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Sample records for indian black scorpion

  1. Anaphylaxis to scorpion antivenin and its management following envenomation by Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus

    PubMed Central

    Bhoite, Rahul Ramesh; Bhoite, Girija Ramesh; Bagdure, Dayanand N.; Bawaskar, Himmatrao S.

    2015-01-01

    Mesobuthus tamulus is an Indian red scorpion that is responsible for numerous cases of scorpion stings in the Indian subcontinent. Antivenin, vasodilators, and benzodiazepines are medications of choice in the treatment of scorpion bites. Adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis to antivenin have been infrequently described in the literature. We, herein, present a case of a 42-year-old man stung by Indian red scorpion while gardening at home in India, who presented with extreme pain at the sting site and signs of cardio-toxicity. He was treated with scorpion antivenin and vasodilators but developed anaphylaxis to antivenin. We discuss management strategies. Anaphylaxis to antivenin should be on the differential during management of scorpion bites because classical signs of anaphylaxis may be absent. PMID:26430342

  2. A high molecular weight protein Bengalin from the Indian black scorpion (Heterometrus bengalensis C.L. Koch) venom having antiosteoporosis activity in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Subhash; Das Gupta, Shubho; Gomes, Aparna; Giri, Biplab; Dasgupta, Subir Chandra; Biswas, Ajay; Mishra, Roshnara; Gomes, Antony

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the presence of a high molecular weight protein (Bengalin) from the Indian black scorpion (Heterometrus bengalensis) venom having antiosteoporosis activity in experimental osteoporosis developed in female albino Wister rats. Bengalin was purified through DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of the Bengalin was found to be 72kDa and the first 20 amino acid sequence was found to be G-P-L-T-I-L-H-I-N-D-V-H-A-A/R-F-E-Q/G-F/G-N-T. Bengalin exhibited significant antiosteoporosis activity in experimental female rats, which was confirmed through analysis of urine Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), CRE & OH-P. Bengalin (3 microg and 5 microg/100g rat/i.p.) antagonized osteoporosis by restoring urinary Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), CRE and OH-P, serum/plasma Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), ALP, TRAP, PTH, T(3), TSH, Osteocalcin, IL1, IL6 and TNF alpha and bone minerals Ca(2+), P, Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Na(+), as compared with the sham operated control rats. Bone minerals density of osteoporosis female rats was improved due to Bengalin, observed through DEXA scan. Subacute toxicity studies in male albino mice, Bengalin showed cardiotoxicity. In vivo experiments, Bengalin showed cardiotoxicity on isolated guinea pig heart, guinea pig auricle, and neurotoxicity on isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation. Further detail studies on the toxicity, antiosteoporosis and structural identity of Bengalin are warranted. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinico-epidemiology of stings and envenoming of Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae), the Indian red scorpion from Jaffna Peninsula in northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Dinamithra, Nandana P; Sivansuthan, Sivapalan; Weerakoon, Kosala G A D; Thillaimpalam, Bhanu; Kalyanasundram, Vithiya; Ranawana, Kithsiri B

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, stings of a lethal scorpion species were recorded from Jaffna Peninsula in the northern dry zone of Sri Lanka. This species was identified as Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) which is the Indian red scorpion commonly found in Maharashtra, India. The Teaching Hospital, Jaffna recorded 84 H. tamulus stings over a year in 2012 and of them, 23 cases provided offending scorpions (proven cases). Three localities in Jaffna were recorded as hotspots of scorpion stings namely Palali, Achchuvali and Karainagar. Of the proven cases, 13 (57%) and 10 (43%) were males and females respectively and had a mean age of 30 years (SD ± 20 years). Among them, 5 (22%) were children below 12 years. In 13 (57%) patients stings occurred inside their houses including two children (40%). Six (26%) stings occurred at night when the victims were in sleep. Median time taken to arrive at the hospital from the time of stinging was 58 min (range 8-550 min). Signs of over activation of autonomic nervous system predominated the clinical picture-tachycardia in 14 (61%), high blood pressure in 11 (48%), excessive sweating in 9 (39%), excessive salivation in 5 (22%), hypotension in 4 (17%) and piloerection in 3 (13%). Children showed higher predilection to develop tachycardia - 4 (80%) and excessive salivation - 3 (60%). Priapism was not observed and 17 (74%) patients have developed intense pain at the site of sting. The commonest ECG change was tachycardia (73%) and occasional T wave inversion. Prazosin as a treatment was given to 22 (96%) patients. All patients made recovery and 13 (57%) patients left the hospital within two days. In future, there is a potential risk of spreading this species to elsewhere in the country and may disturb the ecological balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Proteomic analysis of the venom of Heterometrus longimanus (Asian black scorpion).

    PubMed

    Bringans, Scott; Eriksen, Soren; Kendrick, Tulene; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Livk, Andreja; Lock, Robert; Lipscombe, Richard

    2008-03-01

    Venoms have evolved over millions of years into potent cocktails of bioactive peptides and proteins. These compounds can be of great value to the pharmaceutical industry for numerous clinical applications. In this study, a novel proteomic - bioinformatic approach was utilised, where chromatography followed by gel electrophoresis was utilised to separate the venom peptides/proteins of Heterometrus longimanus (Asian black scorpion). Purified peptides were analysed by tandem mass spectrometry, de novo sequenced and then homology matched against known peptides in the Swiss-Prot protein database. Numerous potentially biologically active peptide matches were discovered, and a simple scoring system applied to putatively assign functions to the peptides. As a validation of this approach, the functional composition of the experimentally derived proteome is similar to that of other scorpions, and contains a potent mix of toxins, antimicrobials and ionic channel inhibitors.

  5. Solution structure of BTK-2, a novel hK(v)1.1 inhibiting scorpion toxin, from the eastern Indian scorpion Mesobuthus tamulus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Senthil; Upadhyay, Sanjeev; Mathew, M K; Sarma, Siddhartha P

    2011-04-01

    The three dimensional structure of a 32 residue three disulfide scorpion toxin, BTK-2, from the Indian red scorpion Mesobuthus tamulus has been determined using isotope edited solution NMR methods. Samples for structural and electrophysiological studies were prepared using recombinant DNA methods. Electrophysiological studies show that the peptide is active against hK(v)1.1 channels. The structure of BTK-2 was determined using 373 distance restraints from NOE data, 66 dihedral angle restraints from NOE, chemical shift and scalar coupling data, 6 constraints based on disulfide linkages and 8 constraints based on hydrogen bonds. The root mean square deviation (r.m.s.d) about the averaged co-ordinates of the backbone (N, C(α), C') and all heavy atoms are 0.81 ± 0.23Å and 1.51 ± 0.29Å respectively. The backbone dihedral angles (ϕ and ψ) for all residues occupy the favorable and allowed regions of the Ramachandran map. The three dimensional structure of BTK-2 is composed of three well defined secondary structural regions that constitute the α-β-β structural motif. Comparisons between the structure of BTK-2 and other closely related scorpion toxins pointed towards distinct differences in surface properties that provide insights into the structure-function relationships among this important class of voltage-gated potassium channel inhibiting peptides.

  6. Predictors of Myocardial Dysfunction in Children with Indian Red Scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus) Sting Envenomation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P M Ananda; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Harichandrakumar, K T

    2015-04-01

    To identify predictive risk factors for myocardial dysfunction in children with scorpion sting envenomation and to evaluate the effects of Scorpion antivenom and prazosin combination therapy on occurrence of myocardial dysfunction. Observational. Tertiary care hospital in Southern India. 85 children aged <13 years with scorpion sting envenomation. Frequency of myocardial dysfunction; predictors of myocardial dysfunction. 24 children (28.2%) developed myocardial dysfunction. Hypotension at admission (P=0.003) and increased time (>4h) between sting and administration of appropriate therapy (P=0.001) were independent predictors of myocardial dysfunction on logistic regression. Scorpion antivenom plus prazosin combination therapy led to an increase in cumulative proportion of children without myocardial dysfunction. Early (<4 hours) administration of Scorpion antivenom along with prazosin increases the cumulative percentage of children not developing myocardial dysfunction.

  7. Indian scorpions collected in Karnataka: maintenance in captivity, venom extraction and toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Santhosh Kambaiah; Dattatreya, Pavana; Boramuthi, Thippeswamy Nayaka

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of scorpions under laboratory conditions is ideal for long-term venom collection to explore the therapeutic applications of scorpion venom. Collection of venom by electrical stimulation requires a reliable stimulator and effective restrainer. Thus, the present study was conducted to develop a convenient method to maintain scorpions and to extract their venom for toxicity studies via a modified restrainer and stimulator. Four different scorpion species were collected, among which three species were maintained in the laboratory in containers that mimic their natural habitat. Venom was extracted from Hottentotta rugiscutis by electrical stimulation at 8 V for 18 months and LD50 was estimated by the graphic method of Miller and Tainter. A total of 373 scorpions including Hottentotta rugiscutis, Hottentotta tamulus, Lychas tricarinatus and Heterometrus swammerdami were collected, identified and maintained successfully, achieving a 97 % survival rate. Hottentotta rugiscutis yielded 6.0 mL of venom by electrical stimulation. The LD50 of H. rugiscutis venom was estimated to be 3.02 mg/kg of body weight in female Swiss albino mice. Scorpions were successfully maintained for 18 months. Herein we have also documented a simple, cost-effective method of venom extraction by electrical stimulation using a modified restrainer. Furthermore, Hottentotta rugiscutis was reported for the first time in Karnataka.

  8. Biochemical and enzymatic changes after black scorpion Heterometrus fastigiousus Couzijn envenomation in experimental albino mice.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar; Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2008-10-01

    The toxic effects of Asian black scorpion Heterometrus fastigiousus (Family, Scorpionidae) venom were determined in albino mice (NIH strain). Venom was isolated and fractioned by Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. The toxicity of fractioned venom was determined in albino mice by subcutaneous envenomation. The LD(50) of venom was found to be 15 mg kg(-1) body weight and range of molecular weight of venom proteins responsible for toxicity was found from 9.5-63 kDs. The effects of fractioned venom on different biochemical and enzymatic parameters in blood serum and gastrocnemius muscle tissue of albino mice were determined after experimental envenomation. An increase in serum levels of glucose, free amino acids, uric acid, pyruvic acid and total protein was observed while a decrease in the cholesterol level in serum was observed after 4 h of envenomation. Increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) enzyme activity in serum was observed. Glycogen content in liver, atria, ventricle, rectus abdominus and gastrocnemius muscle was decreased after experimental envenomation. Activity of ALP, ACP, LDH, GPT, AChE and Na+K+ATPase enzymes in gastrocnemius muscle tissue of envenomed albino mice was studied. Inhibition in ALP, AChE and Na+K+ATPase enzyme activity and increase in ACP, LDH and GPT enzyme activity was observed in gastrocnemius muscle after scorpion envenomation. In vitro studies with AChE and Na+K+ATPase enzymes indicated that enzymatic activity of AChE was inhibited competitively by fractioned venom in gastrocnemius muscle.

  9. Scorpion Stings

    MedlinePlus

    Scorpion sting Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Scorpion stings are painful but rarely life-threatening. Young children, and sometimes ... to be fatal. But with millions of scorpion stings occurring each year, often in areas with a ...

  10. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose reverses the Indian red scorpion venom-induced cardiopulmonary abnormalities in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, P K; Pandey, R; Deshpande, S B

    2011-01-01

    Role of 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) in reversing the Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis Pocock, MBT) venom-induced toxicity was examined. Femoral arterial pressure, ECG and respiratory movements were recorded in urethane anesthetized rats. Plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were also estimated. Intravenous injection of 5 mg/kg MBT venom produced immediate decrease in mean arterial pressure, heart rate and respiratory frequency followed by an increase and subsequent progressive decrease. ECG pattern exhibited ischaemic changes. There was hyperinsulinemia after venom without corresponding decrease in plasma glucose. The animals died within 37 +/- 9 min and demonstrated significant increase in pulmonary water content. 2-DG pretreatment (0.5 g/kg, iv) improved the cardiopulmonary abnormalities induced by venom and the animals survived for nearly 120 min. There was no hyperinsulinemia and increased pulmonary water content in these animals. In insulin (2 IU/kg) treated rats, the MBT venom-induced cardiopulmonary abnormalities were attenuated and ECG abnormalities were reversed. The pulmonary water content in these animals exhibited a decreasing trend and the animals survived for 120 min. Repaglinide (10 microg/kg, iv) pretreatment failed to reverse the venom-induced cardiopulmonary changes including the increased pulmonary water content. The survival time was similar to venom only group. The present results reveal that 2-DG reverses the venom-induced cardiopulmonary toxicity probably by restoring insulin sensitivity.

  11. Hey! A Scorpion Stung Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... arachnid family, which also includes mites, ticks , and spiders. Scorpions are about 3 inches long (about the ... A Bee Stung Me! Hey! A Black Widow Spider Bit Me! Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! Hey! ...

  12. Black Hawk. The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Maggi

    Born in 1767, Black Hawk was the last great war leader of the Sauk Indians, who lived in the Rock River valley in Illinois. By age 25, he was a famed warrior and leader of his people who raided neighboring tribes until a period of peace and prosperity began about 1800. Various treaties of which the Sauk knew and understood very little deprived the…

  13. Black Hawk. The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Maggi

    Born in 1767, Black Hawk was the last great war leader of the Sauk Indians, who lived in the Rock River valley in Illinois. By age 25, he was a famed warrior and leader of his people who raided neighboring tribes until a period of peace and prosperity began about 1800. Various treaties of which the Sauk knew and understood very little deprived the…

  14. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  15. Indians at Hampton Institute, 1877-1923. Blacks in the New World [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Donal F.

    The Hampton Institute near Williamsburg, Virginia, was founded during Reconstruction as a normal school for the industrial education of Blacks. In 1877, the school began a program to educate American Indians. Although only 1,388 Indian students attended the Institute during its history, it significantly influenced Indian policy and Indian…

  16. Indians at Hampton Institute, 1877-1923. Blacks in the New World [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Donal F.

    The Hampton Institute near Williamsburg, Virginia, was founded during Reconstruction as a normal school for the industrial education of Blacks. In 1877, the school began a program to educate American Indians. Although only 1,388 Indian students attended the Institute during its history, it significantly influenced Indian policy and Indian…

  17. Scorpions and scorpionism in Iran's central desert.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Jalil; Saghafipour, Abedin; Mozaffari, Ehsan; Keyhani, Amir; Jesri, Nahid

    2017-02-01

    Venomous scorpions have extreme importance in field of medicine and public health. This descriptive - analytic study was done to identify scorpion fauna, their ecological aspects as well as scorpionism for risk management and prevention of this health problem in Iran's central desert. Four urban and fifteen rural areas with various climates and topography locations were selected for monthly scorpion collection through a randomly cluster sampling in 2013. The clinical data was obtained from questionnaires provided in 2009-2014. Totally, 1481 scorpion sting cases were recorded. The majority were treated less than 6h after the sting. Statistical tests showed significant difference between season, scorpion's color, living place of patients and scorpionism cases. Plain areas had the most occurrence of scorpionism followed by foothills. Moreover, 311 scorpion samples belonged to 7 species of Buthidae were collected. Mesobuthus eupeus was the dominant species in both rural and urban areas. Most of the collected samples were from indoors, yards and around the houses. The most scorpion activity was recorded in the summer. The studied areas had rich scorpion fauna due to various climates and topography locations. Scorpion stings can be important and fatal in this area, particularly in the plain regions with semi-desert climate. An investigation for assessment of peoples' awareness on prevention methods of scorpionism and also the determination and the assessment of effective factors on reducing the elapsed time between scorpion stings and receiving medical care are here recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Polypyrazolylborates: Scorpionates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimenko, Swiatoslaw

    2005-01-01

    Scorpionate-type ligands and the original polypyrazolylborates are easy to synthesize, have good stability, and are quite user-friendly. Their thallium(I) salts are readily soluble in organic solvents that permits their use in organic media, or in two-phase aquo-organic solvent mixtures.

  19. The West Indian As An Ethnic Stereotype In Black American Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lloyd W.

    1971-01-01

    The role of the West Indian in Negro Literature is analyzed to show how the stereotype developed and then changed. The stereotype of the monkey-chaser is giving way to an archtype of revolutionary black consciousness. (Author/MS)

  20. Emergent management of scorpion sting.

    PubMed

    Kluz-Zawadzka, Jolanta; Hartman-Ksycińska, Anna; Lewandowski, Bogumił

    2014-01-01

    Scorpionism (syndrome of scorpion stings) is an important public health problem in many regions of the world, not only in tropics and subtropics. As scorpions may be unintentionally transported to any place in the world and keeping scorpions as pets is becoming more popular, scorpion stings occur also in Poland. Therefore, health professionals should have the knowledge on the management of scorpion stings. This article discusses a case who was stung by scorpion and proposes an algorithm of management with such patients.

  1. Scorpion fish sting

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, ... are also found in aquariums worldwide. Symptoms A scorpion fish sting causes intense pain and swelling at the site ...

  2. Insects and Scorpions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Workplace Safety and Health Topics Insects & Scorpions Bees, Wasps, and Hornets Fire Ants Scorpions Additional Resources Hazards ... outdoor workers. Stinging or biting insects include bees, wasps, hornets, and fire ants. The health effects of ...

  3. Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Mary C.

    This study of the attitudes and status of West Indian immigrants in the United States, based on interviews with 59 West Indian immigrants, 83 adolescent and young adult children of immigrants, 27 African Americans, 25 White Americans, and 6 coworkers of immigrants shows the changes that occur as immigrants confront the realities of U.S. life. West…

  4. Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Mary C.

    This study of the attitudes and status of West Indian immigrants in the United States, based on interviews with 59 West Indian immigrants, 83 adolescent and young adult children of immigrants, 27 African Americans, 25 White Americans, and 6 coworkers of immigrants shows the changes that occur as immigrants confront the realities of U.S. life. West…

  5. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    PubMed

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  6. Hey! A Scorpion Stung Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous scorpion from one that is harmless, all scorpion stings must be treated by a doctor. Capture the ... you to the doctor. Knowing the type of scorpion that caused the sting may make treatment easier. What a Doctor Will ...

  7. Scorpion sting: update.

    PubMed

    Bawaskar, Himmatrao Saluba; Bawaskar, Pramodini Himmatrao

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion envenomation is an important public health hazard in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Envenomation by scorpions can result in a wide range of clinical effects, including, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and respiratory dysfunction. Out of 1500 scorpion species known to exist, about 30 are of medical importance. Although a variety of different scorpion species exist, majority of them produce similar cardiovascular effects. Scientists and clinicians have studied patho-physiology of scorpion envenomation by critical observations of clinical, neurotransmitters studies, radioisotope studies, echocardiography and haemodynamic patterns. Regimen including scorpion antivenom, vasodilators, intensive care management have been tried to alleviate the systemic effects of envenoming. In spite of advances in patho-physiology and therapy the mortality remains high in rural areas due to lack of access to medical facilities, moreover the medical attendee from developing tropical countries may not be aware of the advances in the treatment of scorpion sting. Since the advent of scorpion Antivenom, vasodilators, dobutamine and intensive care facilities, the fatality due to severe scorpion sting has been significantly reduced in areas where these treatment modalities are used.

  8. Scorpion image segmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  9. Spermatogonial stem cells in the testis of an endangered bovid: Indian black buck (Antilope cervicapra L.).

    PubMed

    Goel, Sandeep; Reddy, Niranjan; Mahla, Ranjeet Singh; Suman, Sanjay Kumar; Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra

    2011-07-01

    Numerous wild bovids are facing threat of extinction owing to the loss of habitat and various other reasons. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) represent the only germline stem cells in adult body that are capable of self-renewal and that can undergo differentiation to produce haploid germ cells. SSCs can, therefore, serve as a useful resource for preservation of germplasm of threatened and endangered mammals. The Indian black buck (Antilope cervicapra L.) is a small Indian antelope that is listed as endangered by the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Immunohistochemical analysis of testes tissues of black buck revealed the presence of spermatogonia that were specifically stained by lectin-Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA). The expression of pluripotent cell-specific markers, NANOG and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1), was detected in spermatogonia. Interestingly, the expression of POU5F1 (OCT3/4) was absent from spermatogonia, however, it was detected in differentiating cells such as spermatocytes and round spermatids but not in elongated spermatids. The expression of NANOG protein was also present in spermatocytes but absent in round and elongated spermatids. Using the testis transplantation assay, stem cell potential of black buck spermatogonia was confirmed as indicated by the presence of colonized DBA-stained cells in the basal membrane of seminiferous tubules of xenotransplanted mice testis. The findings from this study suggest the presence of SSCs in the testis of an endangered bovid for the first time and open new possibility to explore the use of SSCs in conservation.

  10. Scorpions: a presentation.

    PubMed

    Goyffon, Max; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-07-21

    Scorpions, at least the species of the family Buthidæ whose venoms are better known, appear as animals that have evolved very little over time. The composition of their venoms is relatively simple as most toxins have a common structural motif that is found in other venoms from primitive species. Moreover, all the scorpion venom toxins principally act on membrane ionic channels of excitable cells. The results of recent works lead to the conclusion that in scorpions there is a close relationship between venomous function and innate immune function both remarkably efficient.

  11. Scorpions: A Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Goyffon, Max; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Scorpions, at least the species of the family Buthidæ whose venoms are better known, appear as animals that have evolved very little over time. The composition of their venoms is relatively simple as most toxins have a common structural motif that is found in other venoms from primitive species. Moreover, all the scorpion venom toxins principally act on membrane ionic channels of excitable cells. The results of recent works lead to the conclusion that in scorpions there is a close relationship between venomous function and innate immune function both remarkably efficient. PMID:25133517

  12. Nephrotic syndrome after scorpion sting.

    PubMed

    Boju, Sangeetha Lakshmi; Mogili, Hari Krishna Reddy; Ram, R; Vishnubotla, Siva Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Scorpion venom is a water soluble, antigenic and heterogeneous mixture. The venom is composed of varying concentration of neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, nephrotoxin, haemolytic toxin, phosphodiesterase, phospholipases, hyaluronidases, glycosaminoglycans, histamine, serotonins, and tryptophan and cytokine releasers. The reported incidence of scorpion sting in India is 0.6 %. Scorpion sting resulting in acute renal failure has been reported in the past, but not the nephrotic syndrome. We report a patient of nephrotic syndrome after scorpion sting. The lacunae in the present knowledge linking scorpion sting venom with nephrotic syndrome would only be replete with publications of similar reports.

  13. Scorpion fauna and epidemiological aspects of scorpionism in southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Jalil; Mozafari, Ehsan; Saghafipour, Abedin; Kiyani, Malek

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the scorpion fauna and classify the epidemiological aspects of scorpionism in an endemic region, Southeast Iran. Methods Scorpionism data were collected from health centers and hospitals in Sistan-Baluchestan Province during 2010-2011. Specimens were collected at night, using UV light, between May and October 2012. Results In total, 246 scorpions were collected from two families (Buthidae and Scorpionidae). Five species including Odontobuthus odonturus, Hottentotta (Buthotus) jayakari, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Scorpio maurus and Orthochirus scrobiculosus are reported for the first time from this area. Androctonus crassicauda was the dominant species. In total, 3 638 scorpion sting cases were recorded by health system, the majority of which were females. Stings mostly occurred in July and the age group of 15-24 years presented the highest frequency. Scorpionism decreased during 2011 compared with that in 2010 (68.2%). Conclusions Based on the results, scorpionism is a serious health problem in this area and increasing knowledge of residents regarding the prevention methods of scorpion stings is recommended. Additional research on the scorpion fauna, their ecological and molecular variety in this part of the country is needed as well as the correlation between scorpions' species and the clinical signs and symptoms. PMID:25183084

  14. Scorpion sting nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Chaitanya

    2011-01-01

    Scorpion envenomations are ubiquitous, but nephropathy is a rare manifestation, reported mainly from the Middle East and North Africa. Rapid venom redistribution from blood, delayed excretion from the kidneys, direct toxicity of venom enzymes, cytokine release and afferent arteriolar constriction have been seen in experimental animals. Haemoglobinuria, acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and haemolytic–uraemic syndrome have been documented in human victims of scorpion envenomation. Epidemiology, venom components and toxins, effects on the laboratory mammals especially the kidneys and reports of renal failure in humans are reviewed in this article. PMID:25984198

  15. Radiative effects of black carbon aerosols on Indian monsoon: a study using WRF-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Pramod; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand; Srivastava, Rajesh

    2017-02-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is utilized to examine the radiative effects of black carbon (BC) aerosols on the Indian monsoon, for the year 2010. Five ensemble simulations with different initial conditions (1st to 5th December, 2009) were performed and simulation results between 1st January, 2010 to 31st December, 2010 were used for analysis. Most of the BC which stays near the surface during the pre-monsoon season gets transported to higher altitudes with the northward migration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during the monsoon season. In both the seasons, strong negative SW anomalies are present at the surface along with positive anomalies in the atmosphere, which results in the surface cooling and lower tropospheric heating, respectively. During the pre-monsoon season, lower troposphere heating causes increased convection and enhanced meridional wind circulation, bringing moist air from Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal to the North-East India, leading to increased rainfall there. However, during the monsoon season, along with cooling over the land regions, a warming over the Bay of Bengal is simulated. This differential heating results in an increased westerly moisture flux anomaly over central India, leading to increased rainfall over northern parts of India but decreased rainfall over southern parts. Decreased rainfall over southern India is also substantiated by the presence of increased evaporation over Bay of Bengal and decrease over land regions.

  16. Capillaria hepatica infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) on Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Vogt, Scott; Guzman, Antenor N; Vice, Daniel S; Pitt, William C; Shiels, Aaron B; Spraker, Terry R

    2015-03-01

    Rats (Rattus spp.) are among the most damaging invasive species worldwide. The accidental introduction of rats has caused significant detriment to native flora and fauna, crops, structures, and human livelihoods. Rats are vectors of disease and carriers of various zoonotic parasites. Capillaria hepatica (syn. Callodium hepaticum) is a parasitic nematode found primarily in rodents but is known to infect over 140 mammal species, including human beings and several species of domestic animals. In this case study, the presence of C. hepatica infection in black rats on Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory, is reported. Liver samples from 20 black rats (Rattus rattus) were collected during a concurrent population density estimation study. Histology revealed 15 (75%) of the rats sampled had a current or previous infection with C. hepatica. In addition, a larval cestode compatible in size and shape with Cysticercus fasciolaris, the larval stage of Taenia taeniaeformis of cats, was found in 3 (15%) of the rats sampled. The high prevalence of C. hepatica infection in rats on Diego Garcia has implications for human health given the high population density of rats found on the island. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Pharmacological evaluation of phytochemicals from South Indian Black Turmeric (Curcuma caesia Roxb.) to target cancer apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mukunthan, K S; Satyan, R S; Patel, T N

    2017-09-14

    Curcuma caesia Roxb. (Black turmeric), a perennial herb of the family Zingiberaceae is indigenous to India. C. caesia is used as a spice, food preservative and coloring agent commonly in the Indian subcontinent. Functional parametric pharmacological evaluations like drug ability and toxicity profile of this endangered species is poorly documented. In our present study, among all the extracts of dried C. caesia rhizome viz- hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water tested for free radical scavenging capacity by total antioxidant activity (TAO) method, Hexane Rhizome Extract (HRE) was found to possess remarkable activity (1200mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100g). In MTT assay across three cancer cell lines and a control cell line, HRE exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition only in cancer cells, with notable activity in HepG2 cell lines (IC50: 0976µg/mL). Further, western blotting and flow cytometry experiments proved that HRE induces cell arrest at G2/M phase along with cellular apoptosis as suggestive by multiple-point mitochondrial mediated intrinsic pathway of Programmed Cell Death (PCD). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of HRE suggested twenty compounds that when docked in silico with Tubulin (1SA0) and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/ EGFR (1XKK) showed very intimate binding with the original ligands. Our results provided significant evidence of the toxicity mechanisms of HRE that may be beneficial for more rational applications of drug discovery for slowing down cancer progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Confronting the "Indian summer monsoon response to black carbon aerosol" with the uncertainty in its radiative forcing and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Mahajan, Salil

    2016-07-01

    While black carbon aerosols (BC) are believed to modulate the Indian monsoons, the radiative forcing estimate of BC suffers from large uncertainties globally. We analyze a suite of idealized experiments forced with a range of BC concentrations that span a large swath of the latest estimates of its global radiative forcing. Within those bounds of uncertainty, summer precipitation over the Indian region increases nearly linearly with the increase in BC burden. The linearity holds even as the BC concentration is increased to levels resembling those hypothesized in nuclear winter scenarios, despite large surface cooling over India and adjoining regions. The enhanced monsoonal circulation is associated with a linear increase in the large-scale meridional tropospheric temperature gradient. The precipitable water over the region also increases linearly with an increase in BC burden, due to increased moisture transport from the Arabian sea to the land areas. The wide range of Indian monsoon response elicited in these experiments emphasizes the need to reduce the uncertainty in BC estimates to accurately quantify their role in modulating the Indian monsoons. The increase in monsoonal circulation in response to large BC concentrations contrasts earlier findings that the Indian summer monsoon may break down following a nuclear war.

  19. Lizard Bite Masquerading as Scorpion Sting Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Neelannavar, Ramesh; Patil, Shankargouda; Lakhkar, Bhavana; Shegji, Vijaykumar

    2016-01-01

    Lizard bite is very infrequent in children. Lizards tend to avoid confrontation. Bites are only inflicted when they are manipulated or when they are cornered and feel threatened. Lizard bites may be frightening but most do not cause serious health problems. The wall lizard or gecko, found in most homes, is not poisonous at all. It only checks insect population. A two-year-old boy was brought with history of lizard bite over right hand when he was trying to capture it. The child had experienced excessive sweating and irritability within two hours of bite. He was treated with supportive care. Prazosin hydrochloride was administered in the dose of 30μ/kg as his symptoms mimicked the autonomic storm which is typically seen with scorpion sting envenomation. To the best of our knowledge autonomic storm following lizard bite has not been reported in the Indian literature so far. PMID:28050465

  20. Elemental analysis of scorpion venoms.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, AbdulRahman K; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Al Saadon, Khalid; Idris, Mohammed M

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion venom is a rich source of biomolecules, which can perturb physiological activity of the host on envenomation and may also have a therapeutic potential. Scorpion venoms produced by the columnar cells of venom gland are complex mixture of mucopolysaccharides, neurotoxic peptides and other components. This study was aimed at cataloguing the elemental composition of venoms obtained from medically important scorpions found in the Arabian peninsula. The global elemental composition of the crude venom obtained from Androctonus bicolor, Androctonus crassicauda and Leiurus quinquestriatus scorpions were estimated using ICP-MS analyzer. The study catalogued several chemical elements present in the scorpion venom using ICP-MS total quant analysis and quantitation of nine elements exclusively using appropriate standards. Fifteen chemical elements including sodium, potassium and calcium were found abundantly in the scorpion venom at PPM concentrations. Thirty six chemical elements of different mass ranges were detected in the venom at PPB level. Quantitative analysis of the venoms revealed copper to be the most abundant element in Androctonus sp. venom but at lower level in Leiurus quinquestriatus venom; whereas zinc and manganese was found at higher levels in Leiurus sp. venom but at lower level in Androctonus sp. venom. These data and the concentrations of other different elements present in the various venoms are likely to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of venom activity and their pharmacological potentials.

  1. Elemental analysis of scorpion venoms

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, AbdulRahman K; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Al Saadon, Khalid; Idris, Mohammed M

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion venom is a rich source of biomolecules, which can perturb physiological activity of the host on envenomation and may also have a therapeutic potential. Scorpion venoms produced by the columnar cells of venom gland are complex mixture of mucopolysaccharides, neurotoxic peptides and other components. This study was aimed at cataloguing the elemental composition of venoms obtained from medically important scorpions found in the Arabian peninsula. The global elemental composition of the crude venom obtained from Androctonus bicolor, Androctonus crassicauda and Leiurus quinquestriatus scorpions were estimated using ICP-MS analyzer. The study catalogued several chemical elements present in the scorpion venom using ICP-MS total quant analysis and quantitation of nine elements exclusively using appropriate standards. Fifteen chemical elements including sodium, potassium and calcium were found abundantly in the scorpion venom at PPM concentrations. Thirty six chemical elements of different mass ranges were detected in the venom at PPB level. Quantitative analysis of the venoms revealed copper to be the most abundant element in Androctonus sp. venom but at lower level in Leiurus quinquestriatus venom; whereas zinc and manganese was found at higher levels in Leiurus sp. venom but at lower level in Androctonus sp. venom. These data and the concentrations of other different elements present in the various venoms are likely to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of venom activity and their pharmacological potentials. PMID:27826410

  2. [Dangerous scorpions from Niger].

    PubMed

    Goyffon, M; Guette, C

    2005-11-01

    Two dangerous scorpion species are responsible for the severe human envenomations in Niger, Leiurus quinquestriatus (H. et E.), the most abundant, and Androctonus aeneas C.L. Koch, less frequent and described in a Sahel country for the first time. Up to now, A. aeneas was known in North Africa only. Its venom is highly toxic for humans, similar to those of the most dangerous species living in Africa, such as L. quinquestriatus and other species belonging to the genus Androctonus, A. australis (L.) and A. mauretanicus (Poc.), for the envenoming treatment of which specific antivenoms are prepared. Taking into account the absence of a specific antivenom for A. aeneas, the paraspecific neutralising effect of these antivenoms should be tested.

  3. Faunistic Study and Biodiversity of Scorpions in Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf)

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, A; Rafinejad, J; Shemshad, K; Khaghani, R

    2009-01-01

    Background Scorpions are known as the most widespread poisonous creatures that cause casualties and death to human. They are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. Among the sixteen Iranian Island in the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island is the biggest and is located in the focus of the important internal and international commercial marinelines. Furthermore, thousands of tourists also visit the Island every year for its natural beauties and the siteseeings. The present research study was carried out during 1998–99 throughout Qeshm Island in order to know the species of scorpions, their abundance, the distribution and control strategy in order to reduce the scorpion stings and to safeguard the visitors as well as the local population. Methods: Collections were made randomly during the night. Samples were searched by black light and then collected by forceps. A total of 102 scorpions were captured. Results: The scorpions were identified as Buthotus jayakari numbered 42 specimens (41.17%) and B. leptochelys numbering only 7 specimens (6.86%) belonging to the family Buthidae. Androctonus crassicauda was collected in the most parts of the Island and considered as the dominant species. The sex ratio was 1:1.53 in favor of females. B. leptochelys was rare species and by far restricted in its distribution. Conclusion: Considering the high population of A. crassicauda and its wide distribution, it is regarded to be responsible for the majority of scorpion stings in Qeshm Island. PMID:22808372

  4. History of study, updated checklist, distribution and key of scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones) from China.

    PubMed

    Di, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Zi-Zhong; Yin, Shi-Jin; Cao, Zhi-Jian; Li, Wen-Xin

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the history of taxonomic research on scorpions and provides an updated checklist and key of the scorpions currently known in China. This checklist is based on a thorough review of the extant literatures on scorpion species whose presence has been confirmed in China through field expeditions and examination of scorpion collections, excepting a few members that have no clear distribution or are currently in doubt. Totally, the scorpion fauna of China consists of 53 species and subspecies belonging to 12 genera crossing five families, with 33 species (62.3%) and one genus being recorded as endemic. Additionally, identification key and the distribution of scorpions from China are provided.

  5. Scorpion venoms in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Pei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Venom secretions from snakes, scorpions, spiders and bees, have been widely applied in traditional medicine and current biopharmaceutical research. Possession of anticancer potential is another novel discovery for animal venoms and toxins. An increasing number of studies have shown the anticancer effects of venoms and toxins of snakes, and scorpions in vitro and in vivo, which were achieved mainly through the inhibition of cancer growth, arrest of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and suppression of cancer metastasis. However, more evidence is needed to support this concept and the mechanisms of anticancer actions are not clearly understood. The present review is focused on the recant updates on anticancer venom research. PMID:27900054

  6. Genetic mechanisms of scorpion venom peptide diversification.

    PubMed

    Zhijian, Cao; Feng, Luo; Yingliang, Wu; Xin, Mao; Wenxin, Li

    2006-03-01

    The diversity of scorpion venom peptides is well shown by the presence of about 400 such polypeptides with or without disulfide bonds. Scorpion toxins with disulfide bonds present a variety of sequence features and pharmacological functions by affecting different ion channels, while the venom peptides without disulfide bonds represent a new subfamily, having much lower sequence homology among each other and different functions (e.g. bradykinin-potentiating, antimicrobial, molecular cell signal initiating and immune modulating). Interestingly, all scorpion venom peptides with divergent functions may have evolved from a common ancestor gene. Over the lengthy evolutionary time, the diversification of scorpion venom peptides evolved through polymorphism, duplication, trans-splicing, or alternative splicing at the gene level. In order to completely clarify the diversity of scorpion toxins and toxin-like peptides, toxinomics (genomics and proteomics of scorpion toxins and toxin-like peptides) are expected to greatly advance in the near future.

  7. Contributions of Black Americans, Indian Americans, Mexican Americans and Asian Americans to American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Clara County Office of Education, San Jose, CA.

    The teacher resource guide for grades K through 12 was developed by a multi ethnic committee of educators to comply with the California Education code. "Instruction in the social sciences shall include the early history of California and a study of the role and contributions of American Negroes, American Indians, Mexicans, and other ethnic…

  8. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species involved in envenomation belonged to the genus Tityus. Our results reaffirm the notion of scorpionism being a public health hazard and provide data that can guide public policy aimed at scorpionism prevention and treatment.

  9. Simulation of five ground-water withdrawal projections for the Black Mesa area, Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.G.; Eychaner, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The N Aquifer is the main source of water in the 5,400 sq mi Black Mesa area in the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations in northeastern Arizona. Water in the aquifer is under confined conditions in the central 3,300 sq mi of the area. Maximum saturated thickness is about 1,050 ft. Annual groundwater withdrawals from 1972 through 1986 averaged 5,480 acre-ft and included 3,820 acre-ft used to operate a coal mine on Black Mesa. As a result, water levels have declined in a large part of the aquifer. The coal company has applied for a permanent permit under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. An existing mathematical model of the aquifer in the Black Mesa area was converted to a newer model program and recalibrated by using revised estimates of selected aquifer parameters and a finer spatial grid. The model was used to simulate four groundwater withdrawal alternatives that combined the existing and proposed mining plans with projected constant or increasing pumpage for nearby communities. A fifth alternative combined increasing community pumpage with no mine withdrawals and was used as a basis for comparison. Simulated water levels for the year 2031 in the coal-lease area are projected to be 60 ft lower than in 1985 for the proposed mining plan combined with growing community pumpage and > 100 ft lower than predevelopment water levels over an area of 1,660 sq mi. Groundwater would rise to within 100 ft of predevelopment levels < 10 yr after mine withdrawals cease. Withdrawals at the mine were a minor factor in determining simulated water levels at most communities in the study area. Water levels at Tuba City were not affected by mine pumpage in any projection. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Acute Scorpion Pancreatitis in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, Courtenay

    1970-01-01

    Over a two-month period 30 patients were admitted to hospital following stings of the scorpion of Trinidad, the Tityus trinitatis. In 24 cases acute pancreatitis developed soon after the sting, but in nine of these no abdominal pain occurred. All the patients made an uneventful recovery. Although such complications have been reported no pseudocyst formations or acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis occurred in this series. PMID:5443968

  11. Fatal intracerebral haemorrhage following scorpion sting.

    PubMed

    Dube, Simmi; Sharma, V K; Dubey, T N; Gouda, Narendra B; Shrivastava, Vikrant

    2011-03-01

    Though uncommon, scorpion stings can cause cerebrovascular accidents by various mechanisms such as venom induced autonomic storm leading to hypertension, hypotension, myocarditis, DIC or vasculitis by direct actions. We present a case of intracerebral bleed following scorpion sting, which is a rare presentation and seldom reported.

  12. Anemomenotatic orientation in beetles and scorpions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsenmair, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Orientation, by beetles and scorpions, according to wind direction and force are analyzed. Major efforts were made to determine: (1) which physical qualities of the air current influence anemomenotaxis, (2) which physiological mechanism is responsible for such orientation, (3) which sense organs do beetles and scorpions use to perceive wind directions, and (4) what the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in the beetle and scorpion is. Experimental results show that the trichobothria in scorpions perceives wind direction; in the beetle it is perceived by sense organs excited by pendicellus-flagellum joint movements. A compensation mechanism is suggested as the basis for anemomenotactic orientation. It was also suggested that the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in scorpions is space orientation; while in beetles it was found to be part of the appetitive behavior used to search for olfactory sign stimuli.

  13. Genetic and pathogenic variability of Indian strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris causing black rot disease in crucifers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dinesh; Dhar, Shri; Yadava, D K

    2011-12-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel) Dowson (Xcc) causing black rot of crucifers is a serious disease in India and causes >50% crop losses in favorable environmental conditions. Pathogenic variability of Xcc, X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), and X. axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) were tested on 19 cultivars of cruciferae including seven Brassica spp. viz., B. campestris, B. carinata, B. juncea, B. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea and B. rapa, and Raphanus sativus for two consecutive years viz., 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 under field conditions at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. Xcc (22 strains) and other species of Xanthomonas (2 strains), they formed three distinct groups of pathogenic variability i.e., Group 1, 2, and 3 under 50% minimum similarity coefficient. All strains of Xcc clustered under Groupl except Xcc-C20. The strains of Xcc further clustered in 6 subgroups viz., A, B, C, D, E, and F based on diseases reaction on host. Genetic variability of 22 strains of Xcc was studied by using Rep-PCR (REP-, BOX- and ERIC-PCR) and 10 strains for hrp (hypersensitive reaction and pathogenecity) gene sequence analysis. Xcc strains comprised in cluster 1, Xac under cluster 2, while Xoo formed separate cluster 3 based on >50% similarity coefficient. Cluster 1 was further divided into 8 subgroups viz., A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H at 75% similarity coefficient. The hrpF gene sequence analysis also showed distinctness of Xcc strains from other Xanthomonads. In this study, genetic and pathogenic variability in Indian strains of Xcc were established, which will be of immense use in the development of resistant genotypes against this bacterial pathogen.

  14. Introducing Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905) scorpion as one of the major stinging scorpions in Khuzestan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Ruhollah; Djadid, Navid Dinparast; Shahbazzadeh, Dellavar; Bigdelli, Shahlla

    2009-09-01

    Khuzestan province has the highest rate of scorpion sting in Iran. This is a study to identify these scorpions in Khuzestan. In this study 418 scorpions were kept in the ethyl alcohol 70%, each being studied by stereomicroscopy and diagnosis key separately. 120 (28.7%) Androctonus crassicauda, 104 (24.9%) Hemiscorpius lepturus, 91 (21.7%) Mesobuthus eupeus, 86 (20.65%) Compsobuthus matthiesseni, 14 (3.35%) Hottentotta saulcyi, 2 (0.5%) Orthochirus scrobiculosus and 1 (0.25%) Hottentotta schach were identified. H. lepturus is in the Hemiscorpiidae family and the rest are in Buthidae. C. matthiesseni is the most frequent and O. scrobiculosus is the least frequent newly identified scorpion. This study adds two new sting scorpions to the previous list of 8 identified scorpions in Iran.

  15. History of study, updated checklist, distribution and key of scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones) from China

    PubMed Central

    DI, Zhi-Yong; YANG, Zi-Zhong; YIN, Shi-Jin; CAO, Zhi-Jian; LI, Wen-Xin

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the history of taxonomic research on scorpions and provides an updated checklist and key of the scorpions currently known in China. This checklist is based on a thorough review of the extant literatures on scorpion species whose presence has been confirmed in China through field expeditions and examination of scorpion collections, excepting a few members that have no clear distribution or are currently in doubt. Totally, the scorpion fauna of China consists of 53 species and subspecies belonging to 12 genera crossing five families, with 33 species (62.3%) and one genus being recorded as endemic. Additionally, identification key and the distribution of scorpions from China are provided. PMID:24470450

  16. Diffuse resistance courtship in the scorpion Rhopalurus rochai (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Chantall-Rocha, Shayanne; Japyassú, Hilton F

    2017-02-01

    Male-female courtship signals are frequently subject to arms races, with patterns of behaviour evolving reciprocally to manipulate the reproductive output. Female resistance should be particularly effective when asymmetrical offspring care occurs under low and unpredictable resource distribution, because this would increase maternal costs. Our hypothesis is that under these conditions females will evolve diffuse mating strategies to avoid predictable exploitation by male optimal counter tactics. Mating in scorpions is a complex process, and female resistance occurs through specific behaviours. Here we focus on the scorpion Rhopalurus rochai that inhabits strongly unpredictable arid habitats. We find that courtship success does not rely on typical resistance and stimulatory patterns of behaviours. The screening for prospective partners occurs in the pre-dance phase. Network statistics reveal that unsuccessful courtships are characterised by reduced complexity of interactions, a result typical of non-additive interactions that introduce unpredictability in the network. Unpredictable female resistance reduces male control over female reproduction more effectively than resistance through specific behavioural tactics; it could be selected in cases of extreme parental investment asymmetry, particularly in the context of resource fluctuation, as in the scorpion R. rochai, that inhabits environments with characteristic climatic unpredictability. Female resistance through a diffuse process would function as an extremely efficient screening device. The establishment of diffuse female resistance courtship would preclude the evolution of simple/single male optimal behavioural patterns, and thus the male-female arms races would reach a more complex state, whereby varied and contextually dependent male strategies would be required to settle the reproductive game.

  17. First molecular phylogeny of scorpions of the family Buthidae from India.

    PubMed

    Suranse, Vivek; Sawant, Nitin S; Paripatyadar, Shruti V; Krutha, Keerthi; Paingankar, Mandar S; Padhye, Anand D; Bastawade, D B; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2016-06-01

    Scorpions of the family Buthidae are widespread species in India. While studies are available on diversity and distribution of Indian buthid scorpions, no information is available on the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the family, within India and Asia in general. In the current study, we provide the first molecular phylogeny of buthid scorpions from central western India based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Our analysis confirms the current placement of the species, previously assigned to Mesobuthus in the genus Hottentotta. However, the analysis also suggests that the member of this genus from India form a monophyletic group distinct from the members of Hottentotta from Africa. Species of Lychas formed a monophyletic group. Although Orthochirus was nested within the larger clade of buthidae comprising genera such as Androctonus, Buthacus, Buthus and Odontobuthus, the exact phylogenetic placement will require more taxonomic sampling of the known genera of Buthidae. We also show that there is a substantial genetic variation among the populations of medically important scorpion species Hottentotta tamulus, and the genetic distance is linearly correlated with the geographical distance between the populations.

  18. Overview of scorpion species from China and their toxins.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhijian; Di, Zhiyong; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin

    2014-02-26

    Scorpions are one of the most ancient groups of terrestrial animals. They have maintained a steady morphology over more than 400 million years of evolution. Their venom arsenals for capturing prey and defending against predators may play a critical role in their ancient and conservative appearance. In the current review, we present the scorpion fauna of China: 53 species covering five families and 12 genera. We also systematically list toxins or genes from Chinese scorpion species, involving eight species covering four families. Furthermore, we review the diverse functions of typical toxins from Chinese scorpion species, involving Na+ channel modulators, K+ channel blockers, antimicrobial peptides and protease inhibitors. Using scorpion species and their toxins from China as an example, we build the bridge between scorpion species and their toxins, which helps us to understand the molecular and functional diversity of scorpion venom arsenal, the dynamic and functional evolution of scorpion toxins, and the potential relationships of scorpion species and their toxins.

  19. Overview of Scorpion Species from China and Their Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhijian; Di, Zhiyong; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin

    2014-01-01

    Scorpions are one of the most ancient groups of terrestrial animals. They have maintained a steady morphology over more than 400 million years of evolution. Their venom arsenals for capturing prey and defending against predators may play a critical role in their ancient and conservative appearance. In the current review, we present the scorpion fauna of China: 53 species covering five families and 12 genera. We also systematically list toxins or genes from Chinese scorpion species, involving eight species covering four families. Furthermore, we review the diverse functions of typical toxins from Chinese scorpion species, involving Na+ channel modulators, K+ channel blockers, antimicrobial peptides and protease inhibitors. Using scorpion species and their toxins from China as an example, we build the bridge between scorpion species and their toxins, which helps us to understand the molecular and functional diversity of scorpion venom arsenal, the dynamic and functional evolution of scorpion toxins, and the potential relationships of scorpion species and their toxins. PMID:24577583

  20. Scorpion Stings in Jordan: An Update.

    PubMed

    Amr, Zuhair S; Al Zou'bi, Renad; Abdo, Nour; Bani Hani, Rihan

    2017-09-01

    Scorpionism is an endemic public health problem in Jordan encountered by health providers in all parts of the country. This study updates epidemiological data on scorpion sting encounters in Jordan. Data on scorpion sting encounters were obtained from government and military hospitals around the country, and the National Drug and Poison Information Center (NDPIC). P values and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using SPSS Professional Statistics Package version 22 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) program. Epidemiological data on 1205 scorpion sting cases reported between 2006 and 2012 are reported. Male to female ratio was 1.18:1, aged 23.3±16 (mean±SD) and 26.4±16.9 years for males and females, respectively. Age groups between 1 to 20 years old constituted 44.6% of the total sting encounters, while adults aged >30 years constituted 30%. Scorpion sting encounters peaked in July (22.5%) and August (23%), with the lowest numbers of recorded cases in February and January (1.6 and 1.9%, respectively). Scorpion stings occurred mostly outdoors (66%). Medical complications associated with scorpion sting cases included fever, difficulty in breathing, drowsiness and dizziness, and numbness, while severe complications include respiratory failure and tachycardia. Hospitalization required 1 to 3 days among admitted patients with no fatalities. Scorpion stings remain a medical problem in Jordan that requires more attention by health providers. Reporting of scorpion sting cases should be enforced from all healthcare centers throughout the country to better understand the epidemiology and health implications of human encounters. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimates of spatially and temporally resolved constrained black carbon emission over the Indian region using a strategic integrated modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, S.; Reddy, D. Manigopal; Ghosh, S.; Kumar, D. Bharath; Chowdhury, A. Kundu

    2017-10-01

    We estimated the latest spatially and temporally resolved gridded constrained black carbon (BC) emissions over the Indian region using a strategic integrated modelling approach. This was done extracting information on initial bottom-up emissions and atmospheric BC concentration from a general circulation model (GCM) simulation in conjunction with the receptor modelling approach. Monthly BC emission (83-364 Gg) obtained from the present study exhibited a spatial and temporal variability with this being the highest (lowest) during February (July). Monthly BC emission flux was considerably high (> 100 kg km- 2) over the entire Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), east and the west coast during winter months. This was relatively higher over the central and western India than over the IGP during summer months. Annual BC emission rate was 2534 Gg y- 1 with that over the IGP and central India respectively comprising 50% and 40% of the total annual BC emissions over India. A high relative increase was observed in modified BC emissions (more than five times the initial emissions) over the most part of the IGP, east coast, central/northwestern India. The relative predominance of monthly BC emission flux over a region (as depicted from z-score distribution maps) was inferred being consistent with the prevalence of region- and season-specific anthropogenic activity.

  2. Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

    2008-10-01

    The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient

  3. Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

    2008-10-23

    The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient

  4. Confronting the “Indian summer monsoon response to black carbon aerosol” with the uncertainty in its radiative forcing and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Mahajan, Salil

    2016-06-28

    While black carbon aerosols (BC) are believed to modulate the Indian monsoons, the radiative forcing estimate of BC suffers from large uncertainties globally. In this paper, we analyze a suite of idealized experiments forced with a range of BC concentrations that span a large swath of the latest estimates of its global radiative forcing. Within those bounds of uncertainty, summer precipitation over the Indian region increases nearly linearly with the increase in BC burden. The linearity holds even as the BC concentration is increased to levels resembling those hypothesized in nuclear winter scenarios, despite large surface cooling over India and adjoining regions. The enhanced monsoonal circulation is associated with a linear increase in the large-scale meridional tropospheric temperature gradient. The precipitable water over the region also increases linearly with an increase in BC burden, due to increased moisture transport from the Arabian sea to the land areas. The wide range of Indian monsoon response elicited in these experiments emphasizes the need to reduce the uncertainty in BC estimates to accurately quantify their role in modulating the Indian monsoons. Finally, the increase in monsoonal circulation in response to large BC concentrations contrasts earlier findings that the Indian summer monsoon may break down following a nuclear war.

  5. Confronting the “Indian summer monsoon response to black carbon aerosol” with the uncertainty in its radiative forcing and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Mahajan, Salil

    2016-06-28

    While black carbon aerosols (BC) are believed to modulate the Indian monsoons, the radiative forcing estimate of BC suffers from large uncertainties globally. In this paper, we analyze a suite of idealized experiments forced with a range of BC concentrations that span a large swath of the latest estimates of its global radiative forcing. Within those bounds of uncertainty, summer precipitation over the Indian region increases nearly linearly with the increase in BC burden. The linearity holds even as the BC concentration is increased to levels resembling those hypothesized in nuclear winter scenarios, despite large surface cooling over India and adjoining regions. The enhanced monsoonal circulation is associated with a linear increase in the large-scale meridional tropospheric temperature gradient. The precipitable water over the region also increases linearly with an increase in BC burden, due to increased moisture transport from the Arabian sea to the land areas. The wide range of Indian monsoon response elicited in these experiments emphasizes the need to reduce the uncertainty in BC estimates to accurately quantify their role in modulating the Indian monsoons. Finally, the increase in monsoonal circulation in response to large BC concentrations contrasts earlier findings that the Indian summer monsoon may break down following a nuclear war.

  6. Confronting the “Indian summer monsoon response to black carbon aerosol” with the uncertainty in its radiative forcing and beyond

    DOE PAGES

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Mahajan, Salil

    2016-06-28

    While black carbon aerosols (BC) are believed to modulate the Indian monsoons, the radiative forcing estimate of BC suffers from large uncertainties globally. In this paper, we analyze a suite of idealized experiments forced with a range of BC concentrations that span a large swath of the latest estimates of its global radiative forcing. Within those bounds of uncertainty, summer precipitation over the Indian region increases nearly linearly with the increase in BC burden. The linearity holds even as the BC concentration is increased to levels resembling those hypothesized in nuclear winter scenarios, despite large surface cooling over India andmore » adjoining regions. The enhanced monsoonal circulation is associated with a linear increase in the large-scale meridional tropospheric temperature gradient. The precipitable water over the region also increases linearly with an increase in BC burden, due to increased moisture transport from the Arabian sea to the land areas. The wide range of Indian monsoon response elicited in these experiments emphasizes the need to reduce the uncertainty in BC estimates to accurately quantify their role in modulating the Indian monsoons. Finally, the increase in monsoonal circulation in response to large BC concentrations contrasts earlier findings that the Indian summer monsoon may break down following a nuclear war.« less

  7. Cyanobacteria cause black staining of the National Museum of the American Indian Building, Washington, DC, USA.

    PubMed

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Salvadori, Ornella; Albanese, Domenico; Villa, Federica; Sorlini, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Microbial deterioration of stone is a widely recognised problem affecting monuments and buildings all over the world. In this paper, dark-coloured staining, putatively attributed to microorganisms, on areas of the National Museum of the American Indian Building, Washington, DC, USA, were studied. Observations by optical and electron microscopy of surfaces and cross sections of limestone indicated that biofilms, which penetrated up to a maximum depth of about 1 mm, were mainly composed of cyanobacteria, with the predominance of Gloeocapsa and Lyngbya. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the microbial community also included eukaryotic algae (Trebouxiophyceae) and fungi (Ascomycota), along with a consortium of bacteria. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed the same elemental composition in stained and unstained areas of the samples, indicating that the discolouration was not due to abiotic chemical changes within the stone. The dark pigmentation of the stone was correlated with the high content of scytonemin, which was found in all samples.

  8. Understanding the origin of black carbon in the atmospheric brown cloud over the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Elizabeth A.; Lough, Glynis C.; Schauer, James J.; Praveen, P. S.; Corrigan, C. E.; Ramanathan, V.

    2007-11-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected at two Maldives climate observatories from 30 August 2004 to 21 January 2005. This time period encompassed both wet and dry seasons, which correspond to low and high aerosol loadings. High aerosol loadings were observed in the northern sampling site in Hanimaadhoo, caused by long-range transport from south and Southeast Asia, whereas the southern sampling site, Gan, was not subject to as much continental inflow. The polluted period began in mid-November and lasted through the remainder of the sampling period. Fine particulate matter during this time was characterized by relatively high concentrations of aerosol mass and elemental carbon. Concentrations of water-soluble potassium, sulfate, levoglucosan, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic diacids, aromatic diacids, and trace metals increased over the clean, transition, and polluted dry season. Organic speciation suggested that significant secondary organic aerosol formation occurred during the polluted dry season, meaning that traditional methods of source identification relying on fixed elemental and organic carbon ratios between source and receptors are not sufficient. Well-studied molecular markers for combustion sources were not adequate in fully attributing elemental carbon over the northern Indian Ocean to specific sources. Further source profiling of south and Southeast Asian biofuels and fossil fuels is recommended. A receptor-based positive matrix factorization model was applied to fine particulate matter trace metal measurements and showed that biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion were equally important sources of elemental carbon during the polluted dry season.

  9. Scorpion bite, a sting to the heart!

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Avinash; Kumar, Anand; Consul, Shuchi; Yadav, Ambuj

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion bites are common in India. Usually, these bites are harmless but sometimes have serious clinical sequelae, including death. We report herein a case of scorpion bite with electrocardiographic abnormalities simulating early myocardial infarction. Pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure accompanied these electrocardiographic changes as well as serum cardiac markers. The etiology of cardiovascular manifestations in severe scorpion sting is related to venom effect on sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal secretion of catecholamines as well as to the toxic effect of the venom on the myocardium itself. It is a rare case of scorpion sting presented as myocardial infarction and heart failure, successfully treated with Intensive Care Unit care, noninvasive ventilation, vasopressors, and antiischemic treatment. PMID:25878433

  10. Epidemiological Review of Scorpion Envenomation in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Amir; Rahim, Fakher

    2014-01-01

    This epidemiological review was carried out to display the magnitude and the geographic distribution of scorpion envenomation in Iran with focus on the southwestern region of Iran, particularly. The Iranian recognized scorpions belonging to two families, including Buthidae and Scorpionidae. Buthidae family consists of 14 genuses, 26 species, and 18 sub-species, while Scorpionidae family has three genuses and four species. The lack of basic knowledge, including the geographical distribution, clinical manifestations, and specific treatments related to scorpiofauna justifies such multidisciplinary studies. The venom of two endemic Iranian scorpions, including Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) and Odonthubuthus doriae (O.doriae) have considered as an effective source of new neurotoxin peptides for the further development of physio-pharmacological probes and designing the clinical trials. Such epidemiological information may improve the determinants of Iranian scorpion stings in order to plan and implement effective public health intervention. PMID:25276176

  11. Dusty Reflections in the Scorpion Claws

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-09

    Between the claws of the dreaded scorpion imagined by the ancient Greeks lies this giant dust cloud, imaged by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. The constellation of Scorpius is prominent in the summer night sky in North America.

  12. The unfulfilled promises of scorpion insectotoxins.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Ernesto; Possani, Lourival D

    2015-01-01

    Since the description and biochemical characterization of the first insect-specific neurotoxins from scorpion venoms, almost all contributions have highlighted their potential application as leads for the development of potent bioinsecticides. Their practical use, however, has been hindered by different factors, some of which are intrinsically related to the toxins and other external determinants. Recent developments in the understanding of the action mechanisms of the scorpion insectotoxins and their bioactive surfaces, coupled with the exploration of novel bioinsecticide delivery systems have renewed the expectations that the scorpion insectotoxins could find their way into commercial applications in agriculture, as part of integrated pest control strategies. Herein, we review the current arsenal of available scorpion neurotoxins with a degree of specificity for insects, the progress made with alternative delivery methods, and the drawbacks that still preclude their practical use.

  13. Epidemiological review of scorpion envenomation in iran.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Amir; Rahim, Fakher

    2014-01-01

    This epidemiological review was carried out to display the magnitude and the geographic distribution of scorpion envenomation in Iran with focus on the southwestern region of Iran, particularly. The Iranian recognized scorpions belonging to two families, including Buthidae and Scorpionidae. Buthidae family consists of 14 genuses, 26 species, and 18 sub-species, while Scorpionidae family has three genuses and four species. The lack of basic knowledge, including the geographical distribution, clinical manifestations, and specific treatments related to scorpiofauna justifies such multidisciplinary studies. The venom of two endemic Iranian scorpions, including Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) and Odonthubuthus doriae (O.doriae) have considered as an effective source of new neurotoxin peptides for the further development of physio-pharmacological probes and designing the clinical trials. Such epidemiological information may improve the determinants of Iranian scorpion stings in order to plan and implement effective public health intervention.

  14. Osteomyelitis calcaneum due to a scorpion sting.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Saraswathivilasam S; Zaki, Hosam; Shalamzari, Jamshid Etemadi; Bhatnagar, Gunmala

    2014-01-01

    Children are susceptible to various injuries, including insect bites, and scorpion bites are common in the lower extremity of children in Middle East countries. In most cases, the sting will produce just a local reaction; however, serious complications that can result in death have occurred. In this case report, we describe a case of osteomyelitis of the calcaneum after a scorpion sting. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of the Median Lethal Dose and Electrophoretic Pattern of Hottentotta saulcyi (Scorpiones, Buthidae) Scorpion Venom

    PubMed Central

    Yağmur, Ersen Aydın; Özkan, Özcan; Karaer, K Zafer

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, we investigated the lethal potency, electrophoretic protein pattern and in vivo effects of Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom in mice. Methods: Scorpions were collected at night, by using a UV lamp from Mardin Province, Turkey. Venom was obtained from mature H. saulcyi scorpions by electrical stimulation of the telson. The lethality of the venom was determined by i.v. injections using Swiss mice. In vivo effects of the venom were assessed by using the intraperitoneal route (ip) injections into mice (20±1g) and monitored for 24 h. The protein profiles of the scorpion venom were analyzed by NuPAGE® Novex® 4–12 % gradient Bis-Tris gel followed by Coomassie blue staining. Results: The lethal assay of the venom was 0.73 mg/kg in mice. We determined the electrophoretic protein pattern of this scorpion venom to be 4, 6, 9, 31, 35, 40, 46 and 69 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Analysis of electrophoresis indicated that H. saulcyi scorpion intoxicated mice exhibited autonomic nervous system symptoms (tachypnea, restlessness, hyperexcitability, convulsions, salivation, lacrimation, weakness). Conclusions: Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom includes short-chain neurotoxins and long-chain neurotoxins according to the electrophoretic protein patterns. The stings of H. saulcyi scorpion must be considered of risk for humans in the southeastern region, Turkey. PMID:26623435

  16. Geohydrology and effects of water use in the Black Mesa area, Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eychaner, James H.

    1983-01-01

    The N aquifer is the main source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations in northeastern Arizona. The N aquifer consists of the Navajo Sandstone and parts of the underlying Kayenta Formation and Wingate Sandstone of Jurassic and Triassic age. Maximum saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 1,050 feet in the northwestern part of the area, and the aquifer thins to extinction to the southeast. Water is under confined conditions in the central 3,300 square miles of the area. To the east, north, and west of Black Mesa, the aquifer is exposed at the surface, and water is unconfined. The aquifer was in equilibrium before about 1965. Recharge of about 13,000 acre-feet per year was balanced primarily by discharge near Moenkopi Wash and Laguna Creek and by evapotranspiration. At least 180 million acre-feet of water was in storage. The estimated average hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is 0.65 foot per day. The confined storage coefficient is estimated to be about 0.0004 where the aquifer is thickest, and the estimated unconfined storage coefficient ranges from 0.10 to 0.15. Ground-water withdrawals that averaged 5,300 acre-feet per year from 1976 to 1979 have caused water levels to decline in wells in the confined part of the aquifer. Withdrawals include an average of 3,700 acre-feet per year to supply a coal-slurry pipeline from a coal mine on Black Mesa. Six observation wells equipped with water-level recorders have been used to monitor aquifer response. The water level in one well 32 miles south of the mine declined 17 feet from 1972 through 1979 and 3.5 feet during 1979. A mathematical model of the N aquifer was developed and calibrated for equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. The model was used in part to improve estimates of aquifer characteristics and the water budget, and it successfully reproduced the observed response of the aquifer through 1979. The model results indicate that about 95 percent of

  17. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly.

  18. High Black Carbon Concentrations and Atmospheric Pollution Around Indian Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, S.; Takemura, T.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions from coal-fired Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) are among major sources of black carbon (BC) aerosols in the atmosphere and air quality degradation. Knowledge of BC emissions from TPPs is important in characterizing regional carbonaceous particulate emissions, associated with regional climate forcing as well as effects on human health. Furthermore, elevated BC concentrations, over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills, has emerged as an important subject to estimate effects of deposition and atmospheric warming of BC on the accelerated melting of snow and glaciers in the Himalaya. For the first time, this study reports BC concentrations and aerosol characterization near coal-fired power plants in the IGP. Coal-fired TPPs are also recognized as major point-sources of other atmospheric pollutants such as high NO2 hotspots in the IGP, as evident from the OMI Aura satellite observations. In-situ measurements were carried out in Kanpur (central IGP) and Singrauli (eastern IGP), during January and March 2013. We show detailed spatial variability of BC within ~10 km from TPPs, that indicate BC variations up to 95 μg/m3, with strong diurnal variations associated with BC concentration peaks during early morning and evening hours. BC concentrations were measured to be significantly higher in close proximity to the coal-fired TPPs (as high as 200μg/m3), compared to the outside domain of our study region. Co-located ground-based sunphotometer measurements of aerosols also show significant spatial variability around the TPPs, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the range 0.38-0.58, and the largest AOD of 0.7 - 0.95 near the TPPs (similar to the peak BC concentrations). Additionally, the Angstrom Exponent was found to be in the range 0.4 - 1.0 (maximum in the morning time) and highest in the vicinity of TPPs (~1.0) suggesting abundance of fine particulates, whereas lowest recorded over the surrounding coal mining fields. We also inter-compare global

  19. Buthid scorpions found in caves; a new species of Isometrus Ehrenberg, 1828 (Scorpiones, Buthidae) from southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Duhem, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    A new species, Isometrus (Reddyanus) deharvengi sp. n., is described from caves of the region of Hon Chong, Kien Giang in southern Vietnam. Comments are also added about the scorpion fauna of Southeast Asia and cave dwelling buthid scorpions.

  20. Antepartum fetal death following a yellow scorpion sting.

    PubMed

    Leibenson, Lilach; Leibenson, M; Silberstein, T

    2010-02-01

    Scorpion envenomation in pregnant victims has been scarcely studied. We would like to suggest an association between yellow scorpion sting during the third trimester of pregnancy and adverse fetal outcome. The particular deleterious mechanism of scorpion venom has not been elucidated yet.

  1. Troglobitic scorpions: a new genus and species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira; de Leão Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce

    2004-12-01

    A new genus and species of troglobitic buthid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in Brazil. This is the first cavernicolous scorpion ever found in Brazil, and only the second to be found in South America. Some considerations on troglobitic scorpions are proposed.

  2. Mountain scorpions: a new genus and species from Tibet (China).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Qi, Jian-xin

    2006-04-01

    A new genus and species of mountain liochelid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in Tibet (China). This is the first liochelid scorpion found in the high Himalayan Mountains of Tibet, and the first example of the family to be collected out of its typical tropical and subtropical areas of distribution. Some considerations on mountain scorpions are proposed.

  3. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gercken, Becca

    2010-01-01

    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  4. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gercken, Becca

    2010-01-01

    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  5. Scorpion sting in Iran: a review.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Fathi, Behrooz

    2012-10-01

    Among Middle Eastern countries, at least 52 species of scorpions, especially dangerous types, have been reported in Iran. This is more than any other country in the region. In addition, in Iran the recorded scorpion stings from 2001 to 2009 were more than 42,500 per year, of which, approximately 19.5 deaths have been reported each year, mostly in spring and summer. About 10 species are responsible for the reported envenoming which belong to the Buthidae family apart from Hemiscorpius lepturus which is a Hemiscorpiidae. The Buthidae family includes: Androctonus crassicauda, Mesobuthus eupeus, Odontobuthus doriae, Hottentotta saulcyi, Hottentotta schach, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Orthochirus scrobiculosus, Apistobuthus pterygocercus and Olivierus caucasicus. A. crassicauda and H. lepturus are usually cited as the most dangerous species among Iranian scorpions. This article focuses on the main Iranian scorpions and their geographical distribution, especially those which are medically important and considered to be the more dangerous to human, and also attempts to demonstrate an accurate magnitude of scorpion stings in Iran. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scorpions

    MedlinePlus

    ... are with is stung, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

  7. [The threat of snake and scorpion venoms].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz; Smędzik, Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Venoms of snakes and scorpions pose a significant threat to the health and life of humans. The speed and range of their actions causes damage of the organ responsible for the maintenance of vital signs. Venomous snake venoms cause blood clotting disorders, tissue necrosis and hemolysis, and the release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines and impair antibody synthesis. Availability of antitoxins is limited and in the most cases supportive treatment is recommended. In turn, the venom of scorpions beside intestinal symptoms cause significant impairment of neuromuscular conduction, causing severe respiratory disorders. Action venom poses a particular threat to sensitive patients. The degree of threat to life caused by the venom of snakes and scorpions authorizes the treatment of these substances as a potential biological weapon.

  8. Optical properties of a scorpion (Centruroides limpidus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Bruno; Duckworth, Robyn M.; Singh, Akhilesh K.; Barik, Puspendu; Mejía-Villanueva, Vicente O.; Garcia-Pérez, Alberto C.

    2016-04-01

    Scorpions, elusive by nature, tend to appear nocturnally and are usually not appreciated when encountered. The exoskeleton is capable of fluorescing allowing for their detection at night in order to prevent undesirable encounters. The specificity of their fluorescing suggests specialized optical features. However, despite the blue-green fluorescence, to the best of our knowledge, no further results have been published on the optical properties of scorpions. Their exoskeletal structure whose versatility provides them protection, camouflage, and flexibility has not been studied under laser excitation and monochromatic light. The experiments reveal the nonlinear optical properties, infrared photoluminescence, and photoconductivity of the epicuticle of scorpions, demonstrating that the scorpion’s outer-covering is a prototype of a semiconducting inherently integrated multifunctional polymeric film with appealing potential applications such as optical logics, photonic frequency converters, novel multiplexers handling electronic and photonic inputs, and lasers.

  9. Evidence for the existence of a common ancestor of scorpion toxins affecting ion channels.

    PubMed

    Zhijian, Cao; Yingliang, Wu; Jiqun, Sheng; Wanhong, Liu; Fan, Xiao; Xin, Mao; Hui, Liu; Dahe, Jiang; Wenxin, Li

    2003-01-01

    All scorpion toxins from different 30 species are simply reviewed. A new classification system of scorpion toxins is first proposed: scorpion toxins are classified into three families (long-chain scorpion toxins with 4 disulfide bridges, short-chain scorpion toxins with 3 disulfide bridges, and intermediate-type scorpion toxins with 3 or 4 disulfide bridges). Intermediate-type scorpion toxins provide a strong proof for the conclusion that channel toxins from scorpion venoms evolve from a common ancestor. Common organization of precursor nucleotides and genomic sequence, similar 3-dimensional structure, and the existence of intermediate type scorpion toxins and functionally intercrossing scorpion toxins show that all scorpion toxins affecting ion channels evolve from the common ancestor, which produce millions of scorpion toxins with function-diversity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:235-238, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.10083

  10. [Scorpion envenomation in Morocco: scorpions of the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota].

    PubMed

    Aboumaâd, B; Iba, N; Dersi, N

    2014-02-01

    Around the world and especially in summer, the scorpion envenomation is a real public health problem. In Morocco, its gravity is due to the diversity of genera of the Buthidae family whose their venom is potentially lethal, mainly the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota. The areas most affected by this problematic are the central and southern of Morocco. The lethality of scorpion's venom primarily affects children. It is rich in neurotoxic polypeptides that have targeted ion channel membrane Na(+), K(+) activated or not by Ca(++). The toxins polymorphism causes pathophysiological disorders. The diversity of symptomatic treatment in the absence of immunotherapy is due to variability in clinical pictures, which depends on the species involved and the patient at risk. The objective of this review is to highlight the magnitude of the scorpion envenomation by describing its epidemiological characteristics, elucidate the pathophysiological effects of the venom of the most dangerous scorpions in Morocco the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota, and their therapeutic treatment.

  11. Pseudouroctonus maidu, a new species of scorpion from northern California (Scorpiones, Vaejovidae)

    PubMed Central

    Savary, Warren E.; Bryson Jr., Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of vaejovid scorpion from northern California, Pseudouroctonus maidu sp. n., is named and described. This new species appears to be most similar to Pseudouroctonus iviei (Gertsch & Soleglad, 1972) and Pseudouroctonus glimmei (Hjelle, 1972). PMID:27199594

  12. Assessing and managing spider and scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Stephen; Weiner, Aaron; Finnegan, Alan; Visovsky, Constance; Clochesy, John M; Graves, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Envenomation by spiders or scorpions is a public health problem in many parts of the world and is not isolated to the tropics and subtropics. Spiders and scorpions can be unintentionally transported globally, and keeping them as pets is becoming more popular, so envenomation can occur anywhere. Emergency nurses should be prepared to assess and treat patients who present with a bite or sting. This article gives an overview of the signs, symptoms and treatment of envenomation by species of arachnids that are clinically significant to humans.

  13. Scorpion sting pain: which way to treat?

    PubMed

    Amucheazi, A O; Umeh, B U

    2012-01-01

    The objective of reporting this case is to highlight the clinical usefulness of chloroquine in the management of scorpion sting pain with the hope of stimulating interest and research, especially in areas where local anesthetic agents may not be available. In this case reported here, lidocaine failed to provide sustained analgesia for pain relief following scorpion sting. Two milliliters of parenteral chloroquine was injected intradermally around the bite site. Chloroquine provided immediate pain relief within 3 minutes of injection. The pain relief was sustained beyond 24 hours. The use of local anesthetic agents should be continued while other agents such as chloroquine, which may also have relevant clinical usefulness, should be considered.

  14. Activity trends and movement distances in the Arizona bark scorpion (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Bibbs, Christopher Stephen; Bengston, Sarah Elizabeth; Gouge, Dawn Heather

    2014-12-01

    The bark scorpion, Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing, is a nocturnal, cryptic, nonburrowing, mobile species that is common in urban landscapes spanning the desert southwest. Bark scorpions are often found in dense localized populations in cities, but the question of whether this is because the species is metabolically movement limited or choose to aggregate has not been addressed. Field observations lead us to believe that the scorpions move very little. Their ability to move is tested here. A circular pacing ring was constructed to observe the distance individuals could move in 2 h under both dark and light conditions. Observations under light motivate the arthropods to move, and significantly greater distances were observed in light trials, the maximum travel distance being 104.37 m, while the maximum distance in dark trials was 14.63 m. To monitor movement in the field, telemetry tags were used to mark female and male scorpions over 21 d during which relocation distances were recorded daily. Additionally, 12-h and 6-h overnight observational periods took place during which, scorpion movements were recorded hourly. Overall, it was found that scorpions moved significantly more in the pacing ring than in the field, indicating that field individuals are not moving at their maximum potential. Movement limitation does not explain their distribution pattern. In both the pacing ring and field, gender and pregnancy status had significant influence on distances moved. We conclude that C. sculpturatus is capable of much greater movement than is typically observed in the field.

  15. Target-Driven Evolution of Scorpion Toxins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shangfei; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2015-10-07

    It is long known that peptide neurotoxins derived from a diversity of venomous animals evolve by positive selection following gene duplication, yet a force that drives their adaptive evolution remains a mystery. By using maximum-likelihood models of codon substitution, we analyzed molecular adaptation in scorpion sodium channel toxins from a specific species and found ten positively selected sites, six of which are located at the core-domain of scorpion α-toxins, a region known to interact with two adjacent loops in the voltage-sensor domain (DIV) of sodium channels, as validated by our newly constructed computational model of toxin-channel complex. Despite the lack of positive selection signals in these two loops, they accumulated extensive sequence variations by relaxed purifying selection in prey and predators of scorpions. The evolutionary variability in the toxin-bound regions of sodium channels indicates that accelerated substitutions in the multigene family of scorpion toxins is a consequence of dealing with the target diversity. This work presents an example of atypical co-evolution between animal toxins and their molecular targets, in which toxins suffered from more prominent selective pressure from the channels of their competitors. Our discovery helps explain the evolutionary rationality of gene duplication of toxins in a specific venomous species.

  16. The scorpion toxin and the potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Kenton J

    2013-05-21

    The structure of a complex containing a toxin bound to a potassium ion channel has been solved for the first time, revealing how scorpions have designed toxins that can recognize and target the filter that controls the movement of potassium ions through these channels.

  17. [Management of scorpion sting in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Bencheikh, R Soulaymani; Khattabi, A; Faraj, Z; Semlali, I

    2008-04-01

    Scorpion stings are the first cause of poisoning, and represent between 30 and 50% of all cases reported to the Moroccan Poison Control Centre. Concerned by the size of the problem, we have paid special attention to this pathology. Through retrospective and prospective studies, it has been possible to determine the nature and the chronology of clinical stages, as well as the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic factors of gravity. On this basis, we worked out a new management to provide support for patients. This management will standardize support provided at the national level, and will reduce the number of lethal case and rationalize spending by reviewing medication, transfer of patients and hospital care. This standardization is an essential component of the national strategy against scorpion poisoning. Other components include training of medical staff, awareness campaigns, and information systems to monitor lethal cases. A survey over five years shows a reduction in the number of lethal cases and rationalization of costs. Medical care provided rests upon the distinction between patients stung by scorpions and patients actually poisoned. The first category of patients will be monitored up to four hours after the scorpion sting, while poisoned patients will be transferred to an intensive care unit.

  18. Mucormycosis after scorpion sting: case report.

    PubMed

    Pourahmad, Morteza; Sepidkar, Abdolali; Farokhnia, Mohmmad H; Tadayon, Seyed M K; Salehi, Hassan; Zabetian, Hassan

    2013-09-01

    Mucor is a fungus, which give rise to opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. We described a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman with cutaneous mucormycosis after scorpion sting. Mucormycosis may happen in patients with intact immunity and is not allocated only to patients with immune deficiency.

  19. [Scorpion puncture: medical treatment and home remedies].

    PubMed

    Lagunas-Flores, Artemio; Lagunas-Jaimes, Gregoria Natividad

    2009-01-01

    The scorpion puncture is a medical urgency. The greater frequency happens in Jalisco, Morelos and Guerrero. Controversy in the medical treatment persists, some use serum anti-scorpion, others only in critical cases. People by tradition are used the home remedies to cure the scorpion puncture. Our objective was to know the medical treatment and home remedies used in scorpion punctures in the State of Guerrero. Retrospective, cross-sectional-descriptive, observational study through a non-probabilistic sample by quotas during a period of eight years with 1,174 patients with age above 18 years with a interview applied by medical students. All the affected patients used home remedies, 94% went to the physician, the more frequent remedies used were garlic, tobacco, cacahuananche, salt, eggs. The most frequent prescribed drugs were: antiscorpion serum, calcium, chloroquine, an antihistamine drugs. Of the total of affected patients, 45% were children and 53 % adults. In Guerrero, it is traditional to use different home remedies. Doctors used antiscorpion serum in the 56.73% of the cases and symptomatic treatment with different medications.

  20. Behavioral, histopathological and biochemical impairments observed in mice envenomed by the scorpion: Hottentota gentili (Pallary, 1924).

    PubMed

    El Hidan, Moulay Abdelmonaim; Touloun, Oulaid; El Hiba, Omar; Chait, Abderrahman; Eddine Hafid, Jamal; Boumezzough, Ali

    2015-09-01

    Hottentota gentili is a black scorpion which has been considered as dangerous specie by many authors. However there are no data regarding minimal lethal dose and effects of the scorpion venom till now. We therefore aimed, by the present investigation, to assess on the one hand, the LD50 of H. gentili venom by sublethal injection and the effects on some vital organs, by a histological and a biochemical tools. On the other hand, the possible neurobehavioral impairments, in Swiss mice, 3 h, 6 h and 12 h following envenomation. The LD50 of H. gentili scorpion venom was found to be 0.46 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection route. Venom produced focal fragmentation of myocardial fibers, while lungs showed rupture of the alveolar structure. Intestines showed selective histopathological changes. Concomitantly, there was a significant rise in the serum enzymes levels, as well as hyperkalemia and a high level of plasma albumine and creatine. Proteinuria was also observed. The observed behavioral effects were a hypoactivity in the both experiments 30 min and 3 h after injection. The envenomation produced an increased immobility time only 30 min and 3 h post injection in the tail suspension test (TST).

  1. Scorpion venom components as potential candidates for drug development.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Ernesto; Gurrola, Georgina B; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Possani, Lourival D

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are well known for their dangerous stings that can result in severe consequences for human beings, including death. Neurotoxins present in their venoms are responsible for their toxicity. Due to their medical relevance, toxins have been the driving force in the scorpion natural compounds research field. On the other hand, for thousands of years, scorpions and their venoms have been applied in traditional medicine, mainly in Asia and Africa. With the remarkable growth in the number of characterized scorpion venom components, several drug candidates have been found with the potential to tackle many of the emerging global medical threats. Scorpions have become a valuable source of biologically active molecules, from novel antibiotics to potential anticancer therapeutics. Other venom components have drawn attention as useful scaffolds for the development of drugs. This review summarizes the most promising candidates for drug development that have been isolated from scorpion venoms.

  2. BjalphaIT: a novel scorpion alpha-toxin selective for insects--unique pharmacological tool.

    PubMed

    Arnon, Tal; Potikha, Tamara; Sher, Daniel; Elazar, Menashe; Mao, Wenfu; Tal, Tzachy; Bosmans, Frank; Tytgat, Jan; Ben-Arie, Nissim; Zlotkin, Eliahu

    2005-03-01

    Long-chain neurotoxins derived from the venom of the Buthidae scorpions, which affect voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) can be subdivided according to their toxicity to insects into insect-selective excitatory and depressant toxins (beta-toxins) and the alpha-like toxins which affect both mammals and insects. In the present study by the aid of reverse-phase HPLC column chromatography, RT-PCR, cloning and various toxicity assays, a new insect selective toxin designated as BjalphaIT was isolated from the venom of the Judean Black Scorpion (Buthotus judaicus), and its full primary sequence was determined: MNYLVVICFALLLMTVVESGRDAYIADNLNCAYTCGSNSYCNTECTKNGAVSGYCQWLGKYGNACWCINLPDKVPIRIPGACR (leader sequence is underlined). Despite its lack of toxicity to mammals and potent toxicity to insects, BjalphaIT reveals an amino acid sequence and an inferred spatial arrangement that is characteristic of the well-known scorpion alpha-toxins highly toxic to mammals. BjalphaITs sharp distinction between insects and mammals was also revealed by its effect on sodium conductance of two cloned neuronal VGSCs heterloguously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and assayed with the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. BjalphaIT completely inhibits the inactivation process of the insect para/tipE VGSC at a concentration of 100 nM, in contrast to the rat brain Na(v)1.2/beta1 which is resistant to the toxin. The above categorical distinction between mammal and insect VGSCs exhibited by BjalphaIT enables its employment in the clarification of the molecular basis of the animal group specificity of scorpion venom derived neurotoxic polypeptides and voltage-gated sodium channels.

  3. Scorpions from Mexico: From Species Diversity to Venom Complexity.

    PubMed

    Santibáñez-López, Carlos E; Francke, Oscar F; Ureta, Carolina; Possani, Lourival D

    2015-12-24

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods, which are distributed worldwide, except for Antarctica and some Pacific islands. Scorpion envenomation represents a public health problem in several parts of the world. Mexico harbors the highest diversity of scorpions in the world, including some of the world's medically important scorpion species. The systematics and diversity of Mexican scorpion fauna has not been revised in the past decade; and due to recent and exhaustive collection efforts as part of different ongoing major revisionary systematic projects, our understanding of this diversity has changed compared with previous assessments. Given the presence of several medically important scorpion species, the study of their venom in the country is also important. In the present contribution, the diversity of scorpion species in Mexico is revised and updated based on several new systematic contributions; 281 different species are recorded. Commentaries on recent venomic, ecological and behavioral studies of Mexican scorpions are also provided. A list containing the most important peptides identified from 16 different species is included. A graphical representation of the different types of components found in these venoms is also revised. A map with hotspots showing the current knowledge on scorpion distribution and areas explored in Mexico is also provided.

  4. Scorpions from Mexico: From Species Diversity to Venom Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Santibáñez-López, Carlos E.; Francke, Oscar F.; Ureta, Carolina; Possani, Lourival D.

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods, which are distributed worldwide, except for Antarctica and some Pacific islands. Scorpion envenomation represents a public health problem in several parts of the world. Mexico harbors the highest diversity of scorpions in the world, including some of the world’s medically important scorpion species. The systematics and diversity of Mexican scorpion fauna has not been revised in the past decade; and due to recent and exhaustive collection efforts as part of different ongoing major revisionary systematic projects, our understanding of this diversity has changed compared with previous assessments. Given the presence of several medically important scorpion species, the study of their venom in the country is also important. In the present contribution, the diversity of scorpion species in Mexico is revised and updated based on several new systematic contributions; 281 different species are recorded. Commentaries on recent venomic, ecological and behavioral studies of Mexican scorpions are also provided. A list containing the most important peptides identified from 16 different species is included. A graphical representation of the different types of components found in these venoms is also revised. A map with hotspots showing the current knowledge on scorpion distribution and areas explored in Mexico is also provided. PMID:26712787

  5. Growing Up Indian: Stories from the Life of Louie Gingras, an 82 Year Old Kootenai Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingras, Louie

    Eleven short stories from the life of Louie Gingras, an 82-year-old Kootenai Indian, illustrate many aspects of Indian culture. Accompanied by black and white drawings, ths stories describe daily life, mission schools, the Carlisle Indian School, Indian medicine, discipline for children, spiritual powers, beliefs, and several ceremonies. The book…

  6. An epidemiological and a clinical study on scorpionism by the Iranian scorpion Hemiscorpius lepturus.

    PubMed

    Pipelzadeh, Mohammad H; Jalali, Amir; Taraz, Mohammad; Pourabbas, Roya; Zaremirakabadi, Abbas

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective descriptive study was to describe the epidemiological and some common clinical symptoms and signs among humans stung by Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) in the southwest province of Iran, Khuzestan. Cases were collected from hospital patients' files referred to two major Khuzestan hospitals over 5 years. Only definite stings of this species, identified by trained health-caring personnel, were included in this study. Epidemiological and clinical signs and symptoms were recorded. There were 354 scorpion victims, 43% of whom were from rural areas. Stings mainly occurred at night between 7p.m. and 5a.m. (56.1%), or from early morning 5a.m. to 12a.m. (38.6%), 41% of which occurred in the lower extremities. Eighty three percent of accidents occurred in mild/hot months of this area between April and October. The age most inflicted was between 1 month to 10 years and 11-20 years old, observed in 39.6% and 26.8% of victims, respectively. Among all the 26,397 scorpion stung files studied over the period of the study, while only 10-15% of stung cases occurred due to this not highly prevalent scorpion of Iran, it was responsible for 89% of the deaths and 92% of hospitalized scorpion-stung patients. The majority of cases were children aged less than 12 years old. Clinical signs and symptoms were both local and systemic. The local symptoms ranged from erythema to severe necrosis with no immediate sensation of pain. Renal toxicity is one of the serious systemic effects, which, if not treated early by administration of the polyvalent antivenom, can progress to severe renal and cardio-respiratory failure. Overall, the findings demonstrate that the characteristic clinical features of envenomation produced by this scorpion differ significantly from those reported for other scorpions in the world.

  7. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of the Mexican scorpion Hadrurus gertschi (Arachnida: Scorpiones)

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Elisabeth F; Diego-Garcia, Elia; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; Possani, Lourival D

    2007-01-01

    Background Scorpions like other venomous animals posses a highly specialized organ that produces, secretes and disposes the venom components. In these animals, the last postabdominal segment, named telson, contains a pair of venomous glands connected to the stinger. The isolation of numerous scorpion toxins, along with cDNA-based gene cloning and, more recently, proteomic analyses have provided us with a large collection of venom components sequences. However, all of them are secreted, or at least are predicted to be secretable gene products. Therefore very little is known about the cellular processes that normally take place inside the glands for production of the venom mixture. To gain insights into the scorpion venom gland biology, we have decided to perform a transcriptomic analysis by constructing a cDNA library and conducting a random sequencing screening of the transcripts. Results From the cDNA library prepared from a single venom gland of the scorpion Hadrurus gertschi, 160 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed. These transcripts were further clustered into 68 unique sequences (20 contigs and 48 singlets), with an average length of 919 bp. Half of the ESTs can be confidentially assigned as homologues of annotated gene products. Annotation of these ESTs, with the aid of Gene Ontology terms and homology to eukaryotic orthologous groups, reveals some cellular processes important for venom gland function; including high protein synthesis, tuned posttranslational processing and trafficking. Nonetheless, the main group of the identified gene products includes ESTs similar to known scorpion toxins or other previously characterized scorpion venom components, which account for nearly 60% of the identified proteins. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this report contains the first transcriptome analysis of genes transcribed by the venomous gland of a scorpion. The data were obtained for the species Hadrurus gertschi, belonging to the family

  9. Submergence of black ash logs to control emerald ash borer and preserve wood for American Indian basketmaking

    Treesearch

    Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Ciaramitaro; Marla R. Emery; Damon J. Crook; Ed Pigeon; Angie Pigeon

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous artisans in the Great Lakes region rely on the ring-porous property of black ash Fraxinus nigra Marshall (Oleaceae), which allows annual layers of xylem to be easily separated to make baskets that are important economic resources and vessels of culture. The emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera:...

  10. Analysis of scorpion venom composition by Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Zérega, Brenda E.; González-Solís, José L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the venom of two Centruroides scorpion species using Raman spectroscopy. The spectra analysis allows to determine the venoms chemical composition and to establish the main differences and similarities among the species. It is also shown that the use of Principal Component Analysis may help to tell apart between the scorpion species.

  11. Humicolous buthoid scorpions: a new species from Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2005-01-01

    A new species of humicolous buthid scorpion is described on the basis of a single specimen collected in the Brazilian Amazonia. New considerations on the taxonomy and biogeography of some micro-scorpions of the subfamily Ananterinae Pocock, 1900 are proposed in relation to their possible evolution from endogeous to epygean environments.

  12. Humicolous microcharmid scorpions: a new genus and species from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2004-01-01

    A new genus and species of humicolous microcharmid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in the Ankarana Reserve, Madagascar. New considerations regarding the taxonomy and morphology of micro-buthoid Malagasy scorpions are proposed, based mainly on the study of the peg-shaped sensillae of the pectines by scanning electron microscopy.

  13. [Epidemiological data on scorpion envenomation in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Hellal, H; Guerinik, M; Griene, L; Laid, Y; Mesbah, S; Merad, R; Alamir, B

    2012-08-01

    The scorpion envenomation is a major public health problem in Algeria. Given this fact, the Ministry of Health has developed a national strategy for prevention and control based on the training of health personnel, information, education and communication, and standardization of care on the basis of a therapeutic consensus. The monitoring and evaluation activities are carried out by epidemiological indicators through the implementation of an information system based in the services of Epidemiology, INSP (National Institute of Public Health) and Prevention Department of the Health Ministry. The information carriers are report cards implemented in different health facilities that collect data on bites and deaths from scorpion envenomation. Summaries of notifications from the wilayas are collected monthly, and processed by the Epi info software using monitoring indicators. From 1991 to 2010, there has been a stagnation in the number of stings with an average of 50,000 cases per year, but mortality decreased from more than 100 deaths in the last fifty years to 50 nowadays. The higher proportion of stings was recorded during the summer period. The most affected group is from 15 to 49 years which constitute the workforce, but children from 5 to 14 years rank first in terms of mortality. But these rates vary across years and regions. Despite all these efforts, the scorpion envenomation in Algeria remains of concern and our main challenges are to strengthen cross-sectional actions at the local level and improving the quality of care.

  14. Management of scorpion sting: prazosin or dobutamine.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Parakh, M; Purohit, A

    2010-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of Dobutamine and Prazosin in the management of cases with scorpion sting. Pediatric intensive care unit of an affiliated hospital of a medical university. Forty-two children with scorpion sting. The involved victims were divided alternatively into two groups. Twenty-one patients were treated with intravenous Dobutamine infusion and other 21 received oral Prazosin. Percent-rise in left-ventricular ejection fraction in first 24 h after institution of the therapy, time taken in recovery from pulmonary edema, requirement of any additional drug and supportive measures, and mortality. The time taken in recovery from pulmonary edema was significantly shorter in cases treated with prazosin (28 +/- 18.3 vs. 72 +/- 0 h), the p-value being <0.05. Faster improvement of various parameters was observed in prazosin group in comparison to the dobutamine group. Mortality in both the groups was equal. Prazosin and dobutamine, both are useful drugs for management of cardiovascular features of scorpion envenomation, nevertheless, prazosin is slightly better than dobutamine in terms of faster recovery, and also because of its ease of administration and low cost of therapy.

  15. Scorpion anti-venom activity of botanicals: a pharmacological approach.

    PubMed

    Dey, Abhijit; Dey, Amrita; De, Jitendra Nath

    2013-03-01

    Scorpion bite is considered as one of the common and dangerous phenomenon throughout the world. The clinical manifestations include pulmonary edema, myocardial damage, intracerebral haemorrhage, brachial plexopathy, renal failure etc. which sometimes leads to mortality. The common antivenin therapy includes anti-scorpion venom serum or prazosin. In the vast rural areas of the third world countries phytotherapy is considered as an alternative system of medicine and scorpion sting is treated with the help of medicinal botanicals. As the safety and efficacy are considered as important aspects of anti venin therapy, conventional treatment can be supported by the herbal remedy. The present review compiles a number of medicinal plants pharmacologically evaluated in vitro and/or in vivo for scorpion antivenin properties. Considering the aspects like cost effectiveness, availability, lesser side effects and development of drug resistance, plant based anti venin therapy may be considered as a possible remedy against scorpion envenomation.

  16. Evolution of alternative methodologies of scorpion antivenoms production.

    PubMed

    Carmo, A O; Chatzaki, M; Horta, C C R; Magalhães, B F; Oliveira-Mendes, B B R; Chávez-Olórtegui, C; Kalapothakis, E

    2015-04-01

    Scorpionism represents a serious public health problem resulting in the death of children and debilitated individuals. Scorpion sting treatment employs various strategies including the use of specific medicines such as antiserum, especially for patients with severe symptoms. In 1909 Charles Todd described the production of an antiserum against the venom of the scorpion Buthus quinquestriatus. Based on Todd's work, researchers worldwide began producing antiserum using the same approach i.e., immunization of horses with crude venom as antigen. Despite achieving satisfactory results using this approach, researchers in this field have developed alternative approaches for the production of scorpion antivenom serum. In this review, we describe the work published by experts in toxinology to the development of scorpion venom antiserum. Methods and results describing the use of specific antigens, detoxified venom or toxins, purified toxins and or venom fractions, native toxoids, recombinant toxins, synthetic peptides, monoclonal and recombinant antibodies, and alternative animal models are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of the scorpion Scorpiops jendeki: implication for the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yibao; Zhao, Ruiming; He, Yawen; Li, Songryong; Liu, Jun; Wu, Yingliang; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin

    2009-01-01

    Background The family Euscorpiidae, which covers Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, is one of the most widely distributed scorpion groups. However, no studies have been conducted on the venom of a Euscorpiidae species yet. In this work, we performed a transcriptomic approach for characterizing the venom components from a Euscorpiidae scorpion, Scorpiops jendeki. Results There are ten known types of venom peptides and proteins obtained from Scorpiops jendeki. Great diversity is observed in primary sequences of most highly expressed types. The most highly expressed types are cytolytic peptides and serine proteases. Neurotoxins specific for sodium channels, which are major groups of venom components from Buthidae scorpions, are not detected in this study. In addition to those known types of venom peptides and proteins, we also obtain nine atypical types of venom molecules which haven't been observed in any other scorpion species studied to date. Conclusion This work provides the first set of cDNAs from Scorpiops jendeki, and one of the few transcriptomic analyses from a scorpion. This allows the characterization of a large number of venom molecules, belonging to either known or atypical types of scorpion venom peptides and proteins. Besides, our work could provide some clues to the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal by comparison with venom data from other scorpion lineages. PMID:19570192

  18. Divergent non-LTR retrotransposon lineages from the genomes of scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones).

    PubMed

    Glushkov, Sergei; Novikova, Olga; Blinov, Alexander; Fet, Victor

    2006-03-01

    We screened across the taxonomic diversity of order Scorpiones (22 species belonging to 21 genera and 10 families) for the presence of seven different clades of non-LTR retrotransposons in their genomes using PCR with newly designed clade-specific consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers. Scorpion genomes were found to contain four known non-LTR retrotransposon clades: R1, I, Jockey, and CR1. In total, 35 fragments of reverse transcriptase genes of new elements from 22 scorpion species were obtained and analyzed for three clades, Jockey, I, and CR1. Phylogenies of different clades of elements were built using amino acid sequences inferred from 33 non-LTR retrotransposon clones. Distinct evolutionary lineages, with several major groups of the non-LTR retroelements were identified, showing significant variation. Four lineages were revealed in Jockey clade. The phylogeny of I clade showed strong support for the monophyletic origin of such group of elements in scorpions. Three separate lineages can be distinguished in the phylogenetic tree of CR1 clade. The large fraction of the isolated elements appeared to be defective.

  19. Evaluating the latest estimates of spatially and temporally resolved gridded black carbon emission over Indian region in a strategic integrated modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, S.; Kumar, B. D.; Reddy, M.

    2016-12-01

    Among aerosol constituents, black carbon (BC) has a strong mass absorption efficiency and play an important role in modifying the climate system. Regional and global modelling studies using BC emissions as input and simulating BC distribution in general exhibit large inadequacy compared to observations especially over regions where atmosphere is observed laden with high pollution level of BC concentration (e.g. the Indo-Gangetic plain, IGP over the Indian region); thereby indicating discrepancy in emissions. In the present study, we evaluate the latest spatially and temporally resolved gridded black carbon (BC) emissions estimated over Indian region in a strategic integrated modelling approach; this estimation was done extracting information on initial bottom-up monthly emissions and atmospheric BC concentration from a general circulation model (GCM) simulation in conjunction with receptor modelling approach. Monthly BC emission obtained from the present study exhibited a spatial and temporal variability with this being the highest (lowest) during February (July). Monthly BC emission flux was considerably high (> 100 Kg.Km-2) over the entire Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and the east coast during winter months with this high value, however, being persistent throughout over the northern IGP. This was relatively higher over the central and western India than over the IGP during summer months. Annual BC emission rate was 2568 Gg y-1with that over the IGP and central India respectively being 58% and 34% of the total annual BC emissions over India. The relative predominance of monthly BC emission flux over a region (as depicted from z-score distribution maps) was inferred being consistent with the prevalence of region- and season-specific anthropogenic activity. Evaluation of emissions (modified and old) through simulations in a chemical transport model showed the mean BC surface concentration simulated using modified emission resembled relatively well with the measured

  20. Neurological effects of venomous bites and stings: snakes, spiders, and scorpions.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2013-01-01

    Snake and spider bites, as well as scorpion sting envenoming, are neglected diseases affecting millions of people all over the world. Neurological complications vary according to the offending animal, and are often directly related to toxic effects of the venom, affecting the central nervous system, the neuromuscular transmission, the cardiovascular system, or the coagulation cascade. Snake bite envenoming may result in stroke or muscle paralysis. Metalloproteinases and other substances (common in vipers and colubrids) have anticoagulant or procoagulant activity, and may induce ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes. The venom of elapids is rich in neurotoxins affecting the neuromuscular transmission at either presynaptic or postsynaptic levels. The clinical picture of scorpion sting envenoming is dominated by muscle weakness associated with arterial hypertension, cardiac arrythmias, myocarditis, or pulmonary edema. These manifestations occur as the result of release of catecholamines into the bloodstream or due to direct cardiac toxicity of the venom. Cerebrovascular complications have been reported after the sting of the Indian red scorpion. Intracranial hemorrhages occur in the setting of acute increases in arterial blood pressure related to sympathetic overstimulation, and cerebral infarctions are related to either cerebral hypoperfusion, consumption coagulopathy, vasculitis, or cardiogenic brain embolism. Three main syndromes result from spider bite envenoming: latrodectism, loxoscelism, and funnel-web spider envenoming. Latrodectism is related to neurotoxins present in the venom of widow spiders. Most cases present with headache, lethargy, irritability, myalgia, tremor, fasciculation, or ataxia. Loxoscelism is caused by envenoming by spiders of the family Sicariidae. It may present with a stroke due to a severe coagulopathy. The venom of funnel-web spiders also has neurotoxins that stimulate neurotransmitter release, resulting in sensory disturbances and muscle

  1. The Flood. Second edition. Indian Culture Series DH-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Hap

    The booklet, illustrated with black and white photographs and drawings, contains 16 one to three page versions of the story of the great flood. Versions of the story as told by representatives of the Skokomish Indians of Western Washington, Apache Indians of New Mexico, Athabascan Indians of Alaska, Shasta Indians of California, Yakima Indians of…

  2. The Flood. Second edition. Indian Culture Series DH-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Hap

    The booklet, illustrated with black and white photographs and drawings, contains 16 one to three page versions of the story of the great flood. Versions of the story as told by representatives of the Skokomish Indians of Western Washington, Apache Indians of New Mexico, Athabascan Indians of Alaska, Shasta Indians of California, Yakima Indians of…

  3. Scorpion sheds 'tail' to escape: consequences and implications of autotomy in scorpions (Buthidae: Ananteris).

    PubMed

    Mattoni, Camilo I; García-Hernández, Solimary; Botero-Trujillo, Ricardo; Ochoa, José A; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Prendini, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Autotomy, the voluntary shedding or detachment of a body part at a determined cleavage plane, is a common anti-predation defense mechanism in several animal taxa, including arthropods. Among arachnids, autotomy has been observed in harvestmen, mites, and spiders, always involving the loss of legs. Autotomy of the opisthosoma (abdomen) was recently reported in a single species of the Neotropical buthid scorpion genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891, but few details were revealed. Based on observations in the field and laboratory, examination of material in museum collections, and scanning electron microscopy, we document autotomy of the metasoma (the hind part of the opisthosoma, or 'tail') in fourteen species of Ananteris. Autotomy is more common in males than females, and has not been observed in juveniles. When the scorpion is held by the metasoma, it is voluntarily severed at the joints between metasomal segments I and II, II and III, or III and IV, allowing the scorpion to escape. After detachment, the severed metasoma moves (twitches) automatically, much like the severed tail of a lizard or the severed leg of a spider, and reacts to contact, even attempting to sting. The severed surface heals rapidly, scar tissue forming in five days. The lost metasomal segments and telson cannot be regenerated. Autotomy of the metasoma and telson results in permanent loss of the posterior part of the scorpion's digestive system (the anus is situated posteriorly on metasomal segment V) and the ability to inject venom by stinging. After autotomy, scorpions do not defecate and can only capture small prey items. However, males can survive and mate successfully for up to eight months in the laboratory. In spite of diminished predation ability after autotomy, survival allows males to reproduce. Autotomy in Ananteris therefore appears to be an effective, adaptive, anti-predation escape mechanism.

  4. Study on Distribution of Scorpions to Provide Prevention and Interventions in Combating Scorpionism in Poldokhtar County, Lorestan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mansour; Hassan, Rastgar

    2016-12-01

    Scorpions are arthropods of medical importance classified in the class Arachnida, inhabiting hot and dry environments. All scorpions have a venomous sting and several thousand people die each year from scorpion stings, but this mortality is due to the venom of about 25 species located in northern Africa, the Middle East, India, Mexico and parts of South America. Poldokhtar County belongs to one of the southern cities of Lorestan Province, providing suitable habitats for many different species of scorpions due to its specific climatic conditions. To examine the fauna of scorpion and its distribution in the Poldokhtar County and to provide appropriate preventive and medical interventions in combating scorpionism. This present study was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. This study was conducted from April 2014 to November 2014 in regions of Poldokhtar County, Lorestan Province, and west of Iran. Cluster sampling methodology was employed in the sampling and scorpion collection procedure. Sampling was undertaken for an eight-month period, in villages and districts, namely, Myankuhe sharqi, Jayedar, Jelogir and Malavi within the county. The Chi-square test and the Fisher-exact test for homogeneity of proportions were used to compare quantitative variables. Totally, 393 specimens were captured entailing 193 (49.1%) males and 200 (50.9%) females. There were at least seven species of scorpions belonging to three families; BU= Buthidae, HE = Hemiscorpiidae, SCN = Scorpionidae in Poldokhtar. Out of 393 collected scorpions, seven species, Androctonus crassicauda, Hottentotta (Buthotus) saulcyi, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Compsobuthus rugosulus, Orthochirus scrobiculosus, Scorpio maurus and Hemiscorpius lepturus were identified. The overall sex ratio of females to males was 1:1.03. It is crucial to improve the knowledge of residents in this region regarding preventive methods towards scorpion stinging. All the known dangerous Iranian scorpions having medical

  5. Bilateral cerebellar infarction: a rare complication of scorpion sting.

    PubMed

    Gadwalkar, S R; Bushan, S; Pramod, K; Gouda, Chandra; Kumar, P M

    2006-07-01

    Complications following scorpion sting are common in India and can be fatal. Stroke following scorpion sting is a rare complication and can occur by various mechanisms such as hypertension, hypotension, DIC, myocarditis and venom-induced vasculitis. We present a rare case of extensive cerebellar infarction following scorpion sting, which has rarely been reported in medical literature. To study the clinical profile of two patients presenting with an acute onset of cerebellar symptoms following a scorpion sting. To evaluate the possible causes of the stroke and to study the relation of their symptoms to the scorpion sting. Two young women presented with a history of acute onset of dysarthria, ataxia and incoordination following scorpion sting. They did not have any known risk factors for stroke. They had cerebellar type of dysarthria and cerebellar signs on both sides along with incoordination. A CT-scan of the brain showed bilateral extensive cerebellar infarctions. They were investigated for other causes of stroke without any positive results. With treatment the patients made a gradual but complete recovery. Since there was no evidence of hypertension, hypotension, myocarditis or disseminated intravascular coagulation, we can conclude that the patients had suffered a thrombotic stroke caused by the vasculotoxic action of the scorpion venom.

  6. Epidemiology of Scorpionism in Iran during 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rafizadeh, Sina; Rafinejad, Javad; Rassi, Yavar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Scorpion sting is a major health problem in Iran. The aim of current study was to measure the incidence rates of scorpion stings, mortality, recovery, and affected age groups. The results of treatment with and without anti venom also were considered in the entire country during 2009. Methods: All the data were collected from emergency section of different hospitals and then were analyzed by related software. The responsibility of such data collection and surveillance is related to the Department of Violence and Injury, Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran. Results: A total incidence of 59.5/100000 was found for the 12-month period. During the study period the most and the least cases were reported from Khuzestan and Mazandaran Provinces with incidence of 541 and 0 per 100000 respectively. Totally 40220 anti venom vials were used, i.e., the ratio of 91 vial/ 100 affected cases. The stings occur mainly in rural areas (57.7%). Young people with the age group of 15–24 years old were the most victims of stings. The mortality and recovery rates of cases who had received anti venom less than 6 h of stings were calculated as 0.01% and 99.9% respectively. Conclusion: The high incidence of scorpion stings in Iran especially in Khuzestan suggests the necessity of preventive programmes for decreasing the incidence. Such programmes could start by community educating in the high prevalent areas. In addition prompt and local treatment is particularly important for infants and pre-school children. PMID:23785696

  7. A Novel Algorithm Applied to Common Thermal-Optical Transmission Data for Determining Mass Absorption Cross Sections of Atmospheric Black Carbon: Applications to the Indian Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, A.; Sheesley, R. J.; Kirillova, E.; Gustafsson, O.

    2010-12-01

    High wintertime concentrations of black carbon aerosols (BCA) over South Asia and the Northern Indian Ocean are thought to have a large impact on the regional climate. Direct absorption of sunlight by BCAs causes heating of the atmosphere and cooling at the surface. To quantify such effects it is important to characterize a number of different properties of the aerosols. Here we present a novel application of the thermal-optical (OCEC) instrument in which the laser beam is used to obtain optical information about the aerosols. In particular, the novel algorithm accounts for non-carbon contributions to the light extinction. Combining these light extinction coefficients with the simultaneously constrained Elemental Carbon (EC) concentrations, the Mass Absorption Cross Section (MAC) is computed. Samples were collected during a continuous 14-month campaign Dec 2008 - Mar 2009 at Sinaghad in Western India and on Hanimaadhoo, the Northernmost Island in the Maldives. This data set suggests that the MAC of the BCAs are variable, sometimes by a factor of 3 compared to the mean. This observation adds to the complexity of calculating the radiative forcing for BCAs, reinforcing previous observations that parameters such as aerosol mixing state and sources need to be taken into account.

  8. Taxonomical and geographical occurrence of Libyans scorpions.

    PubMed

    Zourgui, L; Maammar, M; Emetris, R

    2008-01-01

    Nine different species of scorpions can be recognized from more than 5000 samples collected from different areas in Libya: Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus bicolor, Androctonus australis, Androctonus amoreuxi, Buthacus leptochelys, Buthus occitanus, Buthacus arenicola, Orthochirus innesi and Scorpio maurus. The geographical occurrence showed that Leiurus quinquestriatus seems to be restricted to the Southern areas. On the contrary, Buthus occitanus was found in the costal regions. Other species such as Androctonus were widely spread in all regions. Buthacus Leptochelys, Orthochirus innesi and Scorpio maurus were found, in the East (Aujlah, Jalu), the South (Wadi-Atbah) and the Western cost of Libya respectively.

  9. Study on Distribution of Scorpions to Provide Prevention and Interventions in Combating Scorpionism in Poldokhtar County, Lorestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Rastgar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Scorpions are arthropods of medical importance classified in the class Arachnida, inhabiting hot and dry environments. All scorpions have a venomous sting and several thousand people die each year from scorpion stings, but this mortality is due to the venom of about 25 species located in northern Africa, the Middle East, India, Mexico and parts of South America. Poldokhtar County belongs to one of the southern cities of Lorestan Province, providing suitable habitats for many different species of scorpions due to its specific climatic conditions. Aim To examine the fauna of scorpion and its distribution in the Poldokhtar County and to provide appropriate preventive and medical interventions in combating scorpionism. Materials and Methods This present study was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. This study was conducted from April 2014 to November 2014 in regions of Poldokhtar County, Lorestan Province, and west of Iran. Cluster sampling methodology was employed in the sampling and scorpion collection procedure. Sampling was undertaken for an eight-month period, in villages and districts, namely, Myankuhe sharqi, Jayedar, Jelogir and Malavi within the county. The Chi-square test and the Fisher-exact test for homogeneity of proportions were used to compare quantitative variables. Results Totally, 393 specimens were captured entailing 193 (49.1%) males and 200 (50.9%) females. There were at least seven species of scorpions belonging to three families; BU= Buthidae, HE = Hemiscorpiidae, SCN = Scorpionidae in Poldokhtar. Out of 393 collected scorpions, seven species, Androctonus crassicauda, Hottentotta (Buthotus) saulcyi, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Compsobuthus rugosulus, Orthochirus scrobiculosus, Scorpio maurus and Hemiscorpius lepturus were identified. The overall sex ratio of females to males was 1:1.03. Conclusion It is crucial to improve the knowledge of residents in this region regarding preventive methods towards scorpion stinging

  10. Geochemistry of pyrite and chalcopyrite from an active black smoker in 49.6°E Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bo; Yang, Yaomin; Yu, Hongjun; Zhao, Yuexia; Ding, Qingfeng; Yang, Jichao; Tang, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Active hydrothermal chimneys, as the product of submarine hydrothermal activity, can be used to determine the fluid evolution and formation process of potential volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits. A hard-won specimen from an active hydrothermal chimney was collected in the 49.6°E ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) field through a television-guided grab. A geochemical study of prominent sulfide (e.g., pyrite and chalcopyrite) included in this sample was performed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The early sulfides produced at low temperature are of disseminated fine-grained anhedral morphology, whereas the late ones with massive, coarse euhedral features precipitated in a high-temperature setting. The systematic variations in the contents of minor and trace elements are apparently related to the crystallization sequence, as well as to texture. Micro-disseminated anhedral sulfides rich in Pb, As, Ni, Ba, Mn, Mo, U, and V were formed during the initial chimney wall growth, whereas those rich in Sn, Se, and Co with massive, coarse euhedral morphology were formed within the late metallogenic stage. The hydrothermal fluid composition has experienced a great change during the chimney growth. Such a conclusion is consistent with that indicated by using principal component analysis, which is a powerful statistical analysis method widely used to project multidimensional datasets (e.g., element contents in different mineral phases) into a few directions. This distribution pattern points to crystallographic controls on minor and trace element uptake during chimney growth, occurring with concomitant variations in the fluid composition evolutionary history. In this pyrite-chalcopyrite-bearing active hydrothermal chimney at the SWIR, the metal concentration and precipitation of sulfides largely occurred at the seafloor as a result of mixing between the upwelling hot hydrothermal fluid and cold seawater. Over the course of

  11. Evidence of duplicated Hox genes in the most recent common ancestor of extant scorpions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prashant P; Santiago, Marc A; González-Santillán, Edmundo; Monod, Lionel; Wheeler, Ward C

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions (order Scorpiones) are unusual among arthropods, both for the extreme heteronomy of their bauplan and for the high gene family turnover exhibited in their genomes. These phenomena appear to be correlated, as two scorpion species have been shown to possess nearly twice the number of Hox genes present in most arthropods. Segmentally offset anterior expression boundaries of a subset of Hox paralogs have been shown to correspond to transitions in segmental identities in the scorpion posterior tagmata, suggesting that posterior heteronomy in scorpions may have been achieved by neofunctionalization of Hox paralogs. However, both the first scorpion genome sequenced and the developmental genetic data are based on exemplars of Buthidae, one of 19 families of scorpions. It is therefore not known whether Hox paralogy is limited to Buthidae or widespread among scorpions. We surveyed 24 high throughput transcriptomes and the single whole genome available for scorpions, in order to test the prediction that Hox gene duplications are common to the order. We used gene tree parsimony to infer whether the paralogy was consistent with a duplication event in the scorpion common ancestor. Here we show that duplicated Hox genes in non-buthid scorpions occur in six of the ten Hox classes. Gene tree topologies and parsimony-based reconciliation of the gene trees are consistent with a duplication event in the most recent common ancestor of scorpions. These results suggest that a Hox paralogy, and by extension the model of posterior patterning established in a buthid, can be extended to non-Buthidae scorpions.

  12. Scorpion Venom and the Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Petricevich, Vera L.

    2010-01-01

    Scorpion venoms consist of a complex of several toxins that exhibit a wide range of biological properties and actions, as well as chemical compositions, toxicity, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. These venoms are associated with high morbility and mortality, especially among children. Victims of envenoming by a scorpion suffer a variety of pathologies, involving mainly both sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation as well as central manifestations such as irritability, hyperthermia, vomiting, profuse salivation, tremor, and convulsion. The clinical signs and symptoms observed in humans and experimental animals are related with an excessive systemic host inflammatory response to stings and stings, respectively. Although the pathophysiology of envenomation is complex and not yet fully understood, venom and immune responses are known to trigger the release of inflammatory mediators that are largely mediated by cytokines. In models of severe systemic inflammation produced by injection of high doses of venom or venoms products, the increase in production of proinflammatory cytokines significantly contributes to immunological imbalance, multiple organ dysfunction and death. The cytokines initiate a cascade of events that lead to illness behaviors such as fever, anorexia, and also physiological events in the host such as activation of vasodilatation, hypotension, and increased of vessel permeability. PMID:20300540

  13. Venomous snake bites, scorpions, and spiders.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, S A M; Senanayake, Nimal

    2014-01-01

    Neurologic dysfunction due to natural neurotoxins is an important, but neglected, public health hazard in many parts of the world, particularly in the tropics. These toxins are produced by or found among a variety of live forms that include venomous snakes, arthropods such as scorpions, spiders, centipedes, stinging insects (Hymenoptera), ticks, certain poisonous fish, shellfish, crabs, cone shells, skin secretions of dart-poison frogs, and bacterial poisons such as botulinum toxin. These toxins commonly act on neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter, but in certain situations the toxins interfere with neurotransmitters such as GABA, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyrate. Of the toxins, α-toxins and κ-toxins (e.g., Chinese krait, Bungarus multicinctus) act on the postsynaptic membrane, blocking the receptors, whilst β-toxin (e.g., common krait, B. caeruleus) acts on the presynaptic membrane, causing impairment of acetylcholine release. Conversely, dendrotoxins of the African mamba enhance acetylcholine release. The toxins of scorpions and spiders commonly interfere with voltage-gated ion channels. Clinically, the cardinal manifestation is muscle paralysis. In severe cases respiratory paralysis could be fatal. Effective antivenoms are the mainstay of treatment of envenoming, but their lack of availability is the major concern in the regions of the globe where they are desperately needed. Interestingly, some toxins have proved to be valuable pharmaceutical agents, while some others are widely exploited to study neuromuscular physiology and pathology.

  14. S-alkylation of soft scorpionates.

    PubMed

    Rajasekharan-Nair, Rajeev; Moore, Dean; Chalmers, Kirsten; Wallace, Dawn; Diamond, Louise M; Darby, Lisa; Armstrong, David R; Reglinski, John; Spicer, Mark D

    2013-02-11

    The alkylation reactions of soft scorpionates are reported. The hydrotris(S-alkyl-methimazolyl)borate dications (alkyl = methyl, allyl, benzyl), which were prepared by the reaction of Tm(Me) anion and primary alkyl halides, have been isolated and structurally characterised. The reaction is, however, not universally successful. DFT analysis of these alkylation reactions (C=S versus B-H alkylation) indicates that the observed outcome is driven by kinetic factors. Extending the study to incorporate alternative imine thiones (mercaptobenzothiazole, bz; thiazoline, tz) led to the structural characterisation of di[aquo-μ-aquohydrotris(mercaptobenzothiazolyl)boratosodium], which contains sodium atoms in the κ(3)-S,S,S coordination mode. Alkylation of Na[Tbz] and Na[tzTtz] leads to decomposition resulting in the formation of the simple S-alkylated heterocycles. The analysis of the species involved in these reactions shows an inherent weakness in the B-N bond in soft scorpionates, which has implications for their use in more advanced chemistry.

  15. Scorpion venom peptides with no disulfide bridges: a review.

    PubMed

    Almaaytah, Ammar; Albalas, Qosay

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion venoms are rich sources of biologically active peptides that are classified into disulfide-bridged peptides (DBPs) and non-disulfide-bridged peptides (NDBPs). DBPs are the main scorpion venom components responsible for the neurotoxic effects observed during scorpion envenomation as they usually target membrane bound ion channels of excitable and non-excitable cells. Several hundred DBPs have been identified and functionally characterized in the past two decades. The NDBPs represent a novel group of molecules that have gained great interest only recently due to their high diversity both in their primary structures and bioactivities. This review provides an overview of scorpion NDBPs focusing on their therapeutic applications, modes of discovery, mechanisms of NDBPs genetic diversity and structural properties. It also provides a simple classification for NDBPs that could be adopted and applied to other NDBPs identified in future studies.

  16. [Fifteen years' experience in scorpion envenomation control in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Benguedda, A C; Laraba-Djébari, F; Ouahdi, M; Hellal, H; Griene, L; Guerenik, M; Laid, Y

    2002-08-01

    In Algeria, scorpion envenomation is real public health problem. Since the creation of the National Committee of Control of Scorpion envenomations (CNLES), several steps have been taken to deal with this problem. After a brief historical introduction, we present the main elements of the action carried out both in terms of treatment and of prevention of scorpion proliferation. The epidemiological situation is presented by stressing the difficulties involved in collecting reliable data. We also address the question of citizen and stakeholder awareness since public participation is crucial in all prevention programmes. Training for healthcare providers is also one of the principal axes of the Committee's programme which includes national, regional, and even local seminars. We describe the improvement of production and research on venoms carried out by the Institute Pasteur of Algeria. We conclude by discussing the action plan for 2001 and prospects for an enhanced strategy in the fight against the scorpion envenomation.

  17. Updating knowledge on new medically important scorpion species in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Riaño-Umbarila, Lidia; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Everardo R; Santibañez-López, Carlos E; Güereca, Leopoldo; Uribe-Romero, Selene J; Gómez-Ramírez, Ilse V; Cárcamo-Noriega, Edson N; Possani, Lourival D; Becerril, Baltazar

    2017-11-01

    The increment in the number of scorpion envenoming cases in Mexico is mainly associated to the rapid growth of the urban areas, and consequently, to the invasion of natural habitats of these arachnids. On the other hand, there is a great diversity of scorpion species, so it is indispensable to identify those of medical importance, which we now know are many more than the 7-8 previously reported as dangerous to humans. Because different LD50 values have been reported for the venom of the same species, probably due to variations in the experimental conditions used, in this work we determined the LD50 values for the venoms of 13 different species of scorpions using simple but systematic procedures. This information constitutes a referent on the level of toxicity of medically important scorpion species from Mexico and establishes the bases for a more comprehensive assessment of the neutralizing capacity of current and developing antivenoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Geohydrology and effects of water use in the Black Mesa area, Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eychaner, James H.

    1981-01-01

    The main source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area is the N aquifer, which consists of the Navajo Sandstone and underlying Kayenta Formation and Wingate Sandstone. Water is under confined conditions in the central 3,300 square miles. Transmissivity is less than 1,000 feet squared per day. Storage coefficient is less than 0.0004 in the confined part of the aquifer and at least 0.1 in the unconfined part. Recharge is about 13,000 acre-feet per year, and storage at equilibrium, which was before 1965, was at least 180 million acre-feet. Ground-water withdrawals were less than 400 acre-feet per year before 1970 and increased to 5,300 acre-feet per year 1976-1979. By 1980, municipal-supply pumpage is expected to exceed that for a coal-slurry pipeline. Water levels have declined throughout the confined part of the aquifer. Decline of more than 100 feet was calculated for an area of 200 square miles through 1979 and was projected for 440 square miles through 2001. In the unconfined part, project declines averaged less than 1 foot. If pumping for coal slurry stopped, most of the decline would recover within 10 years. (USGS)

  19. Characterisation of an atypical manifestation of black band disease on Porites lutea in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, David A.; Schleyer, Michael H.; Chabanet, Pascale; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Recent surveys conducted on Reunion Island coral reefs revealed an atypical manifestation of black band disease on the main framework building coral, Porites lutea. This BBD manifestation (PorBBD) presented a thick lighter-colored band, which preceded the typical BBD lesion. Whilst BBD aetiology has been intensively described worldwide, it remains unclear if corals with apparently similar lesions across coral reefs are affected by the same pathogens. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach involving field surveys, gross lesion monitoring, histopathology and 454-pyrosequencing was employed to provide the first comprehensive characterization of this particular manifestation. Surveys conducted within two geomorphological zones over two consecutive summers and winters showed spatial and seasonal patterns consistent with those found for typical BBD. Genetic analyses suggested an uncharacteristically high level of Vibrio spp. bacterial infection within PorBBD. However, microscopic analysis revealed high densities of cyanobacteria, penetrating the compromised tissue as well as the presence of basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates in the living tissue, adjacent to the bacterial mat. Additionally, classical BBD-associated cyanobacterial strains, genetically related to Pseudoscillatoria coralii and Roseofilum reptotaenium were identified and isolated and the presence of sulfate-reducers or sulfide-oxidizers such as Desulfovibrio and Arcobacter, previously shown to be associated with anoxic microenvironment within typical BBD was also observed, confirming that PorBBD is a manifestation of classical BBD. PMID:27441106

  20. Deep intraspecific divergences in the medically relevant fat-tailed scorpions (Androctonus, Scorpiones).

    PubMed

    Coelho, P; Sousa, P; Harris, D J; van der Meijden, A

    2014-06-01

    The genus Androctonus, commonly known as fat-tailed scorpions, contains 22 species distributed from Togo and Mauritania in the west, North Africa, through the Middle East and to as far east as India. With 13 species, a substantial amount of this genus' diversity occurs in North Africa, which is a major hotspot of scorpion sting incidents. Androctonus are among the most medically relevant animals in North Africa. Since venom composition within species is known to vary regionally, the improvement of therapeutic management depends on a correct assessment of the existing regional specific and sub-specific variation. In this study, we assessed the phylogeographical patterns in six species of Androctonus scorpions from North Africa using mitochondrial DNA markers. We sequenced COX1, 12S, 16S and ND1 genes from 110 individuals. Despite lacking basal resolution in the tree, we found taxonomical and geographically coherent clades. We discovered deep intraspecific variation in the widespread Androctonus amoreuxi and Androctonus australis, which consisted of several well-supported clades. Genetic distances between some of these clades are as high as those found between species. North African A. australis have a deep split in Tunisia around the Chott el-Djerid salt-lake. A novel split between A. amoreuxi scorpions was found in Morocco. We also found deep divergences in Androctonus mauritanicus, corresponding to areas attributed to invalidated subspecies. In addition we uncovered a clade of specimens from coastal south Morocco, which could not be ascribed to any know species using morphological characters. Based on these findings we recommend a reassessment of venom potency and anti-venom efficacy between these deep intraspecific divergent clades.

  1. Scorpion Sheds ‘Tail’ to Escape: Consequences and Implications of Autotomy in Scorpions (Buthidae: Ananteris)

    PubMed Central

    Mattoni, Camilo I.; García-Hernández, Solimary; Botero-Trujillo, Ricardo; Ochoa, José A.; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A.; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Prendini, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Autotomy, the voluntary shedding or detachment of a body part at a determined cleavage plane, is a common anti-predation defense mechanism in several animal taxa, including arthropods. Among arachnids, autotomy has been observed in harvestmen, mites, and spiders, always involving the loss of legs. Autotomy of the opisthosoma (abdomen) was recently reported in a single species of the Neotropical buthid scorpion genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891, but few details were revealed. Based on observations in the field and laboratory, examination of material in museum collections, and scanning electron microscopy, we document autotomy of the metasoma (the hind part of the opisthosoma, or ‘tail’) in fourteen species of Ananteris. Autotomy is more common in males than females, and has not been observed in juveniles. When the scorpion is held by the metasoma, it is voluntarily severed at the joints between metasomal segments I and II, II and III, or III and IV, allowing the scorpion to escape. After detachment, the severed metasoma moves (twitches) automatically, much like the severed tail of a lizard or the severed leg of a spider, and reacts to contact, even attempting to sting. The severed surface heals rapidly, scar tissue forming in five days. The lost metasomal segments and telson cannot be regenerated. Autotomy of the metasoma and telson results in permanent loss of the posterior part of the scorpion’s digestive system (the anus is situated posteriorly on metasomal segment V) and the ability to inject venom by stinging. After autotomy, scorpions do not defecate and can only capture small prey items. However, males can survive and mate successfully for up to eight months in the laboratory. In spite of diminished predation ability after autotomy, survival allows males to reproduce. Autotomy in Ananteris therefore appears to be an effective, adaptive, anti-predation escape mechanism. PMID:25629529

  2. Scorpion Toxin Polyptides as Therapeutic Agents: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Bhavya, Janardhan; Francois, Niyonzima N; More, Veena S; More, Sunil S

    2016-01-01

    Scorpions are distributed throughout the world and numerous biological molecules are found in their venom most importantly peptide toxins. These toxins modulate the ion channels either by blocking the pore of the channel or by altering the voltage gating. Molecules which block the pores have been useful in deciphering the structure of the ion channels. Many scorpion toxins have already been used for probing the voltage gated sodium channels and studying their activation and inactivation processes. The specialty of scorpion toxins is to discriminate between vertebrate and invertebrate channels which have led them to applications as pharmacological tools. Most of the scorpion toxin polypeptides were isolated, characterized and were shown to possess vital properties useful in the field of medicine. For instance, they show therapeutic properties such as antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity, used to treat autoimmune diseases and cardiovascular effects. Although the scorpion toxins exhibited good therapeutic effects in vitro and in vivo, no one has reached the market with success up to date. In this mini-review, the scorpion polypeptides, their interactions with ion channels and their uses as therapeutic agents are discussed.

  3. Model for simulating scorpion substrate vibration and detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, B. A.; Aibinu, A. M.; Joseph, E.; Salau, H. B.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Scorpion stings are vital health issues which requires prompt attention to minimize the pain inflicted on victims and avert death. A possible solution in averting the sting is the capability of detecting its presence earlier before it stings. Scorpion like other arthropods have a specific kind of movement pattern called substrate vibration, which generates a specific signal that is used in recognizing and locating mates and preys. This paper aims at developing an intelligent scorpion detection system using vibration frequency detection technique. A six step model for simulating scorpion substrate vibration and detection has been proposed. The surrounding vibrating signal is acquired and passed through a band pass filter. The resulting signal is model using autoregressive modeling technique. Resulting co-efficients are further analyzed for activity detection. The frequency response of scorpion activities for mating behaviour was simulated, detected analysed using MATLAB environment. The resulting coefficients was also compared and analysed. Results obtained shows that the proposed technique is appropriate for model and simulating scorpion substrate vibration and detection system.

  4. Scorpion sting prevention and treatment in ancient Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Arani, Mohammad Ghannaee

    2015-04-01

    Due to the medical and therapeutic importance of scorpions in Iranian traditional medicine, this review was conducted on the treatment of scorpion sting as performed by traditional healers in order to realize complications, clinical manifestations, diversities, and deficiencies in the prevention, control, and treatment as mentioned in the pertained literatures. This study tried to make known and investigate attitudes of the Iranian national and traditional medicine towards controlling these venomous animals. Keywords and articles were searched through relevant sites on the Internet. We investigated different journals and references for the Iranian traditional medicine. Based on the articles and books found, we tried to find suitable solutions to problems from the viewpoint of traditional medicine. Scorpion sting dates back to ancient Iran and has been widely reflected in the resources of Iranian traditional medicine. The traditional medicine offers various guidelines that can be beneficial in this respect. New attitude towards scorpion sting with regard to traditional medicine resources can enhance control and prevention of scorpion stings. Consequently, this attitude leads authorities and researchers to a decreased level of scorpion stings or related consequences.

  5. Scorpion sting prevention and treatment in ancient Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Arani, Mohammad Ghannaee

    2015-01-01

    Due to the medical and therapeutic importance of scorpions in Iranian traditional medicine, this review was conducted on the treatment of scorpion sting as performed by traditional healers in order to realize complications, clinical manifestations, diversities, and deficiencies in the prevention, control, and treatment as mentioned in the pertained literatures. This study tried to make known and investigate attitudes of the Iranian national and traditional medicine towards controlling these venomous animals. Keywords and articles were searched through relevant sites on the Internet. We investigated different journals and references for the Iranian traditional medicine. Based on the articles and books found, we tried to find suitable solutions to problems from the viewpoint of traditional medicine. Scorpion sting dates back to ancient Iran and has been widely reflected in the resources of Iranian traditional medicine. The traditional medicine offers various guidelines that can be beneficial in this respect. New attitude towards scorpion sting with regard to traditional medicine resources can enhance control and prevention of scorpion stings. Consequently, this attitude leads authorities and researchers to a decreased level of scorpion stings or related consequences. PMID:26151015

  6. English 367: American Indian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert W.; DeFlyer, Joseph E.

    A study guide to American Indian Literature (English 367), a 3-credit hour correspondence course available through the University of North Dakota, contains eight lessons to be used with the following six textbooks: "Black Elk Speaks,""Carriers of the Dream Wheel,""Ceremony,""The Portable North American Indian Reader,""Winter in Blood,""In the…

  7. English 367: American Indian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert W.; DeFlyer, Joseph E.

    A study guide to American Indian Literature (English 367), a 3-credit hour correspondence course available through the University of North Dakota, contains eight lessons to be used with the following six textbooks: "Black Elk Speaks,""Carriers of the Dream Wheel,""Ceremony,""The Portable North American Indian Reader,""Winter in Blood,""In the…

  8. West Indian Immigrants: Those Arrogant Bastards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, John C.

    1981-01-01

    The influx of Caribbean West Indian immigrants into the United States has evoked mixed responses from the Afro American black community. The West Indians' high degree of literacy, sense of community, and high self esteem have developed black leaders who have earned the respect of enlightened Afro Americans through their achievements in education,…

  9. The association between body composition, 25(OH)D, and PTH and bone mineral density in black African and Asian Indian population groups.

    PubMed

    George, Jaya A; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A; Crowther, N J

    2014-06-01

    There are few data on the contribution of body composition to bone mineral density (BMD) in non-Caucasian populations. We therefore studied the contribution of body composition, and possible confounding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, to BMD at various skeletal sites in black African (BA) and Asian Indian (AI) subjects. This was a cross-sectional study in Johannesburg, South Africa. BMD, body fat, and lean mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat distribution by ultrasound in 714 healthy subjects, aged 18-65 years. Whole-body (subtotal), hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine (lumbar) BMD were significantly higher in BA than AI subjects (P < .001 for all). Whole-body lean mass positively associated with BMD at all sites in both ethnic groups (P < .001 for all) and partially explained the higher BMD in BA females compared with AI females. Whole-body fat mass correlated positively with lumbar BMD in BA (P = .001) and inversely with subtotal BMD in AI subjects (P < .0001). Visceral adiposity correlated inversely with subtotal BMD in the BA (P = .037) and with lumbar BMD in the AI group (P = .005). No association was found between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and BMD. PTH was inversely associated with hip BMD in the BA group (P = .01) and with subtotal (P = .002), hip (P = .001), and femoral BMD (P < .0001) in the AI group. Significant differences in whole-body and site-specific BMD between the BA and AI groups were observed, with lean mass the major contributor to BMD at all sites in both groups. The contribution of other components of body composition differed by site and ethnic group.

  10. Extreme diversity of scorpion venom peptides and proteins revealed by transcriptomic analysis: implication for proteome evolution of scorpion venom arsenal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yibao; He, Yawen; Zhao, Ruiming; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian

    2012-02-16

    Venom is an important genetic development crucial to the survival of scorpions for over 400 million years. We studied the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal by means of comparative transcriptome analysis of venom glands and phylogenetic analysis of shared types of venom peptides and proteins between buthids and euscorpiids. Fifteen types of venom peptides and proteins were sequenced during the venom gland transcriptome analyses of two Buthidae species (Lychas mucronatus and Isometrus maculatus) and one Euscorpiidae species (Scorpiops margerisonae). Great diversity has been observed in translated amino acid sequences of these transcripts for venom peptides and proteins. Seven types of venom peptides and proteins were shared between buthids and euscorpiids. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least five of the seven common types of venom peptides and proteins were likely recruited into the scorpion venom proteome before the lineage split between Buthidae and Euscorpiidae with their corresponding genes undergoing individual or multiple gene duplication events. These are α-KTxs, βKSPNs (β-KTxs and scorpines), anionic peptides, La1-like peptides, and SPSVs (serine proteases from scorpion venom). Multiple types of venom peptides and proteins were demonstrated to be continuously recruited into the venom proteome during the evolution process of individual scorpion lineages. Our results provide an insight into the recruitment pattern of the scorpion venom arsenal for the first time.

  11. Serum level of scorpion toxins, electrolytes and electrocardiogram alterations in Mexican children envenomed by scorpion sting.

    PubMed

    Osnaya-Romero, N; Acosta-Saavedra, L C; Goytia-Acevedo, R; Lares-Asseff, I; Basurto-Celaya, G; Perez-Guille, G; Possani, L D; Calderón-Aranda, E S

    2016-11-01

    The scorpion Centruroides limpidus limpidus (C.l.l.) is endemic in México, producing hundreds of accidents in humans; children being one of the most susceptible targets. Few studies reported that severe envenoming by scorpion venom induces cardiac damage and electrolytes abnormalities in children, but the relationship of envenoming severity and toxic blood levels is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among clinical status of envenoming, serum electrolyte, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and serum toxin levels in 44 children stung by scorpion over a period of 6 months in the State of Morelos, Mexico. The patients were said to be asymptomatic, when they presented just local symptoms, and were said to be symptomatic when showing local symptoms and at least one systemic symptom. The clinical status was evaluated at the admission at the emergency room of the Hospital, and 30 min after the administration of polyspecific F(ab')2 anti-scorpion therapy to symptomatic children. Forty-one percent of the children were asymptomatic and 59% symptomatic. Potassium and sodium imbalance and an elongation of the QT interval were detected; the rate of hypokalemia was higher in symptomatic than on asymptomatic children (50% and 6%, respectively). Hypokalemia persisted in 19% in symptomatic patients, whereas sodium reached normal levels 30 min after anti-venom therapy. The hypokalemia statistically correlated with elongation of the QT interval. The concentration of the toxic components of C.l.l in serum was significantly higher in symptomatic than asymptomatic children, and the serum levels of the toxic component significantly decreased to undetectable levels after the application of anti-venom therapy. Despite the small size of the sample, this study establishes that severity of envenoming was statistically related to potassium imbalance in serum, QT interval and the concentration of toxic components in serum, which decreased at undetectable levels

  12. Development of segments and appendages in embryos of the desert scorpion Paruroctonus mesaensis (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae).

    PubMed

    Farley, R D

    2001-10-01

    The scanning electron microscope was used to study the changing features of scorpion embryos from the blastula through early stages in the development of appendages. The earliest scorpion fossils (Silurian period) have structures more advanced than the embryos herein, so the possibility is considered that these embryos still retain and display some features indicative of evolutionary patterns in adult pre-Silurian ancestors. The blastodisc stage is followed by a knob-like germinal center that gives rise to most of the embryo body. The germinal center elongates on the ventral surface of the spherical yolk mass. The broad cephalic lobe is first delineated from the following pedipalpal segment. The limbbuds for the pedipalps and anterior walking legs appear, as additional segments are added at a growth zone at the rear of the embryo body. Initially, in the cephalic lobe there are no limbbuds; then the cheliceral buds emerge from the posterior part of the lobe. The stomodeum appears first in the anterior half of the cephalic lobe, but an oral groove forms and the mouth is displaced posteriorly within the groove. This repositioning allows space anteriorly for invagination (semilunar grooves) of epithelium for the brain and medial eyes. The mouth is directed ventrally in all stages of this study. The widespread chelicerae are initially posterior to the mouth, but later move anterior and dorsal to it. Small limbbud bulges on mesosomal segments disappear later and never become protruding appendages. Metasomal segments are produced free from the yolk surface in a ventral flexure beneath the embryo body. The telson starts as two spherical lobes, but later elongates and tapers distally, not yet developing the sharp sting (aculeus) seen in Silurian and all subsequent scorpions. The walking legs are digitigrade, as in most fossil aquatic scorpions. Segments are delineated in the appendages; the chelicerae and pedipalps are divided distally for chela (claw) formation. Bilateral

  13. Efficacy of serotherapy in scorpion sting: a matched-pair study.

    PubMed

    Belghith, M; Boussarsar, M; Haguiga, H; Besbes, L; Elatrous, S; Touzi, N; Boujdaria, R; Bchir, A; Nouira, S; Bouchoucha, S; Abroug, F

    1999-01-01

    Although evidence of scorpion antivenin effectiveness in the clinical setting is lacking, scorpion antivenin is generally considered the only specific treatment for scorpion sting irrespective of its clinical severity. We conducted a matched-pair study to assess the efficacy of systematic administration of scorpion antivenin. Among 600 stung patients who participated in a study on the efficacy of high-dose hydrocortisone after scorpion sting, 135 (cases) had been treated with 10 to 20 mL intravenous scorpion antivenin (neutralizing 10 LD50 venom/mL). Controls were matched on disease severity on arrival to the emergency department. The severity of envenomation was graded I or II according to the absence (grade I) or the presence (grade II) of systemic manifestations of scorpion envenomation. Assessment of scorpion antivenin efficacy was based on the rate of changing severity grade in both groups (clinical improvement or worsening during an observation period of at least 4 hours). Both groups were similar with respect to clinical severity (36 patients were graded II in each group), age, sex, time-lapse between scorpion sting and ED arrival, and the administration of adjunctive therapy such as hydrocortisone. By the 4-hour evaluation, 50% and 64% of patients initially graded II exhibited a substantial clinical improvement in cases and controls, respectively, suggesting similar effects in cases and controls. There was no difference in preventive effects: 13% and 10% of cases and controls developed systemic manifestations of scorpion envenomation during the 4-hour observation period; 23% of cases and 17% controls were hospitalized by this time. There was no difference in the duration of hospitalization. Three cases developed anaphylactic shock as a consequence of scorpion antivenin administration, while 1 scorpion antivenin-untreated patient died from refractory shock. Systematic administration of scorpion antivenin irrespective of clinical severity did not alter the

  14. Scorpion-related cardiomyopathy: Clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Abroug, Fekri; Souheil, Elatrous; Ouanes, Islem; Dachraoui, Fahmi; Fekih-Hassen, Mohamed; Ouanes Besbes, Lamia

    2015-07-01

    Scorpion envenomation is a threat to more than 2 billion people worldwide with an annual sting number exceeding one million. Acute heart failure presenting as cardiogenic shock or pulmonary edema, or both is the most severe presentation of scorpion envenomation accounting for 0.27% lethality rate. The purpose of this review is to characterize the scorpion-related cardiomyopathy, clarify its pathophysiological mechanisms, and describe potentially useful treatments in this particular context. We searched major databases on observational or interventional studies (whether clinical or experimental) on the cardiorespiratory consequences of scorpion envenomation and their treatment. No limit of age or language was imposed. A critical appraisal of the literature was conducted in order to provide a pathophysiological scheme that reconciles reported patterns of cardiovascular toxicity and hypotheses and assumptions made so far. Early cardiovascular dysfunction is related to the so-called "vascular phase" of scorpion envenomation, which is related to a profound catecholamine-related vasoconstriction leading to a sharp increase in left ventricular (LV) afterload, thereby impeding LV emptying, and increasing LV filling pressure. Following this vascular phase, a myocardial phase occurs, characterized by a striking alteration in LV contractility (myocardial stunning), low cardiac output, and hypotensive state. The right ventricle involvement is symmetric to that of LV with a profound and reversible alteration in right ventricular performance. This phase is unique in that it is reversible spontaneously or under inotropic treatment. Scorpion myocardiopathy combines the features of takotsubo myocardiopathy (or stress myocardiopathy) which is linked to a massive release in catecholamines leading to myocardial ischemia through coronary vasomotor abnormalities (epicardial coronary spasm and/or increase in coronary microvascular resistance). Treatment of pulmonary edema due to scorpion

  15. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman; Manthiri, Rajamohamed Abbas; Abdo, Nasreddien; Al-Duaiji, Fawzi Abdullah; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41%) was preferred followed by roots (19%), whole plant (14%) and seeds (9%). The use of latex (4%), stem (3%), flowers (3%) and bark (3%) was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%), rhizome (1%) and shoot (1%) were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  16. Updates to SCORPION persistent surveillance system with universal gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jon; Winters, Michael; Brunck, Al

    2008-10-01

    This paper addresses benefits derived from the universal gateway utilized in Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation's (NGSC) SCORPION, a persistent surveillance and target recognition system produced by the Xetron campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION is currently deployed in Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). The SCORPION universal gateway is a flexible, field programmable system that provides integration of over forty Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) types from a variety of manufacturers, multiple visible and thermal electro-optical (EO) imagers, and numerous long haul satellite and terrestrial communications links, including the Army Research Lab (ARL) Blue Radio. Xetron has been integrating best in class sensors with this universal gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration to Common Operational Picture (COP) systems and remote sensor command and control since 1998. In addition to being fed to COP systems, SCORPION data can be visualized in the Common sensor Status (CStat) graphical user interface that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from up to seven hundred SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays. This user friendly visualization enables a large amount of sensor data and imagery to be used as actionable intelligence by a minimum number of analysts.

  17. [Use of medicinal plants against scorpionic and ophidian venoms].

    PubMed

    Memmi, A; Sansa, G; Rjeibi, I; El Ayeb, M; Srairi-Abid, N; Bellasfer, Z; Fekhih, A

    2007-01-01

    The scorpionic and ophidian envenomations are a serious public health problem in Tunisia especially in Southeastern regions. In these regions Artemisia campestris L is a plant well known which has a very important place in traditional medicine for its effectiveness against alleged venom of scorpions and snakes. In this work, we tested for the first time, the anti-venomous activity of Artemisia campestris L against the scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii and the viper Macrovipera lebetina venoms. Assays were conducted by fixing the dose of extract to3 mg/mouse while doses of venom are variable. The leaves of Artemisia campestris L were extracted by various organic solvents (Ether of oil, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol) and each extract was tested for its venom neutralizing capacity. For the ethanolic extract, a significant activity with respect to the venoms of scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii (Aag), was detected. Similarly, a significant neutralizing activity against the venom of a viper Macrovipera lebetina (Ml), was obtained with the dichloromethane extract. These results suggest the presence of two different type of chemical components in this plant: those neutralizing the venom of scorpion are soluble in ethanol whereas those neutralizing the venom of viper are soluble in dichloromethane.

  18. Biotechnological Trends in Spider and Scorpion Antivenom Development

    PubMed Central

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Solà, Mireia; Jappe, Emma Christine; Oscoz, Saioa; Lauridsen, Line Præst; Engmark, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Spiders and scorpions are notorious for their fearful dispositions and their ability to inject venom into prey and predators, causing symptoms such as necrosis, paralysis, and excruciating pain. Information on venom composition and the toxins present in these species is growing due to an interest in using bioactive toxins from spiders and scorpions for drug discovery purposes and for solving crystal structures of membrane-embedded receptors. Additionally, the identification and isolation of a myriad of spider and scorpion toxins has allowed research within next generation antivenoms to progress at an increasingly faster pace. In this review, the current knowledge of spider and scorpion venoms is presented, followed by a discussion of all published biotechnological efforts within development of spider and scorpion antitoxins based on small molecules, antibodies and fragments thereof, and next generation immunization strategies. The increasing number of discovery and development efforts within this field may point towards an upcoming transition from serum-based antivenoms towards therapeutic solutions based on modern biotechnology. PMID:27455327

  19. Pedipalps and venom vesicle anomalies in two families of scorpions (Scorpiones: Hemiscorpiidae, Buthidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Jahanifard, E; Navidpour, Sh; Masihipour, B

    2008-01-15

    The developmental anomalies are reported in this study. The first and second abnormally are presented in right pedipalps of Paraorthochirus and Orthochirus (Buthidae) while Paraorthochirus pedipalp just includes coxa, trochanter and without other parts (femur, patella, movable and fixed finger). The right pedipalp of Orthochirus specimen has abnormally too; it has all parts ofpedipalp except complete fixed finger. In both of scorpions, the left pedipalp is normal. Another case is present in venom vesicle of Hemiscourpius (Hemiscorpiidae). Pictures and morphometric measurements for three specimens are given.

  20. A checklist of the scorpions of Ecuador (Arachnida: Scorpiones), with notes on the distribution and medical significance of some species.

    PubMed

    Brito, Gabriel; Borges, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Ecuador harbors one of the most diverse Neotropical scorpion faunas, hereby updated to 47 species contained within eight genera and five families, which inhabits the "Costa" (n = 17), "Sierra" (n = 34), "Oriente" (n = 16) and "Insular" (n = 2) biogeographical regions, corresponding to the western coastal, Andean, Amazonian, and the Galápagos archipelago regions, respectively. The genus Tityus Koch, in the family Buthidae, responsible for severe/fatal accidents elsewhere in northern South America and the Amazonia, is represented in Ecuador by 16 species, including T. asthenes, which has caused fatalities in Colombia and Panama, and now in the Ecuadorian provinces of Morona Santiago and Sucumbíos. Underestimation of the medical significance of scorpion envenoming in Ecuador arises from the fact that Centruroides margaritatus (Gervais) (family Buthidae) and Teuthraustes atramentarius Simon (family Chactidae), whose venoms show low toxicity towards vertebrates, frequently envenom humans in the highly populated Guayas and Pichincha provinces. This work also updates the local scorpion faunal endemicity (74.5 %) and its geographical distribution, and reviews available medical/biochemical information on each species in the light of the increasing problem of scorpionism in the country. A proposal is hereby put forward to classify the Ecuadorian scorpions based on their potential medical importance.

  1. Acute renal insufficiency and toxic hepatitis following scorpions sting.

    PubMed

    Krkic-Dautovic, Sajma; Begovic, Begler

    2007-01-01

    Scorpion sting is a huge medical problem in countries of South America, Arabian Peninsula and Africa. In countries of Mediterranean region, where Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs, this problem is sporadic. Following the sting of very poisonous red scorpions, death may occur inside of 48 hours by reason of cardiac arrest and acute renal insufficiency (ARI). In our work we represent a case of 54-years old man. In his case, ARI and toxic hepatitis developed inside of 24 hours after the scorpion sting. Applied conservative therapy was not sufficient enough to solve ARI, so patient needed haemodialysis. With intensive conservative therapy and haemodialysis applied every other day, ARI and toxic hepatitis were solved within 25 days. After that, patient was released from hospital for ambulant treatment.

  2. [Microbial diversity in scorpion intestine (Buthus martensii Karsch)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Jun; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Jia-Tong; Liu, Bin; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2007-10-01

    Scorpion is an important officinal animal, and has a high nutritional value. In this study, the culture-independent and culture-dependent methods were used to investigate the microbial diversity in the scorpion's intestine. Results based on culture-independent method showed the bacteria to be related to alpha, beta, gamma-proteobacteria. Bacteria isolated by the culture-dependent method were high G + C, gram-positive bacteria. The genera Enterobacter, Serratia and Ochrobactrum were detected by both methods. To sum up the results from the two methods, the bacteria in scorpion intestine belong to 23 genera, which are Enterobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Pedobacter, Delftia, Ralstonia, Ochrobactrum, Sphingomonas, Exiguobacterium, Gordonia, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Janibacte, Kocuria, Micrococcus, Agromyces, Microbacterium, Agrococcus, Deinococcus, Ornithinimicrobium, and some uncultured species. The two methods have both advantages and shortcomings. However, when used simultaneously, they complement each other.

  3. Scorpion toxin peptide action at the ion channel subunit level.

    PubMed

    Housley, David M; Housley, Gary D; Liddell, Michael J; Jennings, Ernest A

    2016-10-10

    This review categorizes functionally validated actions of defined scorpion toxin (SCTX) neuropeptides across ion channel subclasses, highlighting key trends in this rapidly evolving field. Scorpion envenomation is a common event in many tropical and subtropical countries, with neuropharmacological actions, particularly autonomic nervous system modulation, causing significant mortality. The primary active agents within scorpion venoms are a diverse group of small neuropeptides that elicit specific potent actions across a wide range of ion channel classes. The identification and functional characterisation of these SCTX peptides has tremendous potential for development of novel pharmaceuticals that advance knowledge of ion channels and establish lead compounds for treatment of excitable tissue disorders. This review delineates the unique specificities of 320 individual SCTX peptides that collectively act on 41 ion channel subclasses. Thus the SCTX research field has significant translational implications for pathophysiology spanning neurotransmission, neurohumoral signalling, sensori-motor systems and excitation-contraction coupling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Accident caused by Rhopalurus agamemnon (Koch, 1839) (Scorpiones, Buthidae)].

    PubMed

    Brandão, Reuber Albuquerque; Françoso, Renata Dias

    2010-01-01

    Accidents caused by scorpions are a serious public health problem in Brazil. Rhopalurus agamemnon is a large scorpion found in the Cerrado (savanna) biome, and it is very abundant in many localities in central Brazil. The species inhabits open savanna environments, and is common inside termite mounds. However, it disappears from places where the native vegetation has been removed. The accidents reported present moderate symptoms of envenoming, but are based on questionable identifications. Here, we present a report on an accident that was certainly caused by Rhopalurus agamemnon. We conclude that the few reports available do not make it possible to evaluate the severity of such accidents and the possible risk to public health from this scorpion.

  5. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) rescue therapy for refractory cardiogenic shock due to scorpion sting envenomation.

    PubMed

    D'sa, Shilpa Reynal; Peter, John Victor; Chacko, Binila; Pichamuthu, Kishore; Sathyendra, Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy, cardiogenic shock or acute pulmonary oedema are well recognised complications of scorpion sting envenomation occurring in about 1-3% of patients. Current treatment recommendations include afterload reduction using prazosin and improving cardiac contractility with inotropes like dobutamine. We report the use of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) as rescue therapy in a patient with refractory cardiogenic shock due to Mesobuthus tamulus (Indian red scorpion) envenomation. A 32-year-old woman was referred 24 h after a scorpion sting. At presentation she was ventilated and in circulatory shock (systolic blood pressure < 50 mmHg). After admission, the patient had four cardiac arrests (three episodes of pulseless ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation and one episode of asystole) over the next few hours. Following resuscitation, despite a combination of dobutamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, blood pressure did not improve significantly. In view of persistent tachycardia (heart rate 160/min), catecholamine storm was suspected and prazosin was added. However, shock was refractory. Hence, IABP was considered as rescue therapy. Following initiation of IABP, there was improvement in cardiac function (improved ejection fraction) which translated to weaning of inotropes over 48 h and improved organ function (renal, respiratory) in the next 2-3 d. However, following extubation, on Day 8, she was noted to have features of hypoxic brain injury. This improved gradually. At discharge (Day 30) she was independent for activities of daily living and was able to mobilise without support. IABP could be generally considered as a rescue therapy in refractory cardiogenic shock in envenomations.

  6. Whole Transcriptome of the Venom Gland from Urodacus yaschenkoi Scorpion

    PubMed Central

    Juárez-González, Víctor Rivelino; Possani, Lourival D.

    2015-01-01

    Australian scorpion venoms have been poorly studied, probably because they do not pose an evident threat to humans. In addition, the continent has other medically important venomous animals capable of causing serious health problems. Urodacus yaschenkoi belongs to the most widely distributed family of Australian scorpions (Urodacidae) and it is found all over the continent, making it a useful model system for studying venom composition and evolution. This communication reports the whole set of mRNA transcripts produced by the venom gland. U. yaschenkoi venom is as complex as its overseas counterparts. These transcripts certainly code for several components similar to known scorpion venom components, such as: alpha-KTxs, beta-KTxs, calcins, protease inhibitors, antimicrobial peptides, sodium-channel toxins, toxin-like peptides, allergens, La1-like, hyaluronidases, ribosomal proteins, proteasome components and proteins related to cellular processes. A comparison with the venom gland transcriptome of Centruroides noxius (Buthidae) showed that these two scorpions have similar components related to biological processes, although important differences occur among the venom toxins. In contrast, a comparison with sequences reported for Urodacus manicatus revealed that these two Urodacidae species possess the same subfamily of scorpion toxins. A comparison with sequences of an U. yaschenkoi cDNA library previously reported by our group showed that both techniques are reliable for the description of the venom components, but the whole transcriptome generated with Next Generation Sequencing platform provides sequences of all transcripts expressed. Several of which were identified in the proteome, but many more transcripts were identified including uncommon transcripts. The information reported here constitutes a reference for non-Buthidae scorpion venoms, providing a comprehensive view of genes that are involved in venom production. Further, this work identifies new putative

  7. Whole Transcriptome of the Venom Gland from Urodacus yaschenkoi Scorpion.

    PubMed

    Luna-Ramírez, Karen; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Juárez-González, Víctor Rivelino; Possani, Lourival D

    2015-01-01

    Australian scorpion venoms have been poorly studied, probably because they do not pose an evident threat to humans. In addition, the continent has other medically important venomous animals capable of causing serious health problems. Urodacus yaschenkoi belongs to the most widely distributed family of Australian scorpions (Urodacidae) and it is found all over the continent, making it a useful model system for studying venom composition and evolution. This communication reports the whole set of mRNA transcripts produced by the venom gland. U. yaschenkoi venom is as complex as its overseas counterparts. These transcripts certainly code for several components similar to known scorpion venom components, such as: alpha-KTxs, beta-KTxs, calcins, protease inhibitors, antimicrobial peptides, sodium-channel toxins, toxin-like peptides, allergens, La1-like, hyaluronidases, ribosomal proteins, proteasome components and proteins related to cellular processes. A comparison with the venom gland transcriptome of Centruroides noxius (Buthidae) showed that these two scorpions have similar components related to biological processes, although important differences occur among the venom toxins. In contrast, a comparison with sequences reported for Urodacus manicatus revealed that these two Urodacidae species possess the same subfamily of scorpion toxins. A comparison with sequences of an U. yaschenkoi cDNA library previously reported by our group showed that both techniques are reliable for the description of the venom components, but the whole transcriptome generated with Next Generation Sequencing platform provides sequences of all transcripts expressed. Several of which were identified in the proteome, but many more transcripts were identified including uncommon transcripts. The information reported here constitutes a reference for non-Buthidae scorpion venoms, providing a comprehensive view of genes that are involved in venom production. Further, this work identifies new putative

  8. Antivenom for critically ill children with neurotoxicity from scorpion stings.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Leslie V; Theodorou, Andreas A; Berg, Robert A; Mallie, Joanne; Chávez-Méndez, Ariana; García-Ubbelohde, Walter; Hardiman, Stephen; Alagón, Alejandro

    2009-05-14

    Clinically significant scorpion envenomation by Centruroides sculpturatus produces a dramatic neuromotor syndrome and respiratory insufficiency that often necessitate intensive supportive care. We hypothesized that a scorpion-specific F(ab')(2) antivenom would promptly resolve clinical symptoms in children with this syndrome. In a randomized, double-blind study, the efficacy of scorpion-specific F(ab')(2) antivenom, as compared with placebo, was assessed in 15 children 6 months to 18 years of age who were admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit with clinically significant signs of scorpion envenomation. The primary end point was the resolution of the clinical syndrome within 4 hours after administration of the study drug. Secondary end points included the total dose of concomitant midazolam for sedation and quantitative plasma venom levels, before and after treatment. The clinical syndrome resolved more rapidly among recipients of the antivenom than among recipients of placebo, with a resolution of symptoms in all eight antivenom recipients versus one of seven placebo recipients within 4 hours after treatment (P=0.001). More midazolam was administered in the placebo recipients than in the antivenom recipients (mean cumulative dose, 4.61 vs. 0.07 mg per kilogram of body weight; P=0.01). Plasma venom concentrations were undetectable in all eight antivenom recipients but in only one placebo recipient 1 hour after treatment (P=0.001). Among critically ill children with neurotoxic effects of scorpion envenomation, intravenous administration of scorpion-specific F(ab')(2) antivenom resolved the clinical syndrome within 4 hours, reduced the need for concomitant sedation with midazolam, and reduced the levels of circulating unbound venom. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00685230.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  9. Microallopatry caused strong diversification in Buthus scorpions (Scorpiones: Buthidae) in the Atlas Mountains (NW Africa).

    PubMed

    Habel, Jan C; Husemann, Martin; Schmitt, Thomas; Zachos, Frank E; Honnen, Ann-Christin; Petersen, Britt; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Stathi, Iasmi

    2012-01-01

    The immense biodiversity of the Atlas Mountains in North Africa might be the result of high rates of microallopatry caused by mountain barriers surpassing 4000 meters leading to patchy habitat distributions. We test the influence of geographic structures on the phylogenetic patterns among Buthus scorpions using mtDNA sequences. We sampled 91 individuals of the genus Buthus from 51 locations scattered around the Atlas Mountains (Antiatlas, High Atlas, Middle Atlas and Jebel Sahro). We sequenced 452 bp of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene which proved to be highly variable within and among Buthus species. Our phylogenetic analysis yielded 12 distinct genetic groups one of which comprised three subgroups mostly in accordance with the orographic structure of the mountain systems. Main clades overlap with each other, while subclades are distributed parapatrically. Geographic structures likely acted as long-term barriers among populations causing restriction of gene flow and allowing for strong genetic differentiation. Thus, genetic structure and geographical distribution of genetic (sub)clusters follow the classical theory of allopatric differentiation where distinct groups evolve without range overlap until reproductive isolation and ecological differentiation has built up. Philopatry and low dispersal ability of Buthus scorpions are the likely causes for the observed strong genetic differentiation at this small geographic scale.

  10. Microallopatry Caused Strong Diversification in Buthus scorpions (Scorpiones: Buthidae) in the Atlas Mountains (NW Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Habel, Jan C.; Husemann, Martin; Schmitt, Thomas; Zachos, Frank E.; Honnen, Ann-Christin; Petersen, Britt; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Stathi, Iasmi

    2012-01-01

    The immense biodiversity of the Atlas Mountains in North Africa might be the result of high rates of microallopatry caused by mountain barriers surpassing 4000 meters leading to patchy habitat distributions. We test the influence of geographic structures on the phylogenetic patterns among Buthus scorpions using mtDNA sequences. We sampled 91 individuals of the genus Buthus from 51 locations scattered around the Atlas Mountains (Antiatlas, High Atlas, Middle Atlas and Jebel Sahro). We sequenced 452 bp of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene which proved to be highly variable within and among Buthus species. Our phylogenetic analysis yielded 12 distinct genetic groups one of which comprised three subgroups mostly in accordance with the orographic structure of the mountain systems. Main clades overlap with each other, while subclades are distributed parapatrically. Geographic structures likely acted as long-term barriers among populations causing restriction of gene flow and allowing for strong genetic differentiation. Thus, genetic structure and geographical distribution of genetic (sub)clusters follow the classical theory of allopatric differentiation where distinct groups evolve without range overlap until reproductive isolation and ecological differentiation has built up. Philopatry and low dispersal ability of Buthus scorpions are the likely causes for the observed strong genetic differentiation at this small geographic scale. PMID:22383951

  11. Asymmetric pulmonary edema after scorpion sting: a case report.

    PubMed

    Razi, Ebrahim; Malekanrad, Elaheh

    2008-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy was referred with acute asymmetric pulmonary edema (APE) four-hour after scorpion sting to Emergency department. On admission, the main clinical manifestations were: dyspnea, tachypnea, and tachycardia. Chest x-ray revealed APE predominantly on the right hemithorax. The patient was treated with oxygen, intravenous frusemide and digoxin and discharged on the sixth hospital day in a good condition. This case report emphasizes the occurrence of asymmetric pulmonary edema after severe scorpion envenomation within few hours immediately after the sting.

  12. [Snakes, scorpions and other poisonous creatures: prophylaxis and emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Mebs, D

    2006-06-29

    Most cases of poisoning by animals are caused by snakes, spiders or scorpions. In addition to"first aid" such as calming the victim and immobilization of the bitten limb, other measures include monitoring vital functions and rapid transportation to hospital as dictated by the symptoms presenting, and, where indicated, injection of an antiserum (identification of the animal concerned). On no account should the bite wound be cut or attempts made to suck out the venom. While the sting of a scorpion or a spider bite often do not lead to severe complications in adults, a brush with a poisonous snake may be much more serious.

  13. Prazosin treatment in the management of scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Peker, Erdal; Oktar, Suleyman; Dogan, Murat; Kaya, Ergun; Duru, Mehmet

    2010-03-01

    Scorpion stings represent an important and serious public health problem worldwide due to their high incidence and potentially severe and often fatal clinical manifestations. Children are at greater risk of developing severe cardiac, respiratory, and neurological complications due to lesser body surface area. Alpha receptor stimulation plays important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary edema. Prazosin, a post synaptic alpha blocker, can be recommended as an effective drug in the treatment of serious scorpion envenomations with significant sympathetic symptoms. Oral prazosin is fast acting, easily available, relatively cheap, free from any anaphylaxis and highly effective.

  14. Classification of Na channel receptors specific for various scorpion toxins.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, K P; Watt, D D; Lazdunski, M

    1983-04-01

    1. The specific binding to rat brain synaptosomes of a radiolabelled derivative of toxin II from the scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus could be prevented by toxins III and IV, but not by toxin V or variants 1-3, from the venom of Centruroides sculpturatus. 2. The specific binding of a similar derivative of toxin II from Androctonus australis Hector was not affected by any of the toxins from Centruroides sculpturatus. 3. There is biochemical evidence for only two distinct classes of Na channel receptors specific for known scorpion toxins.

  15. Scorpion Peptides: Potential Use for New Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Hmed, BenNasr; Serria, Hammami Turky; Mounir, Zeghal Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Several peptides contained in scorpion fluids showed diverse array of biological activities with high specificities to their targeted sites. Many investigations outlined their potent effects against microbes and showed their potential to modulate various biological mechanisms that are involved in immune, nervous, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases. Because of their important structural and functional diversity, it is projected that scorpion-derived peptides could be used to develop new specific drugs. This review summarizes relevant findings improving their use as valuable tools for new drugs development. PMID:23843786

  16. Scorpion peptides: potential use for new drug development.

    PubMed

    Hmed, Bennasr; Serria, Hammami Turky; Mounir, Zeghal Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Several peptides contained in scorpion fluids showed diverse array of biological activities with high specificities to their targeted sites. Many investigations outlined their potent effects against microbes and showed their potential to modulate various biological mechanisms that are involved in immune, nervous, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases. Because of their important structural and functional diversity, it is projected that scorpion-derived peptides could be used to develop new specific drugs. This review summarizes relevant findings improving their use as valuable tools for new drugs development.

  17. Nitroglycerine in scorpion sting with decompensated shock.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, P; Mahadevan, S; Serane, V Tiroumourougane

    2006-07-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of nitroglycerine infusion in children hospitalized for scorpion sting with severe myocardial dysfunction and decompensated shock. Children satisfying the inclusion criteria were started on nitroglycerine infusion under hemodynamic monitoring and other supportive measures. The effects of nitroglycerine, including improvement in oxygenation and decrease in pulmonary congestion and liver size were recorded. Seven out of 11 children responded well to nitroglycerine therapy and the clinical response was evident within 30 to 60 minutes. The first parameter to improve was oxygen saturation, followed by an improvement in the blood pressure and respiratory rate. Heart rate was the last parameter to improve after nitroglycerine infusion. The average duration of nitroglycerine infusion was 25 hours (12 - 36 hours). It was seen that the non-survivors had significant tachycardia at admission, and a greater need for assisted ventilation compared to the survivors. We conclude that nitroglycerine therapy could bring about significant improvement in myocardial function and hemodynamic parameters with a potential for improved survival.

  18. Global Transcriptome Analysis of the Scorpion Centruroides noxius: New Toxin Families and Evolutionary Insights from an Ancestral Scorpion Species

    PubMed Central

    Rendón-Anaya, Martha; Delaye, Luis; Possani, Lourival D.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion venoms have been studied for decades, leading to the identification of hundreds of different toxins with medical and pharmacological implications. However, little emphasis has been given to the description of these arthropods from cellular and evolutionary perspectives. In this report, we describe a transcriptomic analysis of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann, performed with a pyrosequencing platform. Three independent sequencing experiments were carried out, each including three different cDNA libraries constructed from RNA extracted from the whole body of the scorpion after telson removal, and from the venom gland before and after venom extraction. Over three million reads were obtained and assembled in almost 19000 isogroups. Within the telson-specific sequences, 72 isogroups (0.4% of total unique transcripts) were found to be similar to toxins previously reported in other scorpion species, spiders and sea anemones. The annotation pipeline also revealed the presence of important elements of the small non-coding RNA processing machinery, as well as microRNA candidates. A phylogenomic analysis of concatenated essential genes evidenced differential evolution rates in this species, particularly in ribosomal proteins and proteasome components. Additionally, statistical comparison of transcript abundance before and after venom extraction showed that 3% and 2% of the assembled isogroups had higher expression levels in the active and replenishing gland, respectively. Thus, our sequencing and annotation strategies provide a general view of the cellular and molecular processes that take place in these arthropods, allowed the discovery of new pharmacological and biotechnological targets and uncovered several regulatory and metabolic responses behind the assembly of the scorpion venom. The results obtained in this report represent the first high-throughput study that thoroughly describes the universe of genes that are expressed in the scorpion

  19. Global transcriptome analysis of the scorpion Centruroides noxius: new toxin families and evolutionary insights from an ancestral scorpion species.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Anaya, Martha; Delaye, Luis; Possani, Lourival D; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion venoms have been studied for decades, leading to the identification of hundreds of different toxins with medical and pharmacological implications. However, little emphasis has been given to the description of these arthropods from cellular and evolutionary perspectives. In this report, we describe a transcriptomic analysis of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann, performed with a pyrosequencing platform. Three independent sequencing experiments were carried out, each including three different cDNA libraries constructed from RNA extracted from the whole body of the scorpion after telson removal, and from the venom gland before and after venom extraction. Over three million reads were obtained and assembled in almost 19000 isogroups. Within the telson-specific sequences, 72 isogroups (0.4% of total unique transcripts) were found to be similar to toxins previously reported in other scorpion species, spiders and sea anemones. The annotation pipeline also revealed the presence of important elements of the small non-coding RNA processing machinery, as well as microRNA candidates. A phylogenomic analysis of concatenated essential genes evidenced differential evolution rates in this species, particularly in ribosomal proteins and proteasome components. Additionally, statistical comparison of transcript abundance before and after venom extraction showed that 3% and 2% of the assembled isogroups had higher expression levels in the active and replenishing gland, respectively. Thus, our sequencing and annotation strategies provide a general view of the cellular and molecular processes that take place in these arthropods, allowed the discovery of new pharmacological and biotechnological targets and uncovered several regulatory and metabolic responses behind the assembly of the scorpion venom. The results obtained in this report represent the first high-throughput study that thoroughly describes the universe of genes that are expressed in the scorpion

  20. The Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): component variations in venom samples collected in different geographical areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgound The venom of the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus is poorly study from the point of view of their components at molecular level and the functions associated. The purpose of this article was to conduct a proteomic analysis of venom components from scorpions collected in different geographical areas of the country. Results Venom from the blue scorpion, as it is called, was collected separately from specimens of five distinct Cuban towns (Moa, La Poa, Limonar, El Chote and Farallones) of the Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa mountain massif and fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the molecular masses of each fraction were ascertained by mass spectrometry analysis. At least 153 different molecular mass components were identified among the five samples analyzed. Molecular masses varied from 466 to 19755 Da. Scorpion HPLC profiles differed among these different geographical locations and the predominant molecular masses of their components. The most evident differences are in the relative concentration of the venom components. The most abundant components presented molecular weights around 4 kDa, known to be K+-channel specific peptides, and 7 kDa, known to be Na+-channel specific peptides, but with small molecular weight differences. Approximately 30 peptides found in venom samples from the different geographical areas are identical, supporting the idea that they all probably belong to the same species, with some interpopulational variations. Differences were also found in the presence of phospholipase, found in venoms from the Poa area (molecular weights on the order of 14 to 19 kDa). The only ubiquitous enzyme identified in the venoms from all five localities studied (hyaluronidase) presented the same 45 kD molecular mass, identified by gel electrophoresis analysis. Conclusions The venom of these scorpions from different geographical areas seem to be similar, and are rich in peptides that have of the same molecular masses of the peptides

  1. A second species of Euscorpiops Vachon from caves in Vietnam (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae, Scorpiopinae). Cave Euscorpiops scorpion from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Pham, Dinh-Sac

    2014-09-01

    Euscorpiops dakrong sp. n., belonging to the family Euscorpiidae Laurie, is described on the basis of one male and one female collected in the Dakrong Nature Reserve cave system, Dakrong District, Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. The new species presents most features exhibited by scorpions of the genus Euscorpiops, but it is characterized by a slender body and elongated pedipalps. This new scorpion taxon represents the second species of Scorpiopinae discovered in a cave system and may be yet another endemic element in the fauna of Vietnam. Some taxonomic propositions on the generic position of Scorpiops oligotrichus Fage, 1933 are also suggested.

  2. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  3. Indian Writers and Indian Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensland, Anna Lee

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of popular Indian stereotypes and counter-stereotypes in literature, based on the thesis that the introduction of the literature of the American Indian, traditional and modern, will help to increase the Indian child's pride in his culture and add to the understanding of the non-Indian child. (EH)

  4. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  5. Insights into Antimicrobial Peptides from Spiders and Scorpions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuqing; Wang, Guangshun

    2016-01-01

    The venoms of spiders and scorpions contain a variety of chemical compounds. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from these organisms were first discovered in the 1990s. As of May 2015, there were 42 spider's and 63 scorpion's AMPs in the Antimicrobial Peptide Database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). These peptides have demonstrated broad or narrow-spectrum activities against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In addition, they can be toxic to cancer cells, insects and erythrocytes. To provide insight into such an activity spectrum, this article discusses the discovery, classification, structure and activity relationships, bioinformatics analysis, and potential applications of spider and scorpion AMPs. Our analysis reveals that, in the case of linear peptides, spiders use both glycine-rich and helical peptide models for defense, whereas scorpions use two distinct helical peptide models with different amino acid compositions to exert the observed antimicrobial activities and hemolytic toxicity. Our structural bioinformatics study improves the knowledge in the field and can be used to design more selective peptides to combat tumors, parasites, and viruses.

  6. Seeking Refuge in Literacy from a Scorpion Bite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarroub, Loukia K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine a refugee boy's experiences with literacy in and out of school in the US. Within these contexts, I explore this youth's literacy development in light of his identity as a poor Yezidi Kurdish refugee from Iraq. Central to the article are two main themes. The first, life as a scorpion sting, explicates the…

  7. Hox gene duplications correlate with posterior heteronomy in scorpions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prashant P; Schwager, Evelyn E; Extavour, Cassandra G; Wheeler, Ward C

    2014-10-07

    The evolutionary success of the largest animal phylum, Arthropoda, has been attributed to tagmatization, the coordinated evolution of adjacent metameres to form morphologically and functionally distinct segmental regions called tagmata. Specification of regional identity is regulated by the Hox genes, of which 10 are inferred to be present in the ancestor of arthropods. With six different posterior segmental identities divided into two tagmata, the bauplan of scorpions is the most heteronomous within Chelicerata. Expression domains of the anterior eight Hox genes are conserved in previously surveyed chelicerates, but it is unknown how Hox genes regionalize the three tagmata of scorpions. Here, we show that the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus has two paralogues of all Hox genes except Hox3, suggesting cluster and/or whole genome duplication in this arachnid order. Embryonic anterior expression domain boundaries of each of the last four pairs of Hox genes (two paralogues each of Antp, Ubx, abd-A and Abd-B) are unique and distinguish segmental groups, such as pectines, book lungs and the characteristic tail, while maintaining spatial collinearity. These distinct expression domains suggest neofunctionalization of Hox gene paralogues subsequent to duplication. Our data reconcile previous understanding of Hox gene function across arthropods with the extreme heteronomy of scorpions.

  8. Seeking Refuge in Literacy from a Scorpion Bite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarroub, Loukia K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine a refugee boy's experiences with literacy in and out of school in the US. Within these contexts, I explore this youth's literacy development in light of his identity as a poor Yezidi Kurdish refugee from Iraq. Central to the article are two main themes. The first, life as a scorpion sting, explicates the…

  9. Emerging options for the management of scorpion stings.

    PubMed

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion stings are common in many tropical countries. Although most scorpion stings cause only localized pain without life-threatening envenoming, about one third of stings cause systemic envenoming which can result in death. Children are particularly sensitive to scorpion envenoming. The severity of scorpion stings is related to the presence of neurotoxins in the venom that cause a sudden release of neurotransmitters from the autonomic nervous system, predominantly sympathetic. There is also a strong inflammatory response that worsens symptoms, including those of a respiratory nature. Several vital functions may be directly affected, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, and neuromuscular systems. Hypertension is constant at the beginning of systemic envenoming and sometimes has a severe cardiac and respiratory impact. Although controversial, immunotherapy is the only etiological treatment. Administered early, it prevents many complications and improves the outcome. New antivenoms are highly purified immunoglobulin fragments, the efficacy and safety of which are excellent. As a consequence, adverse reactions to antivenoms are now very rare and usually mild, which should limit any reluctance regarding their routine use. Symptomatic treatment is still necessary to support immunotherapy, especially in cases of delayed arrival at hospital. A combination of both approaches should be considered, based on local resources and constraints.

  10. Emerging options for the management of scorpion stings

    PubMed Central

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion stings are common in many tropical countries. Although most scorpion stings cause only localized pain without life-threatening envenoming, about one third of stings cause systemic envenoming which can result in death. Children are particularly sensitive to scorpion envenoming. The severity of scorpion stings is related to the presence of neurotoxins in the venom that cause a sudden release of neurotransmitters from the autonomic nervous system, predominantly sympathetic. There is also a strong inflammatory response that worsens symptoms, including those of a respiratory nature. Several vital functions may be directly affected, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, and neuromuscular systems. Hypertension is constant at the beginning of systemic envenoming and sometimes has a severe cardiac and respiratory impact. Although controversial, immunotherapy is the only etiological treatment. Administered early, it prevents many complications and improves the outcome. New antivenoms are highly purified immunoglobulin fragments, the efficacy and safety of which are excellent. As a consequence, adverse reactions to antivenoms are now very rare and usually mild, which should limit any reluctance regarding their routine use. Symptomatic treatment is still necessary to support immunotherapy, especially in cases of delayed arrival at hospital. A combination of both approaches should be considered, based on local resources and constraints. PMID:22826633

  11. Hox gene duplications correlate with posterior heteronomy in scorpions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Prashant P.; Schwager, Evelyn E.; Extavour, Cassandra G.; Wheeler, Ward C.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary success of the largest animal phylum, Arthropoda, has been attributed to tagmatization, the coordinated evolution of adjacent metameres to form morphologically and functionally distinct segmental regions called tagmata. Specification of regional identity is regulated by the Hox genes, of which 10 are inferred to be present in the ancestor of arthropods. With six different posterior segmental identities divided into two tagmata, the bauplan of scorpions is the most heteronomous within Chelicerata. Expression domains of the anterior eight Hox genes are conserved in previously surveyed chelicerates, but it is unknown how Hox genes regionalize the three tagmata of scorpions. Here, we show that the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus has two paralogues of all Hox genes except Hox3, suggesting cluster and/or whole genome duplication in this arachnid order. Embryonic anterior expression domain boundaries of each of the last four pairs of Hox genes (two paralogues each of Antp, Ubx, abd-A and Abd-B) are unique and distinguish segmental groups, such as pectines, book lungs and the characteristic tail, while maintaining spatial collinearity. These distinct expression domains suggest neofunctionalization of Hox gene paralogues subsequent to duplication. Our data reconcile previous understanding of Hox gene function across arthropods with the extreme heteronomy of scorpions. PMID:25122224

  12. Exon Shuffling and Origin of Scorpion Venom Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueli; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion venom is a complex combinatorial library of peptides and proteins with multiple biological functions. A combination of transcriptomic and proteomic techniques has revealed its enormous molecular diversity, as identified by the presence of a large number of ion channel-targeted neurotoxins with different folds, membrane-active antimicrobial peptides, proteases, and protease inhibitors. Although the biodiversity of scorpion venom has long been known, how it arises remains unsolved. In this work, we analyzed the exon-intron structures of an array of scorpion venom protein-encoding genes and unexpectedly found that nearly all of these genes possess a phase-1 intron (one intron located between the first and second nucleotides of a codon) near the cleavage site of a signal sequence despite their mature peptides remarkably differ. This observation matches a theory of exon shuffling in the origin of new genes and suggests that recruitment of different folds into scorpion venom might be achieved via shuffling between body protein-coding genes and ancestral venom gland-specific genes that presumably contributed tissue-specific regulatory elements and secretory signal sequences. PMID:28035955

  13. Styles of lode gold mineralization contributing to the placers of the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, Yukon Territory, Canada as deduced from microchemical characterization of placer gold grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Robert John; Mortensen, James Keith; Lebarge, William P.

    2011-12-01

    Between 1978 and 2009, approximately 430,000 oz of placer gold were obtained from the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, which equates to roughly 20% of the production for the entire Yukon Territory during that period. The area is unglaciated, exposure is poor, and there are few known lode gold occurrences present. The technique of microchemical characterization of placer gold grains has been applied to illuminate the style(s) of source mineralization and their relationship to placer gold from the Klondike gold district immediately to the north. A total of 2,613 placer gold grains from 22 localities were characterised in terms of the Au, Ag, Cu, and Hg content of their alloy and associated suite of opaque mineral inclusions. A combination of alloy and inclusion mineralogy was used to define gold signatures which augmented the previous classification of orogenic gold in the Klondike. Gold type 3b (8-25% Ag) is the main component of the placers in lower Dominion Creek but is augmented and eventually replaced by type 3a gold (10-40% Ag) in placers in the main Indian River valley, probably through erosion of gold-bearing veins in the valley floor. Type 4 gold exhibits highly variable Ag which may contain Hg to a maximum of 11 wt.%. This gold type also hosts a distinctive inclusion assemblage of complex polymetallic sulphides, tellurides, sulfotellurides, and sulfosalts and has previously been ascribed to local low sulfidation epithermal mineralization. Placer gold in drainages radiating from Eureka Dome exhibits various proportions of types 3 and 4 gold depending on location, but type 3 gold forms the major component in Black Hills Creek and northerly flowing tributaries of the Indian River with the exception of Eureka and Montana creeks. Type 5 gold is found only in placers in the middle and lower Indian River. It is distinguished by slightly elevated (0.05-0.17%) Cu in the gold alloy, together with low (5-9%) Ag contents. Inclusions of Bi minerals, Cr

  14. Bothriurus bonariensis scorpion venom activates voltage-dependent sodium channels in insect and mammalian nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Douglas Silva; Carvalho, Evelise Leis; de Lima, Jeferson Camargo; Breda, Ricardo Vaz; Oliveira, Raquel Soares; de Freitas, Thiago Carrazoni; Salamoni, Simone Denise; Domingues, Michelle Flores; Piovesan, Angela Regina; Boldo, Juliano Tomazzoni; de Assis, Dênis Reis; da Costa, Jaderson Costa; Dal Belo, Cháriston André; Pinto, Paulo Marcos

    2016-10-25

    Animal venoms have been widely recognized as a major source of biologically active molecules. Bothriurus bonariensis, popularly known as black scorpion, is the arthropod responsible for the highest number of accidents involving scorpion sting in Southern Brazil. Here we reported the first attempt to investigate the neurobiology of B. bonariensis venom (BBV) in the insect and mammalian nervous system. BBV (32 μg/g) induced a slow neuromuscular blockade in the in vivo cockroach nerve-muscle preparations (70 ± 4%, n = 6, p < 0.001), provoking repetitive twitches and significantly decreasing the frequency of spontaneous leg action potentials (SNCAPs) from 82 ± 3 min(-1) to 36 ± 1.3 min(-1) (n = 6, p < 0.05), without affecting the amplitude. When tested in primary cultures of rat hippocampal cells, BBV induced a massive increase of Ca(2+) influx (250 ± 1% peak increase, n = 3, p < 0.0001). The disturbance of calcium homeostasis induced by BBV on the mammalian central nervous system was not accompanied by cellular death and was prevented by the co-treatment of the hippocampal cells with tetrodotoxin, a selective sodium channel blocker. The results suggest that the biological activity of BBV is mostly related to a modulation of sodium channels function. Our biological activity survey suggests that BBV may have a promising insecticidal and therapeutic potential.

  15. [Tityus asthenes scorpion stings: epidemiological, clinical and toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Juan P; Quintana, Juan C; Arbeláez, Patricia; Fernández, Jorge; Silva, Juan F; Barona, Jacqueline; Gutiérrez, Juan C; Díaz, Abel; Otero, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Scorpion stings are a public health problem in many countries. However, in Colombia, very few epidemiological, clinical or toxicological studies have been undertaken. Ecological and epidemiological aspects were related to the prevalence of scorpion stings by Tityus asthenes. The clinical features of envenomization were described in patients and in an experimental animal model. The study was conducted in four localities of Mutatá and Urabá Counties in the province of Antioquia, Colombia. The sample consisted of 1,593 (929 urban, 664 rural) of the 5,305 exposed people, inhabitating 324 households (188 urban (58%); 136 rural (42%) of 1,448 houses total in the study area. An interview survey was performed in every selected family for a more realistic estimate of sting prevalence. Additionally, a prospective study was directed toward patients presenting scorpion stings at care at the local hospital over an 18-month period. The probability was 12.9 times greater of finding T. asthenes inside or around houses in places near to forest and high agrarian plantations (odds ratio = 13). Eighty scorpion stings were reported in the retrospective study (4.1% prevalence [95% CI 3.3-4.8%] ), but only 14 of the patients (17.5%) sought care in the local hospital (an 82.5% underreportage). Seventy percent of the stings occurred in rural places; 50% occurred in the locality of Caucheras, with an attack rate of 10.6%. The overall household infestation rate was 269% (95% CI 22.9-30.8%) and an area dispersion ratio of 100%. Signs of systemic envenomization occurred mainly in children (67%). The 50% lethal dose of T. asthenes venom was 121.6 µg for 18-20 g Swiss Webster rats (95% CI 103.7-139.6). Immunodetection of T. asthenes and Centruroides gracilis/C.margantatus venoms in the experimental animals was possible when were tested by Western blot against Alacramyn (Instituto Bioclón, México) and Soro antiaracnídico (Instituto Butantan, Brasil) antivenoms. Scorpion interspecific

  16. [Spatial distribution of scorpion stings in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Kotviski, Bianca Mayara; Barbola, Ivana de Freitas

    2013-09-01

    Among all bites and stings by venomous animals, scorpion stings have increased significantly in urban areas all over Brazil. Considering that Ponta Grossa is the city in Paraná State with the highest incidence of reported scorpion stings, the current study aimed to assess trends in scorpion stings based on notification records and complaints from January 2008 to December 2010. The geographic coordinates of addresses with reported scorpion stings were collected, digitized, and spatialized, resulting in a cartogram of the georeferenced scorpion stings in the city. The incidence coefficients for this period showed that Ponta Grossa had 113.3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and that Colônia Dona Luiza, Neves, and Chapada were the neighborhoods with the highest rates. Investigation of determinants of scorpion stings used visual and statistical analysis, indicating wooded or green areas, water mains, and the sewer system as the main correlated variables.

  17. Epidemiological characteristics of scorpion sting in León, Guanajuato, México.

    PubMed

    Dehesa-Dávila, M

    1989-01-01

    Poisoning with scorpion venom in the city of León, Guanajuato state, México, is a significant public health problem. The hospital of the Mexican Red Cross gave medical attention to 38,068 cases of envenomation by scorpion sting during 1981-1986; 77% of all accidents occurred among persons under 30 years of age. The 100% survival rate can be attributed to prompt serotherapy. Most stings were due to scorpions from the species Centruroides infamatus infamatus. Scorpion stings increase dramatically in the spring and are lowest during winter. The distribution of scorpions throughout the city is uniform and accidents occur at any time of day or night with no preference in regard to the sex of the affected persons. The epidemiological aspects of scorpion poisoning are emphasized.

  18. Scorpion toxins from Centruroides noxius and Tityus serrulatus. Primary structures and sequence comparison by metric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Possani, L D; Martin, B M; Svendsen, I; Rode, G S; Erickson, B W

    1985-01-01

    The complete primary structures of toxin II-14 from the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann and toxin gamma from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus Lutz and Mello have been determined. Cleavage of toxin gamma after Met-6 with CNBr produced the 55-residue peptide 7-61, which maintained the four disulphide bonds but was not toxic to mice at a dose 3 times the lethal dose of native toxin gamma. Pairwise comparison by metric analysis of segment 1-50 of toxin gamma and the corresponding segments from two other South American scorpion toxins, five North American scorpion toxins, nine North African scorpion toxins and one Central Asian scorpion toxin showed that the three Brazilian toxins are intermediate between the North American and North African toxins. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that the South American and African continents were joined by a land connection in the distant past. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4052021

  19. Enzymatic analysis of venom from Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-García, Alexis; Ruiz-Fuentes, Jenny Laura; Yglesias-Rivera, Arianna; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Hermis; Riquenes Garlobo, Yanelis; Fleitas Martinez, Osmel; Fraga Castro, José A

    2015-01-01

    Rhopalurus junceus scorpion venom has been identified as a natural extract with anticancer potential. Interestingly, this scorpion venom does not cause adverse symptoms in humans. However, there is scarce information about its composition and enzymatic activity. In this work, we determined the electrophoretic profile of the venom, the gelatinase and caseinolytic activity, and the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and hemolytic activity. The effect of different venom doses (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg) on gastrocnemius muscle was also measured as CK and LDH activity in serum. The presence of hyaluronidase was determined by turbidimetric assay. The effect of different fractions obtained by gel filtration chromatography were evaluated at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6mg/ml) against lung cancer cell A549 and lung normal cell MRC-5 using MTT assay. The electrophoretic profile demonstrated the presence of proteins bands around 67kDa, 43kDa, 18.4kDa and a majority band below 14.3kDa. The venom did not showed caseinolytic, gelatinase, PLA2 and hemolytic activity even at highest venom concentration used in the study. Scorpion venom only showed a significant toxic effect on gastrocnemius muscles identified by CK and LDH release after subcutaneous injection of 12.5 and 25mg/kg. Low molecular weight fractions (<4kDa) induced a significant cytotoxicity in A549 cells while high molecular weight proteins (45–60kDa) were responsible for hyaluronidase activity and toxic effect against MRC-5. Experiments indicate that Rhopalurus junceus scorpion venom has low enzymatic activity, which could contribute to the low toxic potential of this scorpion venom. PMID:26605039

  20. Permian scorpions from the Petrified Forest of Chemnitz, Germany.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A; Legg, David A; Selden, Paul A; Fet, Victor; Schneider, Joerg W; Rößler, Ronny

    2016-04-07

    Paleozoic scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones) have been widely documented from the Carboniferous Period; which hosts a remarkable assemblage of more than sixty species including both putative stem- and crown-group fossils. By contrast the succeeding Permian Period is almost completely devoid of records, which are currently restricted to a trace fossil from the early Permian of New Mexico, USA and some limb fragments from the late Permian of the Vologda Region, Russia. ?Opsieobuthus tungeri sp. nov. from the Petrified Forest of Chemnitz, Germany represents the first complete body fossils of scorpions from the Permian. Explosive volcanism preserved these remarkable specimens in situ as part of the palaeosol horizon and bedrock of the Petrified Forest, immediately beneath the Zeisigwald tuff horizon. This dates to the early Permian (Sakmarian) or ca. 291 Ma. Intriguingly, the specimens were obtained from a palaeosol horizon with a compacted network of different-sized woody roots and thus have been preserved in situ in their likely life position, even within their original burrows. Differences in the structure of the comb-like pectines in the two fossils offer evidence for sexual dimorphism, and permit further inferences about the ecology and perhaps even the reproductive biology of these animals. As putative members of a Coal Measures genus, these fossils suggest that at least some Carboniferous scorpion lineages extended their range further into the Permian. This contributes towards a picture of scorpion evolution in which both basal and derived (orthostern) forms coexisted for quite some time; probably from the end of the Carboniferous through to at least the mid Triassic.

  1. The Roles of Some Scorpions, Hemiscorpius lepturus and Androctonus crassicauda, in a Scorpionism Focus in Ramhormorz, Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Alireza; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Hossienzadeh, Mohsen; Salehcheh, Maryam; Moradi, Azra; Moravvej, Seyed Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Scorpion stings are a common and important health problem in Iran, particularly in south and southwestern Iran, including the province of Khuzestan. In the area of Khuzestan near the city of Ramhormoz, Hemiscorpius lepturus (Scorpionida: Hemiscorpioiidae) and Androctonus crassicauda (Buthidae) are present. Ramhormoz is in southwestern Iran and is one of the most important foci of the scorpion sting problem. The current study was carried out to gain both epidemiological and medical information about scorpion stings in and around the city of Ramhormoz. In total, 179 people who were admitted to the Emergency Department of Ramhormoz Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2008 and 2009 after being stung by scorpions were monitored. Epidemiological and medical parameters including sex of the victim; the part of the body stung; the month when stung; the biochemical parameters comprising blood sugar (BS), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (CR); hematological parameters including white blood cells (WBC), count blood cells (CBC), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), platelet (PLT); and urine analysis including hemoglobinuria were recorded. The current study showed that most of the victims were stung by H. lepturus, while very few were stung by A. crassicaud, but in over half of the cases the species was not known. Stings were most common from May to Aguust. 73% of the victims were female. The limbs were the part of the body most likely to be stung. Hemogobinuria was very common in H. lepturus victims. PMID:24219757

  2. The roles of some scorpions, Hemiscorpius lepturus and Androctonus crassicauda, in a scorpionism focus in Ramhormorz, southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Alireza; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Hossienzadeh, Mohsen; Salehcheh, Maryam; Moradi, Azra; Moravvej, Seyed Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Scorpion stings are a common and important health problem in Iran, particularly in south and southwestern Iran, including the province of Khuzestan. In the area of Khuzestan near the city of Ramhormoz, Hemiscorpius lepturus (Scorpionida: Hemiscorpioiidae) and Androctonus crassicauda (Buthidae) are present. Ramhormoz is in southwestern Iran and is one of the most important foci of the scorpion sting problem. The current study was carried out to gain both epidemiological and medical information about scorpion stings in and around the city of Ramhormoz. In total, 179 people who were admitted to the Emergency Department of Ramhormoz Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2008 and 2009 after being stung by scorpions were monitored. Epidemiological and medical parameters including sex of the victim; the part of the body stung; the month when stung; the biochemical parameters comprising blood sugar (BS), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (CR); hematological parameters including white blood cells (WBC), count blood cells (CBC), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), platelet (PLT); and urine analysis including hemoglobinuria were recorded. The current study showed that most of the victims were stung by H. lepturus, while very few were stung by A. crassicaud, but in over half of the cases the species was not known. Stings were most common from May to Aguust. 73% of the victims were female. The limbs were the part of the body most likely to be stung. Hemogobinuria was very common in H. lepturus victims.

  3. Overview of the Knottin scorpion toxin-like peptides in scorpion venoms: Insights on their classification and evolution.

    PubMed

    Santibáñez-López, Carlos E; Possani, Lourival D

    2015-12-01

    Scorpion venoms include several compounds with different pharmacological activities. Within these compounds, toxins affecting ion channels are among the most studied. They are all peptides that have been classified based on their 3D structure, chain size and function. Usually, they show a spatial arrangement characterized by the presence of a cysteine-stabilized alpha beta motif; most of them affect Na(+) and K(+) ion-channels. These features have been revised in several occasions before, but a complete phylogenetic analysis of the disulfide containing peptides is not been done. In the present contribution, two databases (Pfam and InterPro) including more than 800 toxins from different scorpions were analyzed. Pfam database included toxins from several organisms other than scorpions such as insects and plants, while InterPro included only scorpion toxins. Our results suggest that Na(+) toxins have evolved independently from those of K(+) toxins no matter the length of the peptidic chains. These preliminary results suggest that current classification needs a more detailed revision, in order to have better characterized toxin families, so the new peptides obtained from transcriptomic analyses would be properly classified.

  4. Spatial Distribution of Scorpion Sting in a High-Risk Area of Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Mehran; Moosavy, Seyed Hamid; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahamd Ali; Navidpour, Shahrokh; Zare, Shahram; Madani, Abdolhossein; Rafinejad, Javad

    2016-06-16

    Scorpion sting is a public health problem in south and southwestern parts of Iran, with about 36,000 cases recorded annually. This study aimed to find the spatial distribution of scorpions and their stings in Bandar Abbas County. Monthly scorpion sting cases at the village level were obtained and used for mapping. Scorpions were collected from 14 collection sites using a UV lamp at night and searching under stones during the day time. During the study period, a total of 3,971 cases of scorpion sting were recorded, most of them were found in mountainous areas and affected individuals aged 25-44 yrs. In total, 18 scorpion species belonging to 10 genera were collected and identified. The peak of scorpion sting cases occurred from July to September. The northern part of the mountainous areas had a richer species composition. Hemiscorpius persicus and Hemiscorpius gaillardi were collected for the first time in the area. There were 22 scorpion species in the area across studies; among them, 10 were most dangerous. Hemiscorpius genus is the main etiologic agent in Bandar Abbas County. Mapping dangerous species allows the health system to provide relevant anti-scorpion venom serum accordingly and more cost-effectively.

  5. First record of the family Pseudochactidae Gromov (Chelicerata, Scorpiones) from Laos and new biogeographic evidence of a Pangaean palaeodistribution.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2007-10-01

    A new genus and species of scorpion belonging to the recently named family Pseudochactidae is described based on two specimens collected in the Tham Xe Bangfai cave, Province of Khammouan, Laos. This new scorpion represents the second known record of a pseudochactid, and the first from Laos. The possible biogeographic consequences of this scorpion's distribution are discussed, associated with the possible Pangaean origin of pseudochactid scorpions.

  6. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  7. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  8. Distribution of endemic relict groups of Saharan scorpions, with the description of new genus and species from Mauritania.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jian-Xin; Lourenço, Wilson R

    2007-01-01

    A new genus and species of Saharan buthid scorpion is described on the basis of a single specimen collected in the desert of Mauritania. This new scorpion taxon represents yet another endemic relict in the Saharan fauna. Comments are also included on the evolution of the Sahara desert and the possible consequences of this on the distribution of the extant scorpion fauna.

  9. The Indian in Chicago: Some Comparative Perspectives on Group Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margon, Arthur

    Chicago's American Indians generally migrated in response to an urban dominant society, Bureau of Indian Affairs training programs, or termination of the Menomenee Reservation. A comparison of black with Native American status in Chicago indicates a vast economic differential resulting from the Indian's lack of political clout, longevity, and…

  10. The Indian in Chicago: Some Comparative Perspectives on Group Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margon, Arthur

    Chicago's American Indians generally migrated in response to an urban dominant society, Bureau of Indian Affairs training programs, or termination of the Menomenee Reservation. A comparison of black with Native American status in Chicago indicates a vast economic differential resulting from the Indian's lack of political clout, longevity, and…

  11. ADAMTS-13 deficiency following Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion sting.

    PubMed

    Valavi, Ehsan; Ansari, Mohammad Javad Alemzadeh; Hoseini, Sudabeh

    2011-07-01

    Hemiscorpius lepturus is a lethal scorpion with potentially cytotoxic venom. Various degrees of local and systemic toxicity have been observed after its envenomation ranging from local erythema to disseminated intravascular coagulation, renal failure and severe pulmonary hemorrhage. In this case report, we report on a seven-year-old patient who developed the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) after being stung by the scorpion H. lepturus. This condition is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase and uremia. We evaluated the causes of HUS and found that the levels of C3, C4, CH50 and H factors were normal, but the activity of Von Willebrand factor cleaving protease was decreased (less than 5% of the normal activity). The patient improved after administering therapy with plasma exchange.

  12. Fluorescence and multilayer structure of the scorpion cuticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Chiu, Pei-Ju; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2015-09-01

    We collect the scorpions, Isometrus maculates, in different instars to analyze the photoluminescence (PL), micro-structure of cuticles and their correlation. The photoluminescence is excited by 405 nm solid laser in room temperature and detected by BWtek BRC 112E spectrometer. The result shows that the intensity of photoluminescence positively correlate to instars of scorpion. The images of micro-structures of cuticles captured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) present the multilayer structure in detail. The samples are prepared in small piece to ensure that the PL and SEM data are caught from the same area. The correlation between instars and intensity of photoluminescence is explained according to micro-structures via the thin-film optics theory.

  13. Simultaneous modifications of sodium channel gating by two scorpion toxins.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, G K; Strichartz, G

    1982-01-01

    The effects of purified scorpion toxins from two different species on the kinetics of sodium currents were evaluated in amphibian myelinated nerves under voltage clamp. A toxin from Leiurus quinquestriatus slowed and prevented sodium channel inactivation, exclusively, and a toxin from Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing reduced transient sodium currents during a maintained depolarization, and induced a novel inward current that appeared following repolarization, as previously reported by Cahalan (1975, J. Physiol. [Lond.]. 244:511-534) for the crude scorpion venom. Both of these effects were observed in fibers treated with both of these toxins, and the kinetics of the induced current were modified in a way that showed that the same sodium channels were modified simultaneously by both toxins. Although the toxins can act on different sites, the time course of the action of C. sculpturatus toxin was accelerated in the presence of the L. quinquestriatus toxin, indicating some form of interaction between the two toxin binding sites. PMID:6293596

  14. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following a scorpion sting.

    PubMed

    Porcello Marrone, Luiz Carlos; Marrone, Bianca Fontana; Neto, Felipe Kalil; Costa, Francisco Cosme; Thomé, Gustavo Gomes; Aramburu, Martin Brandolt; Schilling, Lucas Porcello; Pascoal, Tharick Ali; Gadonski, Giovani; Huf Marrone, Antônio Carlos; da Costa, Jaderson Costa

    2013-10-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiologic entity not yet understood, that is present with transient neurologic symptoms and particular radiological findings. The most common imaging pattern in PRES is the presence of edema in the white matter of the posterior portions of both cerebral hemispheres. The cause of PRES is unclear. We report a case of 13-year-old male who was stung by a scorpion and developed a severe headache, visual disturbance, and seizures and had the diagnosis of PRES with a good outcome. Numerous factors can trigger this syndrome, most commonly: acute elevation of blood pressure, abnormal renal function, and immunosuppressive therapy. There are many cases described showing the relationship between PRES and eclampsia, transplantation, neoplasia and chemotherapy treatment, systemic infections, renal disease acute, or chronic. However, this is the first case of PRES following a scorpion sting.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of scorpion species belonging to the Vaejovis genus.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Ramírez-Carreto, Santos; Romero-Gutiérrez, María Teresa; Valdez-Velázquez, Laura L; Becerril, Baltazar; Possani, Lourival D; Ortiz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions belonging to the Buthidae family have traditionally drawn much of the biochemist's attention due to the strong toxicity of their venoms. Scorpions not toxic to mammals, however, also have complex venoms. They have been shown to be an important source of bioactive peptides, some of them identified as potential drug candidates for the treatment of several emerging diseases and conditions. It is therefore important to characterize the large diversity of components found in the non-Buthidae venoms. As a contribution to this goal, this manuscript reports the construction and characterization of cDNA libraries from four scorpion species belonging to the Vaejovis genus of the Vaejovidae family: Vaejovis mexicanus, V. intrepidus, V. subcristatus and V. punctatus. Some sequences coding for channel-acting toxins were found, as expected, but the main transcribed genes in the glands actively producing venom were those coding for non disulfide-bridged peptides. The ESTs coding for putative channel-acting toxins, corresponded to sodium channel β toxins, to members of the potassium channel-acting α or κ families, and to calcium channel-acting toxins of the calcin family. Transcripts for scorpine-like peptides of two different lengths were found, with some of the species coding for the two kinds. One sequence coding for La1-like peptides, of yet unknown function, was found for each species. Finally, the most abundant transcripts corresponded to peptides belonging to the long chain multifunctional NDBP-2 family and to the short antimicrobials of the NDBP-4 family. This apparent venom composition is in correspondence with the data obtained to date for other non-Buthidae species. Our study constitutes the first approach to the characterization of the venom gland transcriptome for scorpion species belonging to the Vaejovidae family.

  16. A biomechanical view on stinger diversity in scorpions.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Arie; Kleinteich, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Scorpions have elongated metasomas that bear a telson, which is used as a stinger for venom injection. There is a remarkable diversity in the use of the stinger among scorpions, comprising defensive behavior, prey subjugation and mating. This diversity could be reflected by the shape of the telson, as different stinging behaviors will result in very different functional demands. Here we explored the diversity of telson shapes in scorpions by providing morphological measurements, such as curvature and tip angle, as well as by testing stingers under load using finite element analysis (FEA). FEA models were loaded with forces scaled to the surface area of the models, to allow comparison of the relative strain energy based on shape alone. Load force angle was rotated to identify the optimal stinging angle based on the lowest strain energy. Aculeus length and mean aculeus height correlated with minimal strain energy. Optimal stinging angle correlated with tip angle, and differed from the tip angle by about 28.4 ± 6.22 °. We found that species that are more venomous have long aculei (stinger barbs) with a larger radius of curvature. FEA models of these longer aculei showed basal stress concentrations, indicating a potential greater risk of basal breakage due to shape alone. Telsons with shorter and thicker aculeus shapes showed stress concentrations at the tip only. Despite these marked differences in shape, we found no difference in the scaled strain energy between groups of species that are more venomous and less venomous groups of species. These results show that scorpion stingers may be biomechanically optimized, and this may indicate different usage of the stinger in different species. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Scorpion Species Belonging to the Vaejovis Genus

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Ramírez-Carreto, Santos; Romero-Gutiérrez, María Teresa; Valdez-Velázquez, Laura L.; Becerril, Baltazar; Possani, Lourival D.; Ortiz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions belonging to the Buthidae family have traditionally drawn much of the biochemist’s attention due to the strong toxicity of their venoms. Scorpions not toxic to mammals, however, also have complex venoms. They have been shown to be an important source of bioactive peptides, some of them identified as potential drug candidates for the treatment of several emerging diseases and conditions. It is therefore important to characterize the large diversity of components found in the non-Buthidae venoms. As a contribution to this goal, this manuscript reports the construction and characterization of cDNA libraries from four scorpion species belonging to the Vaejovis genus of the Vaejovidae family: Vaejovis mexicanus, V. intrepidus, V. subcristatus and V. punctatus. Some sequences coding for channel-acting toxins were found, as expected, but the main transcribed genes in the glands actively producing venom were those coding for non disulfide-bridged peptides. The ESTs coding for putative channel-acting toxins, corresponded to sodium channel β toxins, to members of the potassium channel-acting α or κ families, and to calcium channel-acting toxins of the calcin family. Transcripts for scorpine-like peptides of two different lengths were found, with some of the species coding for the two kinds. One sequence coding for La1-like peptides, of yet unknown function, was found for each species. Finally, the most abundant transcripts corresponded to peptides belonging to the long chain multifunctional NDBP-2 family and to the short antimicrobials of the NDBP-4 family. This apparent venom composition is in correspondence with the data obtained to date for other non-Buthidae species. Our study constitutes the first approach to the characterization of the venom gland transcriptome for scorpion species belonging to the Vaejovidae family. PMID:25659089

  18. Brachial plexopathy as a rare presenting manifestation of scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Devon I; Vavra, Michael

    2011-07-01

    We report a patient who experienced a rare manifestation of an acute, severe brachial plexopathy as the initial complication of scorpion (presumed Hemiscorpius lepturus species) envenomation. Features suggesting conduction block, due to either proximal demyelination or ion channel dysfunction, along with axonal loss were seen on serial electrophysiological studies. Possible mechanisms of the brachial plexopathy include direct compression from tissue edema or a toxic effect on the membrane channels along the nerve.

  19. Virocidal activity of Egyptian scorpion venoms against hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    El-Bitar, Alaa M H; Sarhan, Moustafa M H; Aoki, Chie; Takahara, Yusuke; Komoto, Mari; Deng, Lin; Moustafa, Mohsen A; Hotta, Hak

    2015-03-24

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major global health problem, causing chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Development of well-tolerated regimens with high cure rates and fewer side effects is still much needed. Recently, natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are attracting more attention as biological compounds and can be a good template to develop therapeutic agents, including antiviral agents against a variety of viruses. Various AMPs have been characterized from the venom of different venomous animals including scorpions. The possible antiviral activities of crude venoms obtained from five Egyptian scorpion species (Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus amoreuxi, A. australis, A. bicolor and Scorpio maurus palmatus) were evaluated by a cell culture method using Huh7.5 cells and the J6/JFH1-P47 strain of HCV. Time-of-addition experiments and inactivation of enzymatic activities of the venoms were carried out to determine the characteristics of the anti-HCV activities. S. maurus palmatus and A. australis venoms showed anti-HCV activities, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC₅₀) being 6.3 ± 1.6 and 88.3 ± 5.8 μg/ml, respectively. S. maurus palmatus venom (30 μg/ml) impaired HCV infectivity in culture medium, but not inside the cells, through virocidal effect. The anti-HCV activity of this venom was not inhibited by a metalloprotease inhibitor or heating at 60°C. The antiviral activity was directed preferentially against HCV. S. maurus palmatus venom is considered as a good natural source for characterization and development of novel anti-HCV agents targeting the entry step. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing antiviral activities of Egyptian scorpion venoms against HCV, and may open a new approach towards discovering antiviral compounds derived from scorpion venoms.

  20. Pediatric electrocardiograph abnormalities following Centruroides limpidus tecomanus scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Diaz, P; Chowell, G; Ceja, G; D'Auria, T C; Lloyd, R C; Castillo-Chavez, C

    2005-01-01

    Scorpionism is an endemic public health problem in Mexico [Hoffmann, C.C., 1936. La distribucion geografica de los alacranes peligrosos en la Republica Mexicana. Bol. Inst. Hygiene Mex. 2, 321; Hoffmann, C.C., Nieto, D.R., 1939. Segunda contribucion al conocimiento de los alacranes mexicanos. Anal. Inst. Biol. 10, 83-92; Mazzoti, L., Bravo-Becherelle, M.A., 1963. Scorpionism in the Mexican Republic. In: Keegan, H.L., McFarlane, W.V. (Eds.), Venomous and Poissonous Animals and Noxious Plants of the Pacific Area. Pergamon Press, London, pp. 119-131; Monroy-Velasco, J., 1961. Alacranes venenosos de Mexico. Rev. Mex. Cien. Med. Biol., Mex. 1, 1-23; Diaz-Najera, A., 1975. Listas y datos de distribucion geografica de los alacranes de Mexico. Rev. Inv. Salud. Publica. (Mex.) 35, 1; Velasco-Castrejon, O., Lara-Aguilera, R., Alatorre, H., 1976. Aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos de la picadura de alacran en una area hiperendemica. Rev. Inv. Salud Publica. (Mex.) 36, 93-103; Dehesa-Davila, M., Possani, L.D., 1994. Scorpionism and serotherapy in Mexico. Toxicon 32 (9), 1015-1018]. In this prospective study, we assess cardiovascular disorders in children via electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings following envenomation by scorpion species Centruroides limpidus tecomanus found in the state of Colima, Mexico. We analyzed 113 cases between the ages of 5 and 14 years. Among the most frequent symptoms presented included local pain (99.1%) and paresthesia (75.2%), pruritus (36.3%), sialorrhoea (35.4%), and nystagmus (24.8%). Cardiovascular disorders were observed in 39.8% of cases, 71% of which were rhythm abnormalities. We find a significant association between the frequency of ECG alterations and age, whereby 8-9-year-old children are more likely to experience ECG alterations when compared with other tested age groups.

  1. Humicolous buthoid scorpions: a new genus and species from French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2003-12-01

    A new genus and species of humicolous buthid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in French Guyana. New considerations on the taxonomy and morphology of some micro-buthoid humicolous scorpions are proposed, mainly based on the study by scanning electron microscopy of the peg-shaped sensillae of the pectines.

  2. The circadian rhythm of locomotory activity in a Neotropical forest scorpion, Opisthacanthus sp. (Scorpionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L.; Constantinou, C.

    1985-03-01

    Opisthacanthus sp. from Panama resembles tropical forest scorpions from other zoogeographical regions in being comparatively inactive and showing some movement in light. Its circadian rhythm is not clear cut. It has a dirty appearance and a repugnatorial odour, a phenomenon not previously recorded in scorpions.

  3. Three new antimicrobial peptides from the scorpion Pandinus imperator.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xian-Chun; Zhou, Lingli; Shi, Wanxia; Luo, Xuesong; Zhang, Lei; Nie, Yao; Wang, Jinwei; Wu, Shifen; Cao, Bin; Cao, Hanjun

    2013-07-01

    Three novel cysteine-free venom peptides, which were referred to as Pantinin-1, Pantinin-2 and Pantinin-3, respectively, have been identified from the scorpion Pandinus imperator by cDNA cloning strategy. The precursor of each peptide consists of a signal peptide, a mature peptide with no disulfide bridges, and an acidic propeptide with a typical processing signal. Each of the three peptides is an α-helical, cationic and amphipathic molecule with 13 or 14 amino acid residues. Their amino acid sequences are homologous to those of some 13-mer antimicrobial peptides isolated from scorpions. Antimicrobial assay showed that all the three peptides possess relatively strong activities against Gram-positive bacteria and a fungus, but have very weak antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria. Toxicity assay showed that the three peptides exhibit very low or mild hemolytic activities against human red blood cells. It is interesting to see that Pantinin-3 is able to potently inhibit the growth of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) S13, a pathogen that can cause a number of human infections; this suggests that Pantinin-3 has great potential to be applied in the treatment of VRE infections. Our findings gain new insights into the structure/function relationships of the small linear cationic antimicrobial peptides from scorpions, and provide new templates for designing of antimicrobial agents targeting antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria.

  4. Clinical characteristics and outcome of children stung by scorpion.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Ismail Lotfy; Elsayh, Khalid I; Mohammad, Hanaa A; Saad, Khaled; Zahran, Asmaa M; Abdallah, Alameldin M; Tawfeek, M S K; Monazea, Eman M

    2014-06-01

    Scorpion envenomation is a health problem in children in tropical and subtropical regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate demographic and clinical characteristics as well as outcomes in referred children to Assiut University Children Hospital during the year 2012 with a history of scorpion sting. The medical files of these patients were reviewed retrospectively for demographic data, time and site of biting, and clinical manifestations. Laboratory investigations of the patients were reviewed for complete blood count (CBC), liver function tests, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), arterial blood gases, and serum electrolytes. Results showed 111 children with a history of scorpion sting; 69 males and 42 females with a median age of 5 years. Out of the studied patients, 53.2 % were classified as class III of clinical severity with recorded pulmonary edema in 33.3 %, cardiogenic shock in 46.8 %, and severe neurological manifestations in 22.8 %. Twelve patients (10.8 %) were classified as class II with mild systemic manifestations, and 36 % of the patients were classified as class I with only local reaction. Outcomes of these patients were discharge without sequelae in 55.8 %, discharge with sequelae in 26.1 %, and death in 18.1 %. more than half of stung children had a severe clinical presentation and about one fifth died. Aggressive treatment regimens are recommended for such patients to improve the outcome.

  5. Scorpion sting envenomation in children: factors affecting the outcome.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajniti; Mishra, Om Prakash; Pandey, Nisha; Singh, Tej Bali

    2011-05-01

    To identify and correlate various factors affecting the outcome of children with scorpion sting envenomation treated with prazosin in a tertiary care hospital. The study included 90 children admitted with scorpion sting envenomation over a period of four and half year. Grading of severity was done on the basis of local or systemic involvement, and management protocol was followed as per hospital guidelines. All cases with envenomation were given prazosin at a dose of 30 μg/kg/dose;first repeat dose at 3 h followed by every 6 h till recovery. Patients with acute pulmonary edema (APE) were treated as per standard protocol. All patients had perspiration and cold extremities. Most of them had sting over extremities except two,having over the trunk. Shock was present in 48(53.3%), whereas myocarditis, encephalopathy, pulmonary edema and priapism were present in 38(42.2%), 32(35.5%), 34(37.8%), and 28(31.1%) children, respectively. Eight (8.9%) children had died. The mean value of blood pressure, sodium and potassium among survivors and non-survivors was insignificant. Mortality was significantly higher in children presented after 6 h of bite. Patients, who had metaboloic acidosis, tachpnea, myocarditis, APE, encephalopathy and priapism had significantly higher mortality (p < 0.05). Symptoms of acidosis, tachypnea, myocarditis, APE, encephalopathy after 6 h of sting are major contributing factors affecting outcome in children with scorpion sting envenomation.

  6. Erosion resistance of bionic functional surfaces inspired from desert scorpions.

    PubMed

    Zhiwu, Han; Junqiu, Zhang; Chao, Ge; Li, Wen; Ren, Luquan

    2012-02-07

    In this paper, a bionic method is presented to improve the erosion resistance of machine components. Desert scorpion (Androctonus australis) is a typical animal living in sandy deserts, and may face erosive action of blowing sand at a high speed. Based on the idea of bionics and biologic experimental techniques, the mechanisms of the sand erosion resistance of desert scorpion were investigated. Results showed that the desert scorpions used special microtextures such as bumps and grooves to construct the functional surfaces to achieve the erosion resistance. In order to understand the erosion resistance mechanisms of such functional surfaces, the combination of computational and experimental research were carried out in this paper. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was applied to predict the erosion performance of the bionic functional surfaces. The result demonstrated that the microtextured surfaces exhibited better erosion resistance than the smooth surfaces. The further erosion tests indicated that the groove surfaces exhibited better erosion performance at 30° injection angle. In order to determine the effect of the groove dimensions on the erosion resistance, regression analysis of orthogonal multinomials was also performed under a certain erosion condition, and the regression equation between the erosion rate and groove distance, width, and height was established.

  7. Insights into Antimicrobial Peptides from Spiders and Scorpions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuqing; Wang, Guangshun

    2015-01-01

    The venoms of spiders and scorpions contain a variety of chemical compounds. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from these organisms were first discovered in the 1990s. As of May 2015, there were 42 spider’s and 63 scorpion’s AMPs in the Antimicrobial Peptide Database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). These peptides have demonstrated broad or narrow-spectrum activities against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In addition, they can be toxic to cancer cells, insects and erythrocytes. To provide insight into such an activity spectrum, this article discusses the discovery, classification, structure and activity relationships, bioinformatics analysis, and potential applications of spider and scorpion AMPs. Our analysis reveals that, in the case of linear peptides, spiders use both glycine-rich and helical peptide models for defense, whereas scorpions use two distinct helical peptide models with different amino acid compositions to exert the observed antimicrobial activities and hemolytic toxicity. Our structural bioinformatics study improves the knowledge in the field and can be used to design more selective peptides to combat tumors, parasites, and viruses. PMID:27165405

  8. Two recombinant depressant scorpion neurotoxins differentially affecting mammalian sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuzhe; Luo, Lan; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Zhu, Shunyi

    2010-07-01

    The scorpion depressant toxins are a group of evolutionarily conserved polypeptides targeting sodium channels, which show preferential ability to induce flaccid paralysis in insects, making them attractive candidates for the construction of transgenic plants or viral vectors to control pests. In this study, two new depressant toxin-like peptides (BmKITc and BmKITc2) differing only at position 52 (Lys for Thr) were produced in Escherichia coli. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that these two recombinant peptides display a typical structural feature similar to native scorpion toxins. They both cause a maintained current component at the last phase of inactivation of the insect sodium channel DmNav1/tipE expressed in Xenopus oocytes and interestingly, they do not produce a beta effect despite of their primary structure as beta-toxins. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect with BmKITc but not with BmKITc2 was observed on TTX-R sodium currents in rat DRG neurons. We hypothesize that such differential potency highlights a crucial role of lysine 52 in channel selectivity. Our results therefore indicate that, in spite of the general idea, not all scorpion depressant toxins interact with mammalian and/or insect sodium channels in the same manner.

  9. [Scorpion poisonous stings in the population of Khouribga (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Soulaymani-Bencheikh, R; Soulaymani, A; Semlali, I; Tamim, O K; Zemrour, E; Eloufir, R; Mokhtari, A

    2005-04-01

    Poisonous stings caused by scorpion constitute a public health problem in Morocco because of their frequency severity and socio-economic consequences that they generate. The province of Khouribga surveyed for this study is situated in a zone of high incidence and high lethality caused by scorpion stings in Morocco. In order to analyze the epidemiological profile and the poisoning risk factors, we are presenting the results of a past study conducted from April to December 2001. It consisted in making an exhaustive follow up from admission to release of all patients stung by scorpion. These patients consulted a sanitary structure (dispensary health centre or hospital) in the province of Khouribga, Morocco. Within a total of 1212 cases of stings, 63% of them occurred at night (between 06 pm and 06 am) particularly during July and August. Youngsters under fifteen represented 36% of these cases. 3.4% of the people who got stung presented typical poisoning and envenomation. The delay expected from sting to transfer to a medical structure was 1.85 +/- 0.11 hours for the patients who recovered against 2.67 +/- 0.11 for those who did not recover. To be noticed as well that 1.3% of the subjects who got stung die. Variance analysis indicates that the type of sanitary structures receiving patients, admission classes, and age of patients influence significantly the recovery rate of people who are stung.

  10. Immunological aspects of scorpion toxins: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Ben Abderrazek, Rahma; Hmila, Issam; Abidi, Naima; Muyldermans, Serge; El Ayeb, Mohamed

    2011-10-01

    Significant progress has been made in immunological studies of scorpion toxins and several formats of antibodies directed against scorpion toxins have been reported. Some of these are commonly used in a specific treatment against envenoming; others are primarily used for immuno-biochemical characterizations. The preparation protocol of the antibody or its fragments can be substantially different from one laboratory to another, which complicates a direct comparison of the potency of the antivenom. The use of immune sera, the total immunoglobulin fraction or Fab and Fab'2 fragments as the therapeutic agent is widespread. A number of monoclonal antibodies have also been reported and used for engineering of Fv, ScFv or Fab fragments. Recently, a novel antibody format - known as nanobodies - derived from HCAbs of camelids and selected after phage display shows great potential to provide a more efficient therapy against scorpion envenoming. Subsequent bispecific derivatives have been designed and their pharmacokinetics have been studied. Distinct advantages and disadvantages have been attributed to these equine, murine or camelid antibodies and their derived fragments. Some fragments are easily amenable into next generation therapeutics after proper manufacturing and provide an ensured availability of the product to the medical community. Through examples, we will show how the comparison of the serotherapeutic effectiveness is compromised due to the absence of standardization, on the preparation of immunogens, production processes and / or nature of the products. We will report on recent advances in the field.

  11. Milk Intolerance and the American Indian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Historian, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The intolerance of milk by American Indians and other groups (Thais, Chinese, Filipinos, Melonesians of New Guinea, Australian Aborigines, Black groups of Africa, American Blacks, and Eskimos) due to the lack of the lactose enzyme is discussed in this article. (FF)

  12. Male and female meiosis in the mountain scorpion Zabius fuscus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): heterochromatin, rDNA and TTAGG telomeric repeats.

    PubMed

    Adilardi, Renzo Sebastián; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés Alejandro; Mattoni, Camilo Iván; Mola, Liliana María

    2015-08-01

    All cytogenetically studied scorpions present male achiasmatic meiosis and lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes. In contrast, information about female meiosis in scorpions is scarce due to the difficulty of finding meiotic cells. The genus Zabius includes three described species and no chromosome studies have been performed on it until now. We analyzed the constitutive heterochromatin distribution, NORs and telomeric sequences in mitosis and meiosis of males and females of different populations of Zabius fuscus. All specimens presented 2n = 18 holokinetic chromosomes that gradually decreased in size. Male meiosis presented nine bivalents and a polymorphism for one reciprocal translocation in one population. Telomeric signals were detected at every terminal region, confirming also the presence of a (TTAGG) n motif in Buthidae. Constitutive heterochromatin was found in three chromosome pairs at a terminal region; moreover, NORs were embedded in the heterochromatic region of the largest pair. Chromosome size and landmarks allowed us to propose the chromosomes involved in the rearrangement. In four females, cells at different prophase I stages were analyzed. We describe a diffuse stage and the presence of ring-shaped bivalents. We discuss the possible origin of these bivalents in the framework of chiasmatic or achiasmatic female meiosis. These results contribute to increase the scarce evidence of female meiosis in scorpions and raise new questions about its mechanism.

  13. Recombinant Expression, Functional Characterization of Two Scorpion Venom Toxins with Three Disulfide Bridges from the Chinese Scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shengguo; Wang, Xuelin; Hu, Xueyao; Zhao, Yongshan; Zhao, Mingyi; Zhang, Jinghai; Cui, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Scorpion venom contains a large variety of biologically active peptides. However, most of these peptides have not been identified and characterized. Peptides with three disulfide bridges, existing in the scorpion venom, have not been studied in detail and have been poorly characterized until now. Here, we report the recombinant expression and functional characterization of two kinds of venom peptides (BmKBTx and BmNaL-3SS2) with three disulfide bridges. This study adopted an effective Escherichia coli system. The genes for BmKBTx and BmNaL-3SS2 were obtained by polymerase chain reaction and cloned to the pSYPU-1b vector. After expression and purification, the two recombinant proteins were subjected to an analgesic activity assay in mice and whole-cell patchclamp recording of hNav1.7-CHO cell lines. Functional tests showed that BmKBTx and BmNaL- 3SS2 have analgesic activity in mice and can interact with the hNav1.7 subtype of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). Scorpion venom is rich in bioactive proteins, but most of their functions are unknown to us. This study has increased our knowledge of these novel disulfide-bridged peptides (DBPs) and their biological activities. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Scorpion sting envenomation in children in southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bosnak, Mehmet; Ece, Aydin; Yolbas, Ilyas; Bosnak, Vuslat; Kaplan, Metin; Gurkan, Fuat

    2009-01-01

    Scorpion sting envenomation is a life-threatening emergency and a common public health problem in many regions of the world, particularly in children. Children are at greater risk of developing severe cardiac, respiratory, and neurological complications. The aims of this study were to evaluate demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome characteristics for pediatric patients with scorpion sting envenomation in southeast Turkey and to describe features that may be predictive of the need for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) care. A total of 52 charts of children (mean age: 7.7 +/- 2.8 years; age range: 1.5-15 years) presenting with scorpion sting envenomation to a single hospital in southeastern Turkey were investigated. General characteristics of the children, species of the scorpions, anatomic site of the sting, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment approaches, complications, and outcomes were recorded. Twenty-four stings (46.2%) were inflicted by Androctonus crassicauda, 1 (1.9%) by Leiurus quinquestriatus, and the sources of the other stings were not known. Thirty-one patients (59.6%) were admitted from rural areas. Admission from a rural area was a significant risk factor for severe envenomation. Foot-leg was the most frequently stung part of the body (48%). The greatest number of stings occurred in the summer (78.8%). Cold extremities and tachycardia were the most frequently seen clinical findings (38.4% for both). Twenty patients (38.5%) had signs of serious envenomation and required admission to the PICU. Hemoglobin, white blood cell count, activated prothrombin time, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and creatine phosphokinase levels were higher in severely envenomed children compared to levels in those with mild-moderate stings. Antivenom was given at a primary or secondary health center before arrival to our hospital in 44 (84.6%) patients, without any apparent difference in the number of patients presenting with

  15. Humiculous scorpions: on the genera Ananteris Thorell, 1891 and Microananteris Lourenço, 2004 (Scorpiones: Buthidae), with the description of a new species from French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2012-08-01

    A new species of humicolous buthid scorpion is described on the basis of a single male specimen collected in a rainforest in French Guiana. The collection was performed by extraction with the use of Winkler methods. New considerations about the ecology and biogeography of micro-scorpions of the 'Ananteris group' (sensu subfamily Ananterinae Pocock, 1900), are proposed in relation to their possible evolution from endogeous to epygean environments.

  16. Sex Differences in Defensive Behavior and Venom of The Striped Bark Scorpion Centruroides vittatus (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Miller, D W; Jones, A D; Goldston, J S; Rowe, M P; Rowe, A H

    2016-11-01

    Studies of venom variability have advanced from describing the mechanisms of action and relative potency of medically important toxins to understanding the ecological and evolutionary causes of the variability itself. While most studies have focused on differences in venoms among taxa, populations, or age-classes, there may be intersexual effects as well. Striped bark scorpions (Centruroides vittatus) provide a good model for examining sex differences in venom composition and efficacy, as this species exhibits dramatic sexual dimorphism in both size and defensive behavior; when threatened by an enemy, larger, slower females stand and fight while smaller, fleeter males prefer to run. We here add evidence suggesting that male and female C. vittatus indeed have different defensive propensities; when threatened via an electrical stimulus, females were more likely to sting than were males. We reasoned that intersexual differences in defensive phenotypes would select for venoms with different functions in the two sexes; female venoms should be effective at predator deterrence, whereas male venoms, less utilized defensively, might be better suited to capturing prey or courting females. This rationale led to our predictions that females would inject more venom and/or possess more painful venom than males. We were wrong. While females do inject more venom than males in a defensive sting, females are also larger; when adjusted for body size, male and female C. vittatus commit equal masses of venom in a sting to a potential enemy. Additionally, house mice (Mus musculus) find an injection of male venom more irritating than an equal amount of female venom, likely because male venom contains more of the toxins that induce pain. Taken together, our results suggest that identifying the ultimate causes of venom variability will, as we move beyond adaptive storytelling, be hard-won.

  17. Indian Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

  18. Camelid antivenom development and potential in vivo neutralization of Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Darvish, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Soltan Ahmad; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Bagheri, Kamran-Pooshang; Behdani, Mahdi; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2016-04-01

    Scorpion envenoming is a serious health problem which can cause a variety of clinical toxic effects. Of the many scorpion species native to Iran, Hottentotta saulcyi is important because its venom can produce toxic effects in man. Nowadays, antivenom derived from hyper immune horses is the only effective treatment for sever scorpion stings. Current limitations of immunotherapy urgently require an efficient alternative with high safety, target affinity and more promising venom neutralizing capability. Recently, heavy chain-only antibodies (HC-Abs) found naturally in camelid serum met the above mentioned advantages. In this study, immuno-reactivities of polyclonal antibodies were tested after successful immunization of camel using H. saulcyi scorpion crude venom. The lethal potency of scorpion venom in C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally was determined to be 2.7 mg/kg. These results were followed by the efficient neutralization of lethal activity of H. saulcyi scorpion venom by injection of antivenom and purified IgG fractions into mice intraperitonelly or intravenously, respectively. HC-Ab camelid antivenom could be considered as a useful serotherapeutics instead of present treatment for scorpion envenomation.

  19. The epidemiology of scorpion stings in tropical areas of Kermanshah province, Iran, during 2008 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Khatony, Alireza; Abdi, Alireza; Fatahpour, Tahereh; Towhidi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion stings are an acute health problem in tropical regions. Awareness of this problem is fundamental for establishing preventive interventions, thus prompting the present study to determine the scorpion-sting incidence in tropical areas of Kermanshah province during 2008 and 2009. In a retrospective study, all records related to scorpion sting patients from the health centers of tropical areas of Kermanshah were studied by a census and checklist. Data were analyzed by the software SPSS-16 using descriptive and inferential tests. The incidence of scorpion stings was 334.37/100,000 inhabitants in 2008 and 339.07/100000 in 2009. Mean and standard deviation of age were 30.55 ± 16.99. Scorpion stings were more common in rural areas (59.6 %) and occurred more often in summer (52.9 %). Nearly 48 % of bites were to patients' hands and 47.5 % of patients were injured between midnight and 6 a.m. While 92.9 % of patients had mild symptoms, scorpion antivenom was prescribed to 88.8 % of victims, 94.5 % of whom were discharged after outpatient treatment. The relationship between antivenom therapy and clinical symptoms was not significant. Due to the relatively high incidence of scorpion stings in tropical areas of Kermanshah, it is recommended that the inhabitants be educated through the mass media about how to prevent the stings and apply preliminary treatment.

  20. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of scorpion sting in the southeastern region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Fevzi; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Demir, Ali; Kavalci, Cemil; Durdu, Tamer; Yılmaz, Muhittin Serkan; Yel, Cihat; Akbulut, Sami

    2013-09-01

    Scorpion sting resulting in envenomation is a life-threatening emergency and causes serious health problems in tropical and subtropical regions. The aim of this study was to present the epidemiologic and clinical features of 123 cases presenting with symptoms of scorpion poisoning, a cause of preventable mortality and morbidity. This study retrospectively analyzed the epidemiologic and demographic features of a total of 123 patients who presented to Diyarbakır State Hospital Emergency Service with scorpion sting between January 2008 and December 2009. Among 123 patients who presented to Diyarbakır State Hospital Emergency Service with scorpion sting between January 2008 and January 2009, 62.6% (n=77) were female and 37.4% (n=46) were male. The mean age of the patients was 33.5±17.3 years (2-80), and 27 (22%) patients were younger than 18 years. The place of residence was rural region in 98 (79.7%) patients and the city center in 25 (20.3%). The majority of victims were stung by scorpions while they were at active work (42.3%) or asleep (19.5%) in bed. Eleven (8.95%) patients were stung by a scorpion while putting on their own clothes. This simple descriptive study will hopefully help healthcare providers take measures to prevent scorpion stings, which should take into consideration local epidemiological features.

  1. Combating of scorpion bite with Pakistani medicinal plants having ethno-botanical evidences as antidote.

    PubMed

    Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Sajjad, Ashif; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Mumtaz, Amara; Farzana, Kalsoom; Rashid, Zarmina; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Although the majority of serious cases in the world are concerned with snake bite envenomation, but those which are caused by scorpion stings are also famous for causing extreme pain. The present view is an attempt to enlist scientifically ignored medicinal plants of Pakistan exhibiting anti-scorpion venom activity. In this review data of 35 medicinal plants is collected with their families, parts used, distribution in Pakistan, and major constituents present in plant. Amaranthaceae, Astraceae and Euphorbiaceae represent 3 species. Anacardiaceae, Asclepidaceae and Liliaceae represent 2 species. Araceae, Capparidaceae, Ceasalpinaceae, Cyperaceae, Labiatae, Lamiaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Oleaceae, Oxalidaceae, Pinaceae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, Valerianaceae and Zingiberaceae represented single medicinal plant with anti scorpion potential. According to literature, all parts are used in anti scorpion envenomination. Leaves exhibit 30%, whole plant 9%, fruit, bark and seeds 8% anti scorpion activity. Bulb and stems show 5% contribution in this respect and twigs, resins, inflorescence, latex and flowers express 3% potential. This article may assist the researchers to bring innovation in natural product field for scorpion bite envenomation. However, these medicinal plants are still requiring pharmacological and phytochemical investigation in order to be claimed as effective in scorpion bite envenomation.

  2. Scorpion Toxin, BmP01, Induces Pain by Targeting TRPV1 Channel.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Md Abdul; Jiang, Wenbin; Luo, Lei; Li, Bowen; Yang, Shilong; Song, Yuzhu; Lai, Ren

    2015-09-14

    The intense pain induced by scorpion sting is a frequent clinical manifestation. To date, there is no established protocol with significant efficacy to alleviate the pain induced by scorpion envenomation. One of the important reasons is that, little information on pain-inducing compound from scorpion venoms is available. Here, a pain-inducing peptide (BmP01) has been identified and characterized from the venoms of scorpion (Mesobuthus martensii). In an animal model, intraplantar injection of BmP01 in mouse hind paw showed significant acute pain in wild type (WT) mice but not in TRPV1 knock-out (TRPV1 KO) mice during 30 min recording. BmP01 evoked currents in WT dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons but had no effect on DRG neurons of TRPV1 KO mice. Furthermore, OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 3672 BmP01 evoked currents on TRPV1-expressed HEK293T cells, but not on HEK293T cells without TRPV1. These results suggest that (1) BmP01 is one of the pain-inducing agents in scorpion venoms; and (2) BmP01 induces pain by acting on TRPV1. To our knowledge, this is the first report about a scorpion toxin that produces pain by targeting TRPV1. Identification of a pain-inducing compound may facilitate treating pain induced by scorpion envenomation.

  3. Serrumab: a novel human single chain-fragment antibody with multiple scorpion toxin-neutralizing capacities.

    PubMed

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Peigneur, Steve; Arantes, Eliane Candiani; Tytgat, Jan; Barbosa, José Elpidio

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, scorpion envenomation is an important public health problem. The yellow scorpion, Tityus serrulatus (Ts), is considered the most dangerous species in the country, being responsible for the most severe clinical cases of envenomation. Currently, the administration of serum produced in horses is recognized and used as a treatment for accidents with scorpions. However, horse herds' maintenance is costly and the antibodies are heterologous, which can cause anaphylaxis and Serum Sickness. In the present work, a human monoclonal fragment antibody, Serrumab, has been analysed. Toxin neutralizing effects of Serrumab were evaluated using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. The results show that Serrumab presented a high neutralizing effect against Ts β-toxins (Ts1, 43.2% and Ts2, 68.8%) and none or low neutralizing effect against α-toxins (Ts3, 0% and Ts5, 10%). Additional experiments demonstrated that Serrumab was also able to neutralize the action of toxins from other scorpion genus (Css II, 45.96% and Lqh III, 100%/β- and α-toxins, respectively). This work indicated that Serrumab is able to neutralize many toxins in Ts venom, and could being considered as a neutralizing antibody for formulating a human anti-scorpion serum in Brazil. Additionally, this work demonstrated that Serrumab could neutralize different toxins from distinct scorpion genus. All these results reinforce the idea that Serrumab is a scFv antibody with multiple neutralizing capacities and a promising candidate for inclusion in scorpion anti-venoms against different genera.

  4. Scorpion Toxin, BmP01, Induces Pain by Targeting TRPV1 Channel

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Md Abdul; Jiang, Wenbin; Luo, Lei; Li, Bowen; Yang, Shilong; Song, Yuzhu; Lai, Ren

    2015-01-01

    The intense pain induced by scorpion sting is a frequent clinical manifestation. To date, there is no established protocol with significant efficacy to alleviate the pain induced by scorpion envenomation. One of the important reasons is that, little information on pain-inducing compound from scorpion venoms is available. Here, a pain-inducing peptide (BmP01) has been identified and characterized from the venoms of scorpion (Mesobuthus martensii). In an animal model, intraplantar injection of BmP01 in mouse hind paw showed significant acute pain in wild type (WT) mice but not in TRPV1 knock-out (TRPV1 KO) mice during 30 min recording. BmP01 evoked currents in WT dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons but had no effect on DRG neurons of TRPV1 KO mice. Furthermore, BmP01 evoked currents on TRPV1-expressed HEK293T cells, but not on HEK293T cells without TRPV1. These results suggest that (1) BmP01 is one of the pain-inducing agents in scorpion venoms; and (2) BmP01 induces pain by acting on TRPV1. To our knowledge, this is the first report about a scorpion toxin that produces pain by targeting TRPV1. Identification of a pain-inducing compound may facilitate treating pain induced by scorpion envenomation. PMID:26389953

  5. Homology of the Lateral Eyes of Scorpiones: A Six-Ocellus Model

    PubMed Central

    Loria, Stephanie F.; Prendini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Scorpions possess two types of visual organs, the median and lateral eyes. Both eyes consist of simple ocelli with biconvex lenses that differ in structure and function. There is little variation in the number of median ocelli across the order. Except for a few troglomorphic species in which the median ocelli are absent, all scorpions possess a single pair. In contrast, the number of pairs of lateral ocelli varies from zero to five across Scorpiones and may vary within species. No attempt has been made to homologize lateral ocelli across the order, and their utility in scorpion systematics has been questioned, due to the variation in number. A recent study examined the number of lateral ocelli among various Asian Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837 and proposed a “five-eye model” for the family. This model has not been examined more broadly within Buthidae, however, nor compared with the patterns of variation observed among other scorpion families. An eyespot, referred to as an accessory lateral eye, situated ventral or posteroventral to the lateral ocelli, has also been reported in some scorpions. Analysis of its structure suggests it serves a nonvisual function. We present the first comparative study of variation in the lateral ocelli across the order Scorpiones, based on examination of a broad range of exemplar species, representing all families, 160 genera (78%), 196 species (9%), and up to 12 individuals per species. We propose a six-ocellus model for Recent scorpions with four accessory ocelli observed in various taxa, homologize the individual ocelli, and correct erroneous counts in the recent literature. We also investigate the presence of the eyespot across scorpions and discover that it is more widespread than previously recognized. Future work should investigate the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying the formation of the lateral ocelli to test the hypotheses proposed here. PMID:25470485

  6. Homology of the lateral eyes of scorpiones: a six-ocellus model.

    PubMed

    Loria, Stephanie F; Prendini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Scorpions possess two types of visual organs, the median and lateral eyes. Both eyes consist of simple ocelli with biconvex lenses that differ in structure and function. There is little variation in the number of median ocelli across the order. Except for a few troglomorphic species in which the median ocelli are absent, all scorpions possess a single pair. In contrast, the number of pairs of lateral ocelli varies from zero to five across Scorpiones and may vary within species. No attempt has been made to homologize lateral ocelli across the order, and their utility in scorpion systematics has been questioned, due to the variation in number. A recent study examined the number of lateral ocelli among various Asian Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837 and proposed a "five-eye model" for the family. This model has not been examined more broadly within Buthidae, however, nor compared with the patterns of variation observed among other scorpion families. An eyespot, referred to as an accessory lateral eye, situated ventral or posteroventral to the lateral ocelli, has also been reported in some scorpions. Analysis of its structure suggests it serves a nonvisual function. We present the first comparative study of variation in the lateral ocelli across the order Scorpiones, based on examination of a broad range of exemplar species, representing all families, 160 genera (78%), 196 species (9%), and up to 12 individuals per species. We propose a six-ocellus model for Recent scorpions with four accessory ocelli observed in various taxa, homologize the individual ocelli, and correct erroneous counts in the recent literature. We also investigate the presence of the eyespot across scorpions and discover that it is more widespread than previously recognized. Future work should investigate the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying the formation of the lateral ocelli to test the hypotheses proposed here.

  7. Is scorpion antivenom cost-effective as marketed in the United States?

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Edward P; Bakall, Maja; Skrepnek, Grant H; Boyer, Leslie V

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of scorpion antivenom compared to no antivenom, in the United States, using a decision analysis framework. A decision analytic model was created to assess patient course with and without antivenom. Costs were determined from the perspective of a health care payer. Cost data used in the model were extracted from Arizona Medicaid. The probability of clinical events occurring with and without antivenom was obtained from the published literature, medical claims obtained from Arizona Medicaid, and results of recent clinical trials. Patients that became so ill that mechanical ventilator support was necessary were considered treatment failures. A Monte Carlo simulation was run 1000 times and sampled simultaneously across all variable distributions in the model. The mean success rate was 99.87% (95% CI 99.64%-99.98%) with scorpion antivenom and 94.31% (95% CI 91.10%-96.61%) without scorpion antivenom. The mean cost using scorpion antivenom was $10,708 (95% CI $10,556 - $11,010) and the mean cost without scorpion antivenom was $3178 (95% CI $1627 - $5184). Since the 95% CIs do not overlap for either the success or cost, use of the scorpion antivenom was significantly more effective and significantly more expensive than no antivenom. Cost-effectiveness analysis found that the scorpion antivenom was not cost-effective at its current price as marketed in the United States. The scorpion antivenom marketed in the United States is extremely effective, but too costly to justify its use in most clinical situations. Formulary committees should restrict the use of this antivenom to only the most severe scorpion envenomations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hemprich's long-eared bat (Otonycteris hemprichii) as a predator of scorpions: whispering echolocation, passive gleaning and prey selection.

    PubMed

    Holderied, Marc; Korine, Carmi; Moritz, Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    Over 70% of the droppings of the gleaning bat Otonycteris hemprichii can contain scorpion fragments. Yet, some scorpions found in its desert habitat possess venom of the highest known toxicity, rendering them a very dangerous prey. In this study, we describe how O. hemprichii catches and handles scorpions, quantify its flight and echolocation behaviour in the field, investigate what sensory modality it uses to detect scorpions, and test whether it selects scorpions according to their size or toxicity. We confirmed that O. hemprichi is a whispering bat (approx. 80 dB peSPL) with short, multi-harmonic calls. In a flight room we also confirmed that O. hemprichii detects scorpions by their walking noises. Amplitudes of such noises were measured and they reach the flying bat at or below the level of echoes of the loess substrate. Bats dropped straight onto moving scorpions and were stung frequently even straight in their face. Stings did not change the bats' behaviour and caused no signs of poisoning. Scorpions were eaten including poison gland and stinger. Bats showed no preference neither for any of the scorpion species nor their size suggesting they are generalist predators with regard to scorpions.

  9. Clinical course of bark scorpion envenomation managed without antivenom.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Ayrn; Ruha, Anne-Michelle

    2012-09-01

    Bark scorpion envenomation is potentially life threatening in children and traditionally treated with antivenom (AV). We sought to describe the clinical course, management, complications and outcome of children with severe scorpion envenomation treated with supportive care during a period when AV was unavailable. A retrospective chart review was performed, all children presenting to a referral hospital between September 1, 2004 and July 31, 2006 with severe scorpion envenomation not receiving AV, were included. A standardized data abstraction form was used to record time of symptom onset, time to healthcare facility (HCF), clinical findings, treatment, complications, and length of stay. Eighty-eight patients were included with mean age of 3.7 years (0.33-12). Mean time to symptom onset was 20 min (0-130) and mean time to HCF was 79 min (10-240). Incidence of clinical manifestations include: neuromuscular agitation, 100 %; opsoclonus, 97 %; hypersalivation, 81 %; tachycardia, 82 %; hypertension, 49 %; vomiting, 38 %; fever, 28 %; respiratory distress, 33 %; and hypoxia, 18 %. Complications included rhabdomyolysis in 18 (20 %) and aspiration in 12 (13 %) patients. Intubation was required in 24 % of patients. The most frequently used agents to control symptoms were benzodiazepines (98 %) followed by opioids (69 %). Intravenous fluids were given to 84 %. Mean length of stay was 29 h (range, 6-73 h). There were no deaths. In addition to the classic findings of neuromuscular hyperactivity, opsoclonus, and hypersalivation, a high incidence of hyperadrenergic findings and respiratory compromise are noted in this series. A significant number of patients required mechanical ventilation. Benzodiazpines and opioids were the most common medications used to control symptoms.

  10. Ipomoea asarifolia neutralizes inflammation induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza; Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; Furtado, Allanny Alves; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre; Oliveira, Ruth Medeiros; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Tabosa do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2014-05-14

    Envenoming caused by scorpion sting is a serious public health problem. In Brazil, 13,038 accidents caused by venomous animals have been reported. Of this total, 53% of the cases and 14 deaths were caused by scorpions. Furthermore, Tityus serrulatus (Buthidae) is the most dangerous scorpion due to the high toxicity of its venom. The treatment is the common supportive therapy and the serum therapy, but some people do not have access to both therapies and seek healing through the use of medical plants. This study evaluated the ability of the crude extract and fractions from the leaves of Ipomoea asarifolia in neutralizing the main biological effects caused by Tityus serrulatus envenoming in mice. BALB/c mice were pretreated (i.v.) with 100 μλ of aqueous extracts and fractions dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol (CH₂Cl₂, EtOAc, and n-BuOH, respectively) of Ipomoea asarifolia, rutin or saline. Then, the animals received 100 μλ (i.p.) of venom of Tityus serrulatus (0.8 mg/kg). After six hours, the peritoneal lavage was performed with PBS and the number cells were determined using a Neubauer chamber. The supernatants were collected for determination of cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. The aqueous extract, fractions and rutin, at all doses, significantly reduced cell migration, which was endorsed by the reduction of the levels of certain cytokines. This is the first study that demonstrated the potential effect of Ipomoea asarifolia against inflammation caused by Tityus serrulatus venom, suggesting that these extracts and/or their bioactive molecules, especially the flavonoid rutin, have potential use in the therapy of this envenomation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom injected to dams during pregnancy affects some cytokines of fetuses.

    PubMed

    Dorce, Ana L C; Frare, Eduardo O; Paulo, Maria E F V; Dorce, Valquiria A C; Nencioni, Ana L A

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high incidence of scorpion stings in Brazil, pregnant women are among the possible victims. Cytokines are important during the pregnancy, and scorpion venoms can change their release. We evaluated the levels of some cytokines in the fetuses after the treatment of pregnant rats with the Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom. The concentration of some of them is altered and can be responsible for the effects previously observed on innate reflexes, and the physical and behavioral development of the offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic and morphological analyses indicate that the Australian endemic scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi (Scorpiones: Urodacidae) is a species complex

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Ramirez, Karen; Miller, Adam D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Australian scorpions have received far less attention from researchers than their overseas counterparts. Here we provide the first insight into the molecular variation and evolutionary history of the endemic Australian scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi. Also known as the inland robust scorpion, it is widely distributed throughout arid zones of the continent and is emerging as a model organism in biomedical research due to the chemical nature of its venom. Methods We employed Bayesian Inference (BI) methods for the phylogenetic reconstructions and divergence dating among lineages, using unique haplotype sequences from two mitochondrial loci (COXI, 16S) and one nuclear locus (28S). We also implemented two DNA taxonomy approaches (GMYC and PTP/dPTP) to evaluate the presence of cryptic species. Linear Discriminant Analysis was used to test whether the linear combination of 21 variables (ratios of morphological measurements) can predict individual’s membership to a putative species. Results Genetic and morphological data suggest that U. yaschenkoi is a species complex. High statistical support for the monophyly of several divergent lineages was found both at the mitochondrial loci and at a nuclear locus. The extent of mitochondrial divergence between these lineages exceeds estimates of interspecific divergence reported for other scorpion groups. The GMYC model and the PTP/bPTP approach identified major lineages and several sub-lineages as putative species. Ratios of several traits that approximate body shape had a strong predictive power (83–100%) in discriminating two major molecular lineages. A time-calibrated phylogeny dates the early divergence at the onset of continental-wide aridification in late Miocene and Pliocene, with finer-scale phylogeographic patterns emerging during the Pleistocene. This structuring dynamics is congruent with the diversification history of other fauna of the Australian arid zones. Discussion Our results indicate that the

  13. A new species of the rare buthid scorpion genus Lissothus Vachon, 1948 from Central Algeria (Scorpiones, Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson Roberto; Sadine, Salah Eddine

    2014-06-01

    Taxonomic considerations are given for the genus Lissothus Vachon, 1948 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Two species are currently known, Lissothus bernardi Vachon, 1948 from Libya and Lissothus occidentalis Vachon, 1950 from Mauritania. In this contribution, a new species, Lissothus chaambi sp. n., is described from the desert of Central Algeria. The new species is most closely related to L. bernardi. The geographical distribution of the genus is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Prey-sensing and orientational behaviors of sand scorpions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, Philip

    2000-03-01

    Sand scorpions use exquisitely sensitive vibrational and chemosensory systems to locate prey and identify prospective mates active on the sand surface. Prey location is determined by input to a static array of 8 vibration-sensitive receptors, each responding as phase-locked accelerometers to compressional and surface waves conducted through sand. Angular orientation of the target is determined from passing surface (Rayleigh) waves, target distance possibly from the time delay between arrival of compressional and surface waves. For localization and identification of prospective mates, male scorpions use sexually dimorphic chemosensory appendages, the pectines, which are swept over a static stimulus field (chemical trail deposited on sand). These organs support a 2D array of closely-spaced (freq = 100/mm) sensilla containing more than 10^6 neurons, all projecting with great topographic precision to the central nervous system. Movement of this sensory array over a static stimulus field creates timing within the sensory signal. The potential importance of timing as a means of increasing sensitivity and selectivity of sensory response in two distinctly different modes is discussed.

  15. Binding of beta-scorpion toxin: a physicochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jover, E; Bablito, J; Couraud, F

    1984-03-13

    The binding to rat brain synaptosomes of a beta-scorpion toxin, i.e., toxin II of Centruroides suffusus suffusus (Css II), was studied as a function of pH, temperature, and concentration of some monovalent and divalent cations. At 10 degrees C and pH 6.0, the specific binding of 125I-labeled Css II corresponds to a single class of noninteracting high-affinity binding sites (KD = 0.18 nM) with a capacity (4.2 pmol/mg of protein) that is almost identical with that generally accepted for saxitoxin. The equilibrium dissociation constant of beta-scorpion toxin is pH independent, but the maximum binding capacity is reduced with increasing pH. Li+, guanidinium, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+ modified the apparent KD of the 125I-labeled Css II toxin. The equilibrium dissociation constant varies markedly with the temperature. The van't Hoff plot of the data is curvilinear, corresponding to a standard free-energy change associated with an entropy-driven process. The association rate constant also varies considerably with the temperature whereas the Arrhenius plot is linear between 1 and 30 degrees C. The energy of activation determined from these data is 17.6 kcal/mol. These results support the hypothesis that a cluster of nonpolar amino acid residues present on one face of the molecule is involved in the toxin-receptor interaction.

  16. Scorpion toxins as natural scaffolds for protein engineering.

    PubMed Central

    Vita, C; Roumestand, C; Toma, F; Ménez, A

    1995-01-01

    A compact, well-organized, and natural motif, stabilized by three disulfide bonds, is proposed as a basic scaffold for protein engineering. This motif contains 37 amino acids only and is formed by a short helix on one face and an antiparallel triple-stranded beta-sheet on the opposite face. It has been adopted by scorpions as a unique scaffold to express a wide variety of powerful toxic ligands with tuned specificity for different ion channels. We further tested the potential of this fold by engineering a metal binding site on it, taking the carbonic anhydrase site as a model. By chemical synthesis we introduced nine residues, including three histidines, as compared to the original amino acid sequence of the natural charybdotoxin and found that the new protein maintains the original fold, as revealed by CD and 1H NMR analysis. Cu2+ ions are bound with Kd = 4.2 x 10(-8) M and other metals are bound with affinities in an order mirroring that observed in carbonic anhydrase. The alpha/beta scorpion motif, small in size, easily amenable to chemical synthesis, highly stable, and tolerant for sequence mutations represents, therefore, an appropriate scaffold onto which polypeptide sequences may be introduced in a predetermined conformation, providing an additional means for design and engineering of small proteins. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7541540

  17. Venom Gland Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of the Enigmatic Scorpion Superstitionia donensis (Scorpiones: Superstitioniidae), with Insights on the Evolution of Its Venom Components

    PubMed Central

    Santibáñez-López, Carlos E.; Cid-Uribe, Jimena I.; Batista, Cesar V. F.; Ortiz, Ernesto; Possani, Lourival D.

    2016-01-01

    Venom gland transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have improved our knowledge on the diversity of the heterogeneous components present in scorpion venoms. However, most of these studies have focused on species from the family Buthidae. To gain insights into the molecular diversity of the venom components of scorpions belonging to the family Superstitioniidae, one of the neglected scorpion families, we performed a transcriptomic and proteomic analyses for the species Superstitionia donensis. The total mRNA extracted from the venom glands of two specimens was subjected to massive sequencing by the Illumina protocol, and a total of 219,073 transcripts were generated. We annotated 135 transcripts putatively coding for peptides with identity to known venom components available from different protein databases. Fresh venom collected by electrostimulation was analyzed by LC-MS/MS allowing the identification of 26 distinct components with sequences matching counterparts from the transcriptomic analysis. In addition, the phylogenetic affinities of the found putative calcins, scorpines, La1-like peptides and potassium channel κ toxins were analyzed. The first three components are often reported as ubiquitous in the venom of different families of scorpions. Our results suggest that, at least calcins and scorpines, could be used as molecular markers in phylogenetic studies of scorpion venoms. PMID:27941686

  18. Venom Gland Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of the Enigmatic Scorpion Superstitionia donensis (Scorpiones: Superstitioniidae), with Insights on the Evolution of Its Venom Components.

    PubMed

    Santibáñez-López, Carlos E; Cid-Uribe, Jimena I; Batista, Cesar V F; Ortiz, Ernesto; Possani, Lourival D

    2016-12-09

    Venom gland transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have improved our knowledge on the diversity of the heterogeneous components present in scorpion venoms. However, most of these studies have focused on species from the family Buthidae. To gain insights into the molecular diversity of the venom components of scorpions belonging to the family Superstitioniidae, one of the neglected scorpion families, we performed a transcriptomic and proteomic analyses for the species Superstitionia donensis. The total mRNA extracted from the venom glands of two specimens was subjected to massive sequencing by the Illumina protocol, and a total of 219,073 transcripts were generated. We annotated 135 transcripts putatively coding for peptides with identity to known venom components available from different protein databases. Fresh venom collected by electrostimulation was analyzed by LC-MS/MS allowing the identification of 26 distinct components with sequences matching counterparts from the transcriptomic analysis. In addition, the phylogenetic affinities of the found putative calcins, scorpines, La1-like peptides and potassium channel κ toxins were analyzed. The first three components are often reported as ubiquitous in the venom of different families of scorpions. Our results suggest that, at least calcins and scorpines, could be used as molecular markers in phylogenetic studies of scorpion venoms.

  19. A new mid-Silurian aquatic scorpion-one step closer to land?

    PubMed

    Waddington, Janet; Rudkin, David M; Dunlop, Jason A

    2015-01-01

    One of the oldest known fossil scorpions, a new species from the mid-Silurian Eramosa Formation (430 myr) of Ontario, Canada, exhibits several surprising features. The depositional environment and associated biota indicate a marine habitat; however, the leg morphology of this scorpion, which has a short tarsus in common with all Recent scorpions, suggests that a key adaptation for terrestrial locomotion, the ability to support its weight on a subterminal 'foot', appeared remarkably early in the scorpion fossil record. Specimens are preserved intact and undisturbed in a splayed posture typical of moults rather than carcasses. We postulate that these animals were aquatic, but occasionally ventured into extremely shallow water, or onto a transient subaerially exposed surface while moulting, before returning to deeper water. Shed exuviae were preserved in situ by rapid overgrowth of bacterial biofilm.

  20. Scorpion bite prevalence and complications: report from a referral centre in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi; Sharifian, Maryam; Moini, Maryam; Sharifian, Amir Hossein

    2012-04-01

    In this study we describe the clinical features of scorpion bites in southern Iran. The records of scorpion bite victims from January 2000 to January 2009 were obtained from the record library of the Shiraz Nemazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. A total of 232 scorpion bite patients were included. Only 14 patients (6%) developed systemic complications. Acute renal failure (ARF) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) were the most prevalent systemic complications. The renal toxicity of scorpion envenomation is mostly due to Hemiscorpius lepturus stings and this complication is more common in younger children. This may be due to a higher ratio of venom to body mass compared with adults. H. lepturus venom is naturally cytotoxic and may bind directly to kidney tissue causing tubular injury and inducing DIC and haemolysis.

  1. Scorpion sting epidemiology in Montes Municipality of the State of Sucre, Venezuela: geographic distribution.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, L; Bonoli, S; Quiroga, M; Parrilla, P

    1996-01-01

    Scorpion stings were surveyed in the Montes Municipality of the State of Sucre, Venezuela, aiming to extend the information on these poisonous accidents by characterizing their geographic distribution. From 1980 to 1990, 184 cases of scorpion stings were recorded with an incidence rate of 38.6 cases per 10,000 inhabitants. The locality of San Fernando presented the highest incidence (68.3/1000) of poisonous accidents. The highest percentages of severe cases were recorded in the towns of Arenas (27%), San Lorenzo (21%), and Cocollar (19%), which are located at the foot of the Turimiquire Mountains. This region is a dispersion area of scorpions of the Tityus genus. Our results show that this region of the State of Sucre is endemic for scorpion stings which are an important public health problem.

  2. Precursors of Androctonus australis Scorpion Neurotoxins. Structures of Precursors, Processing Outcomes, and Expression of a Functional Recombinant Toxin II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-24

    precursors of toxins contained signal peptides of about 20 amino acids. In addition, the scorpion neurotoxins active on mammals had diverse peptide extensions... peptides of about 20 amino acids. In addition, the scorpion neurotoxins active on mammals had diverse peptide extensions at their C-terminal ends...homologous toxins (11), * chemically modified toxins (12) and model synthetic peptides (13). Thus, while scorpion neurotoxins are polymorphic proteins

  3. Ecology of the Scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate. PMID:21870972

  4. Ecology of the scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate.

  5. Arizona bark scorpion venom resistance in the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Bradley H; Arvidson, Ryan S; Adams, Michael E; Razak, Khaleel A

    2017-01-01

    The pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus), a gleaning bat found in the western United States and Mexico, hunts a wide variety of ground-dwelling prey, including scorpions. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the pallid bat is resistant to scorpion venom, but no systematic study has been performed. Here we show with behavioral measures and direct injection of venom that the pallid bat is resistant to venom of the Arizona bark scorpion, Centruroides sculpturatus. Our results show that the pallid bat is stung multiple times during a hunt without any noticeable effect on behavior. In addition, direct injection of venom at mouse LD50 concentrations (1.5 mg/kg) has no effect on bat behavior. At the highest concentration tested (10 mg/kg), three out of four bats showed no effects. One of the four bats showed a transient effect suggesting that additional studies are required to identify potential regional variation in venom tolerance. Scorpion venom is a cocktail of toxins, some of which activate voltage-gated sodium ion channels, causing intense pain. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) contain nociceptive neurons and are principal targets of scorpion venom toxins. To understand if mutations in specific ion channels contribute to venom resistance, a pallid bat DRG transcriptome was generated. As sodium channels are a major target of scorpion venom, we identified amino acid substitutions present in the pallid bat that may lead to venom resistance. Some of these substitutions are similar to corresponding amino acids in sodium channel isoforms responsible for reduced venom binding activity. The substitution found previously in the grasshopper mouse providing venom resistance to the bark scorpion is not present in the pallid bat, indicating a potentially novel mechanism for venom resistance in the bat that remains to be identified. Taken together, these results indicate that the pallid bat is resistant to venom of the bark scorpion and altered sodium ion channel function may partly underlie

  6. Arizona bark scorpion venom resistance in the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Bradley H.; Arvidson, Ryan S.; Adams, Michael E.; Razak, Khaleel A.

    2017-01-01

    The pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus), a gleaning bat found in the western United States and Mexico, hunts a wide variety of ground-dwelling prey, including scorpions. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the pallid bat is resistant to scorpion venom, but no systematic study has been performed. Here we show with behavioral measures and direct injection of venom that the pallid bat is resistant to venom of the Arizona bark scorpion, Centruroides sculpturatus. Our results show that the pallid bat is stung multiple times during a hunt without any noticeable effect on behavior. In addition, direct injection of venom at mouse LD50 concentrations (1.5 mg/kg) has no effect on bat behavior. At the highest concentration tested (10 mg/kg), three out of four bats showed no effects. One of the four bats showed a transient effect suggesting that additional studies are required to identify potential regional variation in venom tolerance. Scorpion venom is a cocktail of toxins, some of which activate voltage-gated sodium ion channels, causing intense pain. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) contain nociceptive neurons and are principal targets of scorpion venom toxins. To understand if mutations in specific ion channels contribute to venom resistance, a pallid bat DRG transcriptome was generated. As sodium channels are a major target of scorpion venom, we identified amino acid substitutions present in the pallid bat that may lead to venom resistance. Some of these substitutions are similar to corresponding amino acids in sodium channel isoforms responsible for reduced venom binding activity. The substitution found previously in the grasshopper mouse providing venom resistance to the bark scorpion is not present in the pallid bat, indicating a potentially novel mechanism for venom resistance in the bat that remains to be identified. Taken together, these results indicate that the pallid bat is resistant to venom of the bark scorpion and altered sodium ion channel function may partly underlie

  7. The first report on transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of Iranian scorpion, Hemiscorpius lepturus.

    PubMed

    Kazemi-Lomedasht, Fatemeh; Khalaj, Vahid; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang; Behdani, Mahdi; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar

    2017-01-01

    Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion is one of the most venomous members of the Hemiscorpiidae family. H. lepturus is distributed in Iran, Iraq and Yemen. The prevalence and severity of scorpionism is high and health services are not able to control it. Scorpionism in Iran especially in the southern regions (Khuzestan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Hormozgan, Ilam) is one of the main health challenges. Due to the medical and health importance of scorpionism, the focus of various studies has been on the identification of H. lepturus venom components. Nevertheless, until now, only a few percent of H. lepturus venom components have been identified and there is no complete information about the venom components of H. lepturus. The current study reports transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of H. lepturus scorpion. Illumina Next Generation Sequencing results identified venom components of H. lepturus. When compared with other scorpion's venom, the venom of H. lepturus consists of mixtures of peptides, proteins and enzymes such as; phospholipases, metalloproteases, hyaluronidases, potassium channel toxins, calcium channel toxins, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), venom proteins, venom toxins, allergens, La1-like peptides, proteases and scorpine-like peptides. Comparison of identified components of H. lepturus venom was carried out with venom components of reported scorpions and various identities and similarities between them were observed. With transcriptome analysis of H. lepturus venom unique sequences, coding venom components were investigated. Moreover, our study confirmed transcript expression of previously reported peptides; Hemitoxin, Hemicalcin and Hemilipin. The gene sequences of venom components were investigated employing transcriptome analysis of venom gland of H. lepturus. In summary, new bioactive molecules identified in this study, provide basis for venomics studies of scorpions of Hemiscorpiidae family and promises development of novel biotherapeutics

  8. Comparative venom gland transcriptome analysis of the scorpion Lychas mucronatus reveals intraspecific toxic gene diversity and new venomous components.

    PubMed

    Ruiming, Zhao; Yibao, Ma; Yawen, He; Zhiyong, Di; Yingliang, Wu; Zhijian, Cao; Wenxin, Li

    2010-07-28

    Lychas mucronatus is one scorpion species widely distributed in Southeast Asia and southern China. Anything is hardly known about its venom components, despite the fact that it can often cause human accidents. In this work, we performed a venomous gland transcriptome analysis by constructing and screening the venom gland cDNA library of the scorpion Lychas mucronatus from Yunnan province and compared it with the previous results of Hainan-sourced Lychas mucronatus. A total of sixteen known types of venom peptides and proteins are obtained from the venom gland cDNA library of Yunnan-sourced Lychas mucronatus, which greatly increase the number of currently reported scorpion venom peptides. Interestingly, we also identified nineteen atypical types of venom molecules seldom reported in scorpion species. Surprisingly, the comparative transcriptome analysis of Yunnan-sourced Lychas mucronatus and Hainan-sourced Lychas mucronatus indicated that enormous diversity and vastly abundant difference could be found in venom peptides and proteins between populations of the scorpion Lychas mucronatus from different geographical regions. This work characterizes a large number of venom molecules never identified in scorpion species. This result provides a comparative analysis of venom transcriptomes of the scorpion Lychas mucronatus from different geographical regions, which thoroughly reveals the fact that the venom peptides and proteins of the same scorpion species from different geographical regions are highly diversified and scorpion evolves to adapt a new environment by altering the primary structure and abundance of venom peptides and proteins.

  9. Comparative venom gland transcriptome analysis of the scorpion Lychas mucronatus reveals intraspecific toxic gene diversity and new venomous components

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lychas mucronatus is one scorpion species widely distributed in Southeast Asia and southern China. Anything is hardly known about its venom components, despite the fact that it can often cause human accidents. In this work, we performed a venomous gland transcriptome analysis by constructing and screening the venom gland cDNA library of the scorpion Lychas mucronatus from Yunnan province and compared it with the previous results of Hainan-sourced Lychas mucronatus. Results A total of sixteen known types of venom peptides and proteins are obtained from the venom gland cDNA library of Yunnan-sourced Lychas mucronatus, which greatly increase the number of currently reported scorpion venom peptides. Interestingly, we also identified nineteen atypical types of venom molecules seldom reported in scorpion species. Surprisingly, the comparative transcriptome analysis of Yunnan-sourced Lychas mucronatus and Hainan-sourced Lychas mucronatus indicated that enormous diversity and vastly abundant difference could be found in venom peptides and proteins between populations of the scorpion Lychas mucronatus from different geographical regions. Conclusions This work characterizes a large number of venom molecules never identified in scorpion species. This result provides a comparative analysis of venom transcriptomes of the scorpion Lychas mucronatus from different geographical regions, which thoroughly reveals the fact that the venom peptides and proteins of the same scorpion species from different geographical regions are highly diversified and scorpion evolves to adapt a new environment by altering the primary structure and abundance of venom peptides and proteins. PMID:20663230

  10. Characterization of scorpion alpha-like toxin group using two new toxins from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Alain; Gilles, Nicolas; Sautière, Pierre; Martinage, Arlette; Kopeyan, Charles; Ulens, Chris; Tytgat, Jan; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Gordon, Dalia

    2002-08-01

    Two novel toxins, Lqh6 and Lqh7, isolated from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, have in their sequence a molecular signature (8Q/KPE10) associated with a recently defined group of alpha-toxins that target Na channels, namely the alpha-like toxins [reviewed in Gordon, D., Savarin, P., Gurevitz, M. & Zinn-Justin, S. (1998) J. Toxicol. Toxin Rev. 17, 131-159]. Lqh6 and Lqh7 are highly toxic to insects and mice, and inhibit the binding of alpha-toxins to cockroach neuronal membranes. Although they kill rodents by intracerebroventricular injection, they do not inhibit the binding of antimammal alpha-toxins (e.g. Lqh2) to rat brain synaptosomes, not even at high concentrations. Furthermore, in voltage-clamp experiments, rat brain Na channels IIA (rNav1.2A) expressed in Xenopus oocytes are not affected by Lqh6 nor by Lqh7 below 3 micro m. In contrast, muscular Na channels (rNav1.4 and hNav1.5) expressed in the same cells respond to nanomolar concentrations of Lqh6 and Lqh7 by slowing of Na current inactivation and a leftward shift of the peak conductance-voltage curve. The structural and pharmacological properties of the new toxins are compared to those of other scorpion alpha-toxins in order to re-examine the hallmarks previously set for the alpha-like toxin group.

  11. Broadening the neutralizing capacity of a family of antibody fragments against different toxins from Mexican scorpions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Everardo Remi; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Arredondo-López, Jonathan Noé; Gómez-Ramírez, Ilse; Fernández-Taboada, Guillermo; Possani, Lourival D; Anguiano-Vega, Gerardo Alfonso; Riaño-Umbarila, Lidia; Becerril, Baltazar

    2016-09-01

    New approaches aimed at neutralizing the primary toxic components present in scorpion venoms, represent a promising alternative to the use of antivenoms of equine origin in humans. New potential therapeutics developed by these approaches correspond to neutralizing antibody fragments obtained by selection and maturation processes from libraries of human origin. The high sequence identity shared among scorpion toxins is associated with an important level of cross reactivity exhibited by these antibody fragments. We have exploited the cross reactivity showed by single chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) of human origin to re-direct the neutralizing capacity toward various other scorpion toxins. As expected, during these evolving processes several variants derived from a parental scFv exhibited the capacity to simultaneously recognize and neutralize different toxins from Centruroides scorpion venoms. A sequence analyses of the cross reacting scFvs revealed that specific mutations are responsible for broadening their neutralizing capacity. In this work, we generated a set of new scFvs that resulted from the combinatorial insertion of these point mutations. These scFvs are potential candidates to be part of a novel recombinant antivenom of human origin that could confer protection against scorpion stings. A remarkable property of one of these new scFvs (ER-5) is its capacity to neutralize at least three different toxins and its complementary capacity to neutralize the whole venom from Centruroides suffusus in combination with a second scFv (LR), which binds to a different epitope shared by Centruroides scorpion toxins.

  12. Protease inhibitor in scorpion (Mesobuthus eupeus) venom prolongs the biological activities of the crude venom.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hakim; Xiao-Peng, Tang; Yang, Shi-Long; Lu, Qiu-Min; Lai, Ren

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that protease inhibitors play an essential role in survival of venomous animals through protecting peptide/protein toxins from degradation by proteases in their prey or predators. However, the biological function of protease inhibitors in scorpion venoms remains unknown. In the present study, a trypsin inhibitor was purified and characterized from the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which enhanced the biological activities of crude venom components in mice when injected in combination with crude venom. This protease inhibitor, named MeKTT-1, belonged to Kunitz-type toxins subfamily. Native MeKTT-1 selectively inhibited trypsin with a Kivalue of 130 nmol·L(-1). Furthermore, MeKTT-1 was shown to be a thermo-stable peptide. In animal behavioral tests, MeKTT-1 prolonged the pain behavior induced by scorpion crude venom, suggesting that protease inhibitors in scorpion venom inhibited proteases and protect the functionally important peptide/protein toxins from degradation, consequently keeping them active longer. In conclusion, this was the first experimental evidence about the natural existence of serine protease inhibitor in the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which preserved the activity of venom components, suggests that scorpions may use protease inhibitors for survival. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Indian Summer

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  14. Electrocardiologic and echocardiographic features of patients exposed to scorpion bite.

    PubMed

    Alan, Sait; Ulgen, Mehmet S; Soker, Murat; Geyik, Faruk; Karabulut, Aziz; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine clinical progress and hemodynamic and electrocardiologic features (QT depression and heart rate variability [HRV]) of patients exposed to a scorpion bite. Seventeen patients bitten by scorpions, and, as a control group, 15 healthy subjects were included in the study. Standard electrocardiograph (ECG) records, 24-hour Holter-ECG, and Doppler echocardiographic examinations were performed. Holter ECG indicated sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, first-degree and second-degree atrioventricular block not requiring treatment, early atrial beats, and early ventricular beats in the patients at frequencies of 82%, 12%, 35%, 12%, 8%, 70%, and 47%, respectively. HRV parameters that reflected parasympathetic activity (SD 35+/-13-43+/-16, RMS-SD: 20+/-9-30+/-12, high frequency: 7.8+/-2-4.3+/-3, p<0.05) were significantly lower (p<0.05). Low frequency, which especially showed sympathetic activity (LF: 11+/-13-11+/-23, p>0.05), was similar in both groups. In addition, the LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathovagal balance, was significantly increased in the patient group (1.5+/-1-3.0+/-2, p=0.005). Corrected QT and QT dispersion values were not significantly different with respect to the control (p>0.05). In the patient group compared to the control, a significant decrease was determined in the proportion of mitral E velocity to mitral A velocity (mEv/mAv), diastolic filling period (DFP), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), while a significant increase was noticed in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) (mEv/mAv: 0.9+/-0.4-1.7+/-0.6, DFP: 362+/-8.5-425+/-89, LVEF: 53.1+/-6.7-68.6+/-5.8, PAP: 38.1+/-13-27.2+/-6, p<0.05). Scorpion bite leads to serious cardiovascular disorders, associated with decreased HRV, decreased systolic and diastolic functions, increased arrhythmic events, and hemodynamic disturbance with sympathetic and parasympathetic balance disturbance.

  15. Evolution stings: the origin and diversification of scorpion toxin peptide scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A B; Chan, Angelo H C; Koludarov, Ivan; Muñoz-Gómez, Sergio A; Antunes, Agostinho; Fry, Bryan G

    2013-12-13

    The episodic nature of natural selection and the accumulation of extreme sequence divergence in venom-encoding genes over long periods of evolutionary time can obscure the signature of positive Darwinian selection. Recognition of the true biocomplexity is further hampered by the limited taxon selection, with easy to obtain or medically important species typically being the subject of intense venom research, relative to the actual taxonomical diversity in nature. This holds true for scorpions, which are one of the most ancient terrestrial venomous animal lineages. The family Buthidae that includes all the medically significant species has been intensely investigated around the globe, while almost completely ignoring the remaining non-buthid families. Australian scorpion lineages, for instance, have been completely neglected, with only a single scorpion species (Urodacus yaschenkoi) having its venom transcriptome sequenced. Hence, the lack of venom composition and toxin sequence information from an entire continent's worth of scorpions has impeded our understanding of the molecular evolution of scorpion venom. The molecular origin, phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary histories of most scorpion toxin scaffolds remain enigmatic. In this study, we have sequenced venom gland transcriptomes of a wide taxonomical diversity of scorpions from Australia, including buthid and non-buthid representatives. Using state-of-art molecular evolutionary analyses, we show that a majority of CSα/β toxin scaffolds have experienced episodic influence of positive selection, while most non-CSα/β linear toxins evolve under the extreme influence of negative selection. For the first time, we have unraveled the molecular origin of the major scorpion toxin scaffolds, such as scorpion venom single von Willebrand factor C-domain peptides (SV-SVC), inhibitor cystine knot (ICK), disulphide-directed beta-hairpin (DDH), bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPP), linear non-disulphide bridged

  16. Evolution Stings: The Origin and Diversification of Scorpion Toxin Peptide Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Chan, Angelo H. C.; Koludarov, Ivan; Muñoz-Gómez, Sergio A.; Antunes, Agostinho; Fry, Bryan G.

    2013-01-01

    The episodic nature of natural selection and the accumulation of extreme sequence divergence in venom-encoding genes over long periods of evolutionary time can obscure the signature of positive Darwinian selection. Recognition of the true biocomplexity is further hampered by the limited taxon selection, with easy to obtain or medically important species typically being the subject of intense venom research, relative to the actual taxonomical diversity in nature. This holds true for scorpions, which are one of the most ancient terrestrial venomous animal lineages. The family Buthidae that includes all the medically significant species has been intensely investigated around the globe, while almost completely ignoring the remaining non-buthid families. Australian scorpion lineages, for instance, have been completely neglected, with only a single scorpion species (Urodacus yaschenkoi) having its venom transcriptome sequenced. Hence, the lack of venom composition and toxin sequence information from an entire continent’s worth of scorpions has impeded our understanding of the molecular evolution of scorpion venom. The molecular origin, phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary histories of most scorpion toxin scaffolds remain enigmatic. In this study, we have sequenced venom gland transcriptomes of a wide taxonomical diversity of scorpions from Australia, including buthid and non-buthid representatives. Using state-of-art molecular evolutionary analyses, we show that a majority of CSα/β toxin scaffolds have experienced episodic influence of positive selection, while most non-CSα/β linear toxins evolve under the extreme influence of negative selection. For the first time, we have unraveled the molecular origin of the major scorpion toxin scaffolds, such as scorpion venom single von Willebrand factor C-domain peptides (SV-SVC), inhibitor cystine knot (ICK), disulphide-directed beta-hairpin (DDH), bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPP), linear non-disulphide bridged

  17. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  18. Two bioactive compounds from the Chinese scorpion Buthusmartensii Karsch.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiayu; Yin, Weiping; Gao, Ting; Deng, Ruixue; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Two compounds, 3β-acetoxyl,2,14,22-trihydroxy,19-hydroxymethyl,9α,5β,14β-card-20(22)enolide (1) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxy1-5-pyrimidinecarbox-aldehyde (2), were isolated from arthropods in scorpion, Buthus martensii Karsch, by medium pressure liquid chromatography with silica gel as stationary phase and RP-HPLC analysis technology. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis and HR-ESI-MS determination. It was found that (1) is a novel compound and both compounds showed inhibitory activities against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (minimum inhibitory concentrations = 15 μg/mL), with diameter of inhibition zone at ϕ = 6.0 mm (compound 1) and ϕ = 9.0 mm (compound 2), respectively.

  19. Scorpion and spider venom peptides: gene cloning and peptide expression.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Hernández, V; Ortiz, E; Rendón-Anaya, M; Schwartz, E F; Becerril, B; Corzo, G; Possani, L D

    2011-12-01

    This communication reviews most of the important findings related to venom components isolated from scorpions and spiders, mainly by means of gene cloning and expression. Rather than revising results obtained by classical biochemical studies that report structure and function of venom components, here the emphasis is placed on cloning and identification of genes present in the venomous glands of these arachnids. Aspects related to cDNA library construction, specific or random ESTs cloning, transcriptome analysis, high-throughput screening, heterologous expression and folding are briefly discussed, showing some numbers of species and components already identified, but also shortly mentioning limitations and perspectives of research for the future in this field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temperature regulation and prostaglandin E1 fever in scorpions.

    PubMed Central

    Cabanac, M; Le Guelte, L

    1980-01-01

    1. Scorpions Buthus occitanus and Androctonus australis were placed in a temperature gradient where they could select their thermopreferendum. Intrathoracic temperature was recorded continuously. 2. Both species selected 24.8 +/- 1.0 degrees C as their preferred body temperature. No nycthemeral cycle of preference was observed in the experimental conditions. Saline injection did not modify this thermopreferendum. 3. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) produced a fever. Duration and magnitude of fevers were related to PGE1 doses in a bell-shaped curve. The longest and highest fevers were obtained with 4 microgram . g-1 PGE1. 4. These results show that there is an ability to produce fever and, thus, indirectly, that there is a set point in body temperature regulation in arthropods, among the oldest known terrestrial animals. PMID:7431238

  1. Efficacy and safety of scorpion antivenom plus prazosin compared with prazosin alone for venomous scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus) sting: randomised open label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Envenomation by Mesobuthus tamulus scorpion sting can result in serious cardiovascular effects. Scorpion antivenom is a specific treatment for scorpion sting. Evidence for the benefit of scorpion antivenom and its efficacy compared with that of commonly used vasodilators, such as prazosin, is scarce. We assessed the efficacy of prazosin combined with scorpion antivenom, compared with prazosin alone, in individuals with autonomic storm caused by scorpion sting. Design Prospective, open label randomised controlled trial. Setting General hospital inpatients (Bawaskar Hospital and Research Centre Mahad Dist-Raigad Maharashtra, India). Participants Seventy patients with grade 2 scorpion envenomation, older than six months, with no cardiorespiratory or central nervous system abnormalities. Intervention Scorpion antivenom plus prazosin (n=35) or prazosin alone (n=35) assigned by block randomisation. Treatment was not masked. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main outcome measures The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving resolution of the clinical syndrome (sweating, salivation, cool extremities, priapism, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia) 10 hours after administration of study drugs. Secondary end points were time required for complete resolution of clinical syndrome, prevention of deterioration to higher grade, doses of prazosin required overall and within 10 hours, and adverse events. The study protocol was approved by the independent ethics committee of Mumbai. Results Mean (SD) recovery times in hours for the prazosin plus scorpion antivenom group compared with the prazosin alone groups were: sweating 3 (1.1) v 6.6 (2.6); salivation 1.9 (0.9) v 3 (1.9); priapism 4.7 (1.5) v 9.4 (1.5). Mean (SD) doses of prazosin in the groups were 2 (2.3) and 4 (3.5), respectively. 32 patients (91.4%, 95% confidence interval 76.9% to 97.8%) in the prazosin plus antivenom group showed complete resolution of the clinical syndrome within 10 hours

  2. Efficacy and safety of scorpion antivenom plus prazosin compared with prazosin alone for venomous scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus) sting: randomised open label clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bawaskar, Himmatrao Saluba; Bawaskar, Pramodini Himmatrao

    2011-01-05

    Envenomation by Mesobuthus tamulus scorpion sting can result in serious cardiovascular effects. Scorpion antivenom is a specific treatment for scorpion sting. Evidence for the benefit of scorpion antivenom and its efficacy compared with that of commonly used vasodilators, such as prazosin, is scarce. We assessed the efficacy of prazosin combined with scorpion antivenom, compared with prazosin alone, in individuals with autonomic storm caused by scorpion sting. Prospective, open label randomised controlled trial. General hospital inpatients (Bawaskar Hospital and Research Centre Mahad Dist-Raigad Maharashtra, India). Seventy patients with grade 2 scorpion envenomation, older than six months, with no cardiorespiratory or central nervous system abnormalities. Scorpion antivenom plus prazosin (n=35) or prazosin alone (n=35) assigned by block randomisation. Treatment was not masked. Analysis was by intention to treat. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving resolution of the clinical syndrome (sweating, salivation, cool extremities, priapism, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia) 10 hours after administration of study drugs. Secondary end points were time required for complete resolution of clinical syndrome, prevention of deterioration to higher grade, doses of prazosin required overall and within 10 hours, and adverse events. The study protocol was approved by the independent ethics committee of Mumbai. Mean (SD) recovery times in hours for the prazosin plus scorpion antivenom group compared with the prazosin alone groups were: sweating 3 (1.1) v 6.6 (2.6); salivation 1.9 (0.9) v 3 (1.9); priapism 4.7 (1.5) v 9.4 (1.5). Mean (SD) doses of prazosin in the groups were 2 (2.3) and 4 (3.5), respectively. 32 patients (91.4%, 95% confidence interval 76.9% to 97.8%) in the prazosin plus antivenom group showed complete resolution of the clinical syndrome within 10 hours of administration of treatment compared with eight patients in the prazosin

  3. Venom gland transcriptomic and venom proteomic analyses of the scorpion Megacormus gertschi Díaz-Najera, 1966 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae: Megacorminae).

    PubMed

    Santibáñez-López, Carlos E; Cid-Uribe, Jimena I; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Batista, Cesar V F; Ortiz, Ernesto; Possani, Lourival D

    2017-07-01

    The soluble venom from the Mexican scorpion Megacormus gertschi of the family Euscorpiidae was obtained and its biological effects were tested in several animal models. This venom is not toxic to mice at doses of 100 μg per 20 g of mouse weight, while being lethal to arthropods (insects and crustaceans), at doses of 20 μg (for crickets) and 100 μg (for shrimps) per animal. Samples of the venom were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and circa 80 distinct chromatographic fractions were obtained from which 67 components have had their molecular weights determined by mass spectrometry analysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of seven protein/peptides were obtained by Edman degradation and are reported. Among the high molecular weight components there are enzymes with experimentally-confirmed phospholipase activity. A pair of telsons from this scorpion species was dissected, from which total RNA was extracted and used for cDNA library construction. Massive sequencing by the Illumina protocol, followed by de novo assembly, resulted in a total of 110,528 transcripts. From those, we were able to annotate 182, which putatively code for peptides/proteins with sequence similarity to previously-reported venom components available from different protein databases. Transcripts seemingly coding for enzymes showed the richest diversity, with 52 sequences putatively coding for proteases, 20 for phospholipases, 8 for lipases and 5 for hyaluronidases. The number of different transcripts potentially coding for peptides with sequence similarity to those that affect ion channels was 19, for putative antimicrobial peptides 19, and for protease inhibitor-like peptides, 18. Transcripts seemingly coding for other venom components were identified and described. The LC/MS analysis of a trypsin-digested venom aliquot resulted in 23 matches with the translated transcriptome database, which validates the transcriptome. The proteomic and transcriptomic analyses

  4. Vasosensory responses elicited by Indian red scorpion venom last longer than capsaicin-induced responses.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjeev K; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2008-11-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the time-related cardiorespiratory changes occurring after the injection of Mesobuthus tamulus (BT; 1 mg/kg) venom and capsaicin (1.2 ng/kg) in the peripheral end of femoral artery in urethane anaesthetised rats. Blood pressure (BP), electrocardiogram (for heart rate; HR) and respiratory movements were recorded for 60 min after venom/capsaicin intra-arterially. Minute ventilation (MV) was computed by using appropriate calibrations. After intraarterial injection of BT venom, there was immediate (within 2 sec) increase in respiratory rate (RR) and MV which reached to 40% within 30 sec, followed by a 40% decrease in RR without any change in MV. Further, there was sustained increase in RR (50%) and MV (65%) up to 60 min. The BP began to increase at 40 sec, peaking at 5 min (50%) and remained above the initial level up to 60 min. The bradycardiac response began after 5 min which peaked (50% of the initial) at 25 min and remained at that level up to 60 min. In capsaicin treated group, there was immediate hyperventilatory (increase in RR and MV) changes within 2 sec which returned to the initial level within 2 min and remained at that level up to 60 min. The capsaicin-induced hypotensive response began within 5 sec which returned to the initial level by 5 min and remained at that level throughout. Capsaicin did not produce any change in HR. These observations suggest that intraarterial injection of BT venom produces prolonged cardiorespiratory alterations as compared to the capsaicin-induced responses.

  5. Outcome of scorpion sting envenomation after a protocol guided therapy.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Niranjan; Bashir, Rani A; Murmu, Uday C; Mathai, Betsy; Balachander, J; Srinivasan, S

    2006-07-01

    Scorpion sting (SS) envenomation is a life threatening emergency in children, though not so severe in adults. Attempt to develop protocol using prazosin and dobutamine and few other drugs to treat SS. Children aged 0-13 years with a history of scorpion sting were studied. Clinical features, complications, drug therapy and outcome of the cases for the period 1992-97(N = 186) was collected by the authors and also from the medical records department (RETROSPECTIVE GROUP). Cases treated during 1997-2000 (N = 198) as per the protocol were recorded as PROSPECTIVE GROUP. All the cases were observed for at least for 24 hours. Cases coming within 4 hours of a sting were given a dose of Prazosin (30 mic.gm/Kg/dose) and were observed. Those who came after 4 hours & were asymptomatic received only symptomatic treatment. Cases with signs of envenomation received Prazosin every 6 hourly till recovery. Cases having acute pulmonary edema (APE) were treated with dobutamine and sodium nitroprusside drip. Complicated cases were monitored in PICU as per the protocol. Complications associated with excessive parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation were observed. Myocarditis was observed due to the toxin and excessive catecholamine, which complicated in left ventricular failure (LVF) and APE. Nearly half of the children with acute myocarditis developed APE. Death was mainly due to myocarditis and APE, with or without encephalopathy. Mortality was high in children who received steroid and antihistaminics outside and who came late (> 4 hours). Complication rate remained almost same in both the groups. There was a significant reduction in overall mortality (P = < 0.0155) and in deaths associated with APE (P = < 0.0001) after the protocol guided therapy. There was also a reduction in mortality in encephalopathy group though not statistically significant. This treatment protocol and aggressive management of APE reduced the mortality due to SS significantly.

  6. The insecticidal potential of scorpion beta-toxins.

    PubMed

    Gurevitz, Michael; Karbat, Izhar; Cohen, Lior; Ilan, Nitza; Kahn, Roy; Turkov, Michael; Stankiewicz, Maria; Stühmer, Walter; Dong, Ke; Gordon, Dalia

    2007-03-15

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are a major target for toxins and insecticides due to their central role in excitability, but due to the conservation of these channels in Animalia most insecticides do not distinguish between those of insects and mammals, thereby imposing risks to humans and livestock. Evidently, as long as modern agriculture depends heavily on the use of insecticides there is a great need for new substances capable of differentiating between sodium channel subtypes. Such substances exist in venomous animals, but ways for their exploitation have not yet been developed due to problems associated with manufacturing, degradation, and delivery to the target channels. Engineering of plants for expression of anti-insect toxins or use of natural vectors that express toxins near their target site (e.g. baculoviruses) are still problematic and raise public concern. In this problematic reality a rational approach might be to learn from nature how to design highly selective anti-insect compounds preferably in the form of peptidomimetics. This is a complex task that requires the elucidation of the face of interaction between insect-selective toxins and their sodium channel receptor sites. This review delineates current progress in: (i) elucidation of the bioactive surfaces of scorpion beta-toxins, especially the excitatory and depressant groups, which show high preference for insects and bind insect sodium channels with high affinity; (ii) studies of the mode of interaction of scorpion beta-toxins with receptor site-4 on voltage-gated sodium channels; and (iii) clarification of channel elements that constitute receptor site-4. This information may be useful in future attempts to mimic the bioactive surface of the toxins for the design of anti-insect selective peptidomimetics.

  7. Report on the Black Hills Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joe

    1979-01-01

    A rally to save the Black Hills from coal- and uranium-greedy energy companies was held on July 6 and over 2,000 joined in a 15-mile walk on July 7 in Rapid City, South Dakota. The Black Hills Alliance, an Indian coalition concerned about energy development proposals in the Great Plains, sponsored the gathering. (NQ)

  8. Report on the Black Hills Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joe

    1979-01-01

    A rally to save the Black Hills from coal- and uranium-greedy energy companies was held on July 6 and over 2,000 joined in a 15-mile walk on July 7 in Rapid City, South Dakota. The Black Hills Alliance, an Indian coalition concerned about energy development proposals in the Great Plains, sponsored the gathering. (NQ)

  9. Indian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marilyn Irvin

    With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

  10. Scorpion Potassium Channel-blocking Defensin Highlights a Functional Link with Neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lanxia; Xie, Zili; Zhang, Qian; Li, Yang; Yang, Fan; Chen, Zongyun; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian; Wu, Yingliang

    2016-03-25

    The structural similarity between defensins and scorpion neurotoxins suggests that they might have evolved from a common ancestor. However, there is no direct experimental evidence demonstrating a functional link between scorpion neurotoxins and defensins. The scorpion defensin BmKDfsin4 from Mesobuthus martensiiKarsch contains 37 amino acid residues and a conserved cystine-stabilized α/β structural fold. The recombinant BmKDfsin4, a classical defensin, has been found to have inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteusas well as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Interestingly, electrophysiological experiments showed that BmKDfsin4,like scorpion potassium channel neurotoxins, could effectively inhibit Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channel currents, and its IC50value for the Kv1.3 channel was 510.2 nm Similar to the structure-function relationships of classical scorpion potassium channel-blocking toxins, basic residues (Lys-13 and Arg-19) of BmKDfsin4 play critical roles in peptide-Kv1.3 channel interactions. Furthermore, mutagenesis and electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the channel extracellular pore region is the binding site of BmKDfsin4, indicating that BmKDfsin4 adopts the same mechanism for blocking potassium channel currents as classical scorpion toxins. Taken together, our work identifies scorpion BmKDfsin4 as the first invertebrate defensin to block potassium channels. These findings not only demonstrate that defensins from invertebrate animals are a novel type of potassium channel blockers but also provide evidence of a functional link between defensins and neurotoxins.

  11. Scorpion Potassium Channel-blocking Defensin Highlights a Functional Link with Neurotoxin*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lanxia; Xie, Zili; Zhang, Qian; Li, Yang; Yang, Fan; Chen, Zongyun; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian; Wu, Yingliang

    2016-01-01

    The structural similarity between defensins and scorpion neurotoxins suggests that they might have evolved from a common ancestor. However, there is no direct experimental evidence demonstrating a functional link between scorpion neurotoxins and defensins. The scorpion defensin BmKDfsin4 from Mesobuthus martensii Karsch contains 37 amino acid residues and a conserved cystine-stabilized α/β structural fold. The recombinant BmKDfsin4, a classical defensin, has been found to have inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus as well as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Interestingly, electrophysiological experiments showed that BmKDfsin4,like scorpion potassium channel neurotoxins, could effectively inhibit Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channel currents, and its IC50 value for the Kv1.3 channel was 510.2 nm. Similar to the structure-function relationships of classical scorpion potassium channel-blocking toxins, basic residues (Lys-13 and Arg-19) of BmKDfsin4 play critical roles in peptide-Kv1.3 channel interactions. Furthermore, mutagenesis and electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the channel extracellular pore region is the binding site of BmKDfsin4, indicating that BmKDfsin4adopts the same mechanism for blocking potassium channel currents as classical scorpion toxins. Taken together, our work identifies scorpion BmKDfsin4 as the first invertebrate defensin to block potassium channels. These findings not only demonstrate that defensins from invertebrate animals are a novel type of potassium channel blockers but also provide evidence of a functional link between defensins and neurotoxins. PMID:26817841

  12. A wonderful network unraveled - Detailed description of capillaries in the prosomal ganglion of scorpions.

    PubMed

    Klußmann-Fricke, Bastian J; Pomrehn, Sebastian W; Wirkner, Christian S

    2014-01-01

    Though it has long been known that the prosomal ganglion of scorpions is supplied by a dense system of arteries, the pattern of this network has never been described and analyzed in detail. Using MicroCT in combination with computer aided 3D-reconstruction we provide the first detailed description of the pattern of arteries in the prosomal ganglion of Brotheas granulatus (Scorpiones, Chactidae) and other scorpion species. The entire prosomal ganglion in scorpions is supplied by a network of arteries that branch off the major arteries of the anterior aorta system. The most prominent of these are the nine transganglionic arteries which run through the nerve mass along the midline of the body and branch terminally, i.e. below the neuropils, into smaller arteries. These arteries reticulate into a dense network between the surrounding somata and the centrally located neuropil structures of the ganglion. We demonstrate the presence in the prosomal ganglion of scorpions of a capillary system made up of afferent arteries which deliver hemolymph into the ganglion and efferent arteries which transport the hemolymph out of the ganglion. Adopting the structural definition used for vertebrate circulatory systems, this capillary network can also be termed a bipolar rete mirabile (located as it is between afferent and efferent arteries) analogous to those found in vertebrates and some echinoderms. Within the rete mirabile of the scorpion prosomal ganglion, some regions (i.e. neuropils) are better supplied than others. The structural information provided here can now be used in functional neuronal studies to determine the physiological and computational significance of the various neuropils in the complex scorpion nervous system.

  13. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  14. Une nouvelle famille de scorpions du Crétacé inférieur du Brésil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, Maria da Gloria P.; Lourenço, Wilson R.

    2001-06-01

    A new family, new genus and species of fossil scorpions are described from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil, Santana formation, Crato area in the state of Ceará. These fossils can be classified together with extant families within the Scorpionoidea. This suggests that these modern scorpions belong to lineages present at least for 110 Myr.

  15. Spatial distribution of scorpions according to the socioeconomic conditions in Campina Grande,State of Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Thassiany Sarmento Oliveira de; Fook, Sayonara Maria Lia; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira; Monteiro, Tânia Maria Ribeiro; Silva, Edwirde Luiz; Gomes, Lidiane Cristina Félix; Farias, Aline Maiara Galdino

    2016-01-01

    Due to its frequency and morbidity, such as that caused by scorpions have achieved public health importance in certain regions of the world. The present exploratory ecological study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile and spatial distribution of scorpion stings in Campina Grande, State of Paraíba in Northeastern Brazil. Geographical information system techniques were used to record the scorpion stings, and Google Earth software, Track Maker, and ArcGIS 10 Esri were used as geocoding databases. The Moran test was used to evaluate spatial correlation, and the Pearson chi-square test was used to analyze associations between scorpion stings and socioeconomic variables. The study evaluated 1,466 scorpion stings. Envenomations were more frequent among women (n = 908, 61.9%), and most patients were aged 13-28 years (n = 428, 29.2%). The Southern region of the city had the largest number of registered cases (n = 548, 37.4%), followed by the Western region (n = 510, 34.8%). Spatial analysis of scorpionism revealed an irregular occurrence in Campina Grande. Further, no association was observed between the socioeconomic factors analyzed and the geographic location of the scorpion envenomations. Detection of spatial areas with an increased risk of scorpionism can help prioritize adoption of preventive measures in these regions to reduce the associated incidence and morbidity.

  16. The Mediterranean scorpion Mesobuthus gibbosus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): transcriptome analysis and organization of the genome encoding chlorotoxin-like peptides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcrof toxin genes of scorpion species have been published. Up to this moment, no information on the gene characterization of M. gibbosus is available. Results This study provides the first insight into gene expression in venom glands from M. gibbosus scorpion. A cDNA library was generated from the venom glands and subsequently analyzed (301 clones). Sequences from 177 high-quality ESTs were grouped as 48 Mgib sequences, of those 48 sequences, 40 (29 “singletons” and 11 “contigs”) correspond with one or more ESTs. We identified putative precursor sequences and were grouped them in different categories (39 unique transcripts, one with alternative reading frames), resulting in the identification of 12 new toxin-like and 5 antimicrobial precursors (transcripts). The analysis of the gene families revealed several new components categorized among various toxin families with effect on ion channels. Sequence analysis of a new KTx precursor provides evidence to validate a new KTx subfamily (α-KTx 27.x). A second part of this work involves the genomic organization of three Meg-chlorotoxin-like genes (ClTxs). Genomic DNA sequence reveals close similarities (presence of one same-phase intron) with the sole genomic organization of chlorotoxins ever reported (from M. martensii). Conclusions Transcriptome analysis is a powerful strategy that provides complete information of the gene expression and molecular diversity of the venom glands (telson). In this work, we generated the first catalogue of the gene expression and genomic organization of toxins from M. gibbosus. Our result represents a relevant contribution to the knowledge of toxin transcripts and complementary information related with other cell function proteins and venom peptide transcripts. The genomic organization of the chlorotoxin genes may help to understand the diversity of this gene family. PMID:24746279

  17. Scorpions from the Island of Côn Son (Poulo Condore), Vietnam and description of a new species of Chaerilus Simon, 1877 (Scorpiones, Chaerilidae).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2011-10-01

    The scorpion fauna of the Island of Côn Son (Poulo Condore), Vietnam is briefly discussed and a new species, Chaerilus phami sp. n. is described. The new species is morphologically distinct from all the other species of Chaerilus described from the mainland in Vietnam.

  18. Pathophysiology of dilatation of pupils due to scorpion and snake envenomation and its therapeutic value: Clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Bawaskar, Himmatrao S; Bawaskar, Parag H; Bawaskar, Pramodini H

    2017-01-01

    Dilated nonreacting pupils are routinely taken as a sign of irreversible brain damage. Alpha-receptor stimulation (scorpion sting) and presynaptic acetylcholine receptor blocker (krait bite) may result in dilation of pupils without involvement of the brain. This study was aimed to clinically evaluate the response of pupils in scorpion sting and krait bite. Victims of scorpion sting and krait bite were chosen from Raigad district. Scorpion sting and krait bite cases were admitted to hospital and were clinically evaluated in detail regarding neurological manifestations. Both cases had nonreacting dilation of pupils, complete neurological recovery accompanied with reverse of pupillary size and its response to light. In scorpion sting and krait bite poisoning, dilated nonreacting pupils are not the signs of irreversible brain damage.

  19. Scorpion poisoning in the Acosta and Caripe Counties of Monagas State, Venezuela. part 1: characterization of some epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    De Sousa L; Parrilla; Tillero; Valdiviezo; Ledezma; Jorquera; Quiroga

    1997-01-01

    Scorpion poisoning was surveyed in Acosta and Caripe counties, located in the Turimiquire subregion of Monagas State, Venezuela, aiming to expand information on stings by characterizing some epidemiological aspects. From 1987 to 1993, 298 cases of scorpion stings were recorded in Acosta and Caripe counties. Acosta had 212 cases, with an annual incidence rate of 18.3 (cases per 10,000 inhabitants) and a period median incidence rate of 128 . The scorpion poisoning index is 4.18 times greater in Acosta than in Caripe, confirming the former as a hyperendemic zone for this type of injury, with a phenomenon of cyclical temporal fluctuations and an upward trend. This area is infested with scorpions of the genus Tityus. Our results show that the region surveyed in Monagas State is endemic for scorpion stings, posing a major public health problem.

  20. Pathophysiology of dilatation of pupils due to scorpion and snake envenomation and its therapeutic value: Clinical observations

    PubMed Central

    Bawaskar, Himmatrao S; Bawaskar, Parag H; Bawaskar, Pramodini H

    2017-01-01

    Dilated nonreacting pupils are routinely taken as a sign of irreversible brain damage. Alpha-receptor stimulation (scorpion sting) and presynaptic acetylcholine receptor blocker (krait bite) may result in dilation of pupils without involvement of the brain. This study was aimed to clinically evaluate the response of pupils in scorpion sting and krait bite. Victims of scorpion sting and krait bite were chosen from Raigad district. Scorpion sting and krait bite cases were admitted to hospital and were clinically evaluated in detail regarding neurological manifestations. Both cases had nonreacting dilation of pupils, complete neurological recovery accompanied with reverse of pupillary size and its response to light. In scorpion sting and krait bite poisoning, dilated nonreacting pupils are not the signs of irreversible brain damage. PMID:28300747

  1. Epidemiological aspect of scorpion sting in Bandar Abbas, Iran, during 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Moosavy, Seyed Hamid; Shahi, Mehran; Rafinejad, Javad; Zare, Shahram; Madani, Abdoulhossain; Navidpour, Shahrokh

    2016-04-01

    People in tropical and semi-tropical areas are in danger of scorpion sting, and this can be a serious problem for them. Mortality due to scorpion sting in the tropical and semi-tropical areas of Iran is about 75%, and this makes scorpion sting in these areas a serious medical problem. Because of this problem, our aim was to assess the epidemiological aspects of scorpion sting in Bandar Abbas, Iran, during 2009-2011. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, epidemiologic data of 698 scorpion sting cases, who were referred to the Shahid Mohamadi Hospital of Bandar Abbas in Hormozgan Province collected from 2009 until 2011. The data included demographic and individual information, such as age, gender, geographic location, bite site, when the incident occurred, and anti-venom consumption. The required data were extracted from the patients' recorded information in the Hospital, and we recorded data in a special checklist and imported the data into the computer for statistical analysis using of SPSS software, version 21.0. Descriptive statistics, including mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage, were used for data analysis. Two hundred and sixty-one (37.4%) of the cases were urban and 437(62.6%) were rural. Males comprised 50.1% of the cases, and women comprised 49.9% (p >0.05). Twenty-five point two percent of scorpion sting cases occurred among people in the 21 to 30 age group, and there were very few cases among people in the 51 to 60 age range (p<0.05). Most of cases were recorded in April and October, and the fewest cases were recorded in July and January (p<0.05); also 32.2% of scorpion sting cases occurred after midnight and in the early morning hours. Our survey showed that there was a high incidence of scorpion stings in rural areas, among 21-30 age group, among housekeepers, and among students. These results indicate the need for public education programs and better sanitation services in the rural areas around Bandar Abbas city. Prospective

  2. Epidemiological aspect of scorpion sting in Bandar Abbas, Iran, during 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Moosavy, Seyed Hamid; Shahi, Mehran; Rafinejad, Javad; Zare, Shahram; Madani, Abdoulhossain; Navidpour, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People in tropical and semi-tropical areas are in danger of scorpion sting, and this can be a serious problem for them. Mortality due to scorpion sting in the tropical and semi-tropical areas of Iran is about 75%, and this makes scorpion sting in these areas a serious medical problem. Because of this problem, our aim was to assess the epidemiological aspects of scorpion sting in Bandar Abbas, Iran, during 2009–2011. Methods In this cross-sectional retrospective study, epidemiologic data of 698 scorpion sting cases, who were referred to the Shahid Mohamadi Hospital of Bandar Abbas in Hormozgan Province collected from 2009 until 2011. The data included demographic and individual information, such as age, gender, geographic location, bite site, when the incident occurred, and anti-venom consumption. The required data were extracted from the patients’ recorded information in the Hospital, and we recorded data in a special checklist and imported the data into the computer for statistical analysis using of SPSS software, version 21.0. Descriptive statistics, including mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage, were used for data analysis. Results Two hundred and sixty-one (37.4%) of the cases were urban and 437(62.6%) were rural. Males comprised 50.1% of the cases, and women comprised 49.9% (p >0.05). Twenty-five point two percent of scorpion sting cases occurred among people in the 21 to 30 age group, and there were very few cases among people in the 51 to 60 age range (p<0.05). Most of cases were recorded in April and October, and the fewest cases were recorded in July and January (p<0.05); also 32.2% of scorpion sting cases occurred after midnight and in the early morning hours. Conclusion Our survey showed that there was a high incidence of scorpion stings in rural areas, among 21–30 age group, among housekeepers, and among students. These results indicate the need for public education programs and better sanitation services in the rural

  3. Evolutionary morphology of the hemolymph vascular system in scorpions: a character analysis.

    PubMed

    Klußmann-Fricke, B-J; Prendini, L; Wirkner, C S

    2012-11-01

    Phylogenetically informative characters from the internal anatomy of scorpions were first reported more than 150 years ago, but the subject received little attention after the mid-1920s. Recent investigations, using traditional dissection, illustration and histological sectioning, microscopy, and innovative new methods for investigating complex soft tissue anatomy identified a new wealth of variation. Additionally, these investigations confirmed the phylogenetic significance of previously identified structures. Building on earlier work we present a more detailed description of the hemolymph vascular system (HVS) in scorpions, based on comparison of the vascular structures of the heart and the branching pattern of the prosomal arteries among 45 exemplar species representing most of the major scorpion lineages. Using corrosion-casting, MicroCT in combination with computer-aided 3D-reconstruction, and scanning electron microscopy, we conceptualize a series of phylogenetically informative characters for the anterior aorta system and characters of the heart and associated structures (e.g. arrangement of the ostia) of scorpions. Furthermore, we optimize the possible evolution of these new characters on a previous hypothesis of scorpion phylogeny, and discuss alternative character state transformations, their evolutionary consequences, and possible underlying evolutionary mechanisms acting on the HVS.

  4. A first exploration of the venom of the Buthus occitanus scorpion found in southern France.

    PubMed

    Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Bosmans, Frank; Céard, Brigitte; Diochot, Sylvie; Bougis, Pierre E

    2014-03-01

    Even though Buthus occitanus scorpions are found throughout the Mediterranean region, a lack of distinctive characteristics has hampered their classification into different subspecies. Yet, stings from this particular scorpion family are reported each year to result in pain followed by various toxic symptoms. In order to determine the toxicity origin of the rare French B. occitanus Amoreux scorpion, we collected several specimens and studied their venom composition using a nano ultra high performance liquid chromatography and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nano UHPLC/MALDI-TOF-MS) automated workflow combined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) approach. Moreover, we compared this dataset to that obtained from highly lethal Androctonus australis and Androctonus mauretanicus scorpions collected in North Africa. As a result, we found that the B. occitanus Amoreux venom is toxic to mice, an observation that is most likely caused by venom components that inhibit voltage-gated sodium channel inactivation. Moreover, we identified similarities in venom composition between B. occitanus scorpions living in the South of France and other Buthidae collected in Morocco and Algeria. As such, the results of this study should be taken into consideration when treating stings from the B. occitanus species living in the South of France.

  5. Phylogenomic resolution of scorpions reveals multilevel discordance with morphological phylogenetic signal.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prashant P; Fernández, Rosa; Esposito, Lauren A; González-Santillán, Edmundo; Monod, Lionel

    2015-04-07

    Scorpions represent an iconic lineage of arthropods, historically renowned for their unique bauplan, ancient fossil record and venom potency. Yet, higher level relationships of scorpions, based exclusively on morphology, remain virtually untested, and no multilocus molecular phylogeny has been deployed heretofore towards assessing the basal tree topology. We applied a phylogenomic assessment to resolve scorpion phylogeny, for the first time, to our knowledge, sampling extensive molecular sequence data from all superfamilies and examining basal relationships with up to 5025 genes. Analyses of supermatrices as well as species tree approaches converged upon a robust basal topology of scorpions that is entirely at odds with traditional systematics and controverts previous understanding of scorpion evolutionary history. All analyses unanimously support a single origin of katoikogenic development, a form of parental investment wherein embryos are nurtured by direct connections to the parent's digestive system. Based on the phylogeny obtained herein, we propose the following systematic emendations: Caraboctonidae is transferred to Chactoidea new superfamilial assignment: ; superfamily Bothriuroidea revalidated: is resurrected and Bothriuridae transferred therein; and Chaerilida and Pseudochactida are synonymized with Buthida new parvordinal synonymies: .

  6. Scorpion katoikogenic ovariuterus - Much more alike to apoikogenic type than it seemed to be.

    PubMed

    Jędrzejowska, Izabela; Szymusiak, Kamil; Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Marta; Garbiec, Arnold

    2016-09-01

    Scorpions are viviparous matrotrophic arthropods. Both, fertilization and embryonic development occur in the female gonad called ovariuterus. Two distinct reproductive patterns are recognized among scorpions: apoikogenic and katoikogenic. In the ovariuterus of apoikogenic scorpions growing oocytes protrude from the ovarian wall and continue previtellogenic and vitellogenic growth on the gonad surface being accompanied by the follicular cells that cover the oocyte surface, and, in most families, the stalk cells that join the oocyte with the ovariuterus wall. In the katoikogenic ovariuterus the oocytes grow in outpocketings of the ovarian wall called diverticula. The aim of our study was to show the development and structure of the diverticula in two katoikogenic scorpions from the family Scorpionidae: Ophistothalmus boehmei and Heterometrus spinifer. We show that the somatic components of each diverticulum develop from the two epithelial layers of the ovariuterine wall. Before fertilization, the wall of the mature diverticula consists of two distinctive epithelial layers: an internal and an external one. Our observations reveal that the epithelial cells of the internal layer of the diverticulum show striking morphological resemblance to the follicular and stalk cells that accompany the growing oocytes in some apoikogenic scorpions. The external epithelial layer of the katoikogenic diverticulum seems to have no equivalents in the apoikogenic type. Functions of the somatic cells of the diverticulum are discussed.

  7. Predicting scorpion sting incidence in an endemic region using climatological variables.

    PubMed

    Chowell, G; Hyman, J M; Díaz-Dueñas, P; Hengartner, N W

    2005-12-01

    Scorpionism is a public health problem in several regions of the world. The highest mortality, with over 1000 deaths per year, has been reported in Mexico. We analysed the significance of climatological variables to predict the incidence of scorpion stings in humans in the state of Colima (Mexico) for the years 2000-2001. The pluvial precipitation (mm), the evaporation (mm), and the mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures (degrees C) were obtained from local meteorological offices. There are approximately 3 stings/year per 1000 people in municipalities of Colima and Villa de Alvarez and about 18-30 stings/year per 1000 people in the rest of the municipalities. There is very little rain and there are few stings in the winter when the minimum temperature is below about 16 degrees C. The number of scorpion stings is independent of the actual rainfall when this is above 30 mm/month. Using multiple linear regression, we used a backward model selection procedure to estimate that the minimum temperature is correlated with scorpion sting incidence with a statistically significance of 95%. We briefly discuss the application of predictive models of scorpion sting incidence in the appropriate allocation of antivenom serum in hospital clinics.

  8. [National strategy in the battle against scorpion stings and envenomations. Application and evaluation].

    PubMed

    Soulaymani Bencheikh, R; Faraj, Z; Semlali, I; Ouammi, L; Badri, M

    2003-11-01

    Scorpion stings represent the first cause of poisoning with an incidence of 30 to 50% of all declared cases in the Centre Anti Poison of Morocco (CAPM). Aware of this increasing problem, the CAPM paid special attention to this pathology. Thanks to its retrospective and prospective studies, the scorpion species mapping has been determined as well as the demographic features of stung patients, the nature and the chronology of clinical events in scorpion envenimation, and the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical factors of severity. On this basis, the CAPM worked out a national strategy to struggle against scorpion stings whose aim was to decrease the morbidity and mortality caused by stings of scorpion as well as to rationalise economic expenses. The components of this strategy were based on the training of the medical and paramedical staff, on information, education, communication involving different sectors, on identification of needs and on follow-up and assessment. A nationwide campaign was implemented to change the population and health-care staff's behaviour regarding this pathology. Its evaluation permitted to improve the compilation of cases with census of 14104 cases, to reduce lethality rate and to rationalise expenses while banishing some medicines and avoiding useless hospitalization.

  9. Predation among armored arachnids: Bothriurus bonariensis (Scorpions, Bothriuridae) versus four species of harvestmen (Harvestmen, Gonyleptidae).

    PubMed

    Albín, Andrea; Toscano-Gadea, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    Natural selection shapes prey-predator relationships and their behavioral adaptations, which seek to maximize capture success in the predator and avoidance in the prey. We tested the ability of adults of the scorpion Bothriurus bonariensis (Bothriuridae) to prey on synchronous and sympatric adults harvestmen of Acanthopachylus aculeatus, Discocyrtus prospicuus, Parampheres bimaculatus and Pachyloides thorellii (Gonyleptidae). In 72.5% of the cases B. bonariensis tried to prey on the harvestmen. The most successful captures occurred in the trials against A. aculeatus and D. prospicuus. In all the successful attacks the scorpions stung the prey between the chelicerae and consumed them, starting by the anterior portion of their bodies. The harvestmen used different defensive strategies such as fleeing before or after contact with the predator, exudating of chemical substances or staying still at the scorpion's touch. When scorpions contacted the chemical substances secreted by the harvestmen, they immediately rubbed the affected appendix against the substrate. However, exudating of chemical substances did not prevent, in any case, predation on the harvestmen. This is the first study showing the ability of scorpions to prey on different species of harvestmen, as well as the capture and defensive behaviors used by the predator and the prey.

  10. Scorpions regulate their energy metabolism towards increased carbohydrate oxidation in response to dehydration.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Bhawna; Gefen, Eran

    2012-08-01

    Scorpions successfully inhabit some of the most arid habitats on earth. During exposure to desiccating stress water is mobilized from the scorpion hepatopancreas to replenish the hemolymph and retain hydration and osmotic stability. Carbohydrate catabolism is advantageous under these conditions as it results in high metabolic water production rate, as well as the release of glycogen-bound water. Hypothesizing that metabolic fuel utilization in scorpions is regulated in order to boost body water management under stressful conditions we used a comparative approach, studying energy metabolism during prolonged desiccation in four species varying in resistance performance. We used respirometry for calculating respiratory gas exchange ratios, indicative of metabolic fuel utilization, and measured metabolic fuel contents in the scorpion hepatopancreas. We found that hydrated scorpions used a mixture of metabolic fuels (respiratory exchange rates, RER~0.9), but a shift towards carbohydrate catabolism was common during prolonged desiccation stress. Furthermore, the timing of metabolic shift to exclusive carbohydrate oxidation (RER not different from 1.0) was correlated with desiccation resistance of the respective studied species, suggesting triggering by alterations to hemolymph homeostasis.

  11. [Scorpion envenomation treated in the Infectious and Tropical Diseases at the Donka National Hospital, Guinea].

    PubMed

    Sako, F B; Bangoura, E F; Traoré, F A; Soumah, M M; Tounkara, T M; Djessanglar, R; Baldé, H; Baldé, O

    2014-12-01

    A retrospective descriptive study was conducted from 1(st) October 2010 to 30 November 2012 on the records of patients admitted for scorpion envenomation in the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases at the Donka National Hospital. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiological profile and clinical characteristics of scorpion envenomation in Maritime Guinea, from scorpion stings recently covered in this service. We collected 75 cases of scorpion envenomation. The median age was 21.5 with interquartile 8 and 20 and sex ratio was 1.29. The upper limbs were involved in 55% of cases, followed by the lower limbs (35%), trunk (6%), head and neck (4%). We observed 63% of patients with local signs, 30% mild and general clinical signs of 7% severe systemic symptoms. All patients received an analgesic and a heterologous antitoxin, associated with an antibiotic (87% of patients), a corticosteroid (72%), diazepam (13%) and furosemide (34.6%). The incidence of scorpion envenomation is not negligible despite underreporting of cases, most often treated in traditional medicine.

  12. Phylogenomic resolution of scorpions reveals multilevel discordance with morphological phylogenetic signal

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Prashant P.; Fernández, Rosa; Esposito, Lauren A.; González-Santillán, Edmundo; Monod, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions represent an iconic lineage of arthropods, historically renowned for their unique bauplan, ancient fossil record and venom potency. Yet, higher level relationships of scorpions, based exclusively on morphology, remain virtually untested, and no multilocus molecular phylogeny has been deployed heretofore towards assessing the basal tree topology. We applied a phylogenomic assessment to resolve scorpion phylogeny, for the first time, to our knowledge, sampling extensive molecular sequence data from all superfamilies and examining basal relationships with up to 5025 genes. Analyses of supermatrices as well as species tree approaches converged upon a robust basal topology of scorpions that is entirely at odds with traditional systematics and controverts previous understanding of scorpion evolutionary history. All analyses unanimously support a single origin of katoikogenic development, a form of parental investment wherein embryos are nurtured by direct connections to the parent's digestive system. Based on the phylogeny obtained herein, we propose the following systematic emendations: Caraboctonidae is transferred to Chactoidea new superfamilial assignment; superfamily Bothriuroidea revalidated is resurrected and Bothriuridae transferred therein; and Chaerilida and Pseudochactida are synonymized with Buthida new parvordinal synonymies. PMID:25716788

  13. Pulmonary edema following scorpion envenomation: mechanisms, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bahloul, Mabrouk; Chaari, Anis; Dammak, Hassen; Samet, Mohamed; Chtara, Kamilia; Chelly, Hedi; Ben Hamida, Chokri; Kallel, Hatem; Bouaziz, Mounir

    2013-01-10

    Scorpion envenomation is common in tropical and subtropical regions. Cardio-respiratory manifestations, mainly cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema, are the leading causes of death after scorpion envenomation. The mechanism of pulmonary edema remains unclear and contradictory conclusions were published. However, most publications confirm that pulmonary edema has been attributed to acute left ventricular failure. Cardiac failure can result from massive release of catecholamines, myocardial damage induced by the venom or myocardial ischemia. Factors usually associated with the diagnosis of pulmonary edema were young age, tachypnea, agitation, sweating, or the presence of high plasma protein concentrations. Treatment of scorpion envenomation has two components: antivenom administration and supportive care. The latter mainly targets hemodynamic impairment and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. In Latin America, and India, the use of Prazosin is recommended for treatment of pulmonary edema because pulmonary edema is associated with arterial hypertension. However, in North Africa, scorpion leads to cardiac failure with systolic dysfunction with normal vascular resistance and dobutamine was recommended. Dobutamine infusion should be used as soon as we have enough evidence suggesting the presence of pulmonary edema, since it has been demonstrated that scorpion envenomation can result in pulmonary edema secondary to acute left ventricular failure. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation can be required.

  14. A first exploration of the venom of the Buthus occitanus scorpion found in southern France

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Bosmans, Frank; Céard, Brigitte; Diochot, Sylvie; Bougis, Pierre E.

    2014-01-01

    Even though Buthus occitanus scorpions are found throughout the Mediterranean region, a lack of distinctive characteristics has hampered their classification into different subspecies. Yet, stings from this particular scorpion family are reported each year to result in pain followed by various toxic symptoms. In order to determine the toxicity origin of the rare French Buthus occitanus Amoreux scorpion, we collected several specimens and studied their venom composition using a nano ultra high performance liquid chromatography and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nano UHPLC/MALDI-TOF-MS) automated workflow combined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) approach. Moreover, we compared this dataset to that obtained from highly lethal Androctonus australis and Androctonus mauretanicus scorpions collected in North Africa. As a result, we found that the Buthus occitanus Amoreux venom is toxic to mice, an observation that is most likely caused by venom components that inhibit voltage-gated sodium channel inactivation. Moreover, we identified similarities in venom composition between Buthus occitanus scorpions living in the South of France and other Buthidae collected in Morocco and Algeria. As such, the results of this study should be taken into consideration when treating stings from the Buthus occitanus species living in the South of France. PMID:24418174

  15. Foods The Indians Gave Us. Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hail, Raven

    This children's coloring book devotes a page to each of twenty of the most familiar American Indian plant foods: avocado, green beans, black walnuts, cocoa, corn, peanuts, pecans, chile peppers, pineapples, popcorn, potatoes, pumpkins, squash, strawberries, sugar maple, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, tapioca, tomatoes, and vanilla. Illustrating each…

  16. Foods The Indians Gave Us. Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hail, Raven

    This children's coloring book devotes a page to each of twenty of the most familiar American Indian plant foods: avocado, green beans, black walnuts, cocoa, corn, peanuts, pecans, chile peppers, pineapples, popcorn, potatoes, pumpkins, squash, strawberries, sugar maple, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, tapioca, tomatoes, and vanilla. Illustrating each…

  17. American Indian Enrichment Activities. Mini-Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosnick, Sally

    Focusing on American Indians, this annotated bibliography covers a variety of resources for enriching multicultural education in the elementary classroom and includes limited information about Mexican Americans, Blacks, and other cultural groups. Each of the 26 entries provides a descriptive annotation and indicates where the material can be…

  18. Forecasting and prediction of scorpion sting cases in Biskra province, Algeria, using a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to highlight some epidemiological aspects of scorpion envenomations, to analyse and interpret the available data for Biskra province, Algeria, and to develop a forecasting model for scorpion sting cases in Biskra province, which records the highest number of scorpion stings in Algeria. METHODS In addition to analysing the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings that occurred throughout the year 2013, we used the Box-Jenkins approach to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to the monthly recorded scorpion sting cases in Biskra from 2000 to 2012. RESULTS The epidemiological analysis revealed that scorpion stings were reported continuously throughout the year, with peaks in the summer months. The most affected age group was 15 to 49 years old, with a male predominance. The most prone human body areas were the upper and lower limbs. The majority of cases (95.9%) were classified as mild envenomations. The time series analysis showed that a (5,1,0)×(0,1,1)12 SARIMA model offered the best fit to the scorpion sting surveillance data. This model was used to predict scorpion sting cases for the year 2013, and the fitted data showed considerable agreement with the actual data. CONCLUSIONS SARIMA models are useful for monitoring scorpion sting cases, and provide an estimate of the variability to be expected in future scorpion sting cases. This knowledge is helpful in predicting whether an unusual situation is developing or not, and could therefore assist decision-makers in strengthening the province’s prevention and control measures and in initiating rapid response measures. PMID:27866407

  19. The scorpion in Spanish folk medicine: a review of traditional remedies for stings and its use as a therapeutic resource.

    PubMed

    González, José A; Vallejo, José Ramón

    2013-03-07

    While scorpionism is not a serious public health problem in Spain, traditional Spanish knowledge has retained a large number of plant-based and animal-based remedies for scorpion stings. Additionally, this arthropod plays an important role in the treatment of its own sting and has become a significant therapeutic resource in the treatment of several human pathologies. These remedies are distributed across a large number of references. A thorough review of Spanish literature has been conducted in the fields of folklore, ethnography, ethnomedicine, ethnobotany, ethnozoology, social anthropology and medical anthropology from the early twentieth century to the present. Automated searches in national and international databases have been performed. The results include more than 110 traditional remedies for scorpion stings. Forty- eight remedies are based on the use of 29 vascular plants in 19 different botanical families. This listing of useful plants is broader than that provided by other researchers studying neighboring areas. Seventeen remedies based on the use of nine animal species, including humans, are also reported. Remedies have also been documented involving mud and water, while other remedies indicate the use of scorpions (crushed and applied directly). Many remedies emphasize the topical use of "scorpion oil" (i.e., oil from fried scorpions). Two remedies are based on the maceration of scorpions in alcohol. In most cases, topical remedies are applied locally on the affected area. There is also some use of magical remedies as well. The scorpion has also been used as a major component in 22 Spanish remedies and healing rituals associated with 17 human pathologies. The present study demonstrates the importance of the scorpion in Spanish folk medicine. In general, the remedies evaluated mix magic and empiricism. The data we obtained may represent relevant background knowledge for studies aimed at developing and applying new therapeutic remedies for scorpion

  20. Forecasting and prediction of scorpion sting cases in Biskra province, Algeria, using a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model.

    PubMed

    Selmane, Schehrazad; L'Hadj, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to highlight some epidemiological aspects of scorpion envenomations, to analyse and interpret the available data for Biskra province, Algeria, and to develop a forecasting model for scorpion sting cases in Biskra province, which records the highest number of scorpion stings in Algeria. In addition to analysing the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings that occurred throughout the year 2013, we used the Box-Jenkins approach to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to the monthly recorded scorpion sting cases in Biskra from 2000 to 2012. The epidemiological analysis revealed that scorpion stings were reported continuously throughout the year, with peaks in the summer months. The most affected age group was 15 to 49 years old, with a male predominance. The most prone human body areas were the upper and lower limbs. The majority of cases (95.9%) were classified as mild envenomations. The time series analysis showed that a (5,1,0)×(0,1,1)12 SARIMA model offered the best fit to the scorpion sting surveillance data. This model was used to predict scorpion sting cases for the year 2013, and the fitted data showed considerable agreement with the actual data. SARIMA models are useful for monitoring scorpion sting cases, and provide an estimate of the variability to be expected in future scorpion sting cases. This knowledge is helpful in predicting whether an unusual situation is developing or not, and could therefore assist decision-makers in strengthening the province's prevention and control measures and in initiating rapid response measures.

  1. Watch Out for Your Neighbor: Climbing onto Shrubs Is Related to Risk of Cannibalism in the Scorpion Buthus cf. occitanus

    PubMed Central

    Urbano-Tenorio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The distribution and behavior of foraging animals usually imply a balance between resource availability and predation risk. In some predators such as scorpions, cannibalism constitutes an important mortality factor determining their ecology and behavior. Climbing on vegetation by scorpions has been related both to prey availability and to predation (cannibalism) risk. We tested different hypotheses proposed to explain climbing on vegetation by scorpions. We analyzed shrub climbing in Buthus cf. occitanus with regard to the following: a) better suitability of prey size for scorpions foraging on shrubs than on the ground, b) selection of shrub species with higher prey load, c) seasonal variations in prey availability on shrubs, and d) whether or not cannibalism risk on the ground increases the frequency of shrub climbing. Prey availability on shrubs was compared by estimating prey abundance in sticky traps placed in shrubs. A prey sample from shrubs was measured to compare prey size. Scorpions were sampled in six plots (50 m x 10 m) to estimate the proportion of individuals climbing on shrubs. Size difference and distance between individuals and their closest scorpion neighbor were measured to assess cannibalism risk. The results showed that mean prey size was two-fold larger on the ground. Selection of particular shrub species was not related to prey availability. Seasonal variations in the number of scorpions on shrubs were related to the number of active scorpions, but not with fluctuations in prey availability. Size differences between a scorpion and its nearest neighbor were positively related with a higher probability for a scorpion to climb onto a shrub when at a disadvantage, but distance was not significantly related. These results do not support hypotheses explaining shrub climbing based on resource availability. By contrast, our results provide evidence that shrub climbing is related to cannibalism risk. PMID:27655347

  2. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the…

  3. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the…

  4. Black Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Jr., Martin J.

    1969-01-01

    "A television show by blacks for blacks--coupled with a program of training for black television technicians--was the basic concept of the Black Voices" series aired over KTCA-TV and KTCI-TV in Minneapolis and St. Paul during the 1968-1969 television season. The series was designed to provide understanding among blacks of the Twin…

  5. Study of biomechanical, anatomical, and physiological properties of scorpion stingers for developing biomimetic materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Long; Shu, Tao; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Through natural selection, many animal organs have evolved superior mechanical properties and elegant hierarchical structures adaptive to their multiple biological functions. We combine experiments and theory to investigate the composition-structure-property-function relations of scorpion stingers. Their hierarchical structures and functionally gradient mechanical properties were revealed. Slow motion analysis of the penetration process of a scorpion stinger was performed to examine the refined survival skills of scorpions. An experiment-based mechanics model of the stinger was proposed, the results of which revealed an optimized range of penetration angle in an insertion event. Both theoretical and numerical results are in good agreement with our experimental measurements. The analysis method and physical insights of this work are potentially important for investigating a general class of sharp-edge biological materials, e.g., cattle horns, spider fangs, cat claws, and plant thorns.

  6. Scorpion sting envenomation presenting with pulmonary edema in adults: a report of seven cases from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhadani, Umesh Kumar; Tripathi, Mukesh; Sharma, Sanjib; Pandey, Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Scorpion sting is a common problem in villages of Eastern Nepal. The life-threatening complications of myocarditis and pulmonary edema is known in red scorpion in India but not reported in Nepal. This condition requires urgent attention and ICU care from few hours to days. Delay in recognition and the hypoxemia increase the morbidity and mortality. Illiteracy, ignorance, poverty, traditional faith healers trying treatment in remote areas, lack of transport in difficult terrains and the non availability of ventilation facility in nearby hospital, add to delay in appropriate treatment. Seven young adult patients admitted in a span of two years with history of scorpion sting presenting with pulmonary edema required ICU care. They were successfully managed with the positive pressure ventilation with PEEP, cardiac support with inotropes and fluid balance. Magnitude of problem, clinical presentation and management done is emphasized.

  7. A theory of vibrational prey localization in two dimensions: the sand scorpion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2000-03-01

    Sand scorpions, and many other arachnids, find their prey at night by localizing the source of mechanical waves produced by prey movements. Substrate vibrations propagating through sand evoke stimulus-locked action potentials from slit sensilla on the scorpion's eight `feet' (tarsi). We present a neuronal model to account for stimulus angle determination in a two-dimensional plane using a population of second-order neurons, each receiving excitatory input from one tarsus and inhibition from a triad opposite to it. This input opens a time window whose width determines the firing probability of each of the second-order neurons. The population then `votes' for the direction. Stochastic resonance is realized through tuning the balance between excitation and inhibition. The agreement with behavioral experiments on sand scorpions is excellent.

  8. A novel class of antimicrobial peptides from the scorpion Heterometrus spinifer.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yao; Zeng, Xian-Chun; Yang, Ye; Luo, Feng; Luo, Xuesong; Wu, Shifen; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jianping

    2012-12-01

    The venom peptides from the scorpion Heterometrus spinifer have been poorly characterized so far. Here, we identified a novel class of antimicrobial peptides from the venom gland of H. spinifer, which were referred to as HsAp, HsAp2, HsAp3 and HsAp4, respectively. Each of the four peptides consists of 29 amino acid residues, and is cationic and weakly amphipathic. They display no significant homology to any other known peptides, and thus represent a new family of venom peptides from scorpions. Antimicrobial assay showed that HsAp is able to inhibit the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with the MIC values of 11.8-51.2 μM. HsAp is also able to inhibit the growth of the tested fungus. Genomic analysis indicated that the genes of all the four peptides are intronless. Our studies expand the families of antimicrobial peptides from scorpions.

  9. Molecular Diversity and Functional Evolution of Scorpion Potassium Channel Toxins*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shunyi; Peigneur, Steve; Gao, Bin; Luo, Lan; Jin, Di; Zhao, Yong; Tytgat, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Scorpion toxins affecting K+ channels (KTxs) represent important pharmacological tools and potential drug candidates. Here, we report molecular characterization of seven new KTxs in the scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus by cDNA cloning combined with biochemical approaches. Comparative modeling supports that all these KTxs share a conserved cysteine-stabilized α-helix/β-sheet structural motif despite the differences in protein sequence and size. We investigated functional diversification of two orthologous α-KTxs (MeuTXKα1 from M. eupeus and BmP01 from Mesobuthus martensii) by comparing their K+ channel-blocking activities. Pharmacologically, MeuTXKα1 selectively blocked Kv1.3 channel with nanomolar affinity (IC50, 2.36 ± 0.9 nm), whereas only 35% of Kv1.1 currents were inhibited at 3 μm concentration, showing more than 1271-fold selectivity for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. This peptide displayed a weak effect on Drosophila Shaker channel and no activity on Kv1.2, Kv1.4, Kv1.5, Kv1.6, and human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K+ channels. Although BmB01 and MeuTXKα1 have a similar channel spectrum, their affinity and selectivity for these channels largely varies. In comparison with MeuTXKα1, BmP01 only exhibits a submicromolar affinity (IC50, 133.72 ± 10.98 nm) for Kv1.3, showing 57-fold less activity than MeuTXKα1. Moreover, it lacks the ability to distinguish between Kv1.1 and Kv1.3. We also found that MeuTXKα1 inhibited the proliferation of activated T cells induced by phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin at micromolar concentrations. Our results demonstrate that accelerated evolution drives affinity variations of orthologous α-KTxs on Kv channels and indicate that MeuTXKα1 is a promising candidate to develop an immune modulation agent for human autoimmune diseases. PMID:20889474

  10. Black/Indian Interaction in Spanish Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Jane

    The history of the lives of non-white peoples in the United States largely has been neglected although the Spanish bureaucrats kept meticulous records of the Spanish Mission period in Florida. These records represent an important source for the cultural history of these groups and offer new perspectives on the tri-racial nature of frontier…

  11. Similar burrow architecture of three arid-zone scorpion species implies similar ecological function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Amanda M.; Marais, Eugene; Turner, J. Scott; Prendini, Lorenzo; Pinshow, Berry

    2016-08-01

    Many animals reside in burrows that may serve as refuges from predators and adverse environmental conditions. Burrow design varies widely among and within taxa, and these structures are adaptive, fulfilling physiological (and other) functions. We examined the burrow architecture of three scorpion species of the family Scorpionidae: Scorpio palmatus from the Negev desert, Israel; Opistophthalmus setifrons, from the Central Highlands, Namibia; and Opistophthalmus wahlbergii from the Kalahari desert, Namibia. We hypothesized that burrow structure maintains temperature and soil moisture conditions optimal for the behavior and physiology of the scorpion. Casts of burrows, poured in situ with molten aluminum, were scanned in 3D to quantify burrow structure. Three architectural features were common to the burrows of all species: (1) a horizontal platform near the ground surface, long enough to accommodate the scorpion, located just below the entrance, 2-5 cm under the surface, which may provide a safe place where the scorpion can monitor the presence of potential prey, predators, and mates and where the scorpion warms up before foraging; (2) at least two bends that might deter incursion by predators and may reduce convective ventilation, thereby maintaining relatively high humidity and low temperature; and (3) an enlarged terminal chamber to a depth at which temperatures are almost constant (±2-4 °C). These common features among the burrows of three different species suggest that they are important for regulating the physical environment of their inhabitants and that burrows are part of scorpions' "extended physiology" ( sensu Turner, Physiol Biochem Zool 74:798-822, 2000).

  12. Similar burrow architecture of three arid-zone scorpion species implies similar ecological function.

    PubMed

    Adams, Amanda M; Marais, Eugene; Turner, J Scott; Prendini, Lorenzo; Pinshow, Berry

    2016-08-01

    Many animals reside in burrows that may serve as refuges from predators and adverse environmental conditions. Burrow design varies widely among and within taxa, and these structures are adaptive, fulfilling physiological (and other) functions. We examined the burrow architecture of three scorpion species of the family Scorpionidae: Scorpio palmatus from the Negev desert, Israel; Opistophthalmus setifrons, from the Central Highlands, Namibia; and Opistophthalmus wahlbergii from the Kalahari desert, Namibia. We hypothesized that burrow structure maintains temperature and soil moisture conditions optimal for the behavior and physiology of the scorpion. Casts of burrows, poured in situ with molten aluminum, were scanned in 3D to quantify burrow structure. Three architectural features were common to the burrows of all species: (1) a horizontal platform near the ground surface, long enough to accommodate the scorpion, located just below the entrance, 2-5 cm under the surface, which may provide a safe place where the scorpion can monitor the presence of potential prey, predators, and mates and where the scorpion warms up before foraging; (2) at least two bends that might deter incursion by predators and may reduce convective ventilation, thereby maintaining relatively high humidity and low temperature; and (3) an enlarged terminal chamber to a depth at which temperatures are almost constant (±2-4 °C). These common features among the burrows of three different species suggest that they are important for regulating the physical environment of their inhabitants and that burrows are part of scorpions' "extended physiology" (sensu Turner, Physiol Biochem Zool 74:798-822, 2000).

  13. Partial transcriptomic profiling of toxins from the venom gland of the scorpion Parabuthus stridulus.

    PubMed

    Mille, Bea G; Peigneur, Steve; Diego-García, Elia; Predel, Reinhard; Tytgat, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Since it is an apocrine secretion, scorpion venom is a complex mixture that contains a variety of low-molecular-weight basic proteins (neurotoxins), mucus, salts, as well as a large number of other constituents. Diversity of scorpion venom peptides exists also at the transcript level. Two kinds of venom peptides are typically considered: the neurotoxins and the antimicrobial peptides. We constructed a cDNA library and carried an EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) approach to overview the different peptides in the transcriptome of the telson from Parabuthus stridulus. P. stridulus are psammophilous and highly venomous scorpions endemic to Namibia (Prendini 2004) with medical relevance because of important human envenomation occurrence. We obtained 111 ESTs, 20% of them corresponding to cellular process transcripts, 7% to hypothetical proteins and 17% were sequences without good matches, but the majority of ESTs, 56%, corresponds to transcripts encoding for different venom components, including voltage-gated sodium, potassium and calcium channel toxins, antimicrobial peptides and other venom and cell proteins. To the best of our knowledge this report contains the first transcriptome analysis of genes transcribed by the venomous gland of the scorpion species P. stridulus, belonging to the family of medically important Buthidae scorpions. One hundred and eleven ESTs were analyzed, showing an important number of genes that encode for products similar to known scorpion venom components. In total, 17 unique and novel sequences were indentified. The identification and characterization of these compounds will be a good source of novel pharmacological tools for studying ion channels and the understanding of the physiological effects of toxins in P. stridulus envenomations at a molecular level.

  14. Neutralizing capacity of murine sera induced by different antigens of scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Calderon-Aranda, E S; Hozbor, D; Possani, L D

    1993-03-01

    Approximately 700 people die in Mexico each year from scorpion stings. The only useful therapy available is antiserum obtained from horses immunized with macerates of venomous gland from scorpions of the genus Centruroides. We report the results of experiments conducted with mice and rats in order to evaluate the relevant components of the venom from Centruroides noxius in the induction of a protective response against scorpion envenomation, either in vivo or in vitro. Gland macerates of whole telsons (stinger), soluble venom extracted by electrical stimulation, toxic fractions from gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and highly purified toxin 2 from this scorpion venom were all used to produce hyperimmune mice and rats, which were challenged in vivo with the equivalent of the lethal dose 50% (LD50) of soluble venom, or their sera were prepared for in vitro neutralization experiments using non-immunized animals. The maximum neutralizing capacity (100%) was obtained when soluble venom was used as antigen, while purified toxin 2 produces 80% survival in vivo. The neutralizing capacity of murine antisera evaluated in vitro was: sera antifraction II > antitoxin 2 > antitotal venom > anti-gland macerates of whole telsons. Two additional aspects were further investigated in the present work. One is the demonstration by immunoblotting that proteins corresponding to the electrophoretic mobility of toxins known to block sodium channels are highly immunodominant in this venom. Second, there is a strong cross-reactivity of antisera produced with Centruroides noxius when assayed against venoms from other dangerous species of Centruroides scorpions from Mexico, but not against the Israeli scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus. Finally, the immunodominance of toxic fractions in the immune response was observed either with immunization using Freund's adjuvant or by means of adsorption to nitrocellulose membranes. This latter vehicle was shown to be an excellent detoxifying agent, without

  15. A new venomous scorpion responsible for severe envenomation in Argentina: Tityus confluens.

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Lago, Néstor R; Salomón, Oscar D; Laskowicz, Rodrigo D; Neder de Román, Lilia E; López, Raúl A; Montero, Teresa E; Vega, Valeria Del V

    2009-01-01

    In Argentina the scorpions of medical importance belong to the genus Tityus (T.), particularly the species T. trivittatus, the only scorpion whose sting is recognized to be associated with severe human envenoming and death. This genus is distributed from the north of the Patagonian region to the center and some provinces in the north of the country. During the period 2003-2006 four children died following scorpion stings, of which one was certainly and three were probably by T. confluens. In 2006, in the province of Tucumán, a girl died by scorpion envenoming and the scorpion responsible for the death, found in her shoe, was T. confluens. We thus studied the toxicity of venom gland homogenates from T. confluens from the provinces of Jujuy and Catamarca, and of crude venom from specimens from Catamarca and the province of La Rioja. The lethal potencies of the telson homogenates were 7.0 and 18.6microg/g for Jujuy and Catamarca, respectively, while the lethal potency of the crude venom was 0.7microg/g. Injected mice showed generalized congestion and hepatic lesions. Pancreatic damage was observed in some animals. Lungs showed congestion and foci of hemorrhage and mild edema. The heart showed injury in the muscular fibers. The venom showed high reactivity against anti-T. trivittatus antivenom and against two anti-T. serrulatus antivenoms. The anti-T. trivittatus antivenom neutralized the lethal activity of T. confluens venom. In addition, the venom reacted very slightly against an anti-Centruroides antivenom. Therefore, the stings of this scorpion must be considered of risk for humans to the same degree as the stings of T. trivittatus.

  16. The effect of model choice on phylogenetic inference using mitochondrial sequence data: lessons from the scorpions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Martin; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Fet, Victor; Blaxter, Mark

    2007-05-01

    Chelicerates are a diverse group of arthropods, with around 65,000 described species occupying a wide range of habitats. Many phylogenies describing the relationships between the various chelicerate orders have been proposed. While some relationships are widely accepted, others remain contentious. To increase the taxonomic sampling of species available for phylogenetic study based on mitochondrial genomes we produced the nearly complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scorpion Mesobuthus gibbosus. Mitochondrial gene order in M. gibbosus largely mirrors that in Limulus polyphemus but tRNA secondary structures are truncated. A recent analysis argued that independent reversal of mitochondrial genome strand-bias in several groups of arthropods, including spiders and scorpions, could compromise phylogenetic reconstruction and proposed an evolutionary model that excludes mutational events caused by strand-bias (Neutral Transitions Excluded, NTE). An arthropod dataset of six mitochondrial genes, when analyzed under NTE, yields strong support for scorpions as sister taxon to the rest of Chelicerata. We investigated the robustness of this result by exploring the effect of adding additional chelicerate genes and taxa and comparing the phylogenies obtained under different models. We find evidence that (1) placement of scorpions arising at the base of the Chelicerata is an artifact of model mis-specification and scorpions are strongly supported as basal arachnids and (2) an expanded chelicerate dataset finds support for several proposed interordinal relationships (ticks plus mites [Acari] and spiders plus whip spiders plus whip scorpions [Araneae+Pedipalpi]). Mitochondrial sequence data are subject to systematic bias that is positively misleading for evolutionary inference and thus extreme methodological care must be taken when using them to infer phylogenies.

  17. General biochemical and immunological characterization of the venom from the scorpion Tityus trivittatus of Argentina.

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Coronas, Fredy I V; Lago, Nestor; González, María E; Laskowicz, Rodrigo D; Beltramino, Juan C; Saavedra, Silvina; López, Raúl A; Reati, Gustavo J; Vucharchuk, Miriam G; Bazán, Eduardo; Varni, Liliana; Salomón, Oscar D; Possani, Lourival D

    2010-01-01

    Tityus trivittatus is the Argentinean scorpion reported to cause the majority of human fatalities in the country, however no systematic studies have been conducted with the venom of this species. This communication describes a general biochemical and immunological characterization of the venom obtained from T. trivittatus scorpions collected in the city of Buenos Aires and various provinces of Argentina: Catamarca, Cordoba, Entre Rios, La Rioja, Santa Fe and Santiago del Estero. These are places where human accidents were reported to occur due to this scorpion. For comparative purposes two types of samples were assayed: whole soluble venom obtained by electrical stimulation and supernatant from homogenized venomous glands. Two strains of mice (NIH and CF-1) were used for LD(50) determinations by two distinct routes of administration (intravenously and intraperitoneally). Important variations were found that goes from 0.5 to 12 mg/kg mouse body weight. Samples of soluble venom were always more potent than Telson homogenates. More complex pattern was observed in homogenates compared to soluble venom, as expected. This was supported by gel electrophoretic analysis and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separations. Additionally, the HPLC profile was enriched in proteins resolved at similar elution times as other known toxins from scorpion venoms studied. Immune enzymatic assays were also conducted comparatively, using four different anti-venoms commercially available for treatment of scorpion stings (Argentinean antidote from INPB, two anti-venoms from Butantan Institute of Brazil and Alacramyn from the Mexican Bioclon Institute). Cross-reactivities were observed and are reported among the various venoms and anti-venoms used. Lung, heart, liver and pancreas pathological modifications were observed on tissues of intoxicated mice. It seems that there are important variations on the venom compositions of the various samples studied and reported here

  18. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Pediatric Scorpion Stings: A Report From Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghankhalili, Maryam; Mobaraki, Hossein; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Yazdani, Reza; Nazemi, Abdolmajid; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Mohammadi, Zahra; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Mohmudi, Forugh; Taghavi, Mohsen; Dehghankhalili, Saeed

    2017-06-01

    Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in many countries, particularly in pediatrics. Children are more susceptible to severe clinical manifestations of envenomation. The aim of this study is to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pediatric scorpionism in Hormozgan province of Iran during 2012. This was a cross-sectional study being conducted during 2010 in Hormozgan, the southern province of Iran. We included 350 patients admitted to emergency unit of the hospitals of 8 cities of Hormozgan with impression of scorpion envenomation. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics as well as the treatment and outcome were recorded. The prevalence rate of pediatric scorpion stings in the province was 1.8 in 1000 children. The mean age of the patients was 5.75 ± 4.54 (range, 1-18) years. There were 208 (59.5%) boys and 142 (40.5%) girls among the patients. The most common site of sting was sole to knee in 94 (26.8%) followed by hand in 61 (17.4%) and fingers in 47 (13.4%). The most common presenting symptom was vomiting in 236 (67.4%) followed by localized pain in 131 (37.3%), erythema in 120 (34.2%), and edema in 119 (33.9%). The highest and lowest frequency occurred in July (17.7%) and January (3.2%), respectively. Nocturnal envenomations (53.7%) were more common than diurnal (46.3%). Most of scorpionism were mild (83.4%) that all evolved to cure, without any deaths. The results demonstrate the pediatric scorpionism is a public health problem in Hormozgan province of Iran, and special attention should be paid to prevention and treatment.

  19. Looking like Limulus? - Retinula axons and visual neuropils of the median and lateral eyes of scorpions.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Tobias; Melzer, Roland R

    2013-07-11

    Despite ongoing interest in the neurophysiology of visual systems in scorpions, aspects of their neuroanatomy have received little attention. Lately sets of neuroanatomical characters have contributed important arguments to the discussion of arthropod ground patterns and phylogeny. In various attempts to reconstruct phylogeny (from morphological, morphological + molecular, or molecular data) scorpions were placed either as basalmost Arachnida, or within Arachnida with changing sister-group relationships, or grouped with the extinct Eurypterida and Xiphosura inside the Merostomata. Thus, the position of scorpions is a key to understanding chelicerate evolution. To shed more light on this, the present study for the first time combines various techniques (Cobalt fills, DiI / DiO labelling, osmium-ethyl gallate procedure, and AMIRA 3D-reconstruction) to explore central projections and visual neuropils of median and lateral eyes in Euscorpius italicus (Herbst, 1800) and E. hadzii Di Caporiacco, 1950. Scorpion median eye retinula cells are linked to a first and a second visual neuropil, while some fibres additionally connect the median eyes with the arcuate body. The lateral eye retinula cells are linked to a first and a second visual neuropil as well, with the second neuropil being partly shared by projections from both eyes. Comparing these results to previous studies on the visual systems of scorpions and other chelicerates, we found striking similarities to the innervation pattern in Limulus polyphemus for both median and lateral eyes. This supports from a visual system point of view at least a phylogenetically basal position of Scorpiones in Arachnida, or even a close relationship to Xiphosura. In addition, we propose a ground pattern for the central projections of chelicerate median eyes.

  20. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jamie E.; Brown, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion’s habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  1. Potency of insect-specific scorpion toxins on mosquito control using Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Aa.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Riku; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Howlader, Mohammad Tofazzal Hossain; Namba, Maho; Iwamoto, Aya; Sakai, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2014-06-01

    Two insect-specific scorpion toxins, BjαIT and AahIT were produced as alkali-soluble protein inclusions in Escherichia coli. The inclusion bodies themselves exhibited no toxicity against Culex pipiens larvae. However, coadministration with Cry4Aa toxin enhanced the mosquitocidal activity by 2-3 fold. Insect-specific scorpion toxins can be good supplements for Cry toxin-based bioinsecticides. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. How does the scorpion Euscorpius flavicaudis (Deg.) manage to survive in Britain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L.; Constantinou, C.

    1983-06-01

    Field observations at Sheerness suggest that E. flavicaudis is night-active: it fluoresces strongly in ultra-violet light. Aktograph experiments demonstrated a marked circadian rhythm of noctural locomotory activity whose free-running period in constant light is 24.7 h. In darkness, the free-running period is variable. The rate of transpiration is not unduly low compared with that of other scorpions, as might have been expected were E. flavicaudis day-active. It is argued that the survival of this species in southern England does not involve any special physiological adjustments since most if not all species of scorpions are able to withstand freezing temperatures.

  3. Intraspecific variation in the Egyptian scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus venom collected from different biotopes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A; Omran, Mohamed Alaa A; Abdel-Nabi, Ismail M; Ueda, Hitoshi; McVean, Alistair

    2009-03-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the following hypotheses: (i) do scorpions (Scorpio maurus palmatus) from different biotopes exhibit intraspecific diversity in their venom? (ii) if so, is this variation associated with ecological or genetic factors, geographical distance, and/or multiple interrelated parameters? To address these questions, scorpions were collected from four geographically isolated localities in Egypt. Three of these locations are from mutually isolated pockets in the arid biotope of Southern Sinai (Wadi Sahab, El-Agramia and Rahaba plains). The fourth population was sampled from the semiarid biotope of Western Mediterranean Costal Desert (WMCD). Using reducing gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), we have shown biotope-specific variation in the expression of peptides from scorpions collected from these distinct areas. WMCD sourced venom samples contain higher molecular weight protein components (219, 200, 170, 139, 116 kDa) than Southern Sinai scorpion venom samples. The Southern Sinai venom is characterized by the presence of 11 protein bands (93-0.58 kDa) that are not mirrored in the individual venom samples of WMCD. Bands of 33 and 3.4 kDa were characteristics of all individual venom samples of the scorpion populations. Even within Southern Sinai area, Sahab venom contains five fractions that are not detected in both El-Agramia and Rahaba venom samples. Moreover, male and female venom analysis revealed some sex-related proteomic similarities and differences between scorpion populations. Female venom appears to be more complicated than the male venom. Female venom samples showed bands of 219, 200, 77.5, 55.5, 45, 39, 37, 24 and 16 kDa which were absent in the male venom. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to estimate the genetic distance between the four scorpion populations. The RAPD data confirmed the genetic diversity at molecular level among the sampled populations. More than 77 RAPD bands (ranging in size

  4. Peptides from the scorpion Vaejovis punctatus with broad antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Carreto, Santos; Jiménez-Vargas, Juana María; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Corzo, Gerardo; Possani, Lourival D; Becerril, Baltazar; Ortiz, Ernesto

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial potential of two new non-disulfide bound peptides, named VpAmp1.0 (LPFFLLSLIPSAISAIKKI, amidated) and VpAmp2.0 (FWGFLGKLAMKAVPSLIGGNKSSSK) is here reported. These are 19- and 25-aminoacid-long peptides with +2 and +4 net charges, respectively. Their sequences correspond to the predicted mature regions from longer precursors, putatively encoded by cDNAs derived from the venom glands of the Mexican scorpion Vaejovis punctatus. Both peptides were chemically synthesized and assayed against a variety of microorganisms, including pathogenic strains from clinical isolates and strains resistant to conventional antibiotics. Two shorter variants, named VpAmp1.1 (FFLLSLIPSAISAIKKI, amidated) and VpAmp2.1 (FWGFLGKLAMKAVPSLIGGNKK), were also synthesized and tested. The antimicrobial assays revealed that the four synthetic peptides effectively inhibit the growth of both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiaea) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, with MICs in the range of 2.5-24.0 μM; yeasts (Candida albicans and Candida glabrata) with MICs of 3.1-50.0 μM; and two clinically isolated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-including a multi-drug resistant one- with MICs in the range of 4.8-30.5 μM. A comparison between the activities of the original peptides and their derivatives gives insight into the structural/functional role of their distinctive residues.

  5. Kalium: a database of potassium channel toxins from scorpion venom

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmenkov, Alexey I.; Krylov, Nikolay A.; Chugunov, Anton O.; Grishin, Eugene V.; Vassilevski, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Kalium (http://kaliumdb.org/) is a manually curated database that accumulates data on potassium channel toxins purified from scorpion venom (KTx). This database is an open-access resource, and provides easy access to pages of other databases of interest, such as UniProt, PDB, NCBI Taxonomy Browser, and PubMed. General achievements of Kalium are a strict and easy regulation of KTx classification based on the unified nomenclature supported by researchers in the field, removal of peptides with partial sequence and entries supported by transcriptomic information only, classification of β-family toxins, and addition of a novel λ-family. Molecules presented in the database can be processed by the Clustal Omega server using a one-click option. Molecular masses of mature peptides are calculated and available activity data are compiled for all KTx. We believe that Kalium is not only of high interest to professional toxinologists, but also of general utility to the scientific community. Database URL: http://kaliumdb.org/ PMID:27087309

  6. Immune cells recruitment and activation by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Eder M S; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Arlley C B; Reis, Aramys S; Assunção, Anne Karine M; Fortes, Thiare S; Silva, Lucilene A; Guerra, Rosane N M; Kwasniewski, Fabio H; Nascimento, Flávia R F

    2011-11-01

    Despite several studies showed that the Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom (Tsv) induces an inflammatory response, just a few have investigated the effect of the venom on the immune response. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate alterations of venom application on lymphoid organs and on the recruitment and activation of cells and also on the cytokine production. Swiss male mice (2-3 months, 20-25 g) received a non-lethal dose of crude Tsv (200 μg/kg), diluted in sterile PBS by subcutaneous route. Control animals received only sterile PBS. The animals were sacrificed after 30, 120 and 360 min. The inflammatory parameters studied were skin histology at the site of venom application, leukocyte count, and blood cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α). Inguinal lymph node, spleen and bone marrow cellularity was determined for evaluation of the Tsv effect on immune system organs. The results showed that Tsv caused no local inflammation, but it induced an increase of blood neutrophils and serum IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. After 360 min of envenomation there was a reduction in the cells number from peritoneum and spleen, but there was an increase in the cell number from lymph nodes. In conclusion, the Tsv induces systemic alterations characterized by changes in the cell number in lymphoid organs, increase pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A bimodal activation mechanism underlies scorpion toxin-induced pain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shilong; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Bei; Lee, Bo Hyun; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Zheng, Jie; Lai, Ren

    2017-08-01

    Venomous animals use peptide toxins for hunting and self-defense. To achieve these goals, toxins need to bind to their targets with high affinity due to the small amount that a single bite or sting can deliver. The scorpion toxin BmP01 is linked to sting-induced excruciating pain; however, the reported minimum concentrations for activating TRPV1 channel or inhibiting voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels (both in the micromolar range) appear too high to be biologically relevant. We show that the effective concentration of BmP01 is highly pH-dependent-it increases by about 10-fold in inhibiting Kv channels upon a 1-U drop in pH but decreases more than 100-fold in activating TRPV1. Mechanistic investigation revealed that BmP01 binds to one of the two proton-binding sites on TRPV1 and, together with a proton, uses a one-two punch approach to strongly activate the nociceptive channel. Because most animal venoms are acidic, proton-facilitated synergistic action may represent a general strategy for maximizing toxin potency.

  8. A bimodal activation mechanism underlies scorpion toxin–induced pain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shilong; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Bei; Lee, Bo Hyun; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Zheng, Jie; Lai, Ren

    2017-01-01

    Venomous animals use peptide toxins for hunting and self-defense. To achieve these goals, toxins need to bind to their targets with high affinity due to the small amount that a single bite or sting can deliver. The scorpion toxin BmP01 is linked to sting-induced excruciating pain; however, the reported minimum concentrations for activating TRPV1 channel or inhibiting voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels (both in the micromolar range) appear too high to be biologically relevant. We show that the effective concentration of BmP01 is highly pH-dependent—it increases by about 10-fold in inhibiting Kv channels upon a 1-U drop in pH but decreases more than 100-fold in activating TRPV1. Mechanistic investigation revealed that BmP01 binds to one of the two proton-binding sites on TRPV1 and, together with a proton, uses a one-two punch approach to strongly activate the nociceptive channel. Because most animal venoms are acidic, proton-facilitated synergistic action may represent a general strategy for maximizing toxin potency. PMID:28782041

  9. Need for emergency department observation after scorpion sting: prospective study and review of the literature in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Antopolsky, Meir; Salameh, Shaden; Stalnikowicz, Ruth

    2009-08-01

    To question the existing practice to observe the victims of scorpion sting in the emergency department at least for 6 h. Prospective study of all adult patients presenting to emergency department after scorpion sting during 3 years, and review of existing literature from Middle East countries. Serious toxicity after scorpion sting in Israel and some of neighboring countries is rare, and always presents within 1 h from the sting. Thus, prolonged observation can be reserved for a high-risk population and patients with serious toxicity on admission.

  10. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  11. Black Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  12. Black holes.

    PubMed

    Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J

    2001-09-11

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  13. Black Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  14. Surveying on the biologic behaviors of Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters 1861, scorpion in laboratory (Khuzestan, Iran) (Scorpions: Hemiscorpiidae).

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Khamehchian, Tahereh; Miranzadeh, Mohammad Bagher

    2007-09-15

    This descriptive research was conducted so as to find and distinguish the sex of H. lepturus based on 107 dead specimens in the 70% ethyl alcohol and exact decision on their species using a criterion considering all morphological parameters and by the use of stereo microscope. Their biologic behaviors, 50 H. lepturus specimens which were fed and kept alive in capped bottles were studies while their way of shedding and number of newly-born young were also investigated under laboratory conditions in the process. The research revealed that in 107 H. lepturus specimens, 27 specimens (23%) were male and 80 ones (77%) were female. The results gained from 50 scorpions kept in the laboratory showed that only 10 cases (20%) had shed. Duration of emergence varies in each young from 10-20 min and delivery lasts approximately for 4-6 h. The average number of the young born was 24.3 in each delivery. It was concluded that the time of delivery and shedding in H lepturus is definitely fixed during the year and the number ofpectine denticles and length of the tail can be used to differentiate male and female H. lepturus.

  15. A double role of sperm in scorpions: the mating plug of Euscorpius italicus (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae) consists of sperm.

    PubMed

    Althaus, Sarah; Jacob, Alain; Graber, Werner; Hofer, Deborah; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Kropf, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Mating plugs occluding the female gonopore after mating are a widespread phenomenon. In scorpions, two main types of mating plugs are found: sclerotized mating plugs being parts of the spermatophore that break off during mating, and gel-like mating plugs being gelatinous fluids that harden in the female genital tract. In this study, the gel-like mating plug of Euscorpius italicus was investigated with respect to its composition, fine structure, and changes over time. Sperm forms the major component of the mating plug, a phenomenon previously unknown in arachnids. Three parts of the mating plug can be distinguished. The part facing the outside of the female (outer part) contains sperm packages containing inactive spermatozoa. In this state, sperm is transferred. In the median part, the sperm packages get uncoiled to single spermatozoa. In the inner part, free sperm is embedded in a large amount of secretions. Fresh mating plugs are soft gelatinous, later they harden from outside toward inside. This process is completed after 3-5 days. Sperm from artificially triggered spermatophores could be activated by immersion in insect Ringer's solution indicating that the fluid condition in the females' genital tract or females' secretions causes sperm activation. Because of the male origin of the mating plug, it has likely evolved under sperm competition or sexual conflict. As females refused to remate irrespective of the presence or absence of a mating plug, females may have changed their mating behavior in the course of evolution from polyandry to monandry. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Black Immigrants and Political Radicalism in the Harlem Renaissance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, John C.

    1977-01-01

    The migration of Blacks from the Caribbean to the United States after 1900 is described. The role of West Indian immigrants as radical political and labor leaders during the Harlem Renaissance (1910 to 1940) is discussed. (MC)

  17. Efficacy of scorpion antivenom plus prazosin versus prazosin alone for Mesobuthus tamulus scorpion sting envenomation in children: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pandi, Karuppiah; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Mahadevan, Subramanian

    2014-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of combined use of scorpion antivenom (SAV) with prazosin, compared with prazosin alone in children with Mesobuthus tamulus scorpion envenomation. Randomised controlled trial. A tertiary care hospital in south India. 50 children with definite history and/or systemic manifestations of scorpion envenomation were recruited from the paediatric emergency or outpatient department from February 2012 to July 2013. The children were randomised into two groups. In 25 children, SAV was administrated as a slow intravenous bolus combined with prazosin (group A). Others received prazosin alone (group B). Results were analysed by Student t test and χ(2) test. Time required for resolution of autonomic symptoms, total dose of prazosin, adverse events. Children in group A recovered earlier than those in group B (mean difference 9.1 h, 95% CI 6.0 to 12.2). 23 children (92%) in group A were clear of autonomic symptoms within 10 h, compared with 10 children (40%) in group B (mean difference 52%, 95% CI 29% to 75%). The proportion of children deteriorating to clinical grade 3 or 4 was 8% in group A as against 44% in group B (p<0.01). The mean dose of prazosin required was 54 µg/kg versus 130.8 µg/kg in group A and B, respectively (p<0.01). SAV was not associated with severe adverse reactions. Usage of SAV led to faster recovery and reduced the incidence of myocardial dysfunction. Combined therapy with SAV and prazosin is beneficial for children with M tamulus scorpion envenomation. CTRI/2013/09/004002 (Clinical Trials Registry of India). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Moving pieces in a taxonomic puzzle: venom 2D-LC/MS and data clustering analyses to infer phylogenetic relationships in some scorpions from the Buthidae family (Scorpiones).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Danielle G; Rates, Breno; Santos, Daniel M; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Barbosa-Silva, Adriano; Dutra, Alexandre A A; Biondi, Ilka; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie France; De Lima, Maria Elena; Pimenta, Adriano M C

    2006-05-01

    The Buthidae is the most clinically important scorpion family, with over 500 species distributed worldwide. Taxonomical positions and phylogenetic relationships concerning the representative genera and species of this family have been mostly inferred based upon comparisons between morphological characters. Yet, some authors have performed such inferences by comparing some structural properties of a few selected molecules found in the venoms from these scorpions. Here, we propose a novel methodology pipeline designed to address these issues. We have analyzed the whole venoms from some species that exemplify peculiar cases in the Buthidae family (Tityus stigmurus, Tityus serrulatus, Tityus bahiensis, Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus and Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus), by means of a proteomic approach using a 2D-LC/MS technique. The molecules found in these venoms were clustered according to their physicochemical properties (molecular mass and hydrophobicity), by using the machine learning-based Weka software. The clusters assessment, along with the number of molecules found in a given cluster for each scorpion, which assigns for the venom and structural family complexities, respectively, was used to generate a phenetic correlation tree for positioning these species. Our results were in accordance with the classical taxonomy viewpoint, which places T. serrulatus and T. stigmurus as very close species, T. bahiensis as a less related species in the Tityus genus and L. q. quinquestriatus and L. q. hebraeus with small differences within the same species (L. quinquestriatus). Therefore, we believe that this is a well-suited method to determine venom complexities that reflect the scorpions' evolutionary history, which can be crucial to reconstruct their phylogeny through the molecular evolution of their venoms.

  19. Indian Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Cy, Sr.; And Others

    A product of the Indian Studies Curriculum Committee and the Indian Studies Staff, this manual on the Indians of Southeast Alaska constitutes a useable classroom tool designed for the cross-cultural program in the Juneau School District. Objectives of this Indian Studies Program are identified as: to increase knowledge, awareness, and positive…

  20. Indian Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Cy, Sr.; And Others

    A product of the Indian Studies Curriculum Committee and the Indian Studies Staff, this manual on the Indians of Southeast Alaska constitutes a useable classroom tool designed for the cross-cultural program in the Juneau School District. Objectives of this Indian Studies Program are identified as: to increase knowledge, awareness, and positive…

  1. American Indians Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

  2. Jim Crow, Indian Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svingen, Orlan J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews history of voting rights for Indians and discusses a 1986 decision calling for election reform in Big Horn County, Montana, to eliminate violations of the voting rights of the county's Indian citizens. Notes that positive effects--such as election of the county's first Indian commissioner--co-exist with enduring anti-Indian sentiment. (JHZ)

  3. American Indian Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Edward, Ed.

    Written for teachers instructing both Indian and non-Indian students, the handbook provides information on American Indians in California. The handbook is presented in six chapters. Chapter 1 is devoted to terminoloy (e.g., American Indian, Native American, tribe, band, rancheria, and chief). Chapter 2 details historic and cultural changes related…

  4. Indians of the Dakotas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief history of Indian tribes in the States of North and South Dakota is presented. Discussion centers around individual Indian tribes, such as Chippewas and Sioux, which are representative of early and modern Indian life in these States. A section devoted to Indians in these states today offers an indication of the present condition of the…

  5. American Indian Sports Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxendine, Joseph B.

    This book chronicles the story of sports among American Indians. Part 1 examines the nature and role of games in traditional Indian life, with five chapters on: Indian concepts of sport; ball games; foot racing; other sports; children's play; and games of chance. Part 2 looks at the emergence of Indians in modern sport, with five chapters on:…

  6. Venom proteomic and venomous glands transcriptomic analysis of the Egyptian scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus (Arachnida: Scorpionidae).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A; Quintero-Hernandez, Veronica; Possani, Lourival D

    2013-11-01

    Proteomic analysis of the scorpion venom Scorpio maurus palmatus was performed using reverse-phase HPLC separation followed by mass spectrometry determination. Sixty five components were identified with molecular masses varying from 413 to 14,009 Da. The high percentage of peptides (41.5%) was from 3 to 5 KDa which may represent linear antimicrobial peptides and KScTxs. Also, 155 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed through construction the cDNA library prepared from a pair of venomous gland. About 77% of the ESTs correspond to toxin-like peptides and proteins with definite open reading frames. The cDNA sequencing results also show the presence of sequences whose putative products have sequence similarity with antimicrobial peptides (24%), insecticidal toxins, β-NaScTxs, κ-KScTxs, α-KScTxs, calcines and La1-like peptides. Also, we have obtained 23 atypical types of venom molecules not recorded in other scorpion species. Moreover, 9% of the total ESTs revealed significant similarities with proteins involved in the cellular processes of these scorpion venomous glands. This is the first set of molecular masses and transcripts described from this species, in which various venom molecules have been identified. They belong to either known or unassigned types of scorpion venom peptides and proteins, and provide valuable information for evolutionary analysis and venomics.

  7. Cardiac involvement and its complications about three cases of severe scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Aboumaâd, B; Tiger, A; Khattabi, A; Soulaymani, R; Lahssaini, M; Benhassain, S M; Iba, N

    2014-02-01

    For several decades, Morocco is confronted to medico-social problem of scorpion stings and envenomations. In 2009, epidemiological data established by the Poison Control Center recorded 29,816 stung patients, with an incidence of 1.1‰ and a fatality rate of 0.18%. The neurotoxins from scorpion venom are potent activators of the autonomic nervous system resulting a physiopathological disorder of vital systems. The most serious clinical manifestations are neurotoxic effects, pulmonary edema and cardiovascular distress. This present work reports the cases of three children (4 years and 6 months, 8 months and 15 days, 4 years), hospitalized in intensive care for an envenomation by Androctonus mauritanicus (the most fatal scorpion specie). The children presented cardiac dysfunction where pulmonary edema and state of shock were complications resultants. Two cases survived after supportive and symptomatic treatment based on dobutamine as primordial treatment in cardiovascular and pulmonary correction and other drugs. The third case died. The objective of this work was to detect the limit of the effectiveness of symptomatic treatment during a severe scorpion envenomation.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of homeobox genes from Mesobuthus martensii reveals Hox gene duplication in scorpions.

    PubMed

    Di, Zhiyong; Yu, Yao; Wu, Yingliang; Hao, Pei; He, Yawen; Zhao, Huabin; Li, Yixue; Zhao, Guoping; Li, Xuan; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian

    2015-06-01

    Homeobox genes belong to a large gene group, which encodes the famous DNA-binding homeodomain that plays a key role in development and cellular differentiation during embryogenesis in animals. Here, one hundred forty-nine homeobox genes were identified from the Asian scorpion, Mesobuthus martensii (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Scorpiones: Buthidae) based on our newly assembled genome sequence with approximately 248 × coverage. The identified homeobox genes were categorized into eight classes including 82 families: 67 ANTP class genes, 33 PRD genes, 11 LIM genes, five POU genes, six SINE genes, 14 TALE genes, five CUT genes, two ZF genes and six unclassified genes. Transcriptome data confirmed that more than half of the genes were expressed in adults. The homeobox gene diversity of the eight classes is similar to the previously analyzed Mandibulata arthropods. Interestingly, it is hypothesized that the scorpion M. martensii may have two Hox clusters. The first complete genome-wide analysis of homeobox genes in Chelicerata not only reveals the repertoire of scorpion, arachnid and chelicerate homeobox genes, but also shows some insights into the evolution of arthropod homeobox genes.

  9. [The epidemiological situation of scorpion stings in the Beni Mellal province].

    PubMed

    Charrab, Nezha; Soulaymani, Rachida; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Semlali, Ilham; El Oufir, Rhizlane; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse and interpret data from patients bitten by scorpions in a province of Morocco in order to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by scorpion venom. A study was conducted of 901 cases of poisoning among 6959 cases of scorpion stings recorded between January 2002 and December 2006 from bites recorded in Beni Mellal. The results show that poisoning strongly coincides with the summer period, especially in July and August. All age groups are affected by this disease with an average age of 17.28 +/- 17.91 years. For the time post injection, 35.2% were able to check in under an hour. On the other hand, 70.9% reach a health facility with symptoms (class II) and 29.1% with signs of distress (Class III). Finally, the evolution of patients is mostly positive in 94.7% of cases, and the case fatality rate from scorpion sting poisoning is 3.88%.

  10. Managing scorpion stings in the tropics: chloroquine as an effective drug.

    PubMed

    Yenli, Edwin M T; Ziem, Juventus B; Hillah, B; Wegdam, Harry H J

    2010-04-01

    We report on a fairly familiar alternative use of injection chloroquine in district hospitals in Ghana. Within a period of three years, pain control among six patients with scorpion sting was achieved successfully on an outpatient department basis with injection chloroquine at the Holy Family Hospital, Techiman, Ghana.

  11. Serum production against Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom using cross-linked chitosan nanoparticles as immunoadjuvant.

    PubMed

    Rocha Soares, Karla S; Cardozo Fonseca, José L; Oliveira Bitencourt, Mariana A; Santos, Kátia S C R; Silva, Arnóbio A; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F

    2012-12-15

    Several species of scorpions are known to cause accidents which can lead to death, most of them belonging to the genus Tityus. Tityus serrulatus is considered the most dangerous scorpion in South America. In Brazil, T. serrulatus is responsible for serious accidents, including deaths, which occur mainly with children and elderly people. Anti-scorpion sera are routinely produced by various institutions, and suitable technologies have been investigated for encapsulation and release recombinant or native proteins capable of inducing antibody production. In this context, biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, such as chitosan, have been employed for this purpose. This study aimed to obtain a protein release system for the peptides or proteins from T. serrulatus, based on cross-linked chitosan nanoparticles (CN) in order to generate a new model of immunization in animals, and consequently a potentially novel polyclonal serum, namely an anti-T. serrulatus venom. CN were successfully obtained by ionic gelation using the polyanion tripolyphosphate (TPP), which demonstrated a suitable particle size of about 200 nm, with maximum encapsulation efficiency (100%) and enhanced antigen-specific antibody titers of 72%. The serum production data revealed that CN were equipotent to aluminum hydroxide, the traditional adjuvant for immunization. This study demonstrates that chitosan nanoparticles are a promising and safe system for peptide/protein delivery for T. serrulatus scorpion.

  12. Highly diastereoselective nucleophilic addition to myrtenal. Straightforward synthesis of an enantiopure scorpionate ligand.

    PubMed

    Otero, Antonio; Fernandez-Baeza, Juan; Antiñolo, Antonio; Tejeda, Juan; Lara-Sanchez, Agustín; Sanchez-Barba, Luis F; Sanchez-Molina, Margarita; Franco, Sonia; López-Solera, Maria I; Rodríguez, Ana M

    2007-10-15

    The work described here represents the first example in which an efficient and highly diastereoselective nucleophilic 1,2-addition of an organolithium reagent has been performed on a carbonylic prostereogenic center to give an enantiopure scorpionate ligand in only one step.

  13. Splicing of scorpion toxin gene BmKK2 in HEK 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Zhijian, Cao; Chao, Dai; Shijin, Yin; Yingliang, Wu; Jiqun, Sheng; Yonggang, Sha; Wenxin, Li

    2006-01-01

    Using GFP as a reporter gene, splicing of scorpion toxin gene BmKK2 was investigated in cultured HEK 293T cells. The results of RT-PCR and western blotting showed that BmKK2's intron could be recognized and spliced in cultured HEK 293T cells. At the same time, a cryptic splicing site of BmKK2 gene was found at the 91st nucleotide site of the second exon, which is a typical form of alternative splicing. For the first time, alternative splicing would partially explain the diversity of scorpion toxins at the gene level. Moreover, replacing BmKK2's intron with BmP03's intron (an artificial BmKK2-BmP03 mosaic gene) did not affect the intron's recognition and splicing, but increased the expression of the toxin-GFP fusion protein by fluorescence imaging, which indicated that both introns may regulate the expression of toxin-GFP fusion protein. The artificial BmKK2-BmP03 mosaic gene was also spliced into two kinds of mRNA molecules, which showed that sequence of intron was not absolutely conserved. The results suggested that introns of scorpion toxin genes BmKK2 and BmP03 increase the diversity of scorpion toxins and regulate the expression of their genes. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Characterization of unique amphipathic antimicrobial peptides from venom of the scorpion Pandinus imperator.

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, G; Escoubas, P; Villegas, E; Barnham, K J; He, W; Norton, R S; Nakajima, T

    2001-01-01

    Two novel antimicrobial peptides have been identified and characterized from venom of the African scorpion Pandinus imperator. The peptides, designated pandinin 1 and 2, are alpha-helical polycationic peptides, with pandinin 1 belonging to the group of antibacterial peptides previously described from scorpions, frogs and insects, and pandinin 2 to the group of short magainin-type helical peptides from frogs. Both peptides demonstrated high antimicrobial activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria (2.4-5.2 microM), but were less active against Gram-negative bacteria (2.4-38.2 microM), and only pandinin 2 affected the yeast Candida albicans. Pandinin 2 also demonstrated strong haemolytic activity (11.1-44.5 microM) against sheep erythrocytes, in contrast with pandinin 1, which was not haemolytic. CD studies and a high-resolution structure of pandinin 2 determined by NMR, showed that the two peptides are both essentially helical, but differ in their overall structure. Pandinin 2 is composed of a single alpha-helix with a predominantly hydrophobic N-terminal sequence, whereas pandinin 1 consists of two distinct alpha-helices separated by a coil region of higher flexibility. This is the first report of magainin-type polycationic antimicrobial peptides in scorpion venom. Their presence brings new insights into the mode of action of scorpion venom and also opens new avenues for the discovery of novel antibiotic molecules from arthropod venoms. PMID:11563967

  15. A new species of Auyantepuia González-Sponga, 1978 (Scorpiones, Chactidae) from French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Ythier, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of scorpion belonging to the genus Auyantepuia González-Sponga, 1978 (family Chactidae Pocock, 1893) is described on the basis of three specimens collected in a rainforest formation located in Saut Sabbat, South of Mana, French Guiana. This is the tenth species of the Guiano-Amazonian genus Auyantepuia, and the fifth reported from French Guiana. PMID:26798247

  16. Antitoxin activity of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine against scorpion poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferrer, J E; Pérez-Terán, Y Y; Román-Ramos, R; Tortoriello, J

    2005-01-01

    Scorpions, especially in urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions, present a common risk of poisoning. In Mexico, scorpion envenomation is considered a public health problem. Despite the frequency of scorpion sting cases, there are to date no uniform criteria for their treatment. In Mexican traditional medicine, different plant species have been widely used as a remedy for treating scorpion poisoning. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Bouvardia ternifolia, Aristolochia elegans and Vitex mollis extracts on Centruroides limpidus limpidus venom lethality in mice, and to determine their antagonist activity on guinea pig ileum. The hexane and methanol extract from B. ternifolia modified the LD50 of C. limpidus limpidus venom from 0.750 +/- 0.08 to 1.64 +/- 0.19 and 1.16 +/- 0.14 mg/kg, respectively. The extracts of A. elegans produced lower antitoxic activity, while extracts of V. mollis did not show any protection. On in vitro test, addition of B. ternifolia and A. elegans extracts strongly inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the ileum contractions induced by venom. In general, the results demonstrated the effectiveness of these two plant species in modifying the lethality of C. limpidus limpidus venom in mice.

  17. Peripheral and central effects of intracerebroventricular microinjection of Hottentotta gentili (Pallary, 1924) (Scorpiones, Buthidae) venom.

    PubMed

    El Hidan, Moulay Abdelmonaim; Touloun, Oulaid; El Hiba, Omar; Laadraoui, Jawad; Ferehan, Hind; Boumezzough, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Central effects of scorpion venom toxins have been neglected, due both to the common belief that scorpion venoms act by targeting peripheral organs and also to the misunderstanding that these peptides do not cross the brain-blood barrier (BBB). Determining whether scorpion neurotoxicity is restricted to peripheral actions or whether a central mechanism may be partly responsible for systemic manifestations could be crucial in clinical therapy trends. The present study therefore aims to assess histopathological damages in some organs (heart, kidney, liver, and lungs) and the related biochemical impairments, together with a neurobehavioral investigation following an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) micro-injection of Hottentotta gentili (Scorpiones, Buthidae) venom (0.47 μg/kg). I.c.v. injection of venom produced focal fragmentation of myocardial fibers, while lungs showed rupture of the alveolar structure. Concurrently, there was a significant rise in the serum enzymes levels of ASAT, ALAT, CPK and LDH. Meanwhile, we observed behavioral alterations such as a hypoactivity, and in addition the venom seems to have a marked anxiogenic-like effect. The present investigation has brought new experimental evidence of a peripheral impact of central administration of H. gentili venom, such impact was manifested by physiological and behavioral disturbances, the last of these appearing to reflect profound neuro-modulatory action of H. gentili venom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potassium channel blockers from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus ().

    PubMed

    Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Pimenta, Adriano M C; Bougis, Pierre E; De Lima, Maria-Elena

    2016-09-01

    Potassium (K(+)) channels are trans-membrane proteins, which play a key role in cellular excitability and signal transduction pathways. Scorpion toxins blocking the ion-conducting pore from the external side have been invaluable probes to elucidate the structural, functional, and physio-pathological characteristics of these ion channels. This review will focus on the interaction between K(+) channels and their peptide blockers isolated from the venom of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus, which is considered as the most dangerous scorpion in Brazil, in particular in Minas-Gerais State, where many casualties are described each year. The primary mechanisms of action of these K(+) blockers will be discussed in correlation with their structure, very often non-canonical compared to those of other well known K(+) channels blockers purified from other scorpion venoms. Also, special attention will be brought to the most recent data obtained by proteomic and transcriptomic analyses on Tityus serrulatus venoms and venom glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. General biochemical and immunological characteristics of the venom from Peruvian scorpion Hadruroides lunatus.

    PubMed

    Costal-Oliveira, F; Duarte, C G; Machado de Avila, R A; Melo, M M; Bordon, K C F; Arantes, E C; Paredes, N C; Tintaya, B; Bonilla, C; Bonilla, R E; Suarez, W S; Yarleque, A; Fernandez, J M; Kalapothakis, E; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    This communication describes the general biochemical properties and some immunological characteristics of the venom from the Peruvian scorpion Hadruroides lunatus, which is the most medically relevant species in Peru. The soluble venom of this scorpion is toxic to mice, the LD₅₀ determined was 0.1 mg/kg and 21.55 mg/kg when the venom was injected intracranial or intraperitoneally, respectively. The soluble venom displayed proteolytic, hyaluronidasic, phospholipasic and cardiotoxic activities. High performance liquid chromatography of the soluble venom resulted in the separation of 20 fractions. Two peptides with phospholipasic activity were isolated to homogeneity and their molecular masses determined by mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF). Anti-H. lunatus venom sera were produced in rabbits. Western blotting analysis showed that most of the protein content of this venom is immunogenic. H. lunatus anti-venom displayed consistent cross-reactivity with venom antigens from the new World-scorpions Tityus serrulatus and Centruroides sculpturatus venoms; however, a weaker reactivity was observed against the venom antigens from the old World-scorpion Androctonus australis Hector.

  20. A climatological study of scorpion sting incidence from 2007 to 2011 in the Dezful area of southwestern Iran, using a time series model.

    PubMed

    Molaee, Seyedeh Maryam; Ahmadi, Kambiz Angali; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Moravvej, Seyed Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion stings are a public health problem in south and southwest Iran. There is little information regarding climatological effects on incidence of scorpion stings in Iran. Therefore, the present systemic survey of scorpion sting data was conducted from the point of view of entomo-meteorological relationships and analyzed statistically for the Dezful area in Khuzestan, southwest of Iran. The time series analysis was implemented using MINITAB version 16 statistical software packages. In total, 3,755 scorpion sting files from the Dezful health centers were monitored from April 2007 to September 2011 in a time series analysis. The results showed that temperature had significant effects on scorpion sting. From the data of this study, it is concluded that the scorpion activity in Dezful County is a climatological-dependent phenomenon. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Lithium, titanium, and zirconium complexes with novel amidinate scorpionate ligands.

    PubMed

    Otero, Antonio; Fernandez-Baeza, Juan; Antiñolo, Antonio; Tejeda, Juan; Lara-Sanchez, Agustín; Sanchez-Barba, Luis F; López-Solera, Isabel; Rodríguez, Ana M

    2007-03-05

    The reaction of bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)methane (bdmpzm) with BunLi and carbodiimide derivatives, namely, N,N'-diisopropyl, dicyclohexyl, and 1-tert-butyl-3-ethyl carbodiimides, enables the preparation of new heteroscorpionate ligands in the form of the lithium derivatives [Li(NNN)(THF)] (NNN = pbpamd (1) (pbpamd = N,N'-diisopropylbis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)acetamidinate); cbpamd (2) (cbpamd = N,N'-dicyclohexylbis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)acetamidinate); and tbpamd (3) (tbpamd = N-ethyl-N'-tert-butylbis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)acetamidinate)), although a similar process with N,N'-dimethylcarbodiimide gave the dinuclear complex [Li(bpzii)(THF)]2 (4) (bpzii = N-(dimethylamino)-N'-[(dimethylamino)bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)methylimino]imino). When this last reaction was carried out in an air atmosphere, the cluster complex [Li8(mu4-O)2(mu4-OH)2(mu4-pz)2(kappa2-bpziLi)2(bpzCN)2(THF)4] (5) (bpziLi = dimethylaminobis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)methyliminolithium, bpzCN = bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)acetonitrile) was isolated and characterized by X-ray analysis. Finally, when the same process was carried out in the presence of water the amidine-scorpionate (bpzan) (6) (bpzan = N,N-dimethylbis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)acetamidine) was obtained. Compounds 1 and 3 reacted with [TiCl4(THF)2] or [ZrCl4] to give complexes of stoichiometry [MCl3((kappa3-NNN))] (M = Ti, Zr) (7-10). The structures of the different compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods and, in addition, the X-ray crystal structures of 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were also established.

  2. A single-point mutation enhances dual functionality of a scorpion toxin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueli; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion venom represents a tremendous, hitherto partially explored peptide library that has been proven to be useful not only for understanding ion channels but also for drug design. MeuTXKα3 is a functionally unknown scorpion toxin-like peptide. Here we describe new transcripts of this gene arising from alternative polyadenylation and its biological function as well as a mutant with a single-point substitution at site 30. Native-like MeuTXKα3 and its mutant were produced in Escherichia coli and their toxic function against Drosophila Shaker K(+) channel and its mammalian counterparts (rKv1.1-rKv1.3) were assayed by two-electrode voltage clamp technique. The results show that MeuTXKα3 is a weak toxin with a wide-spectrum of activity on both Drosophila and mammalian K(+) channels. The substitution of a proline at site 30 by an asparagine, an evolutionarily conserved functional residue in the scorpion α-KTx family, led to an increased activity on rKv1.2 and rKv1.3 but a decreased activity on the Shaker channel without changing the potency on rKv1.1, suggesting a key role of this site in species selectivity of scorpion toxins. MeuTXKα3 was also active on a variety of bacteria with lethal concentrations ranging from 4.66 to 52.01μM and the mutant even had stronger activity on some of these bacterial species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a bi-functional short-chain peptide in the lesser Asian scorpion venom. Further extensive mutations of MeuTXKα3 at site 30 could help improve its K(+) channel-blocking and antibacterial functions.

  3. Functional evolution of scorpion venom peptides with an inhibitor cystine knot fold.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Harvey, Peta J; Craik, David J; Ronjat, Michel; De Waard, Michel; Zhu, Shunyi

    2013-06-27

    The ICK (inhibitor cystine knot) defines a large superfamily of polypeptides with high structural stability and functional diversity. Here, we describe a new scorpion venom-derived K+ channel toxin (named λ-MeuKTx-1) with an ICK fold through gene cloning, chemical synthesis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Ca2+ release measurements and electrophysiological recordings. λ-MeuKTx-1 was found to adopt an ICK fold that contains a three-strand anti-parallel β-sheet and a 310-helix. Functionally, this peptide selectively inhibits the Drosophila Shaker K+ channel but is not capable of activating skeletal-type Ca2+ release channels/ryanodine receptors, which is remarkably different from the previously known scorpion venom ICK peptides. The removal of two C-terminal residues of λ-MeuKTx-1 led to the loss of the inhibitory activity on the channel, whereas the C-terminal amidation resulted in the emergence of activity on four mammalian K+ channels accompanied by the loss of activity on the Shaker channel. A combination of structural and pharmacological data allows the recognition of three putative functional sites involved in channel blockade of λ-MeuKTx-1. The presence of a functional dyad in λ-MeuKTx-1 supports functional convergence among scorpion venom peptides with different folds. Furthermore, similarities in precursor organization, exon-intron structure, 3D-fold and function suggest that scorpion venom ICK-type K+ channel inhibitors and Ca2+ release channel activators share a common ancestor and their divergence occurs after speciation between buthidae and non-buthids. The structural and functional characterizations of the first scorpion venom ICK toxin with K+ channel-blocking activity sheds light on functionally divergent and convergent evolution of this conserved scaffold of ancient origin.

  4. Antarease-like Zn-metalloproteases are ubiquitous in the venom of different scorpion genera.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Ernesto; Rendón-Anaya, Martha; Rego, Solange Cristina; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Possani, Lourival Domingos

    2014-06-01

    The venoms of several scorpion species have long been associated with pancreatitis in animal models and humans. Antarease, a Zn-metalloprotease from Tityus serrulatus, is able to penetrate intact pancreatic tissue and disrupts the normal vesicular traffic necessary for secretion, so it could play a relevant role in the onset of acute pancreatitis. The cDNA libraries from five different scorpion species were screened for antarease homologs with specific primers. The amplified PCR products were cloned and sequenced. A structural model was constructed to assess the functionality of the putative metalloproteases. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to identify clustering patterns of these venom components. Antarease-like sequences were amplified from all the screened cDNA libraries. The complete sequence of the antarease from T. serrulatus was obtained. The structural model of the putative antarease from Tityus trivittatus shows that it may adopt a catalytically active conformation, sharing relevant structural elements with previously reported metalloproteases of the ADAM family. The phylogenetic analysis reveals that the reported sequences cluster in groups that correlate with the geographical localization of the respective species. Antareases are ubiquitous to a broad range of scorpion species, where they could be catalytically active enzymes. These molecules can be used to describe the evolution of scorpion venoms under different ecogeographic constrains. For the first time the complete sequence of the antareases is reported. It is demonstrated that antareases are common in the venom of different scorpion species. They are now proposed as targets for antivenom therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of Recombinant Alpha Neurotoxin of Scorpion Venom Mesobuthus eupeus and Analysis of its Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Ghafar; Jolodar, Abbas; Seyfiabad Shapouri, Masoud Reza; Bahmainmehr, Ardeshir; Navidpour, Shahrokh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scorpion venom is important and rich source of peptides, most of which have been widely used as pharmacological tools for unraveling structure-function relationship of various ion channels. Naturally occurring toxins can be also considered as lead compounds in the development of novel drugs. Objectives: In this context, the scorpion-derived peptide neurotoxins specific to sodium channels have shown promise as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of various human diseases. Materials and Methods: A cDNA library from the extracted RNA was constructed using RT-PCR and semi-nested RT-PCR. DNA sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis was applied to screen the cDNA library clones. For molecular characterization of the BMK gene we used cloning and recombinant protein expression techniques based on E.coli systems. Then we performed mice immunization and Western blot and Immunodot analyses. Results: A novel BMK neurotoxin has been cloned, expressed and characterized from the Iranian scorpion M. eupeus venom. We analyzed the recombinant BMK by immunoblotting with treated antiserum. The result showed that mice antiserum can react also with scorpion crude venom, so is able to recognize native BMK toxin. Conclusion: The newly produced recombinant protein BMK revealed to be immunogenic. Moreover, anti-BMK antibodies produced in mice were able to recognize both the recombinant BMK neurotoxin and the one in M. eupeus crude venome. Taken together, the molecular characterization and recombinant production of the Iranian scorpion M. eupeus venom component can serve as a new probe for further studies of sodium channels function and physiology. This provides a promising perspective for the future design of selective drugs, as well as for research of antivenom production. PMID:24719721

  6. Proteins, lethality and in vivo effects of Iurus dufoureius asiaticus scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Ozcan; Ciftci, Gulay; Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Kar, Sirri; Uysal, Hamdi; Karaer, Kadri Zafer

    2007-09-01

    Iurus dufoureius asiaticus, Birula, 1903 scorpions were collected in Mugla province located in the Aegean region, Turkey. There are few number of publications about I.d. asiaticus, and there are no data regarding minimal lethal dose and effects of the scorpion venom till now. This is the first study about toxicity and effects of I.d. asiaticus scorpion venom in mice. Previously, most of the proteins in venom of I.d. asiaticus from Aydin region in Turkey were reported to be between 14 and 205 kDa in size. In this study, we determined the electrophoretic protein pattern of the venom taken from Mugla province to be between 29 and 116 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) was determined instead of s.c. injection since there were no deaths in any s.c. test groups. The LD(50) of I.d. asiaticus scorpion venom was found to be 47.7 microg/20 g mouse by i.c.v. injection route. After s.c. injection venom, mice were shown any intoxication symptoms. On the other hand, after i.c.v. administration of venom, mice showed symptoms such as excitability, hyper salivation, weakness, paralysis, coma and resulting in death. The possible cause of death could be due to multi-system organ failure depending on the toxic effect of the venom. These both results showed that the venom was not lethal on s.c. injection, but it was lethal on i.c.v. injection. This may imply that the scorpion is of little danger to humans.

  7. Scorpion (Odontobuthus doriae) venom induces apoptosis and inhibits DNA synthesis in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zargan, Jamil; Sajad, Mir; Umar, Sadiq; Naime, M; Ali, Shakir; Khan, Haider A

    2011-02-01

    Scorpion and its organs have been used to cure epilepsy, rheumatism, and male impotency since medieval times. Scorpion venom which contains different compounds like enzyme and non-enzyme proteins, ions, free amino acids, and other organic inorganic substances have been reported to posses antiproliferative, cytotoxic, apoptogenic, and immunosuppressive properties. We for the first time report the apoptotic and antiproliferative effects of scorpion venom (Odontobuthus doriae) in human neuroblastoma cells. After exposure of cells to medium containing varying concentrations of venom (10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml), cell viability decreased to 90.75, 75.53, 55.52, 37.85, and 14.30%, respectively, after 24 h. Cells expressed morphological changes like swelling, inhibition of neurite outgrowth, irregular shape, aggregation, rupture of membrane, and release of cytosolic contents after treatment with venom. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level increased in 50 and 100 μg/ml as compared to control, but there was no significant increase in LDH level at a dose of 10 and 20 μg/ml. Two concentrations viz. 50 and 100 μ/ml were selected because of the profound effect of these concentrations on the cellular health and population. Treatment with these two concentrations induced reactive nitrogen intermediates and depolarization in mitochondria. While caspase-3 activity increased in a concentration-dependent manner, only 50 μg/ml was able to fragment DNA. It was interesting to note that at higher dose, i.e., 100 μg/ml, the cells were killed, supposedly by acute necrosis. DNA synthesis evidenced by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. The cells without treatment incorporated BrdU with high affinity confirming their cancerous nature whereas very less incorporation was noticed in treated cells. Our results show apoptotic and antiproliferative potential of scorpion venom (O. doriae) in human neuroblastoma cells. These properties

  8. Functional evolution of scorpion venom peptides with an inhibitor cystine knot fold

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bin; Harvey, Peta J.; Craik, David J.; Ronjat, Michel; De Waard, Michel; Zhu, Shunyi

    2013-01-01

    The ICK (inhibitor cystine knot) defines a large superfamily of polypeptides with high structural stability and functional diversity. Here, we describe a new scorpion venom-derived K+ channel toxin (named λ-MeuKTx-1) with an ICK fold through gene cloning, chemical synthesis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Ca2+ release measurements and electrophysiological recordings. λ-MeuKTx-1 was found to adopt an ICK fold that contains a three-strand anti-parallel β-sheet and a 310-helix. Functionally, this peptide selectively inhibits the Drosophila Shaker K+ channel but is not capable of activating skeletal-type Ca2+ release channels/ryanodine receptors, which is remarkably different from the previously known scorpion venom ICK peptides. The removal of two C-terminal residues of λ-MeuKTx-1 led to the loss of the inhibitory activity on the channel, whereas the C-terminal amidation resulted in the emergence of activity on four mammalian K+ channels accompanied by the loss of activity on the Shaker channel. A combination of structural and pharmacological data allows the recognition of three putative functional sites involved in channel blockade of λ-MeuKTx-1. The presence of a functional dyad in λ-MeuKTx-1 supports functional convergence among scorpion venom peptides with different folds. Furthermore, similarities in precursor organization, exon–intron structure, 3D-fold and function suggest that scorpion venom ICK-type K+ channel inhibitors and Ca2+ release channel activators share a common ancestor and their divergence occurs after speciation between buthidae and non-buthids. The structural and functional characterizations of the first scorpion venom ICK toxin with K+ channel-blocking activity sheds light on functionally divergent and convergent evolution of this conserved scaffold of ancient origin. PMID:23721518

  9. Vejovine, a new antibiotic from the scorpion venom of Vaejovis mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Aponte, Cynthia A; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela; Balderas, Cipriano; Possani, Lourival D; Gurrola, Georgina B

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug resistant bacterial infections are one of the most important health problems in recent years. Resistance to conventional antibiotics limits the therapeutic options causing increase rate in morbid-mortality in hospitals. Therefore, new antibacterial agents with new bacterial targets have been searched and found in many different sources, including scorpion venom and scorpion hemolymph. Here, we report a new anti-microbial peptide named Vejovine. This peptide was isolated from the venom of the Mexican scorpion Vaejovis mexicanus by two steps of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). It is composed of 47 amino acid residues with no cysteine residues in its sequence, with a molecular weight of 4873 Da. The chemical synthesis of Vejovine was performed by the solid phase method of Merrifield, using fluoren-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-amino acids. Both the native and synthetic peptides were shown to have essentially the same activity. Vejovine inhibits growth of clinical isolates of Gram-negative multidrug resistant (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumanii) causing nosocomial infections with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4.4 μM up to 50 μM. This peptide has also hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes with a HC(50) value of 100 μM. A cDNA library of the venomous gland of this scorpion provided material for cloning the gene encoding Vejovine. This peptide is a new type of antibiotic, showing less than 50% similarity to other known scorpion peptides. Vejovine is a candidate to be used as a leading compound for future development of an effective peptide against multidrug resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Captivity Narrative as Propaganda in the Black Hawk War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Darlene E.

    1987-01-01

    Shows how captivity stories acted as propaganda against the American Indians in the nineteenth century. Gives excerpts from a captivity narrative portraying Indians in a negative way and demonstrates its use as propaganda during the time of the Black Hawk War. (AEM)

  11. The Captivity Narrative as Propaganda in the Black Hawk War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Darlene E.

    1987-01-01

    Shows how captivity stories acted as propaganda against the American Indians in the nineteenth century. Gives excerpts from a captivity narrative portraying Indians in a negative way and demonstrates its use as propaganda during the time of the Black Hawk War. (AEM)

  12. Infective endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism following scorpion sting envenoming in an 11-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Vellasamy; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Bethou, Adhisivam; Deepak Barathi, S

    2014-05-01

    Scorpion sting is one of the common paediatric toxicological problems encountered in southern India. This rural emergency often results in an autonomic storm causing peripheral circulatory failure and/or congestive cardiac failure, leading to pulmonary oedema. A rare case of scorpion sting envenoming in an 11-year-old boy that led to local cellulitis, dyspnoea and congestive heart failure is presented. This was followed by a persistent high-grade fever which lasted for more than 2 weeks and was complicated by fatal Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism. Although infective endocarditis has been reported occasionally in adults following scorpion sting, this is the first case of infective endocarditis in a native valve in a child following scorpion sting. The literature is reviewed and the mechanisms for this association are discussed.

  13. Envenomation caused by Rhopalurus amazonicus Lourenço, 1986 (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in Pará State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira; Santos-Jr, Alfredo P; Oliveira, Joacir Stolarz

    2014-01-01

    Scorpions, mainly those belonging to the genus Tityus cause many deaths and injuries in Brazil, with tens of thousands of envenomations notified every year. However, injuries involving other scorpion species are scarcely registered. Among the sixteen species of the genus Rhopalurus, Thorell, 1876, described up to date, nine are found in this country, with only a confirmed case of human envenomation provoked by R. agamemnon Koch, 1839. The present case reports, for the first time, a case of scorpion sting in a human victim involving Rhopalurus amazonicus, endemic species of the west region of the Pará state, Amazon, Brazil. The symptoms of envenomation were local pain and paresthesia. This study contributes to develop the knowledge on venomous scorpions, particularly those that may cause envenomations in this region.

  14. Predictive determinants of scorpion stings in a tropical zone of south Iran: use of mixed seasonal autoregressive moving average model.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Vahid; Hamdami, Esmael; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Ezzatzadegan Jahromi, Shahrokh

    2017-01-01

    More than 1.2 million scorpion stings occur annually worldwide, particularly in tropical regions. In the absence of proper medical care, mortality due to venomous scorpion stings is an important public health issue. The aim of the present study is to explore the temporal trend of scorpionism with time series models and determine the effective factors on this event using regression models. A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted on 853 scorpion stung patients. They were referred to Haji-Abad Hospital of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences (HUMS), south Iran, from May 2012 to July 2016. A linear model to describe and predict the monthly trend of scorpion sting cases is fit with autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model. Of 853 victims, 384 (45%) patients were female and 30.2% of them lived in urban areas. The mean (± SD) age of patients was 30.1 (± 19.6) years and the most affected age group was 20-29 years (21.8%). Most victims were unemployed people and farmers (54.7%) followed by housewives (30.2%). The majority of the stings occurred indoors (53.7%), between midnight and 6 a.m. (29.2%), in the summer (44.2%), and the most affected limbs were hands and legs (81.2%). Patient genders and occasions of being stung by scorpions were significantly different between outdoors and indoors (p < 0.001). Scorpion stings due to Odontobuthus doriae were significantly higher than due to other species in urban and rural patients (p = 0.04). Mixed seasonal ARMA at lag 12, ARMA (1, 1) × (0, 1), was selected as the best process for monthly trend of data. Regression results indicated that significant climate factors associated with scorpion stings are temperature (p < 0.001) and relative humidity (p = 0.002). Scorpion stings have a noticeable effect on tropical rural populations, mainly farmers. Two effective climate factors associated positively and negatively with scorpion sting cases are temperature and relative humidity, respectively. The results

  15. Investigating the chemical profile of regenerated scorpion (Parabuthus transvaalicus) venom in relation to metabolic cost and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nisani, Zia; Boskovic, Danilo S; Dunbar, Stephen G; Kelln, Wayne; Hayes, William K

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the biochemical profile of regenerated venom of the scorpion Parabuthus transvaalicus in relation to its metabolic cost and toxicity. Using a closed-system respirometer, we compared oxygen consumption between milked and unmilked scorpions to determine the metabolic costs associated with the first 192 h of subsequent venom synthesis. Milked scorpions had a substantially (21%) higher mean metabolic rate than unmilked scorpions, with the largest increases in oxygen consumption occurring at approximately 120 h, 162 h, and 186 h post-milking. Lethality tests in crickets indicated that toxicity of the regenerated venom returned to normal levels within 4 d after milking. However, the chemical profile of the regenerated venom, as evaluated by FPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, suggested that regeneration of different venom components was asynchronous. Some peptides regenerated quickly, particularly those associated with the scorpion's "prevenom," whereas others required much or all of this time period for regeneration. This asynchrony could explain the different spikes detected in oxygen consumption of milked scorpions as various peptides and other venom components were resynthesized. These observations confirm the relatively high metabolic cost of venom regeneration and suggest that greater venom complexity can be associated with higher costs of venom production.

  16. Echocardiologic evaluation and follow-up of cardiovascular complications in children with scorpion sting in coastal South India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Chandra Mohan; Prasad, S V Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion stings are a common emergency in India and many other tropical countries. In India, the red scorpions are more prevalent, and their venom is more likely to cause myocardial dysfunctions. There are very few studies conducted on this problem. The following study was done in Andhra Pradesh and aimed to identify cardiovascular complications of scorpion stings in children with a follow-up of 6 months. Prospective observational study. Children admitted with scorpion sting in a tertiary care hospital between December 2009 and November 2010 and followed-up till May 2011. Scorpion stings account for 1 in every 36 admissions. Maximum cases were in 0-3 years age group. Electrocardiogram changes were seen in 76% cases and myocarditis in 42% cases. Echocardiography revealed decreased ejection fraction (EF), transient mitral regurgitation and wall motion abnormalities were observed. Average EF improved from 16% on day 1 to 47.94% and 59% on day 5 and 14 respectively, which was highly statistically significant. By the end of 1 month, all the survivors had normal EF and no residual cardiac dysfunction was observed at 6 months. Scorpion stings, a common and fatal medical emergency in India, produce echocardiographic changes without any long term residual damage on myocardial activity.

  17. Black Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraka, Amiri

    1987-01-01

    Discusses black art as not only an expression of black life but as revolutionary art. It must be collective, functional, and committing. It must also be anti-racist, anti-capitalist, and anti-imperialist. (LHW)

  18. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  19. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  20. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  1. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  2. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  3. [Trends in mortality from scorpion stings in Mexico, 1979-2003].

    PubMed

    Celis, Alfredo; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Sevilla-Godínez, Elizabeth; Orozco Valerio, María de Jesús; Armas, Jesús

    2007-06-01

    To describe the trends in mortality from scorpion stings in Mexico as a whole and in each of its states for the period of 1979 to 2003. We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates due to scorpion stings and the trends during the period studied based on official mortality data for Mexico, using the codes (E905.2 and X22, respectively) from the 9th and 10th editions of the International Classification of Diseases. The results were stratified by age group. The frequencies of deaths from scorpion stings were compared using relative risk (RR), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Between 1979 and 2003 in Mexico, 6,077 deaths from scorpion stings were registered. A statistically significant downward trend was found in standardized mortality rates (beta = -0.195; P < or = 0.001), with a total reduction of 86.5% for the period of 2001-2003 versus 1979-1982. For the 2001-2003 period, the highest mortality rates were in children under 1 year of age (7.07 per 1,000,000), children 1 to 4 years old (3.78 per 1,000,000), persons 60 and older (0.84 per 1,000,000), and males (0.81 per 1,000,000). Persons in communities with fewer than 2,500 inhabitants had a relative risk that was 11.8 times (95% CI: 7.86 to 17.72) that found in communities with more than 20,000 inhabitants. The states with the highest mortality rates were in the central and western regions of the country. Despite the sustained decline in the number of deaths from scorpion stings in the last 20 years in Mexico, there is still an important public health problem. The groups that are most affected are children under 5 and the elderly. Measures should be taken so that in all communities, especially small ones, adequate resources and information are available to provide for the prompt care of persons who suffer a scorpion sting.

  4. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  5. The Black Hills Case: On the Cusp of History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommersheim, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the legal history of ownership claim to Black Hills land in South Dakota by Lakota Sioux Indians and federal government. Examines progress of the Sioux Nation Black Hills Act (1987) as a way to establish a Sioux National Council, a vibrant legal panel linking the Lakota with their past. (TES)

  6. 75 FR 1384 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: Initial. CFDA Numbers: 93...

  7. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian…

  8. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian…

  9. Indian Graphic Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Sarain

    1979-01-01

    Noting Indian tribes had invented ways to record facts and ideas, with graphic symbols that sometimes reached the complexity of hieroglyphs, this article illustrates and describes Indian symbols. (Author/RTS)

  10. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  11. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  12. Indians in Minneapolis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Richard G.

    The League of Women Voters of Minneapolis decided in May of 1967 to examine public and private agencies in the city of Minneapolis to determine agency perception of Indian problems, and to assess how well the various agencies were dealing with problems related to the Indian population of the city. In addition, 100 Indians were randomly selected…

  13. National Indian Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Karen Kay

    2006-01-01

    This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

  14. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the Cherokee Indians from the mid-sixteenth century to modern day depicts an industrious tribe adversely affected by the settlement movement only to make exceptional economic advancements with the aid of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Civic pride and self-leadership among the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina has…

  15. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  16. INDIANS OF SOUTH DAKOTA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARTICHOKER, JOHN, JR.

    USING A QUESTION AND ANSWER FORMAT, THIS DOCUMENT ATTEMPTS TO EXPLAIN MANY FACETS OF THE PROBLEMS FACING THE SOUTH DAKOTA INDIANS, PARTICULARLY THOSE SIOUX INDIANS WHO HAVE RETAINED THEIR CUSTOMS AND CULTURE WHETHER LIVING ON OR OFF THE RESERVATIONS. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DACOTAH INDIANS AND THEIR EVENTUAL RESTRICTION TO RESERVATIONS PROVIDES THE…

  17. Indians into Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N.

    Located at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Indians Into Medicine (INMED) is a multi-faceted program providing academic, financial, and personal support for Indian students preparing for health careers. The program has the following goals: (1) increase awareness and motivation among Indian students with the potential for health…

  18. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  19. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  20. Locus of Control Measures among American Indians: Cluster Structure Analytic Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E.; Richardson, Susan S.

    1982-01-01

    Locus of control scales were administered to 740 American Indian adults. Factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis substantiated previous findings with Blacks of a separation of personal control from ideological control. Clusters obtained with American Indians related to trust, personal control, race ideology, control ideology, and a…

  1. A K⁺ channel blocking peptide from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus garridoi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ravelo, Rodolfo; Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Coronas, Fredy I V; Espinosa-López, Georgina; Possani, Lourival D

    2014-03-01

    A proteomic analysis of the venom obtained from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus garridoi was performed. Venom was obtained by electrical stimulation, separated by high performance liquid chromatography, and the molecular masses of their 50 protein components were identified by mass spectrometry. A peptide of 3940 Da molecular mass was obtained in pure form and its primary structure determined. It contains 37 amino acid residues, including three disulfide bridges. Electrophysiological experiments showed that this peptide is capable of blocking reversibly K(+)-channels hKv1.1 with a Kd close to 1 μM, but is not effective against hKv1.4, hERG1 and EAG currents, at the same concentration. This is the first protein component ever isolated from this species of scorpion and was assigned the systematic number α-KTx 2.14.

  2. The Scorpion Toxin Tf2 from Tityus fasciolatus Promotes Nav1.3 Opening.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Thalita S; Bosmans, Frank; Rego, Solange C; Mourão, Caroline B F; Schwartz, Elisabeth F

    2015-01-01

    We identified Tf2, the first β-scorpion toxin from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus fasciolatus. Tf2 is identical to Tb2-II found in Tityus bahiensis. We found that Tf2 selectively activates human (h)Nav1.3, a neuronal voltage-gated sodium (Nav) subtype implicated in epilepsy and nociception. Tf2 shifts hNav1.3 activation voltage to more negative values, thereby opening the channel at resting membrane potentials. Seven other tested mammalian Nav channels (Nav1.1-1.2; Nav1.4-1.8) expressed in Xenopus oocytes are insensitive upon application of 1 μM Tf2. Therefore, the identification of Tf2 represents a unique addition to the repertoire of animal toxins that can be used to investigate Nav channel function.

  3. Autopsy diagnosis of a death due to scorpion stinging--a case report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lavlesh; Naik, Shrabana Kumar; Agarwal, Swapnil S; Bastia, Binaya Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Post-mortem diagnosis of envenomation by a scorpion with or without a reliable history is a herculean task for any forensic pathologist. The challenge is compounded when stinging occurs at night, with the history remaining unreliable. The autopsy diagnosis is further complicated when the inflicted wound is small, and the mark is obliterated by healing within few days. As the venom of a scorpion is a mixture of enzymes, most of the forensic science laboratories in India fail to diagnose the poisoning. We present a case in which there was no external evidence of stinging, but the internal post-mortem findings along with histology of the organ systems pointed towards the diagnosis and were corroborated by the history. We reemphasise the importance of pathological sampling of organ systems, whenever there is death due to a suspicious, unknown insect bite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of synthetic peptides can be a misleading approach to generate vaccines against scorpion toxins.

    PubMed

    Calderon-Aranda, E S; Olamendi-Portugal, T; Possani, L D

    1995-09-01

    Seven peptides corresponding to the amino acid sequence of toxin 2 from the scorpion Centruroides noxius were chemically synthesized, purified and assayed in mice for their putative neutralizing properties against scorpion toxins. All the peptides were immunogenic and some produced neutralizing antibodies, as verified by injecting the antisera with toxin into naive animals. However, direct challenge of pre-immunized mice (with the longest synthetic peptides of 27 and 57 amino acid residues) revealed an unexpected sensitization phenomena: the animals did not resist injection of one LD50 of purified toxin 2 (5% survival), but pre-immunization of mice with native toxin protected 100% of the animals. These findings suggest that vaccine preparations with synthetic peptides corresponding to the amino acid sequence of certain toxins should be analyzed cautiously.

  5. Neural network mechanism for the orientation behavior of sand scorpions towards prey.

    PubMed

    Kim, DaeEun

    2006-07-01

    Sand scorpions use their tactile sense organs on their legs to capture their prey. They are able to localize their prey by processing vibration signals generated by the prey movement. The central nervous system receives stimulus-locked neuron firings of the sense organs on their eight legs. It is believed that eight receptor neurons in the brain interact with each other with triad inhibitions and then a voting contribution of the receptor neurons is calculated to obtain the resource direction. This letter presents a neuronal model of the voting procedure to locate prey. The neural network consists of a sinusoidal array of neurons for the resource vector, and it has been tested on the orientation data of scorpions.

  6. Bacterial endosymbiont infections in 'living fossils': a case study of North American vaejovid scorpions.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Robert W

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts are common among arthropods, and maternally inherited forms can affect the reproductive and behavioural traits of their arthropod hosts. The prevalence of bacterial endosymbionts and their role in scorpion evolution have rarely been investigated. In this study, 61 samples from 40 species of scorpion in the family Vaejovidae were screened for the presence of the bacterial endosymbionts Cardinium, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma and Wolbachia. No samples were infected by these bacteria. However, one primer pair specifically designed to amplify Rickettsia amplified nontarget genes of other taxa. Similar off-target amplification using another endosymbiont-specific primer was also found during preliminary screenings. Results caution against the overreliance on previously published screening primers to detect bacterial endosymbionts in host taxa and suggest that primer specificity may be higher in primers targeting nuclear rather than mitochondrial genes.

  7. Novel paradigms on scorpion toxins that affects the activating mechanism of sodium channels.

    PubMed

    de la Vega, Ricardo C Rodríguez; Possani, Lourival D

    2007-02-01

    Scorpion toxins classified as beta-class are reviewed using a new paradigm. Four distinct sub types are recognized: "classical", "Tsgamma-like", "excitatory" and "depressant"beta-scorpion toxins. Recent experimental data have made possible to identify the interacting interfaces of the Na(+) channel-receptor site 4 with some of these toxins. The voltage-sensor trapping mechanism proposed for the action of these toxic peptides is analyzed in the context of what causes a modification of the activating mechanism of Na(+) channels. A cartoon model is presented with the purpose of summarizing the most current knowledge on the field. Finally, the recent advances on the knowledge of the specific interactions of beta-toxins and different sub types of Na(+) channels are also reviewed.

  8. Preparation of a polyvalent antivenom against various Mexican scorpion Centruroides species.

    PubMed

    Garcia y Perez, G; Martin, M F; Rochat, H

    1988-01-01

    Antisera were obtained from rabbits injected with four different immunogens from the Mexican scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus i.e. the crude venom, a telson extract, a toxic fraction obtained from this telson extract by gel filtration and the same toxic fraction subjected to acetylation. The neutralizing capacity of these antisera are compared: it appears that a telson extract can be used instead of the crude venom to produce an efficient antiserum. The immunological properties of ground telsons obtained from three other species of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides (Centruroides noxius, Centruroides limpidus limpidus, Centruroides limpidus tecomanus) are studied with the antisera raised against Centruroides suffusus suffusus immunogens: an almost total cross-neutralization is observed.

  9. Scorpion Venom Heat-Resistant Peptide Protects Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans from β-Amyloid Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Xi; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Our previous studies found SVHRP could enhance neurogenesis and inhibit microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in vivo. Here, we use the transgenic CL4176, CL2006, and CL2355 strains of Caenorhabditis elegans which express the human Aβ1-42 to investigate the effects and the possible mechanisms of SVHRP mediated protection against Aβ toxicity in vivo. The results showed that SVHRP-fed worms displayed remarkably decreased paralysis, less abundant toxic Aβ oligomers, reduced Aβ plaque deposition with respect to untreated animals. SVHRP also suppressed neuronal Aβ expression-induced defects in chemotaxis behavior and attenuated levels of ROS in the transgenic C. elegans. Taken together, these results suggest SVHRP could protect against Aβ-induced toxicity in C. elegans. Further studies need to be conducted in murine models and humans to analyze the effectiveness of the peptide. PMID:27507947

  10. Does scorpion bite lead to development of resistance to the effect of local anaesthetics?

    PubMed

    Panditrao, Minnu Mridul; Panditrao, Mridul Madhav; Khan, Mohd Irfan; Yadav, Nikhil

    2012-11-01

    A patient posted for vaginal hysterectomy was administered subarachnoid block, which failed, so was repeated in one space above. The block failed again, after waiting for 30 min. Patient gave a history of scorpion bite twice, once at the age of 17 years on her right foot and again about 8 months back. Thereafter, balanced general anaesthesia was given. On eighth post-operative day, after explaining about her possible special condition (?Resistance to local anaesthetic agents), the patient was given left median, ulnar and radial nerve blocks at the wrist and local infiltration near the anatomical snuff box. There was neither sensory nor motor block. The scorpion venom is known to affect the pumping mechanism of sodium channels in the nerve fibres, which are involved in the mechanism of action of local anaesthetic drugs, it may be responsible for the development of 'resistance' to the action of local anaesthetic agents.

  11. The Scorpion Toxin Tf2 from Tityus fasciolatus Promotes Nav1.3 Opening

    PubMed Central

    Camargos, Thalita S.; Bosmans, Frank; Rego, Solange C.; Mourão, Caroline B. F.; Schwartz, Elisabeth F.

    2015-01-01

    We identified Tf2, the first β-scorpion toxin from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus fasciolatus. Tf2 is identical to Tb2-II found in Tityus bahiensis. We found that Tf2 selectively activates human (h)Nav1.3, a neuronal voltage-gated sodium (Nav) subtype implicated in epilepsy and nociception. Tf2 shifts hNav1.3 activation voltage to more negative values, thereby opening the channel at resting membrane potentials. Seven other tested mammalian Nav channels (Nav1.1-1.2; Nav1.4-1.8) expressed in Xenopus oocytes are insensitive upon application of 1 μM Tf2. Therefore, the identification of Tf2 represents a unique addition to the repertoire of animal toxins that can be used to investigate Nav channel function. PMID:26083731

  12. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Kaliany Adja Medeiros de; Tavares, Aluska Vieira; Marques, Michael Radan de Vasconcelos; Vieira, Alecxandro Alves; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2017-08-07

    This communication is a retrospective epidemiological study of the scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2014 in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte State. A total of 20,555 cases were studied. The cases were distributed over all months of the period studied and occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 year-old women. Most victims were stung on the foot and received medical care within 1-3 h after being stung. The cases were mostly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Scorpion stings in Rio Grande do Norte State are an environmental public health problem that needs to be monitored and controlled throughout the year.

  13. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Kaliany Adja Medeiros; Tavares, Aluska Vieira; Marques, Michael Radan de Vasconcelos; Vieira, Alecxandro Alves; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This communication is a retrospective epidemiological study of the scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2014 in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte State. A total of 20,555 cases were studied. The cases were distributed over all months of the period studied and occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 year-old women. Most victims were stung on the foot and received medical care within 1-3 h after being stung. The cases were mostly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Scorpion stings in Rio Grande do Norte State are an environmental public health problem that needs to be monitored and controlled throughout the year. PMID:28793026

  14. Digestive amylase of a primitive animal, the scorpion: purification and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Louati, Hanen; Zouari, Nacim; Fendri, Ahmed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2010-04-01

    Scorpion, one of the most ancient invertebrates was chosen, as a model of a primitive animal, to purify and characterize an amylase located in the hepatopancreas. The scorpion digestive amylase (SDA) was purified. Pure SDA was obtained after heat treatment followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation and three steps of chromatography. The pure amylase is not glycosylated and has a molecular mass of 59,101 Da determined by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The maximal amylase activity was measured at pH 7.0 and 50 degrees C, in the presence of Ca2+ and using potato starch as substrate. The enzyme was able to hydrolyze also, glycogen and amylose. The 23 NH2-terminal amino acid SDA residues were sequenced. The sequence obtained is similar to those of mammalian and avian pancreatic amylases. Nevertheless, polyclonal antibodies directed against SDA failed to recognize classical digestive amylases like the porcine pancreatic one. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Odontobuthus tirgari sp. nov. (Scorpiones, Buthidae) from the eastern region of the Iranian Plateau .

    PubMed

    Mirshamsi, Omid; Azghadi, Sara; Navidpour, Shahrokh; Aliabadian, Mansour; Kovařík, František

    2013-10-29

    A new species of scorpions in the genus Odontobuthus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) is described from Khorasan Province, Iran. Currently, Odontobuthus includes two species in Iran, Odontobuthus doriae Thorell, 1876, which is restricted to high elevations of the central Iranian Plateau and Odontobuthus bidentatus Lourenço & Pezier, 2002 from the Zagros Mountains. The results of morphological comparisons, univariate and multivariate statistical analyses and phylogenetic analysis of COI sequence data clearly confirm a deep split between populations from the eastern Iranian Plateau and O. bidentatus Lourenço & Pezier, 2002 and O. doriae Thorell, 1876. Therefore, according to comparative morphological and molecular analyses, a new species, Odontobuthus tigari sp. nov. (♀♂) was described from eastern Iran. This addition represents the third species of this genus from Iran.

  16. Pseudouroctonus peccatum, a new scorpion from the Spring Mountains near “Sin City,” Nevada (Scorpiones, Vaejovidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Amanda E.; Riddle, Rebecca R.; Soleglad, Michael E.; Graham, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new scorpion species is described from the Spring Mountain Range near Las Vegas, Nevada. The new species appears to be geographically isolated from other closely related species of Uroctonites Williams & Savaryand Pseudouroctonus Stahnke. We tentatively place the new species in Pseudouroctonus and provide detailed descriptions and illustrations of type material. We compare the new species to 17 congeneric taxa, briefly discuss the taxonomic history of Pseudouroctonus, and provide DNA barcodes for two paratypes to assist ongoing research on the systematics of family Vaejovidae. PMID:24453544

  17. Jim Thorpe, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reising, Robert

    Fifty years after the death of Black Hawk, the greatest warrior of the Sac and Fox tribe, his great-great-grandson was born: Jim Thorpe, one of the greatest athletes of all time. This biography opens with Black Hawk and a brief history of the Sac and Fox Indians. Then Jim's story begins, in a simple log cabin in Oklahoma, in 1888. Even in his…

  18. Jim Thorpe, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reising, Robert

    Fifty years after the death of Black Hawk, the greatest warrior of the Sac and Fox tribe, his great-great-grandson was born: Jim Thorpe, one of the greatest athletes of all time. This biography opens with Black Hawk and a brief history of the Sac and Fox Indians. Then Jim's story begins, in a simple log cabin in Oklahoma, in 1888. Even in his…

  19. A novel human recombinant antibody fragment capable of neutralizing Mexican scorpion toxins.

    PubMed

    Riaño-Umbarila, Lidia; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Morelos-Juárez, Citlalli; Gurrola, Georgina B; Possani, Lourival D; Becerril, Baltazar

    2013-12-15

    Using phage display and directed evolution, our group has progressed in the construction of a second family of human single chain variable fragments (scFv) which bind to scorpion toxins dangerous to mammals. It was observed that scFv C1 only bound initially to toxin Cn2, which constitutes 6.8% of whole venom from the scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffman. Only a few amino acid changes were necessary to extend its recognition to other similar toxins and without affecting the recognition for its primary antigen (Cn2 toxin). One variant of scFv C1 (scFv 202F) was selected after two cycles of directed evolution against Cll1 toxin, the second major toxic component from the venom of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides limpidus limpidus Karsh (0.5% of the whole venom). scFv 202F is also capable of recognizing Cn2 toxin. Despite not having the highest affinity for toxins Cll1 (KD = 25.1 × 10(-9) M) or Cn2 (KD = 8.1 × 10(-9) M), this antibody fragment neutralized one LD50 of each one of these toxins. Additionally, scFv 202F moderately recognized Cll2 toxin which constitutes 1.5% of the venom from C. limpidus. Based on our previous experience, we consider that these results are promising; consequently, we continue working on generating new optimized variants from scFv C1 that could be part of a recombinant scorpion anti-venom from human origin, that might reach the market in the near future.

  20. Acute kidney injury in Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion stung children: Risk factors and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Valavi, Ehsan; Amuri, Parisa; Ahmadzadeh, Ali; Cheraghian, Bahman; Ahankoob, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently seen in Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion stung children. We have previously reported several victims with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 deficiency. Hence, we conducted this study to identify predictive factors and clinical features of AKI in H. lepturus scorpion stung patients. We included all 215 H. lepturus scorpion stung children with no previous renal diseases in two groups (with and without AKI) and compared them based on their clinical and laboratory findings. AKI was found in 27.4% of patients, they were significantly younger and with lower body weight (P = 0.006, P = 0.011, respectively). There was a significant difference between groups with and without AKI in findings such as fever (P = 0.003), hypertension (P <0.001), hemolytic anemia (P <0.001), thrombocytopenia (P <0.001), massive proteinuria (P <0.001), hemoglobinuria (P <0.001), pyuria (P <0.001), and hematuria (P = 0.004). HUS was in 5.5% and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14.6% which had a significant association with AKI (P <0.001).There were several independent predictors for AKI in a multivariate regression model including thrombocytopenia (P = 0.002), pyuria (P = 0.01), proteinuria (P =0.01), and fever (P = 0.02). Hemodialysis was performed in four patients but kidney function improved in all patients and there was no findings of renal impairment after three months follow-up. We found several predictors for AKI in children following H. lepturus scorpion sting including younger age, delay in receiving medical care, pigmenturia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, proteinuria, and pyuria.

  1. Fatal ischemic stroke following Tityus serrulatus scorpion sting in a patient with essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Bucaretchi, Fábio; De Capitani, Eduardo M; Fernandes, Carla B; Santos, Thiago M; Zamilute, Igor A G; Hyslop, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Stroke following scorpion stings is rare. We report a fatal envenomation involving multiple, extensive brain infarcts in a patient with a previous diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia (ET) who was stung by Tityus serrulatus (T. serrulatus). A 44-year-old woman with a diagnosis of low-risk ET (platelets <1,000,000/mm(3), age <60 years and no history of thrombosis; positive JAK2V617F mutation) was admitted to a local ED 1 h after being stung by T. serrulatus on the left foot. She developed signs of severe envenomation, including several episodes of profuse vomiting, pallor and confusion soon after the sting, followed by shock (BP: 90/60 to 60/40 mmHg) and was treated with scorpion antivenom, vasopressors and mechanical ventilation. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan (54-h poststing) revealed diffuse bilateral cerebellar hypodensity, with partial involvement of both occipital lobes and thalamus, obstructive hydrocephaly with signs of cerebrospinal fluid extravasation, and ascending transtentorial herniation, suggestive of bilateral ischemia involving the posterior cerebral circulation. External ventricular drainage resulted in no improvement and brain death was confirmed on day 10. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain stroke following scorpion stings, such as sympathetic stimulation, myocardial dysfunction, hypotension/shock, arrhythmias and coagulopathy. Ischemic stroke is one of the most serious complications of ET. The risk factors for thrombotic/ischemic events in patients with ET include age (≥60 years) and previous vascular events. Severe scorpion envenomation resulting in myocardial dysfunction and systemic inflammatory response syndrome may increase the overall risk of arterial thrombosis in this patient.

  2. Severe scorpion envenomation among children: does hydrocortisone improve outcome? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bahloul, Mabrouk; Chaari, Anis; Ammar, Rania; Allala, Rania; Dammak, Hassen; Turki, Olfa; Chelly, Hedi; Ben Hamida, Chokri; Bouaziz, Mounir

    2013-06-01

    To analyse the efficacy and safety of systemic infusion of hydrocortisone hemisuccinate in children admitted to the intensive care unit with severe scorpion envenomation, we assessed the impact on mortality and length of hospital stay. We conducted a pair-wise, case-control study with 1:1 matching, reviewing records over a 13-year period (1990-2002) for the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Habib Bourguiba University Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia. A total of 184 children were included in the study (92 cases and 92 controls); cases received hydrocortisone hemisuccinate during hospitalization and controls received no steroids. Patients were matched according to age (±2 years), severity factors at admission (pulmonary edema and grades of severity of scorpion envenomation) and scorpion antivenom administration. Cases and controls did not differ significantly in age (4.9 ± 5.5 years vs 6.2 ± 3.8 years; p > 0.05), mean temperature on admission (37.2 ± 1.2 vs 37.2 ± 1.06; p = 0.99) or presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (77 vs 70; p = 0.198). The proportion of patients with pulmonary edema was similar in the two groups (77 vs 71; p > 0.05), and in each group 46 patients (50%) received scorpion antivenom (p > 0.05). The use of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay and ICU mortality was not significantly different between the studied groups. We detected no significant difference between patients receiving steroids and steroid-free patients in terms of mortality and ICU length of stay. The hydrocortisone hemisuccinate regimen described here had a limited effect in critically ill envenomated children and, therefore, we suggest that it should not be recommended.

  3. Mild reproductive effects of the Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Dorce, Ana Leticia C; Dorce, Valquiria Ac; Nencioni, Ana Leonor A

    2014-02-12

    Scorpion envenoming is a public health problem in Brazil, where Tityus serrulatus and T. bahiensis are considered the most dangerous scorpions. They are well adapted to urbanized environments, and there is an increasing probability of human exposure to these venoms, including during pregnancy. Not much is known about the effects of prenatal exposure to the venom, and no information is available to aid in the rational treatment of victims stung during pregnancy. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether venom from the scorpion T. bahiensis administered once to pregnant female rats at a dose that causes a moderate envenomation may lead to deleterious effects on the reproductive performance of the dams and on the development of their offspring. This is the first work demonstrating that T. bahiensis venom, when administered experimentally to rats, alters maternal reproductive performance and the morphological development of fetuses. The venom was given to dams on the 5th (GD5) or on the 10th (GD10) gestational day. After laparotomy, on GD21, fetuses and placentas were counted, weighed and externally analyzed. The corpora lutea were counted. The sex and vitality of fetuses were evaluated, and each litter was then randomly divided for visceral or skeletal analyses. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test and Fisher's exact test. The significance level for all tests was set at p < 0.05. GD5 group presented an increased number of pre-implantation losses. Weight gains in fetuses and placentas were observed in the GD5 and GD10 groups. Weights of the heart and lungs were elevated in GD5 and GD10 and liver weight in GD10. Moderate envenomation by T. bahiensis scorpion venom alters maternal reproductive performance and fetal development. However, these are preliminary results whose causes should be investigated more carefully in future studies.

  4. A new species of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae) from south western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yağmur, Ersen Aydın; Tropea, Gioele; Yeşilyurt, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    A new scorpion species, Euscorpius lycius sp. n., is described based on specimens collected from Muğla and Antalya Provinces, in southwestern Turkey. It is characterized by a standard trichobothrial pattern (Pv=8/9, et=6, em=4, eb=4), small size and light brown/reddish coloration. With the description of Euscorpius lycius sp. n., the number of valid species of the genus Euscorpius in Turkey increases to 5.

  5. Effects of Tityus stigmurus (Thorell 1876) (Scorpiones: Buthidae) venom in isolated perfused rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nathalia A; Albuquerque, Cleide M R; Marinho, Aline D; Jorge, Roberta J B; Silva, Antonio G; Monteiro, Helena S A; Silva, Túlio D; Silva, Márcia V; Correia, Maria Tereza S; Pereira, Ticiana P; Martins, Alice M C; Menezes, Dalgimar B; Ximenes, Rafael M; Martins, René D

    2016-01-01

    Scorpions belonging to the Tityus genus are of medical interest in Brazil. Among them, Tityus stigmurus is the main scorpion responsible for stings in the Northeast region. After a sting, the scorpion venom distributes rapidly to the organs, reaching the kidneys quickly. However, there are few studies concerning the renal pathophysiology of scorpion poisoning. In this study, we evaluated the effects of T. stigmurus venom (TsV) on renal parameters in isolated rat kidneys. Wistar rats (n = 6), weighing 250-300 g, were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6 g/100 mL bovine serum albumin. TsV at 0.3 and 1.0 μg/mL was tested, and the effects on perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), urinary flow (UF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and electrolyte excretion were analyzed. Effects were observed only at TsV concentration of 1.0 μg/mL, which increased PP (controlPP40' = 92.7 ± 1.95; TsVPP40' = 182.0 ± 4.70* mmHg, *p < 0.05), RVR (controlRVR40' = 3.28 ± 0.23 mmHg; TstRVR40' = 6.76 ± 0.45* mmHg, *p < 0.05), UF (controlUF50' = 0.16 ± 0.04; TstUF50' = 0.60 ± 0.10* mL/g/min,*p < 0.05), GFR and electrolyte excretion, with histological changes that indicate renal tubular injury. In conclusion, T. stigmurus venom induces a transient increase in PP with tubular injury, both of which lead to an augmented electrolyte excretion.

  6. Mild reproductive effects of the Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scorpion envenoming is a public health problem in Brazil, where Tityus serrulatus and T. bahiensis are considered the most dangerous scorpions. They are well adapted to urbanized environments, and there is an increasing probability of human exposure to these venoms, including during pregnancy. Not much is known about the effects of prenatal exposure to the venom, and no information is available to aid in the rational treatment of victims stung during pregnancy. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether venom from the scorpion T. bahiensis administered once to pregnant female rats at a dose that causes a moderate envenomation may lead to deleterious effects on the reproductive performance of the dams and on the development of their offspring. This is the first work demonstrating that T. bahiensis venom, when administered experimentally to rats, alters maternal reproductive performance and the morphological development of fetuses. The venom was given to dams on the 5th (GD5) or on the 10th (GD10) gestational day. After laparotomy, on GD21, fetuses and placentas were counted, weighed and externally analyzed. The corpora lutea were counted. The sex and vitality of fetuses were evaluated, and each litter was then randomly divided for visceral or skeletal analyses. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test and Fisher’s exact test. The significance level for all tests was set at p < 0.05. Results GD5 group presented an increased number of pre-implantation losses. Weight gains in fetuses and placentas were observed in the GD5 and GD10 groups. Weights of the heart and lungs were elevated in GD5 and GD10 and liver weight in GD10. Conclusions Moderate envenomation by T. bahiensis scorpion venom alters maternal reproductive performance and fetal development. However, these are preliminary results whose causes should be investigated more carefully in future studies. PMID:24521392

  7. Reflections on the Black Hills Claim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloria, Vine, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Sioux claim to the Black Hills of South Dakota from the Sioux perspective. Land claim discussed not as legal or political issue, but as a problem deeper than simple land transaction. Examines history and federal land acquisition as violation of Indian culture. Discusses possible future strategies in dealing with government. (TES)

  8. Caribbean Immigrants: A Black Success Story?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Compares the 1980 earnings and earning attainment process of Afro-Caribbean immigrants, Afro-Americans, native-born Whites, and foreign-born Whites. Results do not support the opinion that any West Indian group had higher earnings than native-born Blacks. (DM)

  9. Venom-spraying behavior of the scorpion Parabuthus transvaalicus (Arachnida: Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Nisani, Zia; Hayes, William K

    2015-06-01

    Many animals use chemical squirting or spraying behavior as a defensive response. Some members of the scorpion genus Parabuthus (family Buthidae) can spray their venom. We examined the stimulus control and characteristics of venom spraying by Parabuthus transvaalicus to better understand the behavioral context for its use. Venom spraying occurred mostly, but not always, when the metasoma (tail) was contacted (usually grasped by forceps), and was absent during stinging-like thrusts of the metasoma apart from contact. Scorpions were significantly more likely to spray when contact was also accompanied by airborne stimuli. Sprays happened almost instantaneously following grasping by forceps (median=0.23s) as a brief (0.07-0.30s, mean=0.18s), fine stream (<5° arc) that was not directed toward the stimulus source; however, rapid independent movements of the metasoma and/or telson (stinger) often created a more diffuse spray, increasing the possibility of venom contact with the sensitive eyes of potential scorpion predators. Successive venom sprays varied considerably in duration and velocity. Collectively, these results suggest that venom spraying might be useful as an antipredator function and can be modulated based on threat.

  10. The transcriptome recipe for the venom cocktail of Tityus bahiensis scorpion.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ursula Castro; Candido, Denise Maria; Dorce, Valquíria Abrão Coronado; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles

    2015-03-01

    Scorpion venom is a mixture of peptides, including antimicrobial, bradykinin-potentiating and anionic peptides and small to medium proteins, such as ion channel toxins, metalloproteinases and phospholipases that together cause severe clinical manifestation. Tityus bahiensis is the second most medically important scorpion species in Brazil and it is widely distributed in the country with the exception of the North Region. Here we sequenced and analyzed the transcripts from the venom glands of T. bahiensis, aiming at identifying and annotating venom gland expressed genes. A total of 116,027 long reads were generated by pyrosequencing and assembled in 2891 isotigs. An annotation process identified transcripts by similarity to known toxins, revealing that putative venom components represent 7.4% of gene expression. The major toxins identified are potassium and sodium channel toxins, whereas metalloproteinases showed an unexpected high abundance. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced metalloproteinases from T. bahiensis and other scorpions revealed a pattern of ancient and intraspecific gene expansions. Other venom molecules identified include antimicrobial, anionic and bradykinin-potentiating peptides, besides several putative new venom components. This report provides the first attempt to massively identify the venom components of this species and constitutes one of the few transcriptomic efforts on the genus Tityus.

  11. Optimized scorpion polypeptide LMX: a pest control protein effective against rice leaf folder.

    PubMed

    Tianpei, Xiuzi; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Lepidopteran insect pests are the main class of pests causing significant damage to crop plant yields. Insecticidal scorpion peptides exhibit toxicity specific for insects. Here, we report that a peptide LMX, optimized from the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin LqhIT2, showed high levels of activity against rice leaf folder in vitro and in planta. Oral ingestion of LMX protein led to a significant decrease in feeding on rice leaves, repression of larval growth and development, delay in molting, and increase in larval lethality. Compared with LqhIT2 protein, the stability and insecticidal efficacy of LMX was better. Meanwhile, biochemical analysis showed that LMX protein ingestion dramatically decreased ecdysone content in rice leaf folder larvae, and down-regulated enzymatic activities of the detoxification system (α-naphthyl acetate esterase and glutathione S-transferase), the digestive system (tryptase and chymotrypsin), and the antioxidant system (catalase). These changes were tightly correlated with the dosage of LMX protein. Transgene analysis showed that the rate of leaf damage, and the number of damaged tillers and leaves in the transgenic line were greatly reduced relative to wild type plants and empty vector plants. Based on these observations, we propose that the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin peptide LMX is an attractive and effective alternative molecule for the protection of rice from rice leaf folder.

  12. Variability in venom volume, flow rate and duration in defensive stings of five scorpion species.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Arie; Coelho, Pedro; Rasko, Mykola

    2015-06-15

    Scorpions have been shown to control their venom usage in defensive encounters, depending on the perceived threat. Potentially, the venom amount that is injected could be controlled by reducing the flow speed, the flow duration, or both. We here investigated these variables by allowing scorpions to sting into an oil-filled chamber, and recording the accreting venom droplets with high-speed video. The size of the spherical droplets on the video can then be used to calculate their volume. We recorded defensive stings of 20 specimens representing 5 species. Significant differences in the flow rate and total expelled volume were found between species. These differences are likely due to differences in overall size between the species. Large variation in both venom flow speed and duration are described between stinging events of single individuals. Both venom flow rate and flow duration correlate highly with the total expelled volume, indicating that scorpions may control both variables in order to achieve a desired end volume of venom during a sting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Wolbachia are present in southern african scorpions and cluster with supergroup F.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Laura; Prendini, Lorenzo; Corthals, Angelique; Werren, John H

    2007-11-01

    The presence and distribution of the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia in the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata (including class Arachnida) has not been extensively explored. Here we report the discovery of Wolbachia in scorpions. Five strains found in host species of the genus Opistophthalmus (Southern African burrowing scorpions) have been characterized by Multilocus Sequence Typing and by Wolbachia Surface Protein. Phylogenetic analyses indicate clustering in the supergroup F and a high genetic relatedness among all scorpion strains as a result of a potential transmission within the host genus. The F-group is an uncommon lineage compared to the A and B supergroups, although it is present in a broad range of hosts (including insects, filarial nematodes, and now arachnids) and across a large geographical area (e.g., North America, Africa, Europe, and Australia). It also shows no evidence of recombination and has a significantly higher genetic diversity than supergroup A and B. Overall, this pattern suggests an older radiation of F-strains with respect to A and B-strains, followed by limited horizontal transmission across host genera and reduced genetic flux among strains. A more extensive sampling of supergroup F-strains is required to confirm this scenario.

  14. Copper and silver complexes bearing flexible hybrid scorpionate ligand mpBm.

    PubMed

    Owen, Gareth R; Gould, P Hugh; Moore, Alexandra; Dyson, Gavin; Haddow, Mairi F; Hamilton, Alex

    2013-08-21

    The addition of flexible scorpionate ligand, [mpBm]⁻{i.e. HB(mt)2(mp), where mt = methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole and mp = 2-mercaptopyridine} to group eleven centres is reported for the first time. The coordination of this hybrid ligand to copper(I) and silver(I) centres in the presence of triphenylphosphine and trialkylphosphine co-ligands has been investigated. The trialkylphosphines coordinates to both copper and silver centres while the less basic triarylphosphine only successfully coordinates to the copper centre. Structural characterisation of [Cu{HB(mt)₂(mp)}(PPh₃)], [Cu{HB(mt)₂(mp)}(PCy₃)] and [Ag{HB(mt)₂(mp)}(PCy₃)] confirm κ³-SSH coordination modes for ligand where one of the mt 'arms' and the mp 'arm' of the scorpionate ligand are coordinated to the metal centre. The second mt 'arm' remains uncoordinated in all three complexes. A comparison has been made with the parent sulfur based scorpionate ligand, [Tm]⁻{HB(mt)₃}.

  15. BmKn-2 scorpion venom peptide for killing oral cancer cells by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tong-ngam, Pirut; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion venom peptides recently have attracted attention as alternative chemotherapeutic agents that may overcome the limitations of current drugs, providing specific cytotoxicity for cancer cells with an ability to bypass multidrug-resistance mechanisms, additive effects in combination therapy and safety. In the present study, BmKn-2 scorpion venom peptide and its derivatives were chosen for assessment of anticancer activities. BmKn-2 was identified as the most effective against human oral squamous cells carcinoma cell line (HSC-4) by screening assays with an IC50 value of 29 μg/ml. The BmKn-2 peptide killed HSC-4 cells through induction of apoptosis, as confirmed by phase contrast microscopy and RT-PCR techniques. Typical morphological features of apoptosis including cell shrinkage and rounding characteristics were observed in treated HSC-4 cells. The results were further confirmed by increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes such as caspase-3, -7, and -9 but decrease mRNA level of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 in BmKn-2 treated cells, as determined by RT-PCR assay. In summary, the BmKn-2 scorpion venom peptide demonstrates specific membrane binding, growth inhibition and apoptogenic activity against human oral cancer cells.

  16. Purification and chemical and biological characterizations of seven toxins from the Mexican scorpion, Centruroides suffusus suffusus.

    PubMed

    Martin, M F; Garcia y Perez, L G; el Ayeb, M; Kopeyan, C; Bechis, G; Jover, E; Rochat, H

    1987-04-05

    Seven polypeptides highly toxic to mice were isolated from the venom of the scorpion, Centruroides suffusus suffusus (Css), and their chemical and toxic properties were characterized. It was shown that the most active toxins by intracerebroventricular injection are less active when injected subcutaneously. The complete amino acid sequence (66 residues) of toxin II (Css II) has been determined. The C-terminal end is amidated as found for most other scorpion toxins. Css II is a beta-type toxin, previously used to define the binding site for activation of the sodium channel. Using rat brain synaptosomes, we demonstrated that all Css toxins compete with 125I-Css II to bind to site 4 and should be considered as beta-scorpion toxins. Specific binding parameters for Css VI, one of the most active toxins, were determined: KD = 100 pM; capacity in binding sites, 2.2 pmol of toxin/mg of synaptosomal protein. Css VI was shown to inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake by synaptosomes: K 0.5 = 100 pM, which agrees with its KD. Competition experiments between the seven Css toxins and 125I-Css II for antiserum raised against Css II demonstrated that all these toxins have common antigenic properties.

  17. Species Delimitation and Morphological Divergence in the Scorpion Centruroides vittatus (Say, 1821): Insights from Phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tsunemi; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Scorpion systematics and taxonomy have recently shown a need for revision, partially due to insights from molecular techniques. Scorpion taxonomy has been difficult with morphological characters as disagreement exists among researchers with character choice for adequate species delimitation in taxonomic studies. Within the family Buthidae, species identification and delimitation is particularly difficult due to the morphological similarity among species and extensive intraspecific morphological diversity. The genus Centruroides in the western hemisphere is a prime example of the difficulty in untangling the taxonomic complexity within buthid scorpions. In this paper, we present phylogeographic, Ecological Niche Modeling, and morphometric analyses to further understand how population diversification may have produced morphological diversity in Centruroides vittatus (Say, 1821). We show that C. vittatus populations in the Big Bend and Trans-Pecos region of Texas, USA are phylogeographically distinct and may predate the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In addition, we suggest the extended isolation of Big Bend region populations may have created the C. vittatus variant once known as C. pantheriensis. PMID:23861878

  18. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity.

  19. New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Francisco; Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel; González-Santillán, Edmundo; Córdova-Tabares, Víctor; Francke, Oscar F; Piedra-Jiménez, Dulce; Estrada-Ruiz, Emilio; Luna-Castro, Bibiano

    2015-01-01

    A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber.

  20. Voltage-gated sodium channel modulation by scorpion α-toxins

    PubMed Central

    Bosmans, Frank; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels are integral membrane proteins that function as a gateway for a selective permeation of sodium ions across biological membranes. In this way, they are crucial players for the generation of action potentials in excitable cells. Voltage-gated Na+ channels are encoded by at least nine genes in mammals. The different isoforms have remarkably similar functional properties, but small changes in function and pharmacology are biologically well-defined, as underscored by mutations that cause several diseases and by modulation of a myriad of compounds respectively. This review will stress on the modulation of voltage-gated Na+ channels by scorpion alpha-toxins. Nature has designed these two classes of molecules as if they were predestined to each other: an inevitable ‘encounter’ between a voltage-gated Na+ channel isoform and an alpha-toxin from scorpion venom indeed results in a dramatically changed Na+ current phenotype with clear-cut consequences on electrical excitability and sometimes life or death. This fascinating aspect justifies an overview on scorpion venoms, their alpha-toxins and the Na+ channel targets they are built for, as well as on the molecular determinants that govern the selectivity and affinity of this ‘inseparable duo’. PMID:17087986

  1. Optimized Scorpion Polypeptide LMX: A Pest Control Protein Effective against Rice Leaf Folder

    PubMed Central

    Tianpei, Xiuzi; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Lepidopteran insect pests are the main class of pests causing significant damage to crop plant yields. Insecticidal scorpion peptides exhibit toxicity specific for insects. Here, we report that a peptide LMX, optimized from the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin LqhIT2, showed high levels of activity against rice leaf folder in vitro and in planta. Oral ingestion of LMX protein led to a significant decrease in feeding on rice leaves, repression of larval growth and development, delay in molting, and increase in larval lethality. Compared with LqhIT2 protein, the stability and insecticidal efficacy of LMX was better. Meanwhile, biochemical analysis showed that LMX protein ingestion dramatically decreased ecdysone content in rice leaf folder larvae, and down-regulated enzymatic activities of the detoxification system (α-naphthyl acetate esterase and glutathione S-transferase), the digestive system (tryptase and chymotrypsin), and the antioxidant system (catalase). These changes were tightly correlated with the dosage of LMX protein. Transgene analysis showed that the rate of leaf damage, and the number of damaged tillers and leaves in the transgenic line were greatly reduced relative to wild type plants and empty vector plants. Based on these observations, we propose that the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin peptide LMX is an attractive and effective alternative molecule for the protection of rice from rice leaf folder. PMID:24964088

  2. Location of 45S Ribosomal Genes in Mitotic and Meiotic Chromosomes of Buthid Scorpions.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Viviane Fagundes; Carvalho, Leonardo Sousa; Cella, Doralice Maria; Schneider, Marielle Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Buthid scorpions exhibit a high variability in diploid number within genera and even within species. Cytogenetically, Buthidae differs from other families of Scorpiones based on its low diploid numbers, holocentric chromosomes, and complex chromosomal chains, which form during meiosis. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of the 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes in the mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of seven buthid species belonging to the genera Rhopalurus and Tityus with the ultimate goal of elucidating the chromosome organization in these scorpions. The chromosome number ranged from 2n=6 to 2n=28. Despite the high variance in diploid number, all species examined carried their 45S rDNA sites in the terminal region of exactly two chromosomes. Analyses of meiotic cells revealed 45S rDNA clusters in the chromosomal chains of Rhopalurus agamemnon, Tityus bahiensis, Tityus confluens, and Tityus martinpaechi, or in bivalent-like configuration in Rhopalurus rochai, Tityus bahiensis, Tityus confluens, Tityus fasciolatus, and Tityus paraguayensis. In the species examined, the 45S rDNA sites colocalized with constitutive heterochromatin regions. In light of the high chromosome variability and maintenance of number and terminal position of 45S rDNA sites in buthids, the heterochromatin may act to conserve the integrity of the ribosomal genes.

  3. Scorpion envenoming in two regions of Colombia: clinical, epidemiological and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Navío, E; Céspedes, F A; Núñez, M J; Lozano, L; Moscoso, E R; Matallana, C; Arsuza, N B; García, J; Fernández, D; Rodas, J H; Rodríguez, O J; Zuleta, J E; Gómez, J P; Saldarriaga, M; Quintana, J C; Núñez, V; Cárdenas, S; Barona, J; Valderrama, R; Paz, N; Díaz, A; Rodríguez, O L; Martínez, M D; Maturana, R; Beltrán, L E; Mesa, M B; Paniagua, J; Flórez, E; Lourenço, W R

    2004-12-01

    To determine clinical and epidemiological features of scorpion stings in two departments of Colombia, a descriptive study was performed in the hospitals of 10 towns from Antioquia (2 256 071 inhabitants) and five from Tolima (630 424 inhabitants). One hundred and twenty-nine cases were admitted during one year, 51 in Antioquia, 78 in Tolima and 41 were children less than 15 years old. Most stings (70.5%) occurred inside the house; 27.9% were on the hands and 26.4% on the feet. The scorpion species involved were Tityus pachyurus (51), Centruroides gracilis (31), T. fuehrmanni (29), T. asthenes (7) and Chactas spp. (1). In 10 cases the scorpion involved was not identified. Systemic envenoming signs (e.g. vomiting, tachypnea) were significantly more frequent in children than in adults (P < 0.05). Four children had hypertension, but none developed pulmonary oedema. One 3-year-old girl, stung by T. asthenes, had acute oedematous pancreatitis. Ninety-eight patients had mild envenoming. Moderate (27 patients) and severe (four patients) envenoming was significantly more frequent in children than in adults (P = 0.003; relative risk = 2.97). A pepsin-digested anti-Centruroides spp. antivenom was administered to 19 of 31 patients presenting systemic envenoming signs. No adverse reactions to antivenom were observed.

  4. New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Francisco; Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel; González-Santillán, Edmundo; Córdova-Tabares, Víctor; Francke, Oscar F.; Piedra-Jiménez, Dulce; Estrada-Ruiz, Emilio; Luna-Castro, Bibiano

    2015-01-01

    A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as ‘Tityus clathratus’ and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber. PMID:26244974

  5. The scorpion envenomation in the region of Faouar-KEBILI at 2010-2012 : study of 421 cases.

    PubMed

    Ben Othman, Aicha; Ben Abdallah, Naima; Ben Aoun, Moncef

    2016-02-01

    The scorpion envenomation is a problem of public health in Tunisia by its incidence and severity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the epidemiology of scorpion envenomation in health unit of Faouar, as well as promoting the prevention and fight against scorpion envenomation. In this study, we conducted a retrospective and descriptive analysis of scorpion envenomation cases admitted to the emergency department of the local hospital Faouar between 2010 and 2012. In Total 421 cases were registered (237 men and 184 women) with no age predilection. The accident often occurs during the warm months of the year. So most of the cases were recorded from May to September with a frequency peak in July (21.1% of cases). The outcome was favorable in 92% of cases due to early consultation, a time management of less than 60 minutes in most cases (87%), and a fast and adequate care according to the national protocol issued by the Ministry of Public Health. Prevention and education, especially in endemic period still remain indispensable in the fight against scorpion envenomation.

  6. Scorpionism in Ecuador: First report of severe and fatal envenoming cases from northern Manabí by Tityus asthenes Pocock.

    PubMed

    Borges, Adolfo; Morales, Melva; Loor, Wilmer; Delgado, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    The presence in rural areas of western Ecuador of scorpions in the genus Tityus capable of producing pediatric mortality is hereby evidenced. The medical significance of scorpions in Ecuador has been underestimated partly because of the clinically unimportant stings delivered by Centruroides margaritatus and Teuthraustes atramentarius, which have venom with low toxicity to vertebrates. Five intra-domiciliary cases of scorpion envenoming in victims aged between 1.9 and 16 years old, including one fatality, are reported from rural settings in forest areas of Chone (n = 2) and Flavio Alfaro (n = 3) counties, northern Manabí province, western Ecuador. Three cases were graded as Class II (moderate) and two in Class III (severe) envenoming. Manifestations showed characteristic autonomic nervous system hyper-stimulation and the fatality (a 1.9-year-old boy from Flavio Alfaro) was due to cardio-respiratory failure. Marked leukocytosis in four of the cases (21,800-31,800 cells/mm(3)), with notable neutrophilia (58-82%), suggests induction of a venom-mediated systemic inflammatory response-like syndrome. Specimens responsible for cases in Flavio Alfaro County, including the fatality, were classified as Tityus asthenes Pocock, accountable for severe scorpionism in Colombia. These findings demand implementation of control and therapeutic measures in affected areas in Ecuador, including evaluation of available scorpion antivenoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Distribution of findings of scorpions in Buenos Aires city in the period 2001-2012 and their sanitary implications].

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Laskowicz, Rodrigo D; Lanari, Laura C; Scarlato, Eduardo; Damin, Carlos; de Titto, Ernesto H; de Roodt, Adolfo R

    2016-02-01

    Scorpion stings and their associated mortality increased in the last years in Argentina, with a cumulative record of 73,617 cases and 30 deaths during the period 2001-2012, occurring almost all the deaths in pediatric patients. However, deaths due to severe envenoming by scorpion stings have not been recorded in Buenos Aires city and suburban regions, although the presence of scorpions in this city has been increasingly reported. We studied the temporal and geographical distribution of Tityus trivittatus findings in Buenos Aires city from the database of the Research and Development Area from the National Institute for Production of Biologics of the National Ministry of Health during the period 10/01/2001 to 31/12/2012 in order to correlate these findings with the distribution of health centers in the city. In this period 385 consults with identification of scorpions were recorded. Annual records showed a growing trend. Georeferenced data showed that findings appeared to increase in the surroundings of metro and train stations, mainly at the east of the city with expansion to the west. Although Toxicology services are geographically related to the zones with higher density of finding of scorpions, the accessibility to the centers with antivenom may hinder its application in the recommended time; some measures to avoid possible delays in the application of the treatment are suggested. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  8. Molecular characterization of a new scorpion venom lipolysis activating peptide: Evidence for disulfide bridge-mediated functional switch of peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Gao, B

    2006-12-22

    Venoms from scorpions contain extremely rich bioactive peptides that often carry diverse functions and are presumably needed to achieve synergistic effects for rapidly immobilizing prey and defending themselves. BotLVP1 is a unique heterodimer protein recently found in the scorpion Buthus occitanus tunetanus venom that is structurally related to scorpion toxins affecting sodium channels (NaScTxs) but exhibits adipocyte lipolysis activity. We have isolated and identified two cDNA clones encoding subunits alpha and beta of a BotLVP1-like peptide (named BmLVP1) from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii venom gland and determined the first complete gene structure of this subfamily. These results highlight a genetic link between these lipolysis activating peptides and NaScTxs. Comparison of cDNA and genomic sequences combined with protein structural and functional analysis provides evidence supporting the existence of RNA editing mechanism in scorpion venom glands, which could mediate functional switch of BmLVP1 gene, from adipocyte lipolysis to neurotoxicity, by altering the wrapper disulfide bridge (WDB) pattern of the peptides.

  9. One scorpion, two venoms: Prevenom of Parabuthus transvaalicus acts as an alternative type of venom with distinct mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Inceoglu, Bora; Lango, Jozsef; Jing, Jie; Chen, Lili; Doymaz, Fuat; Pessah, Isaac N.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2003-01-01

    Scorpion venom is a complex mixture of salts, small molecules, peptides, and proteins. Scorpions employ this valuable tool in several sophisticated ways for subduing prey, deterring predators, and possibly during mating. Here, a subtle but clever strategy of venom utilization by scorpions is reported. Scorpions secrete a small quantity of transparent venom when initially stimulated that we propose to name prevenom. If secretion continues, a cloudy and dense venom that is white in color is subsequently released. The prevenom contains a combination of high K+ salt and several peptides including some that block rectifying K+ channels and elicit significant pain and toxicity because of a massive local depolarization. The presence of high extracellular K+ in the prevenom can depolarize cells and also decrease the local electrochemical gradient making it more difficult to reestablish the resting potential. When this positive change to the K+ equilibrium potential is combined with the blockage of rectifying K+ channels, this further delays the recovery of the resting potential, causing a prolonged effect. We propose that the prevenom of scorpions is used as a highly efficacious predator deterrent and for immobilizing small prey while conserving metabolically expensive venom until a certain level of stimuli is reached, after which the venom is secreted. PMID:12552107

  10. Scorpion Envenomation Among Children: Clinical Manifestations and Outcome (Analysis of 685 Cases)

    PubMed Central

    Bahloul, Mabrouk; Chabchoub, Imen; Chaari, Anis; Chtara, Kamilia; Kallel, Hatem; Dammak, Hassen; Ksibi, Hichem; Chelly, Hedi; Rekik, Noureddine; Hamida, Chokri Ben; Bouaziz, Mounir

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize both epidemiologically and clinically manifestations after severe scorpion envenomation and to define simple factors indicative of poor prognosis in children. We performed a retrospective study over 13 years (1990–2002) in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital (Sfax-Tunisia). The diagnosis of scorpion envenomation was based on a history of scorpion sting. The medical records of 685 children aged less than 16 years who were admitted for a scorpion sting were analyzed. There were 558 patients (81.5%) in the grade III group (with cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary edema or severe neurological manifestation [coma and/or convulsion]) and 127 patients (18.5%) in the grade II group (with systemic manifestations). In this study, 434 patients (63.4%) had a pulmonary edema, and 80 patients had a cardiogenic shock; neurological manifestations were observed in 580 patients (84.7%), 555 patients (81%) developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and 552 patients (80.6%) developed multi-organ failure. By the end of the stay in the ICU, evolution was marked by the death in 61 patients (8.9%). A multivariate analysis found the following factors to be correlated with a poor outcome: coma with Glasgow coma score ≤ 8/15 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3), pulmonary edema (OR = 2.3), and cardiogenic shock (OR = 1.7). In addition, a significant association was found between the development of SIRS and heart failure. Moreover, a temperature > 39°C was associated with the presence of pulmonary edema, with a sensitivity at 20.6%, a specificity at 94.4%, and a positive predictive value at 91.7%. Finally, blood sugar levels above 15 mmol/L were significantly associated with a heart failure. In children admitted for severe scorpion envenomation, coma with Glasgow coma score ≤ 8/15, pulmonary edema, and cardiogenic shock were associated with a poor outcome. The presence of SIRS, a temperature > 39°C, and blood sugar levels

  11. Neolignans from Aristolochia elegans as antagonists of the neurotropic effect of scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Zamilpa, Alejandro; Abarca-Vargas, Rodolfo; Ventura-Zapata, Elsa; Osuna-Torres, Lidia; Zavala, Miguel A; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; González-Cortazar, Manasés

    2014-11-18

    The high frequency of poisoning by sting or bite from venomous animals has begun to be a serious public health problem in Mexico where scorpion sting is the most common. Because of this, there is the need to seek active substances in plant species with an antagonistic effect against neurotropic activity of scorpion venom. The aim of this work was to demonstrate which of the compounds contained in the n-hexane extract from Aristolochia elegans roots display activity against scorpion venom. Antagonist activity displayed by extract, fractions and isolated compounds obtained from Aristolochia elegans was guided by the inhibition of smooth muscle contraction induced by scorpion venom (Centruroides limpidus limpidus) in a model of isolated guinea pig ileum. The neolignans obtained from this extract were isolated and analyzed by chromatographic methods including HPLC. The chemical characterization of these compounds was performed by the analysis of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. The bio-guided chromatographic fractionation allowed us to isolate 4 known neolignans: Eupomatenoid-7 (1), licarin A (2), licarin B (3), eupomatenoid-1 (4) and other new neolignan which was characterized as 2-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-5-[(E)-α-propen-γ-al]-7-methoxy-benzo [b] furan (5). This compound was named as eleganal. Compounds 1 and 2 were purified from the most active fraction AeF3 (EC50 of 149.9μg/mL, Emax of 65.66%). A doses-response analysis of eupomatenoid-7(1) and licarin A(2) allowed us to establish EC50 values (65.96μg/mL and 51.96μg/mL) respectively. The antagonistic effect against Centuroides limpidus limpidus scorpion venom displayed by the n-hexane extract from Aristolochia elegans roots is due to the presence of neolignans 1-2 contained in the fraction AeF3. Chemical analysis of fraction AeF2 allowed the isolation of a new compound which was identified as 2-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-5-[(E)-α-propen-γ-al]-7-methoxy-benzo[b]furan (5), denominated as

  12. Scorpion envenomation among children: clinical manifestations and outcome (analysis of 685 cases).

    PubMed

    Bahloul, Mabrouk; Chabchoub, Imen; Chaari, Anis; Chtara, Kamilia; Kallel, Hatem; Dammak, Hassen; Ksibi, Hichem; Chelly, Hedi; Rekik, Noureddine; Ben Hamida, Chokri; Bouaziz, Mounir

    2010-11-01

    Our objective was to characterize both epidemiologically and clinically manifestations after severe scorpion envenomation and to define simple factors indicative of poor prognosis in children. We performed a retrospective study over 13 years (1990-2002) in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital (Sfax-Tunisia). The diagnosis of scorpion envenomation was based on a history of scorpion sting. The medical records of 685 children aged less than 16 years who were admitted for a scorpion sting were analyzed. There were 558 patients (81.5%) in the grade III group (with cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary edema or severe neurological manifestation [coma and/or convulsion]) and 127 patients (18.5%) in the grade II group (with systemic manifestations). In this study, 434 patients (63.4%) had a pulmonary edema, and 80 patients had a cardiogenic shock; neurological manifestations were observed in 580 patients (84.7%), 555 patients (81%) developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and 552 patients (80.6%) developed multi-organ failure. By the end of the stay in the ICU, evolution was marked by the death in 61 patients (8.9%). A multivariate analysis found the following factors to be correlated with a poor outcome: coma with Glasgow coma score ≤ 8/15 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3), pulmonary edema (OR = 2.3), and cardiogenic shock (OR = 1.7). In addition, a significant association was found between the development of SIRS and heart failure. Moreover, a temperature > 39°C was associated with the presence of pulmonary edema, with a sensitivity at 20.6%, a specificity at 94.4%, and a positive predictive value at 91.7%. Finally, blood sugar levels above 15 mmol/L were significantly associated with a heart failure. In children admitted for severe scorpion envenomation, coma with Glasgow coma score ≤ 8/15, pulmonary edema, and cardiogenic shock were associated with a poor outcome. The presence of SIRS, a temperature > 39°C, and blood sugar levels

  13. Hydrogenimonas thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thermophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph within the epsilon-Proteobacteria, isolated from a black smoker in a Central Indian Ridge hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    Takai, Ken; Nealson, Kenneth H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2004-01-01

    A novel thermophilic bacterium, strain EP1-55-1%T, was isolated from an in-situ colonization system deployed in a superheated, deep-sea, hydrothermal vent emission at the Kairei Field on the Central Indian Ridge in the Indian Ocean. The cells were highly motile rods, each possessing a single polar flagellum. Growth was observed between 35 and 65 degrees C (optimum temperature, 55 degrees C; 70 min doubling time) and between pH 4.9 and 7.2 (optimum, pH 5.9). The isolate was a microaerobic-to-anaerobic chemolithoautotroph capable of using molecular hydrogen as the sole energy source and carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source. Molecular oxygen, nitrate or elemental sulfur (S0) could serve as electron acceptors to support growth. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 34.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that strain EP1-55-1%T represents the first strain for which taxonomic properties have been characterized within the previously uncultivated phylogroup classified as belonging to the uncultivated epsilon-Proteobacteria group A; the name Hydrogenimonas thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed, with strain EP1-55-1%T (=JCM 11971T=ATCC BAA-737T) as the type strain.

  14. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry.

  15. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  16. Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, John R.

    A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak…

  17. Natosi: Strong Medicine. Indian Culture Series: Stories of the Blackfeet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    Part of a series of stories about the Blackfeet Indians, the illustrated story details the capture of the first horses by the Blackfeet. In the story, young Running Crane is allowed to join a party of warriors who raid a Crow camp for horses. Running Crane uses gentleness to capture a black horse but is separated from the raiding party and must…

  18. Alcoholism: Devastation for Indians. 36 Lessons on Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, William A.

    In an attempt to educate American Indians about the problems of alcohol abuse, the 36-lesson book presents historical, cultural, legal, medical, social, and personal facts about alcohol and alcohol abuse. Each 3- or 4-page lesson is illustrated in black and white and consists of an introductory narrative, learning activities, and follow-up…

  19. The Indian Wars and National Military Strategy After 1865

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-10

    1858 triggered the Pike’s Peak gold rush and led to the founding of Denver. On the eastern flank of the Sierra Nevada, discovery of the Comstock Lode...protect those borders. * Given this, the Black Hi 1 Is gold rush was on and open warfare resulted between whites and Indians, This in turn would

  20. Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, John R.

    A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak…

  1. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of…

  2. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of…

  3. 76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary...

  4. 76 FR 42722 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Assistant... of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710, the Secretary...

  5. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary... section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710, the...

  6. The Indian Child Welfare Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Katy Jo

    The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…

  7. Functional and immuno-reactive characterization of a previously undescribed peptide from the venom of the scorpion Centruroides limpidus.

    PubMed

    Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Riaño-Umbarila, Lidia; Becerril, Baltazar; Possani, Lourival D

    2017-01-01

    A previously undescribed toxic peptide named Cl13 was purified from the venom of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides limpidus. It contains 66 amino acid residues, including four disulfide bonds. The physiological effects assayed in 7 different subtypes of voltage gated Na(+)-channels, showed that it belongs to the β-scorpion toxin type. The most notorious effects were observed in subtypes Nav1.4, Nav1.5 and Nav1.6. Although having important sequence similarities with two other lethal toxins from this scorpion species (Cll1m and Cll2), the recently developed single chain antibody fragments (scFv) of human origin were not capable of protecting against Cl13. At the amino acid sequence level, in 3 stretches of peptide Cl13 (positions 7-9, 30-38 and 62-66) some differences with respect to other similar toxins are observed. Some of these differences coincide with contact points with the human antibody fragments.

  8. Structure and function of the voltage sensor of sodium channels probed by a beta-scorpion toxin.

    PubMed

    Cestèle, Sandrine; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Qu, Yusheng; Sampieri, François; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A

    2006-07-28

    Voltage sensing by voltage-gated sodium channels determines the electrical excitability of cells, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. beta-Scorpion toxins bind specifically to neurotoxin receptor site 4 and induce a negative shift in the voltage dependence of activation through a voltage sensor-trapping mechanism. Kinetic analysis showed that beta-scorpion toxin binds to the resting state, and subsequently the bound toxin traps the voltage sensor in the activated state in a voltage-dependent but concentration-independent manner. The rate of voltage sensor trapping can be fit by a two-step model, in which the first step is voltage-dependent and correlates with the outward gating movement of the IIS4 segment, whereas the second step is voltage-independent and results in shifted voltage dependence of activation of the channel. Mutations of Glu(779) in extracellular loop IIS1-S2 and both Glu(837) and Leu(840) in extracellular loop IIS3-S4 reduce the binding affinity of beta-scorpion toxin. Mutations of positively charged and hydrophobic amino acid residues in the IIS4 segment do not affect beta-scorpion toxin binding but alter voltage dependence of activation and enhance beta-scorpion toxin action. Structural modeling with the Rosetta algorithm yielded a three-dimensional model of the toxin-receptor complex with the IIS4 voltage sensor at the extracellular surface. Our results provide mechanistic and structural insight into the voltage sensor-trapping mode of scorpion toxin action, define the position of the voltage sensor in the resting state of the sodium channel, and favor voltage-sensing models in which the S4 segment spans the membrane in both resting and activated states.

  9. Structure and Function of the Voltage Sensor of Sodium Channels Probed by a β-Scorpion Toxin*S

    PubMed Central

    Cestèle, Sandrine; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Qu, Yusheng; Sampieri, François; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2006-01-01

    Voltage sensing by voltage-gated sodium channels determines the electrical excitability of cells, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. β-Scorpion toxins bind specifically to neurotoxin receptor site 4 and induce a negative shift in the voltage dependence of activation through a voltage sensor-trapping mechanism. Kinetic analysis showed that β-scorpion toxin binds to the resting state, and subsequently the bound toxin traps the voltage sensor in the activated state in a voltage-dependent but concentration-independent manner. The rate of voltage sensor trapping can be fit by a two-step model, in which the first step is voltage-dependent and correlates with the outward gating movement of the IIS4 segment, whereas the second step is voltage-independent and results in shifted voltage dependence of activation of the channel. Mutations of Glu779 in extracellular loop IIS1–S2 and both Glu837 and Leu840 in extracellular loop IIS3–S4 reduce the binding affinity of β-scorpion toxin. Mutations of positively charged and hydrophobic amino acid residues in the IIS4 segment do not affect β-scorpion toxin binding but alter voltage dependence of activation and enhance β-scorpion toxin action. Structural modeling with the Rosetta algorithm yielded a three-dimensional model of the toxin-receptor complex with the IIS4 voltage sensor at the extracellular surface. Our results provide mechanistic and structural insight into the voltage sensor-trapping mode of scorpion toxin action, define the position of the voltage sensor in the resting state of the sodium channel, and favor voltage-sensing models in which the S4 segment spans the membrane in both resting and activated states. PMID:16679310

  10. Looking like Limulus? – Retinula axons and visual neuropils of the median and lateral eyes of scorpions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing interest in the neurophysiology of visual systems in scorpions, aspects of their neuroanatomy have received little attention. Lately sets of neuroanatomical characters have contributed important arguments to the discussion of arthropod ground patterns and phylogeny. In various attempts to reconstruct phylogeny (from morphological, morphological + molecular, or molecular data) scorpions were placed either as basalmost Arachnida, or within Arachnida with changing sister-group relationships, or grouped with the extinct Eurypterida and Xiphosura inside the Merostomata. Thus, the position of scorpions is a key to understanding chelicerate evolution. To shed more light on this, the present study for the first time combines various techniques (Cobalt fills, DiI / DiO labelling, osmium-ethyl gallate procedure, and AMIRA 3D-reconstruction) to explore central projections and visual neuropils of median and lateral eyes in Euscorpius italicus (Herbst, 1800) and E. hadzii Di Caporiacco, 1950. Results Scorpion median eye retinula cells are linked to a first and a second visual neuropil, while some fibres additionally connect the median eyes with the arcuate body. The lateral eye retinula cells are linked to a first and a second visual neuropil as well, with the second neuropil being partly shared by projections from both eyes. Conclusions Comparing these results to previous studies on the visual systems of scorpions and other chelicerates, we found striking similarities to the innervation pattern in Limulus polyphemus for both median and lateral eyes. This supports from a visual system point of view at least a phylogenetically basal position of Scorpiones in Arachnida, or even a close relationship to Xiphosura. In addition, we propose a ground pattern for the central projections of chelicerate median eyes. PMID:23842208

  11. The Indian Nose.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar, Purushottam; Pezeshk, Ronnie A; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-11-01

    Despite the growing number of rhinoplasty procedures being performed on Indian patients, there is a very limited body of literature regarding nuances of the Indian rhinoplasty. The authors review the spectrum of nasal phenotypes that fall under the category of the Indian nose; goals of rhinoplasty in these patients; operative techniques that can be used to address them; and, importantly, the specific pitfalls to be avoided in these groups.

  12. Lung compliance, plasma electrolyte levels and acid-base balance are affected by scorpion envenomation in anesthetized rats under mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcus V; Caramez, Maria Paula R; Abreu, Elnara Marcia N N; Dolnikoff, Marisa; Omar, Erick D; Velasco, Irineu T; Cunha-Melo, José R

    2004-05-01

    To determine the effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin on lung compliance and resistance, ionic equilibrium and acid-base balance over time in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rats, we measured air flow, tracheal and esophageal pressure. Lung volume was obtained by electronic integration of airflow signal. Arterial blood samples were collected through a catheter at baseline (before) and 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after scorpion toxin injection for arterial blood gases, bicarbonate, and alkali reserve levels as well as for, sodium, potassium, magnesium, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, and osmolality analysis. Injection of the gamma fraction of the T. serrulatus scorpion venom in rats under mechanical ventilatory support leads to a continuous decrease in lung compliance secondary to pulmonary edema, but no change in airway resistance. The changes in arterial blood gases characterizing metabolic acidosis were accompanied by an increase in arterial lactate and glucose values, suggesting a scorpion toxin-induced lactic acidosis, in association with poor tissue perfusion (hypotension and low cardiac output). Moreover, scorpion toxin injection resulted in hyperosmolality, hyperkalemia, hypermagnesemia and an increase in hematocrit. The experiments have shown a clinically relevant animal model to study severe scorpion envenoming and may help to better understand the scorpion envenoming syndrome.

  13. Characterization of LmTxLP11 and LmVP1.1 transcripts and genomic organizations: alternative splicing contributing to the diversity of scorpion venom peptides.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yibao; Zhao, Ruiming; Li, Songryong; Fan, Shaozhong; Wu, Yingliang; Liu, Hui; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin

    2009-01-01

    Scorpion venoms are rich resources of bioactive peptides with extreme variability. Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the diversity of scorpion venom peptides. However, alternative splicing, which plays a major role in the generation of proteomic and functional diversity in metazoan organisms, hasn't been reported in genes coding for scorpion venom peptides. In the EST analysis of venom peptide transcripts from scorpion Lychas mucronatus, we reported an alternative splicing event. Transcripts of LmTxLP11 and LmVP1.1 share identical 5' region. LmVP1.1 is a novel type of scorpion venom peptides constrained by one disulfide bridge, whereas LmTxLP11 is an extended version of LmVP1.1. By transcript alignment with its genomic sequence, it is found that both transcripts are generated from a single gene by alternative poly A site and terminal exon. The gene encoding LmTxLP11 and LmVP1.1 is the first one harboring three introns ever reported from scorpion venoms. This work demonstrates for the first time that alternative splicing is involved in regulating the diversity of scorpion venom peptides.

  14. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... But this does not seem to occur in humans.Flutamide (Eulexin)The body breaks down flutamide (Eulexin) ... much medicine the body absorbs. To avoid this interaction, avoid black tea 1 hour before and 2 ...

  15. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  16. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  17. Choose your weapon: defensive behavior is associated with morphology and performance in scorpions.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Arie; Lobo Coelho, Pedro; Sousa, Pedro; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Morphology can be adaptive through its effect on performance of an organism. The effect of performance may, however, be modulated by behavior; an organism may choose a behavioral option that does not fully utilize its maximum performance. Behavior may therefore be decoupled from morphology and performance. To gain insight into the relationships between these levels of organization, we combined morphological data on defensive structures with measures of defensive performance, and their utilization in defensive behavior. Scorpion species show significant variation in the morphology and performance of their main defensive structures; their chelae (pincers) and the metasoma ("tail") carrying the stinger. Our data show that size-corrected pinch force varies to almost two orders of magnitude among species, and is correlated with chela morphology. Chela and metasoma morphology are also correlated to the LD50 of the venom, corroborating the anecdotal rule that dangerously venomous scorpions can be recognized by their chelae and metasoma. Analyses of phylogenetic independent contrasts show that correlations between several aspects of chela and metasoma morphology, performance and behavior are present. These correlations suggest co-evolution of behavior with morphology and performance. Path analysis found a performance variable (pinch force) to partially mediate the relationship between morphology (chela aspect ratio) and behavior (defensive stinger usage). We also found a correlation between two aspects of morphology: pincer finger length correlates with the relative "thickness" (aspect ratio) of the metasoma. This suggests scorpions show a trade-off between their two main weapon complexes: the metasoma carrying the stinger, and the pedipalps carrying the chelae.

  18. Immunopathologic effects of scorpion venom on hepato-renal tissues: Involvement of lipid derived inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Lamraoui, Amal; Adi-Bessalem, Sonia; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2015-10-01

    Scorpion venoms are known to cause different inflammatory disorders through complex mechanisms in various tissues. In the study here, the involvement of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-derived metabolites in hepatic and renal inflammation responses were examined. Mice were envenomed with Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom in the absence or presence of inhibitors that can interfere with lipid inflammatory mediator synthesis, i.e., dexamethasone (PLA2 inhibitor), indomethacin (non-selective COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor), or celecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor). The inflammatory response was assessed by evaluating vascular permeability changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative/nitrosative stress marker levels, and by histologic and functional analyses of the liver and kidney. Results revealed that the venom alone induced an inflammatory response in this tissues marked by increased microvascular permeability and inflammatory cell infiltration, increases in levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreases in antioxidant defense. Moreover, significant alterations in the histological architecture of these organs were associated with increased serum levels of some metabolic enzymes, as well as urea and uric acid. Pre-treatment of mice with dexamethasone led to significant decreases of the inflammatory disorders in the hepatic parenchyma; celecoxib pre-treatment seemed to be more effective against renal inflammation. Indomethacin pre-treatment only slightly reduced the inflammatory disorders in the tissues. These results suggest that the induced inflammation response in liver was mediated mainly by PLA2 activation, while the renal inflammatory process was mediated by prostaglandin formation by COX-2. These findings provide additional insight toward the understanding of activated pathways and related mechanisms involved in scorpion envenoming syndrome.

  19. Clinical comparison of scorpion envenomation by Androctonus mauritanicus and Buthus occitanus in children.

    PubMed

    Aboumaâd, Bouchra; Lahssaini, Mohammed; Tiger, Abdelaziz; Benhassain, Sidi Mohammed

    2014-11-01

    The clinical results of scorpion stings by Androctonus mauritanicus (Am) and Buthus occitanus (Bo) (main sources of scorpionism in Morocco) were evaluated in this work. The objective was to compare the clinical manifestations of envenoming from these species by investigating possible correlations among symptoms/signs and laboratory abnormalities of envenomed patients. 41 children (25 males, 18 months - 11 years) were admitted at the Provincial Hospital of El Jadida-Morocco. Their minor (18 children) or severe (23 children) systemic signs such as pallor (48.8%), pulmonary edema (APE) (36.6%), convulsion (26.8%), coma (7.3%) were more frequent in children envenomed by Am than Bo, but angioedema (Quincke's edema) (4.9%) was particularly developed in the latter group. The laboratory blood abnormalities (hyperglycemia, high levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, bilirubin, leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, platelets and low levels of lymphocytes and hemoglobin) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in patients envenomed by Am than Bo, and in all population in comparison to control group. The correlation among these biological analyzes and clinical status showed that higher levels of LDH and value of leukocytes ≥19 × 10(3)/mm(3) were indices of cardiac dysfunction with APE. Pallor sign was correlated with a state of shock and/or low level of hemoglobin, associated or not to bilirubin increase. Fatalities (7.3%), presenting toxic myocarditis, had lowest count of lymphocytes (≤4.2%) in comparison to survivors. This is the first report on lymphopenia which may be useful for forecast the fatal outcome in scorpion envenomation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rates of molecular evolution in nuclear genes of east Mediterranean scorpions.

    PubMed

    Gantenbein, Benjamin; Keightley, Peter D

    2004-11-01

    Scorpions of the genus Mesobuthus represent a useful terrestrial model system for studying molecular evolution. They are distributed on several Aegean islands and the adjacent mainland, they are believed to have low rates of dispersal, and evolutionary divergence dates of taxa are available based on biogeographic events that separated islands from each other and the mainland. Here, we present data on polymorphism and synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) substitution rates for nine nuclear protein-coding genes of two east Mediterranean scorpion species, Mesobuthus gibbosus and M. cyprius (Buthidae). Levels of polymorphism tend to be lower in populations from islands (mean nucleotide diversity pi = 0.0071 +/- 0.0028) than in mainland populations (mean pi = 0.0201 +/- 0.0085). By using linear regression of genetic divergence versus isolation time, we estimate Ks to be 3.17 +/- 1.54 per (site x 10(9) years), and Ka to be 0.39 +/- 0.94 per (site x 10(9) years). These estimates for both Ks and Ka are considerably lower than for many other invertebrates, such as Drosophila, and may be attributed to scorpions' mammal-like generation times (approximately 2 years) and low metabolic rates. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood revealed a phylogeny that is congruent with that expected based on biogeographic events and in which divergences at synonymous sites are proportional to the dates that the taxa are believed to have split. Tests of equality of branch lengths for the Cyprus and Crete lineages revealed that Ks-estimates are about the same in both lineages, as expected from the biogeographic events that separated the islands, but Ka was increased in the Cyprus lineage compared to the Cretan lineage.