.5 years), or longer (>3 years). We demonstrate that a combination of multiple methods detected different signals prior to the Kumamoto earthquakes. This indicates great potential to reduce the hazard at possible future sites of earthquakes relative to long-term seismic hazard assessment. We also found that the seismic quiescence in a regional-scale area, detected by using the two methods of seismic quiescence evaluation, was a common precursor to the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes and 2015 Off Satsuma Peninsula earthquake. The result allows us to interpret both events as the onset that occurred at a section along the tectonic line from the Okinawa Trough through the Beppu-Shimabara graben.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Seismic Stability Evaluation of Alben Barkley Lock and Dam Project. Volume 4. Liquefaction Susceptibility Evaluation and Post-Earthquake Strength Determination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Additionally, the Seed method was extended to estimate the earthquake induced pore pressure buildup in areas of the foundation where safety factors...independent database relating CPT values to liquefaction susceptibility did not exist and the most advanced method for SPT (N1 )6 prediction from CPT...data was that developed by Olsen (1984) and Olsen and Farr (1986). The (N1 )6 prediction chart used in this study is shown in Figure 82. This method

  8. Evaluating and Increasing In-Home Leisure Activity among Adults with Severe Disabilities in Supported Independent Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Philip G.; Reid, Dennis H.; Green, Carolyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Observations were conducted of the in-home leisure activity of three adults with severe disabilities in three supported independent living (SIL) sites. Results indicated a lack of leisure engagement. Potentially preferred, typical leisure activities were then identified by consulting lists of common leisure activities, surveying adults in…

  9. Evaluation in the Older Blind Independent Living Program: Advantages of a Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesen, Martin J.; Cavenaugh, Brenda S.

    2006-01-01

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) requires that independent living programs annually report demographic information on consumers receiving services and the numbers receiving specific types of services. Although some states collect information on consumer outcomes (for example, improvement in daily living skills), RSA does not request…

  10. Mathematics Motivation and Engagement: An Independent Evaluation of a Complex Model with Australian Rural High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plenty, Stephanie; Heubeck, Bernd G.

    2011-01-01

    Most traditional models of academic motivation focus on a small number of specific factors. However, the Student Motivation and Engagement Scale (MES) (Martin, 2007b) includes a fairly comprehensive range of perspectives on general student motivation. The current study set out (a) to provide an independent test of the proposed 11-factor structure…

  11. Evaluation of the late life disability instrument in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The late life disability instrument (LLDI) was developed to assess limitations in instrumental and management roles using a small and restricted sample. In this paper we examine the measurement properties of the LLDI using data from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE...

  12. Evaluating and Increasing In-Home Leisure Activity among Adults with Severe Disabilities in Supported Independent Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Philip G.; Reid, Dennis H.; Green, Carolyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Observations were conducted of the in-home leisure activity of three adults with severe disabilities in three supported independent living (SIL) sites. Results indicated a lack of leisure engagement. Potentially preferred, typical leisure activities were then identified by consulting lists of common leisure activities, surveying adults in…

  13. Seismicity of California's north coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    At least three moment magnitude (M) 7 earthquakes occurred along California's north coast in the second half of the nineteenth century. The M 7.3 earthquake on 23 November 1873 occurred near the California-Oregon coast and likely was located on the Cascadia subduction zone or within the North American plate. The M 7.0 + earthquake on 9 May 1878 was located about 75 km offshore near the Mendocino fault. The surface-wave magnitude (M(s)) 7.0 earthquake on 16 April 1899 was located about 150 km offshore within the Gorda plate. There were at least three M 7 north-coast earthquakes in the 35 years before 1906, two M 7 earthquakes in the 20 years after 1906, no M 7 earthquakes from 1923 until 1980, and four M 7 earthquakes since 1980. The relative seismic quiescence after 1906 for M 7 earthquakes along California's north coast mimics the post-1906 seismic quiescence in the San Francisco Bay area for M 6 earthquakes. The post-1906 relative quiescence did not extend to lower magnitudes in either area. The 18 April 1906 earthquake apparently influenced the rate of occurrence of M 7 north-coast earthquakes as it apparently influenced the rate of M 6 earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay area. The relative seismic quiescence along the California north-coast region after 1906 should be taken into account when evaluating seismic hazards in northwest California.

  14. Angola Seismicity MAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  15. Detecting aseismic strain transients from seismicity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; McGuire, J. J.

    2011-06-01

    Aseismic deformation transients such as fluid flow, magma migration, and slow slip can trigger changes in seismicity rate. We present a method that can detect these seismicity rate variations and utilize these anomalies to constrain the underlying variations in stressing rate. Because ordinary aftershock sequences often obscure changes in the background seismicity caused by aseismic processes, we combine the stochastic Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model that describes aftershock sequences well and the physically based rate- and state-dependent friction seismicity model into a single seismicity rate model that models both aftershock activity and changes in background seismicity rate. We implement this model into a data assimilation algorithm that inverts seismicity catalogs to estimate space-time variations in stressing rate. We evaluate the method using a synthetic catalog, and then apply it to a catalog of M ≥ 1.5 events that occurred in the Salton Trough from 1990 to 2009. We validate our stressing rate estimates by comparing them to estimates from a geodetically derived slip model for a large creep event on the Obsidian Buttes fault. The results demonstrate that our approach can identify large aseismic deformation transients in a multidecade long earthquake catalog and roughly constrain the absolute magnitude of the stressing rate transients. Our method can therefore provide a way to detect aseismic transients in regions where geodetic resolution in space or time is poor.

  16. Detecting aseismic strain transients from seismicity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Llenos, A.L.; McGuire, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aseismic deformation transients such as fluid flow, magma migration, and slow slip can trigger changes in seismicity rate. We present a method that can detect these seismicity rate variations and utilize these anomalies to constrain the underlying variations in stressing rate. Because ordinary aftershock sequences often obscure changes in the background seismicity caused by aseismic processes, we combine the stochastic Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model that describes aftershock sequences well and the physically based rate- and state-dependent friction seismicity model into a single seismicity rate model that models both aftershock activity and changes in background seismicity rate. We implement this model into a data assimilation algorithm that inverts seismicity catalogs to estimate space-time variations in stressing rate. We evaluate the method using a synthetic catalog, and then apply it to a catalog of M???1.5 events that occurred in the Salton Trough from 1990 to 2009. We validate our stressing rate estimates by comparing them to estimates from a geodetically derived slip model for a large creep event on the Obsidian Buttes fault. The results demonstrate that our approach can identify large aseismic deformation transients in a multidecade long earthquake catalog and roughly constrain the absolute magnitude of the stressing rate transients. Our method can therefore provide a way to detect aseismic transients in regions where geodetic resolution in space or time is poor. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Off Shore Geodetic Measurements Simulations in the Context of Seismic and Tsunami Hazard Evaluation in the Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakic, P.; Ballu, V.; Piete, H.; Royer, J. Y.; de Chabalier, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the current state of knowledge, the megathrust/tsunami hazard estimation in the Lesser Antilles forearc remains uncertain. Some major events have been reported (e.g. the 1843 earthquake estimated with a IX intensity), however no associated mega-tsunami has been recorded, maybe because of the nature of the event (slab locked up to the trench or not) or the too short observation period. GNSS monitoring networks are deployed on all Caribbean Islands (Guadeloupe and Martinique in particular). However, land areas are far from the trench, and their configuration is not optimal for the strain measurement related to a possible locking between the two plates up to the seafloor.The GPS/Acoustics (GPS/A) technique aims to overcome this limitation. It consists of a surface platform used as a relay between aerial and underwater media. The position is obtained in a global reference frame by GNSS kinematic processing and is transferred to the seafloor by acoustic ranging to a set of transponders permanently installed on the seabed. Repeated measurements over the years will allow to compute the velocity of the study area in a global reference frame. We present a case study for a future deployment of this kind of submarine network off the French Caribbean Islands. Numerical simulations of GPS/A are performed in order to evaluate the accuracy achievable in the Antilles context, using water variability information from past oceanographic campaigns and MOVE buoys. The kinematic GNSS treatments are carried out on test cruises data by different methods (real-time differential, differential post treatment and Precise Point Positioning) to assess the performances in different conditions. In order to characterize the geophysical context, we also present a reprocessing of the GNSS stations of the Guadeloupe and Martinique Islands using a PPP approach with the CNES GINS software, along with a finite element model of the subduction zone.

  18. Comparative seismic evaluation between numerical analysis and Italian guidelines on cultural heritage applied to the case study of a masonry building compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formisano, Antonio; Chiumiento, Giovanni; Fabbrocino, Francesco; Landolfo, Raffaele

    2017-07-01

    The general objective of the work is to draw attention to the issue of seismic vulnerability analysis of masonry building compounds, which characterise most of the Italian historic towns. The study is based on the analysis of an aggregated construction falling in the town of Arsita (Teramo, Italy) damaged after the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. A comparison between the seismic verifications carried out by using the 3Muri commercial software and those deriving from the application of the Italian Guidelines on Cultural Heritage has been performed. The comparison has shown that Guidelines provide results on the safe side in predicting the seismic behaviour of the building compound under study. Further analyses should be performed aiming at suggesting some modifications of the used simplified calculation method to better interpret the behaviour of building compounds under earthquake.

  19. Evaluation of Treatment in the Smart Home IRIS in terms of Functional Independence and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Ocepek, Julija; Roberts, Anne E. K.; Vidmar, Gaj

    2013-01-01

    The development of assistive technologies, home modifications, and smart homes has rapidly advanced in the last two decades. Health professionals have recognised the benefits of these technologies in improving individual's quality of life. The Smart Home IRIS was established in 2008 within the University Rehabilitation Institute in Ljubljana with the aim to enable persons with disabilities and elderly people to test various assistive technologies and technical solutions for their independent living. We investigated the effect of treatments in the Smart Home IRIS. A convenience sample of 59 persons with disabilities and elderly people (aged 24–81 years) who were treated in the Smart Home IRIS from April to December 2011 participated. Standardised instruments—the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM)—were administered at the first assessment in the Smart Home IRIS and at a second assessment at the participant's home after 6–12 months. All the outcomes statistically significantly improved from the first to the second assessment. The treatments in the Smart Home IRIS appeared to contribute to higher occupational performance and satisfaction with performance and higher functional independence of persons with disabilities and elderly people. PMID:24348748