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Sample records for india evolution prospects

  1. Early Precambrian crustal evolution of south India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Early Precambrian sequence in Karnataka, South India provides evidences for a distinct trend of evolution which differs from trends exhibited in many other Early Precambrian regions of the world. The supracrustal rock associations preserved in greenstone belts and as inclusions in gneisses and granulites suggest the evolution of the terrain from a stable to a mobile regime. The stable regime is represented by (1) layered ultramafic-mafic complexes, (2) orthoquartzite-basalt-rhyodacite-iron formation, and (30 ortho-quartzite-carbonate-Mn-Fe formation. The mobile regime, which can be shown on sedimentological grounds to have succeeded the stable regime, witnessed the accumulation of a greywacke-pillow basalt-dacite-rhyolite-iron formation association. Detrital sediments of the stable zone accumulated dominantly in fluvial environment and the associated volcanics are ubaerial. The volcanics of the stable regime are tholeiites derived from a zirconium and LREE-enriched sources. The greywackes of the mobile regime are turbidities, and the volcanic rocks possess continental margin (island-arc or back-arc) affinity; they show a LREE depleted to slightly LREE-enriched pattern. The evolution from a stable to a mobile regime is in contrast to the trend seen in most other regions of the world, where an early dominantly volcanic association of a mobile regime gives way upward in the sequence to sediments characteristic of a stable regime.

  2. The evolution of alcohol use in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H K; Tripathi, B M; Pelto, Pertti J

    2010-08-01

    This paper traces the role of alcohol production and use in the daily lives of people in India, from ancient times to the present day. Alcohol use has been an issue of great ambivalence throughout the rich and long history of the Indian subcontinent. The behaviors and attitudes about alcohol use in India are very complex, contradictory and convoluted because of the many different influences in that history. The evolution of alcohol use patterns in India can be divided into four broad historical periods (time of written records), beginning with the Vedic era (ca. 1500-700 BCE). From 700 BCE to 1100 CE, ("Reinterpretation and Synthesis") is the time of emergence of Buddhism and Jainism, with some new anti-alcohol doctrines, as well as post-Vedic developments in the Hindu traditions and scholarly writing. The writings of the renowned medical practitioners, Charaka and Susruta, added new lines of thought, including arguments for "moderate alcohol use." The Period of Islamic Influence (1100-1800 CE), including the Mughal era from the 1520s to 1800, exhibited a complex interplay of widespread alcohol use, competing with the clear Quranic opposition to alcohol consumption. The fourth period (1800 to the present) includes the deep influence of British colonial rule and the recent half century of Indian independence, beginning in 1947. The contradictions and ambiguities-with widespread alcohol use in some sectors of society, including the high status caste of warriors/rulers (Kshatriyas), versus prohibitions and condemnation of alcohol use, especially for the Brahmin (scholar-priest) caste, have produced alcohol use patterns that include frequent high-risk, heavy and hazardous drinking. The recent increases in alcohol consumption in many sectors of the general Indian population, coupled with the strong evidence of the role of alcohol in the spread of HIV/STI infections and other health risks, point to the need for detailed understanding of the complex cross

  3. Prospects for better nutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Rajan; van den Briel, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Being home to 31% of the world's children who are stunted and 42% of those who are underweight, and with many children and adults affected by micronutrient deficiencies, India is facing huge challenges in the field of nutrition. Even though the Indian Government is investing vast amounts of money into programs that aim to enhance food security, health and nutrition (the Integrated Child Development Services program alone costs 3 billion USD per year), overall impact has been rather disappointing. However, there are some bright spots on the horizon. The recent District Level Health Surveys (DLHS-4) do show significant progress, ie a reduction in stunting of around 15% over the past 6 years in a few states for which preliminary results are available. The reasons for this reduction are not unambiguous and appear to include state government commitment, focus on the 'window of opportunity', improved status and education of women, a lowered fertility rate, and combinations of nutrition- specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. Apart from the government many other agencies play a role in driving improvements in nutrition. Since 2006 the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) has worked with a range of partners to improve access to nutritious foods for large parts of the population, through public and private delivery channels. This supplement presents a selection of these activities, ranging from a capacityassessment of frontline workers in the ICDS system, large scale staple food fortification, salt iodization, fortification of mid-day meals for school children and decentralized complementary food production.

  4. Impacts and evolution: future prospects.

    PubMed

    Morrison, David

    2003-01-01

    The discipline of astrobiology includes the dynamics of biological evolution. One of the major ways that the cosmos influences life is through the catastrophic environmental disruptions caused when comets and asteroids collide with a planet. We now recognize that such impacts have caused mass extinctions and played a major role in determining the evolution of life on Earth. The time-averaged impact flux as a function of projectile energy can be derived from lunar cratering statistics as well as the current population of near Earth asteroids (NEAs). Effects of impacts of various energies can be modeled, using data from historic impacts [such as the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) impactor 65 million years ago] and the observed 1994 bombardment of Jupiter by fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. It is of particular interest to find from such models that the terrestrial environment is highly vulnerable to perturbation from impacts, so that even such a small event as the KT impact (by a projectile 10-15 km in diameter) can lead to a mass extinction. Similar considerations allow us to model the effects of still smaller (and much more likely) impacts, down to the size of the asteroid that exploded over Tunguska in 1908 (energy approximately 10 megatons). Combining the impact flux with estimates of environmental and ecological effects reveals that the greatest contemporary hazard is associated with impactors near 1 million megatons in energy (approximately 2 km in diameter for an asteroid). The current impact hazard is significant relative to other natural hazards, and arguments can be developed to illuminate a variety of public policy issues. The first priority in any plan for defense against impactors is to survey the population of Earth-crossing NEAs and project their orbits forward in time. This is the purpose of the Spaceguard Survey, which has already found more than half of the NEAs >1 km in diameter. If there is an NEA on a collision course with Earth, it can be

  5. Impacts and evolution: future prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David

    2003-01-01

    The discipline of astrobiology includes the dynamics of biological evolution. One of the major ways that the cosmos influences life is through the catastrophic environmental disruptions caused when comets and asteroids collide with a planet. We now recognize that such impacts have caused mass extinctions and played a major role in determining the evolution of life on Earth. The time-averaged impact flux as a function of projectile energy can be derived from lunar cratering statistics as well as the current population of near Earth asteroids (NEAs). Effects of impacts of various energies can be modeled, using data from historic impacts [such as the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) impactor 65 million years ago] and the observed 1994 bombardment of Jupiter by fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. It is of particular interest to find from such models that the terrestrial environment is highly vulnerable to perturbation from impacts, so that even such a small event as the KT impact (by a projectile 10-15 km in diameter) can lead to a mass extinction. Similar considerations allow us to model the effects of still smaller (and much more likely) impacts, down to the size of the asteroid that exploded over Tunguska in 1908 (energy approximately 10 megatons). Combining the impact flux with estimates of environmental and ecological effects reveals that the greatest contemporary hazard is associated with impactors near 1 million megatons in energy (approximately 2 km in diameter for an asteroid). The current impact hazard is significant relative to other natural hazards, and arguments can be developed to illuminate a variety of public policy issues. The first priority in any plan for defense against impactors is to survey the population of Earth-crossing NEAs and project their orbits forward in time. This is the purpose of the Spaceguard Survey, which has already found more than half of the NEAs >1 km in diameter. If there is an NEA on a collision course with Earth, it can be

  6. Impacts and evolution: future prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David

    2003-01-01

    The discipline of astrobiology includes the dynamics of biological evolution. One of the major ways that the cosmos influences life is through the catastrophic environmental disruptions caused when comets and asteroids collide with a planet. We now recognize that such impacts have caused mass extinctions and played a major role in determining the evolution of life on Earth. The time-averaged impact flux as a function of projectile energy can be derived from lunar cratering statistics as well as the current population of near Earth asteroids (NEAs). Effects of impacts of various energies can be modeled, using data from historic impacts [such as the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) impactor 65 million years ago] and the observed 1994 bombardment of Jupiter by fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. It is of particular interest to find from such models that the terrestrial environment is highly vulnerable to perturbation from impacts, so that even such a small event as the KT impact (by a projectile 10-15 km in diameter) can lead to a mass extinction. Similar considerations allow us to model the effects of still smaller (and much more likely) impacts, down to the size of the asteroid that exploded over Tunguska in 1908 (energy approximately 10 megatons). Combining the impact flux with estimates of environmental and ecological effects reveals that the greatest contemporary hazard is associated with impactors near 1 million megatons in energy (approximately 2 km in diameter for an asteroid). The current impact hazard is significant relative to other natural hazards, and arguments can be developed to illuminate a variety of public policy issues. The first priority in any plan for defense against impactors is to survey the population of Earth-crossing NEAs and project their orbits forward in time. This is the purpose of the Spaceguard Survey, which has already found more than half of the NEAs >1 km in diameter. If there is an NEA on a collision course with Earth, it can be

  7. Interstitial Lung Disease in India. Results of a Prospective Registry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheetu; Collins, Bridget F; Sharma, Bharat B; Joshi, Jyotsna M; Talwar, Deepak; Katiyar, Sandeep; Singh, Nishtha; Ho, Lawrence; Samaria, Jai Kumar; Bhattacharya, Parthasarathi; Gupta, Rakesh; Chaudhari, Sudhir; Singh, Tejraj; Moond, Vijay; Pipavath, Sudhakar; Ahuja, Jitesh; Chetambath, Ravindran; Ghoshal, Aloke G; Jain, Nirmal K; Devi, H J Gayathri; Kant, Surya; Koul, Parvaiz; Dhar, Raja; Swarnakar, Rajesh; Sharma, Surendra K; Roy, Dhrubajyoti J; Sarmah, Kripesh R; Jankharia, Bhavin; Schmidt, Rodney; Katiyar, Santosh K; Jindal, Arpita; Mangal, Daya K; Singh, Virendra; Raghu, Ganesh

    2017-03-15

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases. Existing ILD registries have had variable findings. Little is known about the clinical profile of ILDs in India. To characterize new-onset ILDs in India by creating a prospective ILD using multidisciplinary discussion (MDD) to validate diagnoses. Adult patients of Indian origin living in India with new-onset ILD (27 centers, 19 Indian cities, March 2012-June 2015) without malignancy or infection were included. All had connective tissue disease (CTD) serologies, spirometry, and high-resolution computed tomography chest. ILD pattern was defined by high-resolution computed tomography images. Three groups independently made diagnoses after review of clinical data including that from prompted case report forms: local site investigators, ILD experts at the National Data Coordinating Center (NDCC; Jaipur, India) with MDD, and experienced ILD experts at the Center for ILD (CILD; Seattle, WA) with MDD. Cohen's κ was used to assess reliability of interobserver agreement. A total of 1,084 patients were recruited. Final diagnosis: hypersensitivity pneumonitis in 47.3% (n = 513; exposure, 48.1% air coolers), CTD-ILD in 13.9%, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in 13.7%. Cohen's κ: 0.351 site investigator/CILD, 0.519 site investigator/NDCC, and 0.618 NDCC/CILD. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis was the most common new-onset ILD in India, followed by CTD-ILD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; diagnoses varied between site investigators and CILD experts, emphasizing the value of MDD in ILD diagnosis. Prompted case report forms including environmental exposures in prospective registries will likely provide further insight into the etiology and management of ILD worldwide.

  8. Library Automation and Networking in India: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyas, S. D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the information infrastructure and the impact of information technology in India. Highlights include attempts toward automation; library networking at the national and local level; descriptions of four major networks; library software; and constraints of networking in academic libraries. (LRW)

  9. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background India and the EU are currently negotiating a Trade and Investment Agreement which also covers services. This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration. The paper provides an overview of key features of health services in the EU and India and their bearing on bilateral relations in this sector. Methods Twenty six semi-structured, in-person, and telephonic interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 in four Indian cities. The respondents included management and practitioners in a variety of healthcare establishments, health sector representatives in Indian industry associations, health sector officials in the Indian government, and official representatives of selected EU countries and the European Commission based in New Delhi. Secondary sources were used to supplement and corroborate these findings. Results The interviews revealed that India-EU relations in health services are currently very limited. However, several opportunity segments exist, namely: (i) Telemedicine; (ii) Clinical trials and research in India for EU-based pharmaceutical companies; (iii) Medical transcriptions and back office support; (iv) Medical value travel; and (v) Collaborative ventures in medical education, research, training, staff deployment, and product development. However, various factors constrain India's exports to the EU. These include data protection regulations; recognition requirements; insurance portability restrictions; discriminatory conditions; and cultural, social, and perception-related barriers. The interviews also revealed several constraints in the Indian health care sector, including disparity in domestic standards and training, absence of clear guidelines and procedures, and inadequate infrastructure. Conclusions The paper concludes that although there are several promising areas for India

  10. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Rupa

    2011-02-10

    India and the EU are currently negotiating a Trade and Investment Agreement which also covers services. This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration. The paper provides an overview of key features of health services in the EU and India and their bearing on bilateral relations in this sector. Twenty six semi-structured, in-person, and telephonic interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 in four Indian cities. The respondents included management and practitioners in a variety of healthcare establishments, health sector representatives in Indian industry associations, health sector officials in the Indian government, and official representatives of selected EU countries and the European Commission based in New Delhi. Secondary sources were used to supplement and corroborate these findings. The interviews revealed that India-EU relations in health services are currently very limited. However, several opportunity segments exist, namely: (i) Telemedicine; (ii) Clinical trials and research in India for EU-based pharmaceutical companies; (iii) Medical transcriptions and back office support; (iv) Medical value travel; and (v) Collaborative ventures in medical education, research, training, staff deployment, and product development. However, various factors constrain India's exports to the EU. These include data protection regulations; recognition requirements; insurance portability restrictions; discriminatory conditions; and cultural, social, and perception-related barriers. The interviews also revealed several constraints in the Indian health care sector, including disparity in domestic standards and training, absence of clear guidelines and procedures, and inadequate infrastructure. The paper concludes that although there are several promising areas for India-EU relations in health services, it will be

  11. Evolution of the Transplantation of Human Organ Act and law in India.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Rakesh K; Gupta, Sudhir; Tripathi, Samidha

    2012-07-27

    : The Government of India has established laws to conduct organ transplantation in India. The Transplantation of Human Organ Act and rules in India were promulgated in 1994 and subsequently amended in 2008 and 2011 to promote organ transplantation, including deceased organ donation, commensurate with the highest ethical principles. We have reviewed in brief the origin and evolution of the Transplantation of Human Organ Act in India with the hope that our experience in developing the laws that govern organ transplantation may be of value for others undertaking or overseeing this life-giving advance.

  12. Rifting to India-Asia Reactivation: Multi-phase Structural Evolution of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. J.; Bladon, A.; Clarke, S.; Najman, Y.; Copley, A.; Kloppenburg, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Barmer Basin, situated within the West Indian Rift System, is an intra-cratonic rift basin produced during Gondwana break-up. Despite being a prominent oil and gas province, the structural evolution and context of the rift within northwest India remains poorly understood. Substantial subsurface datasets acquired during hydrocarbon exploration provide an unrivalled tool to investigate the tectonic evolution of the Barmer Basin rift and northwest India during India-Asia collision. Here we present a structural analysis using seismic datasets to investigate Barmer Basin evolution and place findings within the context of northwest India development. Present day rift structural architectures result from superposition of two non-coaxial extensional events; an early mid-Cretaceous rift-oblique event (NW-SE), followed by a main Paleocene rifting phase (NE-SW). Three phases of fault reactivation follow rifting: A transpressive, Late Paleocene inversion along localised E-W and NNE-SSW-trending faults; a widespread Late Paleocene-Early Eocene inversion and Late Miocene-Present Day transpressive strike-slip faulting along NW-SE-trending faults and isolated inversion structures. A major Late Eocene-Miocene unconformity in the basin is also identified, approximately coeval with those identified within the Himalayan foreland basin, suggesting a common cause related to India-Asia collision, and calling into question previous explanations that are not compatible with spatial extension of the unconformity beyond the foreland basin. Although, relatively poorly age constrained, extensional and compressional events within the Barmer Basin can be correlated with regional tectonic processes including the fragmentation of Gondwana, the rapid migration of the Greater Indian continent, to subsequent collision with Asia. New insights into the Barmer Basin development have important implications not only for ongoing hydrocarbon exploration but the temporal evolution of northwest India.

  13. Life history evolution: successes, limitations, and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stearns, Stephen C.

    Life history theory tries to explain how evolution designs organisms to achieve reproductive success. The design is a solution to an ecological problem posed by the environment and subject to constraints intrinsic to the organism. Work on life histories has expanded the role of phenotypes in evolutionary theory, extending the range of predictions from genetic patterns to whole-organism traits directly connected to fitness. Among the questions answered are the following: Why are organisms small or large? Why do they mature early or late? Why do they have few or many offspring? Why do they have a short or a long life? Why must they grow old and die? The classical approach to life histories was optimization; it has had some convincing empirical success. Recently non-equilibrium approaches involving frequency-dependence, density-dependence, evolutionary game theory, adaptive dynamics, and explicit population dynamics have supplanted optimization as the preferred approach. They have not yet had as much empirical success, but there are logical reasons to prefer them, and they may soon extend the impact of life history theory into population dynamics and interspecific interactions in coevolving communities.

  14. Note on "History of psychology in India: Problems and prospects".

    PubMed

    Sinha, Chetan; Fox Lee, Shayna

    2017-02-01

    Discusses the indigenization movement of psychology in India, which attempts to develop a context sensitive discipline that can understand the concept of mind and human behavior from the cultural perspective. It emphasizes the culturally bound aspects of human nature and uses methods to explore the ways in which culture emerges from history. Given the directions of scientific research, it is not absurd to engage with Western theories. Nevertheless, some Indian psychologists have resisted what they consider the intrusion of modern psychology. They have forwarded premises about human nature in the philosophical roots of traditional Indian thought which look tautological and feed back to our oppressive social structures; for example, the patriarchy and caste systems. The scope of social change is limited under the garb of indigenization, unless the movement of indigenization calls for social change. Several points are made, of which Indian psychological approaches should become cognizant to better understand the relevant contexts for social responsibility. In addition, several recommendations are suggested for a new wave of psychological research in India. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. India at the cross-roads of human evolution.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, R; Chauhan, P

    2009-11-01

    The Indian palaeoanthropological record, although patchy at the moment, is improving rapidly with every new find. This broad review attempts to provide an account of (a) the Late Miocene fossil apes and their gradual disappearance due to ecological shift from forest dominated to grassland dominated ecosystem around 9-8 Ma ago, (b) the Pliocene immigration/evolution of possible hominids and associated fauna, (c) the Pleistocene record of fossil hominins, associated fauna and artifacts, and (d) the Holocene time of permanent settlements and the genetic data from various human cultural groups within India. Around 13 Ma ago (late Middle Miocene) Siwalik forests saw the emergence of an orangutan-like primate Sivapithecus. By 8 Ma, this genus disappeared from the Siwalik region as its habitat started shrinking due to increased aridity influenced by global cooling and monsoon intensification. A contemporary and a close relative of Sivapithecus, Gigantopithecus (Indopithecus), the largest ape that ever-lived, made its first appearance at around 9 Ma. Other smaller primates that were pene-contemporaneous with these apes were Pliopithecus (Dendropithecus), Indraloris, Sivaladapis and Palaeotupia. The Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene witnessed northern hemisphere glaciations, followed by the spread of arid conditions on a global scale, setting the stage for hominids to explore "Savanahastan". With the prominent expansion of grassland environments from East Africa to China and Indonesia in the Pliocene, monkeys and baboons dispersed into the Indian subcontinent from Africa along with other mammals. Though debated, there are several claims of the presence of early hominins in this part of the world during the Late Pliocene, based primarily on the recovery of Palaeolithic tools. Fossils of our own ancestor and one of the first globe-trotters, early Homo erectus, has been documented from the Early Pleistocene of East Africa, Western Asia and Southeast Asia, thus indirectly

  16. Trends, prospects and deprivation index of disability in India: Evidences from census 2001 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Ashish; Pandey, C M; Dubey, Manisha; Rastogi, Sanjay

    2017-04-01

    Since the dawn of civilization, disabilities have existed in various dimensions of human life. World Health Organization (WHO) defines disability as an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Globally, approximately 1 billion people have some form of disability, and approximately 20% have significant functioning impairments. This study aims to estimate the level, trends and prospects of disability in 640 districts of India. Data for the present study has been taken from Census of India, 2001 and 2011. A Disability Index was calculated at the district level, and state level indexing was done using the Disability Deprivation Index. The population for the year 2021 was projected using the exponential growth rate method. The Disability Deprivation Index was calculated using child labor, adult unemployment, illiteracy, and the ratio of beggars in the disabled population. The study reveals that the proportion of the disabled population in India was 2.10% in 2001, which increased to 2.21% in 2011. According to the Disability Deprivation Index, Maharashtra was the best-performing state in 2011. There were 4.90 million new cases of disability in India during 2001-11, out of which 1.52 million cases belonged to non-congenital disability. There is a rise in the disabled population in India, which needs special attention. The working status of the disabled is gloomy. The majority of the disabled people are non-working and need adequate rehabilitation measures that would facilitate employment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental biotechnology in India: prospects and case studies.

    PubMed

    Khanna, P

    1996-09-01

    The emergence and acceptance of the concept of sustainable development warrants that the scope of environmental biotechnology be enlarged to address issues like environmental monitoring, restoration of environmental quality, resource/residue/waste-recovery/utilization/treatment, and substitution of the non-renewable resource base with renewable resources. This paper delineates the current and prospective applications in these sub-areas of environmental biotechnology, and documents case studies on environmental monitoring (enteric viruses), restoration of environmental quality (oil spill remediation), resource recovery (hydrocarbon recovery from oily sludges, biosurfactants from distillery spentwash, desulphurization of coal & sour gases), and substitution of non-renewable resources with renewables (conversion of lignocellulisics into value added chemicals).

  18. Prospects and prejudices of human papillomavirus vaccines in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhudev C; Hussain, Showket; Nasare, Vilas; Bharadwaj, Mausumi

    2008-05-23

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer and a leading cause of cancer deaths among women in developing countries. The disease is caused due to persistent infection of one or more of about 15 high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs), most commonly by HPV types 16/18. In India, over 98% of cervical cancer cases harbor HPV infection and HPV 16 is the type exclusively (80-90%) prevalent. Unlike the West, HPV infection is most common in women in their third decade (26-35 years) of sexual activity and invasive cancer also arises much later with a peak at about 45-55 years of age. Recently, two successful prophylactic HPV vaccines, a quadrivalent (HPV16/18/6/11) 'Gardasil' by Merck and a bivalent (HPV16/18) 'Cervarix' by GSK have been developed. Several other approaches including plant-based edible, pentameric capsomere-based intranasal and DNA-based vaccines have also been employed to develop prophylactic vaccines. Also, several therapeutic vaccines either protein/peptide based or DNA based are in clinical trials but are yet to establish their efficacy. Though there are several issues regarding implementation of the already developed vaccines in resource limited countries, efforts are being made to develop cost-effective second-generation vaccines. If cost minimized, HPV related new technologies involved in screening tests and vaccines are expected to reduce incidence of cervical cancer and deaths it causes in women from developing countries.

  19. The elimination of contraceptive acceptor targets and the evolution of population policy in India.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Peter J

    2002-03-01

    In 1966 the government of India announced a new national population policy that eliminated numerical targets for new contraceptive acceptors. This paper examines the history of target setting in India and factors that led to the elimination of targets. The analysis is based on published and unpublished reports on India's population policy and the family planning programme and interviews with senior Indian and foreign officials and population specialists. Five factors are identified as playing a role in the evolution from target setting to a target-free policy:(1) the research of India's academics; (2) the work of women's health advocates; (3) the support of officials in the state bureaucracy who approved the target-free approach; (4) the influence of the donors to India's family planning programme, especially the World Bank; and (5) the International Conference on Population and Development.

  20. Evolution of medical education in India: The impact of colonialism

    PubMed Central

    Anshu; Supe, A

    2016-01-01

    The cross-cultural exchanges between the people of India and their colonial rulers provides a fascinating insight into how these encounters shaped medicine and medical education in India. This article traces the history of how Indian medicine was transformed in the backdrop of colonialism and hegemony. It goes on to show how six decades after independence, we have have still been unable to convincingly shrug off the colonial yoke. India needs to work out a national medical curriculum which caters to our country's needs. A symbiotic relationship needs to be developed between the indigenous and allopathic systems of medicine. PMID:27763484

  1. Evolution of medical education in India: The impact of colonialism.

    PubMed

    Supe, A

    2016-09-21

    The cross-cultural exchanges between the people of India and their colonial rulers provides a fascinating insight into how these encounters shaped medicine and medical education in India. This article traces the history of how Indian medicine was transformed in the backdrop of colonialism and hegemony. It goes on to show how six decades after independence, we have have still been unable to convincingly shrug off the colonial yoke. India needs to work out a national medical curriculum which caters to our country's needs. A symbiotic relationship needs to be developed between the indigenous and allopathic systems of medicine.

  2. Evolution of medical education in India: The impact of colonialism.

    PubMed

    Supe, A

    2016-01-01

    The cross-cultural exchanges between the people of India and their colonial rulers provides a fascinating insight into how these encounters shaped medicine and medical education in India. This article traces the history of how Indian medicine was transformed in the backdrop of colonialism and hegemony. It goes on to show how six decades after independence, we have have still been unable to convincingly shrug off the colonial yoke. India needs to work out a national medical curriculum which caters to our country's needs. A symbiotic relationship needs to be developed between the indigenous and allopathic systems of medicine.

  3. Liberalization of India`s electric power sector: Evolution or anarchy?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, R.

    1996-03-01

    The past two years have seen the bloom off the rose of India`s highly promising electricity sector restructuring. But take heart: Dabhol and other disappointments that may have seemed like a nightmare through much of 1995 may be only a mid-course correction in a robust restructuring that has still a long and promising distance to travel.

  4. Genetic Programming Applied to Base-Metal Prospectivity Mapping in the Aravalli Province, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewkowski, Christopher; Porwal, Alok; González-Álvarez, Ignacio

    2010-05-01

    Genetic Programming Applied to Base-Metal Prospectivity Mapping in the Aravalli Province, India Mineral prospectivity mapping of an area involves demarcation of potentially mineralized zones based on geologic features associated with the targeted mineral deposits. These features are sometimes directly observable and mapped; more often, their presence is inferred from their responses in various geoscience datasets, which are appropriately processed, generally in a GIS software environment, to derive their spatial proxies, also called predictor maps layers. Most approaches to mineral prospectivity mapping use mathematical models to approximate the relation between predictor map layers and the presence (or absence) of the targeted mineral deposits and to label unique combinations of spatially coincident predictor map layers as mineralized or barren. Essentially, the procedure involves recognizing and distinguishing the patterns of predictor map layers associated with mineralized locations from those associated with barren locations. Machine learning algorithms such as neural networks, support vector machines, and Bayesian classifiers are highly efficient pattern recognizers and classifiers. They are being increasingly applied to mineral prospectivity mapping, within or outside a GIS environment. However, most of these algorithms have a black-box-type implementation, that is, the output of these models do not generate new conceptual geological knowledge about the relative importance of various variables and their mutual relationships. Genetic Programming (GP) is a category of machine learning algorithms that address this problem effectively. In addition to generating the output classification map, GP also generates a set of rules that reveal the mutual relationships of the predictor variables, based on empirical analyses. These rules can be used to validate conceptual knowledge against empirical data, and also reveal new patterns in the data, resulting in new

  5. Domestic violence and early childhood mortality in rural India: evidence from prospective data

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Michael A; Stephenson, Rob; Acharya, Rajib; Barrick, Lindsay; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Hindin, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between domestic violence and perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality in rural India using prospective data. Methods The study is based upon a prospective follow-up study of a cohort selected from the 1998–99 National Family and Health Survey-2 (NSFS-2), which was carried out in 2002–03 in four Indian states. Data for a total of 3909 birth outcomes that took place during this 4-year period were analysed using bivariate analysis and hazards regression analysis to control for truncated observations and possible other confounding factors. Findings After controlling for other potentially confounding factors, births to mothers who experienced two or more episodes of recent domestic violence experienced higher perinatal [hazards ratio (HR) = 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12, 2.79] and neonatal (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.53) mortality, relative to births to women whose mothers reported no violence. Overall, these births to women who experienced violence had 68% higher risk of infant mortality compared with the ‘no violence’ group. Births to women who experienced a single episode of violence were not at higher risk of mortality. Conclusions Our study provides additional and more conclusive evidence on the importance of domestic violence for early childhood mortality in low-resource settings such as rural India. The results argue for a greater focus upon such violence within current child survival programmes. PMID:20444839

  6. India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  7. SVM-based base-metal prospectivity modeling of the Aravalli Orogen, Northwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porwal, Alok; Yu, Le

    2010-05-01

    The Proterozoic Aravalli orogen in the state of Rajasthan, northwestern India, constitutes the most important metallogenic province for base-metal deposits in India and hosts the entire economically viable lead-zinc resource-base of the country. The orogen evolved through near-orderly Wilson cycles of repeated extensional and compressional tectonics resulting in sequential opening and closing of intracratonic rifts and amalgamation of crustal domains during a circa 1.0-Ga geological history from 2.2 Ga to 1.0 Ga. This study develops a conceptual tectonostratigraphic model of the orogen based on a synthesis of the available geological, geophysical and geochronological data followed by deep-seismic-reflectivity-constrained 2-D forward gravity modeling, and links it to the Proterozoic base-metal metallogeny in the orogen in order to identify key geological controls on the base-metal mineralization. These controls are translated into exploration criteria for base-metal deposits, validated using empirical spatial analysis, and used to derive input spatial variables for model-based base-metal prospectivity mapping of the orogen. A support vector machine (SVM) algorithm augmented by incorporating a feature selection procedure is used in a GIS environment to implement the prospectivity mapping. A comparison of the SVM-derived prospectivity map with the ones derived using other established models such as neural-networks, logistic regression, and Bayesian weights-of-evidence indicates that the SVM outperforms other models, which is attributed to the capability of the SVM to return robust classification based on small training datasets.

  8. Chikungunya Infection in India: Results of a Prospective Hospital Based Multi-Centric Study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Pratima; Ratagiri, Vinod H.; Kabra, Sushil K.; Lodha, Rakesh; Sharma, Sumit; Sharma, B. S.; Kalaivani, Mani; Wig, Naveet

    2012-01-01

    Background Chikungunya (CHIKV) has recently seen a re-emergence in India with high morbidity. However, the epidemiology and disease burden remain largely undetermined. A prospective multi-centric study was conducted to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and virological features of chikugunya infection in patients with acute febrile illness from various geographical regions of India. Methods and Findings A total of 540 patients with fever of up to 7days duration were enrolled at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Karnataka (South); Sawai Man Singh Medical College (SMS) Rajasthan (West), and All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) New Delhi (North) from June 2008 to May 2009. Serum specimens were screened for chikungunya infection concurrently through RT-PCR and serology (IgM). Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bioedit and Mega2 programs. Chikungunya infection was detected in 25.37% patients by RT-PCR and/or IgM-ELISA. Highest cases were detected in south (49.36%) followed by west (16.28%) and north (0.56%) India. A difference in proportion of positives by RT-PCR/ELISA with regard to duration of fever was observed (p<0.05). Rashes, joint pain/swelling, abdominal pain and vomiting was frequently observed among chikungunya confirmed cases (p<0.05). Adults were affected more than children. Anti-CHIK antibodies (IgM) were detected for more than 60days of fever onset. Phylogenetic analysis based on E1 gene from KIMS patients (n = 15) revealed ∼99% homology clustering with Central/East African genotype. An amino acid change from lysine to glutamine at position 132 of E1 gene was frequently observed among strains infecting children. Conclusions The study documented re-emergence of chikungunya in high frequencies and severe morbidity in south and west India but rare in north. The study emphasizes the need for continuous surveillance for disease burden using multiple diagnostic tests and also warrants the need for an appropriate molecular

  9. Evolution of agricultural water use in India: a systems approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, T.; Basu, N. B.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater plays an important role in improving the resilience of agriculture practices by mitigating the risk associated with unreliable and seasonal rainfalls. This has been an important driver in satisfying the food demand for an ever increasing population across the world. However, the inability to manage this large but limited freshwater reserve has resulted in a sharp decline in water table levels, with India being at the forefront of this problem. This study looks at the temporal trajectory of groundwater extraction in India over a 40 year time span during which well irrigation has evolved to become a central component of agriculture there. Using a systems approach, we identify the regional hot-spots of unsustainable groundwater extraction and then analyze its relationship with the environmental, economic and social components of the region. Early results indicate that the state of Punjab has been overexploiting its groundwater resources since the early 1980's with a 22% jump in groundwater extraction after the introduction of a free electricity policy, with a concomitant reduction in the number of marginal farmers by 36%. This is in contrast with the state of Tamil Nadu, in which groundwater extraction is less severe, but the number of marginal farmers has increased.

  10. Evidence of independent evolution of genotype XIII Newcastle disease viruses in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Moushumee; Kumar, Sachin

    2017-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in India through the decades, there has been little genetic characterisation of the virulent strains circulating in Northeast India. In 2014, a poultry farm in the Kamrup district of Assam reported an ND outbreak. In this study, genetic analysis and clinicopathological tests showed the virulent nature of the isolate Kamrup. Based on prudent classification criteria, the virulent strain Kamrup was found to be most closely related to members of genotype XIII of class II NDV. A phylogenetic analysis of NDV strains suggested three sub-genotypes: XIIIa, XIIIb and XIIIc. NDV strain Kamrup belonged to sub-genotype XIIIc. Sub-genotype XIIIc isolates were similar to the 1982 isolate from cockatoo and appeared to have evolved parallel to the preceding genotype XIII viruses circulating in India. The high genetic diversity and frequency of mutations observed in the envelope glycoproteins of strain Kamrup demonstrate the evolution of the pandemic genotype XIII NDV in India, which further undermines and complicates of NDV management in India.

  11. Travel style is a major risk factor for diarrhoea in India: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schindler, V M; Jaeger, V K; Held, L; Hatz, C; Bühler, S

    2015-07-01

    Although some studies suggested specific foods/beverages as risk factors for travellers' diarrhoea (TD), details of transmission remain unclear. We assessed the influence of travel style (luxury/middle-class versus backpacking) on TD risk. TD attack rates were compared in a prospective study among travellers to India at the University of Zurich's Travel Clinic. Information on consumption of foods/beverages was collected. Seventy-one luxury/middle-class travellers and 21 backpackers completed the study; overall 37% suffered from TD (62% backpackers, 30% luxury/middle-class travellers, OR 4.43, p 0.022). Travel style rather than the consumption of specific foods/beverages appears to be a risk factor for TD development. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Burden of Spine Fractures in India: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Aleem, Ilyas S; DeMarco, Dylan; Drew, Brian; Sancheti, Parag; Shetty, Vijay; Dhillon, Mandeep; Foote, Clary J; Bhandari, Mohit

    2017-06-01

    Prospective cohort study. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the characteristics of patients sustaining spinal trauma in India and (2) to explore the association between patient or injury characteristics and outcomes after spinal trauma. In affiliation with the ongoing INternational ORthopaedic MUlticentre Study (INORMUS), 192 patients with spinal injuries were recruited during an 8-week period (November 2011 to June 2012) from 14 hospitals in India and followed for 30-days. The primary outcome was a composite of mortality, complications, and reoperation. This was regressed on a set of 13 predictors in a multiple logistic regression model. Most patients were middle-aged (mean age = 51.0 years; median age = 55.5 years; range = 18.0 to 72.0 years), male (60.4%), injured from falls (72.4%), and treated in a private setting (59.9%). Fractures in the lumbar region (51.0%) were most common, followed by thoracic (30.7%) and cervical (18.2%). More than 1 in 5 (21.6%) patients experienced a treatment delay greater than 24 hours, and 36.5% arrived by ambulance. Thirty-day mortality and complication rates were 2.6% and 10.0%, respectively. Care in the public hospital system (odds ratio [OR] = 6.7, 95% CI = 1.1-41.6), chest injury (OR = 11.1, 95% CI = 1.8-66.9), and surgical intervention (OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.2-19.6) were independent predictors of major complications. Treatment in the public health care system, increased severity of injury, and surgical intervention were associated with increased risk of major complications following spinal trauma. The need for a large-scale, prospective, multicenter study taking into account spinal stability and neurologic status is feasible and warranted.

  13. New age data on the geological evolution of Southern India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Paul N.; Chadwick, B.; Friend, C. R. L.; Ramakrishnan, M.; Moorbath, Stephen; Viswanatha, M. N.

    1988-01-01

    The Peninsular Gneisses of Southern India developed over a period of several hundred Ma in the middle-to-late Archaean. Gneisses in the Gorur-Hassan area of southern Karnataka are the oldest recognized constituents: Beckinsale et al. reported a preliminary Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age of 33558 + or - 66 Ma, but further Rb-Sr and Pb/Pb whole-rock isochron determinations indicate a slightly younger, though more precise age of ca 3305 Ma (R. D. Beckinsale, Pers. Comm.). It is well established that the Peninsular Gneisses constitute basement on which the Dharwar schist belts were deposited. Well-documented exposures of unconformities, with basal quartz pebble conglomerates of the Dharwar Supergroup overlying Peninsular Gneisses, have been reported from the Chikmagalur and Chitradurga areas, and basement gneisses in these two areas have been dated by Rb-Sr and Pb/Pb whole-rock isochron methods at ca 3150 Ma and ca 3000 Ma respectively. Dharwar supracrustal rocks of the Chitradurga schist belt are intruded by the Chitradurga Granite, dated by a Pb/Pb whole-rock isochron at 2605 + or - 18 Ma. These results indicate that the Dharwar Supergroup in the Chitradurga belt was deposited between 3000 Ma and 2600 Ma.

  14. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  15. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  16. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  17. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  18. Evolution and hydrocarbon prospectivity of the Douala Basin, Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Batupe, M.; Tampu, S.; Aboma, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    The Douala Basin is a stable Atlantic-type, predominantly offshore basin and forms the northern terminal of a series of divergent passive margin basins located on the Southwest coast of Africa that resulted from the rifting of Africa from South America. An integration of new studies including detailed well, biostratigraphic, sedimentological, geochemical and seismic data has confirmed that the tectonostratigraphic evolution in the basin can be broadly divided into three developmental phases: the Syn-rift, Transitional and Drift phases. This basis has been explored intermittently for hydrocarbon for the past 40 years with two important gas fields discovered and no commercial oil found as yet. This early gas discovery and a corresponding lack of any significant oil discovery, led early operators to term this basin as essentially a gas province. However, recent geochemical analyses of various oil-seeps and oil samples from various localities in the basin, using state-of-the-art techniques have demonstrated that this basin is a potential oil prone basin. The results show that two models of oil sourcing are possible: a Lower Cretaceous lacustrine saline source, similar to the presalt basins of Gabon or a marine Upper Cretaceous to lower Tertiary source, similar to the neighbouring Rio del Rey/Niger Delta Complex. Additionally, seismic reflection data also demonstrate a variety of reservoir horizons, including submarine fans, channel-like features and buried paleohighs, all interbedded within regionally extensive, uniformity bounded mudstone units. Hence, it is now quite evident that within this basin, there exist a vast potential for a wide variety of stratigraphic, structural and combined traps. These features, which are considered to have significantly enhanced the prospectivity of this basin, will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Geologic evolution and hydrocarbon prospects in the Chotts Basin, Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, C.; Chine, A.

    1995-08-01

    The Chotts Basin, running east-west across central Tunisia, is a complex Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic graben system with a sediment thickness reaching over 5000m. It covers an area of over 15,000 km{sup 2} but is underexplored. It has been drilled by only a few wells; several of which gave oil and gas shows. A number of oil and condensate fields lie immediately south. ETAP, the national oil company, has undertaken a detailed investigation of the basin, greatly improving our understanding of its evolution and prospectivity. The basin is floored by Lower Paleozoic sediments. These occur at shallow depth on the southern flank where they were affected by periodic contemporary tectonism. The succession includes Ordovician clastics with good reservoir potential and both Ordovician and uppermost Silurian source rocks. Locally, the latter unconformably overlie Ordovician reservoir sections. The basin developed into a major, east-west trending, intracratonic wrench basin during the late Permian. Carbonate facies dominate the southern shelf area and, although lithofacies distributions are poorly constrained, the existence of quality source rocks is a strong possibility. The graben complex was inverted and partly eroded prior to deposition of Upper Triassic volcanics and sandstones. The sandstones are a proven reservoir and several leads are identified. Substantial subsidence occurred in the northern part of the basin from the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Jurassic carbonates provide numerous reservoir sections, while Callovian shales constitute a proven, mature source rock. Large fault- and fold- related traps were formed during latest Cretaceous to Paleocene and Mio-Pliocene orogeny; they provide promising objectives.

  20. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  1. Evolution of iodine deficiency disorders control program in India: a journey of 5,000 years.

    PubMed

    Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) has been documented since around 5,000 years. However, geological factors like frequent glaciations, flooding, and changing of course of rivers has led to iodine deficiency in soil. As a result everyone remains at risk of IDD, if optimum intake of iodine is not sustained. Evolution of the IDD control program in India has been a dynamic process. The model of IDD control program in India provides important lessons for successful implementation of a national health program. In formulating National Health Programs; policy environment, scientific inputs, political will, and institutional structure for decision making are necessary but not sufficient. Continuous and dynamic generation of reliable and representative state and national level data, proactive recognition of values of key stakeholders and addressing them through sustained advocacy, development of partnerships among stakeholders, institutional continuity, and mentorship are critical for achieving sustainability of results.

  2. TAVI for aortic regurgitation - India's first case with Corevalve Evolut R.

    PubMed

    Gopalamurugan, A B; Murali, K; Jyotsana, B; Jacob, A; Bashi, V V

    2016-09-01

    Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is a well-described treatment for symptomatic calcific severe aortic stenosis. However, TAVI technology is being increasingly used around the world to treat selected cases of severe aortic regurgitation (AR). One of the main limitations of using TAVI technology for AR is the lack of calcification, which is common in such cases. This makes anchoring of a TAVI prosthesis to the aortic annulus difficult and risks displacement or embolization. However, with the availability of recapturable and repositionable TAVI technologies, these limitations have been overcome to a large extent. This is the first Corevalve Evolut R device that was used in India and the first TAVI to treat AR in India.

  3. Prospects for small and marginal farmers in Trichy district (Tamil Nadu, India) to use water pumping windmills for irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedhart, P.

    1984-05-01

    The economic, technical, and agricultural aspects of equiping poor farmers in India with windpowered pumps were analyzed. It is concluded that the prospects for a market for windmills among nontarget group farmers (especially big farmers with diesel pumps) are better than the prospects among the target group farmers. Continuation of the project might lead to an improvement of the situation for the richer farmers, which would in turn lead to a decline in the situation of the original target group of the project, the small and marginal farmers.

  4. First prospective study on brain stem death and attitudes toward organ donation in India.

    PubMed

    Seth, Avnish Kumar; Nambiar, Pradhi; Joshi, Ajay; Ramprasad, Ramanathan; Choubey, Rajendra; Puri, Pankaj; Murthy, Mandapaka; Naidu, Sudeep; Saha, Anupam; Bhatoe, Harjinder

    2009-11-01

    Organ donation following brain stem death is infrequent in India. There is no prospective study on prevalence of brain stem death and causes of non-donation. Consecutive patients admitted to intensive care unit from Sep 2006 to Sep 2008 were studied prospectively. Families of those with brain stem death were approached for organ donation by transplant coordinator. Extensive awareness drive was launched. Reasons for non-donation, if any, were documented. Of 2820 patients admitted, 994 (35%) were on mechanical ventilator and 657 (23%) died. Brain stem death could be diagnosed in 55, 37 males, median age 46 years (range 7 to 87 years) i.e., 1.9% of all admissions and 8.3% of all deaths. Among neurology and neurosurgery patients brain stem death was seen in 45 of 1037 (4.3%) admissions and 45 of 161 (27.9%) deaths. Complications of brain stem death were hypotension in 49, diabetes insipidus in 17 and hypertension in 5 patients. Of 33 families counselled, 16(48%) consented to organ donation. In 14(42%), organs and tissues retrieved and transplanted included 13 livers, 23 kidneys, 25 corneas and 5 cardiac valves. Consent was more likely in females (10 of 14 as compared to 6 of 19 males, p = 0.037). Consent did not correlate with age of donor or medico-legal issues (p = 0.227 & 0.579 respectively). Trained staff with requisite systems in place produced significant organ donation rates. Religious issues and medico legal concerns were not a major hurdle towards organ donation. Female patients with brain stem were more likely to become organ donors.

  5. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Devleena; Kumar, T. Satish; Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V.

    2011-03-15

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana-Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r{sup 2} < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  6. Thermal inertia mapping and its application in mineral exploration: results from Mamandur polymetal prospect, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, D.; Bharti, Rishikesh; Singh, K. D.; Nithya, M.

    2013-10-01

    Thermal anomalies associated with ore-mineralization (Pb-Cu-Zn and Fe) were studied using thermal infrared data collected over Mamandur polymetal prospect, India, with the aid of satellite, field, and laboratory measurements. Day and night ASTER data were analysed in conjunction with field measurements to estimate thermal inertia of the ore body, altered zones and country rocks. Representative samples collected from field were also analysed for thermal conductivity, diffusivity, and inertia using a self-fabricated setup. Spatial changes in thermal inertia were mapped by look up table (LUT) and advanced thermal inertia mapping (ATIM) approaches. Mineralized zones show very high thermal contrast (ΔT) both in field (15-25°C) and satellite data (14.9-16.9oC). They also exhibit the lowest thermal inertia in field-(2118-5474 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2) and satellite-based (3783-4037 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2) measurements. In non-mineralized areas, acidic rocks (granite, migmatite and granite gneiss) have lower inertia than basic rocks (basic granulite, dolerite and charnockite). Results estimated by LUT and ATIM approaches correlate very well at satellite (R2 = 0.97) and field (R2 = 0.89) scales. Similarly, field- and satellite-based results also have good correlation (R2 = 0.69-0.72). This study illustrates the potential of thermal inertia mapping in delineating ore bodies and deciphering the lithological changes even under veneer of soil.

  7. Perinatal outcome in sickle cell anemia: a prospective study from India.

    PubMed

    Daigavane, Mayoor M; Jena, Rabindra K; Kar, Tushar J

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia, the homozygous genotype of sickle cell disease is one of the most common heritable diseases in the world. The Arab-Asian haplotype present in India is one of the least severe of all haplotypes. Many sickle cell anemia patients are now leading a symptom-free productive life due to hydroxyurea (HU) and better supportive care. Although pregnancy in sickle cell anemia patients is considered a high-risk category, it perinatal outcome is least studied, particularly among carriers of the Arab-Asian haplotype. Thus, the present prospective, randomized study was performed to assess the perinatal outcome in sickle cell anemia. Neonatal outcome such as low birth weight, perinatal mortality rate, special care newborn unit (SCNU) admission, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and pre term births were significantly higher in sickle cell anemia mothers. Maternal outcome such as severe anemia, preeclampsia, vasoocclusive crisis (VOC), pulmonary complications, jaundice and blood transfusion requirements were significantly higher in sickle cell anemia mothers, which were successfully managed. Cesarian section rate was not significantly different from normal controls. Successful pregnancies were achieved in 84.44% of cases. However, we strongly recommend that pregnancies in these patients should be managed in an institutional setup.

  8. Diurnally subperiodic filariasis in India-prospects of elimination: precept to action?

    PubMed

    Shriram, A N; Krishnamoorthy, K; Saha, B P; Roy, Avijit; Kumaraswami, V; Shah, W A; Jambulingam, P; Vijayachari, P

    2011-07-01

    The elimination of lymphatic filariasis in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands provides unique opportunities and challenges at the same time. Since these islands are remote, are sparsely populated, and have poor transport networks, mass drug administration programs are likely to be difficult to implement. Diurnally subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti vectored by Downsiomyia nivea was considered for the scope of vector control options. Considering the bioecology of this mosquito, vector control including personal protection measures may not be feasible. However, since these islands are covered by separate administrative machinery which also plays an important role in regulating the food supply, the use of diethylcarbamazine (DEC)-fortified salt as a tool for the interruption of transmission is appealing. DEC-fortified salt has been successfully pilot tested in India and elsewhere, operationally used by China for eliminating lymphatic filariasis. Administration of DEC-fortified salt though simple, rapid, safe, and cost-effective, challenges are to be tackled for translating this precept into action by evolving operationally feasible strategy. Although the use of DEC-fortified salt is conceptually simple, it requires commitment of all sections of the society, an elaborate distribution mechanism that ensures the use of DEC-fortified salt only in the endemic communities, and a vigorous monitoring mechanism. Here, we examine the inbuilt administrative mechanisms to serve the tribal people, health infrastructure, and public distribution system and discuss the prospects of putting in place an operationally feasible strategy for its elimination.

  9. Maternal antecedents of adiposity and studying the transgenerational role of hyperglycemia and insulin (MAASTHI): a prospective cohort study : Protocol of birth cohort at Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Babu, Giridhara R; Murthy, Gvs; Deepa, R; Yamuna; Prafulla; Kumar, H Kiran; Karthik, Maithili; Deshpande, Keerti; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Prabhakaran, D; Kurpad, Anura; Kinra, Sanjay

    2016-10-14

    India is experiencing an epidemic of obesity-hyperglycaemia, which coincides with child bearing age for women. The epidemic can be sustained and augmented through transgenerational transmission of adiposity and glucose intolerance in women. This presents an opportunity for exploring a clear strategy for the control of this epidemic in India. We conducted a study between November 2013 and May 2015 to inform the design of a large pregnancy cohort study. Based on the findings of this pilot, we developed the protocol for the proposed birth cohort of 5000 women, the recruitment for which will start in April 2016. The protocol of the study documents the processes which aim at advancing the available knowledge, linking several steps in the evolution of obesity led hyperglycemia. Maternal Antecedents of Adiposity and Studying the Transgenerational role of Hyperglycemia and Insulin (MAASTHI) is a cohort study in the public health facilities in Bangalore, India. The objective of MAASTHI is to prospectively assess the effects of glucose levels in pregnancy on the risk of adverse infant outcomes, especially in predicting the possible risk markers of later chronic diseases. The primary objective of the proposed study is to investigate the effect of glucose levels in pregnancy on skinfold thickness (adiposity) in infancy as a marker of future obesity and diabetes in offspring. The secondary objective is to assess the association between psychosocial environment of mothers and adverse neonatal outcomes including adiposity. The study aims to recruit 5000 pregnant women and follow them and their offspring for a period of 4 years. The institutional review board at The Indian Institute of Public Health (IIPH)-H, Bangalore, Public Health Foundation of India has approved the protocol. All participants are required to provide written informed consent. The findings from this study may help to address important questions on screening and management of high blood sugar in pregnancy. It

  10. Syn-Rift Systems of East Godavari Sub Basin: Its Evolution and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, J., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Krishna Godavari (K.G.) basin is a passive margin basin developed along the Eastern coast of India. This basin has a polyhistoric evolution with multiple rift systems. Rift basin exploration has provided the oil and gas industry with almost one third of discovered global hydrocarbon resources. Understanding synrift sequences, their evolution, depositional styles and hydrocarbon prospectivity has become important with recent discovery of the wells, G-4-6,YS-AF and KG-8 in the K.G. offshore basin. The East Godavari subbasin is a hydrocarbon producing basin from synrift and pre-rift sediments, and hence this was selected as the study area for this research. The study has been carried out by utilizing data of around 58 wells (w1-w58) drilled in the study area 25 of which are hydrocarbon bearing with organic thickness varying from 200 m to 600 m. Age data generated by palaentology and palynology studies have been utilized for calibration of key well logs to differentiate between formations within prerift and synrift sediments. The electrologs of wells like resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, density and sonic logs have been utilized for correlation of different formations in all the drilled wells. The individual thicknesses of sand, shale and coal in the formations have been calculated and tabulated. For Golapalli formation, the isopach and isolith maps were generated which revealed that there were four depocentres with input from the north direction. Schematic geological cross sections were prepared using the well data and seismic data to understand the facies variation across the basin. The sedimentological and petrophysical analysis reports and electro log suites were referred to decipher the environment of deposition, the reservoir characteristics, and play types. The geochemical reports [w4 (Tmax)= 455-468 °C; w1 (Tmax) = 467-514 °C; w4(VRO)= 0.65-0.85; w1(VRO)= 0.83-1.13] revealed the source facies, its maturation and migration timings i.e. the petroleum systems

  11. Spatiotemporal evolution of water storage changes in India from the updated GRACE-derived gravity records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Dileep K.; Wahr, John

    2016-01-01

    Investigating changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) is important for understanding response of the hydrological cycle to recent climate variability worldwide. This is particularly critical in India where the current economic development and food security greatly depend on its water resources. We use 129 monthly gravity solutions from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites for the period of January 2003 to May 2014 to characterize spatiotemporal variations of TWS and groundwater storage (GWS). The spatiotemporal evolution of GRACE data reflects consistent patterns with that of several hydroclimatic variables and also shows that most of the water loss has occurred in the northern parts of India. Substantial GWS depletion at the rate of 1.25 and 2.1 cm yr-1 has taken place, respectively in the Ganges Basin and Punjab state, which are known as the India's grain bowl. Of particular concern is the Ganges Basin's storage loss in drought years, primarily due to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawals that sustain rice and wheat cultivation. We estimate these losses to be approximately 41, 44, and 42 km3 in 2004, 2009, and 2012, respectively. The GWS depletions that constitute about 90% of the observed TWS loss are also influenced by a marked rise in temperatures since 2008. A high degree of correspondence between GRACE-derived GWS and in situ groundwater levels from observation well validates the results. This validation increases confidence level in the application of GRACE observations in monitoring large-scale storage changes in intensely irrigated areas in India and other regions around the world.

  12. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology.

  13. Prospects for the Study of Evolution in the Deep Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Brazelton, William J.; Tully, Benjamin J.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Moyer, Craig L.; Heidelberg, John F.; Nelson, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:22319515

  14. Prospects for the study of evolution in the deep biosphere.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Jennifer F; Sylvan, Jason B; Brazelton, William J; Tully, Benjamin J; Edwards, Katrina J; Moyer, Craig L; Heidelberg, John F; Nelson, William C

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org).

  15. A subsalt prospect in offshore Louisiana - evolution of a prospect from lease to present

    SciTech Connect

    Zick, A.D.; Addis, D.J. ); Pieprazak, A.W. )

    1996-01-01

    The Garnet subsalt prospect in the East Cameron, South Addition area of offshore Louisiana was acquired by Anadarko Petroleum Corporation in the 1994 offshore Louisiana federal lease sale. The prospect is a structural closure beneath a rugose and highly deformed allochthonous salt sheet. This salt geometry has distorted the seismic image below it, making necessary the use of more elaborate and costly seismic depth imaging techniques. The prospect is further complicated by the lack of proximate deep well control to aid in predicting stratigraphy below salt. In this paper, we present the progressive stages of prospect evaluation leading to the current interpretation, beginning first with the initial lease sale identification of the prospect. Through the various stages of evaluation, geophysical efforts have reflected an attempt to balance time and costs with the anticipated benefits. Seismic evaluation has progressed from various 2D methods through 3D time migration, 3D post-stack depth migration and ultimately to 3D pre-stack depth migration. The primary goal of the 3D pre-stack depth migration was to image below salt and considerable effort has been expended in deriving an accurate velocity model for the final depth migration. The improved imaging of the various salt bodies has produced a more accurate picture of the salt geometries and subsalt structures. From this, we have reconstructed the salt movement within the prospect area and have inferred salt tectonic and sedimentation interrelationships.

  16. A subsalt prospect in offshore Louisiana - evolution of a prospect from lease to present

    SciTech Connect

    Zick, A.D.; Addis, D.J.; Pieprazak, A.W.

    1996-12-31

    The Garnet subsalt prospect in the East Cameron, South Addition area of offshore Louisiana was acquired by Anadarko Petroleum Corporation in the 1994 offshore Louisiana federal lease sale. The prospect is a structural closure beneath a rugose and highly deformed allochthonous salt sheet. This salt geometry has distorted the seismic image below it, making necessary the use of more elaborate and costly seismic depth imaging techniques. The prospect is further complicated by the lack of proximate deep well control to aid in predicting stratigraphy below salt. In this paper, we present the progressive stages of prospect evaluation leading to the current interpretation, beginning first with the initial lease sale identification of the prospect. Through the various stages of evaluation, geophysical efforts have reflected an attempt to balance time and costs with the anticipated benefits. Seismic evaluation has progressed from various 2D methods through 3D time migration, 3D post-stack depth migration and ultimately to 3D pre-stack depth migration. The primary goal of the 3D pre-stack depth migration was to image below salt and considerable effort has been expended in deriving an accurate velocity model for the final depth migration. The improved imaging of the various salt bodies has produced a more accurate picture of the salt geometries and subsalt structures. From this, we have reconstructed the salt movement within the prospect area and have inferred salt tectonic and sedimentation interrelationships.

  17. Educators of Prospective Teachers Hesitate to Embrace Evolution Due to Deficient Understanding of Science/Evolution and High Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño-C, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Acceptance of evolution by educators of prospective teachers remains superficially studied despite their role in having mentored schoolteachers whose weak support of evolution is known. Here, we contrast the views of New England educators of prospective teachers (n=62; 87% Ph. D./doctorate holders in 32 specializations) with those of the general faculty (n=244; 93% Ph.D./doctorate holders in 40 disciplines), both members of 35 colleges and universities, and with college students (n=827; subsample of the 35 institutions) who were polled on: (1) the controversy evolution vs. creationism vs. intelligent design (ID), (2) their understanding of how science/evolution works, and (3) their religiosity. The educators held intermediate positions in respect to the general faculty and the students: 94% of the general faculty, 75% of the educators, and 63% of the students said they accepted evolution openly; and 82% of the general faculty, 71% of the educators, and 58% of the students thought that evolution is definitely true. Only 3% of the general faculty in comparison to 19% of the educators and 24% of the students thought that evolution and creationism are in harmony. Although 93% of the general faculty, educators, and students knew that evolution relies on common ancestry, 26% of the general faculty, 45% of the educators, and 35% of the students did not know that humans are apes. Remarkably, 15% of the general faculty, 32% of the educators, and 35% of the students believed, incorrectly, that the origin of the human mind cannot be explained by evolution; and 30% of the general faculty, 59% of the educators, and 75% of the students were Lamarckian (=believed in inheritance of acquired traits). For science education: 96% of the general faculty, 86% of the educators, and 71% of the students supported the exclusive teaching of evolution, while 4% of the general faculty, 14% of the educators, and 29% of the students favored equal time to evolution, creationism and ID; note that

  18. Educators of Prospective Teachers Hesitate to Embrace Evolution Due to Deficient Understanding of Science/Evolution and High Religiosity.

    PubMed

    Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2012-03-01

    Acceptance of evolution by educators of prospective teachers remains superficially studied despite their role in having mentored schoolteachers whose weak support of evolution is known. Here, we contrast the views of New England educators of prospective teachers (n=62; 87% Ph. D./doctorate holders in 32 specializations) with those of the general faculty (n=244; 93% Ph.D./doctorate holders in 40 disciplines), both members of 35 colleges and universities, and with college students (n=827; subsample of the 35 institutions) who were polled on: (1) the controversy evolution vs. creationism vs. intelligent design (ID), (2) their understanding of how science/evolution works, and (3) their religiosity. The educators held intermediate positions in respect to the general faculty and the students: 94% of the general faculty, 75% of the educators, and 63% of the students said they accepted evolution openly; and 82% of the general faculty, 71% of the educators, and 58% of the students thought that evolution is definitely true. Only 3% of the general faculty in comparison to 19% of the educators and 24% of the students thought that evolution and creationism are in harmony. Although 93% of the general faculty, educators, and students knew that evolution relies on common ancestry, 26% of the general faculty, 45% of the educators, and 35% of the students did not know that humans are apes. Remarkably, 15% of the general faculty, 32% of the educators, and 35% of the students believed, incorrectly, that the origin of the human mind cannot be explained by evolution; and 30% of the general faculty, 59% of the educators, and 75% of the students were Lamarckian (=believed in inheritance of acquired traits). For science education: 96% of the general faculty, 86% of the educators, and 71% of the students supported the exclusive teaching of evolution, while 4% of the general faculty, 14% of the educators, and 29% of the students favored equal time to evolution, creationism and ID; note that

  19. Continental rift-setting and evolution of Neoproterozoic Sindreth Basin in NW-India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöbel, Stefan; Sharma, Kamal K.; Hörbrand, Thorsten; Böhm, Theresa; Donhauser, Ines; de Wall, Helga

    2017-08-01

    The Neoproterozoic Sindreth Basin, NW India, and its surrounding area represent a half graben structure situated between the undeformed Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) in the west and a corridor of coeval Cryogenian ductile deformation, anatexis and granite intrusion in the east. The main lithologies observed in the basin are conglomerate, fanglomerate, debris flow and lake deposits derived from a nearby continental provenance, intercalated with concurrent mafic and felsic lava flows. Based on geological traverses across the strike of the basin, we propose a three-fold classification comprising Lower Clastic Unit and an Upper Clastic Unit and a Bimodal (basalt-rhyolite) Volcanic Unit separating the two. Tilting due to basin inversion and faulting has been observed; however, the rocks are unmetamorphosed and show undisturbed primary sedimentary features. The stratigraphic record of the basin is characteristic for deposition and magmatism in a fault-related continental setting. Implications of the findings have been discussed in the context of Neoproterozoic crustal dynamics in NW India. This study provides conclusive evidence for a continental setting for Sindreth Basin evolution and contests the recent models of active subduction setting (either back-arc basin or accretionary sediments over a subduction zone).

  20. Musculoskeletal trauma and all-cause mortality in India: a multicentre prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Foote, Clary Jefferson; Mundi, Raman; Sancheti, Parag; Gopalan, Hitesh; Kotwal, Prakash; Shetty, Vijay; Dhillon, Mandeep; Devereaux, Philip; Thabane, Lehana; Aleem, Ilyas; Ivers, Rebecca Q; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-04-27

    There is little data in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) quantifying the burden of fractures and describing current practices. The aim of the study was describe the severity of musculoskeletal injuries in LMICS and identify modifiable factors that predict subsequent early all-cause mortality. We did a multicentre, prospective, observational study of patients who presented to 14 hospitals across India for musculoskeletal trauma (fractures or dislocations). Patients were recruited during an 8-week period, between November, 2011, and June, 2012, and were followed for 30-days or hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality with secondary outcomes of reoperation and infection. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with all-cause mortality. We enrolled 4822 patients, but restricted analyses to 4612 (96%) patients who had complete follow-up. The majority (56·2% younger than 40 years old) of trauma patients were young (mean age 40·9 years [SD 16·9]) and 3148 (68%) were men. 2344 (518%) patients sustained trauma as a result of a road traffic accident. The most common musculoskeletal injury was a fracture (4514 [98%]) and 707 patients (15%) incurred an open fracture. Less than a third of musculoskeletal trauma patients (1374 [29%]) were transported to hospital by ambulance, and one in six patients (18%) arrived at the hospital later than 24 h after sustaining their injury. Over a third (239 [35%] of 707) of open fractures were definitively stabilised later than 24 h. 30-day mortality was 1·7% (95% CI 1·4-2·2) for all patients and 2·1% (95% CI 1·5-2·7) among road traffic victims (p=0·005). Musculoskeletal trauma severity including the number of fractures (3·1 [95% CI 2·4-3·9]) and presence of an open fracture (2·1 [95% CI 1·2-3·4]) significantly increased the odds of all-cause mortality. Musculoskeletal trauma severity, particularly road related, is a key predictor of

  1. Women's autonomy and experience of physical violence within marriage in rural India: evidence from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sabarwal, Shagun; Santhya, K G; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence regarding the relationship between married women's autonomy and risk of marital violence remains mixed. Moreover, studies examining the contribution of specific aspects of women's autonomy in influencing the risk of marital violence using measures of autonomy that incorporate its dynamic nature are rare. We investigated the relationship between women's autonomy and their experience of marital violence in rural India using prospective data. We used data on 4,904 rural women drawn from two linked studies: the NFHS-2, conducted during 1998-1999 and a follow-up study for a subgroup of women carried out during 2002-2003. Three dimensions of autonomy were used: financial autonomy, freedom of movement, and household decision-making. Marital violence was measured as experience of physical violence in the year prior to the follow-up survey. Findings indicate the protective effects of financial autonomy and freedom of movement in reducing the risk of marital violence in the overall model. Furthermore, region-wise analysis revealed that in the more gender equitable settings of south India, financial autonomy exerted a protective influence on risk of marital violence. However, in the more gender-stratified settings of north India, none of the dimensions of autonomy were found to have any protective effect on women's risk of marital violence. Results argue for an increased focus on strategies aimed at improving women's financial status through livelihood skill-building opportunities, development of a strong savings orientation, and asset-building options.

  2. The Evolution of Galaxies: Unsolved Problems and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huchra, John

    We've had an extremely interesting conference covering the observational aspects of galaxy evolution near and far. We've come a very long way since the earliest papers in the 1960's by Tinsley and others first quantified the photometric evolution of galaxies. In this summary, I will first go over some of the things that we know, such as the background that is often not discussed but which is important to keep in mind while looking at new evidence. These include the great progress that has been made on the cosmological model and the identification of fluctuations in the Cosmic microwave background. I'll follow that with a description of what we have learned at this Granadian Euroconference and the questions that either have been newly raised or have remained to be solved in the future, many of which are not at all new and are decidedly non-trivial to attack. The article finishes with a description of some promises for the future plus some general caveats about the way we do research, including Tarzan's dilemma.

  3. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  4. Cognition and the evolution of music: pitfalls and prospects.

    PubMed

    Honing, Henkjan; Ploeger, Annemie

    2012-10-01

    What was the role of music in the evolutionary history of human beings? We address this question from the point of view that musicality can be defined as a cognitive trait. Although it has been argued that we will never know how cognitive traits evolved (Lewontin, 1998), we argue that we may know the evolution of music by investigating the fundamental cognitive mechanisms of musicality, for example, relative pitch, tonal encoding of pitch, and beat induction. In addition, we show that a nomological network of evidence (Schmitt & Pilcher, 2004) can be built around the hypothesis that musicality is a cognitive adaptation. Within this network, different modes of evidence are gathered to support a specific evolutionary hypothesis. We show that the combination of psychological, medical, physiological, genetic, phylogenetic, hunter-gatherer, and cross-cultural evidence indicates that musicality is a cognitive adaptation. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Evolution of Planetary Disks: Observations, Modeling and Instrumental Prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augereau, Jean-Charles

    2000-11-01

    The recently discovered extrasolar planets have formed in gaseous and dusty disks possibily analogous to those observed around stars close to the Main Sequence, such as β Pictoris. This thesis deals with the dust in circumstellar environments around such stars and combines: high angular resolution observations, the modeling of grains' physical and chemical properties to deduce their optical behaviour, the modeling of optically thin disks, and the dynamics of planetesimals that release the dust grains observed. Our images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope reveal two new circumstellar disks around HD 141569 and HD 100546, two stars sometimes classified as Herbig-like stars. Whereas the two systems have almost the same age (~10 million years), their morphologies differ. These observations highlight the difficulties to ellaborate a single scenario that would describe the all evolution of protoplanetary systems. The dust ring surrounding HR 4796 A, a star with an age similar to the two previous stars, is marginaly resolved from the ground. The full modeling of this disk allows to reproduce all the available observations. These results imply that, whereas the star is still quite young, planetesimals should be present to supply the disk in porous and amorphous dust grains which are afterwards blown away by radiation pressure. A dynamical model for the prototypical disk around β Pictoris is proposed. Assuming realistic optical grain properties, this approach allows to reproduce the main caracteristics of the disk and in particular the fine asymmetries that are observed. This model assumes the presence of a planetary companion which perturbes a disk of planetesimals and takes into account the differential effect of the radiation pressure on the grains. Finally, the disk model I developped during the thesis is used in order to optimize the use of future observationnal instruments.

  6. Comparing the Open University Systems of China and India: Origins, Developments and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perris, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The national open universities of China and India are unique adaptations of the open university model that emanated from the UK. These institutions have expanded to become the largest universities in the world as measured by current enrollment of approximately four million each. This article comparatively analyzes how these open universities have…

  7. Female sex worker client behaviors lead to condom breakage: a prospective telephone-based survey in Bangalore, South India.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, S; Moses, Stephen; Gowda, G Chandrashekhar; Pushpalatha, R; Ramesh, B M; Isac, Shajy; Boily, Marie-Claude; Lobo, Anil; Gowda, Hareesh; Alary, Michel

    2013-02-01

    We examined condom breakage rates and predictors of breakage in a prospective telephone-based study of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore, India. We obtained data on 3,257 condom-use sex acts, and breakage occurred in 2.1 % of these. Situational factors, especially those associated with male clients' behaviors, were the most important predictors of breakage, including sexual inexperience, roughness and violence. Breakage was also associated with having vaginal and anal sex at the same encounter and with poor-fitting condoms. Despite lower than expected breakage rates, the high client volume of FSWs means that there are many unprotected sex acts caused by breakage. Discussions should be held around new education messages, and how programs can respond quickly when sex workers encounter clients who are inebriated, violent or unusually sexually charged. More work is urgently needed with police, and on FSW empowerment, the use of help lines, and counseling for the most vulnerable women.

  8. Continental lithospheric evolution: Constraints from the geochemistry of felsic volcanic rocks in the Dharwar Craton, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikyamba, C.; Ganguly, Sohini; Saha, Abhishek; Santosh, M.; Rajanikanta Singh, M.; Subba Rao, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Felsic magmatism associated with ocean-ocean and ocean-continent subduction processes provide important evidence for distinct episodes of crust-generation and continental lithospheric evolution. Rhyolites constitute an integral component of the tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalt-andesite-dacite-rhyolite (BADR) association and contribute to crustal growth processes at convergent plate margins. The evolution of the Dharwar Craton of southern peninsular India during Meso- to Neoarchean times was marked by extensive development of greenstone belts. These granite-greenstone terranes have distinct volcano-sedimentary associations consistent with their geodynamic setting. The present study deals with geochemistry of rhyolites from the Chitradurga-Shimoga greenstone belts of western (WDC) and the Gadwal-Kadiri greenstone belts of eastern (EDC) sectors of Dharwar Craton to compare and evaluate their petrogenesis and geodynamic setting and their control on the continental lithospheric evolution of the Dharwar Craton. At a similar range of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, the rhyolites of WDC are more potassic, whereas the EDC rhyolites are more sodic and less magnesian with slight increase in TiO2. Minor increase in MgO content of WDC rhyolites reflects their ferromagnesian trace elements which are comparatively lower in the rhyolites of EDC. The relative enrichment in LILE (K, Rb) and depletion in HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf) marked by negative Nb-Ta, Zr-Hf and Ti anomalies endorse the convergent margin processes for the generation of rhyolites of both the sectors of Dharwar Craton. The high silica potassic rhyolites of Shimoga and Chitradurga greenstone belts of WDC showing prominent negative Eu and Ti anomalies, flat HREE patterns correspond to Type 3 rhyolites and clearly point towards their generation and emplacement in an active continental margin environment. The geochemical characteristics of Gadwal and Kadiri rhyolites from eastern Dharwar Craton marked by aluminous compositions with

  9. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Western Delta region of River Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nageswara Rao, P. V.; Appa Rao, S.; Subba Rao, N.

    2017-05-01

    The present study on geochemical evolution of groundwater is taken up to assess the controlling processes of water chemistry in the Western Delta region of the River Godavari (Andhra Pradesh), which is one of the major rice-producing centers in India. The study region is underlain by coarse sand with black clay (buried channels), black silty clay of recent origin (floodplain) and gray/white fine sand of modern beach sediment of marine source (coastal zone), including brown silty clay with fine sand (paleo-beach ridges). Groundwater is mostly brackish and very hard. It is characterized by Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 -, Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-, and Mg2+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > or < K+:HCO3 - > Cl- > or > SO4 2- facies. The ionic relations (Ca2+ + Mg2+:HCO3 -, Ca2+ + Mg2+:SO4 2- + HCO3 -, Na+ + K+:TC, Na+ + K+:Cl- + SO4 2-, HCO3 -:TC, HCO3 -:Ca2+ + Mg2+, Na+:Cl- and Na+:Ca2+) indicate that the rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange are the processes to control the aquifer chemistry. Anthropogenic and marine sources are also the supplementary factors for brackish water quality. These observations are further supported by Gibbs mechanisms that control the water chemistry. Thus, the study suggests that the initial quality of groundwater of geogenic origin has been subsequently modified by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources.

  10. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Western Delta region of River Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nageswara Rao, P. V.; Appa Rao, S.; Subba Rao, N.

    2015-06-01

    The present study on geochemical evolution of groundwater is taken up to assess the controlling processes of water chemistry in the Western Delta region of the River Godavari (Andhra Pradesh), which is one of the major rice-producing centers in India. The study region is underlain by coarse sand with black clay (buried channels), black silty clay of recent origin (floodplain) and gray/white fine sand of modern beach sediment of marine source (coastal zone), including brown silty clay with fine sand (paleo-beach ridges). Groundwater is mostly brackish and very hard. It is characterized by Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 -, Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-, and Mg2+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > or < K+:HCO3 - > Cl- > or > SO4 2- facies. The ionic relations (Ca2+ + Mg2+:HCO3 -, Ca2+ + Mg2+:SO4 2- + HCO3 -, Na+ + K+:TC, Na+ + K+:Cl- + SO4 2-, HCO3 -:TC, HCO3 -:Ca2+ + Mg2+, Na+:Cl- and Na+:Ca2+) indicate that the rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange are the processes to control the aquifer chemistry. Anthropogenic and marine sources are also the supplementary factors for brackish water quality. These observations are further supported by Gibbs mechanisms that control the water chemistry. Thus, the study suggests that the initial quality of groundwater of geogenic origin has been subsequently modified by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources.

  11. The China-India-Pakistan Water Crisis: Prospects for Interstate Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    13 Figure 6. The Tibetan Plateau and China’s Major Rivers ...............................................15 Figure 7. China’s Three Gorges...Pakistan’s great rivers – the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra. The decision to focus on the Tibetan Plateau as a solution to China’s water crisis will...likely will affect the Brahmaputra River , essential to India. Additionally, although less likely due to geographical challenges, Beijing’s decision

  12. Islands as model systems in ecology and evolution: prospects fifty years after MacArthur-Wilson.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben H; Simberloff, Daniel; Ricklefs, Robert E; Aguilée, Robin; Condamine, Fabien L; Gravel, Dominique; Morlon, Hélène; Mouquet, Nicolas; Rosindell, James; Casquet, Juliane; Conti, Elena; Cornuault, Josselin; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Hengl, Tomislav; Norder, Sietze J; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F; Sanmartín, Isabel; Strasberg, Dominique; Triantis, Kostas A; Valente, Luis M; Whittaker, Robert J; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Emerson, Brent C; Thébaud, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The study of islands as model systems has played an important role in the development of evolutionary and ecological theory. The 50th anniversary of MacArthur and Wilson's (December 1963) article, 'An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography', was a recent milestone for this theme. Since 1963, island systems have provided new insights into the formation of ecological communities. Here, building on such developments, we highlight prospects for research on islands to improve our understanding of the ecology and evolution of communities in general. Throughout, we emphasise how attributes of islands combine to provide unusual research opportunities, the implications of which stretch far beyond islands. Molecular tools and increasing data acquisition now permit re-assessment of some fundamental issues that interested MacArthur and Wilson. These include the formation of ecological networks, species abundance distributions, and the contribution of evolution to community assembly. We also extend our prospects to other fields of ecology and evolution - understanding ecosystem functioning, speciation and diversification - frequently employing assets of oceanic islands in inferring the geographic area within which evolution has occurred, and potential barriers to gene flow. Although island-based theory is continually being enriched, incorporating non-equilibrium dynamics is identified as a major challenge for the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Vector population manipulation for control of arboviruses--a novel prospect for India.

    PubMed

    Niranjan Reddy, Bp; Gupta, Bhavna; Rao, B Prasad

    2014-04-01

    India, the seventh largest country in the world, has diverse geographical and climatic regions with vast rural and peri-urban areas. Many are experiencing an escalation in the spread and intensity of numerous human diseases transmitted by insects. Classically, the management of these vector-borne diseases is underpinned by either chemical insecticides and/or environmental management targeted at the vector. However, these methods or their present implementation do not offer acceptable levels of control, and more effective and sustainable options are now available. Genetic strategies for the prevention of arbovirus transmission are most advanced for dengue and chikungunya, targeting their primary vector, Aedes aegypti. The national burden in terms of morbidity and mortality as a direct consequence of dengue virus in India is considered to be the largest worldwide, over 4 times that of any other country. Presently, new genetic technologies are undergoing field evaluation of their biosafety and efficacy in several countries. This paper discusses the merits of these approaches and argues for fair and transparent appraisal in India as a matter of urgency. Identification of any associated risks and their appropriate mitigation are fundamental to that process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Protocol for a prospective observational study to improve prehospital notification of injured patients presenting to trauma centres in India

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Biswadev; Mathew, Joseph; Gupta, Amit; Cameron, Peter; O'Reilly, Gerard; Soni, Kapil Dev; Kaushik, Gaurav; Howard, Teresa; Fahey, Madonna; Stephenson, Michael; Kumar, Vineet; Vyas, Sharad; Dharap, Satish; Patel, Pankaj; Thakor, Advait; Sharma, Naveen; Walker, Tony; Misra, Mahesh Chandra; Gruen, Russell; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Prehospital notification of injured patients enables prompt and timely care in hospital through adequate preparation of trauma teams, space, equipment and consumables necessary for resuscitation, and may improve outcomes. In India, anecdotal reports suggest that prehospital notification, in those few places where it occurs, is unstructured and not linked to a well-defined hospital response. The aim of this manuscript is to describe, in detail, a study protocol for the evaluation of a formalised approach to prehospital notification. Methods and analysis This is a longitudinal prospective cohort study of injured patients being transported by ambulance to major trauma centres in India. In the preintervention phase, prospective data on patients will be collected on prehospital assessment, notification, inhospital assessment, management and outcomes and recorded in a new tailored multihospital trauma registry. All injured patients arriving by ambulance and allocated to a red or yellow priority category will be eligible for inclusion. The intervention will be a prehospital notification application to be used by ambulance clinicians to notify emergency departments of the impending arrival of a patient. The proportion of eligible patients arriving to hospital after notification will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes evaluated will be availability of a trauma cubicle, presence of a trauma team on patient arrival, time to first chest X-ray and inhospital mortality. Progress Ethical approval has been obtained from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi and site-specific approval granted by relevant trauma services. The trial has also been registered with the Monash University Human Research and Ethics Committee; Project number: CF16/1814 – 2016000929. Results will be fed back to prehospital and hospital clinicians via a series of reports and presentations. These will be used to facilitate discussions about service redesign and

  15. Protocol for a prospective observational study to improve prehospital notification of injured patients presenting to trauma centres in India.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Biswadev; Mathew, Joseph; Gupta, Amit; Cameron, Peter; O'Reilly, Gerard; Soni, Kapil Dev; Kaushik, Gaurav; Howard, Teresa; Fahey, Madonna; Stephenson, Michael; Kumar, Vineet; Vyas, Sharad; Dharap, Satish; Patel, Pankaj; Thakor, Advait; Sharma, Naveen; Walker, Tony; Misra, Mahesh Chandra; Gruen, Russell; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2017-07-17

    Prehospital notification of injured patients enables prompt and timely care in hospital through adequate preparation of trauma teams, space, equipment and consumables necessary for resuscitation, and may improve outcomes. In India, anecdotal reports suggest that prehospital notification, in those few places where it occurs, is unstructured and not linked to a well-defined hospital response. The aim of this manuscript is to describe, in detail, a study protocol for the evaluation of a formalised approach to prehospital notification. This is a longitudinal prospective cohort study of injured patients being transported by ambulance to major trauma centres in India. In the preintervention phase, prospective data on patients will be collected on prehospital assessment, notification, inhospital assessment, management and outcomes and recorded in a new tailored multihospital trauma registry. All injured patients arriving by ambulance and allocated to a red or yellow priority category will be eligible for inclusion. The intervention will be a prehospital notification application to be used by ambulance clinicians to notify emergency departments of the impending arrival of a patient. The proportion of eligible patients arriving to hospital after notification will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes evaluated will be availability of a trauma cubicle, presence of a trauma team on patient arrival, time to first chest X-ray and inhospital mortality. Ethical approval has been obtained from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi and site-specific approval granted by relevant trauma services. The trial has also been registered with the Monash University Human Research and Ethics Committee; Project number: CF16/1814 - 2016000929. Results will be fed back to prehospital and hospital clinicians via a series of reports and presentations. These will be used to facilitate discussions about service redesign and implementation. It is expected that evidence

  16. AIDS orphans and vulnerable children in India: problems, prospects, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews and discusses the problems, responses, and concerns of orphans and vulnerable children in India. The article shows that HIV/AIDS programs and interventions are vital for survival and welfare of orphan and vulnerable children, but they have reached only to a small fraction of the most vulnerable children. The article suggests a number of measures that government and civil society could take to address the problems and emphasizes the need to learn from other countries' experience and initiatives in developing appropriate policy and programmes for orphan and vulnerable children.

  17. Collection of biological materials in biodiversity prospecting in India: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, B N

    1996-04-01

    Forests are the chief resource for the collection and exploration of biological materials. The past few decades have witnessed a large scale deforestation in India due to substantial pressures generated by population growth, leading to demand for more land for agriculture, urbanization and industrial activities, in addition to increased demand for fuel wood and timber. This has resulted in the loss of soil cover, habitat destruction, environmental degradation and ecological imbalance. This scenario has created a progressive awareness for the conservation and restoration of habitats and, thus, the declaration of many forest areas into protected zones, such as national parks, biosphere reserves, etc., including the protection of some marine areas, by both the National and State Governments. Normally, permission for biological collecting is not granted in these protected areas. In India, forests are a State subject and grant for collection permission is vested with the State Forest Departments. In the absence of any rules, regulations and guidelines, either from National or State Governments, forest authorities impose their terms and conditions, which are arbitrary and even contradictory at times, in the process of granting collecting permits. A set of new rules to be applied throughout the country is needed.

  18. Origin and Evolution of Limestone Caves of Chhattisgarh and Orissa, India: Role of Geomorphic, Tectonic and Hydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, P. K.; Allu, N. C.; Ramesh, R.; Yadava, M. G.; Panigrahi, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate rocks undergo karstic process and karst morphology is a key to understand the nature and genesis of caves. The primary energy source for the formation of karst landforms is hydrological cycle. Geomorphic features along with hydrological characteristics provide important information not only on karst formation but also climate and environmental conditions. In this paper, we present the tectonic and geomorphic features that played a role in evolution of caves located in Chhattisgarh and Orissa States of India. The geomorphic and tectonic aspects of Kotumsar, Kailash, and Gupteshwar caves are discussed in relation to the origin and evolution of these caves. Caves are located near the water falls. The area is folded and faulted along the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) due to tectonic reactivation. Shaly-limestone beds exhibit vertical dipping near Gupteshwar cave, and steeply inclined near Kotumsar and Kailash caves. Indrāvati and Sabari/Kolab tributaries of the Godavari River drain the area. The landscape evolution and the origin of caves in the region is a multistage process, where the lithology, orogeny, fluvial action, and monsoon are the main agents, which is similar to the four state model (Ford and Ewers, 1978). The river basin evolution and regional tectonism also caused the initiation of karstification in the region. The evolution of caves is believed to have taken place in Pre-Pliocene under more humid conditions that coincided with the initiation of monsoon in India. Further, during the Quaternary wet-dry/cold-warm phases altered physical and chemical weathering of limestone rocks. Contrasting relief features of Bastar plateau have also helped the extensive cave formation in the region. The dissolution along weak planes initiated the openings of caves, further enlarged by geomorphic agents. Both monsoon and tectonics have caused fluctuations in water levels along river courses, which acted as active agents in evolution of caves.

  19. Direct and indirect cost of myasthenia gravis: A prospective study from a tertiary care teaching hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Sonkar, Kamlesh Kumar; Bhoi, Sanjeev Kumar; Dubey, Deepanshu; Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha Kant

    2017-04-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) requires lifelong treatment. The cost of management MG is very high in developed countries but there is no information on the cost of management of MG in the developing countries. This study reports the direct and indirect cost and predictors of cost of MG in a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. In a prospective hospital based study, from a tertiary hospital in India 66 consecutive patient during 2014-2015 were included. The age of the patients ranged between 6 and 75years. The severity of MG was assessed by myasthenia gravis foundation association (MGFA) class (MGFA) I-V. The patient data was collected s and their direct cost was calculated from the computerized Hospital information system. The indirect cost was calculated from patient's memory, checking the bills of transportation and wages loss by the patient or the care giver. Total annual cost of MG ranged between INR (4560-532227) with median INR 61390.5 (US$911.64). The median cost of outpatient department (OPD) consultation of 16 patients was INR 20439.9 (US$303.53), of 50 admitted patients was INR 44311.8 (US$658.03) and 21 intensive care unit (ICU) patients was INR 59574.3 (US$ 884.6) and the direct cost of thymectomy was INR 45000 (US$ 668.25). Direct cost was related to indirect cost (r=0.55; p=0.0001). Predictors of patient outcome were severity of MG, ICU admission, and thymectomy. The total median cost for management of myasthenia gravis was INR 61390.5 (4560-532227, US$911.64) per year, and the cost was mainly determined by the severity of MG.

  20. A prospective key informant surveillance system to measure maternal mortality – findings from indigenous populations in Jharkhand and Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Sarah; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Borghi, Jo; Rath, Suchitra; Costello, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Background In places with poor vital registration, measurement of maternal mortality and monitoring the impact of interventions on maternal mortality is difficult and seldom undertaken. Mortality ratios are often estimated and policy decisions made without robust evidence. This paper presents a prospective key informant system to measure maternal mortality and the initial findings from the system. Methods In a population of 228 186, key informants identified all births and deaths to women of reproductive age, prospectively, over a period of 110 weeks. After birth verification, interviewers visited households six to eight weeks after delivery to collect information on the ante-partum, intra-partum and post-partum periods, as well as birth outcomes. For all deaths to women of reproductive age they ascertained whether they could be classified as maternal, pregnancy related or late maternal and if so, verbal autopsies were conducted. Results 13 602 births were identified, with a crude birth rate of 28.2 per 1000 population (C.I. 27.7–28.6) and a maternal mortality ratio of 722 per 100 000 live births (C.I. 591–882) recorded. Maternal deaths comprised 29% of all deaths to women aged 15–49. Approximately a quarter of maternal deaths occurred ante-partum, a half intra-partum and a quarter post-partum. Haemorrhage was the commonest cause of all maternal deaths (25%), but causation varied between the ante-partum, intra-partum and post-partum periods. The cost of operating the surveillance system was US$386 a month, or US$0.02 per capita per year. Conclusion This low cost key informant surveillance system produced high, but plausible birth and death rates in this remote population in India. This method could be used to monitor trends in maternal mortality and to test the impact of interventions in large populations with poor vital registration and thus assist policy makers in making evidence-based decisions. PMID:18307796

  1. A prospective key informant surveillance system to measure maternal mortality - findings from indigenous populations in Jharkhand and Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Sarah; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Borghi, Jo; Rath, Suchitra; Costello, Anthony

    2008-02-28

    In places with poor vital registration, measurement of maternal mortality and monitoring the impact of interventions on maternal mortality is difficult and seldom undertaken. Mortality ratios are often estimated and policy decisions made without robust evidence. This paper presents a prospective key informant system to measure maternal mortality and the initial findings from the system. In a population of 228 186, key informants identified all births and deaths to women of reproductive age, prospectively, over a period of 110 weeks. After birth verification, interviewers visited households six to eight weeks after delivery to collect information on the ante-partum, intra-partum and post-partum periods, as well as birth outcomes. For all deaths to women of reproductive age they ascertained whether they could be classified as maternal, pregnancy related or late maternal and if so, verbal autopsies were conducted. 13 602 births were identified, with a crude birth rate of 28.2 per 1000 population (C.I. 27.7-28.6) and a maternal mortality ratio of 722 per 100 000 live births (C.I. 591-882) recorded. Maternal deaths comprised 29% of all deaths to women aged 15-49. Approximately a quarter of maternal deaths occurred ante-partum, a half intra-partum and a quarter post-partum. Haemorrhage was the commonest cause of all maternal deaths (25%), but causation varied between the ante-partum, intra-partum and post-partum periods. The cost of operating the surveillance system was US$386 a month, or US$0.02 per capita per year. This low cost key informant surveillance system produced high, but plausible birth and death rates in this remote population in India. This method could be used to monitor trends in maternal mortality and to test the impact of interventions in large populations with poor vital registration and thus assist policy makers in making evidence-based decisions.

  2. Estimation of the economic burden of injury in north India: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Prinja, Shankar; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Chauhan, Akashdeep S; Aggarwal, Sameer; Ivers, Rebecca

    2015-04-27

    Injuries are a serious cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with trauma being the leading cause of death in the first four decades of life. By contrast with the declining rates of injury seen in high-income countries, low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing an increase in injury rates, largely due to increased motorisation in these countries. In this study, we report the out-of-pocket expenditure and financial risk protection from trauma care in a tertiary care hospital of India. Patients who were admitted for at least one night in a tertiary care hospital of Chandigarh during a 1 month period from April 15, 2013, and May 15, 2013, were recruited. Data were collected for the type of injury, out-of-pocket expenditure, and mechanisms undertaken to cope up with the expenditure. Cases were followed up at 1 month, 2 months, and 12 months after discharge to collect information about out-of-pocket expenditure. Prevalence of catastrophic expenditure-ie, if it exceeded 30% of the patient's annual household income-and distress financing-ie, if borrowing (with or without interest) or selling of assets was used to cope with high out-of-pocket expenditure, were assessed among patients recruited. Assuming prevalence of catastrophic expenditure to be 22%, with a precision of 5·5% and 5% alpha error, the sample size was estimated to be 218. 227 patients were recruited, of whom 155 (68%) were followed up until 12 months. No significant differences were noted based on sociodemographic, injury, and hospitalisation characteristics between the patients who were followed up and those who were lost to follow-up. Average out-of-pocket expenditure per admission to hospital was US$388 (95% CI 332-441) and at 12 months after injury was US$1046 (871-1221). Mean out-of-pocket expenditure for road traffic injury cases at the time of hospitalisation was US$400 (95% CI 344-456) and for non-road traffic injury cases was US$369 (313-425). The prevalence of

  3. The summertime "heat" low over Pakistan/northwestern India: evolution and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollasina, Massimo; Nigam, Sumant

    2011-09-01

    A deep low in sea-level pressure is present from May to September over Pakistan and northwestern India (hereafter, the Pak-India low). It is often referred as the "heat" low to convey the significance of surface thermal effects reckoned to be important for its origin. The present analysis, rooted in observations and diagnostic modeling, suggests that the Pak-India low is influenced both by regional and remote forcing. Regionally, the influence of Hindu Kush mountains is found to be stronger than the impact of land-surface heating and attendant sensible heating of the planetary boundary layer, questioning the suitability of the "heat" label in canonical references to this circulation feature. Observational analysis indicates that the notable May-to-June deepening of the Pak-India low and its further deepening in July, however, arises from remote forcing—the development of monsoon deep-convection over the Bay of Bengal and eastern India in June and July. It is hypothesized that the associated upstream descent over Iran-Turkmenistan-Afghanistan (i.e. east of the Caspian Sea) and related low-level northerlies over the Elburz-Zagros-Hindu Kush mountains contribute to the strengthening of the Pak-India low in June (and July) from interaction with regional orography.

  4. Applicability of Proposed Diagnostic Criteria of Pityriasis Rosea: Results of a Prospective Case-Control Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Zawar, Vijay; Chuh, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of pityriasis rosea (PR) is generally clinical. Previous studies usually recruited relatively small numbers of patients and control subjects, leading to low power of study results. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses cannot be readily performed, as the inclusion and exclusion criteria of these studies were not uniform. We have previously validated a set of diagnostic criteria (DC) in Chinese patients with PR. Aim: Our aim is to evaluate the validity and applicability of the DC of PR in Indian patients with PR. Study Design: Prospective unblinded pair-matched case-control study. Materials and Methods: The setting is a dermatology clinic in India served by one board-certified dermatologist. We recruited all 88 patients seen by us during five years diagnosed to have PR to join our study. For each study subject, we recruited the next patient who consulted us with differential diagnoses of PR as control subjects. We applied the DC of PR on all study and control subjects. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the DC were all 100%. Two-tailed Fisher's exact probability test result was 0.036. Φ was 1.00. Conclusion: The set of DC can be validly applied to Indian patients with PR. PMID:24249894

  5. A prospective clinical study of myocarditis in cases of acute ingestion of paraphenylene diamine (hair dye) poisoning in northern India.

    PubMed

    Jain, P K; Sharma, Awadhesh Kumar; Agarwal, Navneet; Jain, Praveen Kumar; Sengar, N S; Agarwal, Nutan; Siddiqui, Mohd Zaki; Pawal, Praveen; Singh, Anurag Kumar; Gaba, Ripu Daman

    2013-09-01

    Myocarditis is a unheard and unreported dangerous complication of hair dye ingestion which contains paraphenylene diamine. So a prospective study was planned to assess myocardial damage in regard to clinical profile and outcome with different treatment approaches in patients with oral ingestion of Hair dye. The material comprised of 1595 cases admitted in Medicine Department of Maharani Laxmi Bai Medical College, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh-INDIA, from July 2004 to Jan 2011. Out of 1595 cases 1060 cases were of stone hair dye poisoning and 535 cases were of other branded hair dyes (powdered form containing less amount of Paraphenylene diamine). Diagnosis of myocarditis was made solely on the basis of the clinical signs/symptoms suggestive of myocardial damage, electrocardiography changes, elevated cardiac biomarkers and abnormalities on trans thoracic echocardiography. The cases were thoroughly studied for cardiac complications. Myocarditis was reported in 15% of total cases with mortality rate of 29%. Occurrence of myocarditis was directly related to amount of Hair dye ingested. In patients affected from myocarditis 9% develop life threatening Ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. Hair dye (Paraphenylene di amine) is highly toxic. In cases who consumed more than 10 gram of Paraphenylene diamine, myocarditis is a dangerous complication. Proper management includes continuous cardiac monitoring to prevent sudden cardiac death.

  6. Iron profile in children with behavioural disorders: a prospective study in a tertiary care hospital in north India.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Garima; Sikka, Meera; Rusia, Usha; Bhatia, M S

    2011-06-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most frequent micronutrient deficiency in the developing countries like India especially affecting pregnant women and young children. Iron is an essential element involved in myelin formation, neurotransmitter synthesis and neuro-metabolism. Several behavioural disturbances have been reported in iron deficient children. In the present study, we determined the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in children with behavioural disorders and assessed the improvement in terms of symptoms (by child behaviour check list), haematological parameters and iron status after treatment with oral iron. In this prospective study, 44 children in the age group of 3-12 years who were diagnosed with behavioural disorders were evaluated. Complete blood counts using automated hematology analyzer and iron parameters (serum iron, total iron binding capacity, % transferrin saturation and serum ferritin) were measured in all the patients to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency in these children. Thirty age matched controls were also studied. Iron deficiency was found in 32 (73%) children, as assessed by transferrin saturation <16% and/or serum ferritin <16 μg/l. Following treatment with iron for 100 ± 10 days, there was a statistically (P ≤ 0.05) significant improvement in the clinical features, haematological profile and iron status. The presence of iron deficiency in children with behavioural disorders and subsequent improvement in clinical features, haematological profile and iron status suggests a possible causal relationship between iron deficiency and behavioural disorders.

  7. Prospects of inspection and maintenance of two-wheelers in India.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Schmoyer, R; Harrison, G; Hausker, K

    2001-10-01

    Two-wheeler vehicles in Delhi, India--roughly 70% of the total vehicle fleet--are responsible for a significant portion of the city's vehicle emissions and petroleum consumption. An inspection and maintenance (I/M) program that ensures vehicle emission control systems are well maintained can complement other emission reduction strategies. This paper presents the initial findings of extensive data collected on vehicle characteristics and emissions for two-wheeler vehicles operating in Delhi in a series of I/M camps conducted by the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers and various partners in late 1999. The analysis shows idle HC and CO emissions [measured in terms of parts per million (ppm) and volume % (vol %), respectively] in a slow declining trend with subsequent model years, reflecting tighter emission standards and more advanced emission technologies. The I/M benefits--3 vol % and 39% reduction in idle and mass CO, respectively; 40 vol % and 22% reduction in idle and mass HC, respectively; and a 10-20% increase in fuel efficiency--were higher than those reported in the literature. Although these benefits are substantial, any implementation strategy needs to consider cost-effectiveness. In the present study, only 10% of vehicles--contributing 22% of the total vehicle emissions--failed the idle CO standard. Fleet emissions data variability necessitates a large sample size to develop a baseline for the vehicle fleet, but a smaller, scientifically designed sample and better data collection quality could periodically track the benefits at future camps.

  8. Prospects of Inspection and Maintenance of Two-Wheelers in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujit; Schmoyer, Rick; Harrison, Glen; Hausker, Karl

    2001-10-01

    Two-wheeler vehicles in Delhi, India-roughly 70% of the total vehicle fleet-are responsible for a significant portion of the city's vehicle emissions and petroleum consumption. An inspection and maintenance (I/M) program that ensures vehicle emission control systems are well maintained can complement other emission reduction strategies. This paper presents the initial findings of extensive data collected on vehicle characteristics and emissions for two-wheeler vehicles operating in Delhi in a series of I/M camps conducted by the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers and various partners in late 1999. The analysis shows idle HC and CO emissions [measured in terms of parts per million (ppm) and volume % (vol %), respectively] in a slow declining trend with subsequent model years, reflecting tighter emission standards and more advanced emission technologies. The I/M benefits-3 vol % and 39% reduction in idle and mass CO, respectively; 40 vol % and 22% reduction in idle and mass HC, respectively; and a 10-20% increase in fuel efficiency-were higher than those reported in the literature. Although these benefits are substantial, any implementation strategy needs to consider cost-effectiveness. In the present study, only 10% of vehicles-contributing 22% of the total vehicle emissions-failed the idle CO standard. Fleet emissions data variability necessitates a large sample size to develop a baseline for the vehicle fleet, but a smaller, scientifically designed sample and better data collection quality could periodically track the benefits at future camps.

  9. Geologic, geomorphic and hydrologic framework and evolution of the Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E.; Thomas, William A.

    2009-03-01

    The Bengal basin, the largest fluvio-deltaic sedimentary system on Earth, is located in Bangladesh and three eastern states of India. Sediment accumulates in the basin from the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna (GBM) river systems and is dispersed into the Bay of Bengal, forming the largest submarine fan in the world. The basin is located in the Himalayan foreland at the junction of the Indian, Eurasian, and Burmese plates. The basin is bounded by the Indian craton on the west and the Indo-Burmese fold belts on the east. It can be broadly divided into a stable shelf and a foredeep separated by a deep seismic hinge zone. Basin sediments overlie Gondwanan basement and vary in thickness from a few kilometers on the stable shelf to more than 16 km in the foredeep. The basin was initiated at the breakup of Gondwanaland in the late Mesozoic and evolved through the formation of the proto-GBM delta to the present delta starting around 10.5 Ma. The stratigraphy of the different parts of the basin differs considerably, because of contrast in depositional history within the several sub-basins that were produced by intra-plate tectonic activities associated with ongoing Himalayan orogeny. The present-day geomorphology is dominated by the extensive Holocene GBM floodplain and delta. The vertical succession of the deltaic plain can be classified into five units on the basis of differences in grain size, which reflect differing depositional environments. The initiation of the modern GBM delta at the onset of the Pleistocene glacial maximum and its evolution to the present configuration are intricately related to Holocene fluvio-dynamic processes, eustatic sea-level changes, and tectonic movements. The sedimentology and mineralogy of the different parts of the basin reflect differences in sediment provenance. The mineralogy is dominated by detrital quartz, some feldspar, and minor amounts of carbonates; illite and kaolinite are the main clay minerals. The basin has profuse

  10. Provenance of sediments in the Marwar Supergroup, Rajasthan, India: Implications for basin evolution and Neoproterozoic global events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Bivin G.; Ray, Jyotiranjan S.

    2017-10-01

    The Marwar Supergroup of NW India is one of the largest Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions of India. Deposited in an intracratonic sag basin, the Supergroup contains largely unmetamorphosed and undeformed fluvial and marginal marine siliciclastics, marine carbonates, and minor volcaniclastics which hold clues to the geotectonic evolution of India subsequent to the disintegration of the Rodinia and during the formation of the Gondwanaland. Here, we present age constraints for the initiation of sedimentation and evolution of the basin. The Rb-Sr whole rock isochron of a felsic tuff from the lower part of the Supergroup, yields an age of 703 ± 40 Ma, which suggests that the sedimentation in the Marwar basin started in the Cryogenian period. The result of Sr isotope stratigraphy suggests a depositional age of ∼570 Ma (Late Ediacaran) for the carbonate sequences in the middle part of the Supergroup, indicating a depositional hiatus of ∼100 Ma between the lower and middle Marwars. We speculate that this relapse in the sedimentation could be related to the widespread Pan-African event (Malagasy Orogeny). Provenance analysis using Neodymium (Nd) isotopes and trace elements shows that sediments in the lower Marwars were contributed by the Delhi Supergroup (∼1.6 Ga), Banded Gneissic Complex-2 (>1.8 Ga) and possibly the Erinpura Granites (∼850 Ma), whereas the siliciclastics deposited in the middle and upper Marwars were predominantly sourced from the Delhi Supergroup. Interestingly, the contribution from the Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) to the sedimentation is limited only to the basal formation near the basin margin.

  11. Prospects of Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Coastal Districts of Eastern India: A Melissopalynological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K.; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010–2011 from two east-coastal districts (20020/ to 22011/ N, 82039/ to 87001/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

  12. Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region.

  13. Holocene evolution of a wave-dominated fan-delta: Godavari delta, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Nagakumar, K.; Demudu, G.; Rajawat, A.; Kubo, S.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Godavari delta is one of the world's largest wave-dominated deltas. The Godavari River arises in the Western Ghats near the west coast of India and drains an area of about 3.1x10^5 km^2, flowing about 1465 km southeast across the Indian peninsula to the Bay of Bengal. The Godavari delta consists of a gentle seaward slope from its apex (12 m elevation) at Rajahmundry and a coastal beach-ridge plain over a distance of about 75 km and covers ~5200 km^2 as a delta plain. The river splits into two major distributary channels, the Gautami and the Vasishta, at a barrage constructed in the mid-1800s. The coastal environment of the deltaic coast is microtidal (~1 m mean tidal range) and wave-dominated (~1.5 m mean wave height in the June-September SW monsoon season, ~0.8 m in the NE monsoon season). Models of the Holocene evolution of the Godavari delta have changed from a zonal progradation model (e.g. Nageswara Rao & Sadakata, 1993) to a truncated cuspate delta model (Nageswara Rao et al., 2005, 2012). Twelve borehole cores (340 m total length), taken in the coastal delta plain during 2010-2013, yielded more than 100 C-14 dates. Sediment facies and C-14 dates from these and previous cores and remote-sensing data support a new delta evolution model. The Holocene coastal delta plain is divided into two parts by a set of linear beach ridges 12-14 km landward from the present shoreline in the central part of the delta. The location of the main depocenter (lobe) has shifted during the Holocene from 1) the center to 2) the west, 3) east, 4) center, 5) west, and 6) east. The linear beach ridges separate the first three from the last three stages. These lobe shifts are controlled by river channel shifts near the apex. Just as the current linear shoreline of the central part of the delta and the concave-up nearshore topography are the result of coastal erosion of a cuspate delta, the linear beach ridges indicate a former eroded shoreline. An unconformity within the deltaic

  14. The evolution of pedagogical content knowledge in chemistry and physics prospective secondary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veal, William Richard

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of pedagogical content knowledge in prospective secondary chemistry and physics teachers. A new paradigmatic framework was developed to guide the research. Craft knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge were compared and combined forming a new perspective from which to view secondary chemistry and physics teachers' "learning to teach." A second purpose of this study was to develop philosophically-derived, domain-specific, pedagogical content knowledge taxonomies. Four taxonomies were developed in all; two general and two domain-specific. The general taxonomies describe types of pedagogical content knowledge and attributes of pedagogical content knowledge. The two domain-specific taxonomies describe topics common to both physics and chemistry and outline domain-specific laboratories for the differentiation between heat and temperature. A methodological theoretical framework, synthesized from radical and social constructivism, was developed to guide the researcher in data collection, analysis, and interpretation. The researcher used four cases, two prospective chemistry teachers and two prospective physics teachers, and followed their development through the science curriculum class and student teaching field experience of their teacher preparation program. Content-specific, situational vignettes were created as a tool to monitor the participants' development of pedagogical content knowledge. The vignettes were administered using a modified microgenetic method. The modified microgenetic procedure involved the repeated administration of a task (vignette) over a period of time to monitor cognitive change. Data were collected through several methods: participant responses to the vignettes, field notes taken during the science curriculum class and student teaching field experience, interviews, artifact collection, and journals. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results of this study

  15. The Evolution of India’s Nuclear Program: Implications for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    In 1983, India turned from testing nuclear weapons to developing an Integrated Guid Missile Program ( IGMP ). This shift from the space program...sought to share.”47 As with other nuclear weapons states, it was argued that only having airplanes did not suffice. Consequently, in 1983, the IGMP

  16. Review article: commercialization of whole-plant systems for biomanufacturing of protein products: evolution and prospects.

    PubMed

    Davies, H Maelor

    2010-10-01

    Technology for enabling plants to biomanufacture nonnative proteins in commercially significant quantities has been available for just over 20 years. During that time, the agricultural world has witnessed rapid commercialization and widespread adoption of transgenic crops enhanced for agronomic performance (herbicide-tolerance, insect-resistance), while plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMPs) and plant-made industrial products (PMIPs) have been limited to experimental and small-scale commercial production. This difference in the rate of commercial implementation likely reflects the very different business-development challenges associated with 'product' technologies compared with 'enabling' ('platform') technologies. However, considerable progress has been made in advancing and refining plant-based production of proteins, both technologically and in regard to identifying optimal business prospects. This review summarizes these developments, contrasting today's technologies and prospective applications with those of the industry's formative years, and suggesting how the PM(I)P industry's evolution has generated a very positive outlook for the 'plant-made' paradigm. © 2010 The Author. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. A prospective study of mucormycosis in north India: experience from a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Bala, Kiran; Chander, Jagdish; Handa, Uma; Punia, Rajpal Singh; Attri, Ashok Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging angioinvasive infection caused by the ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the Order Mucorales and class of Mucormycetes. We conducted a prospective study of 38 patients who were diagnosed as having mucormycosis in a tertiary care hospital during January 2010 to June 2011. The cases were analyzed regarding the site of involvement, underlying disease and species of fungi isolated, antifungal susceptibility pattern of the isolates, and outcome of therapy. The mean age of the patients was 40.43 years, with 72% male. Rhino-orbital mucormycosis (61.5%) was the most common presentation followed by cutaneous manifestations (31%), gastrointestinal symptoms (5%), and pulmonary (2.5%). Diabetes mellitus (56%) was the significant risk factor in rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation (OR = 7.55, P = 0.001). Among 23 culture isolates, Rhizopus arrhizus (37.5%) was the most common, followed by Apophysomyces variabilis (29.2%), Lichtheimia ramosa (16.7%), Rhizopus microsporus (4.2%), Rhizomucor pusillus (4.2%), and Apophysomyces elegans (4.2%). Rhizopus arrhizus was most commonly isolated from rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis and Apophysomyces species were generally obtained from cutaneous mucormycosis. In vitro antifungal susceptibility showed that 16 isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B (MIC less than 1 μg/ml), while in contrast, all isolates were found to be resistant to voriconazole (MIC- 0.25 to >8), fluconazole (MIC > 32), flucytosine (MIC > 32). Treatment regimens included antifungal therapy, reversal of underlying predisposing risk factors, and surgical debridement. Combination of surgery and medical treatment with amphotericin B was significantly better (OR = 0.2, P < 0.04) than amphotericin B alone (61.5% vs. 10.3% patient survival). The awareness of fungal diseases amongst clinicians is required to decrease the fatal outcome of disease.

  18. National Literacy Mission: Problems and Prospects. Proceedings of the All India Adult Education Conference (41st, Aurangabad, India, October 28-31, 1988). Series 169.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, J. C., Ed.; Sachdeva, J. L., Ed.

    The conference reported in this document was convened by the Indian Adult Education Association in collaboration with the Adult Continuing Education & Extension Centre of Marathwada University. Attended by 230 delegates from throughout India, the conference focussed on ways of developing an all-out attack on the country's huge illiteracy…

  19. Evolution of Aerosol Research in India and the RAWEX–GVAX:An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna Moorthy, K.; Satheesh, S. K.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2016-07-10

    Climate change has great significance in Asia in general, and India in particular; and atmospheric aerosols have a decisive role in this. The climate forcing potential of aerosols is closely linked to their optical, microphysical and chemical properties. Systematic efforts to characterize these properties over the Indian region started about 5 decades ago, and evolved over the years through concerted efforts in the form of long-term scientific programmes as well as concerted fields experiments. All these have resulted in this activity becoming one of the most vibrant fields of climate research in India and have brought several important issues in the national and international foci. The field experiment, RAWEX-GVAX (Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment-Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment), conducted during 2011-12 jointly by the US Department of Energy, Indian Space Research Organization and Department of Science and Technology, has emerged as a direct outcome of the above efforts. This overview provides a comprehensive account of the development of aerosol-climate research in India and south Asia, and the accomplishment and newer issues that warranted the above field campaign. Details of RAWEX-GVAX, the major outcomes and the subsequent and more recent efforts are presented, followed by the way forward in this field for the next several years to come.

  20. The impact of cultural evolution on the ego ideal, depression, psychosis, and suicide: a South India community study of the widow.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Helen E

    2011-01-01

    Cultural factors have a significant impact on the manifestation of psychiatric illness and the development of the ego ideal. The evolution of the widow's cultural role in a South India village provides insight on the ego ideal through several generations. As treatment of widows changed so that their appearance became indistinguishable from other women, they no longer became objects of revulsion. A case study approach documents the interrelationship of changes in the cultural ego ideal on psychiatric illness among widows in a South India village over a period of more than four decades.

  1. Tectonic evolution of the Archaean high-grade terrain of South India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, M.

    1988-01-01

    The southern Indian shield consists of three major tectonic provinces viz., (1) Dharwar Craton, (2) Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt, and (3) Pandyan Mobile Belt. An understanding of their mutual relations is crucial for formulating crustal evolution models. The tectonic evolution of these provinces is summarized.

  2. mHealth Intervention to Improve Diabetes Risk Behaviors in India: A Prospective, Parallel Group Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; Saligram, Nalini; Davé, Raj; Gowda, Arun; Blais, Linelle; Arora, Monika; Ranjani, Harish; Ganda, Om; Hedeker, Donald; Reddy, Sethu; Ramalingam, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    Background In low/middle income countries like India, diabetes is prevalent and health care access limited. Most adults have a mobile phone, creating potential for mHealth interventions to improve public health. To examine the feasibility and initial evidence of effectiveness of mDiabetes, a text messaging program to improve diabetes risk behaviors, a global nonprofit organization (Arogya World) implemented mDiabetes among one million Indian adults. Objective A prospective, parallel cohort design was applied to examine whether mDiabetes improved fruit, vegetable, and fat intakes and exercise. Methods Intervention participants were randomly selected from the one million Nokia subscribers who elected to opt in to mDiabetes. Control group participants were randomly selected from non-Nokia mobile phone subscribers. mDiabetes participants received 56 text messages in their choice of 12 languages over 6 months; control participants received no contact. Messages were designed to motivate improvement in diabetes risk behaviors and increase awareness about the causes and complications of diabetes. Participant health behaviors (exercise and fruit, vegetable, and fat intake) were assessed between 2012 and 2013 via telephone surveys by blinded assessors at baseline and 6 months later. Data were cleaned and analyzed in 2014 and 2015. Results 982 participants in the intervention group and 943 in the control group consented to take the phone survey at baselne. At the end of the 6-month period, 611 (62.22%) in the intervention and 632 (67.02%) in the control group completed the follow-up telephone survey. Participants receiving texts demonstrated greater improvement in a health behavior composite score over 6 months, compared with those who received no messages F(1, 1238) = 30.181, P<.001, 95% CI, 0.251-0.531. Fewer intervention participants demonstrated health behavior decline compared with controls. Improved fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption (P<.01) but not exercise were

  3. Endoscopic management of post-liver transplant billiary complications: A prospective study from tertiary centre in India.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Piyush; Bansal, Rinkesh Kumar; Mehta, N; Lalwani, S; Kumaran, V; Sachdeva, M K; Kumar, M; Nundy, S

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation has become common in India over the last decade and biliary strictures after the procedure cause a significant morbidity. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a safe and effective treatment modality for post-transplant biliary strictures so we decided to evaluate prospectively the outcomes of endoscopic treatment in post-living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) biliary strictures. We studied ten consecutive patients who had developed biliary strictures (out of 312 who had undergone liver transplantation between June 2009 and June 2013) and had been referred to the Department of Gastroenterology for management. All patients underwent liver function tests, ultrasound of the abdomen, magnetic resonance cholangiography and liver biopsy, if this was indicated. Of these 312 patients who underwent liver transplantation, 305 had living donors (LDLT) and 7 deceased donors (DDLT). Ten patients in the LDLT group (3.3%) developed biliary strictures. There were seven males and three females who had median age of 52 years (range 4-60 years). The biliary anastomosis was duct-to-duct in all patients with one patient having an additional duct-to-jejunum anastomosis. The mode of presentation was cholangitis in four patients (40%), asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes in four (40%) and jaundice in two patients (20%). The median time from transplantation to the detection of the stricture was 12 months (2-42.5 months). ERCP was attempted as initial therapy in all patients: seven were managed entirely by endoscopic therapy, and three required a combined percutaneous and endoscopic approach. Cholangiography demonstrated anastomotic stricture in all patients. A total of 32 sessions of ERCP were done with mean of 3.2 (2-5) endoscopic sessions and 3.4 (1-6) stents required to resolve the stricture. The median time from the first intervention to stricture resolution was 4 months (range 2-12 months). In four patients, the stents were removed after

  4. Compositional Variation of Tourmaline from the Paleoproterozoic Bhukia Gold Prospect of Aravalli Supergroup, Western India: Implications for the Provenance and Gold Metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, R.; Venkatesh, A. S.; Fareeduddin, F.

    2016-12-01

    Bhukia is a unique gold prospect in terms of its host lithologies such as albitite and carbonates with respect to greenstone hosted Archean gold deposits from India. Tourmaline occurs along with apatite, magnetite, graphite, chalcopyrite and gold-sulfide association in Bhukia gold prospect preserve geochemical record of changing physico-chemical conditions during its growth. Tourmalinization is one of the distinct hydrothermal alterations present in the study area. Chemical composition of two varieties of tourmalines presents as significant amounts within albitite and carbonate rocks from Bhukia gold prospect. EPMA analysis of two varieties of tourmalines viz. 1) rounded to sub-rounded, euhedral, green colored tourmalines and 2) elongated, zoned, brown colored tourmalines unlocks their chemical compositions as well as variations from core to rim. In some albitite litho-units, tourmaline occurs as major constituents (>15%), present as layers, termed as tourmalinites. Al-Fe-Mg and Na/ (Na+Ca) vs Fe/ (Fe+Mg) suggests that tourmalines from the Bhukia gold prospect are Mg-rich dravite to Fe-rich schrol in composition. Tourmalines present within the albitite rocks show variations in iron and sodium content from core to rim whereas similarity exist from core to rim in case of carbonate rocks. Presence of albite confirms the role of Na-rich fluids during the formation of tourmalines. Tourmalines present in Bhukia gold prospect is mainly influenced by boron influx and the source may be boron bearing hydrothermal fluid or boron bearing minerals. Dewatering of original un-metamorphosed rock during progressive metamorphism may remove boron from the metasedimentary rocks. Due to the mobile nature of boron, it dispersed and mixed with hydrothermal fluids and alumina that is required for the formation of the tourmaline might have been leached from metasedimentary rocks present in Bhukia gold prospect. Presence of hydrothermal alterations such as tourmalinization and albitization

  5. From Handpumps to Health: The Evolution of Water and Sanitation Programmes in Bangladesh, India and Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie

    The case histories of water and sanitation schemes described in this volume can best be understood by identifying the moments at which critical hurdles were encountered and surmounted. The first case study, which concerns Bangladesh, discusses promising prospects that existed amid the pollution and the technical and managerial expansion of the…

  6. From Handpumps to Health: The Evolution of Water and Sanitation Programmes in Bangladesh, India and Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie

    The case histories of water and sanitation schemes described in this volume can best be understood by identifying the moments at which critical hurdles were encountered and surmounted. The first case study, which concerns Bangladesh, discusses promising prospects that existed amid the pollution and the technical and managerial expansion of the…

  7. Geometry and Kinematic evolution of the Sikkim Himalaya, India: Implications for the Evolution of the Himalayan Fold-Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.; Mitra, G.

    2012-04-01

    FTB. The retrodeformed cross section in the Darjeeling - Sikkim Himalaya region provides insights into the palinspastic extent of the Gondwana basin of Peninsular India, suggesting that this basin extended ~150 km northward of the present northernmost exposure of Gondwana rocks in this region.

  8. Crustal architecture and tectonic evolution of the Cauvery Suture Zone, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetty, T. R. K.; Yellappa, T.; Santosh, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Cauvery suture zone (CSZ) in southern India has witnessed multiple deformations associated with multiple subduction-collision history, with incorporation of the related accretionary belts sequentially into the southern continental margin of the Archaean Dharwar craton since Neoarchean to Neoproterozoic. The accreted tectonic elements include suprasubduction complexes of arc magmatic sequences, high-grade supracrustals, thrust duplexes, ophiolites, and younger intrusions that are dispersed along the suture. The intra-oceanic Neoarchean-Neoproterozoic arc assemblages are well exposed in the form of tectonic mélanges dominantly towards the eastern sector of the CSZ and are typically subjected to complex and multiple deformation events. Multi-scale analysis of structural elements with detailed geological mapping of the sub-regions and their structural cross sections, geochemical and geochronological data and integrated geophysical observations suggest that the CSZ is an important zone that preserves the imprints of multiple cycles of Precambrian plate tectonic regimes.

  9. Data mining for evolution of association rules for droughts and floods in India using climate inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanya, C. T.; Nagesh Kumar, D.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate prediction of extreme rainfall events can significantly aid in policy making and also in designing an effective risk management system. Frequent occurrences of droughts and floods in the past have severely affected the Indian economy, which depends primarily on agriculture. Data mining is a powerful new technology which helps in extracting hidden predictive information (future trends and behaviors) from large databases and thus allowing decision makers to make proactive knowledge-driven decisions. In this study, a data-mining algorithm making use of the concepts of minimal occurrences with constraints and time lags is used to discover association rules between extreme rainfall events and climatic indices. The algorithm considers only the extreme events as the target episodes (consequents) by separating these from the normal episodes, which are quite frequent, and finds the time-lagged relationships with the climatic indices, which are treated as the antecedents. Association rules are generated for all the five homogenous regions of India and also for All India by making use of the data from 1960 to 1982. The analysis of the rules shows that strong relationships exist between the climatic indices chosen, i.e., Darwin sea level pressure, North Atlantic Oscillation, Nino 3.4 and sea surface temperature values, and the extreme rainfall events. Validation of the rules using data for the period 1983-2005 clearly shows that most of the rules are repeating, and for some rules, even if they are not exactly the same, the combinations of the indices mentioned in these rules are the same during validation period, with slight variations in the classes taken by the indices.

  10. Core Evolution in the Icy Galilean Satellites, and the Prospects for Dynamo-generated Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, William B.

    1996-09-01

    The apparent discovery of a dynamo-generated magnetic field at Ganymede by Galileo prompts a more detailed examination of the internal evolution of the cores of the icy Galileans. For Ganymede, thermal evolution of a core, based on the structural models in Mueller and McKinnon (1988, Icarus 76), predicts radiogenic heating to well in excess of the Fe-S eutectic temperature ( ~ 1200-1250 K at core pressures; Fei and Bertka 1996, LPSC XXVII) by about 1 b.y. after core formation. The amount of sulfur is also plausibly large, based on chondritic abundances S/(Fe + S) ~ 25 wt%, close to the eutectic composition at inner core pressures ( ~ 20.5 wt%). The formation of an initially liquid inner Fe-(Ni)-S core, possibly in excess of 1000 km in radius, should not be hindered by the "wetting angle" problem, both due to the large volume percent of melt likely and the relatively high fO2 expected (Gaetani and Grove 1996, LPSC XXVII). Over solar system history this core cools and solid-state convection in the silicate outer mantle ceases. At some point inner core freezing should begin. Significantly, however, it is very difficult to find a set of parameters that allow inner core temperatures to drop below the eutectic temperature (e.g., extreme concentration of radionuclides at the core-mantle boundary due to core volcanism). Thus the inner core should be freezing at present (within ~ 200 K of the eutectic), and it is the chemical buoyancy of this process that may lead to dynamo action. If the sulfur content is low, then freezing of an iron innermost core would presumably mirror the terrestrial situation. Higher sulfur contents allow an interesting possibility: FeS may precipitate at the satellite center and rise buoyantly to remelt at higher levels and/or similarly iron may rain out from the top of the inner core; this "precipitation engine" may effectively drive a dynamo. The prospects for radiogenic heating preventing complete solidification of Europa's inner core are

  11. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Practicing Poor Sanitation in Rural India: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Bijaya K.; Baker, Kelly K.; Dutta, Ambarish; Cumming, Oliver; Freeman, Matthew C.; Satpathy, Radhanatha; Das, Bhabani S.; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of maternal sanitation behaviour during pregnancy for birth outcomes remains unclear. Poor sanitation practices can promote infection and induce stress during pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). We aimed to assess whether poor sanitation practices were associated with increased risk of APOs such as preterm birth and low birth weight in a population-based study in rural India. Methods and Findings A prospective cohort of pregnant women (n = 670) in their first trimester of pregnancy was enrolled and followed until birth. Socio-demographic, clinical, and anthropometric factors, along with access to toilets and sanitation practices, were recorded at enrolment (12th week of gestation). A trained community health volunteer conducted home visits to ensure retention in the study and learn about study outcomes during the course of pregnancy. Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals for APOs were estimated by logistic regression models. Of the 667 women who were retained at the end of the study, 58.2% practiced open defecation and 25.7% experienced APOs, including 130 (19.4%) preterm births, 95 (14.2%) births with low birth weight, 11 (1.7%) spontaneous abortions, and six (0.9%) stillbirths. Unadjusted ORs for APOs (OR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.72–3.71), preterm birth (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.54–3.62), and low birth weight (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.24–3.23) were found to be significantly associated with open defecation practices. After adjustment for potential confounders such as maternal socio-demographic and clinical factors, open defecation was still significantly associated with increased odds of APOs (AOR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.49–3.80) and preterm birth (AOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.29–3.79) but not low birth weight (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 0.94–2.73). The association between APOs and open defecation was independent of poverty and caste. Even though we accounted for several key

  12. Long-term evolution after in-hospital cardiac arrest in children: Prospective multicenter multinational study.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Jimena; López-Herce, Jesús; Matamoros, Martha; Cañadas, Sonia; Rodríguez-Calvo, Ana; Cecchetti, Corrado; Rodriguez-Núñez, Antonio; Álvarez, Angel Carrillo

    2015-11-01

    The main objective was to study survival and neurologic evolution of children who suffered in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest (CA). The secondary objective was to analyze the influence of risk factors on the long term outcome after CA. prospective, international, observational, multicentric study in 48 hospitals of 12 countries. CA in children between 1 month and 18 years were analyzed using the Utstein template. Survival and neurological state measured by Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) scale one year after hospital discharge was evaluated. 502 patients with in-hospital CA were evaluated. 197 of them (39.2%) survived to hospital discharge. PCPC at hospital discharge was available in 156 of survivors (79.2%). 76.9% had good neurologic state (PCPC 1-2) and 23.1% poor PCPC values (3-6). One year after cardiac arrest we could obtain data from 144 patients (28.6%). PCPC was available in 116 patients. 88 (75.9%) had a good neurologic evaluation and 28 (24.1%) a poor one. A neurological deterioration evaluated by PCPC scale was observed in 40 patients (7.9%). One year after cardiac arrest PCPC scores compared to hospital discharge had worsen in 7 patients (6%), remained constant in 103 patients (88.8%) and had improved in 6 patients (5.2%). Survival one year after cardiac arrest in children after in-hospital cardiac arrest is high. Neurologic outcome of these children a year after cardiac arrest is mostly the same as after hospital discharge. The factors associated with a worst long-term neurological outcome are the etiology of arrest being a traumatic or neurologic illness, and the persistency of higher lactic acid values 24h after ROSC. A standardised basic protocol even practicable for lower developed countries would be a first step for the new multicenter studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinematic evolution, metamorphism, and exhumation of the Greater Himalayan Series, Sutlej River and Zanskar regions of NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahr, Donald William, III

    The Himalayan orogen provides a natural laboratory to test models of orogenic development due to large-scale continental collision. The Greater Himalayan Series (GHS), a lithotectonic unit continuous along the entire length of the belt, comprises the metamorphic core of the Himalayan orogen and underlies the highest topography. GHS rocks are exposed as a moderately northdipping slab bounded below by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and above by the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) of normal faults. Coeval reverse- and normal-sense motion on the crustal-scale MCT and STDS ductile shear zones allows the GHS to be modeled as an extruded wedge or channel of mid-crustal material. Due to this unique tectonic setting, the deformation path of rocks within the bounding shear zones and throughout the core of the GHS profoundly influences the efficiency of extrusion and exhumation processes. Attempts to quantify GHS deformation and metamorphic evolution have provided significant insight into Himalayan orogenic development, but these structural and petrologic studies are often conducted in isolation. Penetrative deformation fabrics developed under mid-upper amphibolite facies conditions within the GHS argue that deformation and metamorphism were coupled, and this should be considered in studies aimed at quantifying GHS teconometamorphic evolution. This work focuses on two projects related to the coupled deformation, thermal and metamorphic evolution during extrusion and exhumation of the GHS, focused on the lower and upper margins of the slab. A detailed examination of the P--T history of a schist collected from within the MCT zone of the Sutlej River, NW India, provides insight into the path experienced by these rocks as they traveled through the crust in response to the extreme shortening related to India-Asia collision. Combined forward thermodynamic and diffusion modeling indicates compositional zoning preserved in garnet has remained unmodified since growth and can be

  14. The evolution of animal welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India.

    PubMed

    Bayne, Kathryn; Ramachandra, Gudde S; Rivera, Ekaterina A; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-03-01

    Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross country borders. The need for assurance that the quality of animal welfare and the caliber of animal research conducted are equivalent among research partners around the globe is of concern to the scientific and laboratory animal medicine communities, the general public, and other key stakeholders. Therefore, global harmonization of animal care and use standards and practices, with the welfare of the animals as a cornerstone, is essential. In the evolving global landscape of enhanced attention to animal welfare, a widely accepted path to achieving this goal is the successful integration of the 3Rs in animal care and use programs. Currently, awareness of the 3Rs, their implementation, and the resulting animal care and use standards and practices vary across countries. This variability has direct effects on the animals used in research and potentially the data generated and may also have secondary effects on the country's ability to be viewed as a global research partner. Here we review the status of implementation of the 3Rs worldwide and focus on 3 countries-Brazil, China and India-with increasing economic influence and an increasing footprint in the biomedical research enterprise.

  15. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Hutti-Maski Greenstone Belt, India: Constrained using geochemical and geochronological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A. J.; Kolb, J.; Meyer, F. M.; Armstrong, R. A.

    2007-08-01

    The Hutti-Maski Greenstone Belt (HMGB), situated in the eastern block of the Dharwar Craton, India is dominated by bimodal volcanics with a minimum magmatic age of 2586 ± 59 Ma. Two phases of granitoid intruded into the belt, the syn-tectonic Kavital granitoid, homogeneous, medium-grained porphyritic granodiorite, with an intrusion age of 2543 ± 9 Ma, followed by the post-tectonic Yelagatti granitoid, heterogeneous, fine- to medium-grained granite to granodiorite. The extensively altered zircons from the Yelagatti granitoid have significant enrichments of U, Th (>1%) and common-Pb (up to 47%). Only two of the analyses were reproducible, providing a minimum 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 2221 ± 99 Ma, this may indicate an approximate magmatic age or more realistically a subsequent event. Felsic metavolcanic rocks contain cross-cutting veinlets, which formed during the Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1180 Ma), the final closure of the Pb system occurred between the Neoproterozoic and Ordovician, possibly related to the Pan-African orogeny. The tectono-magmatic evolution of the HMGB can be correlated with the collision between the eastern and western blocks of the Dharwar Craton subsequent to 2658 Ma and the craton wide magmatism from 2613 to 2513 Ma. These events can be accounted for by combining uniformitarian and non-uniformitarian models.

  16. Evolution of the Eastern Karakoram Metamorphic Complex, Ladakh, NW India, and its relationship to magmatism and regional tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, David; Phillips, R. J.; Lloyd, G. E.

    2014-06-01

    The eastern Karakoram terrane, NW India, records crustal evolution in the core of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. Recent debate has centred on whether prograde metamorphism, anatexis and leucogranite emplacement were the result of localised shear heating and magma advection within the Karakoram Fault Zone (KFZ) or instead predate the KFZ and were the result of regional tectonometamophic events. Inclusions within andalusite porphyroblasts that grew during 15.7 Ma leucogranite emplacement have fabrics that are random or discordant to the KFZ matrix foliation, indicating that the KFZ initiated after this time. Therefore, earlier anatexis and metamorphism are the result of regional metamorphic events. Amphibole-plagioclase thermobarometry on a c. 17 Ma migmatite melanosome, later exhumed within a transpressional zone of the KFZ, shows that melting occurred at 688 °C and 522 MPa. Amphibolites record an older kyanite-grade metamorphic event that occurred at 677-736 °C and 875-1059 MPa. Metapelites also record a kyanite-grade event which is constrained by Ti-in-biotite thermometry to have occurred at 622 °C and > 650 MPa. The tectonometamorphic history of the eastern Karakoram correlates closely with that of the central Karakoram away from the KFZ. This correlation supports the interpretation that metamorphism and anatexis were regional in extent and also indicates a limited offset of < 150 km on the KFZ.

  17. Evolution of extreme high waters along the east coast of India and at the head of the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Charls; Unnikrishnan, A. S.; Woodworth, Philip L.

    2016-05-01

    The recent evolution of extreme high waters along the severe cyclone-risk coasts of the Bay of Bengal (the east coast of India and Bangladesh) was assessed using long-term (24-34 years) hourly tide gauge data available from five stations. The highest water levels above mean sea level have the greatest magnitude towards the northern part of the Bay, which decreases towards its south-west. Extreme high waters were observed to result from a combination of moderate, or even small, surges with large tides at these stations in most of the cases. Increasing trends, which are significant, were observed in the extreme high waters at Hiron Point, at the head of the Bay. However, the trends in extremes are slightly lower than its mean sea level trend. For the other stations, Cox's Bazaar, Paradip Visakhapatnam and Chennai, no significant trends were observed. At inter-annual time scales, changes in extreme high waters in the Bay of Bengal were found to be influenced by the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole.

  18. Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization: Reviewing Evolution for Prospecting the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebelo, Teresa Manuela; Gomes, Adelino Duarte

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the evolution of the concepts of organizational learning and the learning organization and propose guidelines for the future. Design/methodology/approach: The evolution of organizational learning and the learning organization is analysed in the light of the three-stage model of the evolution of…

  19. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome and Adverse Reactions in Patients Receiving Directly Observed Treatment Strategy in India: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Ali Nasir; Khayyam, Khalid Umer

    2016-01-01

    Despite successful implementation of directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) in India, the growing number of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients appears to be a cause in the increasing tuberculosis (TB) incidence, affecting their management. In this regard, a prospective study was conducted on DOTS patients in three primary health care centers in urban slum region of South Delhi, India, to evaluate the effect of DM on sputum conversion, treatment outcome, and adverse drug reactions (ADR) due to anti-TB treatment. Eligible TB patients underwent blood glucose screening at treatment initiation. Disease presentation, clinical outcome, and ADRs were compared between patients of TB with and without DM. Out of 316 patients, the prevalence of DM was found to be 15.8%, in which 19.4% and 9.6% were PTB and EPTB patients, respectively. DM patients have observed higher sputum positivity (OR 1.247 95% CI; 0.539–2.886) at the end of 2-month treatment and poor outcome (OR 1.176 95% CI; 0.310–4.457) at the completion of treatment compared with non DM patients. Presence of DM was significantly associated (OR 3.578 95% CI; 1.114–11.494, p = 0.032) with the development of ADRs. DM influences the treatment outcome of PTB patients in our setting and also on the ADR incidence. PMID:27642601

  20. Evolution of Extensional Structures Within the Internal Parts of the Higher Himalaya (Sutlej River Region, NW India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintersberger, E.; Thiede, R. C.; Strecker, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    One of the most challenging problems in understanding the tectonics of active mountain belts is the presence of normal faults in the overall compressive settings. Consistent observations in the Andes, the Alps, as well as in the Himalaya record the presence of upper crustal structures with normal displacement contemporaneously with shortening and thrusting at lower crustal levels and elevations. Within the internal and high elevation sectors of the Himalayan orogen, active N-S striking normal fault systems are well documented. Crosscutting relationships indicate that these closely spaced faults cut all pre-existing compressional structures and are the youngest structural features in this region. However, their mode of propagation in time and space, as well as their origin remain largely unknown. For example, in the Sutlej River region (NW Himalaya, India), it is unclear whether these fault systems either are a local phenomenon and related to ongoing exhumation of the Leo Pargil metamorphic dome or, alternatively, are an integral part of the structural framework in the Himalaya and thus of regional importance. To better understand which processes constrain N-S striking normal faulting in the evolution of the Higher Himalaya, we have mapped the young extensional sectors in the greater Sutlej River area. In addition, we combine seismological data with the spacial and temporal distribution of brittle normal faulting to better understand the interaction between the ongoing normal and thrust faulting in the orogen. Using globally recorded seismicity data we observed ongoing extension in a N-S striking band extending from to the Leo Pargil extensional dome southward to the main thrust belts along the Himalayan front. Further installation of a seismic network in this region will provide the level of resolution needed to analyze the detailed pattern of local seismicity of the Sutlej-Spiti River region. Our preliminary structural geological field work reveals that the

  1. Controls on evolution of gas-hydrate system in the Krishna-Godavari basin, offshore India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badesab, F.; Dewangan, P.; Usapkar, A.; Kocherla, M.; Peketi, A.; Mohite, K.; Sangode, S. J.; Deenadayalan, K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we integrate environmental magnetic, sedimentological, and geochemical records of sediment core of Hole NGHP-01-10D overlying methane hydrate deposits to decipher the controls on the evolution of fracture-filled gas-hydrate system in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin. Four distinct sedimentary units have been identified, based on the sediment magnetic signatures. An anomalous zone of enhanced magnetic susceptibility (Unit III: 51.9-160.4 mbsf) coinciding with the gas hydrate bearing intervals is due to the presence of magnetite-rich detrital minerals brought-in by the river systems as a result of higher sedimentation events in K-G basin and has no influence over hydrate formation. A strong to moderate correlation between magnetite concentration and chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) content indicates significant influence of sulfidization on the magnetic record and could be further exploited as a proxy to decipher paleo-H2S seepage events. Analysis of high-resolution seismic, bathymetry, and sub-bottom profiler data reveals the existence of a regional fault system in K-G basin. The opening and closing dynamics of the faults facilitated the migration and trapping of required gas concentrations resulting in accumulation of gas hydrates at the studied site. The seismic data provides support to the rock-magnetic interpretations. The observed variations in magnetic and geochemical properties have resulted from the episodic flow of methane and sulfide-enriched fluids through the fracture-filled network formed as a result of shale-tectonism. Our study demonstrated the potential of using an enviro-magnetic approach in combination with other proxies to constrain the evolution of gas-hydrate system in marine environments.

  2. Partners or Competitors? The Evolution of the Department of Defense/Central Intelligence Agency Relationship since Desert Storm and its Prospects for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    The Evolution of the Department of Defense/Central Intelligence Agency Relationship since Desert Storm and its Prospects for the Future David P...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Partners or Competitors? The Evolution of the Department of...Chad J. McNeeley) JSOU Report 14-2 The JSOU Press MacDill Air Force Base, Florida 2014 Partners or Competitors? The Evolution of the Department of

  3. Closure of Tethys and early stages of Himalayan evolution: constraints from the detrital record, Ladakh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenks, D.; Najman, Y.; Godin, L.; Parrish, R.; Horstwood, M.; Green, O.; Bown, P.; Garzanti, E.; Willems, H.

    2009-04-01

    Closure of Tethys marks initiation of collision between India and Asia, and the start of Himalayan orogenesis. A clear understanding of when this occurred is paramount to understanding the tectonic and denudational processes that have occurred since collision. A number of methods and datasets have been used to constrain the initiation of collision, from faunal mixing at 65 Ma [1] to the timing at which Indian rocks reached UHP depths at 57 Ma [2], to a reduction in northward drift of the Indian plate at 55 Ma [3]. New interpretations have placed collision as late as 38 Ma [4]. The extent of diachroneity is also disputed, varying from slight [5] to substantial [6]. Two approaches are used here to determine collision, 1) the timing of closure of the Tethys Ocean [7], based on stratigraphic succession, 2) first evidence of Asian derived material deposited on the Indian plate [8], using U-Pb ages of detrital zircon to assess provenance. In Ladakh, Indian plate passive margin limestones of the Mid-Late Paleocene Dibling Formation [9] are overlain by the youngest marine facies of the region, the marine siltstones of the Kong Fm. and the fluvio-deltaic facies of the Chulung La Fm. [8]. The age of the Kong and Chulung La formations is disputed, ranging from P5/6 (56 Ma) [10] to P8 (50.5 Ma) [8]. The provenance is also debated, considered either to be eroded from ophiolitic material from the Indian plate [10] or containing detritus from the Trans-Himalayan arc of the Asian plate [8,11]. We applied biostratigraphy, and U-Pb dating on detrital zircon, to samples from the Kong and Chulung La Formations to define depositional age and provenance. Biostratigraphy identified Asselines A. placentula grande and A. pomeroli, from the SBZ 10 (50.5 to 52.5 Ma) and SBZ 9 (53 Ma) zones respectively, thereby defining a minimum age of collision at 50.5 Ma, based on cessation of marine facies. However, the possibility that these fossils are reworked will be discussed. U-Pb dating of

  4. Possible magmatic underplating beneath the west coast of India and adjoining Dharwar craton: Imprint from Archean crustal evolution to breakup of India and Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Utpal; Das, Ritima; Rai, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    The shear wave velocity of the crust along a ∼660 km profile from the west to the east coast of South India is mapped through the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity. The profile, consisting of 38 broadband seismic stations, covers the Archean Dharwar craton, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, and rifted margin and escarpment. The Moho is mapped at a depth of ∼40 km beneath the mid-Archean Western Dharwar Craton (WDC), Cuddapah Basin (CB), and the west and east coasts formed through the rifting process. This is in contrast with a thin (∼35 km) crust beneath the late-Archean Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC). Along the profile, the average thickness of the upper, middle and lower crust is ∼4 km, 12 ± 4 km and 24 ± 4 km respectively. Above the Moho, we observe a high-velocity layer (HVL, Vs > 4 km/s) of variable thickness increasing from 3 ± 1 km beneath the EDC to 11 ± 3 km beneath the WDC and the CB, and 18 ± 2 km beneath the west coast of India. The seismic wave velocity in this layer is greater than typical oceanic lower crust. We interpret the high-velocity layer as a signature of magmatic underplating due to past tectonic processes. Its significant thinning beneath the EDC may be attributed to crustal delamination or relamination at 2.5 Ga. These results demonstrate the dual signature of the Archean Dharwar crust. The change in the geochemical character of the crust possibly occurred at the end of Archean when Komatiite volcanism ceased. The unusually thick HVL beneath the west coast of India and the adjoining region may represent underplated material formed due to India-Madagascar rifting, which is supported by the presence of seaward dipping reflectors and a 85-90 Ma mafic dyke in the adjoining island.

  5. Pursuing Darwin’s curious parallel: Prospects for a science of cultural evolution

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In the past few decades, scholars from several disciplines have pursued the curious parallel noted by Darwin between the genetic evolution of species and the cultural evolution of beliefs, skills, knowledge, languages, institutions, and other forms of socially transmitted information. Here, I review current progress in the pursuit of an evolutionary science of culture that is grounded in both biological and evolutionary theory, but also treats culture as more than a proximate mechanism that is directly controlled by genes. Both genetic and cultural evolution can be described as systems of inherited variation that change over time in response to processes such as selection, migration, and drift. Appropriate differences between genetic and cultural change are taken seriously, such as the possibility in the latter of nonrandomly guided variation or transformation, blending inheritance, and one-to-many transmission. The foundation of cultural evolution was laid in the late 20th century with population-genetic style models of cultural microevolution, and the use of phylogenetic methods to reconstruct cultural macroevolution. Since then, there have been major efforts to understand the sociocognitive mechanisms underlying cumulative cultural evolution, the consequences of demography on cultural evolution, the empirical validity of assumed social learning biases, the relative role of transformative and selective processes, and the use of quantitative phylogenetic and multilevel selection models to understand past and present dynamics of society-level change. I conclude by highlighting the interdisciplinary challenges of studying cultural evolution, including its relation to the traditional social sciences and humanities. PMID:28739929

  6. Pursuing Darwin's curious parallel: Prospects for a science of cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2017-07-24

    In the past few decades, scholars from several disciplines have pursued the curious parallel noted by Darwin between the genetic evolution of species and the cultural evolution of beliefs, skills, knowledge, languages, institutions, and other forms of socially transmitted information. Here, I review current progress in the pursuit of an evolutionary science of culture that is grounded in both biological and evolutionary theory, but also treats culture as more than a proximate mechanism that is directly controlled by genes. Both genetic and cultural evolution can be described as systems of inherited variation that change over time in response to processes such as selection, migration, and drift. Appropriate differences between genetic and cultural change are taken seriously, such as the possibility in the latter of nonrandomly guided variation or transformation, blending inheritance, and one-to-many transmission. The foundation of cultural evolution was laid in the late 20th century with population-genetic style models of cultural microevolution, and the use of phylogenetic methods to reconstruct cultural macroevolution. Since then, there have been major efforts to understand the sociocognitive mechanisms underlying cumulative cultural evolution, the consequences of demography on cultural evolution, the empirical validity of assumed social learning biases, the relative role of transformative and selective processes, and the use of quantitative phylogenetic and multilevel selection models to understand past and present dynamics of society-level change. I conclude by highlighting the interdisciplinary challenges of studying cultural evolution, including its relation to the traditional social sciences and humanities.

  7. Prospective, noninterventional, uncontrolled, open-chart, pharmacoepidemiologic study of prescribing patterns for lipid-lowering drugs at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pankaj; Sharma, Geeta; Bal, Baljinderpal S; Singh, Jatinder; Singh, Jagjit; Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Pandhi, Shaloo; Sharma, Rohit

    2002-12-01

    The guidelines for management of dyslipidemia released by the US National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have been questioned for their relevance in the South Asian Indian populations because these populations are reported to have significantly different lipoprotein parameters and atherogenic risk factors than Western populations. The aim of this study was to determine current prescribing patterns for lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) adopted by physicians in North India. This prospective, noninterventional, uncontrolled, open-chart, pharmacoepidemiologic study was conducted from June 2000 to August 2000 at a tertiary care hospital in North India and included 200 dyslipidemic patients. The pattern of prescribing LLDs was recorded, along with the serum levels of lipid parameters-total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a])-at the time of initiating LLD therapy and compared with the 1993 NCEP-II therapeutic guidelines for dyslipidemia management. The mean (SD) levels of lipid parameters in the study population were as follows: TC, 223.2 (21.5) mg/dL; TG, 258.4 (61.3) mg/dL; LDL-C, 131.6 (26.5) mg/dL; HDL-C, 39.8 (8.9) mg/dL; and Lp(a), 44.8 (26.8) mg/dL. The LLDs prescribed were fibrates (53.5%) and statins (46.5%). Forty percent of patients prescribed LLDs did not meet the NCEP-II criteria for initiation of LLD therapy. Considerable differences in prescribing patterns of LLDs were observed compared with the then-prevalent NCEP-II guidelines. However, due to the abnormally high serum Lp(a) levels present in the average dyslipidemia profile in South Asian Indian populations, this pattern was in accordance with the specific recommendations made for these populations, as well as with the 2001 NCEP-III guidelines.

  8. Fever in the tropics: aetiology and case-fatality - a prospective observational study in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to describe aetiology and case fatality of fever among inpatients in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods This was an observational, prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Between July 2nd 2007 and August 2nd in 2007, adult patients admitted to the hospital with temperature ≥ 38.0°C were included consecutively and followed during the hospitalisation period. Demographic and clinical data were collected and analysed for each patient. Associations were sought between death and various clinical and demographic variables. Results One hundred patients were included, 61 male and 39 female. Mean age was 37.5 (range: 16 to 84) years. Mean fever duration was 5.4 (range: 0.1 to 42.9) weeks. The following infectious aetiologies were recorded: tuberculosis (19%), lower respiratory infection (11%) including three with sepsis, urinary tract infection (10%) including three with E. coli sepsis, Plasmodium falciparum malaria (5%) including three patients with mixed P. vivax infection, scrub typhus (5%), typhoid fever (4%), cryptococcal meningitis (4%) including three HIV positive patients, endocarditis (3%) including two patients with Staphylococcus aureus sepsis, spleen abscess (2%), amoebic liver abscess (2%), sepsis undefined focus (1%), HIV infection (1%), hepatitis B (1%), rubella (1%), peritonitis (1%) and cholecystitis (1%). Non-infectious causes of fever were diagnosed in 15%, including systemic lupus erythematosus in four and malignancy in six patients. Cause of fever remained unknown in 13%. Case fatality during hospitalisation was 7% (7/100). Six of those who died were male. Five fatalities had bacterial sepsis, one spleen abscess and malignancy, and one had lymphomalignant disorder. Diabetes and increasing age were significant risk factors for fatal outcome in unadjusted analyses, but only increasing age was a risk factor for death in adjusted analysis

  9. Improved neonatal survival after participatory learning and action with women's groups: a prospective study in rural eastern India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Swati Sarbani; Mahapatra, Rajendra; Rath, Shibanand; Bajpai, Aparna; Singh, Vijay; Rath, Suchitra; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Gope, Raj Kumar; Sinha, Rajesh; Costello, Anthony; Pagel, Christina; Prost, Audrey

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether a women's group intervention involving participatory learning and action has a sustainable and replicable effect on neonatal survival in rural, eastern India. From 2004 to 2011, births and neonatal deaths in 36 geographical clusters in Jharkhand and Odisha were monitored. Between 2005 and 2008, these clusters were part of a randomized controlled trial of how women's group meetings involving participatory learning and action influence maternal and neonatal health. Between 2008 and 2011, groups in the original intervention clusters (zone 1) continued to meet to discuss post-neonatal issues and new groups in the original control clusters (zone 2) met to discuss neonatal health. Logistic regression was used to examine neonatal mortality rates after 2008 in the two zones. Data on 41,191 births were analysed. In zone 1, the intervention's effect was sustained: the cluster-mean neonatal mortality rate was 34.2 per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval, CI: 28.3-40.0) between 2008 and 2011, compared with 41.3 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 35.4-47.1) between 2005 and 2008. The effect of the intervention was replicated in zone 2: the cluster-mean neonatal mortality rate decreased from 61.8 to 40.5 per 1000 live births between two periods: 2006-2008 and 2009-2011 (odds ratio: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.83). Hygiene during delivery, thermal care of the neonate and exclusive breastfeeding were important factors. The effect of participatory women's groups on neonatal survival in rural India, where neonatal mortality is high, was sustainable and replicable.

  10. Family member involvement in relapse prevention improves alcohol dependence outcomes: a prospective study at an addiction treatment facility in India.

    PubMed

    Nattala, Prasanthi; Leung, Kit Sang; Nagarajaiah; Murthy, Pratima

    2010-07-01

    The aims of this study were to test if outcomes would be different when family members of alcohol-dependent individuals were included in intervention and to examine the factors associated with relapse during a 6-month follow-up period. Ninety male participants admitted for 3 weeks at an inpatient facility in India were randomly assigned to individual relapse prevention (IRP), dyadic relapse prevention (DRP), and treatment as usual (TAU), with 30 participants in each group. In IRP, intervention was administered to the individual participant. In DRP, both the participant and a family member were included in intervention. In all three conditions, family members stayed in the facility with participants. Participants were followed up for 6 months after discharge from the treatment center. DRP consistently performed better than TAU on all of the outcomes (reduction in quantity of alcohol, drinking days, and number of days with dysfunction in family, occupational, and financial dimensions). DRP participants also reported a significant reduction in the quantity of alcohol, drinking days, and family problems, compared with IRP. Results of Cox regression showed that being in IRP/TAU groups, early-onset dependence (<25 years), and paternal history of alcohol dependence were associated with relapse after adjusting for baseline alcohol use and other covariates. Findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of Western-based family-oriented intervention for alcohol-dependent patients in India; also, findings might help to alert treatment providers that some subsets of alcohol users might need more tailored interventions and rigorous monitoring during follow-up.

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in pre- and post-menopausal women: A prospective study from apex institute of North India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Neelam; Joshi, Bharti; Suri, Vanita; Badada, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS) (syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome) is a constellation of metabolic abnormalities and a complex predisease state that predicts future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Menopausal transition and postmenopausal state are considered as a vulnerable period for developing MS, and this increased risk has been attributed to decreasing estrogen levels with an increasing risk of insulin resistance following menopause. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MS and its components in pre- and post-menopausal women from North India. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study of 350 women in the age group of 45–55 years attending gynecology clinic in a tertiary center of North India. Details of sociodemographic data, menopausal history, reproductive, and medical profile were obtained. Then, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were recorded. A venous blood sample was collected for fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. MS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results: The mean age was 49.09 ± 2.2 years in premenopausal and 49.54 ± 2.8 years in postmenopausal women. The prevalence of MS in the study group was 62.6%. Occurrence of MS was higher in older and obese women. Abnormal waist circumference was the most prevalent component (87%) of MS and in terms of odd ratio, correlation was highest for BMI followed by total cholesterol and waist-hip ratio. Conclusion: We should target obesity and deranged lipid profile by bringing out changes in lifestyle and dietary habits to decrease the higher prevalence of MS and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28096640

  12. Radioelemental, petrological and geochemical characterization of the Bundelkhand craton, central India: implication in the Archaean geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Labani; Nagaraju, P.; Singh, S. P.; Ravi, G.; Roy, Sukanta

    2016-06-01

    We have carried out radioelemental (232Th, 238U, 40K), petrological and geochemical analyses on granitoids and gneisses covering major rock formations of the Bundelkhand craton, central India. Our data reveal that above characteristics are distinct among granitoids (i.e. pink, biotite and grey granitoids) and gneisses (i.e. potassic and sodic types). Pink granitoid is K-feldspar-rich and meta-aluminous to per-aluminous in character. Biotite granitoid is meta-aluminous in character. Grey granitoid is rich in Na-feldspar and mafic minerals, granodiorite to diorite in composition and meta-aluminous in character. Among these granitoids, radioelements (Th, U, K) are highest in pink granitoid (45.0 ± 21.7 ppm, 7.2 ± 3.4 ppm, 4.2 ± 0.4 %), intermediate in biotite granitoid (44.5 ± 28.2 ppm, 5.4 ± 2.8 ppm, 3.4 ± 0.7 %) and lowest in grey granitoid (17.7 ± 4.3 ppm, 4.4 ± 0.6 ppm, 3.0 ± 0.4 %). Among gneisses, potassic-type gneisses have higher radioelements (11.8 ± 5.3 ppm, 3.1 ± 1.2 ppm, 2.0 ± 0.5 %) than the sodic-type gneisses (5.6 ± 2.8 ppm, 1.3 ± 0.5 ppm, 1.4 ± 0.7 %). Moreover, the pink granitoid and the biotite granitoid have higher Th/U (6 and 8, respectively) compared to the grey granitoid (Th/U: 4), implying enrichment of Th in pink and biotite granitoids relative to grey granitoid. K/U among pink, biotite and grey granitoids shows little variation (0.6 × 104, 0.6 × 104, 0.7 × 104, respectively), indicating relatively similar increase in K and U. Therefore, mineralogical and petrological data along with radioelemental ratios suggest that radioelemental variations in these lithounits are mainly related to abundances of the radioactive minerals that have formed by the fractionation of LILE from different magma sources. Based on present data, the craton can be divided into three distinct zones that can be correlated with its evolution in time and space. The central part, where gneisses are associated with metavolcanics of greenstone belt, is

  13. The evolution of a Gondwanan collisional orogen: A structural and geochronological appraisal from the Southern Granulite Terrane, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavsa, Diana; Collins, Alan S.; Foden, John D.; Clark, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Gondwana amalgamated along a suite of Himalayan-scale collisional orogens, the roots of which lace the continents of Africa, South America, and Antarctica. The Southern Granulite Terrane of India is a generally well-exposed, exhumed, Gondwana-forming orogen that preserves a record of the tectonic evolution of the eastern margin of the East African Orogen during the Ediacaran-Cambrian (circa 600-500 Ma) as central Gondwana formed. The deformation associated with the closure of the Mozambique Ocean and collision of the Indian and East African/Madagascan cratonic domains is believed to have taken place along the southern margin of the Salem Block (the Palghat-Cauvery Shear System, PCSS) in the Southern Granulite Terrane. Investigation of the structural fabrics and the geochronology of the high-grade shear zones within the PCSS system shows that the Moyar-Salem-Attur shear zone to the north of the PCSS system is early Paleoproterozoic in age and associated with dextral strike-slip motion, while the Cauvery shear zone (CSZ) to the south of the PCSS system can be loosely constrained to circa 740-550 Ma and is associated with dip-slip dextral transpression and north side-up motion. To the south of the proposed suture zone (the Cauvery shear zone), the structural fabrics of the Northern Madurai Block suggest four deformational events (D1-D4), some of which are likely to be contemporaneous. The timing of high pressure-ultrahigh temperature metamorphism and deformation (D1-D3) in the Madurai Block (here interpreted as the southern extension of Azania) is constrained to circa 550-500 Ma and interpreted as representing collisional orogeny and subsequent orogenic collapse of the eastern margin of the East African Orogen. The disparity in the nature of the structural fabrics and the timing of the deformation in the Salem and the Madurai Blocks suggest that the two experienced distinct tectonothermal events prior to their amalgamation along the Cauvery shear zone during the

  14. Physicians of ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Anu

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Indian medical historiography will reveal no dearth of work on the systems of medicine and medical literature of ancient India. However, the people who were responsible for the healing have not received much attention. This article traces the evolution of the physician as a professional in ancient India. This article reviews the secondary literature on healing and medical practice in India, specifically pertaining to the individual medical practitioner, drawing from varied sources. The healers of ancient India hailed from different castes and classes. They were well-respected and enjoyed state patronage. They were held to the highest ethical standards of the day and were bound by a strict code of conduct. They underwent rigorous training in both medicine and surgery. Most physicians were multi-skilled generalists, and expected to be skilled in elocution and debate. They were reasonably well-off financially. The paper also briefly traces the evolution of medicinal ideas in ancient India. PMID:27843823

  15. Secondary Evolution of Aquatic Propulsion in Higher Vertebrates: Validation and Prospect.

    PubMed

    Fish, Frank E

    2016-12-01

    Re-invasion of the aquatic environment by terrestrial vertebrates resulted in the evolution of species expressing a suite of adaptations for high-performance swimming. Examination of swimming by secondarily aquatic vertebrates provides opportunities to understand potential selection pressures and mechanical constraints, which may have directed the evolution of these aquatic species. Mammals and birds realigned the body and limbs for cursorial movements and flight, respectively, from the primitive tetrapod configuration. This realignment produced multiple solutions for aquatic specializations and swimming modes. Initially, in the evolution of aquatic mammals and birds, swimming was accomplished by using paired appendages in a low-efficiency, drag-based paddling mode. This mode of swimming arose from the modification of neuromotor patterns associated with gaits characteristic of terrestrial and aerial locomotion. The evolution of advanced swimming modes occurred in concert with changes in buoyancy control for submerged swimming, and a need for increased aquatic performance. Aquatic mammals evolved three specialized lift-based modes of swimming that included caudal oscillation, pectoral oscillation, and pelvic oscillation. Based on modern analogs, a biomechanical model was developed to explain the evolution of specialized aquatic mammals and their transitional forms. Subsequently, fossil aquatic mammals were described that validated much of the model. However, for birds, which were adapted for aerial flight, fossil evidence has been less forthcoming to explain the transition to aquatic capabilities. A biomechanical model is proposed for birds to describe the evolution of specialized lift-based foot and wing swimming. For both birds and mammals, convergence in morphology and propulsive mechanics is dictated by the need to increase speed, reduce drag, improve thrust output, enhance efficiency, and control maneuverability in the aquatic environment. © The Author 2016

  16. Thirty-day Outcome Following CoreValve Evolut R Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: An All-comers Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Nils; Roffi, Marco; Frei, Angela; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Ellenberger, Christoph; Müller, Hajo; Cikirikcioglu, Mustafa; Licker, Marc; Noble, Stephane

    2017-09-01

    There are scarce clinical outcomes data on the new generation recapturable and repositionable CoreValve Evolut R. Data on all-comer patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the Evolut R for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis at a single center were prospectively collected between February 2015 and April 2016. Clinical endpoints were independently adjudicated according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria. Primary outcomes consisted of early safety composite endpoints and 30-day device success. The incidence of new permanent pacemaker implantation was recorded. Among the 83 patients undergoing TAVI during this period, 71 (85.5% of the population; median age, 83.0 [interquartile range, 80.0-87.0] years; Society of Thoracic Surgeons scores, 4.8±3.5%) were suitable for Evolut R implantation and were included in the analysis. Repositioning was performed in 26.8% of the procedures. The early safety composite endpoint was observed in 11.3% of patients at 30 days, with 2.8% all-cause mortality. Device success was documented in 90.1% of patients. Paravalvular leakage was less than grade II in 98.4% of patients. The mean transvalvular aortic gradient was reduced from 42.5±14.5mmHg at baseline to 7.7±4.0mmHg at discharge (P<.0001 vs baseline). New permanent pacemaker implantation was required in 23.9% of patients. The new generation Evolut R is suitable for most patients and shows high device success and acceptable mortality in an unbiased, consecutive, all-comer population at a single center performing TAVI exclusively with Medtronic valves. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Treating Palliative Care Patients with Pain with the Body Tambura: A Prospective Case Study at St. Joseph's Hospice for Dying destitute in Dindigul South India.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Cordula; Teut, M; Samwel, Kakuko Lopoyetum; Narayanasamy, S; Rathapillil, T; Thathews, G

    2015-01-01

    The Body Tambura is a recently invented stringed instrument that is used for receptive music therapy designed to be placed and attached on the human body. The aim of this study was to record perceived effects of a treatment with the Body Tambura on palliative care patients with special reference to pain. A prospective case study was carried out with patients of St. Joseph's Hospice for Dying Destitute in Dindigul/South India. Patients were treated with a treatment after baseline assessment and also on the next day. Outcomes were measured quantitatively by using a numeric rating scale (0-10, 10 maximum intensity of pain felt) at baseline, directly after treatment, and the day after the treatment to determine the intensity of the pain. Ten patients (five women and five men) participated in the study. The majority described the therapy as a pleasant experience. The pain intensity at baseline was reduced from 8.3 ± standard deviation (SD) 1.16 to 4.6 ± 1.52 at day 1 and from 4.6 ± 2.07 to 2.4 ± 1.58 at day 2. A clinically relevant pain reduction was described as short time outcome; the therapy was received and perceived well. Forthcoming research should include a control group, randomization, a larger number of participants, and a longer period of treatment.

  18. Assessment of ambient gamma dose rate around a prospective uranium mining area of South India - A comparative study of dose by direct methods and soil radioactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara, K.; Tripathi, R. M.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S.; Chougaonkar, M. P.

    Indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were evaluated around a prospective uranium mining region - Gogi, South India through (i) direct measurements using a GM based gamma dose survey meter, (ii) integrated measurement days using CaSO4:Dy based thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs), and (iii) analyses of 273 soil samples for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K activity concentration using HPGe gamma spectrometry. The geometric mean values of indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were 104 nGy h-1 and 97 nGy h-1, respectively with an indoor to outdoor dose ratio of 1.09. The gamma dose rates and activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K varied significantly within a small area due to the highly localized mineralization of the elements. Correlation study showed that the dose estimated from the soil radioactivity is better correlated with that measured directly using the portable survey meter, when compared to that obtained from TLDs. This study showed that in a region having localized mineralization in situ measurements using dose survey meter provide better representative values of gamma dose rates.

  19. Predictors of Treatment Outcome for Retreatment Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases among Tribal People of an Eastern India District: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The study was conducted to assess the treatment outcome of different category retreatment cases with the aim of finding out the important predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Methodology. This hospital based prospective cohort study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs) of west Midnapore (a district of Eastern India), covering mostly the tribal populated areas. Patients who were registered for Category II antituberculosis treatment between 1st quarter of 2013 (Jan to Mar) and 4th quarter of 2013 (Oct to Dec) were considered as our study cohort and they were followed up till December 2014. The study was started with 177 patients but ultimately ended with 165 patients. Results. Unfavorable outcome was observed among 24.8% patients. Among them mostly 51.2% were defaulter, 22% were failure case, and 26.8% died during treatment. Patients, who were minority by religion, were found 4 times more vulnerable for unfavorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was found 7 times more common among retreatment TB cases who remain sputum positive after completion of initiation phase of Category II treatment. Conclusion. Programmatic approach should be specified to address the minority by religion population and to reduce the load of sputum positive cases after completion of initiation phase treatment by tracking them. PMID:27656293

  20. Prevalence of Phantom Limb Pain, Stump Pain, and Phantom Limb Sensation among the Amputated Cancer Patients in India: A Prospective, Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Arif; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Khurana, Deepa; Joshi, Saurabh; Ahmad, Syed Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    The phantom limb pain (PLP) and phantom limb sensation (PLS) are very common among amputated cancer patients, and they lead to considerable morbidity. In spite of this, there is a lack of epidemiological data of this phenomenon among the Asian population. This study was done to provide the data from Indian population. The prevalence of PLP, stump pain (SP), and PLS was prospectively analyzed from the amputated cancer patients over a period of 2 years in Dr. B.R.A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The risk factors and the impact of phantom phenomenon on patients were also noted. The prevalence of PLP was 41% at 3 and 12 months and 45.3% at 6 months, whereas that of SP and PLS was 14.4% and 71.2% at 3 months, 18.75% and 37.1% at 6 months, 15.8% and 32.4% at 12 months, respectively. There was higher prevalence of PLP and PLS among the patients with history of preamputation pain, smoking with proximal level of amputation, receiving general anesthesia, receiving intravenous (IV) opioid postoperative analgesia, and developing neuroma or infection. The prevalence of PLP and PLS was higher among the cancer amputees as compared to SP, and a few risk factors responsible for their higher prevalence were found in our study. The PLP and PLS lead to considerable morbidity in terms of sleep disturbance and depression.

  1. Prevalence of Phantom Limb Pain, Stump Pain, and Phantom Limb Sensation among the Amputated Cancer Patients in India: A Prospective, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Arif; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Khurana, Deepa; Joshi, Saurabh; Ahmad, Syed Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The phantom limb pain (PLP) and phantom limb sensation (PLS) are very common among amputated cancer patients, and they lead to considerable morbidity. In spite of this, there is a lack of epidemiological data of this phenomenon among the Asian population. This study was done to provide the data from Indian population. Methods: The prevalence of PLP, stump pain (SP), and PLS was prospectively analyzed from the amputated cancer patients over a period of 2 years in Dr. B.R.A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The risk factors and the impact of phantom phenomenon on patients were also noted. Results: The prevalence of PLP was 41% at 3 and 12 months and 45.3% at 6 months, whereas that of SP and PLS was 14.4% and 71.2% at 3 months, 18.75% and 37.1% at 6 months, 15.8% and 32.4% at 12 months, respectively. There was higher prevalence of PLP and PLS among the patients with history of preamputation pain, smoking with proximal level of amputation, receiving general anesthesia, receiving intravenous (IV) opioid postoperative analgesia, and developing neuroma or infection. Conclusion: The prevalence of PLP and PLS was higher among the cancer amputees as compared to SP, and a few risk factors responsible for their higher prevalence were found in our study. The PLP and PLS lead to considerable morbidity in terms of sleep disturbance and depression. PMID:28216859

  2. Treating Palliative Care Patients with Pain with the Body Tambura: A Prospective Case Study at St. Joseph's Hospice for Dying destitute in Dindigul South India

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Cordula; Teut, M; Samwel, Kakuko Lopoyetum; Narayanasamy, S; Rathapillil, T; Thathews, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Body Tambura is a recently invented stringed instrument that is used for receptive music therapy designed to be placed and attached on the human body. The aim of this study was to record perceived effects of a treatment with the Body Tambura on palliative care patients with special reference to pain. Materials and Methods: A prospective case study was carried out with patients of St. Joseph's Hospice for Dying Destitute in Dindigul/South India. Patients were treated with a treatment after baseline assessment and also on the next day. Outcomes were measured quantitatively by using a numeric rating scale (0–10, 10 maximum intensity of pain felt) at baseline, directly after treatment, and the day after the treatment to determine the intensity of the pain. Results: Ten patients (five women and five men) participated in the study. The majority described the therapy as a pleasant experience. The pain intensity at baseline was reduced from 8.3 ± standard deviation (SD) 1.16 to 4.6 ± 1.52 at day 1 and from 4.6 ± 2.07 to 2.4 ± 1.58 at day 2. Conclusion: A clinically relevant pain reduction was described as short time outcome; the therapy was received and perceived well. Forthcoming research should include a control group, randomization, a larger number of participants, and a longer period of treatment. PMID:26009680

  3. Group A streptococcal sore throat in a periurban population of northern India: a one-year prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, S.; Kumar, R.; Ray, P.; Vohra, H.; Ganguly, N. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and risk factors of group A streptococcus (GAS) sore throat among school-aged children living in a periurban slum area of Chandigarh, North India. METHODS: A total of 536 children aged 5-15 years from 261 families identified by a systematic random selection method were enrolled in the study. Episodes of sore throat were recorded through fortnightly home visits over a one-year period. The local vernacular (Hindi) terms gala kharab (bad throat) and khansi jukam (cough and cold) were used to identify symptoms of sore throat, and throat swab specimens were collected from children who had these symptoms on the day of the home visit. Bacterial culture was carried out and the isolation of GAS was confirmed using group-A-specific antiserum. FINDINGS: The incidences of sore throat and GAS sore throat were, respectively, 7.05 and 0.95 episodes per child-year. The incidence was higher in the following situations: among 11-year-olds, during the winter (November to January) and rainy (August) months (a bimodal peak), among children living in houses where there was no separate room for the kitchen, and in homes that included a tobacco smoker. CONCLUSION: The results show that the incidence of GAS sore throat was related to age, season, and indoor air pollution. PMID:11436474

  4. Faculty perceptions of the strengths, weaknesses and future prospects of the current medical undergraduate experimental physiology curriculum in Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Paralikar, Swapnil; Shah, Chinmay

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, an opinion has emerged in India that the current practical curricula in medical schools fail to meet many of the objectives for which they were instituted. Hence, this study has assessed the perception of physiology faculty members regarding the current experimental physiology curriculum in one Indian state, Gujarat. The faculty were of the opinion that many of the topics currently taught in experimental physiology (amphibian nerve-muscle and heart muscle experiments) were outdated and clinically irrelevant: Therefore, the faculty advocated that duration of teaching time devoted to some of these topics should be reduced and topics with clinical relevance should be introduced at the undergraduate level. The faculty also felt that more emphasis should be laid on highlighting the clinical aspect related to each concept taught in experimental physiology . Moreover, a majority of faculty members were in favour of replacing the current practice in Gujarat of teaching experimental physiology only by explanation of graphs obtained from experiments conducted in the previous years, with computer assisted learning in small groups.

  5. Rift basins in western margin of India and their hydrocarbon prospects with special reference to Kutch basin

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, S.K.

    1982-10-01

    The western continental margin of India can be classed as a divergent or passive margin. The western continental shelf is an extensive carbonate bank (Bombay offshore basin) passing into clastic sediments on the north and south. Three craton-margin embayed basins-Kutch, Cambay, and Narmada- in the northern part of the shelf, are filled predominantly with clastic sediments. These basins occupy grabens bounded by faults diverging seaward. The grabens were formed by three rift systems along major Precambrian tectonic trends. The rifting developed sequentially from north to south around the Saurashtra horst. Kutch basin was formed in the Early Jurassic, followed by Cambay basin in Early Cretaceous time, and the Narmada in the Late Cretaceous. It appears that these rifting events occurred at successive stages during the northward migration of the Indian plate after its break from Gondwanaland in Late Triassic or Early Jurassic. It is inferred that these rift basins opened up successively as a result of the counterclockwise drift of the Indian craton. Bombay offshore and Cambay are two major oil-producing basins in the western margin. These basins are characterized by high geothermal gradients attributed to the shallowness of the mantle in this region. Oil has not been found in KUtch basin, which is mainly an onshore Mesozoic basin. The basin basin depocenter shifted offshore at the northwestern part of the continental shelf where the shelf is wide.

  6. Metal contamination of soils and plants associated with the glass industry in North Central India: prospects of phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Pratas, João; Paul, Manoj S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the glass industry on urban soil metal characterization was assessed in the area of Firozabad, India. A comprehensive profile of metal contamination was obtained in five zones each containing five specific sites. Zn, Cd, and As showed a greater accumulation, whereas accumulation of Ni and Cu was high in limited samples. Positive correlation was found for the metal pairs Cu-Zn, Cu-Co, and Cu-Cr at P < 0.01. Moderate positive correlation was also observed between Zn-Co, Mn-Cd, Mn-As, Pb-As, and Ni-Cu at P < 0.05. Integrated contamination indices indicate that 60% of the sites were heavily contaminated while 28% were moderately contaminated. Phytoremedial potential of native flora (twenty herbs, three shrubs, and two grasses) was also assessed by analyzing their metal uptake. Individual elements displayed remarkably different patterns of accumulation in soils as well as in plants. Mn, Zn, Cu, and As were predominantly partitioned in shoots, Co and Cd in roots while Pb, Cr, and Ni almost equally between shoots and roots. Most plants exhibited capabilities in mobilizing Co, Pb, Cr, and Ni in the root zone. Potential phytoextractors include Datura stramonium and Chenopodium murale while phytostabilizers include Calotropis procera and Gnaphalium luteo-album. Poa annua showed potential in both categories. None of the species showed phytoremedial potential for Co and Ni.

  7. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  8. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  9. A prospective observational description of frequency and timing of antenatal care attendance and coverage of selected interventions from sites in Argentina, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research is one of the largest international networks for testing and generating evidence-based recommendations for improvement of maternal-child health in resource-limited settings. Since 2009, Global Network sites in six low and middle-income countries have collected information on antenatal care practices, which are important as indicators of care and have implications for programs to improve maternal and child health. We sought to: (1) describe the quantity of antenatal care attendance over a four-year period; and (2) explore the quality of coverage for selected preventative, screening, and birth preparedness components. Methods The Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR) is a prospective, population-based birth and pregnancy outcomes registry in Global Network sites, including: Argentina, Guatemala, India (Belgaum and Nagpur), Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia. MNHR data from these sites were prospectively collected from January 1, 2010 – December 31, 2013 and analyzed for indicators related to quantity and patterns of ANC and coverage of key elements of recommended focused antenatal care. Descriptive statistics were generated overall by global region (Africa, Asia, and Latin America), and for each individual site. Results Overall, 96% of women reported at least one antenatal care visit. Indian sites demonstrated the highest percentage of women who initiated antenatal care during the first trimester. Women from the Latin American and Indian sites reported the highest number of at least 4 visits. Overall, 88% of women received tetanus toxoid. Only about half of all women reported having been screened for syphilis (49%) or anemia (50%). Rates of HIV testing were above 95% in the Argentina, African, and Indian sites. The Pakistan site demonstrated relatively high rates for birth preparation, but for most other preventative and screening interventions, posted lower coverage rates as compared to other

  10. Arsenic accumulation in native plants of West Bengal, India: prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Mishra, Aradhana; Kumar, Amit; Dave, Richa; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Shukla, Mridul Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental and food chain contaminant and class I, non-threshold carcinogen. Plants accumulate As due to ionic mimicry that is of importance as a measure of phytoremediation but of concern due to the use of plants in alternative medicine. The present study investigated As accumulation in native plants including some medicinal plants, from three districts [Chinsurah (Hoogly), Porbosthali (Bardhman), and Birnagar (Nadia)] of West Bengal, India, having a history of As pollution. A site-specific response was observed for Specific Arsenic Uptake (SAU; mg kg(-1) dw) in total number of 13 (8 aquatic and 5 terrestrial) collected plants. SAU was higher in aquatic plants (5-60 mg kg(-1) dw) than in terrestrial species (4-19 mg kg(-1) dw). The level of As was lower in medicinal plants (MPs) than in non-medicinal plants, however it was still beyond the WHO permissible limit (1 mg kg(-1) dw). The concentration of other elements (Cu, Zn, Se, and Pb) was found to be within prescribed limits in medicinal plants (MP). Among the aquatic plants, Marsilea showed the highest SAU (avg. 45 mg kg(-1) dw), however, transfer factor (TF) of As was the maximum in Centella asiatica (MP, avg. 1). Among the terrestrial plants, the maximum SAU and TF were demonstrated by Alternanthera ficoidea (avg. 15) and Phyllanthus amarus (MP, avg. 1.27), respectively. In conclusion, the direct use of MP or their by products for humans should not be practiced without proper regulation. In other way, one fern species (Marsilea) and some aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Cyperus difformis) might be suitable candidates for As phytoremediation of paddy fields.

  11. Is the use of maternal healthcare among prospective mothers higher in households that have experienced maternal death? Evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Kumar, Chandan

    2016-09-01

    Essential maternity care services include providing antenatal, delivery and postnatal care in a continuum to avert excess maternal deaths. This study assesses whether there is any significant difference in the utilization of maternal healthcare services between women from households that experienced any maternal death and women from households that did not experience any maternal death. Data from India's District Level Households and Facility Survey, 2007-08 were used. A sample of 321 women (unweighted) aged 15-49 years residing in households that had experienced maternal death, and 217 737 women (unweighted) of the same age group living in households that did not experience any maternal death were found eligible for the analysis. Results indicate that women belonging to households that experienced maternal deaths were less likely to opt for full antenatal care [odds ratio (OR): 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35-0.88] and postnatal care (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.61-0.91) compared with women from households that did not experience any maternal death. Conversely, women belonging to households experiencing maternal deaths were more likely to utilize skilled birth attendants (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.03-1.73) for their last delivery. This study hopes to draw the attention of program and policy makers to improve the reach of antenatal and postnatal care services, which are considered to be a supply side barrier compared with institutional delivery even by households that have reported maternal death. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Structural Evolution of the India-Arabia Plate Boundary from Miocene to Present-Day (NW Indian Ocean) and Comparison with the Dead Sea Fault (Eastern Mediterranean Sea).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Huchon, P.; Chamot Rooke, N.; Fournier, M.; Delescluse, M.; Ben Avraham, Z.; Ten Brink, U. S.

    2014-12-01

    Arabia is bounded by the Dead Sea Transform (DST) to the west and by the Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ) to the east. These present-day major strike-slip fault systems activated during the Plio-Pleistocene, which contrasts with the age of inception of strike-slip motion, assumed to begin around 13-18 Ma for the DST and around 20 Ma at the edge of the Owen-Murray Ridge (OMR) for the India-Arabia plate boundary. This discrepancy between the age of the active strike-slip systems and the age of inception of strike-slip motion raises the question of the kinematic driver for the transition between successive generations of strike-slip faults. Using a recent mutibeam and seismic dataset crossing the OFZ and the OMR, we provide a new geodynamic framework for the Miocene to present-day structural evolution of the India-Arabia plate boundary, and highlight some similarities with the structural evolution of the DST. We first document a Late Miocene episode of uplift of the OMR uplift along the Miocene India-Arabia plate boundary. The onset of this uplift is coeval with a plate reorganization event marked by the onset of intra-plate deformation in the Central Indian Ocean. The OFZ emplaced around 3 Ma, with major pull-apart basins opening (20°N Basin, Dalrymple Trough) dated at 2.4 Ma by far-field correlation with ODP Sites. The opening of pull-apart basins is coeval with the last structural reorganization of the Makran accretionnary wedge, marked by the regional M-unconformity, and with a major intensification of the Indian monsoon. A Late Miocene episode of folding is also recognized at the Lebanon ranges prior to the onset of the present-day DST, which occurred in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. The similarities between the geological history of the India-Arabia plate boundary and the DST in the Late Miocene and the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene suggest that both plate boundaries recorded the same kinematic changes. Late Miocene (i.e. Tortonian) deformation is widely

  13. Is adjunctive naturopathy associated with improved glycaemic control and a reduction in need for medications among type 2 Diabetes patients? A prospective cohort study from India.

    PubMed

    Bairy, Srinivas; Kumar, Ajay M V; Raju, Msn; Achanta, Shanta; Naik, Balaji; Tripathy, Jaya P; Zachariah, Rony

    2016-08-17

    With an estimated 65 million Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients, India ranks second in the world in terms of DM burden. The emphasis of current medical practice has been on pharmacotherapy but, despite the best combination therapies, acheiving glycaemic control (reduction of blood sugar to desirable levels) is a challenge. 'Integrated Naturopathy and Yoga'(INY) is an alternative system of medicine that lays emphasis on the role of diet and physical exercise. We assessed the short term effect of INY as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy on glycaemic control among type 2 DM patients. In this prospective cohort study with a 3 month follow-up, DM patients consecutively admitted to a hospital in India from May-October 2014 for either 15 or 30 days were offered INY - a package of vegetarian diet with no added oil, sugar and salt, yoga-based exercise, patient counselling and rest. A 'favourable outcome' was defined as glycaemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 7 % or absolute reduction by 1 %) along with at least 50 % reduction in antidiabetes medication at 3 months relative to baseline. Compliance to diet was scored by self-report on a scale of 0-10 and categorized into poor (0-5), moderate (6-8) and excellent (9-10). Of 101 patients with 3-month follow-up data, 65(65 %) achieved a favourable outcome - with 19(19 %) stopping medication while sustaining glycemic control. Factors associated with favourable outcome were baseline HbA1c and compliance to diet, which showed a significant linear relationship with mean HbA1c reductions of 0.4 %, 1.1 % and 1.7 % in relation to poor, moderate and excellent dietary compliance respectively. INY, adjunctive to pharmacotherapy, was associated with a significant beneficial effect on glycaemic control and reduced the overall need for antidiabetes medications. These early results are promising. Further studies with long-term follow-up and using more rigorous randomized controlled trial designs are needed.

  14. Patterns of uveitis at the Apex Institute for Eye Care in India: Results from a prospectively enrolled patient data base (2011-2013).

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Pradeep; Gogia, Varun; Shah, Bhavin; Gupta, Shikha; Sagar, Pradeep; Garg, Satpal

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the clinical and etiological profile of uveitis at the apex institute for eye care in India. This is a prospective, prevalence study. 980 consecutive patients with uveitis referred to uvea clinic, Dr. RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences (Ophthalmology division, All India Institute of Medical Sciences). Demographic data of each patient were noted and a thorough ocular examination including slit lamp examination and dilated fundus evaluation was carried out. OCT and fluorescein angiography were undertaken whenever indicated. Uveitis was classified based on the anatomic location of inflammation (IUSG classification). Relevant serological and radiological investigations were obtained based on systemic symptomatology, and if the uveitis was recurrent (even in the absence of systemic symptoms). The presence of a systemic disease was confirmed by obtaining an internist consultation. The main outcome measures include pattern of uveitis according to anatomical classification and the etiology. Out of 980 patients with uveitis, 413 (42.14 %) patients had anterior uveitis, 131 (13.36 %) had intermediate uveitis, 165 (16.83 %) had posterior uveitis, 91 (9.2 %) had panuveitis, 47 (4.7 %) had retinal vasculitis, 22 (2.24 %) had scleritis, 17 (1.7 %) had masquerade syndromes, 8 (0.8 %) had keratouveitis, 22 (2.24 %) had sclerokeratouveitis, 19 (1.9 %) had endophthalmitis and 45 (4.5 %) had other causes of inflammation including trauma and intraocular surgery. Out of all uveitic patients definite etiological correlation could be made out in 225 (23 %) patients; thus 77 % were categorised as idiopathic. Only 9 % of all patients were found to have uveitis with an infectious etiology. Amongst infectious causes of uveitis tuberculosis was the leading cause, accounting for sixty percent of all infectious uveitis (approximately 5 % of overall uveitis). Non-infectious uveitis etiology accounted for more than 90 % of all cases with

  15. Hydrothermal Fluid Evolution During Vein Formation in Arghash Gold Prospect, Northeast Of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alirezaei, S.; Ashrafpour, E.; Ansdell, K. M.

    2009-05-01

    The Arghash gold prospect consisting of five gold-bearing vein systems is hosted by Eocene intermediate volcanic and pyroclastic rocks and Late Eocene-Oligocene granitic and dioritic rocks. The vein materials consist mostly of quartz, calcite and minor pyrite. Gold occurs as native particles in quartz, as well as submicroscopic particles in arsenian pyrite, as indicated by microprobe analyses. All auriferous vein systems show similar vein mineralogy and hydrothermal alteration assemblages, implying that they all belong to the same mineralization event in the region. The ä18O compositions of hydrothermal fluid(s) in equilibrium with vein quartz vary from +6.3 to +10.5 per mil. The äD values of the fluid in equilibrium with kaolinite from the immediate altered wall rocks vary from -53 to - 62 per mil. The oxygen isotope values fall in the range commonly accepted for magmatic waters; the calculated äD values overlap between meteoric and magmatic waters. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions similar to those in Arghash can be produced from meteoric waters evolved through interaction with country rocks, boiling, and mixing with magmatic water. The effects of various water/rock ratios on the isotopic composition of the exchanged meteoric water could explain a shift of about +14 per mil in the ä18O values of the mineralizing fluids in the Arghash prospect. Water/rock interaction would also change the äD values of the hydrothermal fluids at low water/rock ratios. In the case of igneous country rocks, as in the Arghash, this process should lead to a shift in the äD of the presumed meteoric waters toward higher values. Boiling will increase the ä18O and äD values of hydrothermal fluids due to fractionation of 16O and H into the vapor phase and decreasing temperature. The magnitude of the enrichment depends on the boiling path and the mechanism of vapor separation. Boiling in Arghash is supported by mineralogical and textural evidences. Gold assays are highest

  16. HPV-16 Detected in One-Fourth Eyes With Retinoblastoma: A Prospective Case-control Study From North India.

    PubMed

    Naru, Jasmine; Aggarwal, Ritu; Singh, Usha; Kakkar, Nandita; Bansal, Deepak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of nonfamilial retinoblastoma (RB) is believed to be higher in developing countries. The reports on association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with RB are limited and contradictory. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of HPV in RB tumor tissue. In the prospective study, consecutive eyes enucleated for RB from patients lacking a family history of RB were enrolled as cases over a 3-year period. Controls included donor eyes obtained from the eye bank. Normal retinal tissue from the donor eyes and tumor tissue from eyes with RB was subjected to DNA isolation. Polymerase chain reaction followed by dot-blot hybridization was performed to detect 21 HPV genotypes. The study cohort included 39 RB and 42 normal retinal tissues. A positive result for HPV-polymerase chain reaction was obtained in 10 (25.6%) tumor tissues and none of the control eyes. HPV-16 was the only subtype detected. Socioeconomic status (P=0.58) or maternal age (P=0.58) was not associated with presence of HPV. All HPV-positive patients had undergone a vaginal delivery (P=0.60). HPV-16 was detected in one-fourth cases of nonfamilial RB. None of the control cases (donor eyes) tested positive. Implication of the presence of HPV in RB tissue and role in carcinogenesis needs further elucidation.

  17. To study the incidence, etiology and EEG profile of neonatal seizures: a prospective observational study from India.

    PubMed

    Ghanshyambhai, Padmani; Sharma, Deepak; Patel, Ankur; Shastri, Sweta

    2016-01-01

    To study the incidence, etiology and electroencephalography (EEG) profile of neonatal seizures and also to study the correlation between clinical picture and EEG appearance. Prospective observational cohort study. Study duration: September 2011 to April 2013. Inclusion and exclusion: Seizures within first 28 d of life and seizures documented by doctors. Neonates admitted in intensive care unit: intramural (4412) and extramural (1900) admissions (all together 6312). One hundred and seventy-two neonates with seizures were enrolled. All the neonates were evaluated with necessary investigation, ultrasound head and CT scan. All the neonates underwent EEG as early as possible with neonatal stabilization. The etiology of neonatal seizures, CT scan and ultrasound head, characteristic of the EEG and neonatal mortality were noted. The incidence of neonatal seizure was 0.77% in the intramural and 7.3% among the extramural neonates. The incidence of seizures in term newborn was 0.7% and in preterm was 1.1%. The most common cause of neonatal seizure was hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) followed by hypocalcemia. The predominant seizure type was multifocal (51%) followed by subtle seizure (43%). There was an EEG abnormality in 72% of the total EEG with varied patterns. The mortality rate in the cohort was 15% with HIE being the most common cause. Most common cases of neonatal seizure were HIE and with the most common type being multifocal. EEG was abnormal in the majority of the neonates with various pattern of abnormality.

  18. The burden of cholera in the slums of Kolkata, India: data from a prospective, community based study

    PubMed Central

    Sur, D; Deen, J; Manna, B; Niyogi, S; Deb, A; Kanungo, S; Sarkar, B; Kim, D; Danovaro-Holliday, M; Holliday, K; Gupta, V; Ali, M; von Seidlein, L; Clemens, J; Bhattacharya, S

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To conduct a prospective, community based study in an impoverished urban site in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) in order to measure the burden of cholera, describe its epidemiology, and search for potential risk factors that could be addressed by public health strategies. Methods: The study population was enumerated at the beginning and end of the study period. Surveillance through five field outposts and two referral hospitals for acute, watery, non-bloody diarrhoea was conducted from 1 May 2003 to 30 April 2004. Data and a stool sample for culture of Vibrio cholerae were collected from each patient. Treatment was provided in accordance with national guidelines. Results: From 62 329 individuals under surveillance, 3284 diarrhoea episodes were detected, of which 3276 (99%) had a stool sample collected and 126 (4%) were culture confirmed cholera. Nineteen (15%) were children less than 2 years of age, 29 (23%) had severe dehydration, and 48 (38%) were hospitalised. Risk factors for cholera included a household member with cholera during the period of surveillance, young age, and lower educational level. Conclusions: There was a substantial burden of cholera in Kolkata with risk factors not easily amenable to intervention. Young children bear the brunt not only of diarrhoeal diseases in general, but of cholera as well. Mass vaccination could be a potentially useful tool to prevent and control seasonal cholera in this community. PMID:15964861

  19. Magnetostratigraphic Record of the Early Evolution of the Southwestern Tian Shan Foreland Basin (Ulugqat Area), Interactions with Pamir Indentation and India-Asia Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Tian Shan range is an inherited intracontinental structure reactivated by the far-field effects of India-Asia collision. A growing body of thermochronology and magnetostratigraphy datasets shows the range grew through several tectonic pulses since ~25 Ma, however the early Cenozoic history remains poorly constrained. Particularly enigmatic is the time-lag between the Eocene India-Asia collision and the Miocene onset of Tian Shan exhumation. This peculiar period is potentially recorded along the southwestern Tian Shan piedmont. There, recently dated late Eocene marine deposits of the proto-Paratethys epicontinental sea transition to continental foreland basin sediments of unknown age. We provide magnetostratigraphic dating of these continental sediments from the 1700-m-thick Mine section integrated with previously published detrital apatite fission track and U/Pb zircon ages. The most likely correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale indicates an age span from 20.8 to 13.3 Ma with a marked accumulation rate increase at 19-18 Ma. This implies the entire Oligocene period is missing between the last marine and first continental sediments, as suggested by previous southwestern Tian Shan results. This differs from the southwestern Tarim basin where Eocene marine deposits are continuously overlain by late Eocene-Oligocene continental sediments. This supports a simple evolution model of the western Tarim basin with Eocene-Oligocene foreland basin activation to the south related to northward thrusting of the Kunlun Shan, followed by early Miocene activation of northern foreland basin related to overthrusting of the south Tian Shan. Our data also support southward propagation of the Tian Shan piedmont from 20-18 Ma that may relate to motion on the Talas Fergana Fault. The coeval activation of a major right-lateral strike-slip system allowing indentation of the Pamir Salient into the Tarim basin, suggest far-field deformation from the India-Asia collision zone

  20. Does intrapleural length and position of the intercostal drain affect the frequency of residual hemothorax? A prospective study from north India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Agarwal, Nitin; Rattan, Amulya; Rathi, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Context: Thoracic trauma causes significant morbidity; however, many deaths are preventable and few patients require surgery. Intercostal chest drainage (ICD) for hemo/pneumothorax is simple and effective; the main problem is residual hemothorax, which can cause lung collapse and empyema. Aims: Our study aimed to analyze the relationship between radiological chest tube parameters (position and intrathoracic length) and the frequency of residual hemothorax. Settings and Design: This prospective analytical study was conducted in a large tertiary care hospital in north India over 2 years till March 2013. Materials and Methods: Patients of chest trauma aged 18-60 years, with hemothorax or hemopneumothorax requiring ICD insertion were included in the study. Bedside ICD insertion was performed as per current standards. Immediate post-ICD chest radiographs were used to record lung status and ICD position (chest tube zone and intrapleural length). Residual hemothorax was defined as any collection identified on radiological investigations after 48 hours of ICD placement. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis was performed with the chi-square test or Student's t-test as appropriate, while multivariate analysis using stepwise logistic regression; a P-value < 0.05 was significant. Results: Out of 170 patients of chest trauma, 154 underwent ICD insertion. Most patients were young (mean age: 31.7 ± 12 years) males (M:F = 14:1). Ninety-seven patients (57.1%) had isolated chest injuries. Blunt trauma (n = 119; 77.3%) and motor vehicle accidents (n = 72; 46.7%) were the commonest causes. Mean hospital stay was 9 ± 3.94 days, and mortality 2/154 (1.1%). Residual hemothorax was seen in 48 (31%). No ICD zone or length was significantly associated with residual hemothorax on univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Intrapleural ICD zone or length does not affect the frequency of residual hemothorax. PMID:25400388

  1. Evaluation of cost of treatment of drug-related events in a tertiary care public sector hospital in Northern India: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Pattanaik, Smita; Dhamija, Punit; Malhotra, Samir; Sharma, Navneet; Pandhi, Promila

    2009-01-01

    AIMS Drug related events (DREs) contribute significantly to hospital admissions. These are largely preventable events and require optimum use of the therapeutic agents. The study was conducted to analyze the cost of treatment of DREs. PATIENTS & METHODS All visits to medical emergency department of a tertiary care public sector hospital in northern India were recorded in a prospective, non-interventional manner over a period of 4 months. DREs were recognized and were followed up till their stay in the hospital. Data about the cost generating components of direct and indirect costs of treatment of DREs were collected. The projected cost of treatment of the same DREs in a private sector hospital was estimated and compared. RESULTS Out of 1833 admissions, 92(5.01%) were due to DREs. Maximum cases were due to non compliance (66%) followed by ADR (28%) and drug overdose(6%). The common DREs leading to ED visits were cerebrovascular accident(19.44%), followed by accelerated hypertension(18.36%) and diabetic ketoacidosis(14.04%). Total cost of management of all the 92 DREs in our hospital was calculated to be INR17,37,339(€30,215). The direct cost was INR1,72,961(€3008) and the approximate indirect cost was INR15,64, 378(€27, 206). The projected cost of management of all the 92 DREs was estimated to be INR63,63,872(€1,01, 676) in a private sector hospital. CONCLUSION The study shows that ADEs leading to emergency department visits and hospitalizations constitute a significant economic burden. Training of the patients and the prescribers may lessen the economic burden on the patient as well as the health care system. PMID:19523017

  2. Visual Outcome of Traumatic Cataract at a Tertiary Eye Care Centre in North India: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Srivastava, Jai Prakash; Iqbal, Jawed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the most common presentations of blunt and penetrating ocular trauma is traumatic cataract. It remains a significant cause of visual impairment and physical disability among adults and children. It is associated with various ocular injuries. Aim To evaluate the associated ocular injuries and final outcome of patients with traumatic cataract along with their demographic features and modes of trauma. Materials and Methods A prospective study done in Department of Ophthalmology in M.L.B. Medical college, Jhansi from February 2010 to July 2011. A total of 48 patients diagnosed as a case of traumatic cataract were subjected to a detailed history, systemic and local examination with relevant investigations. Medical or surgical managements were done accordingly. Patients were subsequently followed-up and visual acuity was recorded. Appropriate statistical tests were applied. Results A 54.2% patients sustained penetrating trauma while 45.8% got blunt injury. Out of total, 79% patients were males while 50% were less than 15 years of age. Causative agents were stone, wood items, stick, metal objects etc. Among blunt trauma cases, 64% of the patients had visual acuity <6/60 while among penetrating trauma cases nobody had acuity >6/18. Anterior segment was more involved as compared to posterior segment. A 38.5% patients had corneal opacity among penetrating injury patients. The interval between trauma and surgery was less than one month among 75% of patients. After three months of surgery, 43.7% patients had visual acuity of >6/18. Conclusion This study provides recent data of patients hospitalized after ocular trauma and diagnosed as a case of traumatic cataract. Traumatic cataract occurs mostly in younger males. Surgical intervention is necessary to improve visual outcome. Good visual outcome was obtained in nearly half of the patients. Traumatic cataract patients can have good visual outcome depending upon proper management. PMID:26894101

  3. Evolution of probiotics in aquatic world: Potential effects, the current status in Egypt and recent prospectives

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahem, Mai D.

    2013-01-01

    The increase in the human population in addition to the massive demand for protein of animal origin forced the authorities to seek for additional sources of feed supplies. Aquaculture is the world worth coming expansion to compensate the shortage in animal protein. Feed in aquaculture plays an important role in the production cycle and exert threshold on both practical and economic aspects. Feed additive sectors are expanding day after day to achieve better growth and health for fish and shrimp and to meet the potential requirements of the culturists. Probiotic proved its successes in human and animal feeding practices and recently gained attention in aquaculture; it has beneficial effects in diseases control and competes with various environmental stressors as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. Probiotics have the privilege to manipulate the non-specific innate immunity among fishes, hence help them into resist many pathogenic agents and are actively used worldwide. The present review is an informative compilation of the probiotics, their mode of action and their useful effects on fishes. The review also highlights the status of probiotics in aquaculture of Egypt, probiotic recent prospective for the possible role of probiotics in fish external and internal environment. PMID:26644914

  4. Evolution of probiotics in aquatic world: Potential effects, the current status in Egypt and recent prospectives.

    PubMed

    Ibrahem, Mai D

    2015-11-01

    The increase in the human population in addition to the massive demand for protein of animal origin forced the authorities to seek for additional sources of feed supplies. Aquaculture is the world worth coming expansion to compensate the shortage in animal protein. Feed in aquaculture plays an important role in the production cycle and exert threshold on both practical and economic aspects. Feed additive sectors are expanding day after day to achieve better growth and health for fish and shrimp and to meet the potential requirements of the culturists. Probiotic proved its successes in human and animal feeding practices and recently gained attention in aquaculture; it has beneficial effects in diseases control and competes with various environmental stressors as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. Probiotics have the privilege to manipulate the non-specific innate immunity among fishes, hence help them into resist many pathogenic agents and are actively used worldwide. The present review is an informative compilation of the probiotics, their mode of action and their useful effects on fishes. The review also highlights the status of probiotics in aquaculture of Egypt, probiotic recent prospective for the possible role of probiotics in fish external and internal environment.

  5. Correlation of Apgar Score with Asphyxial Hepatic Injury and Mortality in Newborns: A Prospective Observational Study From India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Choudhary, Mukesh; Lamba, Mamta; Shastri, Sweta

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to determine the correlation of Apgar score with asphyxial hepatic injury and neonatal mortality in moderately and severely asphyxiated newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS This is a secondary analysis of our prospective observational case-controlled study. Sixteen neonates with severe birth asphyxia (five-minute Apgar ≤3) were compared with either 54 moderate asphyxia neonates (five-minute Apgar >3) or 30 normal neonates. Liver function tests were measured on postnatal days 1, 3, and 10 in the study and control groups. Neonatal mortality was observed in the study and control population. RESULTS Correlation of Apgar score in severely asphyxiated neonates compared with normal Apgar score neonates and moderately asphyxiated neonates for deranged hepatic function showed significant correlation (odds ratio [OR] 4.88, 95% CI 3.26–5.84, P = 0.01 and OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.94–3.32, P = 0.02, respectively). There was a significant increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total bilirubin on day 1 and serum LDH at age of 10th postnatal life in severely asphyxiated neonates when compared to moderately asphyxiated neonates, whereas there was a significant decrease in total bilirubin and serum albumin on day 3 in severely asphyxiated neonates. There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase, serum LDH, and total bilirubin on day 1, serum aspartate transaminase, serum LDH, and total bilirubin on day 3, and International Normalized Ratio on day 10 of postnatal life when severely asphyxiated neonates were compared with normal neonates. There was a significant reduction in total protein and serum albumin on day 1 and direct bilirubin on day 3 in severely asphyxiated neonates when compared with normal neonates. There was a significant increase in neonatal mortality in severely asphyxiated neonates when compared to the other two groups. Correlation of Apgar score in severely asphyxiated neonates compared with normal Apgar

  6. Genome-environment interactions and prospective technology assessment: evolution from pharmacogenomics to nutrigenomics and ecogenomics.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Motulsky, Arno G; Kolker, Eugene; Godard, Béatrice

    2009-02-01

    The relationships between food, nutrition science, and health outcomes have been mapped over the past century. Genomic variation among individuals and populations is a new factor that enriches and challenges our understanding of these complex relationships. Hence, the confluence of nutritional science and genomics-nutrigenomics--was the focus of the OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology in December 2008 (Part 1). The 2009 Special Issue (Part 2) concludes the analysis of nutrigenomics research and innovations. Together, these two issues expand the scope and depth of critical scholarship in nutrigenomics, in keeping with an integrated multidisciplinary analysis across the bioscience, omics technology, social, ethical, intellectual property and policy dimensions. Historically, the field of pharmacogenetics provided the first examples of specifically identifiable gene variants predisposing to unexpected responses to drugs since the 1950s. Brewer coined the term ecogenetics in 1971 to broaden the concept of gene-environment interactions from drugs and nutrition to include environmental agents in general. In the mid-1990s, introduction of high-throughput technologies led to the terms pharmacogenomics, nutrigenomics and ecogenomics to describe, respectively, the contribution of genomic variability to differential responses to drugs, food, and environment defined in the broadest sense. The distinctions, if any, between these newer fields (e.g., nutrigenomics) and their predecessors (e.g., nutrigenetics) remain to be delineated. For nutrigenomics, its reliance on genome-wide analyses may lead to detection of new biological mechanisms governing host response to food. Recognizing "genome-environment interactions" as the conceptual thread that connects and runs through pharmacogenomics, nutrigenomics, and ecogenomics may contribute toward anticipatory governance and prospective real-time analysis of these omics fields. Such real-time analysis of omics technologies and

  7. Randomized prospective study of the evolution of renal function depending on the anticalcineurin used.

    PubMed

    Moro, J A; Almenar Bonet, L; Martínez-Dolz, L; Raso, R; Sánchez-Lázaro, I; Agüero, J; Salvador, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Renal failure is one of the primary medium- to long-term morbidities in heart transplant (HT) recipients. To a great extent, this renal deterioration is associated with calcineurin inhibitors, primarily cyclosporine A (CsA). It has been suggested that tacrolimus provides better renal function in these patients. We assessed the medium-term evolution of renal function depending on the calcineurin inhibitor used after HT. We assessed 40 consecutive HT recipients over one year. Patients were randomized to receive CsA (n = 20) or tacrolimus (n = 20) in combination with mycophenolate mofetil (1 g/12 h) and deflazacort in decreasing dosages. We analyzed demographic variables before HT, creatinine values before and six months after HT and incidence of acute rejection. No demographic, clinical, or analytical differences were observed were between the two groups before HT. Repeated measures analysis of variance of creatinine values showed no significant differences between the two groups (P = .98). Furthermore, no differences were observed in either the incidence of rejection (P = .02) or rejection-free survival (P = .14). There seems to be no difference in efficacy profile and renal tolerability between CsA and tacrolimus therapy during the first months after HT.

  8. Cognitive psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

  9. Blood Pressure Profile in School Children (6–16 Years) of Southern India: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Sayeemuddin, Mohammad; Sharma, Deepak; Pandita, Aakash; Sultana, Tabassum; Shastri, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objective: To determine normal blood pressure (BP) in apparently healthy, asymptomatic school children in the age group of 6–16 years and to determine the correlation of BP values with different sex, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) and also to find out prevalence of hypertension in school going population. Materials and methods: This prospective, observational study enrolled 3,302 urban children (1,658 boys and 1,644 girls) in the age group of 6–16 years. These were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at different ages, sex, weight, height, and BMI. The SBP and DBP were noted as per age and sex. The association was seen between mean SBP and mean DBP with weight, height, and BMI. Information was collected about the family history of hypertension and was correlated with the obtained SBP and DBP readings. Results: The mean SBP in males at 6 years was 99.69 ± 3.62 mm of Hg, at 10 years was 102.20 ± 2.16 mm of Hg, and at 16 years was 115.33 ± 1.26 mm of Hg. The mean SBP in females at 6 years was 96.55 ± 2.86 mm of Hg, at 10 years was 101.16 ± 2.12 mm of Hg, and at 16 years was 112.41 ± 1.06 mm of Hg. The correlation coefficient for relationship between age and SBP in males and females was 0.89 and 0.91, respectively, and for DBP was 0.92 and 0.90, respectively. The correlation coefficient for relationship between height and SBP in males and females was 0.91 and 0.93, respectively, and for DBP was 0.92 and 0.88, respectively. The correlation coefficient for relationship between weight and SBP in males and females was 0.92 and 0.92, respectively, and for DBP was 0.94 and 0.91, respectively. In the nomogram obtained in the study, 95% of study population fall between mean +2SD and −2SD. Conclusion: The blood pressure (BP) (SBP and DBP) tends to increase with age, weight, height, and BMI. The BP values (SBP and DBP

  10. The interior and evolution of Enceladus: Current knowledge and future prospects (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.

    2010-12-01

    The nature and evolution of the interior of Enceladus, and especially that of any liquid water, is a topic of great astrobiological significance. Cassini observations of salty grains in the E-ring strongly suggest the presence of subsurface liquid [1], though this liquid may only be regional [2,3] rather than global in extent. Here I will focus on three questions of comparable importance. 1. How can its heat budget be explained? The current heat output from the South Polar region [4] greatly exceeds the equilibrium tidal heat production [5]. There are two solutions to this paradox: either Enceladus produces heat intermittently; or it produces heat at a constant rate, but gets rid of that heat intermittently. Enceladus does not undergo episodic tidal heating of the kind which may occur at Io [6], for either a convective [7] or a conductive ice shell. It may undergo episodic heating whenever the growing tidal stresses cross a critical threshold to initiate fault motion [8]. Alternatively, convection on Enceladus driven by constant heating may result in episodic overturn and pulsed heat loss [9]. Either solution implies a duty cycle roughly consistent with observations of 40Ar in the plume [10]. One way of distinguishing between these two solutions is astrometric observations, as at Io [11]. If the current tidal heating rate at Enceladus is that measured by Cassini [4], the eccentricity damping results in a fractional change in mean motion of ~6e-11 /yr, potentially measurable with ground-based observations. 2. Is the ice shell convecting? The ice shell of Enceladus is marginally unstable to convection. A convective shell is dissipative and also results in rapid reduction of ice shell thickness contrasts. Regional topographic anomalies, especially at the South Pole [2,12], are suggestive of shell thickness contrasts and a conductive shell. A conductive shell is also more compatible with the long-term orbital evolution of Enceladus [13] and results in a longer

  11. The diagnostic concept of schizophrenia: its history, evolution, and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Jablensky, Assen

    2010-01-01

    More than a century since the delineation of dementia praecox by Kraepelin, the etiology, neuropathology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia remain elusive. Despite the availability of criteria allowing reliable diagnostic identification, schizophrenia essentially remains a broad clinical syndrome defined by reported subjective experiences (symptoms), loss of function (behavioral impairments), and variable patterns of course. Research has identified a number of putative biological markers associated with the disorder, including neurocognitive dysfunction, brain dysmorphology, and neurochemical abnormalities. Yet none of these variables has to date been definitively proven to possess the sensitivity and specificity expected of a diagnostic test. Genetic linkage and association studies have targeted multiple candidate loci and genes, but failed to demonstrate that any specif ic gene variant, or a combination of genes, is either necessary or sufficient to cause schizophrenia. Thus, the existence of a specific brain disease underlying schizophrenia remains a hypothesis. Against a background of an ever-increasing volume of research data, the inconclusiveness of the search for causes of the disorder fuels doubts about the validity of the schizophrenia construct as presently defined. Given the protean nature of the symptoms of schizophrenia and the poor coherence of the clinical and biological findings, such doubts are not without reason. However, simply dismantling the concept is unlikely to result in an alternative model that would account for the host of clinical phenomena and research data consistent with a disease hypothesis of schizophrenia. For the time being, the clinical concept of schizophrenia is supported by empirical evidence that its multiple facets form a broad syndrome with non-negligible internal cohesion and a characteristic evolution over time. The dissection of the syndrome with the aid of endophenotypes is beginning to be perceived as a promising

  12. Two years observations on the diurnal evolution of coastal atmospheric boundary layer features over Thiruvananthapuram (8.5∘ N, 76.9∘ E), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anurose, T. J.; Subrahamanyam, D. Bala; Sunilkumar, S. V.

    2016-10-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over a given coastal station is influenced by the presence of mesoscale sea breeze circulation, together with the local and synoptic weather, which directly or indirectly modulate the vertical thickness of ABL (z ABL). Despite its importance in the characterization of lower tropospheric processes and atmospheric modeling studies, a reliable climatology on the temporal evolution of z ABL is not available over the tropics. Here, we investigate the challenges involved in determination of the ABL heights, and discuss an objective method to define the vertical structure of coastal ABL. The study presents a two year morphology on the diurnal evolution of the vertical thickness of sea breeze flow (z SBF) and z ABL in association with the altitudes of lifting condensation level (z LCL) over Thiruvananthapuram (8.5∘ N, 76.9∘ E), a representative coastal station on the western coastline of the Indian sub-continent. We make use of about 516 balloon-borne GPS sonde measurements in the present study, which were carried out as part of the tropical tropopause dynamics field experiment under the climate and weather of the sun-earth system (CAWSES)-India program. Results obtained from the present study reveal major differences in the temporal evolution of the ABL features in relation to the strength of sea breeze circulation and monsoonal wind flow during the winter and summer monsoon respectively. The diurnal evolution in z ABL is very prominent in the winter monsoon as against the summer monsoon, which is attributed to the impact of large-scale monsoonal flow over the surface layer meteorology. For a majority of the database, the z LCL altitudes are found to be higher than that of the z ABL, indicating a possible decoupling of the ABL with the low-level clouds.

  13. India`s nuclear weapons posture: The end of ambiguity. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis examines the future of India`s nuclear weapons posture. Since testing a nuclear device in 1974, India been able to produce weapons material within its civilian nuclear power program. Despite having this nuclear weapons capability, India prefers to maintain an ambiguous nuclear posture. New pressures in the post-cold war era -- the loss of the Soviet Union as a strategic ally, the indefinite extension of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty, the rise of Hindu nationalism, and India`s growing participation in the global economy -- have the potential to derail India`s current nuclear policy. This thesis identifies the domestic and international pressures on India, and assesses the prospects for India to retain its ambiguous policy, renounce the nuclear option, or assemble an overt nuclear arsenal.

  14. Whole Planet Coupling from Climate to Core: Implications for the Evolution of Rocky Planets and their Prospects for Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, B. J.; Driscoll, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    for preserving hydrogen, and therefore water, on the surface. Thus whole planet coupling between the magnetic field, atmosphere, mantle, and core is possible. We lay out the basic physics governing whole planet coupling, and discuss the implications this coupling has for the evolution of rocky planets and their prospects for hosting life.

  15. Stable and radioactive carbon in forest soils of Chhattisgarh, Central India: Implications for tropical soil carbon dynamics and stable carbon isotope evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, A. H.; Yadava, M. G.; Ramesh, R.

    2016-06-01

    Soils from two sites viz. Kotumsar and Tirathgarh, located ∼5 km apart in a tropical reserve forest (18°52‧N, 81°56‧E) in central India, have been explored for soil organic carbon (SOC) content, its mean residence time (MRT) and the evolution of stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C). SOC stocks in the upper 30 cm of soil layers are ∼5.3 kg/m2 and ∼3.0 kg/m2; in the upper 110 m are ∼10.7 kg/m2 and ∼7.8 kg/m2 at Kotumsar and Tirathgarh, respectively. SOC decreases with increasing depth. Bomb carbon signature is observed in the upper ∼10 cm. Organic matters in the top soil layers (0-10 cm) have MRTs of the order of a century which increases gradually with depths, reaching 3500-5000 yrs at ∼100 cm. δ13C values of SOC increase with depth, the carbon isotopic fractionation is obtained to be -1.2‰ and -3‰ for soils at Kotumsar and Tirathgarh, respectively, confirmed using Rayleigh isotopic fractionation model. The evolution of δ13C in soils was also studied using a modified Rayleigh fractionation model incorporating a continuous input into the reservoir: the depth profiles of δ13C for SOC show that the input organic matter from surface into the deeper soil layers is either insignificant or highly labile and decomposes quite fast in the top layers, thus making little contribution to the residual biomasses of the deeper layers. This is an attempt to understand the distillation processes that take place in SOC, assess the extent of decomposition by microbes and effect of percolation of fresh organic matter into dipper soil layers which are important for stable isotope based paleoclimate and paleovegetation reconstruction and understanding the dynamics of organic carbon in soils.

  16. The nature and evolution of the Main Central Thrust: Structural and geochronological constraints from the Sikkim Himalaya, NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Dilip K.; Chakraborty, Sumit; Trepmann, Claudia; Rubatto, Daniela; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Gaidies, Fred; Dasgupta, Somnath; Chowdhury, Priyadarshi

    2017-06-01

    The Main Central Thrust (MCT) is a prominent continental-scale fault within the Himalaya. Its definition has been the topic of some debate in the literature. After a brief consideration of the state of discussion to clarify the definition we use in this work, we report features from the field- to the microstructural- scale of a particularly well-exposed section in Sikkim, NE India. The nature of the protoliths as well as the overlying and underlying rocks is characterized in terms of ε-Nd. The dates of motion on the fault are constrained using U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite from pegmatitic dikes that cross-cut the deformation fabric. It is found that the mechanism of deformation recorded in the fault zone rocks is different compared to that found in the overlying Greater Himalayan (GH) or the underlying Lesser Himalayan (LH) rocks. The GH and LH have different protolith characteristics as well. Combined with existing data on P-T history, dates of metamorphism, and cooling- and exhumation-rates of the GH and the LH, our measurements show that major motion on this fault occurred before 20 Ma at 450-700 °C but after peak metamorphism of rocks (750-800 °C) in this zone. Isolated events occurred in this zone as late as 11 Ma, possibly in the brittle domain. This underscores the pulsed nature of movement over an extended period on such major faults, and the related difficulties in dating fault movement, determination of the rates of movement, and designating a fault plane as in- or out-of-sequence within a propagating deformation front.

  17. Subpopulation level variation of banana streak viruses in India and common evolution of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Vignesh Kumar, P; Geetanjali, A Swapna; Pun, Khem Bahadur; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Genome sequences of three episomal Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) isolates sampled from triploid banana hybrids (Chini Champa: AAB; Malbhog: AAB and Monthan: ABB), grown in North-East and South India are reported in this study by sequence-independent improved rolling circle amplification (RCA). RCA coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed diverse restriction profiles of five BSMYV isolates. Nucleotide substitution rates of BSMYV subpopulation and Banana streak OL virus subpopulation was 7.13 × 10(-3) to 1.59 × 10(-2) and 2.65 × 10(-3) to 5.49 × 10(-3), respectively, for the different coding regions. Analysis of the genetic diversity of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses revealed a total of 32 unique recombination events among banana and sugarcane badnaviruses (inter BSV-SCBV), in addition to the extensive recombination with in banana streak viruses and sugarcane bacilliform viruses (intra-BSV and intra-SCBV). Many unique fragments were shown to contain similar ruminant sequence fragments which indicated the possibility that the two groups of badnaviruses or their ancestors to colonise same host before making the host shift. The distribution of recombination events, hot-spots (intergenic region and C-terminal of ORF3) as well as cold-spots (distributed in ORF3) displayed the mirroring of recombination traces in both group of badnaviruses. These results support the hypothesis of relatedness of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses and the host and geographical shifts that followed the fixation of the species complex appear to be a recent event.

  18. Insights into the Crustal Structure and Geodynamic Evolution of the Southern Granulite Terrain, India, from Isostatic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Singh, A. P.; Singh, B.

    2011-10-01

    The Southern Granulite Terrain of India, formed through an ancient continental collision and uplift of the earth's surface, was accompanied by thickening of the crust. Once the active tectonism ceased, the buoyancy of these deep crustal roots must have supported the Nilgiri and Palani-Cardamom hills. Here, the gravity field has been utilized to provide new constraints on how the force of buoyancy maintains the state of isostasy in the Southern Granulite Terrain. Isostatic calculations show that the seismically derived crustal thickness of 43-44 km in the Southern Granulite Terrain is on average 7-8 km more than that required to isostatically balance the present-day topography. This difference cannot be solely explained applying a constant shift in the mean sea level crustal thickness of 32 km. The isostatic analysis thus indicates that the current topography of the Southern Granulite Terrain is overcompensated, and about 1.0 km of the topographic load must have been eroded from this region without any isostatic readjustment. The observed gravity anomaly, an order of magnitude lower than that expected (-125 mGal), however, shows that there is no such overcompensation. Thermal perturbations up to Pan-African, present-day high mantle heat flow and low Te together negate the possible resistance of the lithosphere to rebound in response to erosional unloading. To isostatically compensate the crustal root, compatible to seismic Moho, a band of high density (2,930 kg m-3) in the lower crust and low density (3,210 kg m-3) in the lithospheric mantle below the Southern Granulite Terrain is needed. A relatively denser crust due to two distinct episodes of metamorphic phase transitions at 2.5 Ga and 550 Ma and highly mobilized upper mantle during Pan-African thermal perturbation reduced significantly the root buoyancy that kept the crust pulled downward in response to the eroded topography.

  19. Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Ulmschneider

    When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a fundamental question: Assuming that life has formed on an extraterrestrial planet, will it also develop toward intelligence? As this is hotly debated, we will now describe the development of life on Earth in more detail in order to show that there are good reasons why evolution should culminate in intelligent beings.

  20. The role of precursor gases and meteorology on temporal evolution of O₃ at a tropical location in northeast India.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Bharali, Chandrakala; Pathak, Binita; Kalita, Gayatry

    2014-05-01

    South Asia, particularly the Indo-Gangetic Plains and foothills of the Himalayas, has been found to be a major source of pollutant gases and particles affecting the regional as well as the global climate. Inventories of greenhouse gases for the South Asian region, particularly the sub-Himalayan region, have been inadequate. Hence, measurements of the gases are important from effective characterization of the gases and their climate effects. The diurnal, seasonal, and annual variation of surface level O3 measured for the first time in northeast India at Dibrugarh (27.4° N, 94.9° E, 111 m amsl), a sub-Himalayan location in the Brahmaputra basin, from November 2009 to May 2013 is presented. The effect of the precursor gases NO x and CO measured simultaneously during January 2012-May 2013 and the prevailing meteorology on the growth and decay of O3 has been studied. The O3 concentration starts to increase gradually after sunrise attaining a peak level around 1500 hours LT and then decreases from evening till sunrise next day. The highest and lowest monthly maximum concentration of O3 is observed in March (42.9 ± 10.3 ppb) and July (17.3 ± 7.0 ppb), respectively. The peak in O3 concentration is preceded by the peaks in NO x and CO concentrations which maximize during the period November to March with peak values of 25.2 ± 21.0 ppb and 1.0 ± 0.4 ppm, respectively, in January. Significant nonlinear correlation is observed between O3 and NO, NO2, and CO. National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory back-trajectory and concentration weighted trajectory analysis carried out to delineate the possible airmass trajectory and to identify the potential source region of NO x and O3 concentrations show that in post-monsoon and winter, majority of the trajectories are confined locally while in pre-monsoon and monsoon, these are originated at the Indo-Gangetic plains, Bangladesh, and Bay of Bengal.

  1. Temporal evolution of trace gases in a sub-Himalayan region of India: WRF-Chem simulations versus observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, B.

    2015-12-01

    WRF-Chem has been used to simulate O3 and its precursors, NOx and CO and meteorological variables over the sub-Himalayn North-Eastern region of India including Bangladesh for the year 2012. The model simulation is compared with the observations carried at a location Dibrugarh (27.3ºN, 94.6ºE, 111 m amsl). WRF Chem is capable of simulating the diurnal variability in surface O3 in all the seasons with a good correlation (R2>0.57) between the simulated and observed O3. The model is found to capture the observed seasonal variations in O3 concentrations with maximum during the spring and minimum in monsoon. However, the model overestimates both the minimum and maximum levels by >10ppb in monsoon season and > 20ppb in all other three seasons. Simulated NO is underestimated, mostly during the nighttime in all three seasons (5-20 ppb) except the monsoon (~5ppb) season, when it is overestimated. Simulated NO2 and CO on the other hand, is underestimated in all the seasons. The observed difference may be contributed by the bias in the estimation of the O3 precursors, NOx and CO in the emission inventories or the error in the simulation of the meteorological variables which influences O3 concentration. For example, in the pre-monsoon and winter season, the model simulated shortwave flux overestimates the observation by ~500 Wm-2. While in the monsoon and post monsoon season, simulated shortwave flux is equivalent to the observation. The model predicts high wind speed in all the seasons especially during night-time as against observation. In the post-monsoon and winter season, the simulated wind pattern is reverse to observation with daytime low and night-time high values. Rainfall is overestimated in all the seasons. The night-time overestimation of O3 over this location may also be due to inadequacy of the model's chemistry to properly simulate the night-time level over this location.

  2. Delhi, India

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-17

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million and is located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on September 22, 2003.

  3. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of a hot orogen during Gondwanaland assembly: a case study from Palni hills metapelite granulite, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, S.; Nasipuri, P.

    2012-04-01

    This study deals with the tectono-metamorphic evolution of Sapphirine-cordierite-bearing metapelite granulite at Perumalmalai, south India, that occurs as enclave within deformed migmatitic enderbite gneiss of Kodaikanal massif, Madurai granulite block (MB), south India. Pre-peak mineral paragenesis is represented by an inclusion assemblage of sillimanite + plagioclase + Ti-rich biotite ±quartz in Al-rich orthopyroxene. Dehydration melting of biotite marked the onset of ultra-high temperature metamorphism (M1A, ~1000 °C, 10 Kbar). Early stage of retrograde metamorphism (M1B) is characterized by the development of type1-symplectite and corona textures. In type1-symplectite an innermost vermicular sapphirine (Spr - XMg: 0.90, Al/Si: 6.17) - cordierite (Crd) symplectite on sillimanite is followed by cordierite (XMg: 0.94) moat. A meso-perthitic layer laced the interface between cordierite moat and orthopyroxene porphyroblast, the latter showing prominent rim-ward decrease in Al2O3 (up to 3 wt%). The cordierite rim at the interface between sillimanite and orthopyroxene characterizes corona texture. Type1-symplectite and corona domains are circumnavigated by Ti-poor biotite (TiO2: ~3.2 wt%) showing shape preferred alignment, and set in a feldspar matrix showing wide compositional range. By implication, leucosome crystallization was possibly prolonged and enhanced by deformation. Type1-symplectite and corona textures were resulted from melt-solid interaction or silica-metasomatism during early stage of retrogression, Opx+Sil = Spr+Crd → Opx+Sil+melt = Crd. The retrograde metamorphism is constrained at 9 kbar and 950°C, implying an early stage of near-isothermal decompression. Late stage retrograde metamorphism (M2) is also characterized by symplectite textures, type2-symplectite, with innermost sapphirine-cordierite symplectite followed by cordierite corona. Sapphirine in type2-symplectite domain (XMg: 0.89; Al/Si: 5.92), which occurs as inclusion in Opx, is

  4. Genetic signatures coupled with lineage shift characterise endemic evolution of Dengue virus serotype 2 during 2015 outbreak in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Manish Chandra; Gupta, Ekta; Sharma, Shvetank; Hasnain, Nadeem; Agarwala, Pragya

    2017-07-01

    In 2015, New Delhi witnessed a massive outbreak of Dengue virus (DENV) resulting in high morbidity and mortality. We report the molecular characterisation of the dominant circulating DENV strain to understand its evolution and dispersal. DENV infections were diagnosed by detection of IgM/NS1 antigen, and serotyping was performed by C-PrM PCR. Envelope gene was amplified, and variation(s) in envelope gene were analysed. Phylogenetic tree construction, time-based phylogeny and origin of DENV were analysed. Site-specific selection pressure of envelope gene variants was analysed. Confirmed DENV infection was observed in 11.34% (32 of 282) cases, while PCR positivity for C-PrM region was observed in 54.16% (13 of 24) of NS1 antigen-positive cases. All samples belonged to serotype 2 and cosmopolitan genotype. Phylogenetic analysis using envelope gene revealed segregation of cosmopolitan genotype strains into specific lineages. The Indian strains clustered separately forming a distinct monophyletic lineage (lineage III) with a signature amino acid substitution viz., I162V and R288K. Selection pressure analysis revealed that 215D, 288R and 304K were positively selected sites. The rate of nucleotide substitution was 6.93 × 10(-4) substitutions site-1 year-1 with time to most common ancestor was around 10 years with JX475906 (Hyderabad strain) and JN030345 (Singapore strain) as its most probable ancestor. We observed evolution of a distinct lineage of DENV-2 strains on the Indian subcontinent with possible changes in endemic circulating dengue strains that might give rise to more pathogenic strains. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Fabric Analysis in the Koppal Granitoid (Southern India) using AMS and its significance in understanding the structural evolution of Dharwar Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Sandeep; Mamtani, Manish A.; Rana, Virendra

    2016-04-01

    The Dharwar Craton in southern India is known to have formed by the accretion of East Dharwar Craton (EDC) and West Dharwar Craton (WDC) at ca. 2500 Ma. This accretion occurred along the Chitradurga Boundary Fault (CBF), which is considered to demarcate the WDC from the EDC (Chadwick et al., 2003). In recent years, several structural studies integrating field, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and paleostress analyses have been carried out on metabasalts and granite (Mulgund Granite) in the vicinity of Gadag town that lie in WDC, i.e., west of CBF (Mondal and Mamtani, 2013; 2014; 2016). These have established the following: (a) Rocks around Gadag have undergone three deformation events - D1/ D2 was due to NE-SW compression that led to the development of NW-SE fabric elements in the metabasalts and granitic rocks; the latter is manifested in the magnetic foliation recorded from AMS. D3 was on account of NW-SE compression that led to doubly plunging magnetic lineations. (b) The metabasalts are replete with quartz veins many of which are gold bearing. These dominantly strike in NW-SE direction and formed due to dilation during D3. (c) Strain partitioning took place at the contacts between the Mulgund Granite and surround rocks resulted in development of oblique-slip normal faults within the granite during late stages of D3. In comparison to such in-depth knowledge of the WDC, structural evolution of the rocks of EDC has remained to be poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, the authors have focused on rocks of the Koppal region that lie to the east of CBF in EDC. The objectives of the research are to evaluate the deformation fabric in the region and compare the results with those of the WDC (cited above) to understand the kinematics associated with formation of the Dharwar Craton. To fulfill this objective, the authors have investigated Peninsular Gneisses and granitoids (Koppal Granitoid) around Koppal town (61 km east of Gadag). The field

  6. Mineralogy of the Banganapalle lamproite, India, and spinel zonation as a record of chemical evolution during crystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Satya P.; Patel, Suresh C.; Ravi, Subramanian; Pruseth, Kamal L.

    2017-04-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle Lamproite Field of southern India comprises four lamproite dykes which have intruded the Tadpatri Shale of the Cuddapah platformal sedimentary sequence. Mineralogical study of the dyke no. 551/110/4 shows that the rock has an inequigranular texture with megacrysts and macrocrysts of possibly olivine which are completely pseudomorphed by calcite and quartz due to pervasive hydrothermal and/or duteric alteration. Phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of phlogopite are highly chloritised with occasional preservation of relicts. The groundmass is dominated by calcite with subordinate amounts of phlogopite (completely chloritised), diopside, apatite, rutile and spinel. Other minor phases in the groundmass include titanite, allanite, monazite, zircon, barite, carboceranite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, heazlewoodite, and pentlandite. Spinel occurs in three textural types: (i) xenocrysts showing homogeneous composition; (ii) phenocrysts and microphenocrysts with continuous compositional zoning from the core to the rim; and (iii) groundmass crystals with distinct growth zones marked by discontinuous compositional zoning from the core to the rim. Four growth zones (zones I-IV) of spinel are recognized. Phenocrysts and microphenocrysts are designated as zone I spinels which have 55.0-65.7 wt% Cr2O3, 2.7-7.2 wt% Al2O3, <0.4 wt% TiO2, and record a decrease in Al/(Al+Cr) from the core to the rim. Zone II spinels either occur as overgrowth rims on xenocrystal and zone I spinels or form cores to zone III rims in discrete grains, and have higher TiO2 (1.2-3.6 wt%), lower Al2O3 (1.2-2.9 wt%) and similar Cr2O3 (55.0-63.8 wt%) contents compared to zone I spinels. Zone III spinels either occur as overgrowth rims on xenocrystal and zone II spinels or form cores to zone IV rims in discrete grains, and contain higher Al2O3 (5.7-10.2 wt%), lower Cr2O3 (45.9-56.0 wt%) and similar TiO2 (1.6-3.4 wt%) compared to zone II spinels. Overgrowth

  7. Thermal metamorphism of the Arunachal Himalaya, India: Raman thermometry and thermochronological constraints on the tectono-thermal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, George; De Sarkar, Sharmistha; Pande, Kanchan; Dutta, Suryendu; Ali, Shakir; Rai, Apritam; Netrawali, Shilpa

    2013-05-01

    Determination of the peak thermal condition is vital in order to understand tectono-thermal evolution of the Himalayan belt. The Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) in the Western Arunachal Pradesh, being rich in carbonaceous material (CM), facilitates the determination of peak metamorphic temperature based on Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM). In this study, we have used RSCM method of Beyssac et al. (J Metamorph Geol 20:859-871, 2002a) and Rahl et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 240:339-354, 2005) to estimate the thermal history of LHS and Siwalik foreland from the western Arunachal Pradesh. The study indicates that the temperature of 700-800 °C in the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) decreases to 650-700 °C in the main central thrust zone (MCTZ) and decreases further to <200 °C in the Mio-Pliocene sequence of Siwaliks. The work demonstrates greater reliability of Rahl et al.'s (Earth Planet Sci Lett 240:339-354, 2005) RSCM method for temperatures >600 and <340 °C. We show that the higher and lower zones of Bomdila Gneiss (BG) experienced temperature of ~600 °C and exhumed at different stages along the Bomdila Thrust (BT) and Upper Main Boundary Thrust (U.MBT). Pyrolysis analysis of the CM together with the Fission Track ages from upper Siwaliks corroborates the RSCM thermometry estimate of ~240 °C. The results indicate that the Permian sequence north of Lower MBT was deposited at greater depths (>12 km) than the upper Siwalik sediments to its south at depths <8 km before they were exhumed. The 40Ar/39Ar ages suggest that the upper zones of Se La evolved ~13-15 Ma. The middle zone exhumed at ~11 Ma and lower zone close to ~8 Ma indicating erosional unroofing of the MCT sheet. The footwall of MCTZ cooled between 6 and 8 Ma. Analyses of P-T path imply that LHS between MCT and U.MBT zone falls within the kyanite stability field with near isobaric condition. At higher structural level, the temperatures increase gradually with P-T conditions in the

  8. Prospecting for Camptothecines from Nothapodytes nimmoniana in the Western Ghats, South India: identification of high-yielding sources of camptothecin and new families of camptothecines.

    PubMed

    Ramesha, B T; Amna, T; Ravikanth, G; Gunaga, Rajesh P; Vasudeva, R; Ganeshaiah, K N; Uma Shaanker, R; Khajuria, R K; Puri, S C; Qazi, G N

    2008-04-01

    Camptothecin (CPT), a monoterpene alkaloid, is an important anti-cancer compound obtained from several plant sources including Camptotheca acuminta (from China) and Nothapodytes nimmoniana (from India). Currently, by far the highest levels of CPT (approximately 0.3% w/w) are reported from Nothapodytes nimmoniana, a small tree distributed in the Western Ghats, India. In recent years because of the heavy demand, there has been a serious threat of extinction of the populations of the tree in the Western Ghats forest of south India. Several studies have chemically profiled populations of the species in the Western Ghats to identify sources of high yield and therefore to enable the sustainable production and harvesting of CPT. In this study, using both high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we report for the first time the identification of trees that produce at least 5- to 8-fold more CPT than hitherto reported. Furthermore, we show for the first time the production of a few minor camptothecines, including 10-hydroxy camptothecin, in the stem and root bark extracts of the tree. These results have important implications for not only harnessing the high-yielding individuals for clonal multiplication but also for exploiting some of the minor camptothecines, which also have been shown to have important anti-cancer and anti-viral activity.

  9. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal Basin: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, P. K.; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2016-02-01

    Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal Basin along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.

  10. Post-glacial landform evolution in the middle Satluj River valley, India: Implications towards understanding the climate tectonic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shubhra; Bartarya, S. K.; Marh, B. S.

    2016-04-01

    Late Quaternary landform evolution in monsoon-dominated middle Satluj valley is reconstructed using the fragmentary records of fluvial terraces, alluvial fans, debris flows, paleo-flood deposits, and epigenetic gorges. Based on detailed field mapping, alluvial stratigraphy, sedimentology and optical chronology, two phases of fluvial aggradations are identified. The older aggradation event dated between ˜13 and 11 ka (early-Holocene), occurred in the pre-existing topography carved by multiple events of erosion and incision. Climatically, the event corresponds to the post-glacial strengthened Indian summer monsoon (ISM). The younger aggradation event dated between ˜5 and 0.4 ka (mid- to late-Holocene), was during the declining phase of ISM. The terrain witnessed high magnitude floods during transitional climate (˜6.5-7 ka). The fluvial sedimentation was punctuated by short-lived debris flows and alluvial fans during the LGM (weak ISM), early to mid-Holocene transition climate and mid- to late-Holocene declining ISM. Based on the terrace morphology, an event of relatively enhanced surface uplift is inferred after late Holocene. The present study suggests that post-glacial landforms in the middle Satluj valley owe their genesis to the interplay between the climate variability and local/regional tectonic interactions.

  11. The role of reacting solution and temperature on compositional evolution during harzburgite alteration: Constraints from the Mesoarchean Nuasahi Massif (eastern India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Alik S.; Hövelmann, Jörn; Mondal, Sisir K.; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the microtextural-chemical features of partially serpentinized harzburgites from the lower ultramafic unit of the Mesoarchean Nuasahi Massif, eastern India, in order to understand the role of reacting fluid composition and temperature on the phase evolution across replacement interfaces during progressive alteration. Two distinct types of pseudomorphic replacement textures are identified. Type-1 replacement texture was developed after primary orthopyroxene and is composed of talc + olivine + lizardite + tremolite + magnetite. Primary olivine was replaced by mesh-textured Mg-rich lizardite + magnetite at the center of the olivine grains and successive layers of relatively Fe-rich lizardite, magnesite, and calcite toward olivine rims, defining type-2 replacement texture. The Nuasahi harzburgite was initially out-of-equilibrium with respect to H2O-CO2-bearing reacting solution and the secondary compositions have mainly evolved in the CaO-MgO-FeO-SiO2-Al2O3-H2O-CO2 system as a result of fluid-rock interaction. The alteration process across orthopyroxene interfaces has started at relatively higher temperature conditions (400 < T < 675 °C) than that at primary olivine interface (T ≤ 330 °C). Each replacement process across reaction interfaces was controlled via an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism. The sequential development of different secondary compositions in these replacement rims indicates a micrometer-scale variation in silica activity and H2O/CO2(aq) ratio in the solution across replacement interfaces. The Fe2 + Mg- 1 chemical exchange potential of the equilibrating system plays an important role in dictating the Fe/Mg ratio of the secondary compositions and the molar proportions of magnetite. The precipitation of tremolite and calcite in some isolated areas reflects a variation in Ca activity in the reacting fluid. The precipitation of carbonates may also be associated with an increase in pH in the interfacial solution. The

  12. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Central Gneissic Belt, Rengali Province, eastern India: Implications for the Neoarchean growth and orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Arnab; Bose, Sankar; Das, Kaushik; Ghosh, Gautam

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the evolution of the Central Gneissic Belt of the Archean Rengali Province which evolved as a craton-margin orogenic belt. The Central Gneissic Belt is constituted of charnockite gneiss, migmatitic hornblende gneiss and granite gneiss often showing gradational contacts. While mafic granulite occurs as enclave within the charnockite gneiss, amphibolite and calc-silicate granofels enclaves are present within the granite gneiss. Mafic granulite shows peak metamorphic assemblage of garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz ± orthopyroxene which was stabilized at 10.6 ± 0.5 kbar and 860 ± 20 °C. Charnockite gneiss with the peak assemblage of orthopyroxene + quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar was metamorphosed at 792 ± 48 °C and 7.6 ± 0.4 kbar. Amphibolite and migmatitic hornblende gneiss contain hornblende along with plagioclase and garnet and these rocks were metamorphosed at 800 ± 20 °C, 8.5 ± 0.2 kbar and 695 °C, 8 kbar respectively. Later meta-dolerite dikes exhibit relic igneous textures which are slightly modified by greenschist-facies metamorphism. Charnockite gneiss, migmatitic hornblende gneiss and granite gneiss show similar trace and REE characteristics (moderate fractionation in terms of La and Yb, LREE enrichment and flat HREE pattern) implying the same protolith composition for these rock groups. Based on the field, petrographic and geochemical data, we propose that the protoliths for the charnockite gneiss, the migmatitic hornblende gneiss and the granite gneiss crystallized as fractionated magma in within-plate syncollisional setting during the ca. 2860-2780 Ma orogeny at the Rengali Province.

  13. Evolution of target organ damage and haemodynamic parameters over 4 years in patients with increased insulin resistance: the LOD-DIABETES prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel Ángel; Recio-Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Patino-Alonso, María Carmen; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Rodríguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose Angel; Gómez-Sánchez, Leticia; Gomez-Sanchez, Marta; García-Ortiz, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We prospectively examined the impact of type 2 diabetes compared with metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the development of vascular disease over 4 years as determined by anatomic and functional markers of vascular disease. By comparing the vascular outcomes of the 2 disorders, we seek to determine the independent effect of elevated glucose levels on vascular disease. Setting 2 primary care centres in Salamanca, Spain. Participants We performed a prospective observational study involving 112 patients (68 with type 2 diabetes and 44 with MetS) who were followed for 4 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures Measurements included blood pressure, blood glucose, lipids, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), hs-c-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels. We also evaluated vascular, carotid intima media thickness (IMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ankle/brachial index, heart and renal target organ damage (TOD). The haemodynamic parameters were central (CAIx) and peripheral (PAIx) augmentation indices. Results In year 4, participants with type 2 diabetes had increased IMT thickness. These patients had more plaques and an IMT>0.90 mm. In participants with MetS, we only found an increase in the number of plaques. We found no changes in PWV, CAIx and PAIx. The patients with diabetes had a greater frequency of vascular TOD. There were no differences neither in renal nor cardiac percentage of TOD in the patients with MetS or diabetes mellitus type 2. Conclusions This prospective study showed that the evolution of vascular TOD is different in participants with type 2 diabetes compared with those with MetS. While IMT and PWV increased in type 2 diabetes, these were not modified in MetS. The renal and cardiac TOD evolution, as well as the PAIx and CAIx, did not change in either group. Trial registration number NCT01065155; Results. PMID:27251684

  14. Structural Framework of the Sub-Himalaya and its tectonic evolution along Kameng river section: Arunachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, T.; Bezbaruah, D.; Sarmah, R. K.

    2012-04-01

    The structural style or architecture of the Neogene-Quaternary foreland basin is studied in the Kameng River section of Arunachal Pradesh. The Kimi, Dafla-Subansiri, and Kimin formations correspond to Lower, Middle and Upper Siwaliks. The outcrop scale structures from the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) towards S shows an overall ramp and flat geometry. The intervening strata between two parallel thrust faults (roof thrust and floor thrust) are sub-parallel. The individual subsidiary faults in imbricate fashion (horses) occur as planar units with straight sides. These duplex structures are significant manifestation of the processes involved in the internal domain of the Siwalik rocks and they represent the mechanism of the slip transfer processes from one glide horizon at depth to another at shallower depth. This process of slip transfer and formation of horses are responsible for the formation of structural thickening, duplex growth and mass addition to the moving thrust complex. In the present area the Siwalik strata showing duplex structures have undergone structural thickness in their internal domain mainly in Dafla formation. The lithology in the foreland basin dominantly composed of the sandstones (Greywacke and lithic -arenite), siltstone, claystone, carbonaceous shale, boulder beds in the upper part. In the microscopic scale, the lithological response in the structural development is well documented as pressure solution seams, elongated quartz and feldspar grains, bent micas, kinked biotites, strained quartz grains, healed grains, and micro-fractures. The basement asperities play a significant role as the moving thrust front produced a major lateral ramp. The differential movement of the mountain front on both sides of the ramp is visible in the field as the mountain front of the western part of the Kameng River move more southeastward compared to the eastern part. The tectonic evolution of the area initiated with the development of the MBT, which resulted in

  15. Tectonic control on Pleistocene basin-filling processes and landscape evolution: the intermontane Kangra Basin, NW Sub-Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Saptarshi; Thiede, Rasmus; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The growth of a collisional mountain belt like the Himalaya is dynamically coupled both to tectonics and climate and can result in strong temporal variations in the delivery of sediment to intermontane basins and the foreland. Orogenic critical taper models have been helpful to explain the processes controlling the evolution of mountain fronts in such settings. Rapid and voluminous sediment accumulations might destabilize the orogenic wedge and force architectural re-organization by outward propagation of the deformation front, while basin evacuation can induce out-of-sequence-thrusting to return the wedge to a critical taper. Structural reentrants along the Himalayan front are promising locations to study sediment delivery, storage, and sediment-evacuation mechanisms, as those areas commonly expose extensive transiently stored foreland-basin sediments. The Kangra re-entrant in the NW Sub-Himalaya hosts intermontane valley fills of Pleistocene age, eroded from the Dhauladhar Range. The sediments were unconformably deposited on top of Neogene foreland-basin sediments (i.e. the Siwaliks) in the hanging wall of the NW-SE striking Jwalamukhi Thrust. This major sediment accumulation phase appears to have preceded a phase of sediment evacuation in the course of episodic re-incision into the fill unit, which carved a series of fill-terrace levels. Angular unconformities, differential fluvial incision, tilted fluvial terraces, drainage re-organization, and steepened river segments in the hanging wall of the Jwalamukhi Thrust indicate post-depositional shortening and uplift in the Kangra re-entrant. From this evidence, we infer a primary importance of the Jwalamukhi Thrust in controlling the Quaternary sediment deposition in the Kangra re-entrant - however, we cannot exclude the influence of climate as the main trigger for sediment aggradation and subsequent excavation. However, knickpoints and steep river-channel gradients crossing other tectonic structures within the

  16. Evolution of Himalayan Metamorphism and the Genesis of Inverted Metamorphic Gradients: Evidence From the Sutlej Valley, NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caddick, M.; Bickle, M.; Holland, T.; Harris, N.

    2002-12-01

    An inverted metamorphic gradient is commonly preserved where the high-grade Greater Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (GHCS) overthrusts the Lesser Himalayan foreland. This structural break (the Main Central Thrust, or MCT) is a key feature of Himalayan tectonics, generally considered to have taken up at least 200-300 km of shortening since the Early Miocene. The timing of displacement along the MCT and its relationship with inverted metamorphism is debated, with existing temperature inversion models requiring either (a) post-metamorphic faulting along young shear zones; (b) continual or episodic syn-metamorphic thrust development; or (c) single phase pre- to syn-metamorphic thrusting and subsequent thermal relaxation. Here, we use the P-T-t evolution of individual rock samples to study the contrasting histories of the GHCS and LHS units and deduce the relationship between metamorphism and thrusting. The Sutlej River Valley exposes an inverted metamorphic succession consisting of a 9-km thick amphibolite-facies core (the GHCS), structurally underlain by greenschist and amphibolite-facies Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) metapelites which preserve garnet-in, staurolite-in and kyanite/sillimanite-in isograds. The GHCS displays kyanite-in and sillimanite-in isograds, with migmatisation at the top of the sequence. A major thrust-zone (interpreted as the MCT) separates the LHS from the GHCS. The application of rim-thermobarometry to Sutlej samples identifies both the inverted metamorphic gradient in the LHS and GHCS units, and the inherent frailty of cation-exchange thermobarometers when studying high-grade rocks that have been subjected to subsequent retrograde diffusion. The construction of pseudosections and contouring of mineral composition isopleths, however, identifies the PT-paths that both units have taken, allowing a detailed reconstruction of the burial and uplift histories of the units that constitute the MCT-zone. Pseudosections in the systems KFMASH and Mn

  17. Chronology of late Quaternary glaciation and landform evolution in the upper Dhauliganga valley, (Trans Himalaya), Uttarakhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, Pinkey; Ali, S. Nawaz; Shukla, Anil D.; Negi, Sunil; Sundriyal, Y. P.; Yadava, M. G.; Juyal, Navin

    2015-12-01

    Detailed field mapping of glacial and paraglacial landforms supported by optical and radiocarbon dating is used to reconstruct the history of late Quaternary glaciation and landform evolution in the Trans Himalayan region of the upper Dhauliganga valley. The study identifies four events of glaciations with decreasing magnitude which are termed as Purvi Kamet Stage -Ia (PKS-Ia), PKS-Ib, PKS-II, PKS-III and PKS-IV respectively. The oldest PKS-Ia and Ib are assigned the Marine Isotopic Stgae-3 (MIS-3), the PKS-II to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS-2), PKS-III dated to 7.9 ± 0.7 ka, and the PKS-IV is dated to 3.4 ± 0.3 ka and 1.9 ± 0.2 ka respectively. The largest valley glaciations viz. the (PKS-Ia) occurred during the strengthened summer monsoon corresponding to the MIS-3, following this, the recessional moraines (PKS-Ib) represent the gradual decline in summer monsoon towards the later part of MIS-3. The valley responded to the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is represented by the PKS-II moraine implying the influence of strengthened mid-latitude westerlies during the LGM. The post-LGM deglaciation was associated with the onset of summer monsoon and is represented by the deposition of four distinct outwash gravel terraces. The early Holocene PKS-III glaciation occurred around 7.9 ± 0.7 ka and broadly coincides with the early Holocene cooling event (8.2 ka). This was followed by the deposition of stratified scree deposits and the alluvial fan (between 5.5 ka and 3 ka) during the mid to late Holocene aridity. This was followed by marginal re-advancement of the valley glacier (viz. PKS-IV) during the late Holocene cool and moist climate. Although glaciers respond to a combination of temperature and precipitation changes, however during the Holocene it seems that temperature played a major role in driving the glaciation.

  18. Prospects for a self-sustainable sewage treatment system: a case study on full-scale UASB system in India's Yamuna River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Onodera, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

    2006-08-01

    The government of India decided to launch a project to implement 16 full-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors (with a total capacity of 598,000 m(3)/d) in the Yamuna River basin under its Yamuna Action Plan (YAP). A polishing pond called the Final Polishing Unit (FPU) was utilized for post-treatment. This paper evaluates the sewage treatment efficiency of the combined system of full-scale UASB reactors and polishing ponds under Indian climatic conditions. Results have shown that the effluent from the sewage treatment plants (STPs) investigated failed to comply with applicable discharge standards in terms of BOD, SS, and fecal coliform removal. Therefore, it is proposed that such proper operation and maintenance as removing excess sludge and scum be conducted in order to increase treatment efficiency. Moreover, trained and experienced workers are also required to operate and maintain the systems, along with a scientific approach.

  19. The Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Cohort-Study (SMSC): A Prospective Swiss Wide Investigation of Key Phases in Disease Evolution and New Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Disanto, Giulio; Benkert, Pascal; Lorscheider, Johannes; Mueller, Stefanie; Vehoff, Jochen; Zecca, Chiara; Ramseier, Simon; Achtnichts, Lutz; Findling, Oliver; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Sprenger, Till; Stippich, Christoph; Derfuss, Tobias; Louvion, Jean-François; Kamm, Christian P; Mattle, Heinrich P; Lotter, Christoph; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Schluep, Myriam; Pot, Caroline; Lalive, Patrice H; Yaldizli, Özgür; Gobbi, Claudio; Kappos, Ludwig; Kuhle, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to disability and the long-term efficacy and safety of disease modifying drugs (DMDs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are unclear. We aimed at building a prospective cohort of MS patients with standardized collection of demographic, clinical, MRI data and body fluids that can be used to develop prognostic indicators and biomarkers of disease evolution and therapeutic response. The Swiss MS Cohort (SMSC) is a prospective observational study performed across seven Swiss MS centers including patients with MS, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), radiologically isolated syndrome or neuromyelitis optica. Neurological and radiological assessments and biological samples are collected every 6-12 months. We recruited 872 patients (clinically isolated syndrome [CIS] 5.5%, relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS] 85.8%, primary progressive MS [PPMS] 3.5%, secondary progressive MS [SPMS] 5.2%) between June 2012 and July 2015. We performed 2,286 visits (median follow-up 398 days) and collected 2,274 serum, plasma and blood samples, 152 cerebrospinal fluid samples and 1,276 brain MRI scans. 158 relapses occurred and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores increased in PPMS, SPMS and RRMS patients experiencing relapses. Most RRMS patients were treated with fingolimod (33.4%), natalizumab (24.5%) or injectable DMDs (13.6%). The SMSC will provide relevant information regarding DMDs efficacy and safety and will serve as a comprehensive infrastructure available for nested research projects.

  20. The Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Cohort-Study (SMSC): A Prospective Swiss Wide Investigation of Key Phases in Disease Evolution and New Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Disanto, Giulio; Benkert, Pascal; Lorscheider, Johannes; Mueller, Stefanie; Vehoff, Jochen; Zecca, Chiara; Ramseier, Simon; Achtnichts, Lutz; Findling, Oliver; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Sprenger, Till; Stippich, Christoph; Derfuss, Tobias; Louvion, Jean-François; Kamm, Christian P.; Mattle, Heinrich P.; Lotter, Christoph; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Schluep, Myriam; Pot, Caroline; Lalive, Patrice H.; Yaldizli, Özgür; Gobbi, Claudio; Kappos, Ludwig; Kuhle, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to disability and the long-term efficacy and safety of disease modifying drugs (DMDs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are unclear. We aimed at building a prospective cohort of MS patients with standardized collection of demographic, clinical, MRI data and body fluids that can be used to develop prognostic indicators and biomarkers of disease evolution and therapeutic response. The Swiss MS Cohort (SMSC) is a prospective observational study performed across seven Swiss MS centers including patients with MS, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), radiologically isolated syndrome or neuromyelitis optica. Neurological and radiological assessments and biological samples are collected every 6–12 months. We recruited 872 patients (clinically isolated syndrome [CIS] 5.5%, relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS] 85.8%, primary progressive MS [PPMS] 3.5%, secondary progressive MS [SPMS] 5.2%) between June 2012 and July 2015. We performed 2,286 visits (median follow-up 398 days) and collected 2,274 serum, plasma and blood samples, 152 cerebrospinal fluid samples and 1,276 brain MRI scans. 158 relapses occurred and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores increased in PPMS, SPMS and RRMS patients experiencing relapses. Most RRMS patients were treated with fingolimod (33.4%), natalizumab (24.5%) or injectable DMDs (13.6%). The SMSC will provide relevant information regarding DMDs efficacy and safety and will serve as a comprehensive infrastructure available for nested research projects. PMID:27032105

  1. Evolution of body weight parameters up to 3 years after solid organ transplantation: The prospective Swiss Transplant Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Sonja; Nikolic, Nataša; Denhaerynck, Kris; Binet, Isabelle; Koller, Michael; Boely, Elsa; De Geest, Sabina

    2017-03-01

    Obesity and weight gain are serious concerns after solid organ transplantation (Tx); however, no unbiased comparison regarding body weight parameter evolution across organ groups has yet been performed. Using data from the prospective nationwide Swiss Transplant Cohort Study, we compared the evolution of weight parameters up to 3 years post-Tx in 1359 adult kidney (58.3%), liver (21.7%), lung (11.6%), and heart (8.4%) recipients transplanted between May 2008 and May 2012. Changes in mean weight and body mass index (BMI) category were compared to reference values from 6 months post-Tx. At 3 years post-Tx, compared to other organ groups, liver Tx recipients showed the greatest weight gain (mean 4.8±10.4 kg), 57.4% gained >5% body weight, and they had the highest incidence of obesity (38.1%). After 3 years, based on their BMI categories at 6 months, normal weight and obese liver Tx patients, as well as underweight kidney, lung and heart Tx patients had the highest weight gains. Judged against international Tx patient data, the majority of our Swiss Tx recipients' experienced lower post-Tx weight gain. However, our findings show weight gain pattern differences, both within and across organ Tx groups that call for preventive measures.

  2. A prospective study on the dynamics of the clinical and immunological evolution of human Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in the Brazilian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Fernando T; Lainson, Ralph; Crescente, José Angelo; de Souza, Adelson A A; Campos, Marliane B; Gomes, Claudia M C; Laurenti, Márcia D; Corbett, Carlos E P

    2010-08-01

    This prospective study was carried out from October 2003 to December 2005 and involved a cohort of 946 individuals of both genders, aged 1-89 years, from an endemic area for American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), in Pará State, Brazil. The aim of the study was to analyze the dynamics of the clinical and immunological evolution of human Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection represented by the following clinical-immunological profiles: asymptomatic infection (AI); symptomatic infection (SI=AVL); subclinical oligosymptomatic infection (SOI); subclinical resistant infection (SRI); and indeterminate initial infection (III). Infection diagnosis was determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test and leishmanin skin test. In total, 231 cases of infection were diagnosed: the AI profile was the most frequent (73.2%), followed by SRI (12.1%), III (9.9%), SI (2.6%) and SOI (2.2%). The major conclusion regarding evolution dynamics was that the III profile plays a pivotal role from which the cases evolve to either the resistant, SRI and AI, or susceptible, SOI and SI, profiles; only one of the 23 III cases evolved to SI, while most evolved to either SRI (nine cases) or SOI (five cases) and eight cases remained as III.

  3. Uranium (U)-Tolerant Bacterial Diversity from U Ore Deposit of Domiasiat in North-East India and Its Prospective Utilisation in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakshak; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2013-01-01

    Uranium (U)-tolerant aerobic chemo-heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the sub-surface soils of U-rich deposits in Domiasiat, North East India. The bacterial community explored at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) resulted in 51 distinct phylotypes. Bacterial community assemblages at the U mining site with the concentration of U ranging from 20 to 100 ppm, were found to be most diverse. Representative bacteria analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were affiliated to Firmicutes (51%), Gammaproteobacteria (26%), Actinobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%) and Betaproteobacteria (2%). Representative strains removed more than 90% and 53% of U from 100 μM and 2 mM uranyl nitrate solutions, respectively, at pH 3.5 within 10 min of exposure and the activity was retained until 24 h. Overall, 76% of characterized isolates possessed phosphatase enzyme and 53% had PIB-type ATPase genes. This study generated baseline information on the diverse indigenous U-tolerant bacteria which could serve as an indicator to estimate the environmental impact expected to be caused by mining in the future. Also, these natural isolates efficient in uranium binding and harbouring phosphatase enzyme and metal-transporting genes could possibly play a vital role in the bioremediation of metal-/radionuclide-contaminated environments. PMID:23080407

  4. Return of overseas contract workers and their rehabilitation and development in Kerala (India). A critical account of policies, performance and prospects.

    PubMed

    Nair, P R

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the situation of labor migrants from Kerala state, India, who were 40-60% of all contract workers in the Middle East and who returned after the mid-1980s. Descriptions are provided of the characteristics of return migrants, the Kerala economy, return migration policies, and impact studies of returnees. About 500,000 returned to Kerala. Returnees were middle aged, with low levels of education, skills, and experience. About 50% of returnees remained unemployed. The other 50% either retired or sought self-employment or other wage labor. Surveys conducted in 1985, 1987, 1993-93, and 1997 reveal that returnees peaked during the 1990s. By 1997, returnees to the Kadinamkulam panchayat included about one-sixth who were women. Most returnees had worked in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait. The reasons for return were poor working and living conditions, lack of opportunity or contract for staying longer, or forced repatriation. Upon return, 50% of the women and about 16% of the men remained unemployed. Return wages were about the same as before the migration. Returnees complained about the lack of support from government and society. Impact studies do not differentiate migration effects from development effects in general. Evaluation should focus on multidimensional impacts and individual attainment of emigration goals.

  5. Role of information technology (IT) in public health, India (problems & prospects): Role of information communication technology (ICT) in disease surveillance under Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajeev; Luthra, Pallavi; Karad, Amit; Dhariwal, A C; Ichhpujani, R L; Lal, Shiv

    2010-06-01

    Information Communication Technology (ICT) has proven to be a strong public health tool. Keeping the future need of country and building National Disease Surveillance System, Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) was launched by Hon'ble Union Minister of Health & Family Welfare in November 2004. It is a decentralized, State based surveillance program in the country. It is intended to detect early warning signals of impending outbreaks and help initiate an effective response in a timely manner. One of the major components of the project is the - use of Information Technology for collection, collation, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data besides distance education and video conferencing. A network of 800 sites across India has been established through Satellite, Broadband and High end Video conferencing equipments. The network is managed by a team of data managers and data entry operators at all state surveillance units and district surveillance units respectively. The network was proven to be extremely useful to respond to the current influenza A H1N1 pandemic. It is proposed to extend the network to cover private sector and provide convergence with other National Health Programs.

  6. The feasibility of using mobile phone technology for sexual behaviour research in a population vulnerable to HIV: a prospective survey with female sex workers in South India.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Janet; Ramesh, B M; Rajaram, S; Lobo, Anil; Gurav, Kaveri; Isac, Shajy; Chandra Shekhar Gowda, G; Pushpalatha, R; Moses, Stephen; Sunil, Kumar D R; Alary, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Sexual behaviour studies are often challenged by sampling, participation and measurement biases, and may be unacceptable to participants. We invited 293 randomly selected female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore, India, to participate in a telephone survey, with condom breakage as the main outcome. Free cell phones were supplied and trained interviewers telephoned FSWs daily to ask about all sex acts the previous day. Later, we undertook focus groups to discuss the methodology with the participants. We evaluated technical and operational feasibility; data reliability and measurement error; emotional and fatigue effects; interviewer bias; survey reactivity effects; and user acceptability. Response rates were high, with 84% of invited participants complying fully with the protocol. The study ran smoothly, with little evidence of biases. The methodology was highly acceptable; the respondents enjoyed using a new telephone and being interviewed at times convenient to them. Other reasons for the success of the method were that the study was sanctioned and supported by the sex worker collective, and the interviewers were well trained and developed a strong rapport with the participants. The success of this methodology, and the wealth of data produced, indicates that it can be an important tool for conducting sexual behaviour research in low literacy, high sex volume populations.

  7. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Janhunen, Pekka; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Oksanen, Ilona; Lehto, Kirsi; Lehto, Harry

    2007-02-14

    Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma). While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets.

  8. Microscopic enteritis: novel prospect in coeliac disease clinical and immuno-histogenesis. Evolution in diagnostic and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Rostami, K; Villanacci, V

    2009-04-01

    The diagnosis of coeliac disease has traditionally depended on symptoms and intestinal biopsies; nowadays, the diagnosis has been expanded to include an array of serological markers and subtle microscopic lesions. The most important advance in classifying mucosal lesions in coeliac disease was forwarded by Marsh (1992), who provided the biological explanation of how the small bowel reacts to a variety of environmental antigenic challenges including gluten. In the modified version of this classification (Arnhem 1998-1999) autoantibodies have integrated into Marsh's histopathological scheme. As a large part of the coeliac 'iceberg' remains unrecognised, the difficulties in diagnosis continue to challenge clinicians and researchers. Advances in immuno-histochemistry and discovery of the other sensitive markers have acquainted us with so-called Microscopic enteritis, the distinctive subtle abnormalities behind the atypical gluten sensitivity symptoms that often remain unrecognised. Current diagnostic pathways do not always include facilities for looking for this common histological feature in atypical cases. This is essential since improving of the detection rate has been shown to be directly proportional to recognition of cases with milder or minimal mucosal abnormalities. In this revision, we will define and characterise microscopic enteritis as the entity behind a wide range of unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms. Screening for this subtle and distinctive presentation in small bowel pathology will open a new prospect in recognising the most common but unrecognised atypical forms of symptomatic gluten related enteropathies.

  9. Plasmapheresis as preconditioning protocol in an extremely high titer ABO incompatible renal transplant (ABOiRTx) case: A new prospect for chronic kidney disease patients in India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prashant; Tiwari, Aseem Kumar; Sharma, Jyoti; Dixit, Surbhi; Raina, Vimarsh

    2013-08-01

    The biggest hurdle in renal transplantation is the ABO blood group system. But recently ABO incompatible renal transplants have been performed using plasmapheresis (PP) as a part of the preconditioning protocol. In the present study, the objective of PP along with immunosuppression was to bring down the antibody titer of the patient to ≤ 16 during the transplant and keep it low, around 32, until post-operative 4-14 weeks. The patient (O Negative) had his mother (B Positive) as the ABO non-identical donor. The PP was performed with an apheresis equipment Com.Tec (Fresenius Kabi, Germany) to lower the anti-B antibody titer in the recipient. An Antihuman globulin (AHG) titer was performed for anti-B antibody following the departmental standard operating procedure. A total of 11 plasmapheresis procedures was performed preoperatively and four procedures were performed post-operatively to maintain the titer of the anti-B antibody at or below the desired level. The baseline anti-B antibody titer in the recipient was 512. The baseline titer came down to 8 after the end of the 11th procedure. Post-operatively we performed four plasmapheresis procedures to keep the titer at 32. During the post-operative follow up the titer has been maintained at 32 and the serum creatinine level has been maintained at approximately 1.0mg/dl and other parameters relevant to graft function were within normal limits. Our case could be the first reported case from India in which we used a plasmapheresis procedure as a part of preconditioning protocol instead of using an immunoadsorption column. Furthermore, it could be one of the few ABOiRTx cases, which has been performed at an isoagglutinin titer of 512 using plasma exchange as part of a preconditioning regime.

  10. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  11. Tsunami: India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Breaking Tsunami Waves along India's Eastern Coast     ... called "tsunamis" from the Japanese for "harbor waves." The tsunami moved rapidly across the deep ocean, with speeds estimated around 640 ...

  12. India: Bihar

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image Scientists studying satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool ... of India. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther north. While high pollution levels were found over much ...

  13. Evolution of adolescent mental health in a rapidly changing socioeconomic environment: a review of mental health studies in adolescents in India over last 10 years.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Shilpa; Berk, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Significant changes in the economic, familial and social support aspects in India have occurred in recent times, making it an interesting naturalistic setting to observe the effects of a dynamic socioeconomic environment on behavioral and emotional disorders in adolescents. This systematic review attempts to synthesize and evaluate the available evidence on mental health disorders and interventions in adolescents in India in last 10 years as well as identify conceptual trends and methodological lacunae in these studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed in March 2014 and 27 school and community based studies evaluating behavioral problems, psychiatric morbidity, stress, suicide-related behaviors, depression, anxiety, aggression, self concept in adolescents in India were reviewed. There is a wide variation in the reported prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and behavioral problems in Indian adolescents. Some of the risk and protective factors are similar to those identified by other International studies in this age group. These include female gender, academic difficulties, parental fights, strained familial relationships, school absenteeism, school dropout and other school related factors. However, there are certain variables that appear to be context specific and need further investigation. These are mother's working status, studying in Government institutions or belonging to a nuclear family as risk factors and praying as a coping skill, parental involvement as a protective factor for psychiatric disorders. The suspected upward trend in the psychiatric morbidity in this age group needs more studies to be established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Emergence and evolution of social self-management of Parkinson's disease: study protocol for a 3-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Thomas, Cathi A; Habermann, Barbara; Martinez, Linda S Sprague; Terrin, Norma; Noubary, Farzad; Naumova, Elena N

    2014-05-02

    Parkinson's disease affects facial, vocal and trunk muscles. As symptoms progress, facial expression becomes masked, limiting the person's ability to communicate emotions and intentions to others. As people with the disease live and reside in their homes longer, the burden of caregiving is unmitigated by social and emotional rewards provided by an expressive individual. Little is known about how adults living with Parkinson's disease manage their social lives and how an inability to be emotionally expressive can affect social connections and health. Because social networks have been shown to be crucial to the overall well-being of people living with chronic diseases, research is needed on how expressive capacity affects life trajectories and health. The overall objective is to understand the emergence and evolution of the trajectories of the self-management of the social lives of people living with Parkinson's disease. The central hypothesis is that expressive capacity predicts systematic change in the pattern of social self-management and quality of life outcomes. The specific aims of this 3-year longitudinal study of 120 people with the disease and a maximum of 120 care partners are: 1) characterize social self-management trajectories over a 3-year period; 2) estimate the degree to which expressive nonverbal capacity predicts the trajectory; and 3) determine the moderating effect of gender on the association between expressive capacity and change in social self-management. Each participant will be assessed 14 times to detect rapid and non-linear changes in social participation and management of social activities; social network; and social comfort, general health and well-being. This project will provide evidence to guide the development of interventions for supporting social integration of those living with Parkinson's disease, thus leading to improved overall health. It focuses on the novel construct of social self-management and known factors

  15. Assessment of Quality of Life in a Cohort of Newly Diagnosed Patients on HAART Regimen, in Resource Restricted Tribal Region of Chhattisgarh, India: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harminder; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Dulhani, Navin; Bansal, Akash; Kumar, Bithika N.; Chouhan, Vinod Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens have resulted in the systemic/clinical healing for human immune deficiency virus-infected patients but the consequence of antiretroviral therapy on the whole quality of life has become a major concern. The current study correlates the relationship of quality of life with successful highly active antiretroviral therapy. Aim: To determine the health-related quality of life in human immune deficiency virus-infected patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy regimen in tribal region of Chhattisgarh. Design: An open label prospective study. Materials and Methods: Health-related quality of life was assessed using a standardized questionnaire, the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36. Physical health summary scores and mental health summary scores were compared of pre-Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (at baseline) and post 12 months of therapy. Results: The increase in CD4 cell counts was extremely significant (P < 0.0001). The Physical Composite Summary (P value = 0.0003) improved significantly, whereas the Mental Composite Summary (with a baseline value of 40.7), post 12 months, was calculated as 42.8 (P value = 0.2371) and was statistically not significant. Conclusion: Efficacy measurement is the key ingredient of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, which must also include assessment of health-related quality of life to maximize the holistic approach towards disease. PMID:24049364

  16. Bioinformatics education in India.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Sawant, Sangeeta; Chavan, Vishwas

    2010-11-01

    An account of bioinformatics education in India is presented along with future prospects. Establishment of BTIS network by Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India in the 1980s had been a systematic effort in the development of bioinformatics infrastructure in India to provide services to scientific community. Advances in the field of bioinformatics underpinned the need for well-trained professionals with skills in information technology and biotechnology. As a result, programmes for capacity building in terms of human resource development were initiated. Educational programmes gradually evolved from the organisation of short-term workshops to the institution of formal diploma/degree programmes. A case study of the Master's degree course offered at the Bioinformatics Centre, University of Pune is discussed. Currently, many universities and institutes are offering bioinformatics courses at different levels with variations in the course contents and degree of detailing. BioInformatics National Certification (BINC) examination initiated in 2005 by DBT provides a common yardstick to assess the knowledge and skill sets of students passing out of various institutions. The potential for broadening the scope of bioinformatics to transform it into a data intensive discovery discipline is discussed. This necessitates introduction of amendments in the existing curricula to accommodate the upcoming developments.

  17. Migration from India to Australia.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, S P; Chandra, A

    1994-01-01

    "The article examines the contemporary trends and future prospects of migration from India to Australia. The focus is on Indian Settlers and Temporary Entrants admitted to Australia for employment and Indian students admitted to Australia for higher studies. The volume of emigration for permanent residence during the early 1990s has made India one of the leading source countries of migration to Australia. A majority of Indians admitted as Settlers every year join the labor force. Recent data indicate that, among Indian Settlers, there is a preponderance of unsponsored Independent Skilled Migrants. Given the anticipated growth in the number of Indian students, the coming years are likely to witness a spurt in Skilled Temporary Workers from India." excerpt

  18. India's Computational Biology Growth and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-09-01

    India's computational science is growing swiftly due to the outburst of internet and information technology services. The bioinformatics sector of India has been transforming rapidly by creating a competitive position in global bioinformatics market. Bioinformatics is widely used across India to address a wide range of biological issues. Recently, computational researchers and biologists are collaborating in projects such as database development, sequence analysis, genomic prospects and algorithm generations. In this paper, we have presented the Indian computational biology scenario highlighting bioinformatics-related educational activities, manpower development, internet boom, service industry, research activities, conferences and trainings undertaken by the corporate and government sectors. Nonetheless, this new field of science faces lots of challenges.

  19. Safety and tolerability of Peg-grafeel(™), a pegfilgrastim, for the prophylactic treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and febrile neutropenia: A prospective, observational, postmarketing surveillance study in India.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Vineet; Nirni, Sharanabasappa S; Mallavarapu, Krishna Mohan; Ramkumar, Anupama; Sinha, Nitu

    2017-01-01

    A granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, pegfilgrastim, is efficacious though expensive for prophylactic treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. Biologics available and accessible today, having acceptable safety-efficacy profiles, require postapproval studies for better understanding of such drugs in clinical settings. This postmarketing surveillance study evaluated the safety of prophylactic Peg-grafeel(™) (pegfilgrastim) in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. This prospective, noninterventional, single-arm, open-label study was conducted at 10 study sites in India. Patients received subcutaneous 6 mg Peg-grafeel(™) approximately 24 h following chemotherapy as part of routine patient care. Data were summarized descriptively. The study included 250 patients (male: female = 36.4%:63.6%; median age, 54 [16-80] years). Most patients had Stage III (33.2%) or IV (41.6%) cancers and received cyclophosphamide (37.2%) and doxorubicin (31.6%) as chemotherapy. On an average, 4 Peg-grafeel(™) doses were administered per patient. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were reported in 115 (46%) patients, the most common being vomiting (11.6%), pain (11.2%), nausea (8.4%), and constipation (8.4%). Peg-grafeel(™)-related AEs included pain (3.2%), asthenia (2.4%), and arthralgia (1.2%). Bone pain (0.4%) and extremity pain (1.2%) were rare. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia occurred in 4 (1.6%) and 3 (1.2%) patients, respectively. Serious AEs included vomiting (2.8%) and pyrexia (2%). No new safety concerns were identified. None of the five deaths was considered related to Peg-grafeel(™). The overall safety profile of Peg-grafeel(™) was consistent with the expected safety profile of pegfilgrastim in patients with advanced malignancies in a clinical setting.

  20. Can the management of blood sugar levels in gestational diabetes mellitus cases be an indicator of maternal and fetal outcomes? The results of a prospective cohort study from India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rajesh; Davey, Sanjeev; Davey, Anuradha; Raghav, Santosh K.; Singh, Jai V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is emerging as an important public health problem in India owing to its increasing prevalence since the last decade. The issue addressed in the study was whether the management of blood sugar levels in GDM cases can predict maternal and fetal outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was done for 1 year from October 1, 2013, to September 31, 2014, at 652 diabetic screening units as a part of the Gestational Diabetes Prevention and Control Project approved by the Indian Government in the district of Kanpur, state of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 57,108 pregnant women were screened during their 24–28th weeks of pregnancy by impaired oral glucose test. All types of maternal and perinatal outcomes were followed up in both GDM and non-GDM categories in the 2nd year (2013–2014) after blood sugar levels were controlled. Results: It was seen that for all kinds of maternal and fetal outcomes, the differences between GDM cases and non-GDM cases were highly significant (P < 0.0001, relative risk >1 in every case). Moreover, perinatal mortality also increased significantly from 5.7% to 8.9% when blood sugar levels increased from 199 mg/dl and above. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in GDM cases were also significantly related to the control of blood sugar levels (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Blood sugar levels can be an indicator of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in GDM cases, provided unified diagnostic criteria are used by Indian laboratories. However, to get an accurate picture on this issue, all factors need further study. PMID:27186155

  1. Epidemiologic pattern of paediatric supracondylar fractures of humerus in a teaching hospital of rural India: A prospective study of 263 cases.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Rashid; Sharma, Vivek; Jindal, Ramesh; Singh, Tarun Pratap; Rathee, Narender

    2017-06-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the epidemiologic parameters of supracondylar humeral fractures in children admitted to a teaching institution of a developing country primarily catering to rural population, to find any preventable cause of such injuries. All suspected cases of supracondylar humeral fracture reporting to emergency or outpatients department were analysed for various epidemiologic parameters including age, sex, laterality, time of presentation, associated injuries, neurovascular complications and classification over a period of four years. We analysed a total of 263 patients and most of the fractures were seen in 5-8-year age group with a mean of 7.9 years. A total of 157 cases were males and non-dominant extremity was involved in 65% of fractures in our series. Fall on outstretched hand was the predominant cause of injury and fall from rooftop was the predominant mode. In all patients, 36.12% reported to our hospital 1 week after injury, 39.92% presented to hospital within 48 h after trauma and the remaining 23.95% presented 48 h to 1 week after trauma. None had a bilateral injury. Gartland type 3 fractures constituted 54.37% of patients, followed by type 1 (23.95%) and type 2 (21.67%). Almost one fourth of supracondylar humeral fractures in children can be prevented by installing railing of rooftops and stairs. It is necessary to educate people on hazards of treatment by traditional bonesetters. Moreover, the children with supracondylar humeral fractures should be screened for associated injuries. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in some secondary school students at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India: A short term prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Byalakere R; Suma, Shankarappa; Kiran, Kaverikana; Manjunath, Badhravathi C

    2012-09-01

    It was a short term prospective pilot study on a group of 116 secondary school students. To assess the feasibility of using the services of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in secondary school students and compare the effectiveness of dental health education (DHE) offered by school teachers on a fortnightly basis with what is offered by dental professionals at three- monthly intervals. Six secondary schools were randomly selected. The base-line Oral Hygiene Index simplified (OHI-S) and Plaque index (PI) scores for all the students were recorded. The teachers were trained on dental health facts. The six schools were divided into three groups of two schools with different intervention techniques: Group 1- Schools given no health education, Group 2 - Schools given health education by their school teachers on a fortnightly basis together with simple screening for deposits of gross calculus , Group 3 - Schools which were given health education by dental professionals at intervals of three months without any screening. Grade nine students were selected for pre and post intervention evaluation. The second examination was done six months following the intervention to find out the OHI-S and Plaque index scores. The examination was done by three trained and calibrated dentists. Data analysis was done with SPSS 16 with relevant statistical tests. The mean OHI-S and PI scores were significantly less in group 2 and there was a statistically significant difference between the baseline OHI - S, PI score and the scores after six months in all the three groups. The concept of utilizing the teachers for frequent DHE and screening for any gross deposits of food debris and calculus is feasible. Also frequent DHE by teachers was more effective than the infrequent DHE by the professionals.

  3. A Prospective Comparative Study of High Resolution Ultrasound and MRI in the Diagnosis of Rotator Cuff Tears in a Tertiary Hospital of North India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Ahluwalia, Ajay; Sharma, Yash Paul; Thakur, Lokesh

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To evaluate the accuracy of high resolution ultrasound (USG) and MRI in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears (RCT) and to determine if high resolution USG compares favorably in sensitivity and specificity to MRI in the diagnosis of rotator cuff injury. Material/Methods In this prospective comparative study, 40 patients with clinically suspected rotator cuff tears underwent both ultrasound and MRI of the shoulder. Out of these 40 patients, 31 patients who had positive findings for rotator cuff tears on ultrasound and/or MRI were finally included in the study while the remaining 9 patients with negative or unrelated findings were excluded. The USG and MRI were interpreted by two radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal radiology and blinded to findings of each other. Comparison was done using MRI as a standard reference. Results The agreement between USG and MRI for diagnosis of RCTs was statistically excellent; USG showed a sensitivity of 86.7% and a specificity of 100% for full-thickness tears, and a sensitivity of 89.7% and a specificity of 98.8% for partial-thickness tears; observed accuracy for full thickness tears was 98.4% and 95.9% for partial thickness tears. The Kappa coefficient of association was 0.91 for full thickness tears and 0.90 for partial thickness tears. Conclusions Considering the comparable diagnostic accuracy of USG and MRI, the former modality can be used as a first-line investigation for diagnosis of RCT. MRI should be used secondarily as a problem-solving tool either following an equivocal shoulder USG or for delineation of anatomy in cases where surgical correction is needed. PMID:27800039

  4. The use of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in some secondary school students at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India: A short term prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, Byalakere R.; Suma, Shankarappa; Kiran, Kaverikana; Manjunath, Badhravathi C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: It was a short term prospective pilot study on a group of 116 secondary school students. Objectives: To assess the feasibility of using the services of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in secondary school students and compare the effectiveness of dental health education (DHE) offered by school teachers on a fortnightly basis with what is offered by dental professionals at three- monthly intervals. Materials and Methods: Six secondary schools were randomly selected. The base-line Oral Hygiene Index simplified (OHI-S) and Plaque index (PI) scores for all the students were recorded. The teachers were trained on dental health facts. The six schools were divided into three groups of two schools with different intervention techniques: Group 1- Schools given no health education, Group 2 – Schools given health education by their school teachers on a fortnightly basis together with simple screening for deposits of gross calculus , Group 3 – Schools which were given health education by dental professionals at intervals of three months without any screening. Grade nine students were selected for pre and post intervention evaluation. The second examination was done six months following the intervention to find out the OHI-S and Plaque index scores. The examination was done by three trained and calibrated dentists. Data analysis was done with SPSS 16 with relevant statistical tests. Results: The mean OHI-S and PI scores were significantly less in group 2 and there was a statistically significant difference between the baseline OHI – S, PI score and the scores after six months in all the three groups. Conclusion: The concept of utilizing the teachers for frequent DHE and screening for any gross deposits of food debris and calculus is feasible. Also frequent DHE by teachers was more effective than the infrequent DHE by the professionals. PMID:23230385

  5. Social marketing of condoms in India.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R

    1994-01-01

    Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed.

  6. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Sandstone provenance and tectonic evolution of the Xiukang Mélange from Neotethyan subduction to India-Asia collision (Yarlung-Zangbo suture, south Tibet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Wei; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Xiukang Mélange of the Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone in south Tibet documents low efficiency of accretion along the southern active margin of Asia during Cretaceous Neotethyan subduction, followed by final development during the early Paleogene stages of the India-Asia collision. Here we investigate four transverses in the Xigaze area (Jiding, Cuola Pass, Riwuqi and Saga), inquiry the composition in each transverse, and present integrated petrologic, U-Pb detrital-zircon geochronology and Hf isotope data on sandstone blocks. In fault contact with the Yarlung-Zangbo Ophiolite to the north and the Tethyan Himalaya to the south, the Xiukang mélange can be divided into three types: serpentinite-matrix mélange composed by broken Yarlung-Zangbo Ophiolite, thrust-sheets consisting mainly chert, quartzose or limestone sheets(>100m) with little intervening marix, and mudstone-matrix mélange displaying typical blocks-in-matrix texture. While serpentinite-matrix mélange is exposed adjacent to the ophiolite, distributions of thrust-sheets and blocks in mudstone-matrix mélange show along-strike diversities. For example, Jiding transverse is dominant by chert sheets and basalt blocks with scarcely sandstone blocks, while Cuola Pass and Saga transverses expose large amounts of limestone/quartzarenite sheets in the north and volcaniclastic blocks in the south. However, turbidite sheets and volcaniclastic blocks are outcropped in the north Riwuqi transverse with quartzarenite blocks preserved in the south. Three groups of sandstone blocks/sheets with different provenance and depositional setting are distinguished by their petrographic, geochronological and isotopic fingerprints. Sheets of turbiditic quartzarenite originally sourced from the Indian continent were deposited in pre-Cretaceous time on the northernmost edge of the Indian passive margin and eventually involved into the mélange at the early stage of the India-Asia collision. Two distinct groups of volcaniclastic

  9. Evolution of community-based arsenic removal systems in remote villages in West Bengal, India: assessment of decade-long operation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Greenleaf, John E; Gupta, Anirban; Ghosh, Debabrata; Blaney, Lee M; Bandyopadhyay, P; Biswas, R K; Dutta, Amal K; Sengupta, Arup K

    2010-11-01

    In Bangladesh and the neighboring state of West Bengal, India, over 100 million people are affected by widespread arsenic poisoning through drinking water drawn from underground sources containing arsenic at concentrations well above the permissible limit of 50 μg/L. The health effects caused by arsenic poisoning in this area is as catastrophic as any other natural calamity that occurred throughout the world in recent times. Since 1997, over 200 community level arsenic removal units have been installed in Indian subcontinent through collaboration between Bengal Engineering and Science University (BESU), India and Lehigh University, USA. Approximately 200,000 villagers collect arsenic-safe potable water from these units on a daily basis. The treated water is also safe for drinking with regard to its total dissolved solids, hardness, iron and manganese content. The units use regenerable arsenic-selective adsorbents. Regular maintenance and upkeep of the units is administered by the villagers through formation of villagers' water committee. The villagers contribute towards the cost of operation through collection of a small water tariff. Upon exhaustion, the adsorbents are regenerated in a central facility by a few trained villagers. The process of regeneration reduces the volume of disposable arsenic-laden solids by nearly two orders of magnitude and allows for the reuse of the adsorbent material. Finally, the arsenic-laden solids are contained on well-aerated coarse sand filters with minimum arsenic leaching. This disposal technique is scientifically more appropriate than dumping arsenic-loaded adsorbents in the reducing environment of landfills as currently practiced in developed countries including the United States. The design of the units underwent several modifications over last ten years to enhance the efficiency in terms of arsenic removal, ease of maintenance and ecologically safe containment and disposal of treatment residuals. The continued safe operation

  10. Prospects of Sino-India Relations 2020

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    infantry divisions, 500 T-59 tanks, 120 MIG-19 and 300 F-6 fighters, and extensive aid to its military industrial base. This was especially important...SLOCs through the Straits of Malacca. The 1993 incident, when a Chinese freighter, Yin He, was intercepted by the U.S. navy in the international waters ...concepts of power projection. As early as 1988, China was moving toward the vision of a Blue Water navy; in 1997 Jiang Zemin exhorted the Navy to build

  11. Structure, petrology and U-Pb zircon age of Mesoproterozoic nepheline syenites from the Rengali Province, eastern India: Implications for their petrogenesis and geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Janisar M.; Champati, Anil K.; Patel, Suresh C.; Prabhakar, Naraga; Gerdes, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Three Mesoproterozoic nepheline syenite intrusions, namely Chhatabar, Lodhajhari and Baradangua intrusions, have been concordantly emplaced within a polydeformed and amphibolite facies metamorphosed sedimentary sequence (quartzites and mica schists) in the Rengali Province, eastern India. The metasedimentary sequence and the nepheline syenite intrusions both record three phases of folding (F1, F2 and F3). The penetrative fabric in quartzites is a schistosity (S1SS), while that in mica schists is a crenulation cleavage (S2SS), which has transposed to S1SS. The nepheline syenite intrusions exhibit magmatic to solid state deformation structures and microstructures. Magmatic layering in the rocks is commonly transposed by a prominent schistosity (S1NN). Fold geometries and deformation fabrics of the metasedimentary sequence and the nepheline syenites indicate that the latter were emplaced syntectonically during F1 folding of the metasedimentary sequence. The dominant rock type in the intrusions is nepheline syenite, while nepheline monzosyenite and nepheline monzodiorite occur in subordinate amounts in the form of centimeter to metre scale layers. Essential felsic minerals in the rocks are microcline (Or88-92Ab8-12) and nepheline, while sodic plagioclase (Ab88-96An4-12Or0.3-1.4) is additionally present in nepheline monzosyenite and nepheline monzodiorite. End member compositions of nephelines (Ne77-80Ks17-20Qtz1.6-3.6An0.5-2.6) fall below the 500oC isotherm in the nepheline-kalsilite-quartz projection from anorthite which indicates low temperature re-equilibration of the mineral after magmatic crystallization. Common mafic minerals in the rocks include biotite and amphibole, the latter being taramite in nepheline syenite, and hastingsite in nepheline monzosyenite and nepheline monzodiorite. Melt-present deformation microstructures which indicate syntectonic emplacement of the intrusions include late magmatic grains of nearly pure albite (Ab98-99An0.8-1.5Or0.2-0.6) and

  12. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  13. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  14. Geomorphic response to sea level and climate changes during Late Quaternary in a humid tropical coastline: Terrain evolution model from Southwest India.

    PubMed

    K, Maya; S, Vishnu Mohan; Limaye, Ruta B; Padmalal, Damodaran; Kumaran, Navnith K P

    2017-01-01

    The coastal lands of southern Kerala, SW India in the vicinity of Achankovil and Thenmala Shear Zones reveal a unique set of geomorphic features like beach ridges, runnels, chain of wetlands, lakes, estuaries, etc. The chain of wetlands and water bodies that are seen in the eastern periphery of the coastal lands indicates the remnants of the upper drainage channels of the previously existed coastal plain rivers of Late Pleistocene age that are later broadened due to coastal erosion under the transgressive phase. The terrain evolutionary model developed from the results of the study shows that the Late Pleistocene transgressive events might have carved out a major portion of the land areas drained by the coastal plain rivers and as a result the coastal cliff has been retreated several kilometers landwards. The NNE-SSW trending beach ridges located close to the inland wetlands indicate the extent of shoreline shift towards eastwards during Late Pleistocene period. The present beach parallel ridges in the younger coastal plain indicate the limit of the Mid Holocene shoreline as the transgression was not so severe compared to Late Pleistocene event. The zone of convergence of the two sets of beach ridges coincides with the areas of economically viable heavy mineral placers that resulted from the size and density based sorting under the repeated transgressive events to which the coast had subjected to. The chain of wetlands in the eastern side of the study area has been evolved from a mega lagoon existed during Late Pleistocene. The Pallikkal River that links discrete eastern wetland bodies has been evolved into its present form during Early Holocene.

  15. Paleocene-Eocene foreland basin evolution in the Himalaya of southern Tibet and Nepal: Implications for the age of initial India-Asia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P.; Gehrels, G. E.; Ding, L.

    2014-05-01

    Siliciclastic sedimentary rocks derived from the southern Lhasa terrane, sitting depositionally upon rocks of the northern Indian passive continental margin, provide an estimate of the age of initial contact between the continental parts of the Indian and Asian plates. We report sedimentological, sedimentary petrological, and geochronological data from Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene strata in the Sangdanlin section, located along the southern flank of the Indus-Yarlung suture zone in southern Tibet. This is probably the most proximal, and therefore the oldest, record of the India-Asia collision. These strata were deposited by high-density turbidity currents (or concentrated density flows) and suspension settling of pelagic biogenic debris in a deep-marine setting. An abrupt change from quartz-arenitic to feldspatholithic sandstone compositions marks the transition from Indian to Asian sediment provenance. The abrupt compositional change is accompanied by changes in U-Pb ages of detrital zircons diagnostic of a sediment provenance reversal, from Indian to Asian sources. The timing of the transition is bracketed between ~60 Ma and 58.5 ± 0.6 Ma by detrital zircon U-Pb ages and zircon U-Pb ages from a tuffaceous bed in the upper part of the section. In the context of a palinspastically restored regional paleogeographic framework, data from the Sangdanlin section combined with previously published data from the northern Tethyan Himalaya and the frontal Nepalese Lesser Himalaya and Subhimalaya suggest that a flexural wave migrated ~1300 km southward across what is now the Himalayan thrust belt from Paleocene time to the present.

  16. Geomorphic response to sea level and climate changes during Late Quaternary in a humid tropical coastline: Terrain evolution model from Southwest India

    PubMed Central

    K., Maya; S., Vishnu Mohan; Limaye, Ruta B.; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2017-01-01

    The coastal lands of southern Kerala, SW India in the vicinity of Achankovil and Thenmala Shear Zones reveal a unique set of geomorphic features like beach ridges, runnels, chain of wetlands, lakes, estuaries, etc. The chain of wetlands and water bodies that are seen in the eastern periphery of the coastal lands indicates the remnants of the upper drainage channels of the previously existed coastal plain rivers of Late Pleistocene age that are later broadened due to coastal erosion under the transgressive phase. The terrain evolutionary model developed from the results of the study shows that the Late Pleistocene transgressive events might have carved out a major portion of the land areas drained by the coastal plain rivers and as a result the coastal cliff has been retreated several kilometers landwards. The NNE—SSW trending beach ridges located close to the inland wetlands indicate the extent of shoreline shift towards eastwards during Late Pleistocene period. The present beach parallel ridges in the younger coastal plain indicate the limit of the Mid Holocene shoreline as the transgression was not so severe compared to Late Pleistocene event. The zone of convergence of the two sets of beach ridges coincides with the areas of economically viable heavy mineral placers that resulted from the size and density based sorting under the repeated transgressive events to which the coast had subjected to. The chain of wetlands in the eastern side of the study area has been evolved from a mega lagoon existed during Late Pleistocene. The Pallikkal River that links discrete eastern wetland bodies has been evolved into its present form during Early Holocene. PMID:28467465

  17. Tectonothermal evolution of a garnet-bearing quartzofeldspathic gneiss from the Moyar shear zone, south India and its bearing on the Neoarchean accretionary tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, Subhadip; Nasipuri, Pritam

    2017-03-01

    We present mesoscale structural development across the Nilgiri Block and the flanking Moyar and Bhavani shear zones in south India, and detailed mineral-chemical and geothermobarometric studies of a garnet-bearing quartzofeldspathic gneiss from the easternmost part of the Moyar shear zone. Barring a narrow (< 100 μm) rim domain, major element distribution within garnet porphyroblasts reveals complete chemical homogenization. The absence of growth zoning in garnet porphyroblasts may suggest a protracted post-garnet growth residence period of the rock at elevated temperatures. Chemical zoning near garnet rim reflects the signature of both retrograde net-transfer (ReNTR) and retrograde exchange (ReER) equilibria. The ReNTR-equilibrium is recognized by prominent Mn kick-up in garnet, whereas the ReER-equilibrium is identified by divergence of Fe and Mg between garnet and biotite. Diffusion modelling, though qualitative, of the observed chemical zoning in garnet suggests an initial phase of rapid ( 150 °C/Ma) cooling, which may have been achieved by tectonic-extrusion-induced exhumation. Pressure-temperature conditions for peak, ReNTR and ReER are constrained, respectively, at 900 °C; 9-11 kbar, 735 °C; 8 kbar and 685 °C; 7.8 kbar. Analyses of structural fabrics establish oppositely verging nature of the Moyar and Bhavani shear zone and may suggest a doubly vergent orogenic development, with the former as prowedge and the latter as retrowedge. The presence of the Nilgiri Block as a topographically elevated region between these oppositely dipping thrust faults indeed corroborates a doubly vergent orogenic setup. The tectonic scenario is comparable with a continent-continent collision type accretionary tectonics. Peak high-P granulite facies metamorphism and post-peak long residence period of the studied quartzofeldspathic gneiss at deep crustal level suitably fit into the Neoarchean crustal dynamics resulting in crustal thickening, in the order of 41 km, within the

  18. Reaction microtextures in entrapped xenoliths in alkali basalts from the Deccan large igneous province, India: Implications to the origin and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhaya, Soumi; Ghosh, Biswajit; Morishita, Tomoaki; Nandy, Sandip; Tamura, Akihiro; Bandyopadhyay, Debaditya

    2017-05-01

    The onset of the end-Mesozoic continental rift magmatism in the Deccan volcanic province (DVP), India is marked by alkali magmatism. Lithospheric fragments occurring as xenoliths/xenocrysts entrapped in alkaline basalts from the Kutch area of the DVP preserve reaction microtextures giving an insight into the processes linked to their origin. We interpret the flower texture, an aggregate of systematically arranged tiny diopside crystals, as a product of interactions between ghost quartz xenocrysts with alkaline silica-undersaturated melt. The mantle xenoliths, mostly represented by spinel lherzolites and wehrlites have been infiltrated by melt. The orthopyroxenes present at the margin of the xenoliths or in contact with infiltrated melt exhibit a coronal texture composed of olivine, clinopyroxene and glass around them. The compositions of cores of primary olivines at places retain mantle signatures, whereas, the margins are reequilibrated. Secondary olivines and clinopyroxenes at reaction coronas have a wide range of compositions. Primary clinopyroxenes and spinels in close vicinity to the orthopyroxene corona display a sieve texture defined by clear inclusion-free cores and a compositionally different spongy altered rim with worm-shaped or bubbly inclusions dominantly filled with glass. The rims are marked with higher Ca, Mg-lower Na, Al for clinopyroxenes and higher Ti, Cr-lower Mg, Al for spinels in comparison to their cores. The coronal texture around orthopyroxenes and spongy texture in clinopyroxenes and spinels in these xenoliths are interpreted to be genetically linked. The silicate glasses in the xenoliths show large compositional variations and they are much more siliceous and alkali-rich in comparison to the host basalts. The petrography and mineral chemistry suggest host magma-peridotite interaction during or after the entrainment of the xenoliths, corroborating well with the experimental findings.

  19. Mineral thermobarometry and fluid inclusion studies on the Closepet granite, Eastern Dharwar Craton, south India: Implications to emplacement and evolution of late-stage fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Sourabh; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.; Jayananda, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Closepet granite (CPG), a spectacularly exposed magmatic body along with other intrusive bodies (to the east of it) typifies the late Archean granitic activity in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC), south India. In the present study, the P-T-fO2 conditions of emplacement and physico-chemical environment of the associated magmatic-hydrothermal regime of CPG have been retrieved on the basis of mineral chemical and fluid inclusion studies. Amphibole-plagioclase Ti-in-amphibole and Ti-in-biotite geothermometers along with Al-in-amphibole geobarometer have been used to reconstruct the emplacement temperature and pressure conditions in the majority of the pluton. Estimated temperatures of emplacement of CPG vary from to 740 to 540 °C. A variation of pressure from 4.8 to 4.1 kilo bars corresponding to this temperature range was obtained. While there is a faint south to north negative gradient in temperature, the variation of pressure does not seem to follow this trend and indicates more or less same crustal level of emplacement for the body between Ramanagaram-Kalyandurga segment extending for about 230 km. Mineral chemistry of biotite indicates crystallization of CPG under high oxygen fugacity conditions (mostly above QFM buffer) with no clear spatial variation in the fugacity of halogen species in the late-stage magmatic fluid. It may be surmised that barring the southernmost part of CPG, there is no perceptible variation in the physicochemical environment of emplacement. Fluid Inclusion studies in the granitic matrix quartz and pegmatite/vein quartz show dominance of H2O and H2O-CO2 fluids respectively in them. The difference in the fluid characteristics is interpreted in terms of the initial loss of CO2 rich fluid from granitic magma and aqueous-rich nature during the later stages of crystallization of quartz. The exsolved CO2-rich fluid was responsible in formation of the later quartz and pegmatitic veins at different crustal levels and also possibly was

  20. The United States -- India Strategic Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    policies. According to Stephen Cohen, Nehru was a one-man planning staff and coordinator, as well as the source of major initiatives that put India on...Gupta, “South Asia,” 103. 11 In 1975 the Indian Government appointed an expert committee to develop a twenty year prospective plan for the...Sundarji produced a report called “Army 2000-2010.” The plan focused on land based forces and called for India to increase the number of Army

  1. Hafnium-neodymium isotope systematics of the 2.7 Ga Gadwal greenstone terrane, Eastern Dharwar craton, India: Implications for the evolution of the Archean depleted mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Tarun C.; Bizimis, Michael; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Mallick, Soumen

    2014-02-01

    The Neoarchean Gadwal greenstone belt in the eastern Dharwar craton, India, hosts a well preserved metavolcanic sequence that is dominated by tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalt-andesite-dacite-rhyolite series, which includes boninitic geochemical varieties. Bulk-rock Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of these apparently arc-related volcanic rocks yield indistinguishable ages of 2.701 ± 0.024 Ga and 2.702 ± 0.026 Ga, respectively. On the basis of the close spatial association and identical ages of the different rock types we suggest 2.70 ± 0.03 Ga as the age of crystallization of the different rock types within the Gadwal metavolcanic sequence. In contrast, bulk-rock Pb-Pb isotope systematics of the same samples yield a significantly younger and less precise age of 2.466 Ga (+0.068/-0.110 Ga). We tentatively interpret this younger age to represent a metallogenic and crustal reworking event in the Dharwar craton, which disturbed the U-Pb system but not the Lu-Hf or Sm-Nd systems. The Gadwal metavolcanic rocks have positive initial ɛHf(2.70Ga) = + 1.6 to + 8.7 and slightly negative to positive ɛNd(2.70Ga) = -0.1 to + 3.0 values, consistent with an origin from a long term depleted source relative to a chondritic reservoir at ˜2.7 Ga. Lack of correlation between initial isotopic compositions and major or trace element indices of fractionation and alteration suggest that the observed isotope variability probably reflects compositional variation in the Gadwal source, similar to that observed in modern day island arcs. Two boninitic samples of the Gadwal sequence have ɛHf ˜ 8.3 and 8.7, and are more radiogenic than average depleted mantle for the time period 3.2 to 2.5 Ga (ɛHf = 4 to 6). Early (perhaps Hadean) differentiation events that led to a depleted and heterogeneous mantle are apparent in the Nd and Hf isotope systematics of 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua supracrustal rocks. The radiogenic Hf isotopes of the Gadwal boninites and the Hf, Nd isotope systematics of rocks

  2. Geodynamic evolution of a Pan-African granitoid of extended Dizo Valley in Karbi Hills, NE India: Evidence from Geochemistry and Isotope Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Dilip; Dutta, Pankhi

    2016-03-01

    The Dizo Valley is an important geological province in NW Karbi Hills of Shillong Plateau (NE India). The Karbi Hills contain profusely intruded bodies of A-type granitoids that have been attributed to a post-collision setting. The Dizo Valley magmatic suite is a bimodal association of voluminous granitoid plutons with dolerite and amphibolites (metabasalts). Our present data demonstrates that there were two episodes of A-type granitoid magmatism in this part of the craton. Studied Kathalguri granitoids (KG) of Dizo Valley represents the late phase, about 515.1 ± 3.3-515.5 + 2.7 Ma age, dated by zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb method. The age of emplacement represent the late Pan-African (Mid-Cambrian) event of granitoid magmatism concomitant to the Gondwana continental restructuring event with the integration of East and West Gondwana held between 570 and 510 Ma. A previous granitoid emplacement episode of about 690 Ma has been referred in literature. The late phase of granitoids formation tends to be massive, occasionally show flow banding, degassing pots and amphibolite breccias with chilled margin. Its mineralogy shows abundance of accessory phases like zircon, allanite, apatite, bastnaesite, monazite, sphene and xenotime. Geochemical parameters offer metaluminous to peraluminous, non-porphyritic, shoshonitic to high potassium, calc-alkaline composition. Other chemical criteria bear the character of A2-type granitoids with high SiO2 (64.00-70.75 wt.%) and alkali (3.26-6.30 wt.%) but poor Ca and Mg content. The binary plots of Y + Nb-Rb and Y-Nb confirm their within-plate granite (WPG) character. The pluton is enriched in total REE (av. 614.64 ppm), Y and heavy REE (27.62-65.00 ppm; av. 41.87 ppm) compared to low calcium granite; Eu anomaly is moderately negative (∂Eu = 0.43). Enrichment of incompatible elements like large ion lithophile elements (LILE) of Rb, Ba and Sr and REE are consistent with the A-type granites. The behavior of Ba, Rb and Sr suggest a progressive

  3. New sivaladapid primate from Lower Siwalik deposits surrounding Ramnagar (Jammu and Kashmir State), India.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher C; Patel, Biren A; Singh, N Premjit; Campisano, Christopher J; Fleagle, John G; Rust, Kathleen L; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    Over the past century, numerous vertebrate fossils collected near the town of Ramnagar, India, have proven to be important for understanding the evolution and biogeography of many mammalian groups. Primates from Ramnagar, though rare, include a number of hominoid specimens attributable to Sivapithecus, as well as a single published mandibular fragment preserving the P4-M1 of the Miocene adapoid Sivaladapis palaeindicus. Since 2010, we have renewed fossil prospecting in the Lower Siwalik deposits near Ramnagar in an attempt to better understand the evolution, biogeographic timing, and paleoclimatic context of mammalian radiations in Asia, with a particular focus on primates. Our explorations have resulted in the identification of new fossil localities, including the site of Sunetar. The age of Sunetar and the Ramnagar region, in general, is tentatively dated between 14 and 11 Ma. In 2014, a partial right mandible of a sivaladapid primate was recovered at Sunetar, preserving the corpus with P4 roots and worn M1-M3 dentition. Although sivaladapids are known by numerous specimens of two genera (Sivaladapis and Indraloris) at Lower Siwalik sites on the Potwar Plateau (Pakistan) and at the Middle Siwalik locality of Haritalyangar (India), this new specimen is just the second sivaladapid recovered from the Ramnagar region. Our analyses suggest that the new specimen is distinct from all other sivaladapids, and we therefore describe it as a new genus and species close to the base of the Sivaladapinae.

  4. Geometry and kinematics of the fold-thrust belt and structural evolution of the major Himalayan fault zones in the Darjeeling -- Sikkim Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kathakali

    a total minimum shortening of ˜502 km (˜82%) south of the South Tibetan Detachment system (STDS). Based on this shortening, the average long-term shortening rate is estimated to be ˜22mm/yr in this region. The available shortening estimates from different parts of the Himalayan arc show significant variations in shortening, but based on the present available data, it is difficult to evaluate the primary cause for this variation. The shortening in the Himalayan fold-thrust belt (FTB) is highest in the middle of the Himalayan arc (western Nepal) and progressively decreases towards the two syntaxes. Although the width of the Lesser Himalayan belt decreases in the eastern Himalaya, the Lesser Himalayan shortening percentage remains approximately similar to that in the Nepal Himalaya. In addition, the shortening accommodated within the Lesser Himalayan duplex progressively increases from the western to the eastern Himalaya where it accommodates nearly half of the total shortening. The regional restorations suggest that the width of the original Lesser Himalayan basin may have played an important role in partitioning the shortening in the Himalayan FTB. In addition, the retrodeformed cross section in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya provides insights into the palinspastic reconstruction of the Gondwana basin of Peninsular India, suggesting that this basin extended ˜150 km northward of its present northernmost exposure in this region. The balanced cross section suggests that each of the MCT sheets has undergone translation of ≥100km in this region. Although a regional scale flat-on-flat relationship is seen in the MCT sheets, there is a significant variation in overburden from the trailing portion to the leading edge of the MCT due to the geometry of the tapered crystalline orogenic wedge. Microstructural studies from three segments of the MCT2 fault zone suggest that the MCT2 zone has undergone strain softening by different mechanisms along different portions of its

  5. Growth and Evolution of the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Mineral and Whole rock Chemical Evidence for Intracrustal Melting and Magmatic Petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlupet Rangasetty, R.; Chettootty, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) constitutes an important lower crustal segment in the southern Indian granulite terrain. Dominant rock types, except sillimanite bearing gneisses, are classified as sodic and potassic granitoids and a general supracrustal origin is ascribed to these rocks. We present here new results from our studies on mineral and whole rock major- and trace-element and REE systematic of major litho units of the belt. We address the petrogenesis, physical conditions during crystallization and tectonic setting of KKB rocks. Granitoids (gneiss and variants of charnockites) makeup more than 70% of exposed rock types in KKB. They are classified as sodic and potassic groups based on K2O/Na2O ratios. Mineral chemical analysis of granitoids, especially biotites from different groups document igneous parentage and as potential indicator of nature of the magma. Biotites from sodic group are Mg2+-rich (XMg:0.47-0.63), denote calc-alkaline host in contrast to those from potassic groups, which are Fe2+-types with much lower XMg (0.37-0.44) and suggest an alkaline host. Biotites in potassic group are poorer in A12O3 than sodic, indicating evolved nature of the magmatic protolith. Decrease in ΣAl with increasing Fe/(Fe+Mg) values of biotites indicate progressive oxidising condition during magma evolution. Compositional variation of biotite allow us to speculate that the host magmas of sodic charnockites as calc-alkaline, arc-type with features typical of Archaean TTGs and potassic groups as partial melts of meta-igneous lower crust with little mantle contribution. The sodic group has geochemical affinity to Archaean tonalities with low-K, calc-alkaline, metaluminous to peraluminous chemistry. Compositionally contrasting K-rich rocks are essentially of granitic composition. Most oxides in both the groups, with exceptions of K2O and Na2O, show negative correlation with SiO2. The sodic group is enriched in Sr and depleted in Rb and Th. They exhibit geochemical

  6. Active tectonic influence on the evolution of drainage and landscape: Geomorphic signatures from frontal and hinterland areas along the Northwestern Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed N.; Mohanty, C.

    2007-03-01

    The Kangra Re-entrant in the NW Himalaya is one of the most seismically active regions, falling into Seismic Zone V along the Himalaya. In 1905 the area experienced one of the great Himalayan earthquakes with magnitude 7.8. The frontal fault system - the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) associated with the foreland fold - Janauri Anticline, along with other major as well as secondary hinterland thrust faults, provides an ideal site to study the ongoing tectonic activity which has influenced the evolution of drainage and landscape in the region. The present study suggests that the flat-uplifted surface in the central portion of the Janauri Anticline represents the paleo-exit of the Sutlej River. It is suggested that initially when the tectonic activity propagated southward along the HFT the Janauri Anticline grew along two separate fault segments (north and south faults), the gap between these two fault and the related folds allowed the Sutlej River to flow across this area. Later, the radial propagation of the faults towards each other resulted in an interaction of the fault tips, which caused the rapid uplift of the area. Rapid uplift resulted in the disruption and longitudinal deflection of the Sutlej river channel. Fluvial deposits on the flat surface suggest that an earlier fluvial system flowed across this area in the recent past. Geomorphic signatures, like the sharp mountain fronts along the HFT in some places, as well as along various hinterland subordinate faults like the Nalagarh Thrust (NaT), the Barsar Thrust (BaT) and the Jawalamukhi Thrust (JMT); the change in the channel pattern, marked by a tight incised meander of the Beas channel upstream of the JMT indicate active tectonic movements in the area. The prominent V-shaped valleys of the Beas and Sutlej rivers, flowing across the thrust fronts, with Vf values ranging from <1.0-1.5 are also suggestive of ongoing tectonic activity along major and hinterland faults. This suggests that not only is the HFT

  7. Is the Gop rift oceanic? A reevaluation of the Seychelles-India conjugate margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Huixin; Werner, Philippe; Geoffroy, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Gop Rift axis. We propose that the conspicuous buoyant central part of the Gop Rift is likely associated with a continental C-Block as described in a recent paper on conjugated VPMs8, at least in the southern part of the Gop Rift. The crust below the Laxmi basin is probably transitional continental i.e. strongly intruded. West of India and west of the Laxmi Ridge, the transition to the Carlsberg Basin occurs along a clearly-expressed transform fault, not through an extended and thinned continental margin. We reinterpret the whole system based on those observations and propositions, giving some explanations on controversial magnetic anomalies based on similar observations from the southern Atlantic Ocean. 1: Collier et al., 2008. Age of the Seychelles-India break-up. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2: Minshull et al., 2008. The relationship between riftingand magmatism in the northeastern Arabian Sea. Nature Geoscience. 3 : Armitage et al., 2010. The importance of rift history for volcanic margin. Nature. 4 : Krishna et al., 2006. Nature of the crust in the Laxmi Basin (14 degrees-20 degrees N), western continental margin of India. Tectonics. 5 : Misra et al., 2015. Repeat ridge jumps and microcontinent separation: insights from NE Arabian Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology. 6 : Biswas, 1982. Rift basins in the western margin of India and their hydrocarbon prospects. Bull. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. 7 : Chatterjee et al., 2013. The longest voyage: Tectonic, magmatic, and paleoclimatic evolution of the Indian plate during its northward flight from Gondwana to Asia. Gondwana Research. 8 : Geoffroy et al., 2015. Volcanic passive margins: anotherway to break up continents. Scientific Reports.

  8. Nonurban Development in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on how India's economic planning and development efforts since 1950 have affected rural areas and small towns, which comprise nearly 80% of India's population. Presents several case studies of rural development and concludes that the major keys to the stability of India as a democracy are population control, a unifying language, and…

  9. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  10. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  11. Counseling and Family Therapy in India: Evolving Professions in a Rapidly Developing Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, David K.; Jain, Sachin; Ramirez, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Outpatient counseling is a relatively new concept and form of clinical practice in India. This article provides an overview of the need for and current status of counseling and family therapy in India. Examples of training programs are presented, and future prospects for the counseling and family therapy professions are highlighted. The authors…

  12. Liraglutide effect and action in diabetes-In (LEAD-In): A prospective observational study assessing safety and effectiveness of liraglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated under routine clinical practice conditions in India

    PubMed Central

    Wangnoo, Subhash Kumar; Kumar, Surender; Bhattacharyya, Arpandev; Tripathi, Sudhir; Akhtar, Shahid; Shetty, Raman; Ghosal, Samit

    2016-01-01

    Background: This 26-week, open-label observational study assessed the incidence and type of adverse events (AEs) associated with liraglutide use according to the standard clinical practice settings and the local label in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1416 adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with liraglutide in 125 sites across India were included in the study. Participants were newly diagnosed or already receiving antidiabetic medications. Safety and efficacy data were collected at baseline and at approximately weeks 13 and 26. The primary outcome was incidence and type of AEs while using liraglutide, with events classified by Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities system organ class and preferred term. The secondary objective was to assess other clinical parameters related to effective T2D management. Results: Twenty AEs, predominately gastrointestinal, were reported in 1.3% of the study population in scheduled visits up to week 26. No serious AEs, including death, were reported. Hypoglycemic episodes were reported in 7.3% of participants at baseline and 0.7% at week 26. No major hypoglycemic events were reported up to week 26 (baseline: 0.4%). Glycated hemoglobin was reduced from baseline (8.8 ± 1.3%) to week 26 by 1.6 ± 1.1% (P < 0.0001); significant improvements in fasting blood glucose, and 2-h postprandial blood glucose (post-breakfast, -lunch, and -dinner) were also observed. Mean body weight decreased by 8.1 ± 6.5 kg from baseline (92.5 ± 14.6 kg; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: From the number of AEs reported, it is suggested that liraglutide was well tolerated in subjects with T2D treated under standard clinical practice conditions in India. Liraglutide was effective, and no new safety concerns were identified. PMID:27867889

  13. C, O, Sr and Nd isotope systematics of carbonates of Papaghni sub-basin, Andhra Pradesh, India: Implications for genesis of carbonate-hosted stratiform uranium mineralisation and geodynamic evolution of the Cuddapah basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absar, Nurul; Nizamudheen, B. M.; Augustine, Sminto; Managave, Shreyas; Balakrishnan, S.

    2016-10-01

    The Cuddapah basin (CB) is one of a series of Proterozoic basins that overlie the Archaean cratons of India, and contains a unique stratiform carbonate-hosted uranium mineralisation. In the present work, we discuss stable (C, O) and radiogenic (Nd, Sr) isotope systematics of carbonates of the Papaghni sub-basin in order to understand uranium ore forming processes and geodynamic evolution of the CB. Uranium mineralised dolomites (UMDs) of the basal Vempalle Formation show a significantly lighter (~ 1.5‰) C-isotope signature compared to that of open-marine stromatolitic sub-tidal facies, suggesting input of isotopically lighter carbon through in situ remineralisation of organic matter (OM). This implies deposition in a hydrologically-restricted, redox-stratified lagoonal basin wherein exchange with open oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was limited. Persistent bottom water anoxia was created and maintained through consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO) by decaying OM produced in oxidised surface water zone. Significantly more radiogenic εNd(t) of UMD (- 6.31 ± 0.54) compared to that of Dharwar upper crust (- 8.64 ± 3.11) indicates that dissolved constituents did not originate from the Dharwar craton, rather were derived from more juvenile exotic sources - possibly from a continental arc. Dissolved uranyl ions (U+ 6) were introduced to the basin through fluvial run-off and were reduced to immobile uranous ions (U+ 4) at the redox interface resulting in precipitation of pitchblende and coffinite. Carbonate horizons of upper Vempalle Formation and Tadpatri Formation show progressively more radiogenic Nd isotope compositions signifying increased juvenile arc contribution to the Papaghni sub-basin through time, which is also corroborated by the presence of younger zircons (1923 ± 22 Ma) in Pulivendla quartzites. We propose that the Papaghni sub-basin opened as a back-arc extensional basin at ~ 2 Ga as a result of westerly-directed subduction of oceanic crust

  14. The Future of U.S.-India Naval Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    bilateral naval ties. CNA concludes that key factors affecting the evolution of the USN-Indian Navy relationship are mostly beyond the control of the...Navy. This study concludes that, while these factors affect the evolution of the USN-Indian Navy relationship, they are mostly beyond the control...1  Factors Affecting the Evolution of U.S.-India Naval Ties ................................................. 6  Strategic-level

  15. One-Year Evolution of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients Initially Hospitalized in Cognitive Behavioral Units: The EVITAL Prospective Cohort.

    PubMed

    Rouch, Isabelle; Pongan, Elodie; Trombert, Béatrice; Fabre, Florence; Auguste, Nicolas; Sellier, Claire; Freulon, Magalie; Jacqueline, Sophie; Federico, Denis; Mouchoux, Christelle; Martin-Gaujard, Géraldine; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Laurent, Bernard; Dorey, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    The 2008-2012 French Alzheimer's Plan has provided hospital Cognitive and Behavioral Units (CBU) to improve the management of patients with productive behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Little is known concerning the behavioral outcome of these patients after discharge. The present study investigated the long-term evolution of BPSD over one year after CBU discharge. The EVITAL cohort included 221 participants admitted to the CBUs of 3 French hospitals. BPSD were collected using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) at admission and 3, 6, and 12 months after hospitalization. The global NPI score evolution was assessed using a linear mixed-effect model. A four-factor model of the NPI including behavioral dyscontrol, psychosis, mood, and agitation subscores was also analyzed. Our analysis focused on 148 patients followed up during 12 months and evaluated at each visit. The global NPI score was 48.5 (SD 21.7) at baseline, 28.8 (SD 18.7) at 3-month, 23.2 (SD 16.4) at 6-month and 20.9 (SD 15.9) at 12-month follow-up. The score significantly decreased from baseline to follow-up (F = 109.3 p < 0.0001). Moreover, the decrease was observed for each NPI subscores. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale score was significantly linked to the baseline NPI score (t = 2.76, p = 0.009). Conversely, the NPI decline was observed whatever the CDR level. The present study showed a decrease in the global NPI score and all its subscores during the year following the CBU hospitalization, regardless of the initial CDR score.

  16. Choice-Based Credit System in India: Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Mohammad; Parvez, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Education system of India is full of intricacies of different nature. Every ladder of education has its own problems and prospects. However, attempts have been taken to lessen complexities. From ages, time to time commissions have been constituted to improve and remove the anomalies of Indian education system especially, ensuring quality and…

  17. Postgraduate training in psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shridhar

    2010-01-01

    This review traces the evolution of modern medical education in India on the one hand and the formation of the Indian Psychiatric Society and the progress of postgraduate psychiatric education on the other hand, all in the context of Indian psychiatry. The topic is covered under the headings standard of psychiatric education, the goals, competencies required, impact of psychiatric disorders, relation of medicine to psychiatry, and the directions for the future of postgraduate psychiatric training. PMID:21836724

  18. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  19. Prospective clinical and radiographic evaluation of an allogeneic bone matrix containing stem cells (Trinity Evolution® Viable Cellular Bone Matrix) in patients undergoing two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.

    PubMed

    Peppers, Timothy A; Bullard, Dennis E; Vanichkachorn, Jed S; Stanley, Scott K; Arnold, Paul M; Waldorff, Erik I; Hahn, Rebekah; Atkinson, Brent L; Ryaby, James T; Linovitz, Raymond J

    2017-04-26

    Trinity Evolution® (TE), a viable cellular bone allograft, previously demonstrated high fusion rates and no safety-related concerns after single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures. This prospective multicenter clinical study was performed to assess the radiographic and clinical outcomes of TE in subjects undergoing two-level ACDF procedures. In a prospective, multicenter study, 40 subjects that presented with symptomatic cervical degeneration at two adjacent vertebral levels underwent instrumented ACDF using TE autograft substitute in a polyetherethereketone (PEEK) cage. At 12 months, radiographic fusion status was evaluated by dynamic motion plain radiographs and thin cut CT with multiplanar reconstruction by a panel that was blinded to clinical outcome. Fusion success was defined by angular motion (≤4°) and the presence of bridging bone across the adjacent vertebral endplates. Clinical pain and function assessments included the Neck Disability Index (NDI), neck and arm pain as evaluated by visual analog scales (VAS), and SF-36 at both 6 and 12 months. At both 6 and 12 months, all clinical outcome scores (SF-36, NDI, and VAS pain) improved significantly (p < 0.05) compared to baseline values. There were no adverse events or infections that were attributed to the graft material, no subjects that required revisions, and no significant decreases to mean neurological evaluations at any time as compared to baseline. At 12 months, the per subject and per level fusion rate was 89.4 and 93.4%, respectively. Subgroup analysis of subjects with risk factors for pseudoarthrosis (current or former smokers, diabetic, or obese/extremely obese) compared to those without risk factors demonstrated no significant differences in fusion rates. Patients undergoing two-level ACDF with TE in combination with a PEEK interbody spacer and supplemental anterior fixation had a high rate of fusion success without any serious adverse events related to

  20. Clinical and pathological evolution of giant cell arteritis: a prospective study of follow-up temporal artery biopsies in 40 treated patients.

    PubMed

    Maleszewski, Joseph J; Younge, Brian R; Fritzlen, John T; Hunder, Gene G; Goronzy, Jorg J; Warrington, Kenneth J; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2017-06-01

    Although clinical signs and symptoms of giant cell arteritis improve promptly after starting glucocorticoid therapy, reports have suggested that the vascular inflammation may persist. To assess the duration and quality of histopathologic changes in treated patients, we prospectively obtained second temporal artery biopsies in patients treated for 3 to 12 months after their first diagnostic biopsy. Forty patients (28 women, 12 men, median age 77 years) agreed to have a second temporal artery biopsy randomly assigned to 3, 6, 9, or 12 months subsequent to the first. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of the patient cohort revealed a typical rapid response and continued suppression of clinical manifestations as a result of glucocorticoid treatment. Histopathologic findings, evaluated in a blinded manner by a cardiovascular pathologist, showed unequivocal findings of vasculitis in 7/10 patients with second temporal artery biopsy at 3 months, 9/12 at 6 months, 4/9 at 9 months, and 4/9 at 12 months. Lymphocytes were present in all positive initial biopsies and remained the dominant cell population in chronically treated patients. Granulomatous inflammation decreased in a time-dependent manner from 78 to 100% at initial biopsy to 50% at 9 months and 25% at 12 months. The increased medial fibrosis noted in the second biopsies (60 vs 33% in primary temporal artery biopsies) suggested that the finding may represent a chronic finding in arteritis. In summary, the response to glucocorticoids in giant cell arteritis was frequently discordant. Clinical manifestations were readily suppressed, but vascular changes were gradual and often incomplete.

  1. Plant virus emergence and evolution: origins, new encounter scenarios, factors driving emergence, effects of changing world conditions, and prospects for control.

    PubMed

    Jones, Roger A C

    2009-05-01

    This review focuses on virus-plant pathosystems at the interface between managed and natural vegetation, and describes how rapid expansion in human activity and climate change are likely to impact on plants, vectors and viruses causing increasing instability. It starts by considering virus invasion of cultivated plants from their wild ancestors in the centres of plant domestication in different parts of the world and subsequent long distance movement away from these centres to other continents. It then describes the diverse virus-plant pathosystem scenarios possible at the interface between managed and natural vegetation and gives examples that illustrate situations where indigenous viruses emerge to damage introduced cultivated plants and newly introduced viruses become potential threats to biodiversity. These examples demonstrate how human activities increasingly facilitate damaging new encounters between plants and viruses worldwide. The likely effects of climate change on virus emergence are emphasised, and the major factors driving virus emergence, evolution and greater epidemic severity at the interface are analysed and explained. Finally, the kinds of challenges posed by rapidly changing world conditions to achieving effective control of epidemics of emerging plant viruses, and the approaches needed to address them, are described.

  2. Photonics in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Bishnu

    2011-08-01

    India has long been active in the field of photonics, dating back to famous scientists such as Raman and Bose. Today, India is home to numerous research groups and telecommunications companies that own a sizeable amount of the fibre-optic links installed around the globe.

  3. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  4. Children's Books in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Mohini

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, discusses the creation and publication of children's books in India, most of which came into being only after India achieved independence. Now both private publishers and government agencies supplement one another in publishing various types of books--fiction, science, biography, adventure,…

  5. ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STYLER, W.E.

    AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

  6. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  7. Prospective of Genomics in Revealing Transmission, Reassortment and Evolution of Wildlife-Borne Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Fumin; Shi, Weifeng

    2011-01-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 disease has led to significant loss of poultry and wild life and case fatality rates in humans of 60%. Wild birds are natural hosts for all avian influenza virus subtypes and over120 bird species have been reported with evidence of H5N1 infection. Influenza A viruses possess a segmented RNA genome and are characterized by frequently occurring genetic reassortment events, which play a very important role in virus evolution and the spread of novel gene constellations in immunologically naïve human and animal populations. Phylogenetic analysis of whole genome or sub-genomic sequences is a standard means for delineating genetic variation, novel reassortment events, and surveillance to trace the global transmission pathways. In this paper, special emphasis is given to the transmission and circulation of H5N1 among wild life populations, and to the reassortment events that are associated with inter-host transmission of the H5N1 viruses when they infect different hosts, such as birds, pigs and humans. In addition, we review the inter-subtype reassortment of the viral segments encoding inner proteins between the H5N1 viruses and viruses of other subtypes, such as H9N2 and H6N1. Finally, we highlight the usefulness of genomic sequences in molecular epidemiological analysis of HPAI H5N1 and the technical limitations in existing analytical methods that hinder them from playing a greater role in virological research. PMID:22547954

  8. PROSPECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE CLINICAL, RADIOGRAPHIC AND FUNCTIONAL EVOLUTION OF TREATMENT FOR UNSTABLE TROCHANTERIC FRACTURES OF THE FEMUR USING A CEPHALOMEDULLARY NAIL

    PubMed Central

    Borger, Richard Armelin; Borger, Frederico Araújo; Pires de Araújo, Rodrigo; Pereira, Thiago Ferreira Nunes; Queiroz, Roberto Dantas

    2015-01-01

    To assess the clinical, radiological and functional evolution of osteosynthesis using a cephalomedullary nail, in unstable trochanteric fractures of the femur, over a one-year postoperative follow-up. Methods: Fourteen men and 23 women of mean age 77.7 years were evaluated. Twenty-seven of them had fractures classified as AO/ASIF 31A2 and ten as 31A3. The patients were evaluated clinically, radiologically and functionally one week, two weeks, one month, two months, six months and one year after the operation. Results: The clinical complications comprised five cases of death, one case of calcaneal ulcer, one case of acute arterial obstruction and two cases of deep vein thrombosis. The radiographic evaluation showed that the mean cervicodiaphyseal angle in the immediate postoperative period was 132.5°. The mean tip-apex index was 22.8 mm. After one year, the mean cervicodiaphyseal angle was 131.7°. Fracture consolidation was seen in all the patients six months after the operation, except in one case that presented cut-out. There were no cases of fracture below the implant. The functional evaluation using the Harris score after one year showed a mean of 69.3 points. The evaluation of walking progress showed that after one year, 40.6% of the patients had the same ability to walk that they had before the fracture. The visual analogue pain scale showed that a significant decrease in pain complaints occurred, going from 5.19 in the first week to 2.25 after 1 year. Conclusion: Osteosynthesis using a cephalomedullary nail resulted in low rates of clinical and mechanical complications and adequate functional outcomes. PMID:27027025

  9. Living Dangerously--Changing Press Law in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Timothy

    An examination of the changes in press laws after India gained its independence in 1947 shows how a free press is shaped mostly by the structure and evolution of the democratic society that it is intended to serve. The most salient features that have characterized the Indian press, from the early nineteenth century to the present day, are…

  10. Biodiversity Prospecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

  11. India Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    India was the third-largest energy consumer in the world after China and the United States in 2013, and its need for energy supply continues to climb as a result of the country's dynamic economic growth and modernization over the past several years.1 India's economy has grown at an average annual rate of approximately 11% between 2004 and 2014, and it proved relatively resilient following the 2008 global financial crisis.

  12. Looking ahead in India.

    PubMed

    Gupte, P

    1986-03-01

    India and China contain more than 40% of the world's population, yet in India it is painfully clear that the political commitment necessary to tackle India's greatest problem is not there in full measure. India's present per capita income is less than $300, and nearly 65% of the people live below the poverty line. The average Indian woman produces 5 children; even if the Indian government's efforts to reduce family size to 2 children is successful by the year 2040, India will have a population of 2.5 billion. The possibility that India will succeed in reducing average family size to 2 children appears remote. 30 years ago, India became the 1st developing country to formally make family planning a matter of national policy. In the early years of the national family planning programs, practitioners had access mostly to sterilization and condoms. Over the years, theIndian government persuaded the US and other western donors to give $2 billion to population control programs. Still, the population continues to grow annually at the rate of 2.1%. Government statistics reflect the ups and downs of national population control policies; thenumber of new family planning users increased from 4.3 million in 1974-1975 to 12.5 million in 1976-1977, due largely to a dramatic increase in vasectomies. Tge number of new contraceptive users fell to 4.5 million after the "emergency" was lifted in 1977. The present Indian generation is far more receptive culturally as well as sociologically to the concept of population control than most other developing countries. What is needed now is renewed political committment by the Gandhi adminiostration. India cannot afford to replicate the Chinese way of tackling overpopulation without inflicting human abuses and without undermining its painstakingly cultivated democratic system.

  13. Diabetes Care in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Shashank R

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes has become a major health care problem in India with an estimated 66.8 million people suffering from the condition, representing the largest number of any country in the world. The rising burden of diabetes has greatly affected the health care sector and economy in India. The goal of health care experts in India is to transform India into a diabetes care capital in the world. An expert detailed review of the medical literature with an Asian Indian context was performed. Recent epidemiologic studies from India point to a great burden from diabetes. Diabetes control in India is far from ideal with a mean hemoglobin A1c of 9.0%-at least 2.0% higher than suggested by international bodies. Nearly half of people with diabetes remain undetected, accounting for complications at the time of diagnosis. Screening can differentiate an asymptomatic individual at high risk from one at low risk for diabetes. Despite the large number of people with diabetes in India, awareness is low and needs to be addressed. Other challenges include balancing the need for glycemic control with risk reduction due to overly tight control, especially in high-risk groups and taking into account health care professional expertise, attitudes, and perceptions. Pharmacologic care should be individualized with early consideration of combination therapy. Regular exercise, yoga, mindful eating, and stress management form a cornerstone in the management of diabetes. Considering the high cost incurred at various steps of screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and management, it is important to realize the cost-effective measures of diabetes care that are necessary to implement. Result-oriented organized programs involving patient education, as well as updating the medical fraternity on various developments in the management of diabetes, are required to combat the current diabetes epidemic in India. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Unleashing science in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2009-04-01

    With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in India are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in India.

  15. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  16. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and…

  17. Suicide in India.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Shilpa

    2015-06-01

    The current report reviews the data from the series Accidental Death and Suicide in India published by India's National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) reporting official suicide rates based on police reports over the period of 10 years from 2004 to 2013. A reference to wider literature is made to present a comprehensive picture. Suicide in India is more prevalent in young, is likely to involve hanging and ingestion of pesticides and is related to social and economic causes. Reducing alcohol consumption, unemployment, poverty, social inequities, domestic violence and improving social justice are essential to reduce suicide in India. NCRB data might underreport suicide. Discrepancy in farmers' suicide rate between reports suggests that this might be overrepresented in NCRB data. An integrated suicide prevention programme with a multidimensional approach is needed. Mental health care bill and the recent launch of first national mental health policy are welcome measures. Decriminalization of suicide is likely to positively influence mental health practice and policy in India. Nationally representative studies investigating fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviours, evaluation of models of service delivery for the vulnerable population, investigating suicide following different treatment services and effects of decriminalization of suicide on suicide rates should be the focus of future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of the Askot klippe, Kumaun, northwest India: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonics, basin evolution and associated metallogeny of the northern Indian cratonic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Subhadip; Robinson, Delores M.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Khanal, Subodha; Das, Oindrila; Bose, Sukhanjan

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the Himalayan thrust belt, klippen of questionable tectonostratigraphic affinity occur atop Lesser Himalayan rocks. Integrated U-Pb ages, Hf isotopic, and whole rock trace element data establish that the Askot klippe, in northwest India, is composed of Paleoproterozoic lower Lesser Himalayan rocks, not Greater Himalayan rocks, as previously interpreted. The Askot klippe consists of 1857 ± 19 Ma granite-granodiorite gneiss, coeval 1878 ± 19 Ma felsic volcanic rock, and circa 1800 Ma Berinag quartzite, representing a small vestige of a Paleoproterozoic (circa 1850 Ma) continental arc, formed on northern margin of the north Indian cratonic block. Detrital zircon from Berinag quartzite shows ɛHf1850 Ma values between -9.6 and -1.1 (an average of -4.5) and overlaps with ɛHf1850 Ma values of the Askot klippe granite-granodiorite gneiss (-5.5 to -1.2, with an average of -2.7) and other Paleoproterozoic arc-related Lesser Himalayan granite gneisses ( -4.8 to -2.2, with an average of -4.0). These overlapping data suggest a proximal arc source for the metasedimentary rocks. Subchondritic ɛHf1850 Ma values (-5.5 to -1.2) of granite-granodiorite gneiss indicate existence of a preexisting older crust that underwent crustal reworking at circa 1850 Ma. A wide range of ɛHf1850 Ma values in detrital zircon (-15.0 to -1.1) suggests that a heterogeneous crustal source supplied detritus to the northern margin of India. These data, as well as the presence of a volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit within the Askot klippe, are consistent with a circa 1800 Ma intra-arc extensional environment.

  19. Late Miocene-Pleistocene evolution of India-Eurasia convergence partitioning between the Bhutan Himalaya and the Shillong Plateau: New evidences from foreland basin deposits along the Dungsam Chu section, eastern Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutand, Isabelle; Barrier, Laurie; Govin, Gwladys; Grujic, Djordje; Hoorn, Carina; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Najman, Yani

    2016-12-01

    The Shillong Plateau is a unique basement-cored uplift in the foreland of the eastern Himalaya that accommodates part of the India-Eurasia convergence since the late Miocene. It was uplifted in the late Pliocene to 1600 m, potentially inducing regional climatic perturbations by orographically condensing part of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitations along its southern flank. As such, the eastern Himalaya-Shillong Plateau-ISM is suited to investigate effects of tectonics, climate, and erosion in a mountain range-broken foreland system. This study focuses on a 2200 m thick sedimentary section of the Siwalik Group strategically located in the lee of the Shillong Plateau along the Dungsam Chu at the front of the eastern Bhutan Himalaya. We have performed magnetostratigraphy constrained by vitrinite reflectance and detrital apatite fission track dating, combined with sedimentological and palynological analyses. We show that (1) the section was deposited between 7 and 1 Ma in a marginal marine deltaic transitioning into continental environment after 5 Ma, (2) depositional environments and paleoclimate were humid with no major change during the depositional period indicating that the orographic effect of the Shillong Plateau had an unexpected limited impact on the paleoclimate of the Bhutanese foothills, and (3) the diminution of the flexural subsidence in the basin and/or of the detrital input from the range is attributable to a slowdown of the displacement rates along the Main Boundary Thrust in eastern Bhutan during the latest Miocene-Pleistocene, in response to increasing partitioning of the India-Eurasia convergence into the active faults bounding the Shillong Plateau.

  20. The paleoposition of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  1. Woman's lot in India.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K

    1980-01-26

    I read Dr. Rao's article on attitudes to women and nutrition programmes in India (Dec. 22/29, p. 1357) with considerable interest. In India parents have to save a lot of money to be able to give a dowry when a daughter marries. In addition they are expected to spend considerable sums when their daughters' children are born and when the grandchildren in turn marry. The task of looking after elderly parents--and of discharging their responsibilities if they themselves are unable to do so--falls upon the sons. In India daughters rarely help out their parents in this way, and the parents will not usually agree to accept help from daughters if they have a son who is prepared to discharge the sacred duty of helping parents in time of need. Once she marries, a daughter's obligations to her parents cease while their obligations to her extend even further to include her husband, children, and in-laws. No wonder the birth of a girl is rarely a cause of celebration in India. The main cause for the plight of women in India is poverty. In most Indian families, the woman of the house will consume less than anyone of nutritious items such as milk, cheese, meat, fish, and butter. Whenever the family's meagre resources are shared out, whether for food, for education, for medical care, it is the males who are given preference. This unequal distribution takes place with the full approval of the woman of the house. Food is normally allocated by the woman, and when food is scarce they tend to favour sons over daughters. Readers in the West may feel that women get the worst possible deal in India. However, although parents do not normally spend as much on the education of their daughters as they do on their sons, in the long run daughters very often get more than their fair share of the family's fortunes because of the dowry system and other social customs.

  2. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  3. Bioethics activities in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nandini K

    2006-01-01

    The Indian Council of Medical Research formulates, coordinates and promotes biomedical research in India. In 1980, they formulated the first national ethical guidelines. They offer a number of different training programmes, from 1 day to 6 months. The council is developing a core curriculum for teaching bioethics, which would be applied uniformly in medical schools throughout the country. Drug development and ethics is also important in India, particularly now that the local pharmaceutical industry is expanding and so many drugs trials are outsourced to the country. The council is also very active in encouraging the development of ethics review committees.

  4. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  5. PV opportunities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  6. Health Care in India.

    PubMed

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    Although a stated right for all Indians, equal access to health care in India is impeded by socioeconomic barriers. With its 3-tier system of public health care centers in villages, district hospitals, and tertiary care hospitals, government expenditure in India is inordinately low, with a disproportionate emphasis on private health spending. Accordingly, the poorest receive a minority of the available subsidies, whereas the richest obtain more than a third, fostering a divide in health care infrastructure across the rich and poor in urban and rural settings. This paradigm has implications for domestic Indian public health and global public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. From Hair in India to Hair India

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  8. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  9. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  10. Prospective Optimization.

    PubMed

    Sejnowski, Terrence J; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J

    2014-05-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications.

  11. Gender disparity in late-life cognitive functioning in India: findings from the longitudinal aging study in India.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinkook; Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M

    2014-07-01

    To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Dietary and nutritional change in India: implications for strategies, policies, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Bhavani; Agrawal, Sutapa; Beaudreault, Amy R; Avula, Laxmaiah; Martorell, Reynaldo; Osendarp, Saskia; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze

    2017-03-17

    Despite the global transition to overnutrition, stunting affected approximately 159 million children worldwide in 2014, while an estimated 50 million children were wasted. India is an important front in the fight against malnutrition and is grappling with the coexistence of undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies. This report summarizes discussions on trends in malnutrition in India, its evolution in the context of economic growth, intrahousehold aspects, infant and young child feeding practices, women's status, maternal nutrition, and nutrition policymaking. The discussion focuses on a review of trends in malnutrition and dietary intakes in India in the context of economic change over the past four decades, identification of household dynamics affecting food choices and their consequences for family nutritional status in India, and effective malnutrition prevention and treatment interventions and programs in India and associated policy challenges.

  13. Enabling Housing Cooperatives: policy lessons from Sweden, India and the United States.

    PubMed

    Ganapati, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries. The analysis reveals that housing cooperatives' relationship with the state and the consequent support structures explain the divergent evolution. Although the relationships between cooperatives and the state evolved over time, they can be characterized as embedded autonomy, overembeddedness and disembeddedness in Sweden, India and the United States respectively. Whereas the consequent support structures for housing cooperatives became well developed in Sweden and India, such structures have been weak in the United States. The article highlights the need for embedded autonomy and the need for supportive structures to enable the growth of housing cooperatives.

  14. Indian Space Research Organization and telemedicine in India.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaranarayana, A; Satyamurthy, L S; Remilla, Murthy L N

    2009-01-01

    Telemedicine in India is spearheaded by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and has matured beyond technology demonstration to enter an operational phase in its history. This article attempts to bring out the evolution and development of telemedicine in India: the genesis, the approach followed, the stakeholders involved, and the results so far, with an outline for the future. ISRO has coupled its prowess in satellite communication technology with medical science and information technology to project specialty healthcare to the doorsteps of the rural, remote, and distant populace across the country. Having set the telemedicine program as a model for benefiting society with advances in modern technology, India is advancing to international dimensions the proven domestic program to people in other parts of the globe. More specifically, the article attempts to bring out the role played by ISRO, its vision, goals, and partners in the program along with the technology and observed impact.

  15. "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," India.

    PubMed

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Mathai, Elizabeth; Lepidi, Hubert; Somashekar, Hosaagrahara R; Mathew, Leni G; Prakash, John A J; Raoult, Didier

    2006-03-01

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed human infection due to a new rickettsial genotype in India, "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," in a 1-year-old boy with fever and maculopapular rash. The diagnosis was made by serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction detection, and immunohistochemical testing of the organism from a skin biopsy specimen.

  16. Electrifying rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.

    1999-12-01

    NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

  17. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  18. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading…

  19. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading…

  20. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  1. India's population impact "global".

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes statistics from the 1998 ESCAP Population Data Sheet. India's present population is slightly under 975 million persons. India is the second most populous country in the world, after China. India began a new era in policy and program content for enhancing fertility decline after the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The 1997-2002 Five Year Plan calls for reduction in the population growth rate. The population growth rate, in 1996, was 1.8% annually. By 1991, the population aged 0-14 years was 37%, while the urban population was 26%; female literacy was 39.3% and male literacy was 64.1%. In 1994, the median age at first marriage among women had increased to 19.4 years. Life expectancy for women rose from 36.1 years to 62.9 years during 1951-86. In India, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have played a role in implementing family planning programs. Recent changes reflect a greater role of larger NGOs in interacting with and overseeing smaller NGOs. Larger NGOs approve projects, release funds, train, and monitor and evaluate activities. Government policy has shifted to a system of community needs assessment. Disparate contraceptive and maternal and child health programs have been integrated into a reproductive and child health program. Program emphasis is on meeting clients' needs and improving quality of care.

  2. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  3. The Impact of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Mario M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

  4. Aerosols over India

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-24

    Large abundances of aerosols, or airborne particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau in this image from NASA Terra satellite acquired on

  5. Vocationalising Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.

    Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

  6. Fellowships in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In an effort to encourage stronger research ties between India and the United States, the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture is offering 12 long-term and 9 short-term research fellowships in India in 1985 and 1986. The only requirement is that the applicants be U.S. citizens at the postdoctoral or equivalent postdoctoral level. The awards have no restrictions as to field of study, and because the program seeks to open new channels of communication between academic and professional groups in the two countries, those who have had little or no experience in India are especially encouraged to apply.The long-term fellowships are for 6 to 10 months, with a monthly allowance of $1500. Long-term fellows will also receive travel money and allowances for dependents. The short-term awards, for periods of 2 to 3 months, also offer a monthly payment of $1500. Funding for these fellowships is provided by the U.S. Information Agency, the National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Government of India.

  7. The occurrence of fluor-wagnerite in UHT granulites and its implications towards understanding fluid regimes in the evolution of deep crust: a case study from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kaushik; Tomioka, Naotaka; Bose, Sankar; Ando, Jun-ichi; Ohnishi, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    We report the occurrence of a rare phosphate mineral, fluor-wagnerite (Mg1.91-1.94Fe0.06-0.07Ca<0.01) (P0.99-1.00O4)(OH0.02-0.17F0.98-0.83) from the Eastern Ghats Belt of India, an orogenic belt evolved during Meso- to Neoproterozoic time. The host rock, i.e. high- to ultrahigh temperature (UHT) granulites ( 1000 °C, 8-9 kbar) of the studied area was retrogressed after emplacement to mid-crustal level (800-850 °C, 6-6.5 kbar) as deduced from their pressure -temperature histories. Based on mineral chemical data and micro-Raman analyses, we document an unusual high Mg-F-rich chemistry of the F-wagnerite, which occur both in peak metamorphic porphyroblastic assemblages as well as in the retrograde matrix assemblage. Therefore, in absence of other common phosphates like apatite, fluor-wagnerite can act as an indicator for the presence of F-bearing fluids for rocks with high X Mg and/or fO2. The occurrence of F-rich minerals as monitors for fluid compositions has important implications for the onset of biotite dehydration melting and hence melt production in the deep crust. We propose that fluor-wagnerite can occur as an accessory mineral associated with F-rich fluids in lower-mid crustal rocks, and F in coexisting minerals should be taken into consideration when reconciling the petrogenetic grid of biotite-dehydration melting.

  8. The occurrence of fluor-wagnerite in UHT granulites and its implications towards understanding fluid regimes in the evolution of deep crust: a case study from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kaushik; Tomioka, Naotaka; Bose, Sankar; Ando, Jun-ichi; Ohnishi, Ichiro

    2016-09-01

    We report the occurrence of a rare phosphate mineral, fluor-wagnerite (Mg1.91-1.94Fe0.06-0.07Ca<0.01) (P0.99-1.00O4)(OH0.02-0.17F0.98-0.83) from the Eastern Ghats Belt of India, an orogenic belt evolved during Meso- to Neoproterozoic time. The host rock, i.e. high- to ultrahigh temperature (UHT) granulites (~1000 °C, 8-9 kbar) of the studied area was retrogressed after emplacement to mid-crustal level (800-850 °C, 6-6.5 kbar) as deduced from their pressure-temperature histories. Based on mineral chemical data and micro-Raman analyses, we document an unusual high Mg-F-rich chemistry of the F-wagnerite, which occur both in peak metamorphic porphyroblastic assemblages as well as in the retrograde matrix assemblage. Therefore, in absence of other common phosphates like apatite, fluor-wagnerite can act as an indicator for the presence of F-bearing fluids for rocks with high X Mg and/or fO2. The occurrence of F-rich minerals as monitors for fluid compositions has important implications for the onset of biotite dehydration melting and hence melt production in the deep crust. We propose that fluor-wagnerite can occur as an accessory mineral associated with F-rich fluids in lower-mid crustal rocks, and F in coexisting minerals should be taken into consideration when reconciling the petrogenetic grid of biotite-dehydration melting.

  9. Prospects of Higher Education of the Challenged Women in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halder, Santoshi

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the various constraints faced by orthopaedically challenged women in their way towards higher education in Indian society. The tools used for the investigation are the General Information Schedule (GIS), Socioeconomic Schedule, and Interview Schedule. The sample consisted of 100 orthopaedically challenged women…

  10. Improving Security Ties with India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Mohammed Ali Jinnah , with it being split between East (today’s Bangladesh) and West Pakistan. India, although predominantly Hindu, has a large Muslim...population. At partition , most Muslims elected to live in East and West Pakistan. India wanted to grow as an independent state and Nehru did not want...bilateral relations between these states. 19 Pakistan is the greatest immediate concern to India in South Asia. Ever since partition , the two have been

  11. Agni's fungi: heat-resistant spores from the Western Ghats, southern India.

    PubMed

    Suryanarayanan, T S; Govindarajulu, M B; Thirumalai, E; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Money, Nicholas P

    2011-09-01

    This study concerns the thermotolerance of spores of mesophilic fungi isolated from a tropical semi-arid habitat subject to dry season fire in the Western Ghats, southern India. Among 25 species of Ascomycota isolated from leaf litter, nine were able to grow after incubation in a drying oven for 2h at 100°C; the spores of two of these species survived 2h incubation at 110°C, and one survived exposure to 115°C for 2h. The range of thermotolerance among mesophilic fungi isolated from the leaf litter was surprising: filamentous fungi from other habitats, including species that colonize scorched vegetation after fires and thermophilic forms occurring in self-heating plant composts, cannot survive even brief exposure to such high temperatures. It is possible that the exceptional heat resistance of the Indian fungi is related to adaptations to surviving fires. Genetic analysis of the physiological mechanisms of heat resistance in these fungi offers prospects for future biotechnological innovations. The discovery of extreme thermotolerance among common saprotrophs shows that this physiological trait may be more widespread than recognized previously, adding to concern about the evolution of opportunistic pathogens on a warmer planet. The fungi in this study are among the most heat-resistant eukaryotes on record and are referred to here as 'Agni's Fungi', after the Hindu God of Fire. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Jobs Trends Outlook for India 2012. GMAC[R] Data-to-Go Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This summary report features recruitment and hiring trends and employment prospects for graduate business and management students in India and briefly spotlights trends in the Indian student pipeline for graduate management education. Findings in this Data-To-Go are derived from several sources of information, including: (1) Responses from 29…

  13. Teaching in Two Tongues: Rethinking the Role of Language(s) in Teacher Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Shailaja; Viswanatha, Vanamala; Sahi, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article is a sharing of emergent ideas about the potential role of languages in teacher education (TE) programmes in multilingual contexts in India. Languages play a critical role in TE programmes where they shape both the learning as well as the future teaching of prospective teachers. This role acquires particular significance in…

  14. Teaching in Two Tongues: Rethinking the Role of Language(s) in Teacher Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Shailaja; Viswanatha, Vanamala; Sahi, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article is a sharing of emergent ideas about the potential role of languages in teacher education (TE) programmes in multilingual contexts in India. Languages play a critical role in TE programmes where they shape both the learning as well as the future teaching of prospective teachers. This role acquires particular significance in…

  15. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of Microenterprise Development in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharti, Nisha

    2014-01-01

    Self-employment in general and microenterprise in particular is evolving as a prospective option for income generation and the reduction of poverty in developing economies such as India. However, a lack of skills among the poor has been identified as one of the key hindrances in promoting microenterprises and, therefore, in reducing poverty.…

  16. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of Microenterprise Development in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharti, Nisha

    2014-01-01

    Self-employment in general and microenterprise in particular is evolving as a prospective option for income generation and the reduction of poverty in developing economies such as India. However, a lack of skills among the poor has been identified as one of the key hindrances in promoting microenterprises and, therefore, in reducing poverty.…

  17. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  18. Military psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, H. R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties and services, are likely to be under stress which at times has no parallel in civilian life. The stress of combat and service in extreme weather conditions often act as major stressors. The modern practices in military psychiatry had their beginning during the two World Wars, more particularly, the IInd World War. The GHPU concept had the beginning in India with military hospitals having such establishments in the care of their clientele. As the nation gained independence, many of the military psychiatrists shifted to the civil stream and contributed immensely in the development of modern psychiatry in India. In the recent years military psychiatry has been given the status of a subspecialty chapter and the military psychiatrists have been regularly organizing CMEs and training programs for their members to prepare them to function in the special role of military psychiatrists. PMID:21836702

  19. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  20. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  1. Group B Streptococcal Colonization Among Pregnant Women in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Manu; Rench, Marcia A; Baker, Carol J; Singh, Pushpa; Hans, Charoo; Edwards, Morven S

    2017-07-01

    Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA) and subcultured onto GBS Detect plates (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Isolates were serotyped using ImmuLex Strep-B latex kits (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark). Thirteen studies were identified citing GBS colonization prevalence during pregnancy as 0.47%-16%. Among 300 pregnant women (mean age: 26.9 years; mean gestation: 34 weeks) enrolled (August 2015 to April 2016), GBS colonization prevalence was 15%. Fifteen percent of women had vaginal only, 29% had rectal only and 56% had both sites colonized. CPS types were Ia (13.3%), Ib (4.4%), II (20%), III (22.2%), V (20%) and VII (6.7%); 13.3% were nontypable. Fetal loss in a prior pregnancy at ≥20-weeks gestation was more common in colonized than noncolonized women (15.6% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.004). Employing recent census data for the birth cohort and estimating that 1%-2% of neonates born to colonized women develop early-onset disease, at least 39,000 cases of early-onset disease may occur yearly in India. Using optimal methods, 15% of third trimester pregnant women in India are GBS colonized. A multivalent vaccine containing 6 CPS types (Ia, Ib, II, III, V and VII) would encompass ~87% of GBS carried by pregnant women in India.

  2. Disaster Response in India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Hyderabad 275,068 66,508,008 Telugu and Urdu Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar 83,743 864,558 Monpa, Miji, Aka, Nishing, etc. Assam Dispur 78,438 2,414,322...Hindi, Nicobarese, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu Chandigarh Chandigarh 114 642,015 Punjabi, Hindi Dadra and Nagar Haveli Silvassa 491 138,477 Gujarati...Pondicherry 492 807,785 Tamil, Telugu , English, French v Figure ii. India-States and Union Territories. Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  3. Medical tourism in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  4. Geological and Rock Mechanics Perspectives for Underground Coal Gasification in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay K.; Singh, Rajendra

    2017-07-01

    The geological resources of coal in India are more than 308 billion tonnes upto a depth of 1200 m, out of which proved reserve has been reported at around 130 billion tonnes. There is an increasing requirement to increase the energy extraction efficiency from coal as the developmental prospects of India increase. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a potential mechanism which may be utilized for extraction of deep-seated coal reserves. Some previous studies suggest that lignites from Gujarat and Rajasthan, along with tertiary coals from northeastern India can be useful from the point of view of UCG. We discuss some geological literature available for these areas. Coming to the rock mechanics perspectives, during UCG the rock temperature is considerable high. At this temperature, most empirical models of rock mechanics may not be applied. In this situation, the challenges for numerical modelling of UCG sites increases manifold. We discuss some of the important modelling geomechanical issues related to UCG in India.

  5. The ethics of medical tourism: from the United Kingdom to India seeking medical care.

    PubMed

    Meghani, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Is the practice of UK patients traveling to India as medical tourists morally justified? This article addresses that question by examining three ethically relevant issues. First, the key factor motivating citizens of the United Kingdom to seek medical treatment in India is identified and analyzed. Second, the life prospects of the majority of the citizens of the two nations are compared to determine whether the United Kingdom is morally warranted in relying on India to meet the medical needs of its citizens. Third, as neoliberal reforms are justified on the grounds that they will help the indigent populations affected by them, the impact of medical tourism--a neoliberal initiative--on India's socially and economically marginalized groups is scrutinized.

  6. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  7. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  8. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-08-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

  9. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.

  10. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  11. Carbon taxes and India

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  12. Dengue in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country. PMID:23041731

  13. Medicine in South India

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  14. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  15. Prospect redux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquemoud, S.; Ustin, S. L.; Verdebout, J.; Schmuck, G.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.

    1995-01-01

    The remote estimation of leaf biochemical content from spaceborne platforms has been the subject of many studies aimed at better understanding of terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The major ecological processes involved in exchange of matter and energy, like photosynthesis, primary production, evaportranspiration, respiration, and decomposition can be related to plant properties e.g., chlorophyll, water, protein, cellulose and lignin contents. As leaves represent the most important plant surfaces interacting with solar energy, a top priority has been to relate optical properties to biochemical constituents. Two different approaches have been considered: first, statistical correlations between the leaf reflectance (or transmittance) and biochemical content, and second, physically based models of leaf scattering and absorption developed using the laws of optics. Recently reviewed by Verdebout et al., the development of models of leaf optical properties has resulted in better understanding of the interaction of light with plant leaves. Present radiative transfer models mainly use chlorophyll and/or water contents as input parameters to calculate leaf reflectance. Inversion of these models allows to retrieve these constituents from spectrophotometric measurements. Conel et al. recently proposed a two-stream Kubelka-Munk model to analyze the influence of protein, cellulose, lignin, and starch on leaf reflectance, but in fact, the estimation of leaf biochemistry from remote sensing is still an open question. In order to clarify it, a laboratory experiment associating visible/infrared spectra of plan leaves both with physical measurements and biochemical analyses was conducted at the Joint Research Center during the summer of 1993. This unique data set has been used to upgrade the PROSPECT model, by including leaf biochemistry.

  16. Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Håkan; Grinspoon, David

    In spite of all spacecraft that have visited our nearest planetary neighbor a large number of questions remain to be answered. Exploration of Venus is far from completed. In this chapter we summarize the most important questions to be answered, both in the short term, feasible with the technology of today, and those that only can be addressed in the medium to long term, after additional technology development. A large number of missions have been proposed in recent years but since Venus Express (Svedhem etal.2007) and the ill fated Akatsuki (Nakamura etal.2007) none of these have been selected for flight. Short descriptions of these mission proposals, as much as the information is openly available, are given in the following section. The next section deals with future ground based observations and joint space-ground observations. Finally the priorities for future missions, both for the benefit of improving on the theoretical models for atmospheric circulation, as dealt with in this book, and for an improved understanding of the evolution of Venus as a planet and of terrestrial planets in general, are discussed.

  17. The 3.1 Ga Nuggihalli chromite deposits, Western Dharwar craton (India): Geochemical and isotopic constraints on mantle sources, crustal evolution and implications for supercontinent formation and ore mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir K.; Frei, Robert; Rosing, Minik T.; Waight, Tod E.; Zhong, Hong; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra

    2012-12-01

    Nuggihalli greenstone belt is one of the oldest greenstone belts (3.4-3.0 Ga) in the Western Dharwar craton, southern India. It consists of conformable metavolcanic (e.g., komatiite and komatiitic basalt) and metasedimentary rocks belonging to the Sargur Group. Sill-like ultramafic-mafic plutonic bodies are present within these schistose rocks which are in turn enclosed by tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneisses (TTG). The plutonic suite occurs as a layered succession of serpentinite (after dunite) and tremolite-chlorite-actinolite schist (after peridotite) hosting chromitite bodies, anorthosite, pyroxenite, and gabbro hosting magnetite bands. Whole-rock Sm-Nd data for the peridotite-anorthosite-pyroxenite-gabbro unit yield a correlation line with a slope corresponding to an age of 3125 ± 120 Ma (MSWD = 1.3) which is similar to ages of komatiitic rocks of the older greenstone belts in the craton. A whole rock Pb-Pb errorchron age of 2801 ± 110 Ma (MSWD = 102) has been obtained for the entire plutonic ultramafic-mafic suite; this represents (partial) redistribution/resetting of the U-Pb system during a younger metamorphic event and by the magmatic activity during formation of the younger greenstone belts. The positive ɛNd values (+ 1.7 to + 3.4) of the ultramafic-mafic rocks, and low initial 87Sr/86Sr values (at 3.1 Ga) of the gabbros (0.70097-0.70111) implies derivation of the parental magma from a depleted mantle source. The REE pattern of the metavolcanic schists bears resemblance with the pattern of Al-depleted komatiites. Major and trace element variation in the schists correspond with the fractionation trend exhibited by komatiites to komatiitic basalts in the older greenstone belts within the craton. Coherent patterns of whole-rock major and trace element data, along with the layered nature of the sill-like ultramafic-mafic rocks indicate that the plutonic and volcanic suites are related by analogous fractional crystallization processes. Comparison of

  18. Orthophosphate and biotite chemistry from orthopyroxene-bearing migmatites from California and South India: The role of a fluid-phase in the evolution of granulite-facies migmatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Edward C.; Harlov, Daniel E.

    2009-03-01

    Migmatites from Cone Peak, California, USA and the Satnur-Sangam road, Southern Karnataka, India contain coarser grained orthopyroxene-bearing leucosomes with subordinate biotite in finer grained hornblende-biotite-pyroxene-bearing hosts. At both localities the leucosomes are enriched in quartz and feldspar and have a higher ratio of pyroxene to hornblende + biotite compared to the host rocks. Biotite grains in leucosomes along the Satnur-Sangam road are concentrated at the margins of orthopyroxene grains and have lower abundances of Ti, Fe, and Cl and a higher abundance of F than biotite grains from the host rock. Fluorapatite grains in all rocks from both localities contain monazite inclusions similar to those produced experimentally by metasomatically induced dissolution and reprecipitation. Some fluorapatite grains at both localities are partially rimmed by allanite. The only compositional differences found between fluorapatite grains in the leucosomes and host rocks were higher concentrations of Cl in grains in leucosomes from Cone Peak. The mineralogies of the rocks suggest that the leucosomes formed by dehydration melting reactions that consumed feldspar, quartz, hornblende, and biotite and produced orthopyroxene. Allanite rims at the margins of fluorapatite grains may have formed by the later retrogression of monazite rims formed by incongruent dissolution of fluorapatite in the melt. Biotite grains at the margins of orthopyroxene crystals in the leucosomes from the Satnur-Sangam road apparently formed by retrogression of orthopyroxene upon the solidification of the anatectic melt. A similar high-grade retrogression did not affect orthopyroxene crystals at Cone Peak, indicating that H2O was removed from the crystallizing leucosomes probably in a low H2O activity fluid. Compositional differences between the paleosome and neosomes at Cone Peak are best explained by metasomatic interaction with concentrated brines while elevated Cl concentrations in

  19. India Co2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has

  20. Environment and Culture in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  1. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  2. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  3. A Tale of Two Indias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  4. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  5. Science and Technology in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the current status of science and technology in India, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although India has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…

  6. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  7. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  8. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  9. Science and Technology in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the current status of science and technology in India, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although India has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…

  10. Passages From India, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This collection of articles from Indian newspapers is designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are 12 categories of articles: (1) Women: Like Avis, #2 But Trying Harder; (2) Calcutta: City of Joy; (3) India: Feeling Its Curry; (4) Us & Them: Misunderstandings; (5) Those Monsoon Showers May Come Your…

  11. A Tale of Two Indias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  12. Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carolyn McPherson

    This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the…

  13. Status of women in India.

    PubMed

    Buxi, L S

    The status of women in India can only be improved through a joint program between the media and the community in providing Indian women with the power of literacy. Women in India are divided into unequal halves. Of 368 million women in India, 278 reside in rural areas, and most are illiterate. The majority of illiterate women number 75%, 25% are semi-literate, and only 5% may be considered educated. In an effort to integrate women into the mainstream of Indian social life, a campaign of providing literacy to all women has been undertaken. The welfare state of India has taken up the responsibility of providing education, and maternity and child welfare to these women. It has gone further in incorporating the media in educating people regarding these various programs. This approach will help integrate women more fully into the economic, political, and social mainstream of independent India.

  14. India bans female feticide.

    PubMed

    Imam, Z

    1994-08-13

    About 70% of all abortions performed in Delhi, India, are terminations due to the fetus being female. Private clinics make a profit out of offering sex determination tests. The new bill (the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Bill) introduced in Lok Sabha by Deputy Health Minister Pawan Singh Ghatowatr would stop "sex determination shops" from helping parents and medical practitioners terminate female pregnancies. Prenatal diagnostic tests would be administered only to detect genetic and congenital abnormalities. Physicians would not be allowed to reveal the sex of the fetus unless it was linked to a sex disorder. Women's rights groups have campaigned for such a bill that forbids prenatal sex determination. Abortions based on the sex of the fetus are currently banned under Article 14 and 15 of the Indian Constitution as a violation of women's rights. The new bill would punish doctors who offer to identify the sex of the fetus by taking their names off the official medical register and imprisoning them for 3 years and fining them 10,000 rupees or 200 pounds. Pregnant women who undergo tests would also be punished with the same fine and prison term. Dr. Geeta Dwivedi, a medical physician with the Lucknow branch of the India Family Planning Association, reported that few tests are conducted for the sake of the health and well-being of the fetus. Female feticide is practiced because girls are viewed as an economic burden due to dowry practices and male children are valued for old age support and carrying on the family trade. The sex ratio in India is 927 women to 1000 men. The problem with the new legislation is enforcement, which would require oversight of as many as 2000 clinics in Delhi alone. It is anticipated that clinics would be uncooperative in complying with such a law because their self-interest is at stake.

  15. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  16. Domestic Violence, Contraceptive Use, and Unwanted Pregnancy in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Koenig, Michael A.; Acharya, Rajib; Roy, Tarun K.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between male-to-female physical domestic violence and unwanted pregnancy among women in three economically and culturally diverse areas of India. A central methodological focus of the study is the examination of retrospective and prospective measures of pregnancy unwantedness, contrasting their usefulness for specifying levels of unwanted pregnancy and its relationship with domestic violence. Data from India's 1998–99 National Family Health Survey and a 2002–03 follow-up survey for which women in four states were reinterviewed are analyzed, and the factors associated with the intersurvey adoption of contraception and the experience of an unwanted pregnancy are examined. Women who experience physical violence from their husbands are significantly less likely to adopt contraception and more likely to experience an unwanted pregnancy. A prospectively measured indicator of unwanted pregnancy identifies a higher prevalence of unwanted pregnancies than do the traditionally employed retrospective measures and is more successful in establishing a relationship between unwanted pregnancies and domestic violence. The results demonstrate a clear relationship between a woman's experience of physical violence from her husband and her ability to achieve her fertility intentions. The need to improve the measurement of pregnancy intendedness is clear, and a move toward using prospective measures as the standard is necessary. PMID:18853639

  17. India`s low-tech energy success

    SciTech Connect

    Sampat, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

  18. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobre, M.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb ‑1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb ‑1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV.

  19. Protein intakes in India.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-08-01

    Indian diets derive almost 60 % of their protein from cereals with relatively low digestibility and quality. There have been several surveys of diets and protein intakes in India by the National Nutrition Monitoring Board (NNMB) over the last 25 years, in urban and rural, as well as in slum dwellers and tribal populations. Data of disadvantaged populations from slums, tribals and sedentary rural Indian populations show that the protein intake (mainly from cereals) is about 1 gm/kg/day. However, the protein intake looks less promising in terms of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), using lysine as the first limiting amino acid, where all populations, particularly rural and tribal, appear to have an inadequate quality to their protein intake. The protein: energy (PE) ratio is a measure of dietary quality, and has been used in the 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report to define reference requirement values with which the adequacy of diets can be evaluated in terms of a protein quality corrected PE ratio. It is likely that about one third of this sedentary rural population is at risk of not meeting their requirements. These levels of risk of deficiency are in a population with relatively low BMI populations, whose diets are also inadequate in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, while the burden of enhancing the quality of protein intake in rural India exists, the quality of the diet, in general, represents a challenge that must be met.

  20. Holocene aridification of India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Neuropsychology in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Keshav; Sadasivan, Akila

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue with the objective to provide information on neuropsychology in India. Information was gathered from a literature search and personal communication with professionals working in the field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology as a specialization started in India approximately 40 years ago. The early years witnessed the use of Western tools for assessing patients with organic brain damage. Subsequent years saw the development of indigenous tools for use with the vast majority of the Indian population and also a few Western tests adapted to suit the needs of the unique Indian clientele. The starting of the Neuropsychology unit at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore in 1975 resulted in changing of the course of training and practice of Neuropsychology. The field of assessments has witnessed indigenous tests being developed, while rehabilitation programs have brought about a decline in cognitive deficits in several clinical conditions. Currently, work within the field of neuropsychology has focused on child, geriatric, acquired brain injury, and forensic populations with a development of unique rehabilitations to suit needs of several clinical conditions. However, there are very few neuropsychologists in the country, and only one nodal training center, which limits the availability of training to the large population of the country. Despite the shortcomings, the field of neuropsychology has received much attention in the recent years with the number of referrals and professionals increasing.

  2. Cancer notification in India.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Guruprasad, B; Lokesh, K N; Veena, V S

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  3. Holocene aridification of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  4. Pharma industry in India.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, V M

    2008-01-01

    Globally ranked fourth by volume and 13th in value, the Indian pharma industry is a leading producer of high-quality, low-cost generic drugs. Its 14% share of the USD 57 billion world generic market is expected to increase to 50% by 2010. With the advantages of cost competitiveness, ability and experience in reverse engineering, availability of skilled scientific and engineering personnel and the capability to produce raw materials for a wide range of drugs from the basic stage, the industry delivers the entire range of therapeutic products. McKinsey & Co. predict that India's pharmaceutical market could reach a size of USD 20 billion by 2015, becoming one of the top 10 drug markets in the world. Generic versions of the cardiovascular drug carvedilol, ANDA-approved allopurinol, verapamil SR and the anticancer drug paclitaxel are some of the recent products introduced by Indian companies, with Caraco, Ranbaxy, Dabur, Dr. Reddy's, Nicholas Piramal India, leading the list. Setting up of integrated drug development companies and aggressive entries into the Japanese drug market have provided further impetus to the country's pharma manufacturing arena.

  5. Birth of plant proteomics in India: a new horizon.

    PubMed

    Narula, Kanika; Pandey, Aarti; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2015-09-08

    In the post-genomic era, proteomics is acknowledged as the next frontier for biological research. Although India has a long and distinguished tradition in protein research, the initiation of proteomics studies was a new horizon. Protein research witnessed enormous progress in protein separation, high-resolution refinements, biochemical identification of the proteins, protein-protein interaction, and structure-function analysis. Plant proteomics research, in India, began its journey on investigation of the proteome profiling, complexity analysis, protein trafficking, and biochemical modeling. The research article by Bhushan et al. in 2006 marked the birth of the plant proteomics research in India. Since then plant proteomics studies expanded progressively and are now being carried out in various institutions spread across the country. The compilation presented here seeks to trace the history of development in the area during the past decade based on publications till date. In this review, we emphasize on outcomes of the field providing prospects on proteomic pathway analyses. Finally, we discuss the connotation of strategies and the potential that would provide the framework of plant proteome research. The past decades have seen rapidly growing number of sequenced plant genomes and associated genomic resources. To keep pace with this increasing body of data, India is in the provisional phase of proteomics research to develop a comparative hub for plant proteomes and protein families, but it requires a strong impetus from intellectuals, entrepreneurs, and government agencies. Here, we aim to provide an overview of past, present and future of Indian plant proteomics, which would serve as an evaluation platform for those seeking to incorporate proteomics into their research programs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies

  7. The biological sciences in India

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Karen

    2009-01-01

    India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

  8. Research on antidepressants in India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Munish

    2010-01-01

    Data suggests that antidepressants are useful in the management of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual dysfunction, eating disorders, impulse control disorders, enuresis, aggression and some personality disorders. Research focusing on the usefulness of antidepressants in India has more or less followed the trends seen in the West. Most of the studies conducted in India have evaluated various antidepressants in depression. In this article, we review studies conducted in India on various antidepressants. The data suggests that antidepressants have been evaluated mainly in the acute phase treatment and rare studies have evaluated the efficacy in continuation phase treatment. PMID:21836704

  9. Community Pharmacy Practice in India: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Subal Chandra; Sathyanarayana, Dondeti

    2009-01-01

    Today, community pharmacists play an important role in any country as they take responsibility for patient’s medicine related needs for access to healthcare. However, in India only the supply of medicines remains the core activity of the community pharmacist. Most community pharmacists in the country still hardly offer patient‐oriented service. The role of the pharmacists in the community, and with it their medicine management, may change in the wake of the rapid growth of domestic medicine output and national healthcare expenditure. This article seeks to discuss the genesis of Indian community pharmacy, the majority of which are privately owned, and sketches its education, training and future prospects. PMID:23093872

  10. Tracking Arabia-India motion from Miocene to Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Fournier, M.

    2009-12-01

    these studies to derive Arabia/India kinematics for the past 20 Myrs. As observed today, opening rates at Sheba ridge and at Carlsberg ridge remained closed since Chron 5D (17.2 Ma), thus pointing to small differential motion between Arabia and India. However, our kinematic model suggests that dextral shearing prevailed since the very beginning of opening of the Gulf of Aden. This has significant implications for the forces that drive the Arabia plate and Arabia-India coupling at their transform boundary. Fournier et al., 2008, In-situ evidence for dextral active motion at the Arabia-India plate boundary, Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo.2007.24. Fournier et al., 2009, Arabia-Somalia plate kinematics, evolution of the Aden-Owen-Carlsberg triple junction, and opening of the Gulf of Aden, J. Geophys. Res., in revision. Merkouriev and DeMets, 2006, Constraints on Indian plate motion since 20 Ma from dense Russian magnetic data: Implications for Indian plate dynamics, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., doi:10.1029/2005GC001079.

  11. A Smart Partnership: Integrating Educational Technology for Underserved Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charania, Amina; Davis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the evolution of a large multi-stakeholder partnership that has grown since 2011 to scale deep engagement with learning through technology and decrease the digital divide for thousands of underserved school children in India. Using as its basis a case study of an initiative called integrated approach to technology in education…

  12. A Smart Partnership: Integrating Educational Technology for Underserved Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charania, Amina; Davis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the evolution of a large multi-stakeholder partnership that has grown since 2011 to scale deep engagement with learning through technology and decrease the digital divide for thousands of underserved school children in India. Using as its basis a case study of an initiative called integrated approach to technology in education…

  13. Energy conservation in India`s commercial air conditioned buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.; Presny, D.; Fafard, C.

    1997-06-01

    The Indian economy is among the fastest growing economies in the world. In the 1980s, India`s GDP grew at a rate of 5.3 percent annually. As the economy grows and incomes rise, the demands for more air conditioned buildings is expected to place greater stress on already precarious energy supplies. The average annual rate of growth of electricity consumption in the commercial sector in the 1989 to 1992 period was close to nine percent as compared to 5.5 percent in the industrial sector - a fact that makes today`s energy use planning decisions even more important. India is already experiencing an energy shortage, and these commercial and industrial growth rates are accelerating the demand for energy. With these facts in mind, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began it`s Energy Management Consultation and Training (EMCAT) project in India. The EMCAT project began in 1991 as a six-year project to improve India`s technological and management capabilities both for the supply of energy and for its efficient end-use. A specific task under the end-use component was to look a high energy-use sectors, such as the air conditioned (AC) buildings in the commercial sector, and to identify investment opportunities that can improve energy utilization. This paper presents results from pre-investment surveys in this sector which were conducted at four facilities in 1995.

  14. India`s energy future may see rise of nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, B.

    1996-07-01

    Plagued by technical and safety problems, India`s nuclear power industry has an uncertain future. {open_quotes}Nuclear power`s litany of problems makes it difficult to envision a vital future for India`s nuclear-power program.{close_quotes} says Basudeb Chaudhuri, an assistant professor of economics at the Technology Institute of the University of Caen in France. Though India possesses the natural resources, labor force, and industrial base to develop a viable nuclear power program, its nuclear industry produces only 2 percent of the nations`s electricity, Chanudhuri notes. Chaudhuri advocates that alternative sources of energy be added to the current mix of coal, hydroelectric, and nuclear power. He contends that nonconventional energy sources, including biomass, tidal, and wind energy, could become important ingredients in the energy mix. Because of increasing population and rapid economic development, demand for electricity in India will continue to rise, and there will be a need for nuclear in addition to other energy sources. {open_quotes}There are glimmers of hope that nuclear power can become an important part of the nation`s energy mix,{close_quotes} Chaudhuri says.

  15. Surgery in India.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, S; Gupta, T

    1997-06-01

    Surgical practice in India is mostly managed by the central and state governments and is totally government financed, offering free medical aid. However, with the economic growth and affluence of the middle-class population in urban areas, more and more hospitals, nursing homes, and clinics managed by the private sector are arising in cities and towns. Privately owned hospitals are built and managed by large industrial houses and trusts. It is essential, according to government directives, for these hospitals to have certain numbers of general beds that will provide for the economically weaker sections of the population. Medical insurance is popular amongst the urban population; in addition to well-established insurance companies, many new medical service reimbursement organizations are forming. Surgical care standards are uniformly high in the larger teaching institutions and hospitals run by the private sector in major cities in India, in which superspecialty surgical care that meets worldwide standards is available in addition to general surgical care. These hospitals are manned by surgeons holding master's degrees in general surgery, superspecialties, and subspecialties. In the hospitals and dispensaries in rural areas, only basic surgical facilities are available; for major surgical procedures, the patients are referred to the closest urban hospitals. Therefore, the government of India is placing more and more emphasis on building hospitals that offer better surgical facilities away from the cities and towns. A diploma course in surgery is run by the National Board of Surgery, and these diplomates are encouraged to practice more in rural areas and small hospitals. Economic constraints and the population explosion are the biggest hurdles to progress in surgical care, teaching, and research activities. With the advancement in education and growth of the economy, more and more multinationals are walking into the field of medical care, which is proving to be a

  16. School Physics Teaching in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes current difficulties in teaching physics in Indian secondary schools, including the existence in all states of India of different syllabi of varying standards and content without the syllabi being related to the conditions and hardware available. (PR)

  17. Can India's ``literate'' read?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-12-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

  18. (Coal utilization in India)

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, R.P.

    1991-01-15

    Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

  19. India in the Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Pipeline, the reopening of the Indian and Burmese consulates in Mandalay and Kolkata, and a recent India-Burma naval exercise—all reflect a significant...Bangkok. India also is building roads to connect Mizoram with Mandalay and has extended a fifty-six-million-dollar line of credit to Burma to modernize...the Mandalay -Rangoon railroad.65 New Delhi is likely also to carry out port and transportation improvements at the mouth of the Kaladan River (the

  20. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  1. Reproductive health in India.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    In India, prenatal tests are used to determine the sex of the fetus and, if it is female, it is often aborted. In response to sex discrimination in utero, the Forum against Sex Determination and Sex Preselection was formed in 1985. It began a campaign against using prenatal tests to determine sex for the subsequent abortion of female fetuses. The 1989 Maharashtra Regulation of Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques was a direct result of this campaign. The forum expanded to examine other reproductive technologies, particularly long-lasting contraceptives that cause systemic changes in women's bodies, and it has become more concerned about women's rights in general. It has renamed itself the Forum for Women's Health. The state translates the need for contraceptives into population control. It provides health care through primary health centers and subcenters. The maternal and child health program provides health care only to 15-45 year old women. The government knows that abortion and childbirth are major contributors to maternal mortality, so it provides safe abortion through its centers. Yet, prevailing conditions and social values keep women from using these services, so they resort to unhygienic abortions. The government considers repeated childbearing as the only cause of maternal mortality and ignores that poverty, malnutrition, and social position can also be responsible for maternal deaths. This attitude justifies its coercion of women to use contraception. India's government is presently pushing provider-controlled, long-acting methods. It supports high tech research of antifertility vaccines. Female barrier methods are not marketed. The family planning program is based on targets and incentives/ disincentives. The government has recently set up sterilization camps in Bombay. The forum is concerned that providers will not fully inform women about side effects of the injectables and about other possible contraceptive methods. Women are being trained in self-help and

  2. Seasonal Drought Prediction in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the most costly natural disasters in India. Seasonal prediction of drought can assist planners to manage agriculture and water resources. Such information can be valuable for a country like India where 60% of agriculture is rain-fed. Here we evaluate precipitation and temperature forecast from the NCEP's CFSV2 for seasonal drought prediction in India. We demonstrate the utility of the seasonal prediction of precipitation and temperature for drought forecast at 1-2 months lead time at a high spatial resolution. Precipitation from CFSv2 showed moderate correlations with observed up to two months lead. For one month lead, we found a significant correlation between CFSv2 and observed precipitation during winter season. Air temperature from the CFSv2 showed a good correlation with observed temperature during the winter. We forced the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with the CFSv2 forecast of precipitation and air temperature to generate forecast of hydrologic variables such as soil moisture and total runoff. We find that errors of the prediction reduce for the two month lead time in the majority of the study domain except the northern India. Skills of Initial Hydrologic Conditions combined with moderate skills of forcings based on the CFSv2 showed ability of drought prediction in India. The developed system was able to successfully predict observed top layer soil moisture and observed drought based on satellite remote sensing in India.

  3. Tracking women and children in a Continuum of Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Healthcare (RMNCH) in India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-09-01

    The Continuum of Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Healthcare (RMNCH) model is suggested to be an effective tool to improve maternal and child health. This short dispatch proposes that if India pursues the continuum of care model, a well-designed follow-up strategy to track prospective mothers and their children is imperative.

  4. India’s Relations with the Great Powers and Pakistan: Present Status and Implications for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    India learned well this lesson of the Chinese and completely reorganized its military structure and programs so as never again to ’•, ŝ 17permit sucn a...Stephen J. Solarz, "The Soviet Challenge in Asia," Asia Pacific "" Comunity , Sumner 1984, pp. 1-27. 13. Raju Thomas, "Prospects for Indo-US Security Ties

  5. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future. PMID:27992590

  6. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Manohar, Manju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future.

  7. The Iberian Peninsula in the Atlantic Community: Problems and Prospects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-09

    Republican and Socialists emerged. Prime Minister Manuel Azala headed this coalition until November 1933. Opposed by an active extreme left faction and...Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1982), p. 217. 14. Manuel F. Iribarneand Charles A. Cerami, "Evolution in 32 4 Spain: The Meaning for Europe", The...fortunate Manuel I, who sent Vasco da Gama on the successful expedi- tion of 1497. Gama’s fleet reached India in May 1498 (Map 8). King Manuel I was also to

  8. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  9. SRTM Stereo Pair: Northwest of Bhuj, India

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-31

    On January 26, 2001, the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India history. Geologists traversed the region looking for ground surface disruptions, that could provide clues to the tectonic processes here.

  10. Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryner, Jeanna

    2005-01-01

    Eighty years after the famous 1925 Scopes "monkey trial," which tested a teacher's right to discuss the theory of evolution in the classroom, evolution--and its most recent counterview, called "intelligent design"--are in the headlines again, and just about everyone seems to have an opinion. This past July, President Bush weighed in, telling…

  11. FTS evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provost, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on flight telerobotic servicer evolution are presented. Topics covered include: paths for FTS evolution; frequently performed actions; primary task states; EPS radiator panel installation; generic task definitions; path planning; non-contact alignment; contact planning and control; and human operator interface.

  12. FTS evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provost, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on flight telerobotic servicer evolution are presented. Topics covered include: paths for FTS evolution; frequently performed actions; primary task states; EPS radiator panel installation; generic task definitions; path planning; non-contact alignment; contact planning and control; and human operator interface.

  13. Family planning defended [India].

    PubMed

    Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, criticized what she termed excessive propaganda on the part of certain political parties and groups against family planning, indicating that there was a tremendous need for family planning in a country with a population of 660 million. In a television interview Gandhi stressed that her government believed in persuasion and not coercion as the means of controlling population growth. A mass sterilization campaign conducted during Gandhi's previous government 3 years ago was 1 of the main factors influencing her defeat in the 1977 national elections. A national population policy setting the goals and strategy for curbing population growth is now being formulated, but the government has provided sufficient indication that there will be no return to compulsion which had marked the implementation of the family planning program during 1975-1976. Family planning is presently being pursued as a totally voluntary program and as an integral part of a comprehensive policy including education and health. The plan is to organize 50,000 camps in which 2 million persons are expected to participate.

  14. Epidemic dropsy in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, B; Malhotra, S.; Bhatia, V.; Rathee, M.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemic dropsy is a clinical state resulting from use of edible oils adulterated with Argemone mexicana oil. Sanguinarine and dehydrosanguinarine are two major toxic alkaloids of Argemone oil, which cause widespread capillary dilatation, proliferation and increased capillary permeability. Leakage of the protein-rich plasma component into the extracellular compartment leads to the formation of oedema. The haemodynamic consequences of this vascular dilatation and permeability lead to a state of relative hypovolemia with a constant stimulus for fluid and salt conservation by the kidneys. Illness begins with gastroenteric symptoms followed by cutaneous erythema and pigmentation. Respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath and orthopnoea progressing to frank right-sided congestive cardiac failure are seen. Mild to moderate anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, mild to moderate renal azotemia, retinal haemorrhages, and glaucoma are common manifestations. There is no specific therapy. Removal of the adulterated oil and symptomatic treatment of congestive cardiac failure and respiratory symptoms, along with administration of antioxidants and multivitamins, remain the mainstay of treatment. Selective cultivation of yellow mustard, strict enforcement of the Indian Food Adulteration Act, and exemplary punishment to unscrupulous traders are the main preventive measures.


Keywords: epidemic dropsy; Argemone mexicana; sanguinarine; India PMID:10621875

  15. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship.

  16. Delhi: India's urban example.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B

    1988-06-01

    Demography, migration, economy, employment, education, planning, housing and transportation in the Delhi Union Territory are described. The Territory is an administrative district that includes Old Delhi, the site of the ancient walled city, the New Delhi Municipal Corporation, the center of government, the Delhi Cantonment, a military center, and 27 smaller towns, many of which are rural in character. The Delhi Territory is notable for its relatively high per capita income ($321), high sex ratio (124), high proportion of recent migrants (over half), but also high employment rate and educational status of these migrants. Much of the economy is based on government service, retail trade and services. School enrollment is high, nearly 100% of primary school age children, 77% of middle school, and 50% of secondary school. Rapid growth has stressed the public health, sanitation, housing, electric power systems. Transportation is coping relatively well, considering that 20% of all motor vehicles in India are in Delhi. 50% of daily trips are made by bus, 22% by bicycle, 10% by motorcycles, and 4% by cars. Accommodations for tourists in Delhi's old center are good in both expensive and inexpensive hotels.

  17. Newborn screening in India.

    PubMed

    Rama Devi, A Radha; Naushad, S M

    2004-02-01

    Expanded newborn screening (NBS) is aimed for early detection and intervention of treatable inborn errors of metabolism and also to establish incidence of these disorders in this part of the globe. The first expanded NBS programme initiated in the capital city of Andhra Pradesh to screen all the newborns born in four major Government Maternity Hospitals in Hyderabad by heel prick capillary blood collected on S&S 903 filter paper. Chromatographic (TLC and HPLC), electrophoretic (cellulose acetate and agarose) and ELISA based assays have been employed for screening of common inborn errors of metabolism. This study has shown a high prevalence of treatable Inborn errors of metabolism. Congenital hypothyroidsm is the most common disorder (1 in 1700) followed by congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (1 in 2575) and Hyperhomocystenemia (1 in 100). Interestingly, a very high prevalence of inborn errors of metabolism to the extent of 1 in every thousand newborns was observed. The study reveals the importance of screening in India, necessitating nation wide large-scale screening.

  18. Coal ash utilization in India

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, S.R.; Brendel, G.F.; Gray, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes methods of coal combustion product (CCP) management successfully employed in the US and considers their potential application in India. India produces about 66 million tons per year (mty) of coal ash from the combustion of 220 mty of domestically produced coal, the average ash content being about 30--40 percent as opposed to an average ash content of less than 10 percent in the US In other words, India produces coal ash at about triple the rate of the US. Currently, 95 percent of this ash is sluiced into slurry ponds, many located near urban centers and consuming vast areas of premium land. Indian coal-fired generating capacity is expected to triple in the next ten years, which will dramatically increase ash production. Advanced coal cleaning technology may help reduce this amount, but not significantly. Currently India utilizes two percent of the CCP`s produced with the remainder being disposed of primarily in large impoundments. The US utilizes about 25 percent of its coal ash with the remainder primarily being disposed of in nearly equal amounts between dry landfills and impoundments. There is an urgent need for India to improve its ash management practice and to develop efficient and environmentally sound disposal procedures as well as high volume ash uses in ash haulback to the coalfields. In addition, utilization should include: reclamation, structural fill, flowable backfill and road base.

  19. Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; Ganesh, T.; Jaikumar, M.; Raman, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    The caprellid fauna of India is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians, bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast of India, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species ( Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures of the 11 valid species reported so far from India are given together with a key for their identification. No caprellids were found in sediments from the northeast (16-20ºN) coast of India while they were abundant in the southeast and west coast. Decreases in salinity due to river discharges associated with lower values of oxygen, higher water temperatures and lower nutrient inputs along the east coast could explain these differences in caprellid composition between the two coastlines. Significantly, lower abundance of caprellids in India, as in other tropical ecosystems, is probably related to the lack of species belonging to the genus Caprella, which reach very high abundances in temperate waters.

  20. Postgraduate Emergency Medicine Training in India: An Educational Partnership with the Private Sector.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Katherine; Pousson, Amelia; Gidwani, Shweta; Smith, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) is a recently recognized specialty in India, still in its infancy. Local training programs are developing, but remain very limited. Private, for-profit hospitals are an important provider of graduate medical education (GME) in India, and are partnering with United States (US) universities in EM to expand training opportunities. Our aim was to describe current private-sector programs affiliated with a US university providing postgraduate EM training in India, the evolution and structure of these programs, and successes and challenges of program implementation. Programs have been established in seven cities in India in partnership with a US academic institution. Full-time trainees have required didactics, clinical rotations, research, and annual examinations. Faculty members affiliated with the US institution visit each program monthly. Regular evaluations have informed program modifications, and a local faculty development program has been implemented. Currently, 240 trainees are enrolled in the EM postgraduate program, and 141 physicians have graduated. A pilot survey conducted in 2012 revealed that 93% of graduates are currently practicing EM, 82% of those in India; 71% are involved in teaching, and 32% in research. Further investigation into programmatic impacts is necessary. Challenges include issues of formal program recognition both in India and abroad. This unique partnership is playing a major early role in EM GME in India. Future steps include official program recognition, expanded numbers of training sites, and a gradual transition of training and education to local faculty. Similar partnership programs may be effective in other settings outside of India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. India-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-12

    Kashmir region, and, in more recent years, “cross-border terrorism” in both Kashmir and major Indian cities . In the interests of regional stability, the...Potter and Jayantha Dhanapala, “The Perils of Non- Proliferation Amnesia,” Hindu ( Chennai ), September 1, 2007. 15 See “Fix the Proposal for Renewed...Down to Last Days: Mulford,” Hindu ( Chennai ), May 20, 2008; “US-India Nuclear Deal Dead,” Financial Times (London), June 10, 2008. 22 “India Left Ends

  2. Human Milk Fortification in India.

    PubMed

    Kler, Neelam; Thakur, Anup; Modi, Manoj; Kaur, Avneet; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Saluja, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Human milk fortification in preterm babies has become a standard of care in developed countries. Use of human milk fortifier (HMF) in very-low-birthweight infants is not a routine practice in India. There are concerns about high osmolality, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, risk of contamination and added cost associated with use of HMF. There are limited data from India which address the issue of safety and short-term benefits of human milk fortification. This chapter highlights the issues related to human milk fortification in our country. © 2015 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Incredible India: the inconvenient truth.

    PubMed

    Mundkur, Bal

    2011-01-01

    The author's objective is to correct many of the misconceptions about India and to combat mistaken analysis. He highlights the hundreds of millions who live in poverty, the rampant corruption and the incompetence of the administration. He asserts that comparisons with China are always to the disadvantage of India, except in the field of democracy, and suggests that the Indian Space Programme is symptomatic of a wide-spread misallocation of resources. And to suggest that the traffic problems in Delhi and Mumbai are being caused by more motor vehicles is a misdiagnosis. The real cause is an increase in the number of bullock carts.

  4. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.

  5. Like Father, Like Son? Intergenerational Educational Mobility in India.

    PubMed

    Azam, Mehtabul; Bhatt, Vipul

    2015-12-01

    Using the nationally representative India Human Development Survey (IHDS), we create a unique son-father matched data set that is representative of the entire adult male population (aged 20-65) in India. We use these data to document the evolution of intergenerational transmission of educational attainment in India over time, among different castes and states for the birth cohorts of 1940-1985. We find that educational persistence, as measured by the regression coefficient of father's education as a predictor of son's education, has declined over time. This implies that increases in average educational attainment are driven primarily by increases among children of less-educated fathers. However, we do not find such a declining trend in the correlation between educational attainment of sons and fathers, which is another commonly used measure of persistence. To understand the source of such a discrepancy between the two measures of educational persistence, we decompose the intergenerational correlation and find that although persistence has declined at the lower end of the fathers' educational distribution, it has increased at the top end of that distribution.

  6. Stellar evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y. (Editor); Muriel, A.

    1972-01-01

    Aspects of normal stellar evolution are discussed together with evolution near the main sequence, stellar evolution from main sequence to white dwarf or carbon ignition, the structure of massive main-sequence stars, and problems of stellar stability and stellar pulsation. Other subjects considered include variable stars, white dwarfs, close binaries, novae, early supernova luminosity, neutron stars, the photometry of field horizontal-branch stars, and stellar opacity. Transport mechanisms in stars are examined together with thermonuclear reactions and nucleosynthesis, the instability problem in nuclear burning shells, stellar coalescence, and intense magnetic fields in astrophysics. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  7. HIV in India: the Jogini culture

    PubMed Central

    Borick, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Jogini is the name for a female sexually exploited temple attendant and is used interchangeably with Devadasi in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Jogini are twice more likely than other women who are used for sexual intercourse in India to be HIV positive, and their rate of mortality from HIV is 10 times the total mortality rate for all women in India. The four states in India with the most Jogini also have the highest prevalence of HIV. The following case is unfortunately typical of the Jogini and sheds light on a potentially disastrous public health problem in rural South India. PMID:25015167

  8. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  9. Cholera outbreaks in India.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae.

  10. India - Mahabharata. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Carole; DeVito, Pasquale

    This lecture is accompanied by slides of India. The lecture is used an introduction to the first of the three videotapes of Peter Brook's "Mahabharata," providing students with preliminary background on Hinduism and on the Hindu epic. The objective is also to have students think about the basic values of ancient and modern Hindus. (EH)

  11. Health systems in India

    PubMed Central

    Chokshi, M; Patil, B; Khanna, R; Neogi, S B; Sharma, J; Paul, V K; Zodpey, S

    2016-01-01

    Health systems and polices have a critical role in determining the manner in which health services are delivered, utilized and affect health outcomes. ‘Health' being a state subject, despite the issuance of the guidelines by the central government, the final prerogative on implementation of the initiatives on newborn care lies with the states. This article briefly describes the public health structure in the country and traces the evolution of the major health programs and initiatives with a particular focus on newborn health. PMID:27924110

  12. Simulating Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Robert C.; Allen, Brockenbrough

    1975-01-01

    Described are simulations that can be used to illustrate evolution by natural selection. Suggestions for simulating phenomena such as adaptive radiation, color match to background and vision of predators are offered. (BR)

  13. Ethics Committees in India: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Thatte, Urmila M.; Marathe, Padmaja A.

    2017-01-01

    Following watershed amendments in Schedule Y India's star rose rather rapidly on the clinical research (especially clinical trials) horizon. Just as dramatic was the fall of this empire. At the centre of these events has been the participant and indirectly, the Ethics Committee (EC) that is established primarily to protect this individual. This paper traces the evolution of the concept of ECs in India, examines the current state of these committees in the country and suggests the way forward. The Past: The requirement for an EC to oversee clinical research was first made in the ICMR Policy Statement for Ethics published in 1980 and then again in the Schedule Y (1988). Later, both the Amended Schedule Y (2005) assigned regulatory responsibility on the EC and the ICMR Guidelines (2006) described the functioning of ECs. Several challenges including inadequate formal training, contribution from non-technical members, administrative support as well no SOPs and a heavy workload were identified. In the absence of regulatory oversight of ECs, the introduction of the Clinical Trial Registry - India (CTRI) and self-regulation through voluntary accreditation programs brought a measure of accountability and transparency. The Present: A slew of regulatory reforms led to more than 1000 ECs to be registered with CDSCO although the actual impact on participants' protection and safety of these new regulations still remains to be seen. Way Forward: A method to oversee all ECs, improved functioning of ECs including on site monitoring, central ECs for multicentric studies, the development of metrics to assess the ability of ECs to protect the participant are other ideas for the future. Conclusions: Although ECs in India have evolved from being mere rubber stamps for approval of protocols to efficiently functioning accredited ECs, yet there is much to be done for and by Ethics Committees. PMID:28194334

  14. Understanding Child Rights in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grewal, Imandeep Kaur; Singh, Nandita Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This article traces the status of child rights in India, with special attention to traditional beliefs that have shaped and sustain gender discrimination. The article examines the possibilities and limitations of the newly implemented Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009 for operating as an equalizing…

  15. English Language Teaching Profile: India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form examines the English language teaching situation and the role of English in India. The profile considers these issues by region, that is, the eastern, southern and northern regions of the country. For each region, the following topics are covered: the role of English; English within the educational system, including a…

  16. Preparing for Travel in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    The complexity of the Indian society can be overwhelming, and preparation for travel in India requires careful and detailed advance planning. Practical suggestions are provided for travelers to help them understand cultural differences, avoid illnesses, and select appropriate clothing for the intense heat. Explanations are given about the monetary…

  17. Climate change, zoonoses and India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Banga, H S

    2011-12-01

    Economic trends have shaped our growth and the growth of the livestock sector, but atthe expense of altering natural resources and systems in ways that are not always obvious. Now, however, the reverse is beginning to happen, i.e. environmental trends are beginning to shape our economy and health status. In addition to water, air and food, animals and birds play a pivotal role in the maintenance and transmission of important zoonotic diseases in nature. It is generally considered that the prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne zoonoses is likely to increase in the coming years due to the effects of global warming in India. In recent years, vector-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India. Vector-borne zoonoses now occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. New reservoir areas of cutaneous leishmaniosis in South India have been recognised, and the role of climate change in its re-emergence warrants further research, as does the role of climate change in the ascendancy of waterborne and foodborne illness. Similarly, climate change that leads to warmer and more humid conditions may increase the risk of transmission of airborne zoonoses, and hot and drier conditions may lead to a decline in the incidence of disease(s). The prevalence of these zoonotic diseases and their vectors and the effect of climate change on important zoonoses in India are discussed in this review.

  18. History of Cardiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  19. Mechatronics Engineering Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajpai, Shrish; Khare, Sushant

    2015-01-01

    Present paper aims to give an insight in the field of Mechatronics, specifically its standard of education in India. We have investigated this field right from its origin. We have analyzed how it expanded as a proper discipline of engineering and in which direction the development in this field is going now and, at the same time, its status of…

  20. India-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-30

    seats. A mid-2007 visit to New Delhi by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who was effusive in his praise of India as a “partner and friend,” was...interests of the majority community.318 ,+ In mid-August 2008, lethal violent attacks on Orissa Christians erupted in apparent retaliation

  1. India-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-03

    June, the Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff , Gen. Peter Pace, met with top Indian officials in New Delhi to discuss expanding U.S.-India...generate up to 27,000 new American jobs each year for a decade.18 However, foreign companies such as Russia’s Atomstroyexport and France’s Areva may

  2. Tanjore: Mystical Painting of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tanjore (or Thanjavur or Thanlavoor) paintings are one of the most popular traditional art forms in Southern India. These ornate religious paintings involve Hindu mythology. The paintings are noted for their adornment of gold and semiprecious stones such as rubies, emeralds, and pearls. Currently, the semiprecious stones are often substituted…

  3. Drinking habits in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D Vijaya; Murthy, A G Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature.

  4. History of Cardiology in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena.

  5. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  6. China, India demand cushions prices

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, M.

    2006-11-15

    Despite the hopes of coal consumers, coal prices did not plummet in 2006 as demand stayed firm. China and India's growing economies, coupled with solid supply-demand fundamentals in North America and Europe, and highly volatile prices for alternatives are likely to keep physical coal prices from wide swings in the coming year.

  7. India-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-06

    Liberation Front of Tripura, the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB), and the United National Liberation Front (seeking an independent Manipur ...operations in late 2004 may have overrun numerous Manipur separatist bases near the Burmese border. “Naxalites”. Also operating in India are Naxalites

  8. Drinking habits in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Murthy, A. G. Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature. PMID:26985113

  9. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  10. India: From SITE to INSAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhri, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies core of India's illiteracy problem and describes use of educational technology to educate rural children. Highlights include descriptions of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) project; motivation behind low-cost educational aids development in rural areas; an educational radio pilot project; and development and…

  11. E-Learning in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the e-learning in India. It describes the historical developments of e-learning and identifies major stakeholders and institutions that have initiated e-learning programs after the creation of the National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development constituted by the Prime Minister of India…

  12. Networked Distance Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) has made remarkable progress in the area of networking. An education network is being developed to provide mass training and resource-based learning. The development of networked education in India is highlighted and a model is suggested for the virtual classroom. (Author/AEF)

  13. International Nurse Recruitment in India

    PubMed Central

    Khadria, Binod

    2007-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the practice of international recruitment of Indian nurses in the model of a “business process outsourcing” of comprehensive training-cum-recruitment-cum-placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Findings Despite the extremely low nurse to population ratio in India, hospital managers in India are not concerned about the growing exodus of nurses to other countries. In fact, they are actively joining forces with profitable commercial ventures that operate as both training and recruiting agencies. Most of this activity is concentrated in Delhi, Bangalore, and Kochi. Conclusions Gaps in data on nursing education, employment, and migration, as well as nonstandardization of definitions of “registered nurse,” impair the analysis of international migration of nurses from India, making it difficult to assess the impact of migration on vacancy rates. One thing is clear, however, the chain of commercial interests that facilitate nurse migration is increasingly well organized and profitable, making the future growth of this business a certainty. PMID:17489924

  14. International nurse recruitment in India.

    PubMed

    Khadria, Binod

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes the practice of international recruitment of Indian nurses in the model of a "business process outsourcing" of comprehensive training-cum-recruitment-cum-placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Despite the extremely low nurse to population ratio in India, hospital managers in India are not concerned about the growing exodus of nurses to other countries. In fact, they are actively joining forces with profitable commercial ventures that operate as both training and recruiting agencies. Most of this activity is concentrated in Delhi, Bangalore, and Kochi. Gaps in data on nursing education, employment, and migration, as well as nonstandardization of definitions of "registered nurse," impair the analysis of international migration of nurses from India, making it difficult to assess the impact of migration on vacancy rates. One thing is clear, however, the chain of commercial interests that facilitate nurse migration is increasingly well organized and profitable, making the future growth of this business a certainty.

  15. Tanjore: Mystical Painting of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tanjore (or Thanjavur or Thanlavoor) paintings are one of the most popular traditional art forms in Southern India. These ornate religious paintings involve Hindu mythology. The paintings are noted for their adornment of gold and semiprecious stones such as rubies, emeralds, and pearls. Currently, the semiprecious stones are often substituted…

  16. Education and Caste in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

  17. Computer Science Research in India.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-07

    This paper begins with a discussion of the nature of Computer Science Research in India. The type of institutions in which Computer Science research...Finally we study the influence on Indian Computer Science research of the phenomenal growth in exports by the Indian software industry and the arrival

  18. India: From SITE to INSAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhri, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies core of India's illiteracy problem and describes use of educational technology to educate rural children. Highlights include descriptions of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) project; motivation behind low-cost educational aids development in rural areas; an educational radio pilot project; and development and…

  19. Epidemiology of filariasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, N. G. S.

    1957-01-01

    The author reviews the history of filarial infections in India and discusses factors affecting the filariae, their vectors, and the human reservoir of infection. A detailed description is given of techniques for determining the degree of infection, disease and endemicity of filariasis in a community, and aspects which require further study are indicated. PMID:13472411

  20. Mechatronics Engineering Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajpai, Shrish; Khare, Sushant

    2015-01-01

    Present paper aims to give an insight in the field of Mechatronics, specifically its standard of education in India. We have investigated this field right from its origin. We have analyzed how it expanded as a proper discipline of engineering and in which direction the development in this field is going now and, at the same time, its status of…

  1. Improvements in signs and symptoms during hospitalization for acute heart failure follow different patterns and depend on the measurement scales used: an international, prospective registry to evaluate the evolution of measures of disease severity in acute heart failure (MEASURE-AHF).

    PubMed

    Allen, Larry A; Metra, Marco; Milo-Cotter, Olga; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Reisin, Leonardo H; Bensimhon, Daniel R; Gronda, Edoardo G; Colombo, Paolo; Felker, G Michael; Cas, Livio Dei; Kremastinos, Dimitrios T; O'Connor, Christopher M; Cotter, Gadi; Davison, Beth A; Dittrich, Howard C; Velazquez, Eric J

    2008-11-01

    The natural evolution of signs and symptoms during acute heart failure (AHF) is poorly characterized. We followed a prospective international cohort of 182 patients hospitalized with AHF. Patient-reported dyspnea and general well-being (GWB) were measured daily using 7-tier Likert (-3 to +3) and visual analog scales (VAS, 0-100). Physician assessments were also recorded daily. Mean age was 69 years and 68% had ejection fraction <40%. Likert measures of dyspnea initially improved rapidly (day 1, 0.22; day 2, 1.31; P <.001) with no significant improvement thereafter (day 7, 1.51; day 2 versus 7 P = .16). In contrast, VAS measure of dyspnea improved throughout hospitalization (day 1, 50.1; day 2, 64.7; day 7, 83.2; day 1 versus 2 P < .001, day 2 versus 7 P < .001). Symptoms of dyspnea and GWB tracked closely (correlation r = .813, P < .001). Physical signs resolved more completely than did symptoms (eg, from day 1 to discharge/day 7, absence of edema increased from 33% to 72% of patients, whereas significant improvements in dyspnea increased from 27% to 52% of patients; P < .001). Changes in patient-reported symptoms and physician-assessed signs followed different patterns during an AHF episode and are influenced by the measurement scales used. Multiple clinical measures should be considered in discharge decisions and evaluation of AHF therapies.

  2. Improvements in Signs and Symptoms During Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure Follow Different Patterns and Depend on the Measurement Scales Used: An International, Prospective Registry to Evaluate the Evolution of Measures of Disease Severity in Acute Heart Failure (MEASURE-AHF)

    PubMed Central

    ALLEN, LARRY A.; METRA, MARCO; MILO-COTTER, OLGA; FILIPPATOS, GERASIMOS; REISIN, LEONARDO H.; BENSIMHON, DANIEL R.; GRONDA, EDOARDO G.; COLOMBO, PAOLO; FELKER, G. MICHAEL; DEI CAS, LIVIO; KREMASTINOS, DIMITRIOS T.; O'CONNOR, CHRISTOPHER M.; COTTER, GADI; DAVISON, BETH A.; DITTRICH, HOWARD C.; VELAZQUEZ, ERIC J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The natural evolution of signs and symptoms during acute heart failure (AHF) is poorly characterized. Methods and Results We followed a prospective international cohort of 182 patients hospitalized with AHF. Patient-reported dyspnea and general well-being (GWB) were measured daily using 7-tier Likert (–3 to +3) and visual analog scales (VAS, 0–100). Physician assessments were also recorded daily. Mean age was 69 years and 68% had ejection fraction <40%. Likert measures of dyspnea initially improved rapidly (day 1, 0.22; day 2, 1.31; P <.001) with no significant improvement thereafter (day 7, 1.51; day 2 versus 7 P = .16). In contrast, VAS measure of dyspnea improved throughout hospitalization (day 1, 50.1; day 2, 64.7; day 7, 83.2; day 1 versus 2 P < .001, day 2 versus 7 P < .001). Symptoms of dyspnea and GWB tracked closely (correlation r = .813, P < .001). Physical signs resolved more completely than did symptoms (eg, from day 1 to discharge/day 7, absence of edema increased from 33% to 72% of patients, whereas significant improvements in dyspnea increased from 27% to 52% of patients; P < .001). Conclusions Changes in patient-reported symptoms and physician-assessed signs followed different patterns during an AHF episode and are influenced by the measurement scales used. Multiple clinical measures should be considered in discharge decisions and evaluation of AHF therapies. PMID:18995183

  3. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological

  4. Epidemiology of Bluetongue in India.

    PubMed

    Rao, P P; Hegde, N R; Reddy, Y N; Krishnajyothi, Y; Reddy, Y V; Susmitha, B; Gollapalli, S R; Putty, K; Reddy, G H

    2016-04-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insectborne endemic disease in India. Although infections are observed in domestic and wild ruminants, the clinical disease and mortality are observed only in sheep, especially in the southern states of the country. The difference in disease patterns in different parts of the country could be due to varied climatic conditions, sheep population density and susceptibility of the sheep breeds to BT. Over the five decades after the first report of BT in 1964, most of the known serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been reported from India either by virus isolation or by detection of serotype-specific antibodies. There have been no structured longitudinal studies to identify the circulating serotypes throughout the country. At least ten serotypes were isolated between 1967 and 2000 (BTV-1-4, 6, 9, 16-18, 23). Since 2001, the All-India Network Programme on Bluetongue and other laboratories have isolated eight different serotypes (BTV-1-3, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21). Genetic analysis of these viruses has revealed that some of them vary substantially from reference viruses, and some show high sequence identity with modified live virus vaccines used in different parts of the world. These observations have highlighted the need to develop diagnostic capabilities, especially as BT outbreaks are still declared based on clinical signs. Although virus isolation and serotyping are the gold standards, rapid methods based on the detection of viral nucleic acid may be more suitable for India. The epidemiological investigations also have implications for vaccine design. Although only a handful serotypes may be involved in causing outbreaks every year, the combination of serotypes may change from year to year. For effective control of BT in India, it may be pertinent to introduce sentinel and vector traps systems for identification of the circulating serotypes and to evaluate herd immunity against different serotypes, so that relevant strains can be included in vaccine

  5. Role of Pharmacovigilance in India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Suke, Sanvidhan G; Kosta, Prabhat; Negi, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    helps to the patients get well and to manage optimally or ideally, avoid illness is a collective responsibility of industry, drug regulators, clinicians and other healthcare professionals to enhance their contribution to public health. This review summarized objectives and methodologies used in PV with critical overview of existing PV in India, challenges to overcome and future prospects with respect to Indian context. PMID:26392851

  6. Role of Pharmacovigilance in India: An overview.

    PubMed

    Suke, Sanvidhan G; Kosta, Prabhat; Negi, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    helps to the patients get well and to manage optimally or ideally, avoid illness is a collective responsibility of industry, drug regulators, clinicians and other healthcare professionals to enhance their contribution to public health. This review summarized objectives and methodologies used in PV with critical overview of existing PV in India, challenges to overcome and future prospects with respect to Indian context.

  7. Evolution of working memory

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental to many aspects of human life, including learning, speech and text comprehension, prospection and future planning, and explicit “system 2” forms of reasoning, as well as overlapping heavily with fluid general intelligence. WM has been intensively studied for many decades, and there is a growing consensus about its nature, its components, and its signature limits. Remarkably, given its central importance in human life, there has been very little comparative investigation of WM abilities across species. Consequently, much remains unknown about the evolution of this important human capacity. Some questions can be tentatively answered from the existing comparative literature. Even studies that were not intended to do so can nonetheless shed light on the WM capacities of nonhuman animals. However, many questions remain. PMID:23754428

  8. Genetic diversity and drug susceptibility profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from different regions of India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jitendra; Sankar, Manimuthu Mani; Kumar, Parveen; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Singh, Sarman

    2015-08-01

    Molecular genotyping profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) provide a valuable insight into the evolution and transmission of the bacilli. Due to the lack of comprehensive national level data from India on this subject, we performed this study to determine the recent trends and distribution of various MTB lineages circulating in India. A total of 628 MTB isolates were obtained from North, West, South, Central and Eastern India. Spoligotyping and drug susceptibility testing was performed by using manufacturer's instructions. Spoligotyping detected 102 distinct spoligo-patterns. A total of 536 (85.3%) isolates were distributed into 85 SITs which matched the pre-existing database, whereas 17 SITs were newly created for 34 (5.4%) isolates. Overall, CAS family genotype was predominant, comprising 222 (35.4%) isolates, followed by EAI in 152 (24.2%), Beijing in 108 (17.2%), Manu in 41 (6.5%), T in 30 (4.8%), H in 6 (0.9%), X in 3 (0.5%) and one (0.2%) each in Ural and AFRI. Drug susceptibility testing identified 134 (21.3%) isolates as multi drug resistant (MDR). The CAS lineage had a pan India presence but EAI lineage was confined to southern parts of India. Beijing genotype of MTB was significantly associated (p-value <0.0001) with MDR. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Kawecki, Tadeusz J; Lenski, Richard E; Ebert, Dieter; Hollis, Brian; Olivieri, Isabelle; Whitlock, Michael C

    2012-10-01

    Experimental evolution is the study of evolutionary processes occurring in experimental populations in response to conditions imposed by the experimenter. This research approach is increasingly used to study adaptation, estimate evolutionary parameters, and test diverse evolutionary hypotheses. Long applied in vaccine development, experimental evolution also finds new applications in biotechnology. Recent technological developments provide a path towards detailed understanding of the genomic and molecular basis of experimental evolutionary change, while new findings raise new questions that can be addressed with this approach. However, experimental evolution has important limitations, and the interpretation of results is subject to caveats resulting from small population sizes, limited timescales, the simplified nature of laboratory environments, and, in some cases, the potential to misinterpret the selective forces and other processes at work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospects from Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    South Korea , China, the United States and, to a lesser extent, Japan and Russia will be examined to determine prospects from Korean reunification...the “tilt” of a unified Korea , and with it, the future Northeast Asian strategic environment. 1 PROSPECTS FROM KOREAN REUNIFCATION Throughout most of...the 20th century, the Korean people have yearned for the establishment of an independent and unified Korea . Before World War II, this was denied to

  11. Power to the People of India: U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    with India . However, it should be noted that Canada and China , both NSG members, have been less enamored with it. Within three weeks of the March...an attempt to balance against or to contain China . Furthermore, nonproliferation groups worry that U.S.- India nuclear cooperation will allow India ...conditions—growing U.S.- India ties and the possible expansion of India’s nuclear arsenal—it is feared, could lead to an arms race between China and

  12. [India within World History.] Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragdon, Ann E.

    This paper presents slide narration to accompany eight separate units on India to be used in World History classes or other areas across the curriculum. Units include: (1) "Religion: India's Diverse Temples and Sacred Places"; (2) "Styles of Dress: Shimla to Kerala"; (3) "Traditional Dance in India"; (4) "South…

  13. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    admitted that one of the main reasons for his visit to Union have agreed to sign it and Mr. Karimov expressed India is to lobby for Indian support for...Signed [ INDIAN EXPRESS 19 Aug] ..................................................................... 3 Invitation To Invest [THE TIMES OF INDIA 20 Aug...Court directing the Union Carbide Corporation, framework of the Simla agreement of 1972. United States of America and Union Carbide India Ltd . to Such

  14. Epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in India.

    PubMed

    Jain, M K; John, T J; Keusch, G T

    1994-01-01

    India is the second most populous country in the world, with more than 880 million people in 1993. With less than 1% of the global land mass, India has more than 16% of the world's population, more than that of South America, Africa, and Australia combined. The population will exceed one billion by 2000, surpassing even China. By then, India will have more new cases of HIV infection per year than any single country, and probably the largest number of HIV-infected people as well. Whatever happens in India will therefore have a major impact upon the global pandemic of HIV and AIDS. The paper considers the history of the HIV epidemic in India, the probable routes of entry of HIV into India, trends in prevalence in population samples, the geographic distribution of HIV in India, AIDS in India, clinical problems in India, projections of HIV/AIDS cases, and how to control HIV/AIDS. The HIV epidemic has grown silently in India over the past decade, with the virus spread mainly through heterosexual intercourse. All known routes of transmission are, however, known in India, and increasing seroprevalence has been noted among prostitutes, STD clinic patients, blood donors, and IV drug users. The population has been largely ignorant of the advance of HIV, with public officials and the media at a loss to adequately inform the public about what is taking place. Greater energy and resources are now being devoted to the problem, but it may be too late to stop a major epidemic. The authors reviewed all available published and unpublished data to present an overview of the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in India.

  15. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  16. Art & Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Mark

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a two-week evolution unit for his biology class. He uses Maria Sybilla Merian (1647-1717) as an example of an Enlightenment mind at work--in this case a woman recognized as one of the great artists and natural scientists of her time. Her representations of butterflies, caterpillars and their pupae, and the…

  17. Silent evolution

    PubMed Central

    OSAWA, Syozo; SU, Zhi-Hui; NISHIKAWA, Masaaki; TOMINAGA, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences of several kinds of beetles have shown that their evolution included a silent stage in which no morphological changes took place. We thus propose a new category of evolutionary process called “silent evolution”. PMID:27840392

  18. Art & Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Mark

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a two-week evolution unit for his biology class. He uses Maria Sybilla Merian (1647-1717) as an example of an Enlightenment mind at work--in this case a woman recognized as one of the great artists and natural scientists of her time. Her representations of butterflies, caterpillars and their pupae, and the…

  19. Elements of an Alternative to Nuclear Power as a Response to the Energy-Environment Crisis in India: Development as Freedom and a Sustainable Energy Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathai, Manu V.

    2009-01-01

    Even as the conventional energy system is fundamentally challenged by the "energy-environment crisis," its adherents have presented the prospect of "abundant" and purportedly "green" nuclear power as part of a strategy to address the crisis. Surveying the development of nuclear power in India, this article finds that…

  20. Report to the U.S. Agency for International Development on the Activities of Literacy House, Lucknow, India, July 1, 1964 - June 30, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Education, Inc., New York, NY.

    The program of Literacy House in Lucknow, India includes training of personnel, preparation of materials, and sponsorship of a wide variety of programs. This report on their work, prepared to document the need for a budget request from the U.S. Agency for International Development, describes the achievement and prospects in programs relating to…

  1. Elements of an Alternative to Nuclear Power as a Response to the Energy-Environment Crisis in India: Development as Freedom and a Sustainable Energy Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathai, Manu V.

    2009-01-01

    Even as the conventional energy system is fundamentally challenged by the "energy-environment crisis," its adherents have presented the prospect of "abundant" and purportedly "green" nuclear power as part of a strategy to address the crisis. Surveying the development of nuclear power in India, this article finds that…

  2. India eradicates guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-03-11

    The WHO officially certifies India and other countries of the South East Asian regions as free of guinea worm disease. The eradication was made possible through the efforts of the Indian government to launch a national guinea worm eradication program in 1983-84, and a sustained campaign at the grass-roots level by agencies such as the UN International Children's Fund and the WHO in collaboration with the government. The recognition was based on the report gathered by three members of the 4th International Commission for Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication, who visited India in November 1999 and conducted an investigation in 62 villages in 5 states where the disease had been endemic. Also, the national eradication program had been evaluated 7 times and showed remarkable achievement.

  3. Nehruvian science and postcolonial India.

    PubMed

    Arnold, David

    2013-06-01

    This essay uses the seminal figure of Jawaharlal Nehru to interrogate the nature and representation of science in modern India. The problem posed by Nehruvian science--the conflict between (yet simultaneity of) science as both universal phenomenon and local effect--lies at the heart of current debates about what science means for the non-West. The problematic of Nehruvian science can be accessed through Nehru's own speeches and writings, but also through the wider project of science with which he identified--critiquing colonialism, forging India's place in the modern world, marrying intellectual endeavor with practical nation building. The essay makes a case for looking at Nehruvian science as a way of structuring the problem of postcolonial science, particularly in relation to understanding the authority of science and its evaluation in terms of its capacity to deliver socioeconomic change.

  4. Health Data Publications No. 24. India.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Geography and climate; Languages, religion and government; Agriculture and industry; Housing and education; Animals of medical importance; Plants of medical significance; Diseases of India; Medical organization.

  5. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  6. Development of biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Ghose, T K; Bisaria, V S

    2000-01-01

    India has embarked upon a very ambitious program in biotechnology with a view to harnessing its available human and unlimited biodiversity resources. It has mainly been a government sponsored effort with very little private industry participation in investment. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) established under the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1986 was the major instrument of action to bring together most talents, material resources, and budgetary provisions. It began sponsoring research in molecular biology, agricultural and medical sciences, plant and animal tissue culture, biofertilizers and biopesticides, environment, human genetics, microbial technology, and bioprocess engineering, etc. The establishment of a number of world class bioscience research institutes and provision of large research grants to some existing universities helped in developing specialized centres of biotechnology. Besides DBT, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), also under the Ministry of S&T, sponsors research at universities working in the basic areas of life sciences. Ministry of Education's most pioneering effort was instrumental in the creation of Biochemical Engineering Research Centre at IIT Delhi with substantial assistance from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland to make available state-of-the-art infrastructure for education, training, and research in biochemical engineering and biotechnology in 1974. This initiative catalysed biotechnology training and research at many institutions a few years later. With a brief introduction, the major thrust areas of biotechnology development in India have been reviewed in this India Paper which include education and training, agricultural biotechnology, biofertilizers and biopesticides, tissue culture for tree and woody species, medicinal and aromatic plants, biodiversity conservation and environment, vaccine development, animal, aquaculture, seri and food biotechnology, microbial

  7. AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-08-01

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.

  8. Rapid DOTS expansion in India.

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, G. R.; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Since late 1998 the coverage of the DOTS strategy in India has been expanded rapidly. In both 2000 and 2001 the country probably accounted for more than half the global increase in the number of patients treated under DOTS and by early 2002 more than a million patients were being treated in this way in India. As a result, nearly 200 000 lives were saved. The lessons learnt relate to the importance of the following elements of the programme: (1) getting the science right and ensuring technical excellence; (2) building commitment and ensuring the provision of funds and flexibility in their utilization; (3) maintaining focus and priorities; (4) systematically appraising each area before starting service delivery; (5) ensuring an uninterrupted drug supply; (6) strengthening the established infrastructure and providing support for staff; (7) supporting the infrastructure required in urban areas; (8) ensuring full-time independent technical support and supervision, particularly during the initial phases of implementation; (9) monitoring intensively and giving timely feedback; and (10) continuous supervision. Tuberculosis (TB) control still faces major challenges in India. To reach its potential, the control programme needs to: continue to expand so as to cover the remaining half of the country, much of which has a weaker health infrastructure than the areas already covered; increase its reach in the areas already covered so that a greater proportion of patients is treated; ensure sustainability; improve the patient-friendliness of services; confront TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is expected that HIV will increase the number of TB cases by at least 10% and by a considerably higher percentage if HIV becomes much more widespread. India's experience shows that DOTS can achieve high case-detection and cure rates even with imperfect technology and often with an inadequate public health infrastructure. However, this can only happen if the

  9. Occupational health research in India.

    PubMed

    Saiyed, Habibullah N; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R

    2004-04-01

    India being a developing nation is faced with traditional public health problems like communicable diseases, malnutrition, poor environmental sanitation and inadequate medical care. However, globalization and rapid industrial growth in the last few years has resulted in emergence of occupational health related issues. Agriculture (cultivators i.e. land owners + agriculture labourers) is the main occupation in India giving employment to about 58% of the people. The major occupational diseases/morbidity of concern in India are silicosis, musculo-skeletal injuries, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive lung diseases, asbestosis, byssinosis, pesticide poisoning and noise induced hearing loss. There are many agencies like National Institute of Occupational Health, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Central Labour Institute, etc. are working on researchable issues like Asbestos and asbestos related diseases, Pesticide poisoning, Silica related diseases other than silicosis and Musculoskeletal disorders. Still much more is to be done for improving the occupational health research. The measures such as creation of advanced research facilities, human resources development, creation of environmental and occupational health cells and development of database and information system should be taken.

  10. India: opioid availability. An update.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, M R; Joranson, David E

    2007-05-01

    In India, a million people with cancer and an unknown number of people with other incurable and disabling diseases, need opioids for pain relief. Only about 0.4% of the population in need have access to them. Major barriers to access to opioids are complicated regulations and problems related to attitude and knowledge regarding pain relief and opioids among professionals and the public. The Pain and Policy Studies Group at Madison Wisconsin has been collaborating with many Indian palliative care workers and government officials to improve availability of opioids to those who need them for pain relief. As a result of this collaborative effort, the Government of India asked all state governments to modify the narcotic regulations following a model given to them. To facilitate the process, the collaboration has conducted workshops in 13 states in association with local champions. Currently, 13 states in India and one union territory have simplified regulations, but opioid availability has improved only in a minority of these states. Establishment of simple standard operating procedures to implement the simplified regulations, advocacy, and improved education of professionals are essential for further improvement of the situation. The past decade has demonstrated that government policy can be changed if palliative care enthusiasts work in tandem with the government. The progress has been slow, but real and encouraging.

  11. Academic emergency medicine in India.

    PubMed

    Pothiawala, Sohil; Anantharaman, Venkataraman

    2013-08-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) was recognized as a specialty by the Medical Council of India (MCI) in July 2009. As India undergoes urbanisation, cost-effective transition from managing infectious diseases to emergency management of trauma and cardio-respiratory diseases is crucial. Trained emergency healthcare workers are needed to respond effectively to these challenges. The objective was to determine the current status of academic EM training and related issues in India, and to discuss those that need to be addressed. The authors conducted electronic literature searches for articles published over an 18 year period from January 1994 to February 2013 using PubMed, Google and Yahoo databases. The references listed in the publications identified from these databases were also reviewed. Electronic literature searches revealed a multitude of 1 to 3 year training programmes, many affiliated with various foreign universities. The majority of these training programmes are offered in private healthcare institutions. MCI recognition has opened the doors for medical colleges to set up Indian specialty training programmes. Two separate Academic Councils are currently looking at EM training. The variety of programmes and separate efforts on academic development begets a need to address the issues of short-term courses being passed off as specialty training programmes, and a need for working together on national curriculum development, certification, accreditation systems and common examinations. The different organisations and academic councils could collaborate to give EM a unified scope for development. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  12. Blood banking services in India.

    PubMed

    Sardana, V N

    1996-01-01

    India's health care sector has made impressive strides toward providing health for all by the year 2000. That progress, however, has not been supported by a modern transfusion services network which continues to improve itself. In India, blood collection, storage, and delivery occur mainly in blood banks attached to hospitals, most of which are under central and state government controls. A significant portion of blood banking activity is also done by voluntary agencies and private sector blood banks. A study found the blood transfusion services infrastructure to be highly decentralized and lacking of many critical resources; an overall shortage of blood, especially from volunteer donors; limited and erratic testing facilities; an extremely limited blood component production/availability/use; and a shortage of health care professionals in the field of transfusion services. Infrastructural modernization and the technical upgrading of skills in the blood banks would, however, provide India with a dynamic transfusion services network. The safety of blood transfusion, the national blood safety program, HIV testing facilities, modernization of blood banks, the rational use of blood, program management, manpower development, the legal framework, voluntary blood donation, and a 1996 Supreme Court judgement on the need to focus greater attention upon the blood program are discussed.

  13. Introduction: why people do not accept evolution: using protistan diversity to promote evolution literacy.

    PubMed

    Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2012-01-01

    The controversy evolution vs. creationism is inherent to the incompatibility between scientific rationalism/empiricism and the belief in supernatural causation. To test this hypothesis, we conceptualized a Cartesian landscape where the dependent variable acceptance of evolution was plotted as function of three factors, each represented by an index (value range 0 to 3): Religiosity Index (RI), Science Index (SI), and Evolution Index (EI). The indexes summarized an individual's personal religious convictions, familiarity with the processes and forces of change in organisms (= concept of evolution), and understanding the essence of science (= method to explore reality). We compared and contrasted acceptance of evolution among four populations of variable educational attainment: 244 professors of New England, United States (93% Ph.D./doctorate holders), 50 protistologists from 25 countries (70% Ph.D./doctorate holders), 62 educators of prospective teachers (83% Ph.D./doctorate holders), and 827 college students. The New England faculty held the highest acceptance of evolution position (RI = 0.49; SI = 2.49; EI = 2.49), followed by the protistologists (RI = 0.46; SI = 2.30; EI = 2.48), the educators of prospective teachers (RI = 0.83; SI = 1.96; EI = 1.96), and the students (RI = 0.89; SI = 1.80; EI = 1.60); therefore, the data supported our hypothesis. Proper science education, public outreach and robust debate over the controversy "evolution versus creationism" should suffice to improve society's evolution literacy, and qualified scholars ought to lead this mission.

  14. Insights From the Diabetes in India Nutrition Guidelines Study

    PubMed Central

    Trostler, Naomi; Varsha, V.; Voet, Hillary

    2017-01-01

    This 12-month prospective randomized cluster trial of 20 dietitians in India compared usual care (UC) and evidence-based nutrition practice guideline (EBNPG) care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Baseline, 6-month, and 12-month data from 238 patients were analyzed. EBNPG implementation was evaluated using the Ottawa Model for Knowledge Transfer. EBNPG and UC groups achieved significant hemoglobin A1C improvements. EBNPG-treated participants were significantly more likely to meet low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride goals at 6 or 12 months. Dietitian dropout, implementation barriers, and undetermined EBNPG intervention fidelity are limitations. Future research should assess barriers/supports and degree of EBNPG use. PMID:28232773

  15. Groundwater Depletion and Long term Food Security in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, R.; Lall, U.; Modi, V.; Siegfried, T. U.; Narula, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    Unsustainable extraction of groundwater has led water tables to decline in many parts of India - the same parts that tend to produce most of the country’s food. Government policies like procurement and price guarantees for water intensive grains as well as subsidies on energy for pumping, originally intended to ensure national self-sufficiency in grain, are partly responsible for unsustainable groundwater extraction. The resulting groundwater depletion is associated with increasing burdens on state budgets and farmer incomes, and also risks irreversible damages to aquifers as a result of saline intrusion and other forms of pollution, processes that can undermine the prospects of long term food security. We discuss the policies and proposed solutions that might be able to maintain food security in the face of this impending crisis.

  16. The initial complication rate of phacoemulsification in India.

    PubMed

    Robin, A L; Smith, S D; Natchiar, G; Ramakrishnan, R; Srinivasan, M; Raheem, R; Hecht, W

    1997-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of teaching experienced surgeons to perform phacoemulsification in India, a cataract-endemic area. Complications occurring during surgery and the first postoperative day were documented and evaluated. During a 1-month period, at the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India, the first 100 consecutive cataract operations performed by each of three experienced surgeons (a total of 300 cases), using phacoemulsification were prospectively evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications. The mean age of patients was 57.4+/-9.3 years. The median best corrected preoperative visual acuity was 20/80. Mean surgical and phacoemulsification times were 15.8+/-3.7 minutes and 2.2+/-1.5 minutes, respectively. Complications occurred in 65 (21.7%) eyes. The most common was a rent in the posterior capsule, occurring in 40 (13.3%) eyes. There were significant variations in complication rate and in surgical time among the surgeons. The risk of experiencing a complication decreased as the number of phacoemulsifications performed increased. An increased risk of complications was associated with worse preoperative visual acuity and increasing patient age. With each successive case, the chances of experiencing a complication decreased 1%. Acceptable results were obtained within 1 month of performing the first phacoemulsification.

  17. The PROSPECT physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bignell, L.; Bowden, N. S.; Bowes, A.; Brodsky, J. P.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Commeford, K.; Conant, A. J.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Diwan, M. V.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; DuVernois, M.; Erickson, A. S.; Febbraro, M. T.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Goddard, B. W.; Green, M.; Hackett, B. T.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Insler, J.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jones, D.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Caicedo, D. A. Martinez; Matta, J. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nikkel, J. A.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Qian, X.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Sheets, S.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Trinh, C.; Varner, R. L.; Viren, B.; Wang, W.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yeh, M.; Yen, Y-R; Zangakis, G. Z.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2016-10-17

    The precision reactor oscillation and spectrum experiment, PROSPECT, is designed to make a precise measurement of the antineutrino spectrum from a highly-enriched uranium reactor and probe eV-scale sterile neutrinos by searching for neutrino oscillations over a distance of several meters. The subject of this paper, PROSPECT, is conceived as a 2-phase experiment utilizing segmented 6Li-doped liquid scintillator detectors for both efficient detection of reactor antineutrinos through the inverse beta decay reaction and excellent background discrimination. PROSPECT Phase I consists of a movable 3 ton antineutrino detector at distances of 7–12 m from the reactor core. It will probe the best-fit point of the νe disappearance experiments at 4σ in 1 year and the favored region of the sterile neutrino parameter space at > 3σ in 3 years. With a second antineutrino detector at 15–19 m from the reactor, Phase II of PROSPECT can probe the entire allowed parameter space below 10 eV2 at 5σ in 3 additional years. Finally, the measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum and the search for short-baseline oscillations with PROSPECT will test the origin of the spectral deviations observed in recent θ13 experiments, search for sterile neutrinos, and conclusively address the hypothesis of sterile neutrinos as an explanation of the reactor anomaly.

  18. The PROSPECT physics program

    DOE PAGES

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; ...

    2016-10-17

    The precision reactor oscillation and spectrum experiment, PROSPECT, is designed to make a precise measurement of the antineutrino spectrum from a highly-enriched uranium reactor and probe eV-scale sterile neutrinos by searching for neutrino oscillations over a distance of several meters. The subject of this paper, PROSPECT, is conceived as a 2-phase experiment utilizing segmented 6Li-doped liquid scintillator detectors for both efficient detection of reactor antineutrinos through the inverse beta decay reaction and excellent background discrimination. PROSPECT Phase I consists of a movable 3 ton antineutrino detector at distances of 7–12 m from the reactor core. It will probe the best-fitmore » point of the νe disappearance experiments at 4σ in 1 year and the favored region of the sterile neutrino parameter space at > 3σ in 3 years. With a second antineutrino detector at 15–19 m from the reactor, Phase II of PROSPECT can probe the entire allowed parameter space below 10 eV2 at 5σ in 3 additional years. Finally, the measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum and the search for short-baseline oscillations with PROSPECT will test the origin of the spectral deviations observed in recent θ13 experiments, search for sterile neutrinos, and conclusively address the hypothesis of sterile neutrinos as an explanation of the reactor anomaly.« less

  19. The PROSPECT physics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bignell, L.; Bowden, N. S.; Bowes, A.; Brodsky, J. P.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Commeford, K.; Conant, A. J.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Diwan, M. V.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; DuVernois, M.; Erikson, A. S.; Febbraro, M. T.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Goddard, B. W.; Green, M.; Hackett, B. T.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Insler, J.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jones, D.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Matta, J. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nikkel, J. A.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Qian, X.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Sheets, S.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Trinh, C.; Varner, R. L.; Viren, B.; Wang, W.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yeh, M.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zangakis, G. Z.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.; PROSPECT Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The precision reactor oscillation and spectrum experiment, PROSPECT, is designed to make a precise measurement of the antineutrino spectrum from a highly-enriched uranium reactor and probe eV-scale sterile neutrinos by searching for neutrino oscillations over a distance of several meters. PROSPECT is conceived as a 2-phase experiment utilizing segmented 6Li-doped liquid scintillator detectors for both efficient detection of reactor antineutrinos through the inverse beta decay reaction and excellent background discrimination. PROSPECT Phase I consists of a movable 3 ton antineutrino detector at distances of 7-12 m from the reactor core. It will probe the best-fit point of the {ν }e disappearance experiments at 4σ in 1 year and the favored region of the sterile neutrino parameter space at \\gt 3σ in 3 years. With a second antineutrino detector at 15-19 m from the reactor, Phase II of PROSPECT can probe the entire allowed parameter space below 10 eV2 at 5σ in 3 additional years. The measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum and the search for short-baseline oscillations with PROSPECT will test the origin of the spectral deviations observed in recent {θ }13 experiments, search for sterile neutrinos, and conclusively address the hypothesis of sterile neutrinos as an explanation of the reactor anomaly.

  20. PROSPECT: Optical Calibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Ken; Prospect Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum Experiment (PROSPECT), is a short baseline, reactor neutrino experiment which focuses on measurements of the flux and energy spectrum of antineutrinos emitted from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Using these measurements, PROSPECT will probe for eV-scale sterile neutrinos while making a high precision measurement of the U-235 antineutrino spectrum. PROSPECT contains two phases; the first phase consists of a mobile detector near the reactor core while the second phase adds a larger fixed detector further from the core. The PROSPECT Phase 1 detector consists of a 2ton optically segmented liquid scintillator with each segment read-out by two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs are calibrated with a photon source generated by a nanosecond pulsed laser. In this project, we developed a plan to determine the effectiveness of a 450nm fiber-pigtailed diode laser as it coupled with several modules including an optical fiber splitter, an optical diffuser, and an attenuator. The project tested for the system ability to deliver light uniformly to each of the cells in the detector. We will present the design and result of this project as well as discuss how it will be implemented in PROSPECT.

  1. Skewed sex ratios at birth and future marriage squeeze in China and India, 2005-2100.

    PubMed

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z

    2012-02-01

    I examine the potential impact of the anticipated future marriage squeeze on nuptiality patterns in China and India during the twenty-first century. I use population projections from 2005 to 2100 based on three different scenarios for the sex ratio at birth (SRB). To counteract the limitations of cross-sectional methods commonly used to assess the severity of marriage squeezes, I use a two-sex cohort-based procedure to simulate marriage patterns over the twenty-first century based on the female dominance model. I also examine two more-flexible marriage functions to illustrate the potential impact of changes in marriage schedules as a response to the marriage squeeze. Longitudinal indicators of marriage squeeze indicate that the number of prospective grooms in both countries will exceed that of prospective brides by more 50% for three decades in the most favorable scenario. Rates of male bachelorhood will not peak before 2050, and the squeeze conditions will be felt several decades thereafter, even among cohorts unaffected by adverse SRB. If the SRB is allowed to return to normalcy by 2020, the proportion of men unmarried at age 50 is expected to rise to 15% in China by 2055 and to 10% in India by 2065. India suffers from the additional impact of a delayed fertility transition on its age structures.

  2. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada. PMID:23356884

  3. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sonia S; Vasudevan, Anil; Gupta, Milan; Morrison, Katherine; Kurpad, Anura; Teo, Koon K; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2013-01-28

    People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.

  4. Uncertainties and time of emergence of multi-model precipitation projection over homogeneous rainfall zones of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Javed; Das, Lalu; Meher, Jitendra Kumar; Deb, Argha

    2017-08-01

    Present study has assessed different sources of uncertainties in multi-model precipitation projection using Global Climate Models (GCMs) from coupled model inter-comparison project phase five (CMIP5) experiment over seven homogeneous rainfall zones of India namely North Mountainous India (NMI), Northwest India (NWI), North Central India (NCI), Northeast India (NEI), West Peninsular India (WPI), East Peninsular India (EPI), and South Peninsular India (SPI). A relatively new method has been employed to separate out internal variability and climate change signal from precipitation time series before quantifying the uncertainties. In our method, signal has been defined as dynamic trend instead of considering a fixed trend line. Three different types of weighting namely equal weighting, independence based weighting and performance based weighting have been employed to assess the uncertainties of GCM projection over different zones. It has been found that ensemble with performance based weighting has produced smaller inter-model uncertainty but the patterns of temporal evolution of uncertainties have been quite irregular compared to other two ensembles. On the other hand, it has been noticed that bias correction using quantile mapping can effectively reduce the range of uncertainty in a systematic way. It has been observed that inter-model uncertainties over NEI has been relatively lower compared to other zones indicating more robust projection over this zone. A dynamic threshold on signal-to-internal variability ratio (S/I) has been used for estimating time of emergence (TOE) at 95% confidence level over each zone. TOE would be earlier in case of NEI and late in NMI. However no zone may experience TOE in first half of the present century.

  5. India's growing participation in global clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Yogendra K; Padhy, Biswa M

    2011-06-01

    Lower operational costs, recent regulatory reforms and several logistic advantages make India an attractive destination for conducting clinical trials. Efforts for maintaining stringent ethical standards and the launch of Pharmacovigilance Program of India are expected to maximize the potential of the country for clinical research. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Higher Education in India: A Comprehensive Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raza, Moonis; Malhotra, Nirmal

    This book provides a comprehensive bibliography of higher education in India. It constitutes a resource for scholars, policymakers, planners, and administrators concerned with higher education in India. The book contains 2,485 entries arranged under 50 themes. Each theme is classified into four types of material: books; articles; annotated…

  7. The Health Sciences Library Network for India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathan, A. Majid; Karisidappa, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the need for a medical and health sciences library network system in India to provide access to biomedical materials. The steps involved in network planning, implementation, and evaluation are outlined, and a hierarchical network model for India is proposed. (CLB)

  8. Teaching India. Footnotes. Volume 11, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    On March 11-12, 2006 the FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 16 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about India. Sessions included: (1) Why It's Important to Know about India (Ainslie T. Embree); (2) Early Indian History (Richard H. Davis); (3) Modern Indian History (Marc…

  9. Reimbursement for critical care services in India

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Raja; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    There are significant variations in critical care practices, costs, and reimbursements in various countries. Of note, there is a paucity of reliable information on remuneration and reimbursement models for intensivists in India. This review article aims to analyze the existing reimbursement models in United States and United Kingdom and propose a frame-work model that may be applicable in India. PMID:23833469

  10. PVWatts (R) Calculator India (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    The PVWatts (R) Calculator for India was released by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2013. The online tool estimates electricity production and the monetary value of that production of grid-connected roof- or ground-mounted crystalline silicon photovoltaics systems based on a few simple inputs. This factsheet provides a broad overview of the PVWatts (R) Calculator for India.

  11. Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.

    2009-05-15

    India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Mathematics Curriculum in India and Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Seok Hoon; Thirumurthy, Vidya

    This paper compares and analyzes preschool mathematics education in Singapore and India in terms of strategies, learning activities, teacher expectations, and parental involvement. The paper describes the mathematics curriculum of one school in Erode, India, including teaching methods, and in Singapore. The results of a parent survey in each…

  13. Language and Literacy: The Case of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sridhar, Kamal K.

    Language and literacy issues in India are reviewed in terms of background, steps taken to combat illiteracy, and some problems associated with literacy. The following facts are noted: India has 106 languages spoken by more than 685 million people, there are several minor script systems, a major language has different dialects, a language may use…

  14. The "Countrywide Classroom": Reaching India's Rural Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Connie

    1992-01-01

    Describes the coproduction by Indiana University of Pennsylvania and the University of Poona (India) of educational videos for use in India's Countrywide Classroom, which presents educational programing via national television hook-ups. Some of the topics of the productions to date are summarized, reflecting an effort to provide variety and…

  15. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. PMID:25101562

  16. Rheumatology in India--quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Handa, Rohini

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatology has been a neglected subspecialty in India. A staggering patient load, a severely inadequate number of trained rheumatology specialists, therapeutic nihilism and limited advocacy are some of the critical challenges that confront rheumatology care, and possibly explain the high rates of reliance on complementary and alternative medicines in India. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns are not remarkably different from those in other countries, but biologic agents have limited use and are administered for short periods only. Consequently, outcomes in India do not yet match those reported in developed countries. Furthermore, the high prevalence of infectious diseases continues to be a major contributor to mortality in patients with rheumatic disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Several tropical diseases with rheumatic manifestations are relevant in India, including chikungunya, brucellosis, leptospirosis, dengue and melioidosis. To address the many problems with rheumatology care in India, curricular reforms, capacity building, patient education and political support are sorely needed.

  17. NONMELANOMA SKIN CANCER IN INDIA: CURRENT SCENARIO

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Saumya

    2010-01-01

    Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy. Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin. Though national surveys and cross-country data in India are unavailable, there are indirect indications from several smaller reports that NMSCs may be on the rise in India. Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India. The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis. Novel management techniques currently available in India are also highlighted. PMID:21430894

  18. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in India: current scenario.

    PubMed

    Panda, Saumya

    2010-10-01

    Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy. Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin. Though national surveys and cross-country data in India are unavailable, there are indirect indications from several smaller reports that NMSCs may be on the rise in India. Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India. The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis. Novel management techniques currently available in India are also highlighted.

  19. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review.

    PubMed

    Chandy, S; Abraham, S; Sridharan, G

    2008-11-01

    The emerging viral diseases haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are a cause of global concern as they are increasingly reported from newer regions of the world. The hantavirus species causing HFRS include Hantaan virus,Seoul virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus while Sin Nombre virus was responsible for the 1993 outbreak of HCPS in the Four Corners Region of the US. Humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols generated from contaminated urine,feces and saliva of infected rodents. Rodents are the natural hosts of these viruses and develop persistent infection. Human to human infections are rare and the evolution of the virus depends largely on that of the rodent host. The first hantavirus isolate to be cultured, Thottapalayam virus,is the only indigenous isolate from India,isolated from an insectivore in 1964 in Vellore, South India. Research on hantaviruses in India has been slow but steady since 2005. Serological investigation of patients with pyrexic illness revealed presence of anti-hantavirus IgM antibodies in 14.7% of them. The seropositivity of hantavirus infections in the general population is about 4% and people who live and work in close proximity with rodents have a greater risk of acquiring hantavirus infections. Molecular and serological evidence of hantavirus infections in rodents and man has also been documented in this country. The present review on hantaviruses is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system.

  20. Evolution of rhinology.

    PubMed

    Kaluskar, S K

    2008-06-01

    The study of the nose is as old as civilisation. Various conditions affecting its structure and function has been documented in Edwin Smith Papyrus in hieroglyphic script, an Egyptian writing system of the mid -4th Millennium BC.The major contribution for the complete reconstruction of the nose originated in India by Sushruta in around 600 BC. Writing in Sanskrit in the form of verses he described in detail the technique of total reconstruction, which is still being practiced today as Indian Rhinoplasty. This surgical reconstruction paved the way to modern plastic surgery in Europe and United States in 18th century. Sushruta contributed not only to the plastic surgery of the nose, but described entire philosophy of Head and Neck and other surgery as well. Other notable contributors were Greek physicians, Hippocrate and Galen, and at the birth of the Christianity, Celsus wrote eight books of medical encyclopaedia, which described various conditions affecting nose.Septal and Sinus surgery, in comparison to rhinoplasty did not develop until 17th century. Septal surgery began with total septectomy, sub mucous resection by Killian & Freer in early 20th century and later septoplasty by Cottle in middle of 20th century.Sinus surgery probably originated in Egypt, where instruments were used to remove brain through the ethmoid sinuses as part of the mummification process. In 18th century, empyema of the maxillary sinus was drained through the tooth socket or anterior wall of the sinus, which lead to the evolution of radical procedures of removal of mucous membrane and inferior meatal antrostomy. In the late 20th century, improved understanding of the mucociliary mechanism described by Prof. Messerklinger and Nasal Endoscopy described by Prof. Draf with the development of fibre optics and CT imaging, heralded a new era, which evolved in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. New technology further enhanced the scope of endoscope being used "around and beyond" the nose.