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Sample records for indian river lagoon

  1. Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida’s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

  2. Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida(SEERS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida’s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

  3. Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence

  4. Lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Durden, Wendy Noke; St Leger, Judy; Stolen, Megan; Mazza, Teresa; Londono, Catalina

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to document the presence of the fungal granulomatous skin disease lacaziosis in stranded Indian River Lagoon (IRL) bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). From 1 January 2007 through 31 December 2007, stranded dolphins from the northern part of the IRL were thoroughly examined, and appropriate tissue samples were collected. The intralesional fungal agent (Lacazia loboi) was identified histologically in three bottlenose dolphins. Histologically, lacaziosis has been previously documented in IRL dolphins inhabiting the southern portion of the lagoon. Our findings suggest that the disease occurs throughout the lagoon. Enhanced monitoring of the prevalence of lacaziosis in dolphins throughout the IRL is needed to assess changes in population health.

  5. Biodiversity of Saline and Brakish Marshes of the Indian River Lagoon: Historic and Current Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) crosses a zone of climatic transition. Historically, marshes dominated saline and brackish environments in the north of the lagoon, while mangroves became important to the south. Distribution of marsh communities was influenced by hydrology, salinity, soil characteristics, and fire, as well as periodic freezes. Marshes of the IRL have been greatly modified since the 1940s. Despite significant modifications, marsh plant species have not been lost from the region, but community and landscape patterns have been greatly modified and ecosystem processes altered.

  6. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Quality data in Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayemuzzaman, M.; Ye, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Indian River Lagoon, is part of the longest barrier island complex in the United States, is a region of particular concern to the environmental scientist because of the rapid rate of human development throughout the region and the geographical position in between the colder temperate zone and warmer sub-tropical zone. Thus, the surface water quality analysis in this region always brings the newer information. In this present study, multivariate statistical procedures were applied to analyze the spatial and temporal water quality in the Indian River Lagoon over the period 1998-2013. Twelve parameters have been analyzed on twelve key water monitoring stations in and beside the lagoon on monthly datasets (total of 27,648 observations). The dataset was treated using cluster analysis (CA), principle component analysis (PCA) and non-parametric trend analysis. The CA was used to cluster twelve monitoring stations into four groups, with stations on the similar surrounding characteristics being in the same group. The PCA was then applied to the similar groups to find the important water quality parameters. The principal components (PCs), PC1 to PC5 was considered based on the explained cumulative variances 75% to 85% in each cluster groups. Nutrient species (phosphorus and nitrogen), salinity, specific conductivity and erosion factors (TSS, Turbidity) were major variables involved in the construction of the PCs. Statistical significant positive or negative trends and the abrupt trend shift were detected applying Mann-Kendall trend test and Sequential Mann-Kendall (SQMK), for each individual stations for the important water quality parameters. Land use land cover change pattern, local anthropogenic activities and extreme climate such as drought might be associated with these trends. This study presents the multivariate statistical assessment in order to get better information about the quality of surface water. Thus, effective pollution control/management of the surface

  7. A Continuation of Base-Line Studies for Environmentally Monitoring Space Transportation Systems at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 3, Part 1: Ichthyological Survey of Lagoonal Waters. [Indian River lagoon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snelson, F. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Ichthyological species in the Indian River lagoonal system likely to be affected by NASA's aerospace activities at the Kennedy Space Center were surveyed. The importance of the fish found to inhabit the waters in the area is analyzed.

  8. Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Stolen, Megan; St. Leger, Judy; Durden, Wendy Noke; Mazza, Teresa; Nilson, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%). Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations. PMID:23840535

  9. Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Stolen, Megan; St Leger, Judy; Durden, Wendy Noke; Mazza, Teresa; Nilson, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%). Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations.

  10. Nutrient enrichment intensifies hurricane impact in scrub mangrove ecosystems in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Feller, Ilka C; Dangremond, Emily M; Devlin, Donna J; Lovelock, Catherine E; Proffitt, C Edward; Rodriguez, Wilfrid

    2015-11-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate coasts. Despite repeated demonstrations of their ecologic and economic value, multiple stressors including nutrient over-enrichment threaten these and other coastal wetlands globally. These ecosystems will be further stressed if tropical storm intensity and frequency increase in response to global climate changes. These stressors will likely interact, but the outcome of that interaction is uncertain. Here, we examined potential interaction between nutrient over-enrichment and the September 2004 hurricanes. Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne made landfall along Florida's Indian River Lagoon and caused extensive damage to a long-term fertilization experiment in a mangrove forest, which previously revealed that productivity was nitrogen (N) limited across the forest and, in particular, that N enrichment dramatically increased growth rates and aboveground biomass of stunted Avicennia germinans trees in the interior scrub zone. During the hurricanes, these trees experienced significant defoliation with three to four times greater reduction in leaf area index (LAI) than control trees. Over the long-term, the +N scrub trees took four years to recover compared to two years for controls. In the adjacent fringe and transition zones, LAI was reduced by > 70%, but with no differences based on zone or fertilization treatment. Despite continued delayed mortality for at least five years after the storms, LAI in the fringe and transition returned to pre-hurricane conditions in two years. Thus, nutrient over-enrichment of the coastal zone will increase the productivity of scrub mangroves, which dominate much of the mangrove landscape in Florida and the Caribbean; however, that benefit is offset by a decrease in their resistance and resilience to hurricane damage that has the potential to destabilize the system.

  11. Water-quality monitoring and biological integrity assessment in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Status, trends, and loadings (1988--1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Sigua, G.C.; Steward, J.S.; Tweedale, W.A.

    2000-02-01

    The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) system that extends from Ponce DeLeon inlet to Jupiter inlet is comprised of three interconnected estuarine lagoons: The Mosquito Lagoon (ML), the Banana River Lagoon (BRL), and the Indian River Lagoon. The declines in both the aerial coverage and species diversity of seagrass communities within the IRL system are believed to be due in part to continued degradation of water quality. Large inflows of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)-laden storm-water from urban areas an agricultural land have been correlated with higher chlorophyll a production in the central, south central, and the south segments of the lagoon. In a system as large and complex as the lagoon, N and P limitations are potentially subject to significant spatial and temporal variability. Total Kjeidahl nitrogen (TN) was higher in the north and lower in the south. The reverse pattern was observed for total P (TP), i.e., lowest in the north and highest at the south ends of the IRL. This increased P concentration in the SIRL appears to have a significantly large effect on chlorophyll a production compared with the other segments, as indicated by stepwise regression statistics. This relationship can be expressed as follows: South IRL [chlorophyll a] = {minus}8.52 + 162.41 [orthophosphate] + 7.86 [total nitrogen] + 0.38 [turbidity]; R{sup 2} = 0.98**.

  12. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in water and sediment of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida - 1977 to 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.C.; Johnson, R.S.; Bricker, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Water and sediment samples collected during 1977 to 1978 from the Indian River lagoon between Vero Beach, Indian River County, and Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida were analyzed for PCBs and DDT. Sample locations were chosen on the basis of proximity to major tributaries, sewage outfalls, or municipal area. Concentrations in water samples were below 0.01 ppB sigma DDT and 0.5 ppB PCBs. Small amounts of PCBs and DDT were found in most sediment samples, ranging from less than 1.0 ppB to 0.63 ppM Aroclor 1254 and from less than 0.1 ppB to 0.081 ppM sigma DDT. Samples from the Taylor Creek tributary and from the Fort Pierce power plant and municipal docking area contained higher PCB concentrations than did samples from other locations. DDT and PCB levels in most samples indicate little contamination by these compounds of the Indian River Waterway between Vero Beach and Fort Pierce.

  13. Seasonal and Spatial Variation in Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Values of Aquatic Macrophytes within the Indian River Lagoon, FL, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementz, M.; Tuross, N.

    2006-12-01

    The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) is a biologically diverse estuary located at the boundary between sub-tropical and warm-temperate marine waters on Florida`s Atlantic coast. Increased residential, agricultural and commercial development along the IRL has drastically changed the nutrient load of freshwater sources emptying into the lagoon, which has in turn impacted the local ecosystem. The degree of development is heterogeneously distributed along the length of the IRL, creating distinct zones of high and low nutrient loading. We examined the effect of these spatially distinct changes in nutrient content on the IRL ecosystem by collecting specimens of seagrass and marine algae from several sites spanning a north-south transect within the IRL and analyzing the carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope composition of these marine macrophytes. Aquatic plant tissue stable isotope values are strongly influenced by the stable isotope composition of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nitrogen (DIN) pools, which in turn show distinct differences between anthropogenic and natural sources. Thus, the δ13C and δ15N values of marine macrophytes can aid in monitoring the human impact on environmental quality by serving as proxies for the relative contribution and influence of anthropogenic, terrestrial and marine nutrients within the IRL. Large spatial and seasonal differences in stable isotope values were detected among both plant types. A north-south gradient in carbon and nitrogen isotope values was found in the IRL with δ13C values lowest and δ15N values highest towards the northern end of the lagoon. Comparison of this gradient with water quality data collected by the IRL monitoring program suggests that these isotope values are strongly correlated with salinity. To the north of the IRL, freshwater influx from natural rivers and man-made canals lower salinity levels and introduce large amounts of DIC and DIN from anthropogenic sources. In contrast, the southern

  14. Mercury concentrations in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Patterns of spatial and temporal distribution.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Adam M; Titcomb, Elizabeth Murdoch; Fair, Patricia A; Stavros, Hui-Chen W; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Bossart, Gregory D; Reif, John S

    2015-08-15

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) have tissue mercury concentrations among the highest reported worldwide. Analysis of total mercury (THg) concentrations in blood collected between 2003 and 2012 showed a significant linear decrease over time (p=0.04). Significant differences in the spatial distribution of THg in resident IRL dolphins were also observed with a general gradient in concentration from north to south. Evaluation of local biogeochemistry and accumulation of mercury in prey species is needed to better understand factors influencing the distribution of Hg in the apex predator. Analyses of temporal and spatial patterns of exposure to THg in this sentinel species may have implications for both ecosystem and public health in the region.

  15. Risk Factors for Colonization of E. coli in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Adam M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A.; Reif, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48 hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48 hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings. PMID:21977048

  16. Risk factors for colonization of E. coli in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Adam M; Bossart, Gregory D; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic pathogens related to degradation in water quality are of concern to both wildlife and public health. The objective of this study was to identify spatial, temporal, and environmental risk factors for E. coli colonization among Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL between 2003 and 2007. Age, gender, capture location, coastal human population density, proximity of sewage treatment plants, number of septic tanks, cumulative precipitation 48 hrs and 30 days prior to capture, salinity, and water temperature were analyzed as potential risk factors. Highest E. coli colonization rates occurred in the northern segments of the IRL. The risk of E. coli colonization was the highest among the youngest individuals, in counties with the highest cumulative rainfall 48 hrs and in counties with the highest number of septic systems during the year of capture. The prevalence of colonization was the highest during 2004, a year during which multiple hurricanes hit the coast of Florida. Septic tanks, in combination with weather-related events suggest a possible pathway for introduction of fecal coliforms into estuarine ecosystems. The ability of E. coli and related bacteria to act as primary pathogens or cause opportunistic infections adds importance of these findings.

  17. Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida.

    PubMed

    Feller, Ilka C; Whigham, Dennis F; McKee, Karen L; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), control, in Mosquito Impoundment 23 on the eastern side of Indian River. Transects traversed the forest perpendicular to the shoreline, from a Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringe through an Avicennia germinans stand of intermediate height, and into a scrub or dwarf stand of A. germinans in the hinterland. Growth rates increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Our growth data indicated that this site is N-limited along the tree-height gradient. After 2 years of N addition, dwarf trees resembled vigorously growing saplings. Addition of N also affected internal dynamics of N and P and caused increases in rates of photosynthesis. These findings contrast with results for a R. mangle-dominated forest in Belize where the fringe is N-limited, but the dwarf zone is P-limited and the transition zone is co-limited by N and P. This study demonstrated that patterns of nutrient limitation in mangrove ecosystems are complex, that not all processes respond similarly to the same nutrient, and that similar habitats are not limited by the same nutrient when different mangrove forests are compared.

  18. Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feller, Ilka C.; Whigham, D.F.; McKee, K.L.; Lovelock, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), control, in Mosquito Impoundment 23 on the eastern side of Indian River. Transects traversed the forest perpendicular to the shoreline, from a Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringe through an Avicennia germinans stand of intermediate height, and into a scrub or dwarf stand of A. germinans in the hinterland. Growth rates increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Our growth data indicated that this site is N-limited along the tree-height gradient. After 2 years of N addition, dwarf trees resembled vigorously growing saplings. Addition of N also affected internal dynamics of N and P and caused increases in rates of photosynthesis. These findings contrast with results for a R. mangle-dominated forest in Belize where the fringe is N-limited, but the dwarf zone is P-limited and the transition zone is co-limited by N and P. This study demonstrated that patterns of nutrient limitation in mangrove ecosystems are complex, that not all processes respond similarly to the same nutrient, and that similar habitats are not limited by the same nutrient when different mangrove forests are compared.

  19. Controls on the Chemical Hydrology and Associated Ecological Structure and Function in Mangroves, Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, C. E.; Rains, M. C.; Kruse, S.; Whigham, D.; Verhoeven, J. T.; Laanbroek, R.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that hydrological processes control many aspects of ecosystem structure and function in mangroves. In this study, we are examining controls on the physical and chemical hydrology and subsequent physical and chemical hydrological controls on species composition, primary productivity, and nutrient cycling in mangroves on a barrier island in the Indian River Lagoon on the east-central coast of Florida. Salinities vary spatially, with surface-water and groundwater salinities ranging from ~10 in the upland, to ~30 in the regularly-flushed mangroves, to ~75 in the irregularly-flushed mangroves. However, salinities do not vary temporally, with no significant differences in salinities at given locations between the wet and dry seasons. Cation and anion concentrations and stable isotope ratios indicate that surface-water and groundwater salinities are largely controlled by evaporative enrichment. Resistivity and electromagnetic geophysical surveys further show that a freshwater lens is restricted to the upland and that great-than- seawater salinities extend to depths of greater than 20 m below the mangrove. These results indicate that precipitation and lagoon water mix and evapoconcentrate in the mangrove, and that this evapoconcentrated water sinks to form the thick layer of greater-than-seawater-salinity water below the mangrove. Spatial variations in species composition correlate with spatial variations in salinities, with maritime hammock, red mangrove, dense black mangrove, sparse black mangrove, and salt pan habitats being arranged on a gradient of increasing salinities. Spatial variations in primary productivity and nutrient cycling also correlate with spatial variations in salinities, though the relationships are in some cases less clear. For example, denitrification rates are lowest in the areas with salinities of approximately 30 and 75, corresponding with red mangrove and salt pan habitats, respectively, and are highest in areas with

  20. Patterns of fish use and piscivore abundance within a reconnected saltmarsh impoundment in the northern Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Philip W.; Montague, C.L.; Sulak, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all saltmarshes in east-central, Florida were impounded for mosquito control during the 1960s. The majority of these marshes have since been reconnected to the estuary by culverts, providing an opportunity to effectively measure exchange of aquatic organisms. A multi-gear approach was used monthly to simultaneously estimate fish standing stock (cast net), fish exchange with the estuary (culvert traps), and piscivore abundance (gill nets and bird counts) to document patterns of fish use in a reconnected saltmarsh impoundment. Changes in saltmarsh fish abundance, and exchange of fish with the estuary reflected the seasonal pattern of marsh flooding in the northern Indian River Lagoon system. During a 6-month period of marsh flooding, resident fish had continuous access to the marsh surface. Large piscivorous fish regularly entered the impoundment via creeks and ditches to prey upon small resident fish, and piscivorous birds aggregated following major fish movements to the marsh surface or to deep habitats. As water levels receded in winter, saltmarsh fish concentrated into deep habitats and emigration to the estuary ensued (200% greater biomass left the impoundment than entered). Fish abundance and community structure along the estuary shoreline (although fringed with marsh vegetation) were not analogous to marsh creeks and ditches. Perimeter ditches provided deep-water habitat for large estuarine predators, and shallow creeks served as an alternative habitat for resident fish when the marsh surface was dry. Use of the impoundment as nursery by transients was limited to Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, but large juvenile and adult piscivorous fish used the impoundment for feeding. In conclusion, the saltmarsh impoundment was a feeding site for piscivorous fish and birds, and functioned as a net exporter of forage fish to adjacent estuarine waters. ?? Springer 2006.

  1. Measures of Water Quality in Merrit Island National Wildlife Refuge Impoundments and Adjacent Indian River Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to conduct preliminary investigations to determine appropriate sampling strategies to measure the flux of dissolved nutrients (specifically, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, and PO4(3-)) and suspended particulate matter (TSS) between impoundments and the IRL in preparation for an intensive three-year monitoring program. In addition to nutrients and TSS, a variety of common water quality indicators were also measured during these preliminary studies. Six impoundments and a single restored marsh were selected for study. Over a month long period, water samples were collected weekly at selected impoundment culverts. Water was collected in duplicate as independent grab samples from both the lagoon side and within the perimeter ditch directly adjacent to the culverts. Water quality indicators inside and outside the marsh impoundments were different. Ammonium, salinity, bacteria, and chlorophyll-a were higher inside the impoundments as expected possibly as a result of the great affect of evaporation on impoundment water. Water quality indicators responded rapidly both inside and outside the impoundments as exemplified by the increase in NH4(+)-N concentrations during a horseshoe crab die-off. Water quality indicators were high variable during the month in which water samples were collected. Because the impoundments are widely spaced it is logistically unrealistic to sample each of the impoundments and associated seagrass beds on a single day, sampling must be stratified to allow patterns of material movement and the annual flux of materials to and from the impoundments to be determined.

  2. Effects of environmental variables upon the spatial and temporal structure of a fish community in a small, freshwater tributary of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperno, Richard; Brodie, Russell B.

    2004-10-01

    A survey to monitor the distribution and abundance of fishes and selected invertebrates in the St. Sebastian River, Florida, was conducted from March 1999 through June 2000. We recorded a total of 181,854 individuals (representing 77 taxa) in 128 seine samples, and a single species, bay anchovy ( Anchoa mitchilli), accounted for 84.4% of the animals collected. Seasonally, the species compositions of spring and fall samples were most similar (percent similarity index (PSI)=95.3%), whereas those of summer and winter samples were most dissimilar (PSI=54.0%). The spring samples contained the greatest mean number of taxa (N0=59 taxa), and the fall samples had the fewest (N0=38). In addition, spring samples had the highest index of abundant taxa (Hill's N1=10.6) and summer samples had the lowest (Hill's N1=6.4), suggesting that approximately four more taxa were caught in greater abundance during spring than during summer. Community composition determined via canonical correspondence analysis revealed four assemblages: two seasonal groupings and two spatial groupings. Seasonal species assemblages were composed of a spring-summer group characterized by recruits of Irish pompano ( Diapterus auratus), snook ( Centropomus undecimalis), and naked goby ( Gobiosoma bosc), and a fall-winter group characterized by recruits of mullet ( Mugil cephalus), spot ( Leiostomus xanthurus), and croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus). Spatial groupings were composed of a north prong group which included taxa with estuarine affinities, and a south prong group which included taxa with freshwater affinities. Community composition recorded during periods of controlled water releases and during periods of naturally high-water-flow differed, primarily because abundant estuarine taxa disappeared during the controlled release. The loss of these taxa suggests that when large amounts of fresh water enter the system during relatively short periods of time, the estuarine component of the community does not

  3. 75 FR 53299 - Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in... for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in Indian country in the States of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming and the issuance of the NPDES general permit for wastewater...

  4. Impact of a river flash flood on microbial carbon and nitrogen production in a Mediterranean Lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilland, E.; Trottet, A.; Bancon-Montigny, C.; Bouvy, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Gonzalez, J.-L.; Hatey, E.; Mas, S.; Mostajir, B.; Nouguier, J.; Pecqueur, D.; Rochelle-Newall, E.; Rodier, C.; Roques, C.; Salles, C.; Tournoud, M.-G.; Vidussi, F.

    2012-11-01

    Over half of the total nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loading was discharged from the Vène River into the Thau Lagoon waters within the first five days of what was considered to be the autumn flash flood period. Such loads represented about 8% and 3% of the yearly averaged total nitrogen and phosphorus load in Thau Lagoon, respectively. Although this event affected >20% of the total lagoon volume, river trace metal loads contributed apparently only weakly to the increase in labile trace metal concentrations in the lagoon surface waters. Differences between theoretical dilution values and observed values were also noticed for phosphate, silicate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. DOC losses (10-50%) mainly through flocculation, together with the substantial increases in some metallic contaminants such as Zn (from 6 to >30 μg L-1) observed during the flash flood in saline lagoon waters, may have limited the carbon production of bacterial communities. The potential osmotic shock and the increase in turbidity may mainly explain the low phytoplankton C turnover rates (average of 0.02 h-1) measured in brackish waters (<30) during periods of heavy flood discharge. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN: NO3 + NH4) enrichment measured 12 days after the flash flood event in saline lagoon surface waters (from 22 to 143 μg N L-1) led to a substantial increase in phytoplanktonic C production and associated DIN uptake rates (from 2.6 to 7.0 μg C L-1 h-1 and from 0.5 to 1.1 μg N L-1 h-1, respectively). Subsequent accumulation in particulate organic carbon and nitrogen was not observed in the area studied during and after the flash flood period, averaging 549 ± 50 μg C L-1 and 168 ± 9 μg N L-1, respectively. This suggests that most of locally produced microbial production was rapidly filtered by oysters contributing to about 13% of the yearly exploited production in the lagoon and/or exported through sedimentation.

  5. Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Sandhu, Jasmeet S; Kumar, Niraj; Behl, Vandana

    2007-01-01

    Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds. PMID:17915036

  6. Differences in ichthyofauna feeding habits among lateral lagoons and the river channel in a large reservoir.

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G; Casatti, L

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated differences in feeding habits of small-sized ichthyofauna among lateral lagoons and the river channel in a large reservoir. The study was performed in four lagoons and in one sampling site of the main channel in Rosana Reservoir, Paranapanema River, Brazil. The samples were taken in September and November of 2004 and in January, March, May, and August of 2005. Fish were sampled with a 7.5 m2 hand net. Five manual throws were made toward aquatic macrophytes stands. The sampling design favored the collection of small-sized fish fauna (juveniles/small-sized species). The stomach contents of 42 species were analyzed. A total of 183 different items were consumed by fish. These items were grouped in 11 food categories, which were used to classify fish into seven trophic guilds. Aquatic insects were consumed by 32 species and were the predominant feeding item. In the river, the most consumed items were aquatic insects, cladocerans, and phytoplankton, whereas in the lagoons aquatic insects, copepods, and cladocerans were the main items. By comparing each trophic guild, the number of insectivores, algivores, and zooplanktivores species was higher in the lagoons than in the river, and the opposite was found only for omnivore fish. Low niche width in all sites indicates high trophic specialization and low niche overlap between pairs of species. Fish assemblage in the lateral lagoons presents feeding habits distinct from those of the river species, indicating that the coexistence and high abundance of small-sized fish in the sampling sites are explained by their high feeding adaptability, which includes a tendency toward dietary specialization, low feeding overlap, and resource partitioning, along with different temporal resource uses.

  7. Dissolved Copper, Nickel and Lead in Tampamachoco Lagoon and Tuxpan River Estuary in the SW Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Garduño Ruiz, E P; Rosales Hoz, L; Carranza Edwards, A

    2016-10-01

    In order to estimate the effects of a thermal power plant, physicochemical parameters and the concentrations of copper, nickel and lead were evaluated in water from both Tampamachoco Lagoon and the estuary of the Tuxpan River. Average salinities were 33.66 ups in the lagoon area, 32.77 ups in the channel that joins the lagoon and the river, and 24.74 ups in the river estuary. Total average metal concentrations were 21.95 for Cu, 29.67 for Ni and 4.31 µ/L for Pb. Sampling point 1 and samples from the bottom water of the lagoon present the highest salinities and concentrations of suspended matter, TOC, Cu, Ni and Pb.These high values may be associated with the infiltration of sea water either from plant operation or from the channel that connects the lagoon with the sea.

  8. Hydrographic Study of a Highly Stratified River Mouth Estuary. Alvarado Coastal Lagoon, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perales-Valdivia, H.; Sanay, R.

    2014-12-01

    Two 24 hours surveys on high and low river discharge conditions were used to describe the hydrography and the currents at the entrance of Alvarado Coastal Lagoon, México, located at the southwestern coast of the Gulf of México. This study represent the first of this kind in this lagoon. The Alvardo Coastal Lagoon sustains several economical fisheres in the region, including the shrimp fishery. The inlet of the Alvarado Coastal Lagoon is a microtidal rivermouth estuary. In each survey, towed ADCP and hydrographic data were sampled during a diurnal tidal cycle for three across-inlet transects located near the mouth. 12 track repetitions were completed allowing to distinguish the subtidal and tidal signals. In both runoff conditions a salt wedge was present, and showed surface-bottom salinity difference up to 35 psu. During high river discharge condition the salt wedge was present only during flood tide. The thicknesses of the interface, and upper and bottom layers oscillated according the tide. The water surface layer was always toward the ocean. During low river discharge condition the salt wedge was present for the whole tidal cycle. The vertical position of the interface oscillated as the tide did but keeping a constant thickness.

  9. Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

    This guide provides history and social studies teachers, at all grade levels, with information and activities about the American Indians of the Northern Plains who lived in the area of the Knife River where it enters the Missouri River. Located in what is now North Dakota, this area is the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The…

  10. Heavy metal contamination of the Sacca di Goro lagoon area (Po River Delta, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti-Caputo, Dimitra

    2010-05-01

    The lagoon area of the Sacca di Goro, within the Po River delta, is ca. 20 km2 wide, with a mean depth of 1.5 m and a mean salinity of 29%o. It holds a major naturalistic interest as well as an economic one due to the aquaculture activities (mussels and clams). In this lagoon system, the quality of the sea-bottom sediments is crucial not only for the cultivated species, but also for the potential bio-accumulation problems in heavy metals. The definition of the qualitative status of the lagoon sediments is crucial for adopting the best management strategies and the protection of the environmental conditions. We determined the concentration in SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn, Cu, Ga, Nd, S and Sr, of 31 samples homogeneously collected over the lagoon area. This large dataset allowed i) to define the environmental quality of the sediments, ii) to recognise the areas with the higher contamination risk; and iii) to emphasise the local occurrence of polluting phenomena associated to chromium, nickel, vanadium, cobalt, lead, zinc and copper.

  11. Harmful Algae Records in Venice Lagoon and in Po River Delta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilaničovà, Dagmar; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide “updated reference conditions” for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200 cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance. PMID:24683360

  12. 1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona, Showing Allotted And Irrigated Land. Department of the Interior. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. July, 1916 (Source: National Archives, Washington, DC) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  13. Dispersion of Outflow from Small Rivers and Coastal Lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largier, J. L.; Basdurak, N. B.

    2013-05-01

    Along many tropical and subtropical coasts, waters enter the ocean via small streams or lagoons. These outflow plumes are known to be important to coastal productivity, but as pollutant loading increases they are also seen as an increasing source of coastal pollution. Physical processes in these small plumes interact in ways that are different to larger plumes, e.g., flow rate varies on short time scales, and the coriolis term is typically unimportant. After a brief review of dominant terms, attention will be given to observed plume patterns with a focus on the presence of low-salinity and outflow-related constituents nearshore. Data from studies off California and elsewhere will be used to suggest that there are common transport and mixing patterns at this scale. While the ultimate aim is to understand and model physical processes controlling dispersion of land-derived pollutants, at the very least one can recognize a spatial pattern of probability that can be characterized by primary physical parameters. Due to limited data on physical processes at the requisite resolution, numerical modeling is used to better understand processes and phenomena including inertial jets, buoyant plumes, alongshore flow, mixing and surface stresses. Ultimately, one can expect that a reasonable estimate of a probabilistic "zone of impact" can be obtained from knowledge of fundamental physical parameters that control transport and mixing. This link between physical forcing and response needs both a dynamical explanation and statistical support - yielding a general model that can be used for countless small inflows along many coasts. These features may be small but they are very common, and it is argued that their importance for coastal pollution and ecology is disproportionately big. The benefit of recognizing a transport-based zone of impact is that this pattern is the basis of distribution patterns for a variety of constituents, including dissolved and particulate contaminants

  14. Geohydrology of Indian River County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiner, G.R.; Laughlin, C.P.; Toth, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The surficial aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer system are the sources of groundwater used in Indian River County, Florida. About 65% of the groundwater is used for irrigation and is from the Floridan aquifer system. Saline water ranging from slightly saline to brine underlies the fresh groundwater throughout the county and is the chief water quality problem. Transmissivities of the surficial aquifer system in eastern Indian River County range from 1,500 to 11,000 sq ft/d. Yields of wells are as much as 1,200 gal/min. Reported transmissivities for the Floridan aquifer system range from 65,000 to 200,000 sq ft/d. Most wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system flow; flow rates range from 30 to 2,000 gal/min. Chloride concentrations of water in the surficial aquifer system generally are below 100 mg/L, but concentrations often exceed 250 mg/L in water from the Floridan aquifer system. Between 1976 and 1983, average chloride concentrations in water from six wells that tap the surficial aquifer system in the Vero Beach well field increased about 36 mg/L, but were unchanged in four other wells. The increase in chloride concentration probably is related to a well-field pumpage increase from 5.44 million gal/d in 1976 to 8.00 million gal/d in 1983. In most of the County, chloride concentrations of wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system have not changed significantly in the 15-year period, 1968-83. Water levels in the surficial aquifer system declined 15 to 19 ft between 1971 and 1984 in the Vero Beach well field where the larger groundwater withdrawals occur, but have not declined significantly outside heavily pumped areas. Water levels in the Floridan aquifer system have declined 16 to 24 ft in eastern Indian River County in the 50-year period, 1934-84, but declines outside the heavily pumped areas generally have been less than 10 ft during this period. (USGS)

  15. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in coastal lagoons of the Po River delta: sediment contamination, bioaccumulation and effects on Manila clams.

    PubMed

    Casatta, Nadia; Stefani, Fabrizio; Pozzoni, Fiorenzo; Guzzella, Licia; Marziali, Laura; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Viganò, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    The large estuary that the River Po forms at its confluence into the Adriatic Sea comprises a multitude of transitional environments, including coastal lagoons. This complex system receives the nutrients transported by the River Po but also its load of chemical contaminants, which may pose a substantial (eco)toxicological risk. Despite the high ecological and economic importance of these vulnerable environments, there is a substantial lack of information on this risk. In light of the recent amendments of the European Water Framework Directive (2013/39/EU), the present study investigated the sediment contamination of six coastal lagoons of the Po delta and its effects on Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), exposed in situ for 3 months. Sediment contamination and clam bioaccumulation of a wide range of chemicals, i.e. trace metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg, Pb, As), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alkylphenols (APs), organochlorine compounds (PCBs, DDTs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organotins (TPhT, TBT), suggested a southward increase related to the riverine transports. Where the River Po influence was more direct, the concentrations of contaminants were higher, with nonylphenol and BDE-209 exceeding sediment quality guidelines. Biometric indicators suggested the influence of contamination on organism health; an inverse relationship between PBDEs in sediments and clam condition index has been found, as well as different biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) in the lagoons.

  16. 78 FR 44590 - Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community-Amendment to Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community--Amendment to Alcoholic Beverage... publishes the amendment to the Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian Community Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Chapter 14, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Code of Ordinances to provide...

  17. Analysis of Lagoonal Ecosystems in the Po River Delta Associated with Intensive Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Yu. I.; Sorokin, P. Yu.; Ravagnan, G.

    1999-03-01

    Observations on structure and functioning of coastal lagoon ecosystems experiencing a high level of eutrophication impact were accomplished in three lagoons of Ca'Pisani integrated within an experimental aquaculture enterprise variously fertilized by waste effluents discharged from and intensive fish culture plant. During August and early September an extremely dense bloom of dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarensewas recorded in these lagoons with the density of phytoplankton up to 190 g m -3of wet biomass, and primary production 2 to 6 mg Cl -1 day -1. The diel dissolved oxygen fluctuations in water column during the bloom reached 15-20 mg O 2 l -1. The wet biomass of bacterioplankton in the lagoons attained 5-9 g m -3. The microzooplankton was dominated by ciliates with biomass 1 to 19 g m -3. The daytime mesozooplankton was dominated by calanoid copepods with a biomass 0·05-0·25 g m -3, while the biomass of the demersal zooplankton at night attained 2 to 14 g m -3. In the lagoon of Ocaro, the phototrophic plankton was dominated by the symbiotic ciliate Mesodinium.The labile sulphides content in the upper layer of the bottom attained over 1 g S dm -3of wet silt. The rate of microbial sulphate reduction was 5-10 mg S dm -3day -1. The data are generalized within the energy balance in these specific anthropogenically transformed pelagic communities.

  18. Cadmium and lead levels along the estuarine ecosystem of Tigre River-San Andres Lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Sauceda, María de la Luz; Pérez-Castañeda, Roberto; Sánchez-Martínez, Jesús Genaro; Aguirre-Guzmán, Gabriel

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium and lead levels were evaluated in water and sediment along the estuarine ecosystem of Tigre River-San Andres Lagoon (Gulf of Mexico) during September to December 2009. Significant highest metal concentration in water (0.45 mg L(-1) Cd and 3.94 mg L(-1) Pb) and sediment (2.83 mg kg(-1) Cd and 6.61 mg kg(-1) Pb) were found at the mouth of the Tigre River, where the fishing town of El Moron is located. Cadmium levels in sediment were above limits associated with adverse biological effects on aquatic fauna, so negative impacts on natural populations of aquatic organisms would be expected to occur. This in turn could affect the fishery resources inhabiting this ecosystem.

  19. Changes in Terrestrial Organic Carbon Delivery to the Colville River Delta and Adjacent Simpson's Lagoon Over the Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Bianchi, T. S.; Allison, M. A.; Miller, A. J.; Marcantonio, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Colville River in Alaska is the largest river in North America that drains only continuously permafrosted tundra, and as such provides a unique signal of historical changes in one of the world's most vulnerable areas to climate changes. Additionally, the Colville flows into Simpson's Lagoon, a shallow area of the Alaskan Beaufort coast protected by a barrier island chain, lessening the impacts of Arctic storms and ice grounding on sediment mixing. Cores collected from the Colville river delta in August of 2010 were found to be composed of muddy, organic-rich, well-laminated sediments. The 2.5 to 3 meter length of each core spans about one to two thousand years of Holocene history, including the entire Anthropocene and much of the late Holocene. Three cores were sampled for this data set, arranged latitudinally from the mouth of the Colville River east into Simpson's Lagoon. Samples were taken every 2 cm for the entire length of all cores. Bulk analyses including percent organic carbon, percent nitrogen, and stable carbon isotopic analysis were performed, and compound specific analyses including lignin-phenol and algal pigment analyses were performed. These analyses showed significant changes in carbon storage over the past one to two thousand years. There were also significant spatial differences in organic carbon inputs across the ~20km distance between the Colville mouth and the easternmost core. Lignin-phenol concentrations in surface sediments nearest to the river mouth correlated positively with reconstructed Alaskan North Slope temperatures, suggesting more terrestrial organic matter was delivered during higher temperature regimes. Molar C:N ratios and plant pigments correlated negatively and positively, respectively, with reconstructed Alaskan North Slope moisture regime, indicating greater algal inputs during wetter time periods. These data may in part be consistent with observed woody shrub encroachment and increasing expanse of permafrost lakes on the

  20. Impacts of the Indian Rivers Inter-link Project on Sediment Transport to River Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, S.; Overeem, I.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Indian Rivers Inter-link project is a proposal by the Indian government to link several of India's major rivers via a network of reservoirs and canals. Variations of the IRI have been discussed since 1980, but the current plan has recently received increased support from the Indian government. Construction on three canals has controversially begun. If the Inter-link project moves forward, fourteen canals will divert water from tributaries of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers to areas in the west, where fresh water is needed for irrigation. Additional canals would transport Himalayan sediments 500 km south to the Mahanadi delta and more than 1000 km south to the Godavari and Krishna deltas. We investigate the impacts of the proposed diversions on sediment transport to the Mahanadi/Brahmani, Godavari, and Krishna deltas in India and the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta in Bangladesh. We map the entire river network and the proposed new nodes and connections. Changing watersheds are delineated using the Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models (TauDEM) Suite. Climate data comes from interpolation between observed precipitation stations located in China, Nepal, India, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Changes in water discharge due to the proposed canals are simulated using HydroTrend, a climate-driven hydrological water balance and transport model that incorporates drainage area, discharge, relief, temperature, basin-average lithology, and anthropogenic influences. Simulated river discharge is validated against observations from gauging stations archived by the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC). HydroTrend is then used to investigate sediment transport changes that may result from the proposed canals. We also quantify changes in contributing areas for the outlets of nine major Indian rivers, showing that more than 50% of the land in India will contribute a portion of its runoff to a new outlet should the entire canal system be constructed.

  1. Spatial and temporal variation of nitrogen concentration and speciation in runoff and storm water in the Indian River watershed, South Florida.

    PubMed

    Li, Liguang; He, Zhenli; Li, Zhigang; Zhang, Songhe; Li, Suli; Wan, Yongshan; Stoffella, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) is considered as a key element that triggers algal boom in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), South Florida. Intensive agriculture may have contributed to increased N input into the IRL. Runoff and storm water samples were collected in representative agricultural fields and along waterways that connect lands to the IRL from April 2013 to December 2014. Concentrations of different N species (particulate N, dissolved organic N, dissolved NH4 (+)-N, and NO3 (-)-N) and related water physical-chemical properties were measured. Total N (TN) concentrations generally decreased from agricultural field furrows to discharging point of the waterways but were generally above the US EPA critical level (0.59 mg L(-1)) for surface water. Organic N was the dominant form of dissolved N, followed by NO3 (-)-N, and dissolved NH4 (+)-N. Concentrations and speciation of N in water varied with sites and sampling times but were generally higher in summer and fall and lower in spring and winter, as affected by the seasonality of regional hydrology and agricultural practices. Correlations occurred between N concentration, water physical properties, and rainfall. This information has important implications in the development of best management practices to minimize the impacts of agricultural practice on N loading in the Indian River Lagoon.

  2. Studies on the toxic elements and organic degradation products in aquatic bodies and sediments around Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Haulover Canal and Mosquito Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, G. S.; Menon, M. P.; Emeh, C. O.

    1975-01-01

    The work during the first year ending September, 1975, is reported. Indian River, Haulover Canal, Mosquito Lagoon, and other aquatic areas of discharge around Kennedy Space Center (KSC) were studied. The presentation and interpretation of data on water and sediment samples collected from Haulover Canal and Mosquito Lagoon are included. The field and laboratory data are presented and tentative conclusions were drawn in the various aspects of the study. An attempt was made to correlate the physical, chemical, and biological parameters.

  3. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  4. Water Quality and Streamflow of the Indian River, Sitka, Alaska, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Edward J.; Brabets, Timothy P.; Frenzel, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The Indian River Basin, located near Sitka Alaska, drains an area of 12.3 square miles. This watershed is an important natural resource of Sitka National Historic Park. At the present time, the watershed faces possible development on large tracts of private land upstream of the park that could affect the water quality of Indian River. Due to this concern, a study was conducted cooperatively with the National Park Service. The approach was to examine the water quality of the Indian River in the upper part of the watershed where no development has occurred and in the lower part of the basin where development has taken place. Measurements of pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations of the Indian River were within acceptable ranges for fish survival. The Indian River is calcium bicarbonate type water with a low buffering capacity. Concentrations of dissolved ions and nutrients generally were low and exhibited little variation between the two study sites. Analysis of bed sediment trace element concentrations at both sampling sites indicates the threshold effect concentration was exceeded for arsenic, chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc; while the probable effect concentration was exceeded by arsenic, chromium and nickel. However, due to relatively large amounts of organic carbon present in the bed sediments, the potential toxicity from trace elements is low. Discharge in the Indian River is typical of coastal southeast Alaska streams where low flows generally are in late winter and early spring and greater flows are during the wetter fall months. Alaska Department of Fish and Game has established instream flow reservations on the lower 2.5 miles of the Indian River. Discharge data indicate minimum flow requirements were not achieved during 236 days of the study period. Natural low flows are frequently below the flow reservations, but diversions resulted in flow reservations not being met a total of 140 days. Thirty-five algae species were identified

  5. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334... and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md....

  6. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334... and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md....

  7. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334... and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md....

  8. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334... and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md....

  9. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334... and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md....

  10. Relationships Between Vegetation and Ground Conductivity in a Mangrove Near Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNiff, C. M.; Kruse, S. E.; Rains, M. C.; Stringer, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an electromagnetic induction survey was conducted with the EM-31 to assess the spatial variability of ground conductivity, a proxy for groundwater salinity, in a mangrove on North Hutchinson Island, Florida, a carbonate barrier island. A previous study established a relationship between ground conductivities and pore-water salinities, but data points are not spaced closely enough to properly observe the potential effect of mangrove vegetation on ground conductivities. We present here apparent conductivities measured along five profiles that traverse the field site; data were inverted to obtain ground conductivity for the vadose and saturated zones. The vegetation types are dense black mangrove, scrubby black mangrove and salt pan (little or no vegetation). At this site, average water-table levels were 0.2 m below ground level. The mangrove roots systems extend to .6 m to 1 m below the ground surface. Sampled pore-water conductivities range from near freshwater to hypersaline. Effective depth measurements range from 2 m to 5.5 m for the EM31. The average vadose-zone ground conductivities derived from inversion of the data are 1400 mS/m, but range from 75 mS/m to 12,000mS/m. The average saturated -zone ground conductivities are 1900 mS/m, and range more narrowly from 820 mS/m to 2400 mS/m. These large conductivity values mean the low-induction number assumption is not satisfied so true conductivity values are larger than what is measured, but spatial distribution and variability is still observable. There is a larger degree of variability observed in the vadose zone than the saturated zone, but the saturated zone generally has higher conductivity values associated with it; which is controlled by saline-hypersaline groundwater. The density of mangrove vegetation shows a strong correlation with ground conductivity variability in both zones-- vegetated areas have more variability than salt pan areas. This is due to root systems removing salt and water from the ground but excreting the salts at the leaves, which eventually returns to the ground. Salt pans, lacking vegetation, have evenly distributed ground conductivities.

  11. Precipitation chemistry - Atmospheric loadings to the surface waters of the Indian River lagoon basin by rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Madsen, Brooks C.; Maull, Lee A.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, William M., III

    1990-01-01

    Rain volume and chemistry monitoring as part of the Kennedy Space Center Long Term Environmental Monitoring Program included the years 1984-1987 as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Atmospheric deposition in rainfall consisted primarily of sea salt and hydrogen ion, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions. The deposition of nitrogen (a principal plant nutrient) was on the order of 200-300 metric tons per year to the surface waters.

  12. 40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 49.22 Section 49.22 Protection of Environment... Authority § 49.22 Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian... River Project at the Tri-Cities landfill, which are fueled by collected landfill gas....

  13. 40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 52.142 Section 52.142 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.142 Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima... the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community near Phoenix,...

  14. 40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 52.142 Section 52.142 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.142 Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima... the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community near Phoenix,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 52.142 Section 52.142 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.142 Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima... the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community near Phoenix,...

  16. 40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 52.142 Section 52.142 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.142 Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima... the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community near Phoenix,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.142 - Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 52.142 Section 52.142 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.142 Federal Implementation Plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima... the Tri-Cities landfill located on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community near Phoenix,...

  18. Long-Term Effects of Changing Land Use Practices on Surface Water Quality in a Coastal River and Lagoonal Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberger, Meghan B.; Burkholder, Joann M.; Brownie, Cavell

    2009-09-01

    The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region.

  19. EPA awards $389,000 to Gila River Indian Community for cleaner diesel equipment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO -The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provided $389,000 in Diesel Emission Reduction Act funding to the Gila River Indian Community in Ariz. to replace four construction vehicles operating at Gila River Farms. EPA announced the gran

  20. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen to the northern Indian Ocean from the Indian monsoonal rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, M. S.; Prasad, V. R.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Reddy, N. P. C.; Hemalatha, K. P. J.; Rao, Y. V.

    2015-10-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) were measured in 27 major and medium monsoonal estuaries along the Indian coast during southwest monsoon in order to understand the spatial variability in their concentrations and fluxes to the northern Indian Ocean. A strong spatial variability (~20-fold) in DOC and DON was observed in the Indian monsoonal estuaries due to variable characteristics of the catchment area and volume of discharge. It is estimated that the Indian monsoonal estuaries transport ~2.37 ± 0.47 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) of DOC and ~0.41 ± 0.08 Tg of DON during wet period to the northern Indian Ocean. The Bay of Bengal receives 3 times higher DOC and DON (1.82 and 0.30 Tg, respectively) than the Arabian Sea (0.55 and 0.11 Tg). Catchment area normalized fluxes of DOC and DON were found to be higher in the estuaries located in the southwestern than the estuaries from other regions of India. It was attributed to relatively higher soil organic carbon, biomass carbon, and heavy rainfall in catchment areas of the rivers from the former region. It has been noticed that neither catchment area nor discharge volume of the river controls the fluxes of DOC and DON to the northern Indian Ocean. Since the total load of DOC and DON is strongly linked to the volume of discharge, alterations in the freshwater discharge due to natural or anthropogenic activities may have significant influence on organic matter fluxes to the Indian coastal waters and its impact on microbial food web dynamics needs further evaluation.

  1. Distribution and risk assessment of hydrocarbons (aliphatic and PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides in surface sediments from an agricultural river (Durance) and an industrialized urban lagoon (Berre lagoon), France.

    PubMed

    Kanzari, Fehmi; Asia, Laurence; Syakti, Agung Dhamar; Piram, Anne; Malleret, Laure; Mille, Gilbert; Doumenq, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The distributions of organic pollutants (like hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides) and the risks on the ecosystem were studied in the Durance River and the Berre lagoon (France). High levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons were observed in all stations (1399 to 11,202 μg kg(-1) dw). The n-alkanes were mainly from terrigenous origin confirmed by the values of different ratios calculated (carbon preference index (CPI), natural n-alkanes ratio (NAR), terrigenous/aquatic ratio (TAR), and ratio of low molecular weight to high molecular weight (LMW/HMW)). Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the surface sediments of the Durance River and Berre lagoon are 57-1528 and 512-863 μg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Several ratios between parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons showed that the sources of hydrocarbons in the sediments were generally more pyrolytic than petrogenic. The sum of seven PCB contents ranged from 0.03 to 13.13 μg kg(-1) dw. Higher levels of PCBs were detected in sediments from the northern parts of the Berre lagoon (stations B1 and B3). Total pesticides contents ranged from 0.02 to 7.15 μg kg(-1) dw. Among these compounds, ∑DDE and ∑DDT contents ranged, respectively, from 0.35 to 1.65 and from 0.37 to 1.52 μg kg(-1) dw. However, PAH and PCB levels are not high enough to be a threat to aquatic organisms and human beings. Total PAH levels were below the effects range low (ERL) of 3500 μg kg(-1) dw. For PCBs, only two stations (B1 and B3) are higher than the effect range median (ERM) of 180 μg kg(-1) dw. For endrin (pesticide), the concentrations are between the ERL (0.02 μg kg(-1) dw) and the ERM (45 μg kg(-1) dw).

  2. Agreement between the Indian River Community College District Board of Trustees and the Indian River Community College Chapter of the American Association of University Professors, August 1, 1986-July 31, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian River Community Coll., FL.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Indian River Community College District Board of Trustees and the Indian River Community College Chapter of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) covering the period August 1, 1986-July 1, 1987 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: recognition of AAUP, strikes and…

  3. Agreement between Indian River Community College District Board of Trustees and the Indian River Community College Chapter of the American Association of University Professors, July 1, 1979 thru June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian River Community Coll., FL.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Indian River Community College District Board of Trustees and the Indian River Community College Chapter (125 members) of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) covering the period July 1, 1979-June 30, 1981 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: recognition of AAUP,…

  4. Export of dissolved inorganic nutrients to the northern Indian Ocean from the Indian monsoonal rivers during discharge period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, M. S.; Prasad, M. H. K.; Rao, D. B.; Viswanadham, R.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Reddy, N. P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal regions are highly productive due to the nutrients largely supplied by rivers. To examine the contribution of dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN) by Indian rivers to coastal waters, data were collected near the freshwater heads of 27 monsoonal rivers of peninsular India during three weeks in late July to mid-August, the middle of the principal runoff period of the southwest monsoon of 2011. Twelve researchers in four groups, equipped with car and portable laboratory equipment, sampled mid-stream of each estuary using mechanized boat, and filtered and partly analyzed the water in the evening. The estimated exports were 0.22 ± 0.05, 0.11 ± 0.03, and 1.03 ± 0.26 Tg yr-1 for dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus and silicate, respectively. Higher amounts of DIN reach the Bay of Bengal than the Arabian Sea due to the higher volume (∼76%) of discharge to the former. In contrast, the export of dissolved inorganic nitrogen is almost same to the Bay of Bengal (0.12 ± 0.03 Tg yr-1) and Arabian Sea (0.10 ± 0.02 Tg yr-1) principally due to the polluted Narmada and Tapti rivers in the northwest. Including input from the glacial rivers, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus, it is estimated that the northern Indian Ocean receives ∼1.84 ± 0.46, 0.28 ± 0.07 and 3.58 ± 0.89 Tg yr-1 of nitrate, phosphate and silicate, respectively, which are significantly lower than the earlier estimates of DIN export from the Indian rivers based on DIN measured in the mid or upstream rivers. Such low fluxes in this study were attributed to efficient retention/elimination of DIN (∼91%) before reaching the coastal ocean. Hence, this study suggests that the importance of sampling locations for estimating nutrient fluxes to the coastal ocean. Riverine DIN export of 1.84 ± 0.46 Tg yr-1 would support 12.2 ± 3.1 Tg C yr-1 of new production in coastal waters of the northern Indian Ocean that results in a removal of 12.2 ± 3.1 Tg atmospheric CO2 yr-1.

  5. ON THE WIND-INDUCED EXCHANGE BETWEEN INDIAN RIVER BAY, DELAWARE AND THE ADJACENT CONTINENTAL SHELF. (R826945)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The structure of the wind-induced exchange between Indian River Bay, Delaware and the adjacent continental shelf is examined based on current measurements made at the Indian River Inlet which represents the only conduit of exchange between the bay and the coastal ocean. Local ...

  6. 75 FR 48880 - Approval and Promulgation of Gila River Indian Community's Tribal Implementation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposes to approve the Gila River Indian Community's (GRIC or the Tribe) Tribal Implementation Plan (TIP) under the Clean Air Act (CAA) to regulate air pollution within the exterior boundaries of the Tribe's reservation. The proposed TIP is one of four CAA regulatory programs that comprise the Tribe's Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP). EPA approved......

  7. Logging the Great Lakes Indian Reservations: The Case of the Bad River Band of Ojibwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen-Adams, Michelle M.; Langston, Nancy E.; Mladenoff, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The harvest of the Great Lakes primary forest stands (ca. 1860-1925) transformed the region's ecological, cultural, and political landscapes. Although logging affected both Indian and white communities, the Ojibwe experienced the lumber era in ways that differed from many of their white neighbors. When the 125,000-acre Bad River Reservation was…

  8. Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Grade Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The teaching guide presents social studies activities to help ninth graders learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Based on the Indian River County environment in Florida, it is part of a series for teachers, students, and community members. The introduction describes the county's geography, natural resources,…

  9. Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Seventh Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The guide is one in a series for teachers, students, and community members to help develop and teach environmental concepts, responsibility, and problem solving. It presents concepts and activities related to environmental education for seventh grade social studies classes. Background information is based on the Indian River County environment of…

  10. Developing a Plan to Support Mathematics Students with Advanced Placement Potential at Indian River High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Sara J.

    2009-01-01

    One of the many goals of schools is to have each student reach his/her fullest potential. One way schools challenge the accelerated learners is through the advanced placement (AP) program. Many able students at Indian River High School (IRHS) are choosing to enroll in college prep math courses instead of enrolling in honors and AP math. When…

  11. Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Eighth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The teaching guide presents social studies activities for eighth graders to learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Part of a series for teachers, students, and community members, it is based on the Indian River County environment in Florida. The introduction identifies the county's natural resources, wildlife, and…

  12. Geohydrology of the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howells, Lewis W.

    1979-01-01

    The cooperation and courtesy extended by many farmers, ranchers, and residents of the area contributed greatly to the success of the study.  Special thanks are due to Mr. John Wall, U.S. Public Health Service, Eagle Butte, and to the personnel of the Land Operations and Conservation Unites of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Eagle Butte.

  13. [Factors involved in coastal lagoons formation in Colombian southwest Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-León, Ricardo; Mendoza-Mazzeo, Luis Alberto; Vernette, Georges

    2003-01-01

    Based on origin, geomorphological evolution and environmental characteristics, four of the main types of coastal lagoons were identified in colombian southwest Caribbean. The following are examples of each type: (1) Terrigenous sediment inputs in delta environment (Lagoons from Sinu River Delta, Cordoba Department), (2) Shore sand bars in coastal flat (Tesca Lagoon, Bolivar Deparment), (3) bar built by organisms such as coral reefs, (Isla Grande Lagoons, Bolivar Deparment) and, (4) bars controlled by tectonism (Cartagena Bay, Bolivar Deparment).

  14. 40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 49.22 Section 49.22 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.22 Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima... River Project at the Tri-Cities landfill, which are fueled by collected landfill gas....

  15. Lower Brule Lagoon System NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit number SD-0020800, Lower Brule Rural Water is authorized to discharge from its wastewater lagoon system serving the town of Lower Brule, located in Lyman County, South Dakota, to the bank of the Missouri River (Lake Sharpe).

  16. Mitochondrial DNA Variability of Domestic River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Populations: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of River Buffalo in Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Nimisha, Koodali; Kumar, Satish

    2015-01-01

    River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is a large bovine species frequently used livestock in southern Asia. It is believed that the river buffalo was domesticated from Bubalus arnee, the wild buffalo of mainland Asia, a few thousand years ago, probably during the period of Indus Valley civilization. However, the domestication history of the river buffalo has been the subject of debate for many decades mainly due to the lack of clear archeological evidence and the divisive conclusions of the genetic studies. Therefore, in order to understand the domestication history and genetic relationship among the various river buffalo populations, we analyzed 492-bp region of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 414 river buffalo sampled from India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Iran along with the available 403 swamp buffalo sequences. The phylogenetic analyses of our study along with the archaeological evidence suggest that the river buffalo was domesticated in an atypical manner involving continuous introgression of wild animals to the domestic stocks in Indian subcontinent prior to mature phase of Indus Valley civilization (2600–1900 BC). Specifically, our data exclude Mesopotamian region as the place of domestication of the river buffalo. PMID:25900921

  17. Fractionation and ecotoxicological implication of potentially toxic metals in sediments of three urban rivers and the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Oyeyiola, Aderonke O; Davidson, Christine M; Olayinka, Kehinde O; Alo, Babajide I

    2014-11-01

    The potential environmental impact of sediment-bound Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in three trans-urban rivers in Lagos state and in the Lagos Lagoon was assessed by use of the modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. The quality of the data was checked using BCR CRM 143R and BCR CRM 701. Good agreement was obtained between found and certified/indicative values. Of the rivers, the Odo-Iyaalaro, was generally the most contaminated and the Ibeshe the least. Higher concentrations of metals were generally found in the dry season compared to the wet season. Cadmium and Zn were released mostly in the acid exchangeable step of the sequential extraction, indicating that they have the greatest potential mobility and bioavailability of the analytes studied. Chromium and Cu were associated mainly with the reducible and oxidisable fractions, and Pb predominantly with the reducible and residual fractions. Sediments with the highest pseudototal analyte concentrations also released higher proportions of analytes earlier in the sequential extraction procedure. The study suggests that, during the dry season, potentially toxic metals (PTM) may accumulate in sediments in relatively labile forms that are released and can potentially be transported or bioaccumulate in the rainy season. Application of risk assessment codes and Hankanson potential risk indices indicated that Cd was the element of greatest concern in the Lagos Lagoon system. The study indicated that there is a need to strengthen environmental management and pollution control measures to reduce risk from PTM, but that even relatively simple strategies, such as seasonal restrictions on dredging and fishing, could be beneficial.

  18. Hydrologic sensitivity of Indian sub-continental river basins to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vimal; Lilhare, Rajtantra

    2016-04-01

    Climate change may pose profound implications for hydrologic processes in Indian sub-continental river basins. Using downscaled and bias corrected future climate projections and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), we show that a majority of the Indian sub-continental river basins are projected to shift towards warmer and wetter climate in the future. During the monsoon (June to September) season, under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 (8.5), the ensemble mean air temperature is projected to increase by more than 0.5 (0.8), 1.0 (2.0), and 1.5 (3.5) °C in the Near (2010-2039), Mid (2040-2069), and End (2070-2099) term climate, respectively. Moreover, the sub-continental river basins may face an increase of 3-5 °C in the post-monsoon season under the projected future climate. While there is a large intermodel uncertainty, robust increases in precipitation are projected in many sub-continental river basins under the projected future climate especially in the Mid and End term climate. A sensitivity analysis for the Ganges and Godavari river basins shows that surface runoff is more sensitive to change in precipitation and temperature than that of evapotranspiration (ET). An intensification of the hydrologic cycle in the Indian sub-continental basins is evident in the projected future climate. For instance, for Mid and End term climate, ET is projected to increase up to 10% for the majority of the river basins under both RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. During the monsoon season, ensemble mean surface runoff is projected to increase more than 40% in 11 (15) basins under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) scenarios by the end of the 21st century. Moreover, streamflow is projected to increase more than 40% in 8 (9) basins during the monsoon season under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) scenarios. Results show that water availability in the sub-continental river basins is more sensitive towards changes in the monsoon season precipitation rather than air temperature. While in the majority

  19. Refinement of predictive reaeration equations for a typical Indian river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Ramakar; Ojha, C. S. P.; Bhatia, K. K. S.

    2001-04-01

    Dissolved oxygen mass balance has been computed for different reaches of River Kali in western Uttar Pradesh (India) to obtain the reaeration coefficient (K2). A total of 270 field data sets have been collected during the period from March 1999 to February 2000. Eleven most popular predictive equations, used for reaeration prediction and utilizing mean stream velocity, bed slope, flow depth, friction velocity and Froude number, have been tested for their applicability in the River Kali using data generated during field survey. The K2 values computed from these predictive equations have been compared with the K2 values observed from dissolved oxygen balance measurements in the field. The performance of predictive equations have been evaluated using error estimation, namely standard error (SE), normal mean error (NME), mean multiplicative error (MME) and correlation statistics. The equations developed by Smoot and by Cadwallader and McDonnell showed comparatively better results. Moreover, a refined predictive equation has been developed using a least-squares algorithm for the River Kali that minimizes error estimates and improves correlation between observed and computed reaeration coefficients.

  20. Juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) utilization of Southern New England nurseries: Comparisons among estuarine, tidal river, and coastal lagoon shallow-water habitats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David L; McNamee, Jason; Lake, John; Gervasi, Carissa L; Palance, Danial G

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the relative importance of the N arragansett Bay estuary (RI and MA, USA), and associated tidal rivers and coastal lagoons, as nurseries for juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, and summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Winter flounder (WF) and summer flounder (SF) abundance and growth were measured from May to October (2009-2013) and served as indicators for the use and quality of shallow-water habitats (water depth < 1.5-3.0 m). These bioindicators were then analyzed with respect to physiochemical conditions to determine the mechanisms underlying intra-specific habitat selection. WF and SF abundances were greatest in late May and June (maximum monthly mean = 4.9 and 0.55 flounder/m(2) for WF and SF, respectively), and were significantly higher in the tidal rivers relative to the bay and lagoons. Habitat-related patterns in WF and SF abundance were primarily governed by their preferences for oligohaline (0.1-5 ppt) and mesohaline (6-18 ppt) waters, but also their respective avoidance of hypoxic conditions (< 4 mg DO/L) and warm water temperatures (> 25 °C). Flounder habitat usage was also positively related to sediment organic content, which may be due to these substrates having sufficiently high prey densities. WF growth rates (mean = 0.25 ± 0.14 mm/d) were negatively correlated with the abundance of conspecifics, whereas SF growth (mean = 1.39 ± 0.46 mm/d) was positively related to temperature and salinity. Also, contrary to expectations, flounder occupied habitats that offered no ostensible advantage in intra-specific growth rates. WF and SF exposed to low salinities in certain rivers likely experienced increased osmoregulatory costs, thereby reducing energy for somatic growth. Low-salinity habitats, however, may benefit flounder by providing refugia from predation or reduced competition with other estuarine fishes and macro-invertebrates. Examining WF and SF abundance and growth across each species' broader

  1. After Celilo Falls: The Dalles Dam, Indian fishing rights, and federal energy policy on the mid-Columbia River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Katrine Elise

    The Dalles Dam drowned Celilo Falls, the most significant Indian fishing site on the Columbia River, in 1957. Before 1957, the site seasonally drew thousands of Indian to its basalt outcroppings to dipnet for salmon. The Yakima, Umatilla, Warm Springs, and Nez Perce confederated tribes, and unaffiliated river Indians negotiated with the federal government for compensation for their lost fishing stations as well as for homes at Celilo Village located in the path of the dam's reservoir. This paper traces the course of negotiations between the federal government and Indian people, and the impact of negotiations on treaty fishing rights on the Columbia River. It puts negotiations in a larger context that includes Indian resistance to encroachment of their treaty rights at Celilo, non-native resistance to the proposed Dalles Dam, and federal Indian policy of the 1930s--1960s. Drawing from the files of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Amy Corps of Engineers, newspaper articles, and government reports, I conclude that the Army Corps did not incorporate native or non-native opposition into their plans but only recorded it "for the record" and proceeded with development. Even so, the persistence of Indians who struggled to retain control of their fisheries and community during a period of tremendous social and economic upheaval is an important part of the history of the Pacific Northwest.

  2. Effects of flow releases on macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Adirondack Mountains of Northern New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of flow releases (daily during spring and four times weekly during summer) from a small impoundment on macroinvertebrate assemblages in the lower Indian River and upper Hudson River of northern New York were assessed during the summers of 2005 and 2006. Community indices, feeding guilds, dominant species and Bray—Curtis similarities at three sites on the Indian River, below a regulated impoundment, were compared with those at four control sites on the Cedar River, below a run-of-the-river impoundment of comparable size. The same indices at four less-likely affected sites on the Hudson River, below the mouth of the Indian River, were compared with those at an upstream control site on the Hudson River. Results show that the function and apparent health of macroinvertebrate communities were generally unaffected by atypical flow regimes and/or altered water quality at study reaches downstream from both dams in the Indian, Cedar and Hudson Rivers. The lentic nature of releases from both impoundments, however, produced significant changes in the structure of assemblages at Indian and Cedar River sites immediately downstream from both dams, moderate effects at two Indian River sites 2.4 and 4.0 km downstream from its dam, little or no effect at three Cedar River sites 7.2-34.2 km downstream from its dam, and no effect at any Hudson River site. Bray—Curtis similarities indicate that assemblages did not differ significantly among sites within similar impact categories. The paucity of scrapers at all Indian River sites, and the predominance of filter-feeding Simulium gouldingi and Pisidium compressum immediately below Abanakee dam, show that only minor differences in dominant species and trophic structure of macroinvertebrate communities occurred at affected sites in the Indian River compared to the Cedar River. Thus, flow releases had only a small, localized effect on macroinvertebrate communities in the Indian River.

  3. Spatio-temporal trends of rainfall across Indian river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, Deepak Singh; Chatterjee, Chandranath; Raghuwanshi, Narendra Singh; Sridhar, Venkataramana

    2017-03-01

    Daily gridded high-resolution rainfall data of India Meteorological Department at 0.25° spatial resolution (1901-2015) was analyzed to detect the trend in seasonal, annual, and maximum cumulative rainfall for 1, 2, 3, and 5 days. The present study was carried out for 85 river basins of India during 1901-2015 and pre- and post-urbanization era, i.e., 1901-1970 and 1971-2015, respectively. Mann-Kendall (α = 0.05) and Theil-Sen's tests were employed for detecting the trend and percentage of change over the period of time, respectively. Daily extreme rainfall events, above 95 and 99 percentile threshold, were also analyzed to detect any trend in their magnitude and number of occurrences. The upward trend was found for the majority of the sub-basins for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-day maximum cumulative rainfall during the post-urbanization era. The magnitude of extreme threshold events is also found to be increasing in the majority of the river basins during the post-urbanization era. A 30-year moving window analysis further revealed a widespread upward trend in a number of extreme threshold rainfall events possibly due to urbanization and climatic factors. Overall trends studied against intra-basin trend across Ganga basin reveal the mixed pattern of trends due to inherent spatial heterogeneity of rainfall, therefore, highlighting the importance of scale for such studies.

  4. 40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 49.22 Section 49.22 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.22 Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima... landfill, which are fueled by collected landfill gas. Secondary emissions means emissions which would...

  5. Observed changes in surface water availability in the Indian sub-continental River basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, V.; Shah, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    We examined long-term (1901-2012) changes in the hydroclimatic variables in the 18 Indian sub-continental basins. Between 1950 and 2012, a significant decline in the monsoon season (June to September) precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), and total runoff was observed in many sub-continental river basins that are key to water availability in the one of the most populated regions (e.g. Central India) in the world. On the other hand, significant increases in precipitation, ET, and total runoff were noticed in majority of the basins during the period of 1901-1949, which highlight a diametric nature in changes in the surface water availability. The central Indian region where the changes in surface water availability were more prominent experienced an increase (decline) of 19 (-8) % in total runoff and 8 (-6) % in ET during the pre (post) 1950 periods. While the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Narmada, and Godavari river basins experienced declines in the monsoon season precipitation, ET, and total runoff, a significant increase in air temperature was noticed in 15 out of 18 sub-continental basins during the period of 1950-2012. Sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean increased more than 1.0ºC during the period of 1950-2012, which is strongly associated with the declining trends in surface water availability in the sub-continental river basins. Moreover, SST variability in the Indian Ocean is associated with the diametric changes during the pre and post-1950 in water availability in the central India.

  6. Region 8 NPDES Lagoon General Permit Notice of Intent Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Adobe Acrobat fillable form of the Notice of Intent for Coverage under the EPA Region 8 Lagoon General Permit for Wastewater Systems located in Indian Country in Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming.

  7. Improved dissolved oxygen status following removal of exotic weed mats in important fish habitat lagoons of the tropical Burdekin River floodplain, Australia.

    PubMed

    Perna, Colton; Burrows, Damien

    2005-01-01

    The Burdekin delta floodplain, north Queensland, is highly modified for agricultural purposes. Riparian condition is very poor and exotic aquatic weeds dominate waterways. Historically, most streams and lagoons were highly seasonal, but those now used for the delivery of irrigation water maintain elevated flows and increased turbidity and nutrient loading. These factors have aided exotic weed growth and many major lagoons are covered by dense water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) mats which greatly reduce dissolved oxygen levels, one of the most important water quality variables for aquatic fauna. Mechanical harvesting of water hyacinth from several of these lagoons resulted in rapid and substantial increases in dissolved oxygen saturation, and improved suitability of the habitat to support fish species. Decrease in dissolved oxygen as water passes sequentially through weed-infested lagoons, justified the approach of harvesting upstream lagoons first, however, the channels that connect these lagoons remain weed-infested and are still impacting upon downstream oxygen levels.

  8. Reconnaissance of the water resources of the Hoh Indian Reservation and the Hoh River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lum, W.E.; Nelson, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ground- and surface-water resources of the Hoh Indian Reservation and the Hoh River basin were studied from 1977 to 1980 under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Hoh Indian Tribe. It was determined that moderate quantities of groundwater can be obtained from near-surface, river-deposited sands and gravels on the northeastern part of the reservation. Groundwater recharge (induced by pumping from a nearby oxbow lake) could supply numerous wells indefinitely with yields of 25 to 50 gallons/min. Geologic units in other areas of the reservation appear to have a low hydraulic conductivity and would yield little, if any, water to wells. At seven sites where housing construction is planned, soils were tested for infiltration rates and it was determined that soils are adequate for waste disposal in septic tanks and associated drain fields at those locations. Chalaat Creek, which flows across the reservation, provides water for salmon-rearing ponds. Except for moderately high bacteria concentrations (fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were as high as 33 colonies/100 mL), results of water quality analyses indicate no unusual or harmful concentrations of any chemical constituent or physical properties of the water that would restrict its use for most purposes. Chemical and bacteriological analyses of the Hoh River and its major tributaries downstream from the Olympic Park boundary revealed no unusual or harmful levels of constituents, with some minor exceptions. Small increases in concentrations of sodium, chloride, nitrite plus nitrate, and turbidity were measured in water samples collected from the Hoh River in a downstream direction. These increases are probably the result of natural weathering of rocks and soils in the basin. Fluvial-sediment transport of the Hoh River was 82,000 tons from March 1978 to February 1979 and 1,510,000 tons from March 1979 to February 1980. Mean annual transport was estimated to be 630 ,000 tons. About 60% of

  9. Phenotypic differentiation of Barilius bendelisis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in four rivers from Central Indian Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Saxena, Neha; Patiyal, Rabindar Singh; Sahoo, Prabhati Kumari

    2015-03-01

    Barilius bendelisis, commonly known as Indian Hill Trout is an upland water fish of South East Asia. It belongs to the family Cyprinidae and dwells in shallow, clear and cold water. In this study, the intraspecific variation of Barilius bendelisis, on the basis of morphometric characters, was investigated. Altogether, 402 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 12 landmarks to yield 30 distance variables that were extracted from digital images of specimens using tpsDig2 and PAST software. Allometric transformed truss measurements were subjected to univariate analysis of variance, factor analysis and discriminant analysis. All variables exhibited significant differences between the populations. Altogether 88% of the specimens were classified into their original populations (81.98% under a 'leave-one-out' procedure). With factor analysis measurements of the head region, the middle portion and the caudal region had high loadings on the first and second axis. The results indicated that B. bendelisis has significant phenotypic heterogeneity between the geographically isolated regions of Central Indian Himalaya. We hypothesize that the marked interspecific variation in B. bendelisis is the result of local ecological conditions.

  10. Assessing Potential Conservation and Restoration Areas of Freshwater Fish Fauna in the Indian River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Jay P.; Manish, Kumar; Mehta, Rajender; Pandit, Maharaj K.

    2016-05-01

    Conservation efforts globally are skewed toward terrestrial ecosystems. To date, conservation of aquatic ecosystems, in particular fish fauna, is largely neglected. We provide a country-wide assessment of Indian river ecosystems in order to identify and prioritize areas for protection and restoration of freshwater fish fauna. Using various biodiversity and anthropogenic attributes, coupled with tools of ecological modeling, we delineated areas for fish fauna conservation and restoration in the 20 major river basins of India. To do this, we used prioritization analyses and reserve selection algorithms to derive conservation value index (CVI) and vulnerability index (VI) of the river basins. CVI was estimated using endemicity, rarity, conservation value, and taxonomic singularity, while VI was estimated using a disturbance index derived from percent geographic area of the basin under human settlements, human population density, predominant land use, and total number of exotic fish species in each basin. The two indices, CVI and VI, were converted into geo-referenced maps, and each map was super-imposed onto species richness and forest cover maps, respectively. After superimposition, areas with high CVI and low VI shade intensities were delineated for conservation, while areas with high CVI and high VI shade intensities were demarcated for restoration. In view of the importance of freshwater fish for human livelihoods and consumption, and ecosystems of India's rivers, we call for urgent attention to the conservation of their fish fauna along with restoration of their degraded habitats.

  11. An integrated approach to assess water quality and environmental contamination in the fluvial-lagoon system of the Palizada River, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Von Osten, Jaime; Memije, Martin G; Ortiz, Alejandro; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Guilhermino, Lucia

    2006-11-01

    Water quality and the contamination in relation to land use in the fluvial-lagoon system of the Palizada River (FLSPR; State of Campeche, Mexico) was investigated using an integrated approach including 21-d in situ bioassays with the native mosquito fish Gambusia yucatana, determination of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in wild populations of this species, and water-quality variables. The present study was performed over 19 months at three sites with different types of anthropogenic impact. Significant differences in a water-quality index for aquatic life (WQI) were found among sites. Fish mortality was significantly and negatively correlated with WQI, dissolved oxygen, and sulfates. High survival rates (> or =80%) were found in preliminary exposures and in some of the bioassays performed at all sites. Therefore, test chambers and the cabinet seemed to be suitable for use in toxicity bioassays with G. yucatana. The in situ bioassay was able to discriminate levels of water contamination in both time and space, indicating that it is suitable for use in conditions similar to those found in the FLSPR. In the biomonitoring study, a ChE inhibition of greater than 20% in wild fish was found in some periods of the year at all sampling sites. This indicates the presence of anticholinesterase agents in the water. Fish from two of the sites had a ChE inhibition of greater than 40% in some sampling months, suggesting that deleterious effects already may have been induced in fish. Furthermore, at these sites, the pattern of ChE inhibition was in good agreement with the probable runoff of pesticides from agricultural fields.

  12. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  13. 40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.22 Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima... materials processed, stored, or combusted during the selected time period. (2) EPA may presume that...

  14. Assessing confinement in coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Canu, Donata Melaku; Solidoro, Cosimo; Umgiesser, Georg; Cucco, Andrea; Ferrarin, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Measures of transport scale in aquatic systems can contribute to the formulation of definitions of indicators of the system's ecological properties. This paper addresses confinement, a specific transport scale proposed by biological scientists as a parameter that can capture and synthesize the principal properties that determine the spatial structure of biological communities in transitional environments. Currently, there is no direct experimental measure of confinement. In this study, a methodology based on the accumulation rate within a lagoon of a passive tracer of marine origin is proposed, the influences of different factors in the calculation of confinement are analyzed, and general recommendations are derived. In particular, we analyze the spatial and the temporal variability of confinement and its sensitivity to the seasonal variability of climatic forcing, the inputs from rivers and the parameterization of the tidal exchanges. The Lagoon of Venice is used as a case study.

  15. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  16. HLA class I variation controlled for genetic admixture in the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona: a model for the Paleo-Indians.

    PubMed

    Williams, R C; McAuley, J E

    1992-01-01

    The genetic distribution of the HLA class I loci is presented for 619 "full blooded" Pima and Tohono O'odham Native Americans (Pimans) in the Gila River Indian Community. Variation in the Pimans is highly restricted. There are only three polymorphic alleles at the HLA-A locus, *A2, *A24, and *A31, and only 10 alleles with a frequency greater than 0.01 at HLA-B where *Bw48 (0.187), *B35 (0.173), and the new epitope *BN21 (0.143) have the highest frequencies. Two and three locus disequilibria values and haplotype frequencies are presented. Ten three-locus haplotypes account for more than 50% of the class I variation, with *A24 *BN21 *Cw3 (0.085) having the highest frequency. Gm allotypes demonstrate that little admixture from non-Indian populations has entered the Community since the 17th century when Europeans first came to this area. As a consequence many alleles commonly found in Europeans and European Americans are efficient markers for Caucasian admixture, while the "private" Indian alleles, *BN21 and *Bw48, can be used to measure Native American admixture in Caucasian populations. It is suggested that this distribution in "full blooded" Pimans approximates that of the Paleo-Indian migrants who first entered the Americas between 20,000 and 40,000 years ago.

  17. Development of a solid-phase extraction system modified for preconcentration of emerging contaminants in large sample volumes from rivers of the lagoon system in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vitor Sergio Almeida; Riente, Roselene Ribeiro; da Silva, Alexsandro Araújo; Torquilho, Delma Falcão; Carreira, Renato da Silva; Marques, Mônica Regina da Costa

    2016-09-15

    A single method modified for monitoring of emerging contaminants in river water was developed for large sample volumes. Water samples from rivers of the lagoon system in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were analyzed by the SPE-HPLC-MS-TOF analytical method. Acetaminophen was detected in four rivers in the concentration range of 0.09μgL(-1) to 0.14μgL(-1). Salicylic acid was also found in the four rivers in the concentration range of 1.65μgL(-1) to 4.81μgL(-1). Bisphenol-A was detected in all rivers in the concentration range of 1.37μgL(-1) to 39.86μgL(-1). Diclofenac was found in only one river, with concentration of 0.22μgL(-1). The levels of emerging organic pollutants in the water samples of the Jacarepaguá hydrographical basin are significant. The compounds are not routinely monitored and present potential risks to environmental health.

  18. Effects of recreational flow releases on natural resources of the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Central Adirondack Mountains, New York, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Mulvihill, C.I.; Ernst, A.G.; Boisvert, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), and Cornell University carried out a cooperative 2-year study from the fall of 2004 through the fall of 2006 to characterize the potential effects of recreational-flow releases from Lake Abanakee on natural resources in the Indian and Hudson Rivers. Researchers gathered baseline information on hydrology, temperature, habitat, nearshore wetlands, and macroinvertebrate and fish communities and assessed the behavior and thermoregulation of stocked brown trout in study reaches from both rivers and from a control river. The effects of recreational-flow releases (releases) were assessed by comparing data from affected reaches with data from the same reaches during nonrelease days, control reaches in a nearby run-of-the-river system (the Cedar River), and one reach in the Hudson River upstream from the confluence with the Indian River. A streamgage downstream from Lake Abanakee transmitted data by satellite from November 2004 to November 2006; these data were used as the basis for developing a rating curve that was used to estimate discharges for the study period. River habitat at most study reaches was delineated by using Global Positioning System and ArcMap software on a handheld computer, and wetlands were mapped by ground-based measurements of length, width, and areal density. River temperature in the Indian and Hudson Rivers was monitored continuously at eight sites during June through September of 2005 and 2006; temperature was mapped in 2005 by remote imaging made possible through collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology. Fish communities at all study reaches were surveyed and characterized through quantitative, nearshore electrofishing surveys. Macroinvertebrate communities in all study reaches were sampled using the traveling-kick method and characterized using standard indices. Radio telemetry was used to track the movement and persistence of

  19. Trace oxyanions and their behaviour in the rivers Porong and Solo, the Java Sea and the adjacent Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Sloot, H. A.; Hoede, D.; Wijkstra, J.

    During the Snellius-II Expedition (theme 5) dissolved and particulate concentrations of As(III), As(V), Sb(III), Sb(V), Se(IV), Mo, U, V, Au and W were measured in the Kali Porong and Bengawan Solo, Strait Madura, the Java Sea and the adjacent Indian Ocean. The estuarine mixing behaviour of Mo, U and V was found to be conservative. Arsenic behaved in a conservative manner during the wet period, while removal was observed in the high salinity region of the Solo and Porong during the dry season. The exceptionally high vanadium concentration in the rivers Porong and Solo, which is more than 10 times higher than that in the world rivers, is connected with leaching of volcanic rock; dissolved concentrations of Au, W and Mo are also higher. Apart from V and Au, the dissolved concentrations in the Java Sea and in the Indian Ocean compare well with average ocean values.

  20. Factors responsible for rapid dissipation of acidic herbicides in the coastal lagoons of the Camargue (Rhône River Delta, France).

    PubMed

    Al Housari, Fadi; Höhener, Patrick; Chiron, Serge

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating which processes cause acidic herbicides (e.g., bentazone, MCPA and dichlorprop) to rapidly disappear in the lagoons of the Rhône delta, which are peculiar brackish and shallow aquatic environments. The use of the model MASAS (Modeling of Anthropogenic Substances in Aquatic Systems) revealed that sorption, sedimentation, volatilization, flushing and abiotic hydrolysis had a minor role in the attenuation of the investigated herbicides. Laboratory scale biodegradation and photodegradation studies were conducted to better assess the significance of these two processes in the natural attenuation of herbicides in brackish (lagoons) waters with respect to fresh waters (canals draining paddy fields). Herbicide biodegradation rates were significantly lower in lagoon water than in canal water. Consequently, photodegradation was the main dissipation route of all investigated herbicides. The contribution of indirect photolysis was relevant for MCPA and dichlorprop while direct photolysis dominated for bentazone removal. There is a need to further investigate the identity of phototransformation products of herbicides in lagoons.

  1. Metals in sediments of San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, F.G.; Aguilera, L.G. ); Sharma, V.K. )

    1994-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution in water is generally associated with industrial and municipal discharges into rivers, estuaries and lagoons. Once metals are in the water column, they may be taken up by organisms, deposited in the sediments or remain for some period in the water itself. The deposition rate in sediments depends on, among other factors, metal concentration in surface sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of coastal, estuarine and lagoon environments have been determined by many workers. For the past several years, we have been interested in determining trace and heavy metal concentrations in the lagoons in Mexico to establish the levels of metal pollution. The work reported here is the completion of our ongoing study in San Andres lagoon. San Andres lagoon is located north of two industrial ports, Tampico and Altamira. In this industrial zone, the basins of the Panuco and Tamesi Rivers are localized and have industrial effluent throughout the year. All these activities and the input of the Tigre River, which runs through an agricultural and cattle-raising region, may affect the biogeochemistry of the San Andres lagoon. In the present work, we report concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Pb in sediments of San Andres lagoon. The measurements were made in different seasons; Rain-84 (August-September 1984); North (October-December 1984); Dry (April 1985); and Rain-85 (April-June 1985). 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Isotope Geochemistry and Chronology of Offshore Ground Water Beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, John Karl; Krantz, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Results of geophysical surveys in Indian River Bay, Delaware, indicate a complex pattern of salinity variation in subestuarine ground water. Fresh ground-water plumes up to about 20 meters thick extending hundreds of meters offshore are interspersed with saline ground water, with varying degrees of mixing along the salinity boundaries. It is possible that these features represent pathways for nutrient transport and interaction with estuarine surface water, but the geophysical data do not indicate rates of movement or nutrient sources and reactions. In the current study, samples of subestuarine ground water from temporary wells with short screens placed 3 to 22 meters below the sediment-water interface were analyzed chemically and isotopically to determine the origins, ages, transport pathways, and nutrient contents of the fresh and saline components. Apparent ground-water ages determined from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), and helium isotopes (3He and 4He) commonly were discordant, but nevertheless indicate that both fresh and saline ground waters ranged from a few years to at least 50 years in age. Tritium-helium (3H-3He) ages, tentatively judged to be most reliable, indicate that stratified offshore freshwater plumes originating in distant recharge areas on land were bounded by relatively young saline water that was recharged locally from the overlying estuary. Undenitrified and partially denitrified nitrate of agricultural or mixed origin was transported laterally beneath the estuary in oxic and suboxic fresh ground water. Ammonium produced by anaerobic degradation of organic matter in estuarine sediments was transported downward in suboxic saline ground water around the freshwater plumes. Many of the chemical and isotopic characteristics of the subestuarine ground waters are consistent with conservative mixing of the fresh (terrestrial) and saline (estuarine) endmember water types. These data indicate that freshwater plumes

  3. Ecological Study of Lagoons Surrounding the John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida . Volume 2; Theses and Project Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2017-01-01

    Many of the detailed studies done in connection with Ecological Study of the Lagoons surrounding the John F. Kennedy Space Port were performed as Master's Thesis investigations by various graduate students enrolled at F. I. T. during and subsequent to the report. The scope and purpose of what we came to call "the KSC Baseline Study" caught the imagination and interest of our student body. Many who were not financially or otherwise connected with the project found their inspiration in studies that were directly connected with project, and thus added materially to the totality of the knowledge gained. An example of one such study is the first article included in this Volume, A Master's Thesis study performed by Shen Phillip Chen, who chose the site for his investigation so that his results would correlate with and extend the results of others. In addition to the Master's Theses contained in this Volume, six other graduate studies must be acknowledged here as contributing to this Report, although they have not reached the stage of final publication. Ms. Sandra Fettes has completed a study of the amounts of five trace metals in mangrove leaves from plants at various locations around the Kennedy Space Center. Mr. Bernard Cohenour has isolated and identified a number of oil consuming bacteria endemic in the waters of the Indian Rivers. Mr. Charles Waterhouse has analyzed historic data of tidal gauges in the lagoonal area and correlated it with wind field records. Mr. Renkert Meyer has measured the vertical and horizontal currents of the lagoons and is attempting an interpretation of them in terms of the wind field as a driving force. Mr. Richard Campbell has measured the rate of nitrogen fixation in both the water columns and the sediments under them in the lagoons. Mr. Craig Weiderhold has measured thl3 annual variations in the populations of benthic invertebrates in the lagoons. An integral part of the F. I. T. curriculum is a requirement that each undergraduate

  4. Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Monitoring-well network and sampling design for ground-water quality, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jon P.; Sebree, Sonja K.; Quinn, Thomas L.

    2005-01-01

    The Wind River Indian Reservation, located in parts of Fremont and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming, has a total land area of more than 3,500 square miles. Ground water on the Wind River Indian Reservation is a valuable resource for Shoshone and Northern Arapahoe tribal members and others who live on the Reservation. There are many types of land uses on the Reservation that have the potential to affect the quality of ground-water resources. Urban areas, rural housing developments, agricultural lands, landfills, oil and natural gas fields, mining, and pipeline utility corridors all have the potential to affect ground-water quality. A cooperative study was developed between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wind River Environmental Quality Commission to identify areas of the Reservation that have the highest potential for ground-water contamination and develop a comprehensive plan to monitor these areas. An arithmetic overlay model for the Wind River Indian Reservation was created using seven geographic information system data layers representing factors with varying potential to affect ground-water quality. The data layers used were: the National Land Cover Dataset, water well density, aquifer sensitivity, oil and natural gas fields and petroleum pipelines, sites with potential contaminant sources, sites that are known to have ground-water contamination, and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System sites. A prioritization map for monitoring ground-water quality on the Reservation was created using the model. The prioritization map ranks the priority for monitoring ground-water quality in different areas of the Reservation as low, medium, or high. To help minimize bias in selecting sites for a monitoring well network, an automated stratified random site-selection approach was used to select 30 sites for ground-water quality monitoring within the high priority areas. In addition, the study also provided a sampling design for constituents to be monitored, sampling

  6. An Ecological Study of the Lagoons Surrounding the John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida. Volume I; Experimental Results and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, T. A.; Lasater, J. A.; Clark, K. B.; Kalajian, E. H.; Dubbelday, P. S.

    1976-01-01

    The studies reported here are the result of a three year effort to define the major biological, microbiological, chemical and geological characteristics of the water of the Indian River lagoon around the Kennedy Space Center and to determine the movements of those waters within and between the various basins. This work was the result of a jointly funded agreement between the Florida Institute of Technology and John F. Kennedy Space Center, NASA under NASA Grant NGR 10-015-008, dated April 11, 1972. This cost sharing grant was renewed for each of two successive years. Sampling operations were terminated August 31, 1975.

  7. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  8. Brazil: Duck Lagoon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... in the lagoon during spring and summer. Although the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in some parts of Rio Grande do Sul, the Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), is not distributed within the image area (it is ...

  9. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

  10. Haplostoma dudleyae sp. nov. (Cyclopoida: Ascidicolidae), parasitic in Eudistoma olivaceum from the Indian River in southern Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooishi, S.

    1998-06-01

    Haplostoma dudleyae sp. nov. is described and illustrated on the basis of females found in a compound ascidian ( Eudistoma olivaceum) collected from the Indian River in southern Florida, USA. Each parasitized zooid has a single female copepod. The egg sacs of the female are paired and, when laid, are almost U-shaped and folded against the dorsal side of the body. Haplostoma dudleyae and two other species ( H. canui Chatton and Harant, 1924, and H. humesi Ooishi, 1995) constitute a subgroup within the genus Haplostoma.

  11. Both riverine detritus and dissolved nutrients drive lagoon fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonthu, Subbareddy; Ganguly, Dipnarayan; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Pattnaik, Ajit K.; Wolanski, Eric

    2016-12-01

    The net ecosystem metabolism in lagoons has often been estimated from the net budget of dissolved nutrients. Such is the case of the LOICZ estuarine biogeochemistry nutrient budget model that considers riverine dissolved nutrients, but not riverine detritus. However the neglect of detritus can lead to inconsistencies; for instance, it results in an estimate of 5-10 times more seaward export of nutrients than there is import from rivers in Chilika Lagoon, India. To resolve that discrepancy the UNESCO estuarine ecohydrology model, that considers both dissolved nutrients and detritus, was used and, for Chilika Lagoon, it reproduced successfully the spatial distribution of salinity, dissolved nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton as well as the fish yield data. Thus the model suggests that the riverine input of both detritus and dissolved nutrients supports the pelagic food web. The model also reproduces well the observation of decreased fish yield when the mouth of the lagoon was choked in the 1990s, demonstrating the importance of the physics that determine the flushing rate of waterborne matter. Thus, both farming in the watershed by driving the nutrient and detritus inputs to the lagoon, and dredging and engineering management of the mouth by controlling the flushing rate of the lagoon, have a major influence on fish stocks in the lagoon.

  12. Assessing Potential Conservation and Restoration Areas of Freshwater Fish Fauna in the Indian River Basins.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Jay P; Manish, Kumar; Mehta, Rajender; Pandit, Maharaj K

    2016-05-01

    Conservation efforts globally are skewed toward terrestrial ecosystems. To date, conservation of aquatic ecosystems, in particular fish fauna, is largely neglected. We provide a country-wide assessment of Indian river ecosystems in order to identify and prioritize areas for protection and restoration of freshwater fish fauna. Using various biodiversity and anthropogenic attributes, coupled with tools of ecological modeling, we delineated areas for fish fauna conservation and restoration in the 20 major river basins of India. To do this, we used prioritization analyses and reserve selection algorithms to derive conservation value index (CVI) and vulnerability index (VI) of the river basins. CVI was estimated using endemicity, rarity, conservation value, and taxonomic singularity, while VI was estimated using a disturbance index derived from percent geographic area of the basin under human settlements, human population density, predominant land use, and total number of exotic fish species in each basin. The two indices, CVI and VI, were converted into geo-referenced maps, and each map was super-imposed onto species richness and forest cover maps, respectively. After superimposition, areas with high CVI and low VI shade intensities were delineated for conservation, while areas with high CVI and high VI shade intensities were demarcated for restoration. In view of the importance of freshwater fish for human livelihoods and consumption, and ecosystems of India's rivers, we call for urgent attention to the conservation of their fish fauna along with restoration of their degraded habitats.

  13. Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

  14. Odor control in lagoons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2013-07-30

    Lagoons are widely used in rural area for wastewater treatment; however, the odor problem has hampered its application. The root of odor emission from lagoons varies from one to another. The key of controlling the odor is to find out the cause and accordingly provide strategies. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been reported and applied for odor control. Physical technologies such as masking, capturing and sorption are often employed to mitigate the pressure from compliant while not to cut off the problem. Chemical technologies which act rapidly and efficiently in odor control, utilize chemicals to damage the odorant production root or convert odorant to odorless substances. Biological methods such as aeration, biocover and biofiltration control the odor by enhancing aerobic condition or developing methanogens in lagoon, and biologically decomposing the odorants. Comparing to physical and chemical methods, biological methods are more feasible.

  15. Advection within shallow pore waters of a coastal lagoon, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cable, J.E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Steward, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Ground water sources can be a significant portion of a local water budget in estuarine environments, particularly in areas with high recharge rates, transmissive aquifers, and permeable marine sediments. However, field measurements of ground water discharge are often incongruent with ground water flow modeling results, leaving many scientists unsure which estimates are accurate. In this study, we find that both measurements and model results are reasonable. The difference between estimates apparently results from the sources of water being measured and not the techniques themselves. In two locations in the Indian River Lagoon estuarine system, we found seepage meter rates similar to rates calculated from the geochemical tracers 222Rn and 226Ra. Ground water discharge rates ranged from 4 to 9 cm/d using seepage meters and 3 to 20 cm/d using 222Rn and 226Ra. In contrast, in comparisons to other studies where finite element ground water flow modeling was used, much lower ground water discharge rates of ∼0.05 to 0.15 cm/d were estimated. These low rates probably represent discharge of meteoric ground water from land-recharged aquifers, while the much higher rates measured with seepage meters, 222Rn, and 226Ra likely include an additional source of surface waters that regularly flush shallow (< 1 m depth) sediments. This resultant total flow of mixed land-recharged water and recirculated surface waters contributes to the total biogeochemical loading in this shallow estuarine environment.

  16. Role of the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature in shaping the natural variability in the flow of Nile River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siam, Mohamed S.; Wang, Guiling; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2014-08-01

    A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is shaped by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, we investigate a similar role for the Indian Ocean (IO) sea surface temperature (SST) in shaping the inter-annual variability of the Nile River flow. Using observations of global SST distribution and river flow in addition to atmospheric general circulation model sensitivity experiments, we show that North and Middle IO SSTs play a significant intermediate role in the teleconnection between ENSO and the Nile flow. Applying partial coherency analyses, we demonstrate that the connection between North and Middle IO SSTs and Nile flow is strongly coupled to ENSO. During El Niño events, SST in the North and Middle IO increases in response to the warming in the Tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean and forces a Gill-type circulation with enhanced westerly low-level flow over East Africa and the Western IO. This anomalous low-level flow enhances the low-level flux of air and moisture away from the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin resulting in reduction of rainfall and river flow. SSTs in the South IO also play a significant role in shaping the variability of the Nile flow that is independent from ENSO. A warming over the South IO, generates a cyclonic flow in the boundary layer, which reduces the cross-equatorial meridional transport of air and moisture towards the UBN basin, favoring a reduction in rainfall and river flow. This independence between the roles of ENSO and South IO SSTs allows for development of new combined indices of SSTs to explain the inter-annual variability of the Nile flow. The proposed teleconnections have important implications regarding mechanisms that shape the regional impacts of climate change over the Nile basin.

  17. A Case Study of Gila River Indian Community (Arizona) and Its Role as a Partner in the NSF-Supported UCAN Rural Systemic Initiative (RSI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russon, Craig; Horn, Jerry; Oliver, Steve

    This case study examines the history and current circumstances of education in the Gila River Indian Community (Arizona) in the context of its participation in the Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN RSI), which aims to improve science and mathematics achievement through systemic reform. This report describes…

  18. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the county road a disposal site on the Bad River Indian Reservation, Ashland County, Wisconsin: 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunning, C.P.; Yeskis, Douglas J.

    2001-01-01

    The County Road A disposal site, located on the Bad River Indian Reservation, Ashland County, Wisconsin, contains papermill sludge generated by a former mill in the City of Ashland. Since the time of disposal (1968-1970) the site has been the subject of investigations by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and private consultants. During 1997- 1998, an investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Natural Resources Department of the Bad River Indian Tribe, to evaluate the hydrogeology and groundwater quality of the disposal site, particularly with respect to the hydraulic connection between two ponds at the site and the shallow ground-waterflow system. Additional monitoring wells and well points were installed, and additional hydrogeologic, ground-water quality, and geophysical data were collected. The data from this and previous studies were integrated and interpreted.

  19. A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrieciu, Marian-Albert; Stanica, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System Marian-Albert Scrieciu (a), Adrian Stanica (a) (a) National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology e GeoEcoMar, Str. Dimitrie Onciul 23e25, Sector 2, 024053 Bucharest, Romania Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System, situated in the NW part of the Black Sea, in tight connection with the Danube Delta, has been subject to major changes due to human interventions in the past century. These changes have resulted into a complete change of the Lagoon specific ecosystems compared to its pristine state. In its natural state, as brackish - transitional environment, Antipa (1894) mentions Razelm Lagoon as one of the places with the greatest fisheries around the Black Sea coast (about 1879 - 1884, there were approximately 10,000 fishermen, all working on the Razelm Sinoe Lagoon System). Starting with the end of the XIXth Century, new canals were dug and existing channels were dredged in order to develop tighter connections with the Danube River. The natural inlet of Portita was blocked four decades ago and connections between the various parts of the lagoon system were controlled by the building of locks and sluices. The 2 inlets of Sinoe Lagoon were also controlled during early 1980s. Under these conditions, the lagoon ecosystem changed from brackish towards freshwater, with major effects on the existing flora and fauna. The period of brutal interventions ended in 1989 and the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System became part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1991, with a strict policy of nature protection and restoration. Spatial planning has been the major management option for the entire reserve, lagoon system included. Plans for sustainable development of the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System have been built in a participative manner, involving the local stakeholders, as part of FP7 ARCH project. Special attention has been given to impacts of climate change. The study presents the vision for the development Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System over

  20. Data report for the geologic and scenic quality evaluation of selected sand and gravel sites on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Arbogast, Belinda; Lindsey, David A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field studies on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, to inventory and evaluate sand and gravel deposits underlying river terraces on tribal lands along the Wind River. This report contains the results for 12 sites of sand and gravel deposits evaluated for their potential use as aggregate in Portland cement concrete, asphalt, and base course. The report provides the results of: * The USGS geologic studies and engineering tests. * A conclusion and recommendation for the best use of sand and gravel materials. * Calculations of available sand and gravel materials. * A scenic quality landscape inventory and evaluation.

  1. Modeling the Flushing Response to the Construction of a Low Crested Weir in the Banana River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberi, A.; Weaver, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The ADCIRC hydrodynamic model coupled with a Lagrangian Particle Tracking Model (LPTM) is applied to study circulation in the Banana River. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which constructing a low crested weir adjacent to Port Canaveral can improve flushing in this region. The Banana River a 50 km long sub-basin of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), located on the central-east coast of Florida in Brevard County between Cape Canaveral and Merritt Island. Although Banana River has an outlet to the ocean through the Port Canaveral locks, the locks remain closed when there is no passing vessel resulting in limited circulation, long flushing time and poor water quality. Recent high mortality events of different species, e.g. dolphins, manatees and pelicans in the lagoon ecosystem, can be linked to the decline in the water quality. ADCIRC is used to simulate the hydrodynamic properties of the study area and determine the 2D depth-averaged velocity field for two separate cases: one with only tidal and another with both tidal and meteorological forces considered. Simulations are run, first to establish the baseline hydrodynamics of the unmodified system, and then to predict the effects of modifying the domain. Passive particles are placed in the Banana River portion of our domain, and the movement of these particles is tracked using LPTM for both cases. Flushing and residence time are then computed. Results indicate an improvement in flushing in both the Banana River and the central Indian River Lagoon, driven by an induced southerly current. In the portion of the Banana River to the south of the port complex, tidal flushing time is significantly reduced for the case of modified domain. In this southern region the flushing time based on 50% renewal time, is decreased from 100 days down to 15 days, after the addition of the weir to the domain.

  2. GC-MS analysis and ecotoxicological risk assessment of triclosan, carbamazepine and parabens in Indian rivers.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Shanmugam, Govindaraj; Velu, Geetha; Rengarajan, Bhuvaneshwari; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2011-02-28

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products are used extensively worldwide and their residues are frequently reported in aquatic environments. In this study, antiepileptic, antimicrobial and preservative compounds were analyzed in surface water and sediment from the Kaveri, Vellar and Tamiraparani rivers, and in the Pichavaram mangrove in India by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mean concentration of carbamazepine recorded in the Kaveri River water (28.3 ng/L) was higher than in the other rivers and the mangrove. Because carbamazepine is used only in human drugs, this may reflect the relative contributions of human excretions/sewage in these rivers. The mean triclosan level in the Tamiraparani River (944 ng/L) was an order of magnitude greater than in the other water systems, and the concentrations at two of the sites reported here (3800-5160 ng/L) are, to our best knowledge, among the highest detected in surface waters. Sediment levels were, however, comparable with other sites. We conclude that industrial releases are likely major contributors of triclosan into this river system. Among parabens, ethyl paraben was predominantly observed. Hazard Quotients suggest greater environmental risks for triclosan than for carbamazepine and parabens. This is the first study on antiepileptic, antimicrobial and preservatives in rivers and mangroves from India.

  3. Continuous resistivity profiling and seismic-reflection data collected in April 2010 from Indian River Bay, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Michael, H.A.; Kroeger, K.D.; Green, Adrian; Bergeron, Emile M.

    2014-01-01

    A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was carried out in April 2010. This included surveying at higher spatial resolution in the vicinity of a study site at Holts Landing, where intensive onshore and offshore studies were subsequently completed. The total length of continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) survey lines was 145 kilometers (km), with 36 km of chirp seismic lines surveyed around the perimeter of the bay. Medium-resolution CRP surveying was performed using a 50-meter streamer in a baywide grid. Results of the surveying and data inversion showed the presence of many buried paleochannels beneath Indian River Bay that generally extended perpendicular from the shoreline in areas of modern tributaries, tidal creeks, and marshes. An especially wide and deep paleochannel system was imaged in the southeastern part of the bay near White Creek. Many paleochannels also had high-resistivity anomalies corresponding to low-salinity groundwater plumes associated with them, likely due to the presence of fine-grained estuarine mud and peats in the channel fills that act as submarine confining units. Where present, these units allow plumes of low-salinity groundwater that was recharged onshore to move beyond the shoreline, creating a complex fresh-saline groundwater interface in the subsurface. The properties of this interface are important considerations in construction of accurate coastal groundwater flow models. These models are required to help predict how nutrient-rich groundwater, recharged in agricultural watersheds such as this one, makes its way into coastal bays and impacts surface-water quality and estuarine ecosystems.

  4. Phytoplankton assemblages in lateral lagoons of a large tropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to analyse the composition and ecological attributes of the phytoplankton assemblages in four lateral lagoons and in the main channel of Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, SE Brazil). Fieldwork was carried out in September and November/2004 and January, March, May and August/2005. A total of 283 taxa was identified. Zygnemaphyta was the most specious group, followed by Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. Higher richness, abundance and biomass were observed in the lagoons when compared with the river-reservoir sampling point, especially during the rainy period. Cryptophyceae and Bacillariophyceae dominated numerically. Cryptomonas brasiliensis Castro, Bicudo and Bicudo was the main species of the phytoplankton in terms of abundance and frequency of occurrence. The dynamics of the most important taxa are discussed and the results showed that the phytoplankton assemblages are mainly influenced by meteorological factors and nutrient availability (the main driving forces). Correlation analyses indicated that the assemblage abundance was limited by nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus). The phytoplankton abundance influenced positively the zooplankton abundance, what indicates the prevalence of bottom-up control routes in the lateral lagoons system. The results validate the hypotheses that lateral lagoons have a prominent ecological role on the phytoplankton diversity, as already previously demonstrated for fish and zooplankton. Therefore, the incorporation of the lateral lagoons in environmental programmes should be a target strategy for the conservation of the regional aquatic biota, minimising the negative impact of the dam.

  5. Residue levels and discharge loads of antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), hospital lagoons, and rivers within Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimosop, Selly Jemutai; Getenga, Z M; Orata, F; Okello, V A; Cheruiyot, J K

    2016-09-01

    The detection of antibiotics in water systems has instigated great environmental concern due to the toxicological effects associated with these compounds. Their discharge into the environment results from the ubiquity of use in medical, veterinary, and agricultural practices. Some of the effects of antibiotics include development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making it difficult to treat diseases, variation in natural microbial communities, and enzyme activities. In this study, the first comprehensive survey of some frequently used antibiotics namely ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), chloramphenicol (CAP), and ciprofloxacin (CPF) within Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya is presented. Sludge and wastewater samples were collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and hospital lagoons within the study area. Samples were extracted and cleaned by solid-phase extraction, and analysis was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All wastewater samples and sludge collected contained quantifiable levels of the selected antibiotics. The highest concentrations were recorded for AMP with WWTPs and hospitals having 0.36 ± 0.04 and 0.79 ± 0.07 μg/L, respectively. In sludge samples, SMX recorded the highest concentrations of 276 ± 12 ng/g. The high levels in sludge indicate the preferential partition of antibiotics onto solid phase, posing great danger to consumers of crops grown in biosolid-amended soils. The daily discharge loads of antibiotics from nine WWTPs ranged between 80.75 and 3044.9 mg day(-1) with a total discharge of 6395.85 mg day(-1), signifying a high potential of water resource pollution within the region. This report will aid in the assessment of the risks posed by antibiotics released into the environment.

  6. Field Trips and Their Effect on Student Achievement and Attitudes: A Comparison of Physical versus Virtual Field Trips to the Indian River Lagoon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Lesley C.; Gallo, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of physical and virtual field trips on undergraduate, nonscience majors. No significant differences were seen in achievement, attitudes, learning styles, interactions between field trip and learning styles, or students' ability to answer questions at different levels. Results imply that both field trips promote…

  7. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, Fisheries Resource Management, Yakima Indian Nation1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, Larry

    1984-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook to the Yakima River system. In January, 1983, 100,000 fish raised at Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery were transported to Nile Springs Rearing Ponds on the Naches River. These fish were allowed a volitional release as smolts in April. An additional 100,000 smolts were transported from Leavenworth Hatchery in April and immediately released to the Upper Yakima River. Relative survival of smolts from their points of release to a trap at Prosser (RM48) was 1.69:1 for fish from Nile Springs, versus the trucked smolts. The fish from Nile Springs arrived at Prosser and McNary Dam approximately 1 week earlier than the transported fish. To better determine the magnitude and location of releases, distribution and abundance studies were undertaken. There is a decrease in abundance from upstream areas over time, indicating a general downstream movement. In the Naches System, the lower Naches River is heavily utilized by juvenile spring chinook during the early summer. A preliminary study evaluated physical limitations of production. On a single evening 67 fish were killed on diversion screens at Chandler Canal. This constituted 5.7% of the wild spring chinook entering the canal and 8.2% of the fall chinook. The larger hatchery spring chinook sustained a 2.3% loss. Adult returns resulted in 443 redds in the Yakima System, with 360 in the Yakima River and 83 in the Naches System.

  8. Identifying trout refuges in the Indian and Hudson Rivers in northern New York through airborne thermal infrared remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Calef, Fred J.; Freehafer, Douglas A.; Kremens, Robert L.

    2015-10-09

    The locations and sizes of potential cold-water refuges for trout were examined in 2005 along a 27-kilometer segment of the Indian and Hudson Rivers in northern New York to evaluate the extent of refuges, the effects of routine flow releases from an impoundment, and how these refuges and releases might influence trout survival in reaches that otherwise would be thermally stressed. This river segment supports small populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and also receives regular releases of reservoir-surface waters to support rafting during the summer, when water temperatures in both the reservoir and the river frequently exceed thermal thresholds for trout survival. Airborne thermal infrared imaging was supplemented with continuous, in-stream temperature loggers to identify potential refuges that may be associated with tributary inflows or groundwater seeps and to define the extent to which the release flows decrease the size of existing refuges. In general, the release flows overwhelmed the refuge areas and greatly decreased the size and number of the areas. Mean water temperatures were unaffected by the releases, but small-scale heterogeneity was diminished. At a larger scale, water temperatures in the upper and lower segments of the reach were consistently warmer than in the middle segment, even during passage of release waters. The inability of remote thermal infrared images to consistently distinguish land from water (in shaded areas) and to detect groundwater seeps (away from the shallow edges of the stream) limited data analysis and the ability to identify potential thermal refuge areas.

  9. Age and growth in the indian major carp Labeo rohita (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from tropical rivers of Ganga basin, India.

    PubMed

    Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Gusain, Om Prakash; Dwivedi, Arvind Kumar; Joukrushna, Jena

    2013-12-01

    Labeo rohita is a member of the Indian major carp species and originally an inhabitant of the Ganga river network in India. It is among the top ten aquaculture species of the world. Since there is a lack of information on the growth pattern of the wild populations of this species, this study aimed at evaluating the pattern of age and growth, to support the development of effective management plans. A total of 1082 samples of L. rohita were obtained from May 2009 to July 2012 in six drainages of the Ganga basin. Scales of the fish were used to determine the age and growth by analyzing the annual rings growth. Out of six populations, a maximum 8+ age classes were recorded from two rivers (Betwa and Sharda). The back-calculated lengths at 8+ age class ranged from 86.22 cm to 91.66 cm. However, for the rest of rivers up to 7+ age classes were recorded. Among growth parameters, specific rate of length increase (C(l)) and specific rate of weight increase (Cw) showed decreasing trend, and three distinct life stages of L. rohita were recorded based on growth constant data (C(lt)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the back-calculated length data set of six populations indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05). All three populations showed significant variation in length attainment during 1+ and 3+ age groups, while two populations showed significant variation in length attainment during the 2+ and 7+ age classes. Additionally, analysis of age frequency at different length intervals indicated that with increase in age class, number of fish samples was reduced. Since the pattern of life history traits of L. rohita have not been attempted in the recent past; therefore, this study will guide fisheries biologists about the current stock structure of this fish across different spatial scale of the Ganga basin.

  10. Channel Characteristics and Planform Dynamics in the Indian Terai, Sharda River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midha, Neha; Mathur, Pradeep K.

    2014-01-01

    The Sharda River creates and maintains the ecologically diverse remnant patches of rare Terai ecosystem in northern India. This study used repeat satellite imagery and geographic information system analysis to assess the planform dynamics along a 60 km length of the Sharda River between 1977 and 2001 to understand the altered dynamics and its plausible causes in this data-poor region. Analyses revealed that the Sharda River has undergone significant change corresponding to enhanced instability in terms of increased number of neck cut-offs and consistent occurrence of avulsions in subsequent shorter assessment periods. An increased channel area (8 %), decreased sinuosity (15 %), increased braiding intensity, and abrupt migrations were also documented. The river has migrated toward the east with its west bankline being more unstable. The maximum shifts were 2.85 km in 13 years (1977-1990), 2.33 km in next 9 years (1990-1999), and a substantial shift of 2.39 km in just 2 years (1999-2001). The altered dynamics is making the future of critical wildlife habitats in Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and North Kheri Forest Division precarious and causing significant economic damage. Extensive deforestation and expansion of agriculture since the 1950s in the catchment area are presumed to have severely impacted the equilibrium of the river, which urgently needs a management plan including wildlife habitat conservation, control, and risk reduction. The present study provides a strong foundation for understanding channel changes in the Sharda River and the finding can serve as a valuable information base for effective management planning and ecological restoration.

  11. Para-Professional Training in Adult Education at Gila River Indian Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Joycelyn

    Major goals of the Gila River Adult Basic Education Experimental Demonstration Project in this program description are identified as: (1) improving the academic skills of hard-to-reach adult dropouts and (2) training non-degreed local residents (people 19 years old or older with an 8th grade performance level) to recruit, counsel, and teach…

  12. Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small freshwater lagoon, using the expertise and resources of an environmental artist in collaboration with museum biologists and arts department staff. The primary outcome of Phase 1 is an experimental fountain exhibit inside the museum designed by public artist Laurie Lundquist with Exploratorium staff. This fountain, with signage, functions both as a model for natural aeration and filtration systems and as a focal point for museum visitors to learn about how biological processes cycle energy through aquatic systems. As part of the study of the lagoon`s health, volunteers continued biweekly bird consus from March through September, 1994. The goal was to find out whether the poor water quality of the lagoon is affecting the birds. Limited dredging was undertaken by the city Parks and Recreation Department. However, a more peermanent solution to the lagoon`s ecological problems would require an ambitious redesign of the lagoon.

  13. The tale of four lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are a common management practice in the Carolinas for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very sophisticated. To get a better understanding of the microb...

  14. Evaluation of ground-water recharge along the Gila River as a result of the flood of October 1983, in and near the Gila River Indian Reservation, Maricopa and Pinal counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, A.D.; Anderson, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    Flow in the Gila River from the flood of October 1983 infiltrated the stream channel and recharged the groundwater system along the Gila River floodplain from Ashurst-Hayden Dam to the confluence with the Salt River. Changes in groundwater levels from January 1983 to March 1984 confirmed the occurrence of recharge to the groundwater system. The average water level change for 74 wells was +24.2 ft. The water-level rise was greatest in the reach from river mile 15 to river mile 22, where the average water level change for 10 wells was +59.4 ft. The average water level increase for 28 miles from river mile 40 to river mile 71 was +14.2 ft. Estimates of recharge from January 1983 to March 1984 ranged from 440,000 to 640, 000 acre-ft. A water budget method and a water level change method were used to estimate the recharge to the aquifer. At least 46% to 66% of the recharge was the result of streamflow infiltration from the Gila River during October 1983 to February 1984. The increase in aquifer storage was one to two times greater than the quantity of groundwater pumped from the Gila River Indian Reservation during the 10 years preceding the flood. (USGS)

  15. Trends in streamflow, sedimentation, and sediment chemistry for the Wolf River, Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, 1850-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2005-01-01

    Historical trends in streamflow, sedimentation, and sediment chemistry of the Wolf River were examined for a 6-mile reach that flows through the southern part of the Menominee Indian Reservation and the northern part of Shawano County, Wis. Trends were examined in the context of effects from dams, climate, and land-cover change. Annual flood peaks and mean monthly flow for the Wolf River were examined for 1907-96 and compared to mean annual and mean monthly precipitation. Analysis of trends in sedimentation (from before about 1850 through 1999) involved collection of cores and elevation data along nine valley transects spanning the Wolf River channel, flood plain, and backwater and impounded areas; radioisotope analyses of impounded sediment cores; and analysis of General Land Office Survey Notes (1853-91). Trends in sediment chemistry were examined by analyzing samples from an impoundment core for minor and trace elements. Annual flood peaks for the Wolf River decreased during 1907-49 but increased during 1950-96, most likely reflecting general changes in upper-atmospheric circulation patterns from more zonal before 1950 to more meridional after 1950. The decrease in flood peaks during 1907-49 may also, in part, be due to forest regrowth. Mean monthly streamflow during 1912-96 increased for the months of February and March but decreased for June and July, suggesting that spring snowmelt occurs earlier in the season than it did in the past. Decreases in early summer flows may be a reflection earlier spring snowmelt and large rainstorms in early spring rather than early summer. These trends also may reflect upper-atmospheric circulation patterns. The Balsam Row Dam impoundment contains up to 10 feet of organic-rich silty clay and has lost much of its storage capacity. Fine sediment has accumulated for 1.8 miles upstream from the Balsam Row Dam. Historical average linear and mass sedimentation rates in the Balsam Row impoundment were 0.09 feet per year and 1

  16. Assessment of water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1989-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess ground-water and surface-water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District in northern Palm Beach County from 1989 to 1994. Contamination of the surficial aquifer system and availability of a potable water supply have become of increasing concern. The study consisted of sampling 11 ground-water wells and 14 surface- water sites for determination of major inorganic constituents and physical characteristics, trace metals, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and synthetic organic compounds. Sodium and chloride concentrations exceeded Florida drinking-water standards in ground water at two wells, dissolved- solids concentrations at five ground-water wells and one surface-water site, and color values at all 11 ground-water wells and all 14 surface-water sites. Other constituents also exhibited concentrations that exceeded drinking-water standards. Cadmium and zinc concentrations exceeded the standards in ground water at one well, and lead concentrations exceeded the standard in ground water at five wells. Nitrogen and phosphorus specie concentrations did not exceed respective drinking-water standards in any ground-water or surface-water samples. Several synthetic organic compounds were detected at or above 50 micrograms per liter in water samples collected from six ground-water wells and three surface-water sites.

  17. Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eliana

    2007-05-04

    A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae).

  18. Environmental heterogeneity patterns and assessment of trophic levels in two Mediterranean lagoons: Orbetello and Varano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Specchiulli, Antonietta; Focardi, Silvia; Renzi, Monia; Scirocco, Tommaso; Cilenti, Lucrezia; Breber, Paolo; Bastianoni, Simone

    2008-09-01

    The management of coastal lagoons is of particular interest due to their high economical importance. In spite of their great productivity, coastal lagoons are often impacted by human pressure which produces water eutrophication. The aim of this paper is to assess the trophic state of the two Mediterranean lagoons taking into account chemical-physical parameters, nutrient concentrations and biological parameters. Two Italian lagoons, Orbetello and Varano (respectively located in Tyrrhenian and Adriatic coast, Italy) were studied between May 2003 and April 2005. Both these systems receive treated urban outflows, agricultural effluents and rivers freshwater inputs. Field collected data showed that studied lagoons were characterized by different human and natural pressures. Orbetello showed the highest water eutrophication, highlighted by the trophic index values, while Varano showed lower eutrophication levels except for the summertime. The values of physical, chemical and biological parameters measured in Orbetello and Varano lagoons indicate that a wide spatial and seasonal gradient of the water characteristics was established during the study period, but in particular in winter. This gradient, typical of estuarine systems, was essentially due to the mixing of freshwater, seawater and anthropogenic inputs. Orbetello lagoon seemed much more affected by the urban impact and the fish-farming activities than Varano lagoon, but the latter showed a greater agriculture activities impact as showed by the remote sensing images.

  19. Assessment of the environmental quality of French continental Mediterranean lagoons with oyster embryo bioassay.

    PubMed

    Galgani, F; Senia, J; Guillou, J L; Laugier, T; Munaron, D; Andral, B; Guillaume, B; Coulet, E; Boissery, P; Brun, L; Bertrandy, M C

    2009-10-01

    In order to better understand environmental disturbances in the French coastal Mediterranean lagoons, we used an ecotoxicological approach based on the measurement of the toxicity of the sediments using oyster embryo bioassay that provides a basis for assessing the effects on the fauna of contaminants adsorbed on the sedimentary particles. The study covers all of the main lagoons of the French Mediterranean coasts of Languedoc Roussillon, Camargue, and Provence (Berre and Bolmon lagoons), where 188 stations were sampled. The toxicity tests provide evidence of variable levels of toxicity in sediments. Contaminated lagoons such as La peyrade, Le canet, and Ingrill and locally affected lagoons such as Bages-Sigean, Vaccares, Bolmon, and Berre have sampling stations with 100% of larval abnormalities during 24-h development. In all of the lagoons, the toxicity was mainly located close to local harbors and rivers. Salses Leucate (Languedoc roussillon) lagoon was found very clean, with no important toxicity. The results are discussed in terms of environmental disturbances of the coastal lagoons and with regard to the long-term monitoring of the impact of contaminants on the coastal environment.

  20. Circulation in Enewetak Atoll lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, M.; Smith, S.V.; Stroup, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Currents at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, were measured on the reef margins, in the channels, and in the lagoon. Lagoon circulation is dominated by wind-driven downwind surface flow and an upwind middepth return flow. This wind-driven flow has the characteristics of an Ekman spiral in an enclosed sea. Lagoon flushing is accomplished primarily by surf-driven water input over the windward (eastern) reefs and southerly drift out the South Channel. Mean water residence time is 1 month, while water entering the northern portion of the atoll takes about 4 months to exit.

  1. Impact assessment of the introduction of Cichla kelberi in a large Neotropical reservoir and its lateral lagoons (Upper Paraná River Basin, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

    2015-11-10

    AbstractThis study aimed to understand how the introduction of Cichla kelberi in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River) affected the native ichthyofauna. Data on the structure of the small fish fauna assemblage were obtained before and after the introduction of this carnivorous species. Samplings were carried out in February and September of 2004, previously to the register of Cichla kelberi in the reservoir, and after its introduction, November of 2004, January, March, May and August of 2005, February and June of 2006, February and July of 2007, February and October of 2008 and February of 2009. A total of 4,693 fish, belonging to 43 different species was sampled between 2004 and 2009. The order Characiformes was the most abundant, followed by Perciformes and Siluriformes. Comparative analyses, before and after the introduction, could not demonstrate significant changes in composition, richness, abundance, biomass, mean length and diversity of fish. Aquatic insects were the main feeding item of C. kelberi, followed by tetragonopterinae fish. Cannibalism was recorded during the whole study period. The results showed that Cichla cannot deeply affect the ichthyofauna assemblages of a large Neotropical reservoir, at least in a short or medium term period after its introduction. The results also allowed concluding that the introduction of C. kelberi in the reservoir is in the phase 3. In this phase, the specie can survive and reproduce in the new environment; however it is not totally established and disseminated. The reasons for the fact that Cichla is still not dominant in Rosana Reservoir could be related to feeding competition, high rate of cannibalism and the presence of large amount of aquatic macrophytes (refuge zones). In spite of the results, the continuous monitoring of the role of non-native species on the local fish fauna is absolutely necessary because the impacts caused by colonization of this undesirable species can be magnified by complex processes

  2. Impact assessment of the introduction of Cichla kelberi in a large Neotropical reservoir and its lateral lagoons (Upper Paraná River Basin, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to understand how the introduction of Cichla kelberi in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River) affected the native ichthyofauna. Data on the structure of the small fish fauna assemblage were obtained before and after the introduction of this carnivorous species. Samplings were carried out in February and September of 2004, previously to the register of Cichla kelberi in the reservoir, and after its introduction, November of 2004, January, March, May and August of 2005, February and June of 2006, February and July of 2007, February and October of 2008 and February of 2009. A total of 4,693 fish, belonging to 43 different species was sampled between 2004 and 2009. The order Characiformes was the most abundant, followed by Perciformes and Siluriformes. Comparative analyses, before and after the introduction, could not demonstrate significant changes in composition, richness, abundance, biomass, mean length and diversity of fish. Aquatic insects were the main feeding item of C. kelberi, followed by tetragonopterinae fish. Cannibalism was recorded during the whole study period. The results showed that Cichla cannot deeply affect the ichthyofauna assemblages of a large Neotropical reservoir, at least in a short or medium term period after its introduction. The results also allowed concluding that the introduction of C. kelberi in the reservoir is in the phase 3. In this phase, the specie can survive and reproduce in the new environment; however it is not totally established and disseminated. The reasons for the fact that Cichla is still not dominant in Rosana Reservoir could be related to feeding competition, high rate of cannibalism and the presence of large amount of aquatic macrophytes (refuge zones). In spite of the results, the continuous monitoring of the role of non-native species on the local fish fauna is absolutely necessary because the impacts caused by colonization of this undesirable species can be magnified by complex processes, usually

  3. Ground-water resources of the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGreevy, Laurence J.; Hodson, Warren Gayler; Rucker, Samuel J.

    1969-01-01

    The area of this investigation is in the western part of the Wind River Basin and includes parts of the Absaroka, Washakie, Wind River, and Owl Creek Mountains. The purposes of the study were to determine the general hydrologic properties of the rocks in the area and the occurrence and quality c f the water in them. Structurally, the area is a downfolded basin surrounded by upfolded mountain ranges. Igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age are exposed in the mountains: folded sedimentary rocks representing all geologic periods, except the Silurian, crop out along the margins of the basin; and relatively flat-lying Tertiary rocks are at the surface in the central part of the basin. Surficial sand and gravel deposits of Quaternary age occur along streams and underlie numerous terraces throughout the basin. The potential yield and quality of water from most rocks in the area are poorly known, but estimates are possible, based on local well data and on data concerning similar rocks in nearby areas. Yields of more than 1,000 gpm are possible from the rocks comprising the Bighorn Dolomite (Ordovician), Darby Formation (Devonian), Madison Limestone (Mississippian), and Tensleep Sandstone (Pennsylvanian). Total dissolved solids in the water range from about 300 to 3,000 ppm. Yields of as much as several hundred gallons per minute are possible from the Nugget Sandstone (Jurassic? and Triassic?). Yields of 20 gpm or more are possible from the Crow Mountain Sandstone (Triassic) and Sundance Formation (Jurassic). Dissolved solids are generally high but are less than 1,000 ppm near outcrops in some locations. The Cloverly and Morrison (Cretaceous and Jurassic), Mesaverde (Cretaceous) and Lance(?) (Cretaceous) Formations may yield as much as several hundred gallons per minute, but most wells in Cretaceous rocks yield less than 20 gpm. Dissolved solids generally range from 1,000 to 5,000 ppm but may be higher. In some areas, water with less than 1,000 ppm dissolved solids

  4. Estimated Flood-Inundation Mapping for the Upper Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch in Kansas City, Missouri, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Brian P.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    In the interest of improved public safety during flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, completed a flood-inundation study of the Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at Kenneth Road to 63rd Street, of Indian Creek from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, and of Dyke Branch from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, to determine the estimated extent of flood inundation at selected flood stages on the Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch. The results of this study spatially interpolate information provided by U.S. Geological Survey gages, Kansas City Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time gages, and the National Weather Service flood-peak prediction service that comprise the Blue River flood-alert system and are a valuable tool for public officials and residents to minimize flood deaths and damage in Kansas City. To provide public access to the information presented in this report, a World Wide Web site (http://mo.water.usgs.gov/indep/kelly/blueriver) was created that displays the results of two-dimensional modeling between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street, estimated flood-inundation maps for 13 flood stages, the latest gage heights, and National Weather Service stage forecasts for each forecast location within the study area. The results of a previous study of flood inundation on the Blue River from 63rd Street to the mouth also are available. In addition the full text of this report, all tables and maps are available for download (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5068). Thirteen flood-inundation maps were produced at 2-foot intervals for water-surface elevations from 763.8 to 787.8 feet referenced to the Blue River at the 63rd Street Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time stream gage operated by the city of Kansas City, Missouri. Each map is associated with gages at Kenneth Road, Blue Ridge Boulevard, Kansas City (at Bannister Road), U.S. Highway 71

  5. Late Holocene sedimentation in a high Arctic coastal setting: Simpson Lagoon and Colville Delta, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Andrea J. M.; Allison, Mead A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Marcantonio, Franco; Goff, John A.

    2014-02-01

    Arctic coastal environments near major river outfalls, like Simpson Lagoon, Alaska and the adjacent Colville River Delta, potentially contain high-resolution sediment records useful in elucidating late Holocene Arctic sediment transport pathways and coupled terrestrial-ocean evidence of paleoclimate variability. This study utilizes a multi-tracer geochronology approach (137Cs, 239,240Pu, and 14C) tailored for high-latitude environments to determine the age models for cores collected from Simpson Lagoon, and to date seismic boundaries in shallow acoustic reflection data (CHIRP) to examine late Holocene infill patterns. Modern (~100 y) sediment accumulation rates range from <0.02 to 0.46±0.04 cm y-1, with a primary depocenter in western Simpson Lagoon adjacent to the Colville Delta and a secondary depocenter in eastern Simpson Lagoon. CHIRP reflectors, age-constrained by 14C analysis, reveal rapid late Holocene (0-3500 y BP) transgression consistent with high modern shoreline retreat rates. The western depocenter contains >5 m of late Holocene interbedded sediments, likely derived primarily from the Colville River, with onset of accumulation occurring prior to ~3500 y BP. A paleo-high in central Simpson Lagoon, separating the two depocenters, was subaerially exposed prior to ~600 y BP. The millimeters-per-year sedimentation rates across the lagoon, coupled with the undisturbed, interbedded sediment record, indicate that these settings hold great potential to develop new Arctic paleoenvironmental records.

  6. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Walker River Indian Reservation, Nevada 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thodal, Carl E.; Tuttle, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    A study was begun in 1994 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage from the Walker River Indian Reservation, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or on fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of the Walker River for other beneficial uses. Samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected during June-August 1994 (during a drought year) from sites upstream from and on the Walker River Indian Reservation for analyses of trace elements. Other analyses included physical characteristics, major dissolved constituents, selected species of water-soluble nitrogen and phosphorus, and selected pesticides in bottom sediment. Water samples were collected again from four sites on the Reservation in August 1995 (during a wetterthan- average year) to provide data for comparing extreme climatic conditions. Water samples collected from the Walker River Indian Reservation in 1994 equaled or exceeded the Nevada water-quality standard or level of concern for at least one of the following: water temperature, pH, dissolved solids, unionized ammonia, phosphate, arsenic, boron, chromium, lead, and molybdenum; in 1995, only a single sample from one site exceeded a Nevada water-quality standard for molybdenum. Levels of concern for trace elements in bottom sediment collected in 1994 were equaled or exceeded for arsenic, iron, manganese, and zinc. Concentrations of organochiorine pesticide residues in bottom sediment were below analytical reporting limits. Levels of concern for trace-elements in samples of biota were equaled or exceeded for arsenic, boron, copper, and mercury. Results of toxicity testing indicate that only water samples from Walker Lake caused a toxic response in test bacteria. Arsenic and boron concentrations in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissue exceeded levels of concern throughout the Walker River Basin, but most commonly in the lower Walker River Basin. Mercury also was elevated

  7. Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

  8. Evaluation of natural radioactivity and its associated health hazard indices of a South Indian river.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, N; Mullainathan, S; Mehra, R; Chaparro, Marcos A E; Chaparro, Mauro A E

    2014-12-01

    The activity concentration of the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was measured for sediment samples collected from thirty-three different locations along the Bharathapuzha river basin by using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides were found to vary from location to location, and their mean values are 19.6, 82.87 and 19.44% higher than the worldwide mean values of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The value of (232)Th was found to be higher than that of (226)Ra in 82% of the samples collected for this study. The calculated values of indoor gamma dose rate (DIN) ranged between 89.55 and 194.24 nGy h(-1), and the overall mean value is 63.2% higher than the recommended safe and criterion limit by UNSCEAR. The internal and external hazard indices (H(in) and H(ex)), the representative gamma index and alpha index (I(gamma) and I(alpha)), the annual gonad dose equivalent (AGDE) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were also calculated and compared with the international recommended values. Multivariate statistical analyses were also carried out to determine the relation between the natural radionuclides and various radiological parameters.

  9. Rivers, re-entrants, and 3D variations in orogenic wedge development: a case study of the NW Indian Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, A. G.; Yu, H.; Hendershott, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Orogenic wedges are standard elements of collisional plate tectonics, from accretionary prisms to retro-arc basins. Recent study of orogenic wedge development has focused on links between mechanisms of internal deformation and surface processes. Models of orogenic wedges are commonly presented in the cross-section plane, which is generally effective as wedges largely develop via plane strain. The 3rd dimension can be utilized to explore effects of differences in controlling parameters on wedge evolution. We are investigating a stretch of the western Himalayan orogenic wedge that has two prominent changes in along-strike morphology: (1) a tectonic window (the Kullu Window) that appears to be strongly influenced by erosion along the 3rd largest river in the Himalayan system, the Sutlej River and (2) the Kangra Re-entrant, the largest re-entrant along the Himalayan arc. In addition to the along-strike heterogeneity, a key advantage of the proposed study area is its rich stratigraphy, with the most known diversity in the Himalayan arc. The stratigraphic wealth, combined with the along-strike heterogeneity in exposure level, offers a high resolution view of regional structural geometry. Our preliminary reconstructions suggest that the Sutlej River erosion increases the exposure depth and shortening budget across a narrow segment of the orogen, strongly warping the Kullu Window. Previous models have suggested that the out-of-sequence Munsiari thrust is the main structure associated with Kullu window formation, while our work suggests that most of this uplift and warping is accomplished by antiformal stacking of basement thrust horses. Late Miocene ages (U-Pb ages of zircons and Th-Pb ages of monazites) from a leucogranite in the core of the Kullu Window along the Sutlej River further suggests that this segment of the orogen represents a middle ground between plane strain orogenic wedge development and a tectonic aneurysm model. We have constructed a palinspastic

  10. Indian Summer

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  11. Diagnosing Land Water Storage Variations in Major Indian River Basins using GRACE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Aarti; Syed, Tajdarul H.

    2015-10-01

    Scarcity of freshwater is one of the most critical resource issue the world is facing today. Due to its finite nature, renewable freshwater reserves are under relentless pressure due to population growth, economic development and rapid industrialization. Assessment of Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS), as an unified measure of freshwater reserve, is vital to understand hydrologic and climatic processes controlling its availability. In this study, TWS variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites are analyzed in conjuction with multi-platform hydrologic observations for the period of 2003-2012. Here, the primary objective is to quantify and attribute the observed short-term variability of TWS and groundwater storage in the largest river basins of India (Ganga, Godavari, Krishna and Mahanadi). Alongside commendable agreement between TWS variations obtained from GRACE and water balance computation, results highlight some of the important deficiencies between the two. While monthly changes in TWS are highly correlated with precipitation, monthly TWS anomalies reveal a 1-2 month lag in their concurrence. Analysis of groundwater storage estimates demonstrate significant decline in the Ganga basin (- 1.28 ± 0.20 mm/month) but practically no change in the Mahanadi basin. On the contrary, groundwater storage in Godavari and Krishna basins reveal notable increase at the rate of 0.74 ± 0.21 mm/month and 0.97 ± 0.21 mm/month respectively. Subsequently, in order to assess the influence of quasi-periodic, planetary scale, variations in the Earth's climate system, groundwater storage anomalies are evaluated with reference to ENSO variability. Results manifest that in all the basins, with the exception of Ganga, groundwater storage is dominantly influenced by ENSO, with large decrease (increase) during El Niño (La Niña) events. In the Ganga basin, groundwater storage variations refer to possible amalgamation of human intervention and natural climate

  12. Aspects of fish conservation in the upper Patos Lagoon basin.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, N F; Vieira, J P; Becker, F G; Rodrigues, L R; Malabarba, L R; Schulz, U H; Möller, O O; Garcia, A M; Vilella, F S

    2016-07-01

    The Patos Lagoon basin is a large (201 626 km(2) ) and complex drainage system in southern Brazil. The lagoon is 250 km long and 60 km wide, covering an area of 10 360 km(2) . The exchange of water with the Atlantic Ocean occurs through a 0·8 km wide and 15 m deep inlet, fixed by 4 km long jetties, at the southernmost part of the Patos Lagoon. The estuarine area is restricted to its southern portion (10%), although the upper limit of saline waters migrates seasonally and year to year, influenced by the wind regime and river discharge. The known number of recorded limnetic fish species is 200, but this number is expected to increase. A higher endemism is observed in fish species occurring in upper tributaries. The basin suffers from the direct impact of almost 7 million inhabitants, concentrated in small to large cities, most with untreated domestic effluents. There are at least 16 non-native species recorded in natural habitats of the Patos Lagoon basin, about half of these being from other South American river basins. Concerning the fishery, although sport and commercial fisheries are widespread throughout the Patos Lagoon basin, the lagoon itself and the estuarine area are the main fishing areas. Landing statistics are not available on a regular basis or for the whole basin. The fishery in the northern Patos Lagoon captures 31 different species, nine of which are responsible for most of the commercial catches, but only three species are actually sustaining the artisanal fishery: the viola Loricariichthys anus: 455 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day, the mullet Mugil liza: 123 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day and the marine catfish Genidens barbus: 50 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day. A decline of the fish stocks can be attributed to inadequate fishery surveillance, which leads to overfishing and mortality of juveniles, or to decreasing water quality because of urban and industrial activities and power production. Global climatic changes also represent a

  13. Characteristics of water, sediment, and benthic communities of the Wolf River, Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, water years 1986-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, Herbert S.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Richards, Kevin D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    Analyses and interpretation of water quality, sediment, and biological data from water years 1986 through 1998 indicated that land use and other human activities have had only minimal effects on water quality in the Wolf River upstream from and within the Menominee Indian Reservation in northeastern Wisconsin. Relatively high concentrations of calcium and magnesium (natural hardness), iron, manganese, and aluminum were measured in Wolf River water samples during water years 1986?98 from the three sampled sites and attributed to presence of highly mineralized geologic materials in the basin. Average calcium and magnesium concentrations varied from 22?26 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and 11?13 mg/L, respectively. Average iron concentrations ranged from 290?380 micrograms per liter (?g/L); average manganese concentrations ranged from 53?56 mg/L. Average aluminum concentrations ranged from 63?67 ?g/L. Mercury was present in water samples but concentrations were not at levels of concern. Levels of Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, and orthophosphorus in water samples were often low or below detection limits (0.01? 0.10 mg/L). Trace amounts of atrazine (maximum concentration of 0.031 ?g/L), deethylatrazine (maximum 0.032 ?g/L), and alachlor (maximum of 0.002 ?g/L) were detected. Low concentrations of most trace elements were found in streambed sediment. Tissues of fish and aquatic invertebrates collected once each year from 1995 through 1998 at the Langlade and Keshena sites, near the northern and southern boundaries of the Reservation, respectively, were low in concentrations of most trace elements. Arsenic and silver in fish livers from both sites were less than or equal to 2 ?g/g arsenic and less than 1 ?g/g silver for dry weight analysis, and concentrations of antimony, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and uranium were all below detection limits (less than 1 ?g/g dry weight). Concentrations of most other trace elements in fish

  14. Assessing the potential underestimation of sediment and nutrient loads to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon during floods.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jim; Karim, Fazlul; Wilkinson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Much of the sediment and nutrient load to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon happens during over bank floods, when discharge can be significantly underestimated by standard river gauges. This paper assesses the potential need for a flood load correction for 28 coastal rivers that discharge into the GBR lagoon. For each river, daily discharge was divided into flows above and below a 'flood' threshold to calculate the mean annual percentage flow above this threshold. Most GBR rivers potentially need a flood load correction as over 15% of their mean annual flow occurs above the minor flood level; only seven rivers need little/no correction as their flood flows were less than 5% of the mean annual flow. Improved assessment of the true load of materials to the GBR lagoon would be an important contribution to the monitoring and reporting of progress towards Reef Plan and associated marine load targets.

  15. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  16. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  17. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  18. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  19. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  20. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  1. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  2. Evapotranspiration (ET) at Blue Cypress marsh site, daily data, Indian River County, Florida, June 1, 1995 – October 20, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, David M.

    2017-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data release consists of daily evapotranspiration (ET) measurements/estimates for the time period June 1, 1995 to October 2014. These data are derived from (1) measurements of actual ET conducted at the USGS Blue Cypress marsh station (USGS station number 274143080424100) and (2) estimates of actual ET inferred from statistical regressions between the measurements of actual ET and potential ET. The station is located at a nearly flat wetlands site (27 degrees 41 minutes 43 seconds North / 080 degrees 42 minutes 41 seconds West) within the Blue Cypress Marsh Conservation Area, Indian River County, Florida. The dominant plant cover at the study site is sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), with secondary amounts of other wetland plant species. Sawgrass height generally varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters. The canopy can be temporarily removed through fire, followed by rapid re-growth. The soils at the site are peats. The water-table generally is above land surface but can be greater than a meter below land surface during droughts. Actual ET measurements derived using the eddy-covariance method are available for January 1, 2000 to September 1, 2005; and December 11, 2009 to October 20, 2014. The contribution of the present Data Release is dissemination of a dataset of actual ET estimates for a period prior to the first period of actual ET measurements (June 1, 1995 to December 31, 1999) and for the time interval between the two periods of actual ET measurement (September 2, 2005 to December 10, 2009). Estimates of actual ET during periods of missing actual ET measurements were obtained using regression-determined, monthly vegetation coefficient multipliers applied to potential ET data. The source of potential ET data was an existing Statewide database developed through an assimilation of satellite- and field-based meterological data. A seamless time series of measured and estimated actual ET for the period June 1, 1999 to December 10, 2014 is

  3. 50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Any treaty Indian must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian...

  4. 50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Any treaty Indian must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian...

  5. 50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Any treaty Indian must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian...

  6. 50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Any treaty Indian must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian...

  7. 50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Any treaty Indian must comply with this section when fishing for sockeye and pink salmon at the treaty Indian...

  8. HLA class II variation in the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona: alleles, haplotypes, and a high frequency epitope at the HLA-DR locus.

    PubMed

    Williams, R C; McAuley, J E

    1992-01-01

    A genetic distribution for the HLA class II loci is described for 349 "full-blooded" Pima and Tohono O'odham Indians (Pimans) in the Gila River Indian Community. A high frequency epitope in the *DRw52 family was defined by reactions with 31 alloantisera, which we have designated *DR3X6. It segregates as a codominant allele at HLA-DR with alleles *DR2, *DR4, and *DRw8, and has the highest frequency yet reported for an HLA-DR specificity, 0.735. It forms a common haplotype with *DRw52 and *DQw3 that is a valuable marker for genetic admixture and anthropological studies. Phenotype and allele frequencies, and haplotype frequencies for two and three loci, are presented. Variation at these loci is highly restricted, the mean heterozygosity for HLA-DR and HLA-DQ being 0.361. The Pimans represent a contemporary model for the Paleo-Indians who first entered North America 20,000 to 40,000 years ago.

  9. Metals in some lagoons of Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, F G; Sharma, V K; Alexander, V H; Frausto, C A

    1995-01-01

    The concentrations of metals, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in some lagoons to establish the level of metal pollution. The lagoons studied were Alvarado lagoon, Veracruz; San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas; and Terminos lagoon, Campeche. The concentrations were determined in water, oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and sediments. Metals were accumulated in either oysters or sediments. Cu and Zn were higher in oysters and Fe and Mn were higher in sediments. The results in water samples were compared with the limit established by the Secretaria de Ecologia and Desarrollo Urbano Report and briefly discussed. PMID:7621796

  10. Metals in some lagoons of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, F G; Sharma, V K; Alexander, V H; Frausto, C A

    1995-02-01

    The concentrations of metals, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in some lagoons to establish the level of metal pollution. The lagoons studied were Alvarado lagoon, Veracruz; San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas; and Terminos lagoon, Campeche. The concentrations were determined in water, oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and sediments. Metals were accumulated in either oysters or sediments. Cu and Zn were higher in oysters and Fe and Mn were higher in sediments. The results in water samples were compared with the limit established by the Secretaria de Ecologia and Desarrollo Urbano Report and briefly discussed.

  11. Control of submarine groundwater discharge patterns and salinity by a low-permeability paleochannel cap at Indian River Bay, Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russoniello, C. J.; Fernandez, C.; Bratton, J. F.; Krantz, D.; Banaszak, J.; Andres, A. S.; Konikow, L. F.; Michael, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    Eutrophication in coastal bays has made it necessary to better understand nutrient sources in these settings. Because groundwater often has elevated nutrient levels with respect to surface water, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) may be an important source of nutrients to coastal bays. To understand the pathways of SGD and how bayfloor geology and hydrology affect them, we examined the geology, porewater salinity, and SGD rates and patterns at Indian River Bay, DE. Marine geophysical tools were used to identify the hydrogeologic framework and geometry of a shore-perpendicular freshwater plume beneath the bay. Shallow chirp seismic data outlined a low-permeability paleochannel infill, which is 150m across and 2-3m thick at the center, thinning towards the channel flanks. Offshore continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data show a low-salinity plume generally co-located with, but extending beyond the edges of, this low-permeability cap. Salinity data from 12 offshore wells with multi-level sampling ports verify the general extent of the plume indicated by CRP data. Using Lee-type seepage meters, 565 direct measurements of SGD were made between July 2010 and June 2011. These data show that the paleochannel feature generally controls nearby fresh SGD (FSGD), preventing discharge at the shoreline and causing diffuse freshened or brackish discharge at the channel flanks. In the adjoining interfluve, where the low-K cap is absent, fresh discharge appears focused and decreases monotonically from the shoreline, as predicted by theory. Saline SGD did not follow this trend and comprised the majority of the discharge. The measured maximum FSGD was 33cm/d compared to 198cm/d for recirculated baywater. SGD salinity ranged from 0-33ppt, with an average of 26.9ppt; the average surface baywater salinity was 28.4ppt. Seepage salinity patterns correlate spatially with CRP survey results. To assess the potential for saline SGD driven by interactions of surface water flowing over

  12. Distribution and sources of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and biogenic silica in the sediments of Chilika lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazneen, Sadaf; Raju, N. Janardhana

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the spatial and vertical distribution of organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and biogenic silica (BSi) in the sedimentary environments of Asia's largest brackish water lagoon. Surface and core sediments were collected from various locations of the Chilika lagoon and were analysed for grain-size distribution and major elements in order to understand their distribution and sources. Sand is the dominant fraction followed by silt + clay. Primary production within the lagoon, terrestrial input from river discharge and anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the lagoon control the distribution of OC, TN, TP and BSi in the surface as well as in the core sediments. Low C/N ratios in the surface sediments (3.49-3.41) and cores (4-11.86) suggest that phytoplankton and macroalgae may be major contributors of organic matter (OM) in the lagoon. BSi is mainly associated with the mud fraction. Core C5 from Balugaon region shows the highest concentration of OC ranging from 0.58-2.34%, especially in the upper 30 cm, due to direct discharge of large amounts of untreated sewage into the lagoon. The study highlights that Chilika is a dynamic ecosystem with a large contribution of OM by autochthonous sources with some input from anthropogenic sources as well.

  13. Phytoplankton community dynamics in an intermittently open hypereutrophic coastal lagoon in southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Susana; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Gamito, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    Phytoplankton community' dynamics were studied in Salgados coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the effects of excessive organic loads and also physical stress caused by the irregular opening of the lagoon. Salgados is a hypereutrophic intermittently open coastal lagoon, which received freshwater inputs from small rivers and from a wastewater treatment plant. Cyanophyceae dominated the phytoplankton communities most of the time; Bacillariophyceae became the main taxonomic group in winter when the lagoon was closed; Chlorophyceae was the major class in early summer; pico-nano flagellate algae accounted for a high percentage of total phytoplankton during spring. Potentially harmful taxa were observed during most of the sampling periods, forming blooms and accounting for a considerable percentage of total phytoplankton abundance. A strong differentiation among dry and wet seasons could be noticed. The dry season was dominated by Microsystis aeruginosa, Rhodomonas sp., pico-nano flagellate algae, Cyclotella spp. and Planktothrix sp., while the wet season, although still with the presence of Microsystis aeruginosa, was dominated by Dolichospermum spiroides. The best environmental variables explaining stations patterns and based on phytoplankton taxa were days of isolation, pH, and salinity. Temperature, cumulative rain and total phosphorus were also related with species and stations patterns. The high nutrient load in Salgados lagoon promoted the development and persistence of harmful algae blooms. Proper management of coastal lagoons involves not only the control of direct discharges of nutrients, but also of other factors, including water level and communication with the sea.

  14. Biogeochemical Composition of Mediterranean Waters Outside Thau Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souchu, P.; Gasc, A.; Cahet, G.; Vaquer, A.; Collos, Y.; Deslous-Paoli, J. M.

    1997-03-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen), nutrients (NO 3-, NO 2-, NH 4+, soluble reactive phosphorus, Si), dissolved organic matter with bacterial cell counts (DON, DOP, DOC, BACT) and particulate matter (POC, PON, Chl a) were measured weekly from January 1993 to March 1994 in Mediterranean surface waters, sampled 2·5 km offshore in Thau Lagoon (Sète, France). Waters outside the lagoon displayed salinity reductions below 29 which corresponded to flood periods of the Rhône River and/or to winds oriented in a southeasterly direction. Levels of nutrients were increased by the influence of the Rhône river plume. Concentrations of NO 3-and NH 4+were rather close to the theoretical dilution line, while SRP and Si seemed to be rapidly taken up along their dilution gradient, especially in spring. The influx of NO 3-enriched waters into the lagoon in October showed that the Rhône river plume can potentially fertilize this lagoon. The flux of nutrient from the Rhône River led to Chl amaxima above 4 μ g l -1in spring. The concentration of DOC and BACT reached peak values at the decay of the spring bloom and decreased to their lowest level afterwards, suggesting that primary production was an important source of DOC but also that DOC was repackaged in the microbial loop rather than being transported to deeper layers. Yearly averaged atomic C:N and C:P ratios in DOM were 15 and 1000, respectively, which probably compelled bacterioplankton to compete with phytoplankton for NH 4+and SRP. No influence of the Rhône River was observed during summer. This period was characterized by SRP, NO 3-and NO 2-concentrations below the limits of detection and by the lowest levels in DOC, DON, BACT and Chl a. However, NH 4+and DOP concentrations remained, respectively, above 0·3 and 0·15 μ M, and the summer period corresponded to oxygen supersaturation (up to 122%). These observations suggest the dominance of picophytoplanktonic communities with low

  15. Formal, Nonformal, and Informal Learning in Rural India: The Case of Fishing Families on the Chilika Lagoon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilz, Matthias; Wilmshöfer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority--70%--of the Indian population lives in rural areas. They are far removed from India's image as a society with an emerging middle class and well-regarded schools. This research focuses on education and opportunities for skill development for this rural population. The researchers investigated the area around the Chilika Lagoon, a…

  16. 40 CFR 49.22 - Federal implementation plan for Tri-Cities landfill, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND..., production rates, and types of materials processed, stored, or combusted during the selected time period. (2... construction means, in general, initiation of physical on-site construction activities on an emissions...

  17. Impacts of climate change on water resources in watersheds of four European lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanova, Anastassi; Hesse, Cornelia; Krysanova, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The hydrologic impacts of projected climate change were assessed for the drainage areas of four European lagoons: the Ria de Aveiro lagoon in Portugal, the Mar Menor lagoon in Spain, the Vistula lagoon in Poland and Kaliningrad region and the Tyligulski lagoon in Ukraine. The eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was applied to each of the four case study areas individually, considering basin-specific characteristics and management settings. All four watersheds were calibrated and validated towards river discharge at one or more gauges, reaching satisfactory to very good modelling results, depending on the quality and availability of input data (i.e. observed climate and discharge data). For the assessment of climate change impacts we forced the four model set-ups with scenario data from the ENSEMBLES project. Therefore a set of 15 climate scenarios, all running until the end of the 21st century, was applied to SWIM for one reference and three future periods of 30 years each. We evaluated the long-term changes of total freshwater inflow to the four lagoons and compared the results considering average trends and uncertainties induced by the different climate scenarios. The comparison not only shows differences in the magnitude of potential impacts among the four regions but also differences in the direction of change. In Spain and Portugal an average decrease in discharge of about -5% and -15% can be expected, while at the same time the total inflow to the Vistula and the Tyligulski lagoon is projected to increase by 18% and 20% on average by the end of the century. The agreement of climate projections among scenarios is varies between regions and in consequence the uncertainty in model outputs also differs between the four case studies. In the watershed of the Tyligulski lagoon the projected changes in river discharge vary between -70% and 120%, whereas the results for the Ria de Aveiro lagoon range between -1% and -27% for the last three

  18. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. )

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  19. Eutrophication, water management, and the functioning of dutch estuaries and coastal lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Nienhuis, P.H. )

    1992-12-01

    A number of European rivers (especially the Rhine) have a prevailing influence on the nutrient cycling of most Dutch estuaries. Owing to the increased loading of the estuaries with nitrogen and phosphorous compounds, effects of eutrophication on the biological communities are most evident in the tidal Western Wadden Sea and in a nontidal brackish lagoon, Veerse Meer. Whether the relation between changed nutrient loadings and changed biomass and production of primary and secondary producers in the turbid tidal Dutch ecosystems should be considered as a causal relation is questionable. The very widespread practice of lagoon modification confuses the effects of nutrient loading. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Sediment characteristics and water quality in the two hyper-saline lagoons along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Najeeb; Al-Farawati, Radwan; Al-Harbi, Omer; Naser Qutub, Abdul

    2013-04-01

    The two hyper-saline Shoaiba lagoons, Khawr ash Shaibah al Masdudah (northern lagoon) and Khawr ash Shaibah al Maftuhah (southern lagoon) have a unique environmental set-up because no rivers or wadis flow into the lagoons and therefore detrital material to the lagoons is lacking and most of the sediments are indigenous carbonates. The biogenic material is mostly derived from coral debris, coralline algae and molluscs abundant in gravel and sand size fractions. The evaporite deposits from the adjoining sabkhas are transported to the lagoon during tidal cycles. Carbonate is abundant in the form of aragonite and High Mg-calcite indicating carbonate to be recent and formed under shallow water conditions. In general, the sediments are the result of the mechanical breakdown of molluscs and coral reefs by either human activity or by coral boring marine organisms and physical processes such as tidal and wind generated currents. Strong currents dominate only the deeper part at the entrance of the lagoons that causes the winnowing of the finer sediments, and its transportation during flooding and ebbing. Shallow depths averaging 3 m, wind and tidal stirring are the main forces preventing the lagoons from developing stratification resulting in a well-mixed body of water. The shallow depth of the lagoons keep the turbidity levels higher, whereas salinity as high as 52 ‰ and water temperature as high as 38 °C helps in the formation of halite at the periphery. The cyclical inundation of sabkhas by a thin sheet of water during tidal cycles is important in understanding the ecological consequence. Mangrove stands in the lagoons act as a source of nutrients to the flora and fauna inhabiting the lagoons. The configurations of the mouth of the lagoons influence the tidal currents, including the sediment and water movement. The tidal current is enhanced as it enters the lagoons, in response to the funneling effect caused by the narrow channel. The current diffuses as the entrance

  1. The impact of human activities on the flushing properties of a semi-enclosed lagoon: Xiaohai, Hainan, China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenping; Shen, Jian; Jia, Jianjun

    2008-02-01

    In this study, a Lagrangian particle tracking model driven by hydrodynamic fields was used to investigate the changes of flushing properties in Xiaohai Lagoon resulting from natural evolution and influences of human activities. Comparisons of residence times between 1936 and 2001 indicate that the flushing efficiency of the lagoon has deteriorated greatly during the past seven decades. Over this period, the average residence time of the lagoon has increased from 45 to 71 days, an increase of 59%. The Lagrangian residual velocity has decreased from 1936 to 2001 in the large portions of the lagoon, and the spatial distribution pattern of the residual current has changed significantly. The well-developed horizontal circulations in 1936 disappeared. Instead, the horizontal Lagrangian residual velocity showed uniformly seaward motion with reduced velocity in 2001. Human activities have incurred great impacts on the deterioration of flushing efficiency. The reduction of river inflow imposed the most significant impact, causing an increase of average residence time by 33%. The land reclamation in the lagoon came as the second most significant factor, causing an increase of 15%. Closure of the North Opening had posed minor impact. The model results suggest that restoring the river inflow, as well as the dredging of the tidal channel and the inner lagoon, should be the top proprieties for future water quality management.

  2. 78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of an Agreement to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian... the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The Amendment consists...

  3. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are typically used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these anaerobic lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple in their physical, chemical, and biological processes, they are actually very sophisticated. Recent reports of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and h...

  4. [The mangrove and others vegetation associations in de Gandoca lagoon, Limón, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Coll, M; Fonseca, A C; Cortés, J

    2001-12-01

    Six plant associations were identified at Gandoca Lagoon by photointerpretation and field verification: a) mangroves, b) palm trees swamp, and palm trees with Acrostichum aureum and A. danaefolium, c) mixed palm trees, d) very humid tropical rain forest, and e) tropical beach vegetation. The mangroves cover 12.5 ha surrounding the lagoon and extend 2 km up the Gandoca River. Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) was the dominant species, with Avicennia germinans (black mangrove), Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) and Conocarpus erectus (buttonwood) also present. Moving inland the mangroves grade into a tropical rain forest. Gandoca, the largest and best preserved mangrove of Caribbean Costa Rica, tripled its area from 1976 to 2000. Possible causes include sedimentation and the Limón earthquake, which may have subside the lagoon area.

  5. 77 FR 47868 - Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the Bureau of Indian Affairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Bay Mills Indian Community, Michigan Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria, California Berry..., California Walker River Paiute Tribe of the Walker River Reservation, Nevada Wampanoag Tribe of Gay...

  6. Career Guidance for Indian Youth. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado River Indian Tribes, Parker, AZ.

    Initial research conducted by the Colorado River Indian Tribes Rehabilitation Center revealed that lack of career information available to Indian youth, lack of Indian student direction and motivation, and resultant low academic achievement inadequately prepared these students for the world of work. Consequently, a new program (involving seminars,…

  7. Hydrodynamics, temperature/salinity variability and residence time in the Chilika lagoon during dry and wet period: Measurement and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanty, M. M.; Mohanty, P. K.; Pattnaik, A. K.; Panda, U. S.; Pradhan, S.; Samal, R. N.

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigated the hydrodynamics, spatio-temporal variability of temperature/salinity and the residence time of tracer concentrations in a largest brackish water coastal lagoon in Asia, namely the Chilika lagoon, India. An integrated approach combined the measurement and 2D hydrodynamic-advection/dispersion model is used to simulate circulation and temperature/salinity, and estimated the water residence time in lagoon under different forcing mechanisms, such as tide, wind and freshwater discharge during the dry and wet periods. Water circulation inside the lagoon is simulated when wind is included with the tide only forcing during dry period, and freshwater influx is included with the tide and wind forcing during wet period. Under the realistic forcing conditions, the computed temporal variability of water temperature and salinity are well correlated with the measurements in both the periods. The spatial variations of water temperature within the lagoon is influenced by the meteorological conditions, tide and freshwater influx as well as the shallowness of the lagoon, whereas the salinity is spatially controlled by the freshwater influx from the riverine system and seawater intrusion through the tidal inlets. The numerical model results show that in the Chilika lagoon tidal and river influx affect significantly the residence time spatially, and is site specific. The residence time varies from values of 4-5 days in the outer channel (OC) and 132 days at the northern sector (NS) in the main body of lagoon. The current study represents a first attempt to use a combined model approach, which is therefore, a useful tool to support the ecological implication of the lagoon ecosystem.

  8. [Post nearly Drowning Vibrio alginolyticus Septicemia Acquired in Reunion (Indian Ocean)].

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, B-A; Chanareille, P; Vandroux, D

    2016-08-01

    AbstractWe report the first case of Vibrio alginolyticus septicemia in the Indian Ocean (Reunion Island), in a patient (70-year-old-man) with multiple underlying conditions, following a nearly drowning in the lagoon of Reunion. From now on, V. alginolyticus should be considered as a possible agent of septicemia in the Indian Ocean, particularly following marine activities.

  9. 50 CFR 226.213 - Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the following ten portions of the Indian River Lagoon and Biscayne Bay within the current range of....07″N, 80°27′40.50″W (c) A portion of the Indian River Lagoon in the vicinity of the Fort Pierce Inlet... of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, north of the St. Lucie Inlet, from South Nettles Island to...

  10. Aerated Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This student manual contains the textual material for a unit which focuses on the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. Topic areas discussed include: (1) characteristics of completely mixed aerated lagoons; (2) facultative aerated lagoons; (3) aerated oxidation ponds; (4) effects of temperature on aerated lagoons; (5)…

  11. Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    Rivers are both the means and the routes by which the products of continental weathering are carried to the oceans of the world. Except in the most arid areas more water falls as precipitation than is lost by evaporation and transpiration from the land surface to the atmosphere. Thus there is an excess of water, which must flow to the ocean. Rivers, then, are the routes by which this excess water flows to the ultimate base level. The excess of precipitation over evaporation and transpiration provides the flow of rivers and springs, recharges ground-water storage, and is the supply from which man draws water for his needs.

  12. High performance aerated lagoon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, L.

    1999-08-01

    At a time when less money is available for wastewater treatment facilities and there is increased competition for the local tax dollar, regulatory agencies are enforcing stricter effluent limits on treatment discharges. A solution for both municipalities and industry is to use aerated lagoon systems designed to meet these limits. This monograph, prepared by a recognized expert in the field, provides methods for the rational design of a wide variety of high-performance aerated lagoon systems. Such systems range from those that can be depended upon to meet secondary treatment standards alone to those that, with the inclusion of intermittent sand filters or elements of sequenced biological reactor (SBR) technology, can also provide for nitrification and nutrient removal. Considerable emphasis is placed on the use of appropriate performance parameters, and an entire chapter is devoted to diagnosing performance failures. Contents include: principles of microbiological processes, control of algae, benthal stabilization, design for CBOD removal, design for nitrification and denitrification in suspended-growth systems, design for nitrification in attached-growth systems, phosphorus removal, diagnosing performance.

  13. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grasso, Dennis N.; Jennings, Mary E.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.

    1995-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected in 1992-93 from irrigation drainage areas and wetlands of the Wind River Federal Irrigation Project, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming. Most samples collected had concentrations of chemical constituents less than the established levels of concern for water, bottom sediment, and biota. In the Little Wind Unit irrigation area, however, selenium and mercury concentrations in water exceeded criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Six water samples analyzed from the Little Wind Unit in 1993 had selenium concentrations that equaled or exceeded 5 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of mercury in water were 0.1 micrograms per liter or less, except at four sites: one sample collected in 1993 from Sharp Nose Draw (4.9 micrograms per liter) and three samples collected in 1992 from Little Wind Unit and Johnstown Unit (0.2 micrograms per liter). Mercury concentrations in all bottom-sediment samples were less than 0.02 micrograms per liter, except at Sharp Nose Pond where a concentration of 0.02 micrograms per liter was measured. Selenium concentrations in some aquatic vegetation, inverte- brates, fish, bird eggs, and bird livers collected from the Little Wind Unit in 1993 exceeded established levels of concern. At Goose Pond and Sharp Nose Pond, selenium in the livers of five bird samples collected exceeded the 10 micrograms per gram level associated with reproductive failure in aquatic birds. Mercury concentrations in the livers of birds sampled at Sharp Nose Pond also were greater than suggested levels in dietary items for the protection of sensitive species of mammals and birds that regularly consume aquatic organisms.

  14. Sedimentation in lagoon waters (Case study on Segara Anakan Lagoon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Lilik Kartika; Adrianto, Luky; Soewardi, Kadarwan; Atmadipoera, Agus S.; Hilmi, Endang

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the effect of sedimentation on waters area that serves as an advocate for life. It is included in the category to be wary considering these conditions will reduce the quality of life and threaten the life and survival of endemic biota. Observations rate of sedimentation since April 2014 until March 2015 performed at 6 stations that are considered to represent the condition of the lagoon. The observations for rate of sedimentation was conducted twice in a month for one year. Oceanographic parameters was taken by CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth) sensor in two seasons, at the height of the rainy season, March 2014 and August 2014. Results showed that the aquatic area more narrow characterized by changes in the outside line of the island visible on the image observation for two decades.

  15. Movement of lagoon-liquor constituents below four animal-waste lagoons.

    PubMed

    DeSutter, Tom M; Pierzynski, Gary M; Ham, Jay M

    2005-01-01

    Movement of liquor constituents from animal-waste lagoons has the potential to degrade ground water quality. The depth of movement and concentrations of lagoon-liquor constituents in the soil underlying three cattle (Bos taurus)-waste retention lagoons and one swine (Sus scrofa)-waste lagoon were determined. Samples were taken by using a direct-push coring machine, dissected by depth, and analyzed for total N, organic C, CaCO3, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), texture, and extractable NO3, NH(4), P, Cl, Ca, Mg, K, and Na. Ammonium N concentrations were greatest in the upper 0.5 m of soil under all four lagoons with concentrations ranging from 94 to 1139 mg kg(-1). Organic N was determined to make up between 39 and 74% of the total N beneath all lagoons. The swine lagoon had 2.4 kg N m(-2) in the underlying soil whereas the cattle lagoon with highest quantity of N had 1.2 kg N m(-2) in the underlying soil. Although N concentrations decreased with depth, N was greater than expected background levels at the bottom of some cores, indicating that the sampling efforts did not reach the bottom of the N plume. Nitrate N concentrations were generally less than 5 mg kg(-1) immediately below the lagoon floor. In the uppermost 0.5 m of soil underlying the swine and three cattle lagoons, NH4+ occupied 44% and between 1 and 22% of the soil cation exchange sites, respectively. The depth of movement of N under these lagoons, as much as 4 m, may pose remediation difficulties at lagoon closure.

  16. Modelling water discharges and nutrient inputs into a Mediterranean lagoon (Thau, France). Impact on phytoplankton production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plus, M.; La Jeunesse, I.; Bouraoui, F.

    2003-04-01

    The lagoon of Thau (French Mediterranean coast), is a large (75 km2) and rather deep coastal lagoon (mean depth 4 m), connected to the sea by its two extremities (residence time: about 3 months). Besides its ecological interest as a breeding and transit zone for some sea fish species, the lagoon has a notable economic importance due to shellfish cultivation with an annual oyster production of about 15 000 tons. This considerable production depends to a large extent on nutrient inputs into the ecosystem, supplied mainly from fresh water. The catchment area is about 280 Km2, including agriculture (mainly vineyards), industrial activities and urban waste. Due to the low water renewal and to the intensive shellfish farming activities the Thau lagoon is particularly sensitive to any modification in watershed outputs. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of watershed outputs on the lagoon ecosystem. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model) has been applied to the Thau lagoon catchment area in order to simulate water discharges and nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, and phosphates) inputs into the lagoon on a 10 years period (1989-1999). The model has been calibrated and validated using measured data available for the two main rivers of the watershed, representing about 50% of total freshwater inputs. The model predictions compared favourably with the measurements concerning water quantity as well as major water quality determinants (ammonium, nitrate, phosphates, and suspended matter). Then, several scenarios (e. g. changes in agricultural practices) have been run and the simulated results were used as forcing variables in a lagoon ecosystem model, previously developed for Thau. The latter is a three-dimensional model coupling both hydrodynamical and biological processes. The following state variables are simulated in the model biological part: ammonia, nitrates, phytoplankton, zooplankton, detritus, oyster biodeposits and oxygen. In addition to the inputs

  17. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development

    PubMed Central

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Dhaliwal, Narinder; Hayward, Gary; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Ott, Wayne R.; Read, Nathan; Layton, Steve; Jiang, Ruoting; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Hildemann, Lynn M.; Repace, James L.; Taylor, Stephanie; Ong, Seow-Ling; Buchting, Francisco O.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2016-01-01

    Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting). The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts. PMID:26805860

  18. Active tectonics of the western tethyan himalaya above the underthrusting indian plate: The upper sutlej river basin as a pull-apart structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, James; Barazangi, Muawia

    1985-03-01

    Fault-bounded blocks and structural elements were mapped in the eastern Ladakh-Spiti and upper Sutlej River Basin located within the Tethyan Himalaya and to the southwest of the Karakorum fault zone mainly using LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) band 5, band 7 (near-infrared) images with detailed analysis of smaller areas by interactive digital processing of false color images, and Returned Beam Vidicon (RBV) imagery in conjunction with available topographical, geological and seismological data. For the first time the Leo Pargil Horst and other nearby fault-bounded blocks located at the northwestern end of the upper Setlej River Basin were clearly revealed on the LANDSAT color composites. Shallow crustal seismicity is systematically related to the NNE-trending and N-trending normal faults of the Leo Pargil and nearby regions. Some of the aftershocks of the Kinnaur earthquake of January 19,1975 ( Ms = 6.8), appear to be associated with movement along the NNE-trending westbound fault of the Leo Pargil Horst and the nearby Kaurik-Chango fault. The main shock, however, is teleseismically located at about 30 km to the northwest of the Kaurik-Chango fault. Fault plane solutions of the main shock and two aftershocks indicate a large component of normal faulting. In map view, the upper Sutlej River Basin has an approximately rhomboidal shape and is located to the southwest of the Karakorum fault system. We suggest that this basin is a pull-apart between the NW-SE oriented, right-lateral, strike-slip Karakorum fault system and the high-angle faults near the southern boundary of the Tethyan Himalaya. The Leo Pargil Horst is the northwestern bounding fault block of this pull-apart. The active tectonic features in this part of the Tethyan Himalaya appear to reflect right-shear within the crust, and this is probably a consequence of oblique underthrusting of the Indian continental plate beneath the western Himalaya and southwestern Tibet during the Neogene and Quaternary

  19. Styles of lode gold mineralization contributing to the placers of the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, Yukon Territory, Canada as deduced from microchemical characterization of placer gold grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Robert John; Mortensen, James Keith; Lebarge, William P.

    2011-12-01

    Between 1978 and 2009, approximately 430,000 oz of placer gold were obtained from the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, which equates to roughly 20% of the production for the entire Yukon Territory during that period. The area is unglaciated, exposure is poor, and there are few known lode gold occurrences present. The technique of microchemical characterization of placer gold grains has been applied to illuminate the style(s) of source mineralization and their relationship to placer gold from the Klondike gold district immediately to the north. A total of 2,613 placer gold grains from 22 localities were characterised in terms of the Au, Ag, Cu, and Hg content of their alloy and associated suite of opaque mineral inclusions. A combination of alloy and inclusion mineralogy was used to define gold signatures which augmented the previous classification of orogenic gold in the Klondike. Gold type 3b (8-25% Ag) is the main component of the placers in lower Dominion Creek but is augmented and eventually replaced by type 3a gold (10-40% Ag) in placers in the main Indian River valley, probably through erosion of gold-bearing veins in the valley floor. Type 4 gold exhibits highly variable Ag which may contain Hg to a maximum of 11 wt.%. This gold type also hosts a distinctive inclusion assemblage of complex polymetallic sulphides, tellurides, sulfotellurides, and sulfosalts and has previously been ascribed to local low sulfidation epithermal mineralization. Placer gold in drainages radiating from Eureka Dome exhibits various proportions of types 3 and 4 gold depending on location, but type 3 gold forms the major component in Black Hills Creek and northerly flowing tributaries of the Indian River with the exception of Eureka and Montana creeks. Type 5 gold is found only in placers in the middle and lower Indian River. It is distinguished by slightly elevated (0.05-0.17%) Cu in the gold alloy, together with low (5-9%) Ag contents. Inclusions of Bi minerals, Cr

  20. 4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH NEWER CHECK AND TURNOUT STRUCTURE IN FOREGROUND - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  2. Indian Writers and Indian Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensland, Anna Lee

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of popular Indian stereotypes and counter-stereotypes in literature, based on the thesis that the introduction of the literature of the American Indian, traditional and modern, will help to increase the Indian child's pride in his culture and add to the understanding of the non-Indian child. (EH)

  3. Santa Margarita Lagoon Water Quality Monitoring Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    potential eutrophication impairment. In particular, the Investigative Order directed the Santa Margarita Lagoon Stakeholder Group composed of Marine Corps...provide a long-term water quality dataset that can be used for calibrating a hydrodynamic and eutrophication numeric model of the lagoon. A secondary...objective of this project, to provide a long-term water quality dataset of sufficient quality for calibrating a hydrodynamic and eutrophication

  4. Assessment of the trophic status of four coastal lagoons and one estuarine delta, eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cotovicz Junior, Luiz Carlos; Brandini, Nilva; Knoppers, Bastiaan Adriaan; Mizerkowski, Byanka Damian; Sterza, José Mauro; Ovalle, Alvaro Ramon Coelho; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter

    2013-04-01

    Anthropogenic eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems continues to be one of the major environmental issues worldwide and also of Brazil. Over the last five decades, several approaches have been proposed to discern the trophic state and the natural and cultural processes involved in eutrophication, including the multi-parameter Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS) index model. This study applies ASSETS to four Brazilian lagoons (Mundaú, Manguaba, Guarapina, and Piratininga) and one estuarine delta (Paraíba do Sul River), set along the eastern Brazilian coast. The model combines three indices based on the pressure-state-response (PSR) approach to rank the trophic status and forecast the potential eutrophication of a system, to which a final ASSETS grade is established. The lagoons were classified as being eutrophic and highly susceptible to eutrophication, due primarily to their longer residence times but also their high nutrient input index. ASSETS classified the estuary of the Paraíba do Sul river with a low to moderate trophic state (e.g., largely mesotrophic) and low susceptibility to eutrophication. Its nutrient input index was high, but the natural high dilution and flushing potential driven by river flow mitigated the susceptibility to eutrophication. Eutrophication forecasting provided more favorable trends for the Mundaú and Manguaba lagoons and the Paraíba do Sul estuary, in view of the larger investments in wastewater treatment and remediation plans. The final ASSETS ranking system established the lagoons of Mundaú as "moderate," Manguaba as "bad," Guarapina as "poor," and Piratininga as "bad," whereas the Paraíba do Sul River Estuary was "good."

  5. Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2014-07-15

    A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3 ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6 ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109 ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer.

  6. Multivariate analysis of potentially toxic metals in sediments of a tropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Oyeyiola, A O; Davidson, C M; Olayinka, K O; Oluseyi, T O; Alo, B I

    2013-03-01

    Surface sediments collected from the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria, and three adjoining rivers were analysed for their physicochemical properties and pseudo-total concentration of the potentially toxic metals (PTM) Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration of the PTM varied seasonally and spatially. Odo-Iyaalaro was observed to be the most polluted river, with highest concentrations of 42.1 mg kg(-1), 102 mg kg(-1), 185 mg kg(-1), 154 mg kg(-1) and 1040 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively, while Ibeshe River was the least contaminated, apart from a site affected by Cu from the textile industry. Some of the sediments were found to be above the consensus-based probable effect concentrations and Dutch sediment guideline for metals. Overall metal concentrations were similar to those reported for other tropical lagoon and estuarine systems affected by anthropogenic inputs as a result of rapid urbanisation. Due to the large number of samples, principal component analysis was used to examine relationships within the data set. Generally, sediments collected during the dry season were observed to have higher concentration of PTM than those collected during the rainy season. This means that PTM could accumulate over a prolonged period and then be released relatively rapidly, on an annual basis, into tropical lagoon systems.

  7. Basic cytogenetics and physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal genes in Hoplias malabaricus (Osteichthyes, Characiformes, Erythrinidae) from isolated natural lagoons: a conserved karyomorph along the Iguaçu river basin

    PubMed Central

    Gemi, Gisele; Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Treco, Fernando Rodrigo; Paiz, Leonardo Marcel; Moresco, Rafaela Maria; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Erythrinidae include Neotropical teleost fish that are widely distributed in South America. Hoplias Gill, 1903 include two large groups: H. malabaricus Bloch, 1794 and H. lacerdae Miranda Ribeiro, 1908. Hoplias malabaricus is characterized by remarkable karyotype diversity, with some karyomorphs widely distributed geographically while others are more restricted to certain river basins. Cytogenetic analyzes were performed in a population of Hoplias malabaricus from the Wildlife Refuge of Campos de Palmas, the Iguaçu River basin. The specimens showed diploid number of 42 chromosomes (24m+18sm) without differentiated sex chromosomes system. The impregnation by silver nitrate showed multiple AgNORs. Seven pairs (4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20 and 21) carrying 18S rDNA were detected by FISH. Heterochromatin was verified in the centromeric and pericentromeric region of most chromosomes and the terminal region of some pairs. FISH with 5S rDNA probes showed two chromosome pairs carrying these sites in the interstitial region (8 and 14). The data obtained in this study are similar to those found for two other populations of H. malabaricus already studied in the basin of the Iguaçu River, confirming the hypothesis that this species is natural, not having been introduced, as well as having an intrinsic characteristic, such as the largest number of sites of 18S rDNA. PMID:25349672

  8. Evolution of an intermittent lagoon-barrier system with rising sea level: observations and projections from the Muni-Pomadze lagoon, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies-Vollum, Sian

    2016-04-01

    Intermittently closed lagoon-barrier systems are a transitory environment between land and sea that are influenced by fluvial and marine processes as well as human activities. Fluvial processes dominate most of the time, when the barrier is closed. However, when the barrier is breached an ephemeral connection between the lagoon and the ocean develops and estuarine-like conditions ensue. As sea level rises, the evolution of these systems from intermittently closed to open is dependent on multiple processes including barrier breaching, fragmentation and overwashing. Human intervention, often to prevent flooding, also has an impact. The Muni-Pomadze lagoon in central Ghana is a small, intermittently closed lagoon-barrier system that supports a local fishing community. A beach-barrier separates the lagoon from the ocean, impounding river water and sediment behind it for most of the year. At the end of a rainy season the barrier may be breached, either naturally or by human intervention to prevent flooding of dwellings on the barrier. Field observation, digital mapping and GIS analysis of the shoreline has enabled an understanding of how the barrier is evolving with rising sea level. The shore face of the barrier has shifted landwards with an average retreat rate of 0.22 m/yr. Small washover fans, developed at low points along the lagoon side of the barrier have developed. However, aerial photos reveal that these fans have remained stable since 1972 (earliest available air photos). The small size and stability of these fans suggests that overwashing is not an important factor in the evolution of the barrier and that the barrier is being eroded rather not moving landward. Erosion is particularly prevalent at the breach end of the barrier with an average rate of loss of 3 metres per year and palm trees that were providing stability to the barrier have been washed away. Unconsolidated sands forming a transient, spit-like feature have replaced the stable barrier, which

  9. Distribution, movement, and fate of nitrate in the surficial aquifer beneath citrus groves, Indian River, Martin, and St Lucie Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandall, Christy A.

    2000-01-01

    The surficial aquifer system beneath citrus groves in Indian River, Martin, and St. Lucie Counties, Florida, was studied to determine the effects of citrus agriculture on ground-water quality. The surficial aquifer is the primary drinking-water source for Martin and St. Lucie Counties and furnishes about 33 percent of the drinking-water for Indian River County. Water-quality samples and water-level data were collected from December 1996 through October 1998. Nitrate concentrations in ground water exceeded 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s maximum contaminant level for nitrate reported as nitrogen, in 5 percent of the samples from citrus groves. These exceedances occurred in samples from wells with depths of 10 feet or less at citrus groves, and mostly in samples collected during or immediately following fertilizer applications. Samples from wells with depths of 20-25 feet contained little or no nitrate. The decreased nitrate concentrations in ground water with depth was not consistent with chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations, two other common indicators of agricultural activity. Chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations remained elevated in ground-water samples from all depths at citrus groves; median chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations in samples from citrus sites were 125 and 779 mg/L, respectively. In comparison, samples from the reference site had maximum chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations of 61 and 366 mg/L, respectively. Based on the age of ground water at 20-25 foot depths (3-50 years, measured with tritium and helium-3 concentration ratios), nitrate concentrations also should have remained elevated with depth because fertilizers have been used for at least 20-30 years at these citrus groves. Nitrate concentrations decreased with depth as a result of denitrification. This could have occurred because favorable conditions for denitrification existed in the aquifer, including high

  10. Lithology, hydraulic properties, and water quality of the Sandstone Aquifer in the northwestern part of the Bad River Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, 1998-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunning, Charles P.

    2005-01-01

    The Precambrian sandstone aquifer in the northwestern part of the Bad River Band of Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians Reservation, Ashland County, Wisconsin, provides much of the drinking water to area residents. A study was undertaken in cooperation with the Bad River Tribe to provide specific information about the lithology, hydraulic properties, and water quality of the sandstone aquifer. During 1998 and 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey installed three monitoring wells, collected and analyzed lithologic and water samples, and conducted geophysical logging and aquifer tests to characterize the sandstone aquifer. The two monitoring wells in the southeastern part of the study area, the Diaperville Monitoring Well #1 (Diaperville MW #1) and the Tolman Monitoring Well #1 (Tolman MW #1) , are believed to have encountered older Middle Proterozoic Oronto Group sandstones. The sandstone encountered in the Ackley Monitoring Well #1 (Ackley MW #1) is believed to be Chequamegon Sandstone of the Late Proterozoic Bayfield Group. This interpretation is based on previous studies, as well as thin- section analysis of sandstone core recovered from the Ackley Monitoring Well #1. Results of aquifer tests conducted in the Diaperville Monitoring Well #1 and the Tolman Monitoring Well #1 provide ranges for hydraulic param - eter values in the sandstone aquifer: transmissivity ranges from 83 to 509 square feet per day; hydraulic conductivity ranges from 1.6 to 4.5 feet per day; storativity ranges from 0.00019 to 0.00046; and specific capacity ranges from 0.22 to 0.67 gallons per minute per foot. Though high- and low-angle fractures are present in Ackley Monitoring Well #1 core, the hydraulic properties of the bedrock appear to be due largely to the matrix porosity measured in thin section (16–21 percent) and permeability of the sandstone. The aquifer test for the Diaperville Monitoring Well #1 resulted in observed drawdown in nearby glacial wells, evidence of a hydraulic

  11. Effect of breeding season on in vivo oocyte recovery and embryo production in non-descriptive Indian river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B M; Ravindra, J P; Gupta, P S P; Devaraj, M; Nandi, S

    2009-04-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the effect of season on in vivo oocyte recovery and embryo production in non-descriptive, Indian river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Ovum pick up (OPU) was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks during peak (October-March) and low (April-September) breeding season in live buffaloes (n=6). OPU was performed using ultrasound equipment with a 5MHz transvaginal transducer, a single lumen 18-gauge, 55-cm long needle and a constant vacuum pressure of 110mmHg. The number and size of follicles was determined before puncture. The recovered oocytes were graded and only grade A and grade B oocytes were used for in vitro production (IVP) of embryos. The mean number of follicles observed per animal per session did not differed (P<0.05) between animals or between puncture sessions in both low and peak breeding seasons. Higher (P<0.05) number of follicles were observed (4.8+/-0.2 versus 3.1+/-0.3) and punctured (4.0+/-0.2 versus 2.4+/-0.2) during peak breeding season when compared to low breeding season. Oocytes recovered (1.6+/-0.1 versus 1.0+/-0.3) per animal per session were higher (P<0.05) in peak breeding season than low breeding season. During the peak breeding season, the blastocyst yield per animal per session (0.3+/-0.4 versus 0.18+/-0.4) was higher (P<0.05) than the low breeding season. However, season did not significantly affect the percentage of oocytes suitable for IVP (grade A+B) and blastocyst production rate. In conclusion, the efficiency of OPU combined with IVP was higher during the peak breeding season than the low breeding season in buffaloes.

  12. Aghien lagoon: a sustainable resource of fresh water for the city of Abidjan (Ivory Coast)? Description of the project and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamagaté, Bamory; Effebi, Rose K.; Goula Bi, Tié Albert; Lanciné Goné, Droh; Noufé, Djibril; Diallo, Seydou; Ehouman, Serge K.; Koffi, Thierry; Zamblé Trabi, Armand; Lazare, Kouakou; Paturel, Jean Emmanuel; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Salles, Christian; Seguis, Luc; Tournoud, Marie-George; Karoui, Hela

    2016-04-01

    With more than 6 million inhabitants, Abidjan district faces tremendous difficulties in water supply. The aquifer of the Continental Terminal which is actually the only drinking water source of the city shows a decline of resources and water demand is increasing due to the population growth. Moreover significant evidences of chemical and biological pollution of the groundwater are observed The Aghien lagoon, the largest freshwater pool located near Abidjan, has been identified by the State of Côte d'Ivoire as a potential resource for the production of drinking water.. The main objective of this project is to assess the quantitative and qualitative capacity of the Aghien lagoon to complement the water supply of Abidjan city in the near future. The main components of the project are: • to assess the water budget of the lagoon and its tributaries, • to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and fluxes from the tributaries toward the lagoon, • to assess the sustainability of the water resources (quantity and quality) of the lagoon according to land use changes in the catchments . The project started in January 2015. The first year was devoted to the set-up of hydro-meteorological gauges within the lagoon watershed. Three major tributaries of the lagoon are considered, the Mé (4000 km2), the Djibi (78 km2) and Bete (206 km2) rivers. Since the start of the project, bi-monthly hydrochemical sampling surveys have been carried out along the tributaries and in the lagoon. The data available from the surveys concern the physico-chemical parameters, trace elements, all the forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, organic carbon, suspended solids. The Djibi and Bete watersheds are partly urbanized while the Mé basin is mainly rural. Baseflow has been identified as the major contribution to streamflow at the annual scale. The Mé flows into a channel downstream to the Aghien lagoon but during the floods, water from the Mé River can flow up the

  13. Biotin Production and Utilization in a Sewage Treatment Lagoon 1

    PubMed Central

    Fillipi, Gordon M.; Vennes, John W.

    1971-01-01

    Biotin, in a sewage oxidation lagoon also receiving potato processing wastes, was observed to increase two logs during the summer period of waste stabilization and then to decline to near earlier concentrations. Three organisms, Aerobacter aerogenes, Chlorella vulgaris, and Thiocapsa floridana, were at least partially responsible for these fluctuations; the latter two organisms were associated with biotin utilization and the former with biotin production. Since copious quantities of biotin are produced in these waste treatment facilities, the vitamin may act as a useful indicator of microbial action on certain organic molecules, especially in domestic and industrial wastes such as those from municipalities and potato and sugar beet processing plants. Furthermore, the presence of biotin in rivers and streams may be indicative of the discharge of incompletely stabilized wastes from these sources. PMID:4939123

  14. New observations on philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) in marine fishes from the Northern Gulf of Mexico and the Indian River Lagoon of Florida (Usa), with first description of the male of Caranginema americanum.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah

    2012-04-01

    The following 3 species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) were recorded from marine fishes off Florida: Caranginema americanum Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza and Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 from the subcutaneous tissue of the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) (Carangidae); Philometra charlestonensis Moravec, de Buron, Baker and González-Solís, 2008 from the gonads (ovaries) of the scamp Mycteroperca phenax Jordan and Swain (Serranidae); and Philometra sp. (only subgravid females) from the gonads (ovaries) of the Atlantic needlefish Strongylura marina (Walbaum) (Belonidae). The male of C. americanum , the type species of Caranginema Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza, and Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 , is described for the first time. Its general morphology is similar to that of males of Philometra and Philometroides species. The males of C. americanum are mainly characterized by an elongate body, 3.13-3.28 mm long, a markedly elongate esophagus, and spicules and a gubernaculum 69-75 µm and 48-51 µm long, respectively. The present findings of C. americanum and P. charlestonensis represent new geographical records. The gonad-infecting Philometra sp. from S. marina probably belongs to an undescribed species.

  15. Flushing of a coastal lagoon in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, S. A. R.; Ahmad, F.

    1990-09-01

    Shu'aiba Lagoon (Lat. 20°45'N; Long. 39°28'E) is located on the eastern coast of the Red Sea. It is relatively shallow with an area of approximately 11·7 km 2. The inlet to the lagoon is narrow with a cross-sectional area of about 245 m 2. This lagoon is a future site to develop mariculture. With this objective in view the flushing time scale of the lagoon was calculated, as flushing is an important abiotic factor in lagoon ecology. The average flushing time for the months February to June and September to November is about 20 days. Oceanic inputs play an important part in the process of fertilization of the lagoons. The marine environment in arid zone lagoons is under natural stress due to high temperatures and salinities. However, the flushing time scale of 20 days may not exert intolerable stress on the ecology of the Shu'aiba Lagoon.

  16. The fate of Mediterranean lagoons under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Bellafiore, Debora; Bajo, Marco

    2014-05-01

    A numerical model (SHYFEM) has been applied to 10 Mediterranean lagoons and a comparison study between the lagoons has been carried out. The lagoons are the lagoons of Venice, Marano-Grado, Varano and Lesina in the Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras lagoon in Sardinia, and the lagoons of Ganzirri and Faro in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain and the Nador lagoon in Morocco. These lagoons give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. The lagoons range from a leaky type of lagoons to a choked type. The number of inlets ranges from just one in the Nador lagoon to 6 in the case of the Marano-Grado lagoons. Tidal range is from nano-tidal to micro-tidal. The depth ranges from an average depth of 1 m to up to 40 meters. The model is a finite element model, especially suited to shallow water basins with complicated geometric and morphologic variations. The model can compute the basic hydrodynamics, dispersion of tracers, temperature and salinity evolution, sediment transport and ecological parameters. Building on an earlier study that focused on the classification of Mediterranean lagoons based on hydrodynamics, exchange rates and renewal time, this study is concerned with the changes in physical parameters under climate change. Data from IPCC has been used to simulate the changes in renewal time, salinity and temperature of all lagoons, with respect to the control simulation. Whenever possible downscaled data for the Mediterranean basin have been used. Sea level rise scenarios are taken from the last IPCC report. The model has been applied in its 3D version and the chosen setup allows a comparison between results in the different lagoons. Results indicate that the differences of renewal time between all studied lagoons become smaller. This means that leaky lagoons become less leaky and choked lagoons less choked. What concerns temperature and salinity, changes occurring in the sea are amplified inside lagoons

  17. 75 FR 60810 - Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... of Indians of Oklahoma Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona Torres Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians, California (formerly the Torres-Martinez Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians of California) Tule River...

  18. Report to Congress: Municipal Wastewater Lagoon Study. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Municipal Wastewater Lagoon Study performed by the USEPA in response to Section 3018 of RCRA and Sec. 246 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste amendments of 1984. The objectives are to determine: number and size of municipal lagoons; types and quantities of waste contained in such lagoons; the extent to which such waste has been or may be released from such lagoons and contaminates ground water; and available alternatives for preventing or controlling such releases.

  19. Inverse-dispersion technique for assessing lagoon gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions, such as those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish equilib...

  20. Nitrifier activity and diversity in swine lagoon covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoons pose an environmental challenge to current pork production practices. Semi-permeable lagoon covers limit ammonia emissions by minimizing the effect of wind on the lagoon surface. Additionally, semi-permeable covers may also act as an attachment site for b...

  1. Accuracy of lagoon gas emissions using an inverse dispersion method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions. These include those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish ...

  2. Facultative Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    The textual material for a unit on facultative lagoons is presented in this student manual. Topic areas discussed include: (1) loading; (2) microbial theory; (3) structure and design; (4) process control; (5) lagoon start-up; (6) data handling and analysis; (7) lagoon maintenance (considering visual observations, pond structure, safety, odor,…

  3. Phytoplankton variation and its relation to nutrients and allochthonous organic matter in a coastal lagoon on the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aké-Castillo, José A.; Vázquez, Gabriela

    2008-07-01

    In tropical and subtropical zones, coastal lagoons are surrounded by mangrove communities which are a source of high quantity organic matter that enters the aquatic system through litter fall. This organic matter decomposes, becoming a source of nutrients and other substances such as tannins, fulvic acids and humic acids that may affect the composition and productivity of phytoplankton communities. Sontecomapan is a coastal lagoon located in the southern Gulf of Mexico, which receives abundant litter fall from mangrove. To study the phytoplankton composition and its variation in this lagoon from October 2002 to October 2003, we evaluated the concentrations of dissolved folin phenol active substances (FPAS) as a measure of plant organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH, O 2, N-NH 4+, N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-, Si-SiO 2, and phytoplanktonic cell density in different mangrove influence zones including the three main rivers that feed the lagoon. Nutrients concentrations depended on freshwater from rivers, however these varied seasonally. Concentrations of P-PO 43-, N-NH 4+ and FPAS were the highest in the dry season, when maximum mangrove litter fall is reported. Variation of these nutrients seemed to depend on the internal biogeochemical processes of the lagoon. Blooms of diatoms ( Skeletonema spp., Cyclotella spp. and Chaetoceros holsaticus) and dinoflagellates ( Peridinium aff. quinquecorne, Prorocentrum cordatum) occurred seasonally and in the different mangrove influence zones. The high cell densities in these zones and the occurrence of certain species and its ordination along gradient of FPAS in a canonical correspondence analysis, suggest that plant organic matter (i.e. mangrove influence) may contribute to phytoplankton dynamics in Sontecomapan lagoon.

  4. Effects of organic pollution and physical stress on benthic macroinvertebrate communities from two intermittently closed and open coastal lagoons (ICOLLs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Susana; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Gamito, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and environmental conditions were studied in two intermittently closed and open coastal lakes and lagoons (ICOLLs), located in southern Algarve (Foz do Almargem e Salgados), with the purpose of evaluating the effects of organic pollution, originated mainly from wastewater discharges, and the physical stress caused by the irregular opening of the lagoons. Most of the year, lagoons were isolated from the sea, receiving the freshwater inputs from small rivers and in Salgados, also from the effluents of a wastewater plant. According to environmental and biotic conditions, Foz do Almargem presented a greater marine influence and a lower trophic state (mesotrophic) than Salgados (hypereutrophic). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the lagoons were distinct, just as their relations with environmental parameters. Mollusca were the most abundant macroinvertebrates in Foz do Almargem, while Insecta, Oligochaeta and Crustacea were more relevant in Salgados. Corophium multisetosum occurred exclusively in Salgados stations and, just as Chironomus sp., other Insecta and Oligochaeta, densities were positively related to total phosphorus, clay content and chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment, chlorophyll a concentration in water and with total dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Abra segmentum, Cerastoderma glaucum, Peringia ulvae and Ecrobia ventrosa occurred only in Foz do Almargem, with lower values of the above mentioned parameters. Both lagoons were dominated by deposit feeders and taxa tolerant to environmental stress, although in Salgados there was a greater occurrence of opportunistic taxa associated to pronounced unbalanced situations, due to excess organic matter enrichment.

  5. Southern Ute Indian Tribe NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0022853, the Southern Ute Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in La Plata County, Colorado,to Rock Creek, a tributary of the Los Pinos River.

  6. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and hormone contaminants in rural wastewater treatment lagoons.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Wei; Kelly, Walton R

    2013-02-15

    Rural communities in the United States usually use a series of aerated lagoons to treat domestic wastewater. Effluents from these systems are typically discharged to receiving watersheds, which leads to a potential transfer of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and steroid hormones from sanitary sewage to the environment. The primary objectives of this study are to identify and quantify PPCPs and steroid hormones in rural sewage treatment lagoons, to investigate the removal efficiency of these emerging contaminants in the treatment processes, and to monitor their occurrence in the surrounding watershed. In this study, a method has been developed to analyze thirteen PPCPs and eight steroid hormones in various water samples. Among all of the PPCPs considered, ten chemicals were detected in sewage influents, lagoon waters of different treatment stages, or effluents at concentrations in the ng/L to low μg/L range. Three hormones were observed in the influents at total concentrations as high as 164 ng/L, but no hormone residues were detected in the effluents. This indicates that the aerated lagoons may effectively remove hormone contaminants. With the exception of carbamazepine, removal rates for the other detected PPCPs were relatively high in the range of 88 to 100% in September with average air temperature equal to 20 °C. However, the removal efficiency of nine PPCPs in the rural wastewater treatment plant exhibited large temporal variability. The concentrations of PPCPs in the lagoon waters and effluents collected in November, with average air temperature equal to 4.4 °C, were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those samples collected in September. Occurrence of these PPCP contaminants in the surrounding watershed was also monitored. The discharge of effluents significantly elevated the PPCP concentrations in the receiving creek and increased their occurrence in the adjacent river.

  7. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Pantos, Olga; Morgan, Thomas C.; Rich, Virginia; Tonin, Hemerson; Bourne, David G.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.; Tyson, Gene W.

    2016-01-01

    Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L), and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems. PMID:26989611

  8. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon.

    PubMed

    Angly, Florent E; Pantos, Olga; Morgan, Thomas C; Rich, Virginia; Tonin, Hemerson; Bourne, David G; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Tyson, Gene W

    2016-01-01

    Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L), and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems.

  9. Osceola. The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert Proctor

    Osceola was the guiding spirit and moving force behind the Second Seminole War. In 1830, when it became the official policy of the United States government to move all the Eastern Indians to a new Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River, the Seminoles resisted. Under Osceola's leadership, a thousand Seminole warriors held off the entire…

  10. Neuroendocrine disruption and health effects in Elliptio complanata mussels exposed to aeration lagoons for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Gagné, F; Blaise, C; André, C; Gagnon, C; Salazar, M

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine neuroendocrine-disrupting effects of two domestic wastewater aeration lagoons on freshwater mussels. Mussels were caged and placed in two final aeration lagoons for treating domestic wastewaters for 60 days, at a site 1km downstream of the dispersion plume on the eastern shores of the Richelieu River; the western shore served as the reference site. The mussels were analysed for gonad activity, oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics, stress biomarkers and neuroendocrine status (monoamine and arachidonic acid metabolism). The domestic wastewaters produced many different effects at all levels examined. The gonado-somatic index and vitellogenin-like proteins were significantly induced in both aeration lagoons and gonad pyrimidine synthesis (aspartate transcarbamylase activity) was significantly reduced, indicating that vitellogenin-like proteins were produced while DNA synthesis in gametes remained constant. Biomarkers of oxidative metabolism revealed that global heme oxidase (HO), glutathione S-transferase and xanthine (caffeine) oxydoreductase (XOR) activities were significantly induced in at least one of the aeration lagoons, but not downstream of the dispersion plume. The activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin (cytochrome P4501A1), dibenzoylfluorescein (cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5) and benzoyloxyresorurufin (cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2B6) dealkylases were readily induced by substances sharing structural similarities with coplanar polyaromatic hydrocarbons and hydroxylated or aminated aromatic or cyclic hydrocarbon compounds such as pharmaceuticals or steroids in the domestic wastewaters. Biomarkers of toxic stress revealed that exposure to aeration lagoons led to increased production of metallothioneins, lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks, with decreased heme oxygenase activity. LPO was significantly correlated with XOR, HO and cytochrome P4501A1 activities. Neuroendocrine effects included significant increases in dopamine and

  11. Carbon mass-balance modeling and carbon isotope exchange processes in the Curonian Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barisevičiūtė, Rūta; Žilius, Mindaugas; Ertürk, Ali; Petkuvienė, Jolita

    2016-04-01

    The Curonian lagoon one of the largest coastal lagoons in Europe is located in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea and lies along the Baltic coast of Lithuania and the Kaliningrad region of Russia. It is influenced by a discharge of the Nemunas and other smaller rivers and saline water of the Baltic Sea. The narrow (width 0.4 km, deep 8-14 m) Klaipėda Strait is the only way for fresh water run-off and brackish water intrusions. This research is focused on carbon isotope fractionations related with air - water exchange, primary production and organic carbon sedimentation, mineralization and uptake from both marine and terrestrial sources.

  12. Environmental changes in the Moulay Bousselham lagoon (Morocco) during the last 7 000 years using a multiproxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zourarah, Bendahhou; Maanan, Mohamed; Conceição Freitas, Maria; Leroy, Suzanne; Andrade, César; Cearreta, Alejandro; Cruces, Anabela

    2016-04-01

    ; it increases soil erosion in the sedimentary flux increases to the basin and promotes the infill of the lagoon. During the middle Ages, the lagoon evolved to a semi-closed gulf, communicating by one tidal inlet with the ocean, which was deep enough for navigation. Between 1350 and 250 BP, the sedimentological interpretation shows that muddy deposits were set up by low currents with very low or simple settling in a quiet environment. These levels reflect the closure of the inlet of the lagoon, probably accentuated by the establishment of the Delta Drader isolating the northern part of the lagoon. Arid climatic conditions have led to a reduction of inputs of Drader River. The top part of the core is marked by the presence of fine sandy sediment, poorly sorted with a negative skewness. This level is characterized by abundant foraminifera association with low diversity (Ammonia tepida, Criboelphidiu moceanensis and Haynesina germanica) which corresponds to a brackish lagoon deposit. Currently, the lagoon is reduced to half; it is separated from Merja Ras Ed-Dora which is completely transformed into an agricultural area since the early 20 th century. Finally, the Nador Canal construction (1953) accelerated filling of the Moulay Bousselham lagoon.

  13. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Diego Garcia Lagoon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    regime. Water level was measured at four locations spread out along the shoreline of the lagoon to capture possible changes in the timing of water...the top of the unit on the seafloor to the water surface (upward looking) in 1-m bins at a rate of once per minute for the entire 14 days. The ADCPs

  14. Mitochondrial DNA diversity and PCR-based sex determination of Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) from Chilika Lagoon, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasankar, P; Patel, A; Khan, M; Das, P; Panda, S

    2011-03-01

    Of the only known two Lagoon populations of Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella) in the world, one is residing in the Chilika Lagoon in Orissa state, India. In addition to accidental deaths in gill net fishery and mechanized boat operations, there has been exploitation of the species for their oil. Extreme patchy distribution and vulnerability to becoming entangled in fishing gear has made it a focus of conservation concern. Information on genetic diversity of populations has considerable potential for informing conservation plans. The present paper reports the first genetic study of O. brevirostris from Chilika Lagoon based on mtDNA sequencing and PCR-based sex identification from 11 individuals. Control region sequence comparison showed two haplotypes and cytochrome b a single haplotype in the Chilika population of the species. Phylogenetic analysis indicated distinct clades within the Asian samples, with the Indian population showing closest genetic proximity to the haplotypes from Thailand. Sex of the animal was determined by PCR-based method. It is important to continue to examine the population discreteness and genetic variation of Irrawaddy dolphin in Chilika Lagoon vis-à-vis its global geographic distribution for formulating the conservation plans of the species.

  15. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M.; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  16. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain.

    PubMed

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  17. A Review of the Status of the Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin (Sousa plumbea) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Muhammad Shoaib; Van Waerebeek, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Limited historical and new information on Indian Ocean humpback dolphins, Sousa plumbea, in Pakistan are reviewed. Although present along most of the coast, S. plumbea concentrates in the mangrove-lined creek system of the Indus Delta (Sindh), Miani Hor (Sonmiani Bay), Kalmat Lagoon, Gwadar and the Dasht River estuary (Gwater Bay, Jiwani). Other areas of distribution comprise the Karachi coast, Kund Malir, Ormara and Pasni. In the Indus Delta, 46 small-boat surveys conducted monthly (minus July and October) in 2005-2009, documented 112 sightings (439 individuals) in major creeks, smaller channels and nearshore waters. Group sizes ranged from 1-35 animals (mean=3.92±4.60). Groups of 1-10 animals composed 91% of total (27.9% single animals). An encounter rate of 0.07-0.17 dolphins km(-1) lacked a significant trend across survey years. A discovery curve remained steep after 87 dolphins were photo-identified, suggesting the population is vastly larger. In Sonmiani Bay, Balochistan, during 9 survey days in 2011-2012, group sizes ranged from 1-68 animals (mean=11.9±13.59; n=36), totalling 428 dolphins. Incidental entanglements, primarily in gillnets, pollution (especially around Karachi), overfishing and the ship breaking industry in Gaddani, pose major threats. Incidental catches occur along the entire Pakistani coast. Of 106 stranded cetaceans, 24.5% were S. plumbea. Directed takes in Balochistan, driven by demand for bait in shark fisheries, have reportedly declined following dwindling shark stocks. Habitat degradation threats include depletion of prey and increased maritime traffic. Domestic sewage and solid waste pollution are predominant on the Balochistan coast, especially at Miani Hor, Kund Malir, Ormara, Kalmat Lagoon, Pasni, Gwadar and Jiwani. An exhaustive habitat assessment combined with appropriate fishery management is the only way to safeguard the future of S. plumbea in Pakistan.

  18. Quantification of Sterol and Triterpenol Biomarkers in Sediments of the Cananéia-Iguape Estuarine-Lagoonal System (Brazil) by UHPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Weber, Rolf Roland; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Sterols and triterpenols present in sedimentary cores from 12 stations along the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine-lagoonal system were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Ten sterols and three triterpenols were identified and quantified, indicating both natural and anthropogenic sources. The relative distributions of sterol and triterpenol showed that the study area is submitted to organic matter (OM) from the Ribeira de Iguape River, seawater, surrounding vegetation, and plankton production. The contribution of these sources depends on the region of the estuarine-lagoonal system and the depth of sediment. Regarding anthropogenic sources, only the samples submitted to freshwater flow from the Ribeira de Iguape River presented concentration of coprostanol higher than the threshold value and diagnostic ratios, coprostanol/(coprostanol + cholestanol) and coprostanol/cholesterol, that indicate moderate contamination by domestic sewage in that area of the estuarine-lagoonal system. Therefore, the approach used herein identified the OM sources and its transport along the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine-lagoonal system (Brazil), which is a complex of lagoonal channels located in a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Biosphere Reserve. PMID:27087811

  19. Lagoons and oxidation ponds. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature on waste stabilization pond systems is presented. Factors such as wastewater temperature, and levels of heavy metals that affect the stability of the lagoons and oxidation ponds, and methods to upgrade stabilization pond effluent to meet state and federal effluent requirements are discussed. Model simulations utilized to predict the treatment efficiency of various waste stabilization pond geometries, and inlet and outlet configurations are reviewed. (KRM)

  20. Computing the residence times in the Venice Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, G.; Cucco, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Venice Lagoon is a shallow water body with a total area of about 500 km2. Three inlets govern the water exchanges between the Adriatic Sea and the Venice Lagoon. Water, entering and exiting through these channels during an entire tidal cycle, changes its biogeochemical and physical properties. The aim of this work is to investigate the Venice Lagoon circulation and to quantify the turn over time of the lagoon which mainly influences the water quality of the basin. The study has been carried out with a numerical model. The model computes the main hydrodynamic unknowns on a spatial domain that represents the Venice Lagoon and the Adriatic Sea with a finite element grid. The model considers as open boundary the line of Otranto channel in the southern Adriatic Sea and elsewhere as closed boundary the whole perimeter of the Adriatic Sea and Venice Lagoon. The model has been calibrated using the sea level data measured by more than twelve tide gauges located along the Adriatic Sea and inside the lagoon. The results obtained by the calibrated model have been validated with experimental data such as discharge data collected by botton mounted ADCP probes located at each inlet. The simulations take into account the tidal forcing and the different wind regimes. The instantaneous circulation and the residual current fields have been analyzed and the impact of the most important wind regimes on the circulation has been studied. The turn over time of the lagoon has been computed under different forcing conditions. A passive tracer only subjected to transport mechanism, has been released inside the lagoon. Resolving the time decaying of the tracer concentration for the whole area, the model computes the spatial distribution of the residence time in the basin. The results show that the re-import of water that previously exited the lagoon through the three inlets, plays an important role on the estimation of the turn over time of the lagoon thus influencing the water quality of

  1. Ecosystem level assessment of the Grand Calumet Lagoons, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Grand Calumet Lagoons make up the eastern section of the Grand Calumet River (GCR), Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal and nearshore Lake Michigan Area of Concern (AOC). The GCR AOC is the only one of the 42 Great Lakes Areas of Concern identified by the International Joint Commission with all 14 designated uses classified as impaired. Included within the boundaries of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (INDU), is the central section of the Grand Calumet Lagoons. A number of biotic and abiotic factors were tested to determine the effects of an industrial landfill that borders the lagoons to assess the potential impact on park resources. Analysis included water quality testing, assessments of macroinvertebrate, fish, algae and aquatic plant communities and contaminant concentrations in water, sediment and plant and fish tissue. Surface water testing found very few contaminants, but significantly higher nutrient levels were found in the water column closest to the landfill. Macroinvertebrate, aquatic plant and fish communities all showed significant impairment in relationship to their proximity to the landfill. Aquatic plant growth habit became limited next to the landfill with certain growth habits disappearing entirely. Aquatic plants collected close to the landfill had high concentrations of several heavy metals in their stems and shoots. Using the index of biotic integrity (IBI), fish community assessment indicated impairment in the areas adjacent to the landfill. Sediments tested at one site had over 12% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from this site had whole fish tissue concentrations over 1 mg/kg PAH.

  2. Spatio-temporal variability and the impact of Phailin on water quality of Chilika lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, Saroja K.; Muduli, Pradipta R.; Mohanty, Bita; Behera, Alaya T.; Mallick, Suprava; Das, Abhijit; Samal, R. N.; Rastogi, Gurdeep; Pattnaik, Ajit K.

    2017-03-01

    Chilika, Asia's largest brackish water lagoon was studied for 4 years (2011-2015) to understand the variability of water quality and the impact of a very severe cyclone storm ;Phailin; (Category-5). During the study period environmental variables exhibited a significant variation among sectors, seasons, and years (p<0.05, n=1440). Correlation matrix showed the major source of phosphate in Chilika were from in situ processes whereas, nitrate and silicate were from the riverine influx. Principal component analysis revealed that the biological factor and riverine flux mostly controlled the water quality. The overall 'water quality Index' indicated that the ecological health of the Chilika lagoon was ;Good;. The Phailin had a notable impact on water quality as substantiated by the trends of several parameters. The decrease in nitrate and phosphate after Phailin was attributed to dilution by low nutrient freshwater flux from major rivers whereas, the significant increase in reactive silicate was attributed to mixing of silicate enriched fresh water. Post Phailin increase in dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a was attributed to wind-induced mixing and resuspension of benthic chlorophyll respectively. A substantial change of nutrient stoichiometry and decrease in photic depth after Phailin resulted a pull down of primary productivity in the Chilika lagoon.

  3. Environmental occurrence and biota concentration of phthalate esters in Epe and Lagos Lagoons, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Omogbemi, Emmanuel D; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Adegbola, Rachel A; Adewuyi, Gregory A; Arukwe, Augustine

    2015-07-01

    The high global occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrixes has resulted in the detection of their metabolites in human urine, blood, and breast milk, indicating a widespread human exposure. In addition, the notorious endocrine disrupting effects of phthalates have shown that they mimic or antagonize the action of endogenous hormones, consequently producing adverse effects on reproduction, growth and development. Herein, we have studied the occurrence of phthalate esters (PEs) in water, sediment and biota of two lagoons (Epe and Lagos) in Nigeria. Two fish species (Tilapia guineensis, and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and a crustacean (the African river prawn--Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) were analyzed for PEs levels using a HPLC method and the derived values were used for calculating bioconcentration factor (BCF), biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and phthalate pollution index (PPI) in the biota and environment. We observed that the growth and health condition of the fish species were normal with a k-factor of >1. Sediment PE levels were compared with water, at both lagoons showing concentration pattern that is characterized as DEHP = DEP > DBP. We observed that DBP was the predominant compound in T. guineensis, C. nigrodigitatus and African prawn, at both lagoons, showing organ-specific differences in bioconcentration (BCF and BSAF) patterns in the fish species. While there were no observed consistency in the pattern of PE concentration in fish organs, elevated DBP levels in different fish organs may be related to fish habitat and degradation level of phthalates. Low concentration of DEHP, compared with DBP and DEP, was measured in fish organs and whole prawn body. The BSAF values for DEHP were lowest, and highest for DBP for all species at both lagoons, and DEHP easily accumulated more in the sediment (sediment PPI = 0.28 and 0.16 for Epe and Lagos lagoon, respectively). Overall, our findings suggest a broader environmental and human

  4. Laboratory and Pilot Scale Evaluation of Coagulation, Clarification, and Filtration for Upgrading Sewage Lagoon Effluents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    often forms mats upon the surface of a lagoon. Diatoms have been found in lagoons and Euglena and Chiamydomonas have been reported as the most... Euglena , and Chiorella developed. 34 Table 8 Algal Genera Present in Facultative Lagoons Month First Lagoon Second Lagoon Third Lagoon June Euglena Eug...lena Euglena Ch lamydomonas Chlamydomonas Chicanydomonas Scenedesmus Scenedesmus Scenedesmus ChioreZla Chiorela Chlorella Phacus Phacus Phacus Diatoms

  5. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions from Sow Farm Lagoons across Climates Zones.

    PubMed

    Grant, Richard H; Boehm, Matthew T; Lawrence, Alfred J; Heber, Albert J

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (HS) emissions were measured periodically over the course of 2 yr at three sow waste lagoons representing humid mesothermal (North Carolina, NC), humid microthermal (Indiana, IN), and semiarid (Oklahoma, OK) climates. Emissions were determined using a backward Lagrangian stochastic model in conjunction with line-sampled HS concentrations and measured turbulence. The median annual sow-specific (area-specific) lagoon emissions at the OK farm were approximately 1.6 g head [hd] d (5880 µg m s), whereas those at the IN and NC sow farms were 0.035 g hd d (130 µg m s), and 0.041 g hd d (260 µg m s), respectively. Hydrogen sulfide emissions generally increased with wind speed. The daily HS emissions from the OK lagoon were greatest during the first half of the year and decreased as the year progressed. Emissions were episodic at the NC and IN lagoons. The generally low emissions at the NC and IN lagoons were probably a result of significant populations of purple sulfur bacteria maintained in the humid mesothermal and humid microthermal climates. Most of the large HS emission events at the NC and IN lagoons appeared to be a result of either precipitation events or liquid pump-out events. The high emissions at the OK lagoon in a semiarid climate were largely a result of high wind speeds enhancing both lagoon and air boundary layer mixing. The climate (air temperature, winds, and precipitation) appeared to influence the HS emissions from lagoons.

  7. Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-03-31

    The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU and DOE will provide the basis for international technology transfer of new and innovative remediation technologies that can be applied in Poland and the Eastern European Region as well.

  8. Long term changes in Zostera meadows in the Berre lagoon (Provence, Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Boudouresque, Charles F.; Picon, Philippe

    2007-07-01

    The Berre lagoon (Provence, France), one of the largest Mediterranean brackish lagoons (155 km 2), was occupied, at the turn of the 20th century, by extensive Zostera meadows ( Zostera marina and probably Zostera noltii; perhaps over 6000 ha). Subsequently, the lagoon was disturbed by urban and industrial pollution and, from 1966, by the diversion of the Durance River. This resulted in a 10-49-fold and 8-31-fold increase of the freshwater and silt inputs, respectively. By means of digital analysis of aerial photographs for the years 1944, 1992, 1998 and 2004, coupled with ground truth for the last three dates, we mapped the Zostera meadows. The replacement of Z. marina by Z. noltii, the latter species being already dominant in the 1970s, was completed in 1990. In parallel to this substitution, the Zostera beds underwent a dramatic decline. Their depth limit, which was (6-9) m in the early 20th century, withdrew to 3.5, 3, 1 and less than 1 m by 1944, the 1970s, 1992 and 1998, respectively. Since 1998, Zostera must be considered as functionally extinct. The total surface area of Zostera meadows was of the order of 1.5 ha in 2004. In an attempt to alleviate disturbance, the input of freshwater and silt from the Durance River was significantly reduced from the early 1980s and 1990s respectively. Similarly, from the 1970s to the 1990s, urban and domestic pollution was drastically reduced. Despite these steps, Zostera meadows continued to shrink to near extinction. The lagoon has shifted from a system dominated by seagrass beds to a system with bare silt bottoms, which now occupy most of the lagoon. The reasons could be, in addition to continuing nutrient inputs, the resuspension of silt, no longer trapped under the seagrass canopy, during wind episodes, which are frequent in the area, and/or the release of nutrients from the bare silt habitat, which would constitute an indication of a possible hysteresis of the system. However, since 2000, the establishment of the

  9. Partitioning, bioavailability and origin of heavy metals from the Nador Lagoon sediments (Morocco) as a basis for their management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, I.; Águila, E.; Galán, E.

    2007-08-01

    Nador Lagoon sediments show low trace element concentrations, and, in relation to the lagoon geochemical baseline, only some anomalies for As, Cd, Cu and Pb in the NW of the lagoon deserve to be outstanding. The distribution of major, minor and trace elements in the lagoon allows a breakdown in four zones. Between “Beni Ensar” and “Atelouane” (zone A), a quite confined zone rich in organic matter and S, the most important trace-element anomalies (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) were found, mainly around industry and old mining activities. In the surrounding of the city of Nador (zone B), the anomalies correspond to Mn, Cu and Zn. The coastal barrier and Kebdana channel (zone C) show moderately concentrations of Cd, Cr and Ni at specific sites. The less polluted area is the SE of the lagoon (zone D), with no outstanding anomaly. In lagoon sediments, metal bioavailability is very low. The metal partitioning patterns show that Cu, Pb and Zn present a low availability because they are bounded to the residual, non-mobile phases of the sediments. Only in some sites, the fraction was associated with organic matter, which could be liberated easily. Arsenic is concentrated in both the residual phases and the organic matter, the latter being more available. Cadmium is mainly concentrated in some samples in the interchangeable fraction, which could be considered as a potentially toxic element because it is easily released. Concerning the origin of these trace elements, those found in zone A correspond mostly to a natural source by weathering of mount Gourougou volcanic rocks (As, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn), and to an anthropogenic origin (Cd) owing to the presence of industry and old mines. In zone B, contributions of Cu and Zn enter the lagoon through soil weathering and river-borne, and as anthropogenic pollution from urban wastes. In zone C the most important pollutant is Cd deduced to be of anthropogenic origin from the close industry and intensive agriculture area. In spite

  10. 78 FR 26384 - Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Indian Community, Michigan Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria, California Berry Creek Rancheria..., California Walker River Paiute Tribe of the Walker River Reservation, Nevada Wampanoag Tribe of Gay...

  11. Lagoon Seepage Testing Report for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory, Butte County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Bridger

    2014-09-01

    J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) performed seepage tests on the CFA Wastewater Lagoons 1, 2, and 3 between August 26th and September 22nd, 2014. The lagoons were tested to satisfy the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16) that require all lagoons be tested at a frequency of every 10 years and the Compliance Activity CA-141-03 in the DEQ Wastewater Reuse Permit for the CFA Sewage Treatment Plant (LA-000141-03). The lagoons were tested to determine if the average seepage rates are less than 0.25 in/day, the maximum seepage rate allowed for lagoons built prior to April 15, 2007. The average seepage rates were estimated for each lagoon and are given in Table-ES1. The average seepage rates for Lagoons 1 and 2 are less than the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day. Lagoon 1 and 2 passed the seepage test and will not have to be tested again until the year 20241. However, the average seepage rate for Lagoon 3 appears to exceed the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day which means the potential source for the excessive leakage should be investigated further.

  12. Tracing endocrine disrupting chemicals in a coastal lagoon (Sacca di Goro, Italy): sediment contamination and bioaccumulation in Manila clams.

    PubMed

    Casatta, Nadia; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Roscioli, Claudio; Viganò, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    The Water Framework Directive, recently amended with new priority substances (2013/39/EU), is meant to regulate the health status of European aquatic environments, including transitional waters. Despite the ecological and economic importance of transitional water bodies and, in particular, of coastal lagoons, a relevant example of this type of environments, little is known about their contamination by priority substances, particularly by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, a wide array of priority substances, all with recognised disrupting properties, was investigated in the Sacca di Goro Lagoon (Adriatic Sea, Italy), which receives freshwater from the Po River after draining the most urbanised and industrialised Italian regions. Flame retardants, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, natural and synthetic steroids, personal care products and legacy pollutants were investigated both in sediments and in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum collected from three sites in the lagoon. Sediments showed that most of the chemicals analysed could reach the lagoon ecosystem but their concentrations were below existing quality guidelines. Clams essentially reflected this condition although some concern was raised by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): the limit for the sum of six congeners set for biota in the European Directive (2013/39/EU) to protect human health was exceeded 4-5 times. No significant biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were calculated. Nonylphenol, tonalide, PBDE, polychlorinated biphenyls and bisphenol A were the most abundant chemicals in clam tissues.

  13. Biogeochemical cycling and phyto- and bacterioplankton communities in a large and shallow tropical lagoon (Términos Lagoon, Mexico) under 2009-2010 El Niño Modoki drought conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conan, Pascal; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Agab, Marina; Calva-Benítez, Laura; Chifflet, Sandrine; Douillet, Pascal; Dussud, Claire; Fichez, Renaud; Grenz, Christian; Gutierrez Mendieta, Francisco; Origel-Moreno, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Blanco, Arturo; Sauret, Caroline; Severin, Tatiana; Tedetti, Marc; Torres Alvarado, Rocío; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2017-03-01

    The 2009-2010 period was marked by an episode of intense drought known as the El Niño Modoki event. Sampling of the Términos Lagoon (Mexico) was carried out in November 2009 in order to understand the influence of these particular environmental conditions on organic matter fluxes within the lagoon's pelagic ecosystem and, more specifically, on the relationship between phyto- and bacterioplankton communities. The measurements presented here concern biogeochemical parameters (nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic matter [POM], and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]), phytoplankton (biomass and photosynthesis), and bacteria (diversity and abundance, including PAH degradation bacteria and ectoenzymatic activities). During the studied period, the water column of the Términos Lagoon functioned globally as a sink and, more precisely, as a nitrogen assimilator. This was due to the high production of particulate and dissolved organic matter (DOM), even though exportation of autochthonous matter to the Gulf of Mexico was weak. We found that bottom-up control accounted for a large portion of the variability of phytoplankton productivity. Nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry mostly accounted for the heterogeneity in phytoplankton and free-living prokaryote distribution in the lagoon. In the eastern part, we found a clear decoupling between areas enriched in dissolved inorganic nitrogen near the Puerto Real coastal inlet and areas enriched in phosphate (PO4) near the Candelaria estuary. Such a decoupling limited the potential for primary production, resulting in an accumulation of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC and DON, respectively) near the river mouths. In the western part of the lagoon, maximal phytoplankton development resulted from bacterial activity transforming particulate organic phosphorus (PP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) to available PO4 and the coupling between Palizada River inputs of nitrate (NO3) and

  14. Ground-water flow and quality beneath sewage-sludge lagoons, and a comparison with the ground-water quality beneath a sludge-amended landfill, Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bobay, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The groundwater beneath eight sewage sludge lagoons, was studied to characterize the flow regime and to determine whether leachate had infiltrated into the glacio-fluvial sediments. Groundwater quality beneath the lagoons was compared with the groundwater quality beneath a landfill where sludge had been applied. The lagoons and landfills overlie outwash sand and gravel deposits separated by discontinuous clay layers. Shallow groundwater flows away from the lagoons and discharges into the White River. Deep groundwater discharges to the White River and flows southwest beneath Eagle Creek. After an accumulation of at least 2 inches of precipitation during 1 week, groundwater flow is temporarily reversed in the shallow aquifer, and all deep flow is along a relatively steep hydraulic gradient to the southwest. The groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, although ammonium accounts for more than 30% of the total cations in water from three wells. Concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, iron, arsenic, boron, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and methylene-blue-active substances indicate the presence of leachate in the groundwater. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were less than detection limits. The concentrations of 16 of 19 constituents or properties of groundwater beneath the lagoons are statistically different than groundwater beneath the landfill at the 0.05 level of significance. Only pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and bromide are higher in groundwater beneath the landfill than beneath the lagoons

  15. The hydrodynamics and salinity regime of a coastal lagoon - The Coorong, Australia - Seasonal to multi-decadal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Ian T.

    2010-12-01

    The Coorong is a choked coastal lagoon in South Australia that forms part of the terminal lake system at the end of the River Murray, Australia's major river. It is an inverse estuary with a constricted channel connection to the sea at one end and extends parallel to the coast for more than 100 km away from this inlet. The present paper considers the physical dynamics of the Coorong, particularly its ecologically important salinity and water level regimes, and how these respond to connectedness with the ocean, barrage flows and meteorological conditions. The approach combines hydrodynamic modelling with measurements and considers temporal variation in the system ranging from seasonal to multi-decadal timescales. The Coorong is relatively unusual in that the major freshwater input occurs through barrages much closer to the estuary mouth than to its head. Thus, the barrage flows only 'flush' the Coorong between the barrages and the sea. Over most of its length, salt accumulating through evapo-concentration mixes back out of the system by fluctuating water motions caused by sea level variations propagating through the inlet channel and by wind. By scouring the inlet channel on a seasonal basis, barrage flows facilitate the penetration of sea level variations into the Coorong leading to enhanced along-lagoon mixing. Further, barrage flows freshen the waters near the seaward end of the system causing water of lower salt content than sea water to replace evaporative losses in its interior. By increasing the water depth in the system, barrage flows facilitate the exchange between the North and South Lagoons of the Coorong which are its two major basins. The modelling supported by measurements shows how the salinity regime in the Coorong appears to have responded to multi-year cycles of variation in discharge of the River Murray over the last 50 years. Even before the present drought, which has seen salinity in the South Lagoon exceed four times sea water, the lagoon was

  16. Submarine groundwater discharge into typical tropical lagoons: A case study in eastern Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xilong; Du, Jinzhou

    2016-11-01

    Assessing submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into lagoons and bays can be helpful to understand biogeochemical processes, especially nutrient dynamics. In the present paper, radium (Ra) isotopes were used to quantify SGD in two typical tropical lagoons (Laoye Lagoon (LY Lagoon) and Xiaohai Lagoon (XH Lagoon)) of eastern Hainan Island, China. The Ra mass balance model provided evidence that SGD plays an important role in the hydrology of the LY Lagoon and the XH Lagoon, delivering average SGD fluxes of 1.7 × 106 (94 L m-2 d-1) and 1.8 × 106 (41 L m-2 d-1) m3 d-1, respectively. Tidal pumping was one of the important driving forces for SGD fluxes in the LY and the XH Lagoons. Tidal-driven SGD into the tidal channels of both lagoons can account for approximately 10% of the total SGD flux into the lagoons. In addition, the dissolved inorganic nutrient budgets were reassessed in the LY Lagoon and the XH Lagoon, which showed that SGD was the major source of nutrients entering the LY Lagoon and that the LY Lagoon behaved as a source for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and as a sink for dissolved silicate (DSi). Nutrient loads in the XH Lagoon were mainly derived from riverine inputs and SGD, and the XH Lagoon behaved as a source for DIP, but a sink for DIN and DSi.

  17. Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons and estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María

    2013-11-01

    Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in

  18. Spatial variability of primary organic sources regulates ichthyofauna distribution despite seasonal influence in Terminos lagoon and continental shelf of Campeche, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo Rios, J. A.; Aguíñiga-García, S.; Sanchez, A.; Zetina-Rejón, M.; Arreguín-Sánchez, F.; Tripp-Valdéz, A.; Galeana-Cortazár, A.

    2013-05-01

    Human activities have strong impacts on coastal ecosystems functioning through their effect on primary organic sources distributions and resulting biodiversity. Hence, it appears to be of utmost importance to quantify contribution of primary producers to sediment organic matter (SOM) spatial variability and its associated ichthyofauna. The Terminos lagoon (Gulf of Mexico) is a tropical estuary severely impacted by human activities even though of primary concern for its biodiversity, its habitats, and its resource supply. Stable isotope data (d13C, d15N) from mangrove, seaweed, seagrass, phytoplankton, ichthyofauna and SOM were sampled in four zones of the lagoon and the continental shelf through windy (November to February), dry (March to June) and rainy (July to October) seasons. Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) mixing model were used to determine relative contributions of the autotrophic sources to the ichthyofauna and SOM. Analysis of variance of ichthyofauna isotopic values showed significant differences (P < 0.001) in the four zones of lagoon despite the variability introduced by the windy, dry and rainy seasons. In lagoons rivers discharge zone, the mangrove contribution to ichthyofauna was 40% and 84% to SOM. Alternative use of habitat by ichthyofauna was evidenced since in the deep area of the lagoon (4 m), the contribution of mangrove to fish is 50%, and meanwhile contribution to SOM is only 77%. Although phytoplankton (43%) and seaweed (41%) contributions to the adjacent continental shelf ichthyofauna were the main organic sources, there was 37% mangrove contribution to SOM, demonstrating conspicuous terrigenous influence from lagoon ecosystem. Our results point toward organic sources spatial variations that regulate fish distribution. In Terminos lagoon, significant correlation (p-value = 0.2141 and r=0.79) of Ariopsis felis and Sphoeroides testudineus abundances and seaweed and seagrasses contributions (30-35%) during both dry and rainy seasons

  19. Clipperton, a possible future for atoll lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpy, L.; Rodier, M.; Couté, A.; Perrette-Gallet, C.; Bley-Loëz, C.

    2010-09-01

    Closure of the Clipperton Island atoll (10°17' N 109°13' W), now a meromictic lake, is estimated to have occurred between 1839 and 1849. It was still closed in 2005. Brackish waters in the upper layer (0-10 m) were oxygenated, while saline waters in the deep layer (>20 m) were anoxic. Allowing for the methodological difficulties of earlier measurements, the physical characteristics of the lagoon did not seem to have changed significantly since the last expedition (1980). The intermediate layer between brackish and saline waters was characterized by a strong density gradient and a temperature inversion of up to 1.6°C. Microbial activity, water exchange between the deep layer and surrounding oceanic waters and the geothermal flux hypothesis are discussed. The low DIN and SRP concentrations observed in the upper layer, despite high nutrient input by seabird droppings, reflect the high nutrient uptake by primary producers as attested by the elevated overall gross primary production (6.6 g C m-2 day-1), and high suspended photosynthetic biomass (2.23 ± 0.23 μg Chl a l-1) and production (263 ± 27 μg C l-1 day-1). Phytoplankton composition changed in 67 years with the advent of new taxa and the disappearance of previously recorded species. The freshwater phytoplanktonic community comprised 43 taxa: 37 newly identified during the expedition and 6 previously noted; 16 species previously found were not seen in 2005. The closure of the lagoon, combined with the positive precipitation-evaporation budget characteristic of the region, has induced drastic changes in lagoon functioning compared with other closed atolls.

  20. Macroalgae, nutrient cycles, and pollutants in the lagoon of Venice

    SciTech Connect

    Sfriso, A.; Pavoni, B.; Marcomini, A.; Orio, A.A. )

    1992-12-01

    The Lagoon of Venice is a wide, shallow coastal basin that extends for about 50 km along the northwest coast of the Adriatic Sea. The lagoon has been substantially modified through the actions of man over the last century through the artificial control of the hydraulic dynamics of the lagoon including the construction of channels to facilitate navigation. The lagoon is subjected to considerable pollutant loading through the drainage of land under cultivation, municipal sewage, and industrial effluents. In this paper are reported the results of observations designed to document recent changes in macroalgal species composition, seasonal cycles of primary producers and nutrient levels, and the effects of the macroalgal community on concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants. The dominant macroalgae in the lagoon was Ulva rigida, and the levels of plant nutrients and pollutants were influenced by the seasonal cycles of the macroalgal community. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Denitrification in anaerobic lagoons used to treat swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hunt, P G; Matheny, T A; Ro, K S; Vanotti, M B; Ducey, T F

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple, their physical, chemical, and biological processes are very complex. This study of anaerobic lagoons had two objectives: (i) to quantify denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) and (ii) to evaluate the influence of lagoon characteristics on the DEA. The DEA was measured by the acetylene inhibition method. Wastewater samples and physical and chemical measurements were taken from the wastewater column of nine anaerobic swine lagoons from May 2006 to May 2009. These lagoons were typical for anaerobic swine lagoons in the Carolinas relative to their size, operation, and chemical and physical characteristics. Their mean value for DEA was 87 mg N2O-N m(-3) d(-1). In a lagoon with 2-m depth, this rate of DEA would be compatible with 1.74 kg N ha(-1) d(-1) When nonlimiting nitrate was added, the highest DEA was compatible with 4.38 kg N ha(-1) d(-1) loss. Using stepwise regression for this treatment, the lagoon characteristics (i.e., soluble organic carbon, total nitrogen, temperature, and NO3-N) provided a final step model R2 of 0.69. Nitrous oxide from incomplete denitrification was not a significant part of the system nitrogen balance. Although alternate pathways of denitrification may exist within or beneath the wastewater column, this paper documents the lack of sufficient denitrification enzyme activity within the wastewater column of these anaerobic lagoons to support large N2 gas losses via classical nitrification and denitrification.

  2. [Temporal and spatial variation of shorebirds in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Jalisco, during three non-breeding seasons].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Salvador; Serrano, Sergio; Hernández, Xóchitl A; Robles, María Isabel

    2012-09-01

    Resident and migratory shorebirds inhabit different kinds of wetlands such as lagoons, rivers and seashores among others. In recent years, these areas have been importantly affected by urban, agriculture and touristic activities, such as the Barra de Navidad lagoon, for which little information is available to support conservation programs. The aim of this work was to describe shorebirds temporal and spatial distribution in Barra de Navidad lagoon during three non-breeding seasons (1999-2000, 2006-2007 and 2008-2009). For this, monthly censuses were performed from November-April with the purpose of registering all the shorebirds species. We were able to identify 19 shorebirds species (three residents and 16 winter visitors), of which Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa and Tringa semipalmata were the most abundant. The greater number of species was registered for November, December and March of the first and third seasons. The greater number of individuals was registered when birds were feeding during low tides, mainly in December, January and February of the first and third seasons. At low tide, there was a great number of species and individuals in zone C. This area had muddy substrates that were exposed during low tides and were used to feed. Barra de Navidad lagoon provided suitable habitats for feeding and resting for resident and migratory birds. Twelve of the 19 species were considered as priority within the Mexican bird conservation strategy. However, these habitats are threatened by human activities performed in the nearby areas of the lagoon that may have negative consequences for the distribution, abundance and conservation of these species.

  3. Sludge Lagoons. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ronald M.

    This lesson describes three different types of sludge lagoons: (1) drying lagoons; (2) facultative lagoons; and (3) anaerobic lagoons. Normal operating sequence and equipment are also described. The lesson is designed to be used in sequence with the complete Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166 or as an independent lesson. The instructor's…

  4. Evidence of North Africa's green revolution preserved in sedimentary organic matter deposited in three coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Autumn J; Flower, Roger J; Thompson, Julian R; Ayache, Fethi; Ahmed, Mahmoud H; Ramdani, Mohamed; Turner, Simon

    2011-07-01

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the deposition and accumulation of organic matter (OM). Sediment cores were retrieved from three North African lagoons to provide records of recent environmental changes. We measured percentage nitrogen (%N), nitrogen stable isotope values (delta15N), and percentage organic matter (%OM), and we used radiometric dating techniques (210Pb, 137Cs) to examine the evidence for the intensification of upstream agricultural practices in sediment cores from Lake Manzala (Egypt), Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia), and Lagune de Nador (Morocco). With the exception of one core collected near a sewage outfall, sediments from Lake Manzala clearly reflected the impact of agricultural intensification following completion of the Aswan High Dam and delta barrages in the mid-1960s to early 1970s. Both %N and %OM more than doubled in three Manzala sediment cores, and delta15N values declined from 5 per thousand to < 1 per thousand. These changes reflect the increasing use of synthetic fertilizers (delta15N approximately 0 per thousand) from the 1960s to the present. Sediments from Ghar El Melh show a similar trend, with %N more than tripling, %OM increasing by 50%, and delta15N declining from 6 per thousand to 2 per thousand since 1965. These changes are consistent with the increasing use of water from a nearby river for crop irrigation and agricultural fertilizer use. Lagune de Nador receives relatively little agricultural drainage water, and core data did not show the same trends as Manzala and Ghar El Melh. Overall, the sediment core data from these systems reflect environmental shifts in the quantity, quality, and isotope signature of the deposited organic matter and confirm the concerns of local scientists and

  5. Impact of cross-reef water fluxes on lagoon dynamics: a simple parameterization for coral lagoon circulation model, with application to the Ouano Lagoon, New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Cristele; Sous, Damien; Devenon, Jean-Luc; Pagano, Marc; Rougier, Gilles; Blanchot, Jean

    2015-11-01

    This manuscript presents a combined experimental and numerical study of the impact of cross-reef fluxes on coral reef lagoon dynamics. The selected field site is the Ouano Lagoon (New Caledonia Island, France) in the South Western Pacific Ocean. Measurements of wave transformation above the reef and current profiles through passages and reef openings have been carried out during a 3-month survey. Data analysis reveals the preponderant roles played by both tides and waves on the lagoon dynamics. Based on field data, a simple parameterization of cross-reef fluxes is implemented in a coastal lagoon circulation model and a satisfactory agreement is found between parameterized model and field results. The model is thus used as a numerical experimental tool in order to analyse the cross-reef flows' possible influence on a narrow lagoon dynamics. The results highlight the importance of cross-reef fluxes induced by wave breaking over the reef barrier on the whole lagoon circulation and water properties.

  6. 50 CFR 226.213 - Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the following ten portions of the Indian River Lagoon and Biscayne Bay within the current range of...: 27°51′01.07″ N, 80°27′40.50″ W (c) A portion of the Indian River Lagoon in the vicinity of the Fort...″ N, 80°18′42.42″ W (d) A portion of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, north of the St. Lucie...

  7. 50 CFR 226.213 - Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the following ten portions of the Indian River Lagoon and Biscayne Bay within the current range of...: 27°51′01.07″ N, 80°27′40.50″ W (c) A portion of the Indian River Lagoon in the vicinity of the Fort...″ N, 80°18′42.42″ W (d) A portion of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, north of the St. Lucie...

  8. Indian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marilyn Irvin

    With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

  9. Hypertrophic lagoon management by sediment disturbance.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Mauro; Birardi, Francesca; Calzolai, Roberto; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Marcone, Francesco; Nocciolini, Stefano; Roffilli, Rugiada; Sgroi, Sergio; Solari, Duccio

    2010-01-01

    Experimental control of eutrophication in a small coastal lagoon was attempted by means of sediment disturbance. A specially designed boat was used to resuspend the top 3 cm of sediment by a jets of air-water directed towards the bottom. This disturbance was carried out for 3 months in each of two areas with a surface area of 24 and 20 hectares respectively. In a total of 80 stations in these two areas and in two undisturbed areas of 16 and 20 ha, organic matter, porosity, density and redox potential were monitored in sediment bimonthly and free sulphides were monitored in water close to the bottom. Before, during and after disturbance, the impact of daily sediment resuspension on the water column was monitored monthly, as ammonium nitrogen (N-NH4), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH. In the whole lagoon, sediment texture was determined at the start and at the end of the experiment in 120 stations, and seaweed (mainly Chaetomorpha linum and Lophosiphonia subadunca) and seagrass (Ruppia cirrhosa) biomasses were estimated in 42 stations every month. The results showed a stable organic matter content in disturbed areas and an increase in undisturbed areas, as well as an increase in seaweed in areas distant from disturbed areas. No significant effect of sediment resuspension on water column N-NH4, SRP, DO or pH was found.

  10. Primary production of phytoplankton in the estuaries of different types (by the example of the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons of the Baltic Sea and the Volga delta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, Sergei; Gorbunova, Julia

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to analyze the long-term change of the primary production in large estuaries of different types (Volga delta, Curonian and Vistula Lagoons) under the impact of environmental factors (e.g. climate changes, algal blooms, invasion mollusk). The researches (primary production, chlorophyll, nutrients and others) were carried out monthly from March-April to November in the Vistula and Curonian Lagoons since 1991 to 2015, and in the Lower part of the Volga Delta and fore-delta since 1996 to 2007. The Volga River is the largest river in Europe that flows into the Caspian Sea and it forms a great delta. According to the analysis of long-term data (from the 1960s), the maximum eutrophication and primary production (85-100 gCṡm-2ṡyear-1) in the Volga Delta was observed in the 1980s. In the 1990s, fertilizers use and the input of nutrients into the Volga Delta decreased significantly. Due of the high-flow exchange in the delta, especially during high-water years, observed in the 1980s - early 2000s, this led to a significant decrease in the concentration of nutrients in the water in the Volga Delta. As a result, in the 1990-2000s, the primary production has decreased to the level of 1960s-1970s (40-60 gCṡm-2ṡyear-1) and the process of eutrophication was replaced by de-eutrophication. At present, the trophic status of the Volga delta assessed as mesotrophic. The future trend of phytoplankton primary production of the Volga delta will greatly depend on the scenario of nutrients loading and river runoff. The Curonian Lagoon and Vistula Lagoon are the largest coastal lagoons of the Baltic Sea, relating to the most highly productive water bodies of Europe. The Curonian Lagoon is choke mostly freshwater lagoon, while the Vistula Lagoon is restricted brackish water lagoon. In the last decades the nutrients loading changes, warming trend and biological invasions are observed. The Curonian Lagoon may be characterized as hypertrophic water body. The local climate

  11. Historical flux of mercury associated with mining and industrial sources in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covelli, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Acquavita, Alessandro; Piani, Raffaella; Emili, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    The "MIRACLE" Project was established in order to assess the feasibility of clam farming and high levels of sediment mercury (Hg) contamination coexisting in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy. This lagoon has been subjected to Hg input from both industrial waste (chlor-alkali plant) and long-term mining activity (Idrija mine, NW Slovenia). One of the subtasks of the "MIRACLE" Project was to determine the historical evolution of Hg accumulation in the lagoon's bottom sediments. Thirteen 1-m deep sediment cores were collected from the subtidal and intertidal zones, plus one in a saltmarsh, all of which were then analyzed for total Hg content and several physicochemical parameters. Sedimentation rate assessments were performed by measuring short-lived radionuclides (excess 210Pb and 137Cs). For most of the analyzed cores, natural background levels of Hg were observed at depths of 50-100 cm. In the eastern area, Hg contamination was found to be at its maximum level at the core top (up to 12 μg g-1) as a consequence of the long-term mining activity. The vertical distribution of Hg was related to the influence of the single-point contamination sources, whereas the grain-size variability or organic matter content seemed not to affect it. In the western area, Hg content at the surface was found not to exceed 7 μg g-1 and contamination was recorded only in the first 20-30 cm. Geochronological measurements showed that the depositional flux of Hg was influenced by anthropogenic inputs after 1800, when mining activity was more intense. After 1950, Hg in the surface sediment, most remarkable in the central-western sector, seemed to also be affected by the discharge of the Aussa River, which delivers Hg from the chlor-alkali plant. In 1996, Hg mining at Idrija ceased, however the core profiles did not show any subsequent decreasing trend in terms of Hg flux, which implies the system retaining some "memory" of contamination. Thus, in the short term, a decrease in Hg inputs

  12. Foraminiferal Evidence of Sediment Deformation Caused by Late Holocene Faulting in a Backbarrier Lagoon, Matagorda, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, C. A.; Yeager, K. M.; Feagin, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The onset of a normal faulting event was observed in the late Holocene lagoon of the Matagorda Island, Texas. The faulting caused differential elevation changes across a transect perpendicular to the fault―much as it is doing in a present-day faulting event initiated after the 1940's. The interpretation comes from assemblages of benthic foraminifera and supports other sedimentary evidence. A 115-m-long transect of seven vibracores was sampled across the active fault that cuts the Matagorda Island east of the Colorado River. Three cores lie on the upthrown block north of the fault, and four cores lie to the south on the downthrown block. The 1- to 4-m-long cores were split, described, and sampled at 20-cm intervals for foraminifera. Sediment subsamples of 0.25 cm3were washed on a sieve with 63-µm openings, split, and whole splits were picked until 100-300 specimens were recovered. Specimens were identified to species and tabulated. Samples were also taken at irregular intervals for radiocarbon dating. The sediment section consists of lagoonal olive-brown (2. 5Y) mud and muddy sand intercalated by cleaner sand units (potentially overwash deposits) and oyster shell hash, all overlain by the brownish (10YR) subaerial sand of the barrier island. The mud and muddy sand contain high densities of foraminifera consisting of two assemblages: a diverse assemblage containing near equal numbers of miliolids and rotalids typical of a deep lagoon, and a low diversity assemblage dominated by Elphidiidae and Ammonia, a rotalid assemblage typical of lagoonal shoals. The latter is also associated with oyster shell hash and blades of the sea grass Halodule wrightii. The diverse assemblage is found throughout the muddy lagoonal sediment south of the fault up to the subaerial sands of Matagorda Island. In contrast, the foraminiferal assemblage grades upsection from the high- to the low-diversity assemblage after ~2500 yBP north of the fault, and is subsequently covered by the barrier

  13. How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while

  14. Year-round phytofiltration lagoon assessment using Pistia stratiotes within a pilot-plant scale biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J; García-López, Daniel A; González-Portela, Ricardo E; Sánchez-Galván, Gloria

    2017-08-15

    Phytofiltration lagoons are phytoremediation technologies suitable for tropical and sub-tropical regions requiring cost-effective and echo-friendly technologies. A biorefinery of fourth generation has been implemented at pilot plant level in Xalapa, Mexico, and the phytofiltration lagoon, being the first module for provision of treated water and plant biomass for biofuel production plays a key role. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of such phytofiltration lagoon with a working volume of 13,000 L for the removal of nutrients from an urban river polluted with domestic wastewater and the biomass productivity of the macrophyte Pistia stratiotes, during five different experimental periods, comprising 42 days each one. The maximum absolute growth rates (AGR, gdwday(-1)) registered for P. stratiotes during the Aug-Oct '15 and the March-Apr '16 and Apr-May '16 period were in the range of 13.51±2.66 to 16.54±2.02gdwday(-1). The average biomass productivity was 5.808gdwm(-2)day(-1). Productivities were similar during the periods of Aug-Oct '15, Mar-Apr '16 and Apr-May '16 and significantly higher (p<0.05) than those registered in Oct-Nov '15 and Jan-Feb '16. Removal percentages of COD and nutrients varied according to the season. COD was in the range of 47.82±39.3% to 88.00±15.0%. Ammonium N was in the range of 76.78±21% to 98.79±0.9%. Nitrates were removed in the range of 16.92±64%. to 97.14±4.5%. Finally, phosphates were removed very effectively, from 73.72±18.5% to 92.89±4.3%. A hydraulic retention time of 7 days was enough for the effective treatment of the water from the polluted river. It was concluded that the phytofiltration lagoon with P. stratiotes is very feasible within the biorefinery for providing biomass year-round and for treating the polluted water very effectively.

  15. The Western Ghat as the water tower of the South Indian Rivers : a stable isotope investigation on the origin of water and factors affecting the water cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambs, Luc; Tripti, Muguli; Balakrishna, Keshava

    2014-05-01

    The long stretch (1600 km) of Ghats on the western side (Western Ghats) of Peninsular India separates relatively wetter west coast from drier eastern coast. The western and eastern sides of the Ghats are having distinct isotopic signatures indicating unequal distribution of the moisture sources. South India is characterized by having moisture source for southwest monsoon from Arabian Sea and northeast monsoon from Bay of Bengal. The wetter side of Peninsular region is covered by combination of evergreen tropical forest and grass lands, termed as Shola Forests which support higher vapor recycling process. Very few isotopic studies have been undertaken in these areas, except few places, mainly along the coast lines. This study presents the stable isotope results on rivers and groundwater of the Western Ghats covering Agumbe (Karnataka) to Ooty (Tamil Nadu) and its west coast river basins as observed for the three year period. The stable isotope results on the surface, subsurface and deep water pools show that the mean d18O value range from -4 o to -2 o on the west slope, and from -5 o to -4 o on the east slope, with quite no altitude or amount effect up to 2000 m asl. The more depleted values are found only in higher elevation, like the Doddabeta in the Nilgiri (2637m), with d18O close to -9 o which is exceptional for a tropical area. The hills on the west slope of the Western Ghats as well as in the mountainous Shola forest exhibit strong water vapor recycling as evidenced by high d-excess values. On the contrary on the eastern slope, the drier condition and the numerous impoundments and river damming support strong evaporation process. Thus, the study identifies the profound effect of tropical vegetation and anthropogenic factors on the recharge functioning of river and groundwater pools in Southern India.

  16. 29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN BEND POND LABELLED 'SETTLING BASIN,' STEAM/DIESEL PLANT AND OTHER FEATURES. 1951 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. Effect of physico-chemical regimes and tropical cyclones on seasonal distribution of chlorophyll-a in the Chilika Lagoon, east coast of India.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Subhashree; Baliarsingh, S K; Lotliker, Aneesh A; Pradhan, Umesh K; Thomas, C S; Sahu, K C

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive analysis on spatiotemporal variation in physico-chemical variables and their control on chlorophyll-a during 2013-14 was carried out in the Chilika Lagoon. Spatiotemporal variation in physico-chemical regimes significantly controlled the phytoplankton biomass of the lagoon. Further, precipitation-induced river/terrestrial freshwater influx and marine influence controlled the physico-chemical regimes of the Chilika Lagoon, such as nutrients (NH4(+), NO3(-), NO2(-), PO4(3-) and Si(OH)4), temperature, salinity, total suspended matter and dissolved oxygen. This study revealed significant effects of tropical cyclones Phailin (2013) and Hudhud (2014) on physico-chemical regimes and in turn the phytoplankton biomass of the lagoon. Although both cyclones Phailin (2013) and Hudhud (2014) were intense, Phailin (2013) had a greater impact on the Chilika Lagoon due to the proximity of its landfall. Heavy precipitation caused an influx of nutrient-rich freshwater, both during each cyclone's passage, through rainfall, and after, through increased river flow and terrestrial run-off. The increase in nutrients, carried by the run-off, promoted phytoplankton growth, albeit in lag phase. In general, phytoplankton growth was controlled by nitrogenous nutrients. However, the addition of SiO4 through terrigenous run-off fuelled preferential growth of diatoms. The salinity pattern (which can be considered a proxy for fresh and marine water influx) indicated injection of freshwater nutrients into the northern, southern and central sectors of the lagoon through riverine/terrestrial freshwater run-off; marine influx was restricted to the mouth of the lagoon. Present and past magnitudes of salinity and chlorophyll-a were also compared to better understand the pattern of variability. A significant change in salinity pattern was noticed after the opening of an artificial inlet, because of the resulting higher influx of marine water. The overall phytoplankton biomass (using

  18. Genetic divergence in natural populations of bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus (Osteoglossiformes: Notopteridae) from five Indian rivers, analyzed through mtDNA ATPase6/8 regions☆

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arti; Lal, Kuldeep K.; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K.; Punia, Peyush; Dwivedi, Arvind K.; Gupta, B.K.; Luhariya, Rupesh K.; Masih, Prachi; Mishra, R.M.; Jena, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study characterized 842 bp fragment of mitochondrial ATP synthase 6 and 8 (ATPase6/8) genes in Notopterus notopterus. In all, 97 samples of N. notopterus were collected from five distant rivers; viz Satluj, Gomti, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi representing 4 river basins in India. The analysis of variation revealed presence of 23 haplotypes in ATPase6/8 gene with haplotype diversity (Hd) of 0.899 and nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.00336. The within population variation which was 41.78% of the total variation of 58.22% was found among population. The Fst value of 0.582 (P < 0.05) of the total population was found significant. The results concluded that the polymorphism in ATPase6/8 gene is a potential marker that is important for determining genetic divergence of wild N. notopterus populations. The findings reveal common ancestry of mahanadi population with the populations in rivers of Indo-Gangetic region. However, long evolutionary isolation must be responsible for the high genetic divergence between N. notopterus in Mahanadi and other regions. PMID:25606374

  19. Genetic divergence in natural populations of bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus (Osteoglossiformes: Notopteridae) from five Indian rivers, analyzed through mtDNA ATPase6/8 regions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arti; Lal, Kuldeep K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Punia, Peyush; Dwivedi, Arvind K; Gupta, B K; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Masih, Prachi; Mishra, R M; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    The present study characterized 842 bp fragment of mitochondrial ATP synthase 6 and 8 (ATPase6/8) genes in Notopterus notopterus. In all, 97 samples of N. notopterus were collected from five distant rivers; viz Satluj, Gomti, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi representing 4 river basins in India. The analysis of variation revealed presence of 23 haplotypes in ATPase6/8 gene with haplotype diversity (Hd) of 0.899 and nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.00336. The within population variation which was 41.78% of the total variation of 58.22% was found among population. The Fst value of 0.582 (P < 0.05) of the total population was found significant. The results concluded that the polymorphism in ATPase6/8 gene is a potential marker that is important for determining genetic divergence of wild N. notopterus populations. The findings reveal common ancestry of mahanadi population with the populations in rivers of Indo-Gangetic region. However, long evolutionary isolation must be responsible for the high genetic divergence between N. notopterus in Mahanadi and other regions.

  20. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the…

  1. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  2. Schooling Experiences of Central California Indian People across Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tara

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study took a post-colonialist lens to record, examine and document schooling experiences of California Indian people across several generations representing three Central Valley tribes: the Mono, the Tachi Yokuts of Santa Rosa Rancheria, and the Tule River Tribe. Past and present perceptions of Indian schooling were elicited…

  3. White pelicans swim in the lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    White pelicans search for a meal in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The habitat of white pelicans are marshy lakes along the Pacific and Texas coasts, wintering chiefly in coastal lagoons such as this one. They often capture fish cooperatively, forming a long line, beating their wings and driving the prey into shallow water. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  4. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs.

    PubMed

    Blakeway, David; Hamblin, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia's Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves-specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef.

  5. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia’s Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves—specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef. PMID:26175962

  6. VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense

  7. 13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  8. 1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on southeast (context) - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  9. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

  10. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  11. Seasonal variation in a tropical lagoon with submarine groundwater discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenorio, L.; Gómez-Valdés, J.; Enriquez, C.; Treviño, C.; Marino-Tapia, I.; López-Aguiar, K.

    2013-05-01

    The Chelem-Chuburna-Yucalpeten lagoon system is located at 21°17'N and 89°40'W in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. Temperature, conductivity, sea level, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, and wind speed measurements were recorded in this lagoon, during various oceanographic surveys within 2010-2012. During the experiments, which included diurnal variations during spring and neap tidal cycles, CTD profiles were collected in 35 oceanographic stations and moored instruments were deployed at strategic locations. The aim of this work is to investigate transitions of thermohaline properties in a tropical lagoon with submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs) to increase the knowledge of the principal processes that control circulation and mixing in this kind of bodies of water. Results show that the lagoon is saltier than the ocean in the dry season and the opposite pattern is observed in the rain season. During the rain season could be more freshwater supplied from SGDs.

  12. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

  13. Tidal dynamics in a frictionally dominated tropical lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenorio-Fernandez, L.; Gomez-Valdes, J.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez, C.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Parra, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the dynamics of tidal propagation inside a tropical lagoon. Sea surface elevation (inside) and current profiles (at the inlet) were examined over 60 days at the Chelem lagoon, which is a branched tropical lagoon located in the northern Yucatan Peninsula. Tides were predominantly diurnal with a wavelength at least 20 times longer than the total length of the basin. Spatial variations of sea surface elevation and the longitudinal transport were described in each branch by applying a linear analytical model and the results were compared to observations. Results showed that the coastal lagoon was highly frictional. The tidal signal was attenuated between 30% and 40% toward the lagoon heads, a result of the balance between pressure gradient and frictional forces. A causeway that chokes the western side of the lagoon allowed the propagation of the diurnal signal toward the west head of the basin but damped the semidiurnal signal. The causeway acted as a hydraulic low-pass filter, as in natural choked systems. The causeway's filter effect was included in the analytical model by optimizing the frictional parameters.

  14. Trust and Survival: "AWOL Hunkpapa Indian Family Prisoners of War at Fort Sully, 1890-1891"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojcik, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Two hundred twenty five Hunkpapa Indians fled from the Grand River Camp on the Standing Rock Reservation to the Cheyenne River Reservation to council with Big Foot's band when Sitting Bull was killed on December 15, 1890. These Indian families did not contribute to the number of fatalities at Wounded Knee because they were being held by the U.S.…

  15. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and off-stream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements were signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Two landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and one chose OWEB as a funding source. Two landowners implemented there own enhancement measures protecting 3 miles of stream. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin. We provided input to the John Day Summary prepared for the NWPPC by ODFW. The Tribe worked with the Umatilla National Forest on the Clear Creek Dredgetailings Rehabilitation project and coordinated regularly with USFS Fisheries, Hydrology and Range staff.

  16. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  17. Pathways of priority pesticides in sediments of coastal lagoons: The case study of Óbidos Lagoon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M I; Vale, C; Sontag, G; Noronha, J P

    2016-05-15

    This study reports the concentrations of the priority pesticides (PPs) in 14 surface sediments and 21 layers of a sediment core from Óbidos Lagoon, a shallow Portuguese coastal lagoon. Results show that the PPs are confined to the upper part of the lagoon that receives most of the inputs from surface runoff of the surrounding agricultural fields and from small tributaries. Past and recent applied PPs were registered in sediments, aluminum normalized concentrations varying between 0.05×10(-7) and 6.85×10(-7). The PP risk assessment based on sediment quality guidelines like the "Probable Effect Level" (PEL) shows no biological effects in either sediments or aquatic organisms of Óbidos Lagoon, except for dieldrin, lindane, DDT, heptachlor epoxide and its parent compound heptachlor.

  18. Mercury in the sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea): Sources, distribution and speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Berto, Daniela; Faganeli, Jadran; Giani, Michele; Horvat, Milena; Koron, Neža; Rampazzo, Federico

    2012-11-01

    The existence of mining tailings in Idrija (Slovenia) and their subsequent transportation via the Isonzo River has been the primary source of mercury (Hg) in the northern Adriatic Sea for almost 500 years, making the Gulf of Trieste and the adjacent Marano and Grado Lagoon two of the most contaminated marine areas in the world. A further, more recent, contribution of Hg has been added by the operation of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the drainage basin flowing into the Lagoon. On the basis of previous research, as well as new data obtained from the "MIRACLE" project (Mercury Interdisciplinary Research for Appropriate Clam farming in a Lagoon Environment), the spatial distribution of Hg and its relationships with methylmercury (MeHg), organic matter and several geochemical parameters in surface sediments were investigated. The predominant and long-term impacts of the cinnabar-rich Isonzo River particulate matter in the Lagoon surface sediments are evident and confirmed by a decreasing concentration gradient from east (>11 μg g-1) to west (0.7 μg g-1). Hg originated from the CAP is only significant in the central sector of the Lagoon. Hg is primarily associated with fine-grained sediments (<16 μm), as a consequence of transport and dispersion from the fluvial source through littoral and tidal currents. However, speciation analyses highlighted the presence of Hg sulphides in the coarse sandy fraction of sediments from the eastern area, as expected given the origin of the sedimentary material. Unlike Hg, the distribution of MeHg (0.47-7.85 ng g-1) does not show a clear trend. MeHg constitutes, on average, 0.08% of total Hg and percentages are comparable to those obtained in similar lagoon environments. Higher MeHg concentrations in low to intermediate Hg-contaminated sediments indicate that the metal availability is not a limiting factor for MeHg occurrence, thus suggesting a major role played by environmental conditions and/or speciation. The reasonably

  19. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean (IO) dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, respectively) precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline, respectively) precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr), precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole modes, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.

  20. Comparative hydrodynamics of 10 Mediterranean lagoons by means of numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Bellafiore, Debora; Ghezzo, Michol; Bajo, Marco

    2014-04-01

    A comparison study between 10 Mediterranean lagoons has been carried out by means of the 3-D numerical model SHYFEM. The investigated basins are the Venice and Marano-Grado lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the Lesina and Varano lagoons in the Southern Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras Lagoon in Sardinia, the Ganzirri and Faro lagoons in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain, and the Nador Lagoon in Morocco. This study has been focused on hydrodynamics in terms of exchange rates, transport time scale, and mixing. Water exchange depends mainly on the inlet shape and tidal range, but also on the wind regimes in the case of multi-inlet lagoons. Water renewal time, which is mostly determined by the exchange rate, is a powerful concept that allows lagoons to be characterized with a time scale. In the case of the studied lagoons, the renewal time ranged from few days in the Marano-Grado Lagoon up to 1 year in the case of the Mar Menor. The analysis of the renewal time frequency distribution allows identifying subbasins. The numerical study proved to be a useful tool for the intercomparison and classification of the lagoons. These environments range from a leaky type to a choked type of lagoons and give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. Mixing efficiency turns out to be a function of the morphological complexity, but also of the forcings acting on the system.

  1. Rapid Proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae during Freshwater Flash Floods in French Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Kevin; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Mosser, Thomas; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Colwell, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae of the non-O1/non-O139 serotype are present in coastal lagoons of southern France. In these Mediterranean regions, the rivers have long low-flow periods followed by short-duration or flash floods during and after heavy intense rainstorms, particularly at the end of the summer and in autumn. These floods bring large volumes of freshwater into the lagoons, reducing their salinity. Water temperatures recorded during sampling (15 to 24°C) were favorable for the presence and multiplication of vibrios. In autumn 2011, before heavy rainfalls and flash floods, salinities ranged from 31.4 to 36.1‰ and concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae varied from 0 to 1.5 × 103 most probable number (MPN)/liter, 0.7 to 2.1 × 103 MPN/liter, and 0 to 93 MPN/liter, respectively. Following heavy rainstorms that generated severe flash flooding and heavy discharge of freshwater, salinity decreased, reaching 2.2 to 16.4‰ within 15 days, depending on the site, with a concomitant increase in Vibrio concentration to ca. 104 MPN/liter. The highest concentrations were reached with salinities between 10 and 20‰ for V. parahaemolyticus, 10 and 15‰ for V. vulnificus, and 5 and 12‰ for V. cholerae. Thus, an abrupt decrease in salinity caused by heavy rainfall and major flooding favored growth of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their proliferation in the Languedocian lagoons. Based on these results, it is recommended that temperature and salinity monitoring be done to predict the presence of these Vibrio spp. in shellfish-harvesting areas of the lagoons. PMID:26319881

  2. Rapid proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae during freshwater flash floods in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Kevin; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Mosser, Thomas; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae of the non-O1/non-O139 serotype are present in coastal lagoons of southern France. In these Mediterranean regions, the rivers have long low-flow periods followed by short-duration or flash floods during and after heavy intense rainstorms, particularly at the end of the summer and in autumn. These floods bring large volumes of freshwater into the lagoons, reducing their salinity. Water temperatures recorded during sampling (15 to 24°C) were favorable for the presence and multiplication of vibrios. In autumn 2011, before heavy rainfalls and flash floods, salinities ranged from 31.4 to 36.1‰ and concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae varied from 0 to 1.5 × 10(3) most probable number (MPN)/liter, 0.7 to 2.1 × 10(3) MPN/liter, and 0 to 93 MPN/liter, respectively. Following heavy rainstorms that generated severe flash flooding and heavy discharge of freshwater, salinity decreased, reaching 2.2 to 16.4‰ within 15 days, depending on the site, with a concomitant increase in Vibrio concentration to ca. 10(4) MPN/liter. The highest concentrations were reached with salinities between 10 and 20‰ for V. parahaemolyticus, 10 and 15‰ for V. vulnificus, and 5 and 12‰ for V. cholerae. Thus, an abrupt decrease in salinity caused by heavy rainfall and major flooding favored growth of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their proliferation in the Languedocian lagoons. Based on these results, it is recommended that temperature and salinity monitoring be done to predict the presence of these Vibrio spp. in shellfish-harvesting areas of the lagoons.

  3. Remote monitoring of sediment dynamics in a coastal lagoon: Long-term spatio-temporal variability of suspended sediment in Chilika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Equeenuddin, Sk. Md.; Mishra, Deepak R.; Acharya, Bhaskar C.

    2016-03-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of sediment dynamics in a coastal lagoon by synthesizing various remote sensing datasets. The goal of the study was to monitor and analyze the spatio-temporal variability of total suspended sediment (TSS) concentration and associated environmental forcings in Chilika Lagoon, the largest brackish water lagoon in Asia. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance cloud free data was used to calibrate a TSS model. MODIS daily 250 m surface reflectance (MOD09GQ) and 8-day composite products (MOD09Q1) were chosen because they are atmospherically corrected and available for free thus making them widely applicable for frequent monitoring of environmental phenomena. Three variants of Miller and McKee (2004) TSS model were recalibrated to establish the relationship between in situ TSS and surface reflectance value in band 1 (Rrs at 645 nm). A significant relationship (R2 = 0.91; n = 54; p < 0.001) was obtained between in situ TSS and MODIS Rrs (645 nm) using a polynomial model. The other two models, exponential and linear, showed comparatively low R2 (0.77 and 0.73 respectively). Accuracy of the models were assessed by comparing the field measured TSS with MODIS derived TSS. Based on R2 values, validation analysis (RMSE = 2.64 mg/L), and residual trend, the polynomial model was found to be the best performing TSS model with an estimation range of 6.5 mg/L - 200 mg/L. The model was then implemented to derive weekly time-series TSS maps of Chilika Lagoon for 14 years (2001-2014). Marked seasonal and inter-annual variations in TSS distribution were observed in different sectors (northern, central and southern) of the lagoon. It was found that the TSS variability is primarily driven by three factors: monsoon effect (precipitation and runoff), wind-driven bottom re-suspension, and river discharge into the lagoon. Further analysis of the relationship between MODIS derived time-series TSS and meteorological

  4. Confederated Tribes Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2008-12-02

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2007 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2007-January 31, 2008) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Camp Creek, Greasewood Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying five fish passage barriers on four creeks, (2) planting 1,275 saplings and seeding 130 pounds of native grasses, (3) constructing two miles of riparian fencing for livestock exclusion, (4) coordinating activities related to the installation of two off-channel, solar-powered watering areas for livestock, and (5) developing eight water gap access sites to reduce impacts from livestock. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at all existing easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Monitoring plans will continue throughout the life of each project to oversee progression and inspire timely managerial actions. Twenty-seven conservation easements were maintained with 23 landowners. Permitting applications for planned project activities and biological opinions were written and approved. Project activities were based on a variety

  5. Challenges for the WFD second management cycle after the implementation of a regional multi-municipality sanitation system in a coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Lopes, M L; Marques, B; Dias, J M; Soares, A M V M; Lillebø, A I

    2017-02-05

    In the scope of the first WDF management cycle, a multi-municipality sanitation system with secondary treatment was implemented in 2005 in Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon, with the treated effluent discharging into the Atlantic Ocean through a submarine outfall. The lagoon water chemical status was evaluated regarding dissolved inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll a before and after 2005. The S. Jacinto outfall has effectively reduced the point source nutrient loads (ammonium and phosphate) into Ria de Aveiro, representing a step forward for the implementation of the WFD, through eutrophication abatement. However, the lagoon remains exposed to non-point nitrogen sources, as a consequence of the current land use and water management, which in a scenario of winter extreme precipitation events, nutrients increase through surface run-off. Besides, in a combined scenario of low freshwater input into the lagoon and favourable oceanic condition, nutrients enter through Ria outer boundary coming from the S. Jacinto outfall. Thus, changes in the system hydrodynamics in the context of global change might pose new challenges regarding the WFD second management cycle involving the second river basin management plan and the first flood risk management plan, foreseeing the 'Good' ecological status in all Ria's Water Bodies.

  6. Spreading and autoecology of the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in the lagoons of the north-western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfriso, A.; Wolf, M. A.; Maistro, S.; Sciuto, K.; Moro, I.

    2012-12-01

    Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, an invasive Rhodophyta recently recorded in the Po Delta lagoons (May 2008), was also found in the Venice lagoon in March 2009 and successively in Pialassa della Baiona (Emilia-Romagna Region) in May 2009. The species has colonized the eutrophic and confined areas of Venice by pleustophytic tangled populations (5-15 kg fwt m-2), replacing the allochthonous species whereas it is absent in the areas characterized by low nutrient availability and high water exchange. In contrast, in the Po Delta lagoons and in Pialassa della Baiona it is present everywhere, also with high water renewal, because of the eutrophication caused by the Po river and the industrial area of Ravenna. This study presents the autoecology and distribution of G. vermiculophylla in the above environments, according to their different eutrophication status, showing its relationship with physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in water column, pore-water, surface sediments and particulate matter collected by traps in a station of the Venice lagoon (Teneri) sampled monthly during one year. Furthermore, we give new information on its morphology and the high dimorphism between female and male gametophytes and tetrasporophytes.

  7. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  8. Little Blaze and the Buffalo Jump. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…

  9. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951–2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well

  10. Indian Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Cy, Sr.; And Others

    A product of the Indian Studies Curriculum Committee and the Indian Studies Staff, this manual on the Indians of Southeast Alaska constitutes a useable classroom tool designed for the cross-cultural program in the Juneau School District. Objectives of this Indian Studies Program are identified as: to increase knowledge, awareness, and positive…

  11. American Indian Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Edward, Ed.

    Written for teachers instructing both Indian and non-Indian students, the handbook provides information on American Indians in California. The handbook is presented in six chapters. Chapter 1 is devoted to terminoloy (e.g., American Indian, Native American, tribe, band, rancheria, and chief). Chapter 2 details historic and cultural changes related…

  12. American Indians Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

  13. Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  14. Geochemical characterization of seaplane lagoon sediments, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, A; Carroll, S; Esser, B; Luther, G W; O'Day, P; Randall, S

    1999-08-16

    Our objective in the characterization of sediments from Seaplane Lagoon at the Alameda Naval Air Station (NAS) was to determine the geochemical interactions that control the partitioning of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc between the sediments and the porewaters. Our approach was to collect several cores at the east outfall location of the Seaplane Lagoon. We determined the porewater chemistry by (1) making in situ micro-electrode measurements, (2) extracting porewaters, and (3) modeling geochemical reactions. We determined the sediment chemistry by measuring (1) elemental abundance, (2) mineralogy, and (3) trace-element speciation. This information should help the US Navy determine the long-term hazard of the sediments if they are left in place and the short-term hazard if they are dredged. We did not fully examine the geochemistry of sediments from the West Beach Landfill Wetlands site, because these sediments were distinct from the Seaplane Lagoon sediments. Our initial motivation for studying the Landfill Wetlands site was to determine the trace-element geochemistry in Seaplane Lagoon sediments that had been dredged and then disposed in the Landfill Wetlands. Unfortunately, the location of these dredged sediments is unknown. The cores we sampled were not from the Seaplane Lagoon.

  15. A study of lagoonal and estuarine processes in the area of Merritt Island encompassing the space center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the marine biology and dynamic oceanographic properties of the Indian River in Florida. One of the major areas of concentration involved the compilation of a taxonomic list of marine animals in the river. An important conclusion of the study is that diversity of the benthic community is substantially higher than expected. The effect of major climatic factors on the diversity and structure of the benthic community is analyzed.

  16. Linking DNRA community structure and activity in a shallow lagoonal estuarine system

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bongkeun; Lisa, Jessica A.; Tobias, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and denitrification are two nitrate respiration pathways in the microbial nitrogen cycle. Diversity and abundance of denitrifying bacteria have been extensively examined in various ecosystems. However, studies on DNRA bacterial diversity are limited, and the linkage between the structure and activity of DNRA communities has yet to be discovered. We examined the composition, diversity, abundance, and activities of DNRA communities at five sites along a salinity gradient in the New River Estuary, North Carolina, USA, a shallow temporal/lagoonal estuarine system. Sediment slurry incubation experiments with 15N-nitrate were conducted to measure potential DNRA rates, while the abundance of DNRA communities was calculated using quantitative PCR of nrfA genes encoding cytochrome C nitrite reductase, commonly found in DNRA bacteria. A pyrosequencing method targeting nrfA genes was developed using an Ion Torrent sequencer to examine the diversity and composition of DNRA communities within the estuarine sediment community. We found higher levels of nrfA gene abundance and DNRA activities in sediments with higher percent organic content. Pyrosequencing analysis of nrfA genes revealed spatial variation of DNRA communities along the salinity gradient of the New River Estuary. Percent abundance of dominant populations was found to have significant influence on overall activities of DNRA communities. Abundance of dominant DNRA bacteria and organic carbon availability are important regulators of DNRA activities in the eutrophic New River Estuary. PMID:25232351

  17. A system for estimating bowen ratio And evaporation from waste lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low cost system was deployed above a swine waste lagoon to obtain estimates of Bowen ratios and characterize lagoon temperatures. The system consisted of humidity and temperature sensors and anemometers deployed above the lagoon, water temperature sensors, and a meteorological station located by t...

  18. LANDSAT imagery of the Venetian Lagoon: A multitemporal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberotanza, L.; Zandonella, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral scanner images from 1975 to 1979 to determine pollution dispersion in the central basin of the lagoon under varying tidal conditions is described. Images taken during the late spring and representing both short and long range tidal dynamics were processed for partial haze removal and removal of residual striping. Selected spectral bands were correlated to different types of turbid water. The multitemporal data was calibrated, classified considering sea truth data, and evaluated. The classification differentiated tide diffusion, algae belts, and industrial, agricultural, and urban turbidity distributions. Pollution concentration is derived during the short time interval between inflow and outflow and from the distance between the two lagoon inlets and the industrial zones. Increasing pollution of the lagoon is indicated.

  19. Using Detrital Zircon (U-Th)/He Thermochronology From the Sutlej River Valley in the NW Indian Himalaya to Examine Erosion Distribution During the Early Holocene Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, M.; Hourigan, J.; Bookhagen, B.

    2008-12-01

    us to (i) test the thermal-kinematic model with a low closure temperature chronometer and (ii) characterize the correlation between the locus of maximum rainfall from the TRMM data and the predicted locus of maximum erosion. Finally, in order to ground truth the exhumation rates and zircon (U-Th)/He grain-ages predicted by our thermal-kinematic model, (U-Th)/He grain-ages from ten bedrock samples spaced along the river valley bottom will be produced.

  20. Intermittent ephemeral river-breaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reniers, A. J.; MacMahan, J. H.; Gallagher, E. L.; Shanks, A.; Morgan, S.; Jarvis, M.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the summer of 2011 we performed a field experiment in Carmel River State Beach, CA, at a time when the intermittent natural breaching of the ephemeral Carmel River occurred due to an unusually rainy period prior to the experiment associated with El Nino. At this time the river would fill the lagoon over the period of a number of days after which a breach would occur. This allowed us to document a number of breaches with unique pre- and post-breach topographic surveys, accompanying ocean and lagoon water elevations as well as extremely high flow (4m/s) velocities in the river mouth during the breaching event. The topographic surveys were obtained with a GPS-equipped backpack mounted on a walking human and show the evolution of the river breaching with a gradually widening and deepening river channel that cuts through the pre-existing beach and berm. The beach face is qualified as a steep with an average beach slope of 1:10 with significant reflection of the incident waves (MacMahan et al., 2012). The wave directions are generally shore normal as the waves refract over the deep canyon that is located offshore of the beach. The tide is mixed semi-diurnal with a range on the order of one meter. Breaching typically occurred during the low-low tide. Grain size is highly variable along the beach with layers of alternating fine and coarse material that could clearly be observed as the river exit channel was cutting through the beach. Large rocky outcroppings buried under the beach sand are also present along certain stretches of the beach controlling the depth of the breaching channel. The changes in the water level measured within the lagoon and the ocean side allows for an estimate of the volume flux associated with the breach as function of morphology, tidal elevation and wave conditions as well as an assessment of the conditions and mechanisms of breach closure, which occurred on the time scale of O(0.5 days). Exploratory model simulations will be presented at the

  1. Eutrophication Process on Coastal Lagoons of North of Sinaloa, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo-Urias, D.; Martinez-Lopez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of California support diverse and important fisheries and are reservoirs of great biological diversity. In northern Sinaloa, population growth and development, as well as increased use of these natural systems for recreation, has substantially increased the pressure placed upon marine resources. Discharge of untreated wastewaters generated by diverse human activities has been notably altered its health and integrity, principally along the lagoon's eastern shore In the late 60s, agriculture moved into a dominant role in coastal northern Sinaloa. The coastal plain encompasses more than 200,000 hectares under cultivation that now introduces large amounts of organic material, pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers into the lagoon systems of Topolobampo and San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule System at drainage discharge points and a minor grade in Colorado Lagoon. These lagoons are shallow and exhibit low water quality, lost of lagoon depth, presence of toxic substances (heavy metals) near the discharge points of wastewaters, and presence of harmful algal blooms. With the aim of evaluate the nutrients loadings (wastewaters, groundwaters) and their effects on the coastal lagoons of north of Sinaloa, the preliminary analysis of the physical, chemical and biologic variables data series are analyzed. From 1987-2007 eutrophication process is identified in Topolobampo Complex show increase tendency in annual average concentrations of DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen= NO2+NO3) from 0.5 μ M in 1987 to 2.7 μ M in 2006. Trophic Index (TRIX) values, low nutrient ratios (N: P and N: Si) and the phytoplanktonic community structure support this result. Preliminary results of nutrients loadings show a mayor contribution of wastewaters into the coastal zone.

  2. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  3. Population studies on the Amphipoda of Mazoma Lagoon (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakiri, Maria; Nicolaidou, Artemis

    1987-12-01

    The life cycles of four amphipod species— Gammarus insensibilis, Dexamine spinosa, Microdeutopus gryllotalpa and Corophium insidiosum—were studied in the brackish-water lagoon Mazoma of the Amvrakikos Gulf, Ionian Sea. G. insensibilis has an annual life cycle with limited recruitment over the year and maximum reproductive activity in the winter months. D. spinosa exhibits continuous recruitment in the lagoon with a maximum in summer. Both species produce a single brood per female per yer. Continuous recruitment was observed during the summer months for M. gryllotalpa and C. insidiosum, and multiple breeding per female per year. Sex ratios varied considerably over the year, with a persisting preponderance of the females.

  4. Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

  5. Optical researches for cyanobacteria bloom monitoring in Curonian Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Budylin, Gleb B.; Yakimov, Boris P.; Voloshina, Olga V.; Karabashev, Genrik S.; Evdoshenko, Marina A.; Fadeev, Victor V.

    2016-04-01

    Cyanobacteria bloom is a great ecological problem of Curonian Lagoon and Baltic Sea. The development of novel methods for the on-line control of cyanobacteria concentration and, moreover, for prediction of bloom spreading is of interest for monitoring the state of ecosystem. Here, we report the results of the joint application of hyperspectral measurements and remote sensing of Curonian Lagoon in July 2015 aimed at the assessment of cyanobacteria communities. We show that hyperspectral data allow on-line detection and qualitative estimation of cyanobacteria concentration, while the remote sensing data indicate the possibility of cyanobacteria bloom detection using the spectral features of upwelling irradiation.

  6. 76 FR 11494 - List of Recipients of Indian Health Scholarships Under the Indian Health Scholarship Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Mexico Jensen, Camilla Rae, A.T. Still University, Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians, Michigan..., Sunny Rae, Montana State University, Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming Stamile... Clark State College, Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho Thuen, Bobbi Rae, University of North Dakota,...

  7. Materials Developed from American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop (Tacoma, Washington, April 25-29, 1977). Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disney, Dick, Comp.

    Materials presented in this resource guide are the direct result of an American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Development Workshop. Activities consist of nine flannelboard stories (including The Fire War, How Coyote Made the Columbia River, Legend of the Mayan Moon God); two games (American Indian Games and Indian Picture Symbol Checkerboard);…

  8. Lagoon Seepage Testing Procedures for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory Butte County, Idaho April 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Giesbrecht

    2014-05-01

    The lagoon seepage testing procedures are documented herein as required by the Wastewater Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16.493). The Wastewater Rules and Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 require that the procedure used for performing a seepage test be approved by IDEQ prior to conducting the seepage test. The procedures described herein are based on a seepage testing plan that was developed by J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) and has been accepted by several IDEQ offices for lagoons in Idaho.

  9. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  10. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A dolphin glides through the water looking for fish in the turn basin, which is located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. Dolphins inhabit the waters, known as the Indian River Lagoon, around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  11. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Thomas C; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B; Xie, Chao; Jensen, Rachelle M; Grzymski, Joseph J; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Givskov, Michael; Hoeke, Ron; Philip, Gayle K; Neches, Russell Y; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Chénard, Caroline; Paulsen, Ian T; Lauro, Federico M

    2015-10-20

    Microorganisms act both as drivers and indicators of perturbations in the marine environment. In an effort to establish baselines to predict the response of marine habitats to environmental change, here we report a broad survey of microbial diversity across the Indian Ocean, including the first microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a 'citizen oceanography' approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon, Synechococcus was also responsible for driving shifts in the metatranscriptional profiles. Enrichment of transcripts related to photosynthesis and nutrient cycling indicated bottom-up controls of community structure. However a five-fold increase in viral transcripts within the lagoon during the day, suggested a concomitant top-down control by bacteriophages. Indeed, genome recruitment against Synechococcus reference genomes suggested a role of viruses in providing the ecological filter for determining the β-diversity patterns in this system.

  12. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Thomas C.; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B.; Xie, Chao; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Grzymski, Joseph J.; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Givskov, Michael; Hoeke, Ron; Philip, Gayle K.; Neches, Russell Y.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Chénard, Caroline; Paulsen, Ian T.; Lauro, Federico M.

    2015-10-01

    Microorganisms act both as drivers and indicators of perturbations in the marine environment. In an effort to establish baselines to predict the response of marine habitats to environmental change, here we report a broad survey of microbial diversity across the Indian Ocean, including the first microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a ‘citizen oceanography’ approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon, Synechococcus was also responsible for driving shifts in the metatranscriptional profiles. Enrichment of transcripts related to photosynthesis and nutrient cycling indicated bottom-up controls of community structure. However a five-fold increase in viral transcripts within the lagoon during the day, suggested a concomitant top-down control by bacteriophages. Indeed, genome recruitment against Synechococcus reference genomes suggested a role of viruses in providing the ecological filter for determining the β-diversity patterns in this system.

  13. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Thomas C.; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B.; Xie, Chao; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Grzymski, Joseph J.; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Givskov, Michael; Hoeke, Ron; Philip, Gayle K.; Neches, Russell Y.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Chénard, Caroline; Paulsen, Ian T.; Lauro, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms act both as drivers and indicators of perturbations in the marine environment. In an effort to establish baselines to predict the response of marine habitats to environmental change, here we report a broad survey of microbial diversity across the Indian Ocean, including the first microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a ‘citizen oceanography’ approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon, Synechococcus was also responsible for driving shifts in the metatranscriptional profiles. Enrichment of transcripts related to photosynthesis and nutrient cycling indicated bottom-up controls of community structure. However a five-fold increase in viral transcripts within the lagoon during the day, suggested a concomitant top-down control by bacteriophages. Indeed, genome recruitment against Synechococcus reference genomes suggested a role of viruses in providing the ecological filter for determining the β-diversity patterns in this system. PMID:26481089

  14. Spatio-temporal variation of CO2 emission from Chilika Lake, a tropical coastal lagoon, on the east coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muduli, Pradipta R.; Kanuri, Vishnu Vardhan; Robin, R. S.; Charan Kumar, B.; Patra, Sivaji; Raman, A. V.; Nageswarara Rao, G.; Subramanian, B. R.

    2012-11-01

    Biogeochemical Carbon cycling was studied in Asia's largest brackish lagoon, Chilika on the east coast of India. Systematic time-series observations were made at 35 hydrologically different stations over the entire lagoon. The first of these kinds of measurements reveal, inter and intra annual variability of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). A comparative analysis of pCO2, CO2 flux over four years (2005, 2009, 2010 and 2011) showed that the northern part of the lagoon maintained the highest levels of pCO2, with maximum CO2 efflux to the atmosphere associated with peak monsoon period. The high pCO2 corresponded to a significant decrease in pH (˜0.8) from the low to high flow periods. Higher bacterial abundance (1.55 ± 0.28 × 109 cells L-1) and bacterial respiration (185.31 ± 105.37 μg C L-1 d-1), suggested high levels of organic carbon decomposition during the high flow period. In contrast, the southern sector was least affected by river discharge, with low pCO2 values and CO2 flux as in the dry period. The central part and outer channel of the lagoon had intermediate characteristics. During high flow, the air-water CO2 flux from the entire lagoon was estimated to be 31.2 mol C m-2 y-1, which was comparatively very high with respect to the mean CO2 emission from the entire subtropical and tropical estuaries. Highest CO2 flux (65.98 mol C m-2 y-1) was observed in the northern sector, followed by the outer channel (17.61 mol C m-2 y-1), central sector (15.69 mol C m-2 y-1) and southern sector (14.44 mol C m-2 y-1). The northern part of Chilika lagoon being an important river-influenced region was responsible for the biological transformation of organic carbon to inorganic carbon and emitting CO2 to the atmosphere. Such a sectoral approach would reveal zonal influences of CO2 within a water body along with conditions leading to sink or a source.

  15. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from a waste lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost-effective approach was used to investigate the relationship between emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4, and N2O and energy fluxes from a swine waste lagoon. Energy fluxes were calculated using the Penman method. The energy fluxes showed a diurnal pattern as expected of such flux...

  16. Fate of estradiol and testosterone in anaerobic lagoon digestors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-scale lagoon digestors were constructed, and the fate of 14C-labelled 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (Test) were monitored for 42 d anaerobically under biological and sterile conditions. Hormone levels decreased in the liquid layer and increased in the sludge with time. At 42 d, 16-2...

  17. Aerated Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This unit (which consists of a single lesson) describes the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. In addition, special troubleshooting and maintenance problems are discussed. The instructor's guide for the unit includes: (1) an overview of the lesson; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of slides used…

  18. Facultative Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a two-lesson unit on the structure and components of facultative lagoons, the biological theory of their operation, and factors affecting their operation. Control testing recommendations, maintenance guidelines, and troubleshooting hints are also provided. These materials include: (1) an…

  19. A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

    This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

  20. Antibiotic resistant bacterial profiles of anaerobic swine lagoon effluent.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R

    2009-01-01

    Although land application of swine (Sus scrofa) manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotic resistance in swine lagoon bacteria from sow, nursery, and finisher farms in the southeastern United States. Effluents from 37 lagoons were assayed for the presence of Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined by the Kirby-Bauer swab method for 12 antibiotics comprising eight classes. Statistical analyses indicated that farm type influenced the amount and type of resistance, with nurseries and sow farms ranking as most influential, perhaps due to use of more antibiotic treatments. Finisher farms tended to have the least amount of antibiotic class resistance, signaling an overall healthier market pig, and less therapeutic or prophylactic antibiotic use. Many bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, cephalosporin, and tetracycline class antibiotics, while nearly all were susceptible to quinolone antibiotics. It appeared that swine farm type had a significant association with the amount of resistance associated with bacterial genera sampled from the lagoons; nurseries contributed the largest amount of bacterial resistance.

  1. Augmenting Lagoon Process Using Reactivated Freeze-dried Biogranules.

    PubMed

    Pishgar, Roya; Hamza, Rania Ahmed; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2017-02-24

    This study investigated the feasibility of using freeze-dried biogranules in lagoon basins. The effect of different operational conditions on treatment performance and detention time of granule-based lagoons was examined in a series of laboratory-scale batch studies. Optimal granule dosage was 0.1 g/L under anaerobic condition, resulting in 80-94% removal of 1000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD) in 7-10 days. Under aerobic condition, granule dosage of 0.2 g/L achieved the best result for identical COD concentration. However, adequate amount of nutrients (optimal COD/N/P ratio of 100/13/0.8) should be supplied to encourage the growth of aerobic species. At optimal COD/N/P ratio, aerobic treatment interval significantly reduced to 2-3 days with corresponding COD removal efficiency of 88-92%. Inhibition of high concentrations of COD (5000 mg/L) and ammonia (480 mg/L NH4-N) was observed on microbial activity and treatment capacity of the biogranules. Mixing was a crucial measure to overcome mass transfer limitation. Onetime inoculation of lagoon with fresh granules was the best approach to achieve a satisfactory treatment efficiency. This study suggested that utilization of the biogranules is a feasible and sustainable technique for augmenting lagoon plants in terms of improved effluent quality and reduced retention time. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

  3. A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A water column sampler was needed to study stratification of nutrients and bacteria in a swine manure lagoon. Conventional samplers yielded shallow samples near the bank or required a boat. These limitations prompted development of a new sampler to collect at multiple depths with minimal disturbanc...

  4. Distribution and stability of eelgrass beds at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David H.; Markon, Carl J.; Douglas, David C.

    1997-01-01

    Spatial change in eelgrass meadows, Zostera marina L., was assessed between 1978 and 1987 and between 1987 and 1995 at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Change in total extent was evaluated through a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1978 Landsat multi-spectral scanner image and 1987 black and white aerial photographs. A ground survey in 1995 was used to assess spatial change from 1987. Eelgrass beds were the predominant vegetation type in the lagoon, comprising 44-47% (15000-16000 ha) of the total area in 1978 and 1987. Izembek Lagoon contains the largest bed of seagrass along the Pacific Coast of North America and largest known single stand of eelgrass in the world. There was a high degree of overlap in the spatial distribution of eelgrass among years of change detection. The overall net change was a 6% gain between, 1978 and 1987 and a <1% gain between 1987 and 1995. The lack of significant change in eelgrass cover suggests that eelgrass meadows in Izembek Lagoon have been stable during the 17-year period of our study.

  5. Methane Dynamics in Sediments from Mangrove-dominated Costal Lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, P. C.; Paytan, A.; Young, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Porewater methane and sulfate concentrations from cored sediments have been measured in two coastal mangrove ecosystems (Celestún and Chelem Lagoons) on the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Methane exists in shallow sediments while sulfate is not depleted and stable carbon isotopes of methane (-87.27‰ ~ -62.08‰) imply high methane fluxes/production rates below and within the cored sediment depths. The preliminary results from a transport-reaction model show that methane emitted to the water column from these sediments could be 17.8 mg m-2 d-1 in Celestún Lagoon and much higher (565 mg m-2 d-1) in Chelem Lagoon. Since the water depths are shallow (mostly less than 100 cm), the high fluxes of methane could contribute to the atmosphere. The objectives of this study will aim to understand the biogeochemical cycles for methane and sulfate in sediments. A numerical transport-reaction model will be applied to the sedimentary geochemical data (methane, sulfate, chloride, particulate organic carbon (POC) and stable carbon isotopes of headspace methane) from the two lagoons to estimate sulfate reduction, methane oxidation and production rates and advective methane fluxes. The modeled results will be used to discuss the role of methane from mangrove areas and their potential contribution to the global methane cycle.

  6. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  7. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian…

  8. Benthic Primary Production Budget of a Caribbean Reef Lagoon (Puerto Morelos, Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Malik S.; Jantzen, Carin; Haas, Andreas F.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    High photosynthetic benthic primary production (P) represents a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reef systems. However, benthic P budgets of specific ecosystem compartments such as macrophyte-dominated reef lagoons are still scarce. To address this, we quantified individual and lagoon-wide net (Pn) and gross (Pg) primary production by all dominant functional groups of benthic primary producers in a typical macrophyte-dominated Caribbean reef lagoon near Puerto Morelos (Mexico) via measurement of O2 fluxes in incubation experiments. The photosynthetically active 3D lagoon surface area was quantified using conversion factors to allow extrapolation to lagoon-wide P budgets. Findings revealed that lagoon 2D benthic cover was primarily composed of sand-associated microphytobenthos (40%), seagrasses (29%) and macroalgae (27%), while seagrasses dominated the lagoon 3D surface area (84%). Individual Pg was highest for macroalgae and scleractinian corals (87 and 86 mmol O2 m−2 specimen area d−1, respectively), however seagrasses contributed highest (59%) to the lagoon-wide Pg. Macroalgae exhibited highest individual Pn rates, but seagrasses generated the largest fraction (51%) of lagoon-wide Pn. Individual R was highest for scleractinian corals and macroalgae, whereas seagrasses again provided the major lagoon-wide share (68%). These findings characterise the investigated lagoon as a net autotrophic coral reef ecosystem compartment revealing similar P compared to other macrophyte-dominated coastal environments such as seagrass meadows and macroalgae beds. Further, high lagoon-wide P (Pg: 488 and Pn: 181 mmol O2 m−2 lagoon area d−1) and overall Pg:R (1.6) indicate substantial benthic excess production within the Puerto Morelos reef lagoon and suggest the export of newly synthesised organic matter to surrounding ecosystems. PMID:24367570

  9. Modeling the effect of Causeways on Circulation in the Banana River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberi, A.; Weaver, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) is a restricted estuary along the east coast of Florida. Although Banana River, a 50 km long sub-basin of IRL, has an outlet to the ocean through the Port Canaveral locks, the locks remain closed when there is no passing vessel. The lack of direct ocean connection results in limited circulation, long flushing time and poor water quality. Existence of the causeways limits the circulation even more. In this study, the impact of the causeways on flushing time is studied. This study also examines the extent to which constructing a low crested weir adjacent to Port Canaveral can improve flushing in this region. ADCIRC 2DDI is forced with meteorological inputs as well as tides to simulate the hydrodynamic properties of the study area and determine the 2D depth-averaged velocity field for four separate cases: Existing System with and without consideration of the causeways, and modified system (adding a weir near port Canaveral) with and without consideration of the causeways. Passive particles are placed in Banana River, and their movement is tracked using a Lagrangian Particle Tracking Model (LPTM). Transport timescales are then computed, and residence time contours as well as pathlines of selected particles are plotted. Results indicate that the narrow raised pathway section of the causeways acts as a plate which diverts the flow direction and generates eddies in the downstream which causes the particles in the vicinity of the causeways remain in the domain for a longer duration. There is a longer residence time for the case in which the causeways are considered. The results with the added weir suggest a noticeable improvement in flushing time and residence time even for the case in which the causeways are considered in the model.

  10. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the Cherokee Indians from the mid-sixteenth century to modern day depicts an industrious tribe adversely affected by the settlement movement only to make exceptional economic advancements with the aid of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Civic pride and self-leadership among the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina has…

  11. Indians into Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N.

    Located at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Indians Into Medicine (INMED) is a multi-faceted program providing academic, financial, and personal support for Indian students preparing for health careers. The program has the following goals: (1) increase awareness and motivation among Indian students with the potential for health…

  12. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  13. National Indian Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Karen Kay

    2006-01-01

    This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

  14. Indians in Minneapolis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Richard G.

    The League of Women Voters of Minneapolis decided in May of 1967 to examine public and private agencies in the city of Minneapolis to determine agency perception of Indian problems, and to assess how well the various agencies were dealing with problems related to the Indian population of the city. In addition, 100 Indians were randomly selected…

  15. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  16. Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ducey, Thomas F; Shriner, Anthony D; Hunt, Patrick G

    2011-01-01

    Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling ofN is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms that produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase. For denitrification, the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide can be catalyzed by two forms of nitrite reductases, and N,O can be reduced by nitrous oxide reductase encoded by the gene nosZ The objectives of this investigation were to (i) quantify the abundance of the amoA, nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes; (ii) evaluate the influence of environmental conditions on their abundances; and (iii) evaluate their abundance relative to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). Samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and collected from eight typical, commercial anaerobic, swine wastewater lagoons located in the Carolinas. The four genes assayed in this study were present in all eight lagoons. Their abundances relative to total bacterial populations were 0.04% (amoA), 1.33% (nirS), 5.29% (nirK), and 0.27% (nosZ). When compared with lagoon chemical characteristics, amoA and nirK correlated with several measured variables. Neither nirS nor nosZ correlated with any measured environmental variables. Although no gene measured in this study correlated with actual or potential DEA, nosZ copy numbers did correlate with the disparity between actual and potential DEA. Phylogenetic analysis ofnosZdid not reveal any correlations to DEA rates. As with other investigations, analyses of these genes provide useful insight while revealing the underlying greater complexity of N cycling within swine waste lagoons.

  17. Water sources, mixing and evaporation in the Akyatan lagoon, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lécuyer, C.; Bodergat, A.-M.; Martineau, F.; Fourel, F.; Gürbüz, K.; Nazik, A.

    2012-12-01

    Akyatan lagoon, located southeast of Turkey along the Mediterranean coast, is a choked and hypersaline lagoon, and hosts a large and specific biodiversity including endangered sea turtles and migrating birds. Physicochemical properties of this lagoon were investigated by measuring temperature, salinity, and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of its waters at a seasonal scale during years 2006 and 2007. Winter and spring seasons were dominated by mixing processes between freshwaters and Mediterranean seawater. The majority of spring season waters are formed by evapoconcentration of brackish water at moderate temperatures of 22 ± 2 °C. During summer, hypersaline waters result from evaporation of seawater and brackish waters formed during spring. Evaporation over the Akyatan lagoon reaches up to 76 wt% based on salinity measurements and operated with a dry (relative humidity of 0.15-0.20) and hot (44 ± 6 °C) air. These residual waters were characterized by the maximal seasonal isotopic enrichment in both deuterium and 18O relative to VSMOW. During autumn, most lagoonal waters became hypersaline and were formed by evaporation of waters that had isotopic compositions and salinities close to that of seawater. These autumnal hypersaline waters result from an air humidity close to 0.45 and an atmospheric temperature of evaporation of 35 ± 5 °C, which are responsible for up to 71 wt% of evaporation, with restricted isotopic enrichments relative to VSMOW. During the warm seasons, the combination of air humidity, wind velocity and temperature were responsible for a large kinetic component in the total isotopic fractionation between water liquid and water vapour.

  18. Seasonal mercury transformation and surficial sediment detoxification by bacteria of Marano and Grado lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Horvat, Milena; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to <2% compared to 53% in winter. Four Hg-resistant bacterial strains were isolated, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 μg ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation

  19. Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Naval Ordnance Test Unit Engineering Services Facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    major bodies of water in proximity to CCAFS—the Banana River to the immediate west, the Mosquito Lagoon to the north, and the Indian River to the... Mosquito Lagoon and the Banana River, the Indian River Aquatic Preserve, the Banana River State Aquatic Preserve, Pelican Island National Wildlife... mangrove estuaries and shorelines, salt marshes, freshwater wetlands, brackish water impoundments, and drainage canals, all of which support various fish

  20. Groundwater flow in the Venice lagoon and remediation of the Porto Marghera industrial area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giovanni Pietro; Terrenghi, Jacopo

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to determine the groundwater flow in a large area of the Venice (northeast Italy) lagoon that is under great anthropogenic pressure, which is influencing the regional flow in the surficial aquifer (about 30 m depth). The area presents several elements that condition the groundwater flow: extraction by means of drainage pumps and wells; tidal fluctuation; impermeable barriers that define part of the coastline, rivers and artificial channels; precipitation; recharge, etc. All the elements were studied separately, and then they were brought together in a numerical groundwater flow model to estimate the impact of each one. Identification of the impact of each element will help to optimise the characteristics of the Porto Marghera remediation systems. Longstanding industrial activity has had a strong impact on the soil and groundwater quality, and expensive and complex emergency remediation measures in problematic locations have been undertaken to ensure the continuity of industrial and maritime activities. The land reclamation and remediation works withdraw 56-74% of the water budget, while recharge from the river accounts for about 21-48% of the input. Only 21-42% of groundwater in the modelled area is derived from natural recharge sources, untouched by human activity. The drop of the piezometric level due to the realization of the upgradient impermeable barrier can be counteracted with the reduction of the pumping rate of the remediation systems.

  1. Crustacean zooplankton in aerated wastewater treatment lagoons as a potential feedstock for biofuel.

    PubMed

    Kring, Stefanie A; Xia, Xiaoyan; Powers, Susan E; Twiss, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton biomass productivity was estimated for two 64,000 m3 (1.7 ha) facultative aerated wastewater treatment lagoons to evaluate potential biodiesel production from zooplankton biomass. Lagoons were monitored bi-weekly during summer 2010. Lipid accumulated by crustacean zooplankton was considered the most efficient means by which to collect lipid produced by phytoplankton owing to the greater ease in the collection of these organisms (>0.153mm) compared with unicellular algae (size <0.06 mm). In terms of biomass, the cladoceran Daphnia and the copepod Cyclops were the dominant zooplankton in these hypereutrophic lagoons, while unicellular chlorophytes dominated the phytoplankton community. Secondary productivity of these lagoons (250 g of dry weight m(-2) yr(-1)) is comparable to the secondary productivity of other sewage lagoons. The potential biodiesel production for one lagoon was estimated to be 0.04 +/- 0.02 L m(-2) yr(-1), which results in a total of 1120 +/- 560 L from two lagoons. This study showed that there are organisms present in wastewater lagoons, besides algae, that can serve as a biofuel feedstock. Additionally, this research expands the current knowledge of facultative aerated wastewater lagoon ecology and waste stream-derived biofuel. Future research should include complete life cycle and economic analyses to determine if harvesting zooplankton from wastewater lagoons is a sustainable endeavour.

  2. An integrated Pan-European perspective on coastal Lagoons management through a mosaic-DPSIR approach.

    PubMed

    Dolbeth, Marina; Stålnacke, Per; Alves, Fátima L; Sousa, Lisa P; Gooch, Geoffrey D; Khokhlov, Valeriy; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Lloret, Javier; Bielecka, Małgorzata; Różyński, Grzegorz; Soares, João A; Baggett, Susan; Margonski, Piotr; Chubarenko, Boris V; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-01-18

    A decision support framework for the management of lagoon ecosystems was tested using four European Lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine) and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia). Our aim was to formulate integrated management recommendations for European lagoons. To achieve this we followed a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impacts-Responses) approach, with focus on integrating aspects of human wellbeing, welfare and ecosystem sustainability. The most important drivers in each lagoon were identified, based on information gathered from the lagoons' stakeholders, complemented by scientific knowledge on each lagoon as seen from a land-sea perspective. The DPSIR cycles for each driver were combined into a mosaic-DPSIR conceptual model to examine the interdependency between the multiple and interacting uses of the lagoon. This framework emphasizes the common links, but also the specificities of responses to drivers and the ecosystem services provided. The information collected was used to formulate recommendations for the sustainable management of lagoons within a Pan-European context. Several common management recommendations were proposed, but specificities were also identified. The study synthesizes the present conditions for the management of lagoons, thus analysing and examining the activities that might be developed in different scenarios, scenarios which facilitate ecosystem protection without compromising future generations.

  3. Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.

    2009-04-01

    The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be

  4. Toxicity of contaminants in lagoons and pannes of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, R.; Speelman, J.; Stewart, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    Contaminants in water and sediments of lagoons and pannes were 2--90 times greater at sites adjacent to slag and coal piles than those at reference sites. One site (Lagoon-US5) had sediments with very high concentrations of toxic organics (e.g. naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzofuran). Although analyses indicated a gradient of contaminant concentration with distance from their sources, toxicity assays were somewhat equivocal. With the exception of less reproduction in Ceriodaphnia at one lagoon site (US3 = 0.55 of reference), survival of fathead minnows and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia in lagoon and panne waters varied independently of the contaminant concentration. In fact, there was better Ceriodaphnia reproduction in water from two contaminated sites (Lagoon-US5, Panne-WP1) than in water from reference sites. Fathead minnow survival, Ceriodaphnia survival, Ceriodaphnia reproduction, amphipod survival, and amphipod growth varied among sites in toxicity assays with sediments, 100% mortality of fatheads at Lagoon-US5, 100% mortality of Ceriodaphnia at Lagoon-US3, and less survival of fathead minnows at Lagoon-US3 indicate possible toxicity from contaminants in sediments at these sites. Of all organisms and end-points tested, Ceriodaphnia survival seemed to be most closely associated with concentrations of contaminants in lagoon water and sediments. Amphipod survival also varied with contaminants in sediments, however, survival in sediments of contaminated sites ranged only from 0.90--0.93 of reference sites. Although the results are not consistent among organisms, toxicity assays indicate that sediments from the lagoon site with the highest contaminants (Lagoon-US5) and possibly those from another contaminated lagoon site (Lagoon-US3) could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Water and sediments from contaminated panne sites do not appear to be toxic to aquatic test organisms.

  5. Response Of A Tidal Environment To Changes In The Forcing: Insights From The Southern Venice Lagoon (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roner, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; Ghinassi, M.; Fedi, M.; Bellucci, L. G.; Vigliotti, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Venice Lagoon represents an outstanding example of man-landscape co-existence, where salt marshes are currently exposed to possibly irreversible transformations due to the effects of climate changes and human activity. The increasing rate of relative sea level rise and the decreasing sediment supply are the dominant forcings controlling salt-marshes survival, as in other cases worldwide. Analysing signatures of landscape changes in the stratigraphic record is crucial to refine our knowledge of tidal landform dynamics and it is a first step to develop predictive morphodynamic models. The southern Venice lagoon is suited to analyze the response of tidal landscape to changes in environmental forcing. The upper part of the Holocene sedimentary succession accumulated as the effect of a "human-induced transgression", which caused a considerable salt-marshes contraction since the 16th century. In the southern Venice lagoon, re-directions of the Brenta River during 16th and the 19th century caused significant changes in terms of freshwater and sediment supply. To analyze the paleomorphodynamic response to these main changes, we collected 25 cores (1.0 to 1.5 m deep) along a NE-SW linear transect about 5 km long cutting through salt-marsh, tidal-flat and subtidal-platform deposits. Through sedimentological analyses we defined the spatial arrangement of swamp, salt-marsh, wave-worked and tidal-flat mud deposits along this transect. Magnetic susceptibility and organic/inorganic content were measured in the study succession, which was dated through 14C and 137Cs geochronological analyses. Our results suggest that salt-marsh sedimentation occurred above deltaic deposits since the 14th century. Salt-marsh aggradation stemmed out from both mud settling and organic accumulation, although magnetic susceptibility revealed some intervals during which the inorganic deposition dominates over organic accumulation. Salt-marsh aggradation occurred in parallel with the decrease in salt

  6. Hydrologic data summary for the St. Lucie River Estuary, Martin and St. Lucie Counties, Florida, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Michael J.; Patino, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    A hydrologic analysis was made at three canal sites and four tidal sites along the St. Lucie River Estuary in southeastern Florida from 1998 to 2001. The data included for analysis are stage, 15-minute flow, salinity, water temperature, turbidity, and suspended-solids concentration. During the period of record, the estuary experienced a drought, major storm events, and high-water discharge from Lake Okeechobee. Flow mainly occurred through the South Fork of the St. Lucie River; however, when flow increased through control structures along the C-23 and C-24 Canals, the North Fork was a larger than usual contributor of total freshwater inflow to the estuary. At one tidal site (Steele Point), the majority of flow was southward toward the St. Lucie Inlet; at a second tidal site (Indian River Bridge), the majority of flow was northward into the Indian River Lagoon. Large-volume stormwater discharge events greatly affected the St. Lucie River Estuary. Increased discharge typically was accompanied by salinity decreases that resulted in water becoming and remaining fresh throughout the estuary until the discharge events ended. Salinity in the estuary usually returned to prestorm levels within a few days after the events. Turbidity decreased and salinity began to increase almost immediately when the gates at the control structures closed. Salinity ranged from less than 1 to greater than 35 parts per thousand during the period of record (1998-2001), and typically varied by several parts per thousand during a tidal cycle. Suspended-solids concentrations were observed at one canal site (S-80) and two tidal sites (Speedy Point and Steele Point) during a discharge event in April and May 2000. Results suggest that most deposition of suspended-solids concentration occurs between S-80 and Speedy Point. The turbidity data collected also support this interpretation. The ratio of inorganic to organic suspended-solids concentration observed at S-80, Speedy Point, and Steele Point

  7. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Maldives: waves and disaster affected by shape of coral reefs and islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, H.; Ali, M.; Riyaz, M.

    2005-12-01

    In Maldives, 39 islands are significantly damaged among 200 inhabited islands and nearly a third of the Maldivian people are severely affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 26 December 2004. We surveyed tsunami impact in 43 islands by measuring island topography and run-up height, interview to local people and mapping of the flooded and destructed areas. The differences in tsunami height and disaster corresponding to the atoll shape and island topography are observed. In the northern atolls, atoll rims consist of many ring-shaped reefs, i.e. miniature atolls called `faro', and interrupted many channels between them. The interrupted atoll rim may play an important role to reducing tsunami run-up height. Severe damage was not observed in the eastern coast of the islands. Beach ridge also contribute to the protection against tsunami. However, in some islands, houses beside the lagoon are damaged by backwashing floodwater from the lagoon. Water marks show the run-up height of -1.8m above MSL. The lagoon water-level seems to set-up by tsunami which permeates into the lagoon through the interrupted atoll rim. The disaster was severe at the southern atolls of Meemu, Thaa and Laamu. The higher run-up heights of up to 3.2m above MSL and enormous building damages were observed at the islands on the eastern atoll rims. The continuous atoll rim of these atolls may reinforce tsunami impact at the eastern islands. In addition, tsunami surge washed the islands totally because of low island topography without beach ridge. Significant floodwater from lagoon was not observed in these atolls. It seems the lagoon water-level was not set-up largely. The continuous atoll rim reduces the tsunami influence to the lagoon and the western side of the atolls. The continuity of atoll rim is probably the major factor to cause the difference in water movement, i.e. tsunami run-up and lagoon set-up, which affects the disaster in the islands. Beach ridge contribute to reduce the tsunami impact to

  8. Indian River School District Science Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Dennis E.; And Others

    This monograph includes guidelines for science courses in grades seven, eight, and nine, and for biology, chemistry and physics. Seventh grade Environmental Life Science is lab-oriented and based on a variety of student experiences. Course objectives are presented as well as the course outline. A multitext approach, with a suggested textbook list,…

  9. Exploration strategy in Keg River carbonates of northwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.H.

    1987-05-01

    The analysis of reservoir quality and seal capacity of the Middle Devonian Keg River carbonate reservoirs in northwestern Alberta requires facies studies of rock units of the Keg River Formation and of the overlying Muskeg and Sulphur Point formations. Using lithologic criteria, faunal type, and stratigraphic positions, the entire sequence is subdivided into ten major facies. The system used is that of standard facies belts with second-order modification to Wilson's terminology. These facies are (from basin to land): basin, open sea shelf, toe of slope, foreslope, organic buildup, shoal lime sand, open lagoon, restricted lagoon, tidal flats, and sabkha evaporites. The upper member of the Keg River Formation is the main hydrocarbon reservoir in the study area. It consists of floatstone, rudstone, and boundstone with wackestone, packstone, and grainstone matrix. The principal faunal constituents are crinoids, brachiopods, stromatoporoids, corals, and stachyodes. The reservoir porosity is of primary intergranular and intragranular and secondary vugular textures. The upper Keg River member is composed of two major facies: patch reefs and banks. Both facies are formed in an open lagoon environment fronted by Presqu'ile barrier to the west-northwest. Water depth was the main factor in controlling the distribution of the bank and patch reef facies. Patch reefs were developed in areas of deeper water, whereas banks were formed in shallower areas of the open lagoon. Recent analogs of the Keg River buildups are found on the Bermuda Platform and Belize Shelf. A direct relationship exists between the thickness of overlying anhydrites of the Muskeg Formation and hydrocarbon occurrences in the Keg River Formation. Generally in areas where patch reefs are developed, the thickness of the anhydrite is more than 30 ft. However, areas of bank are covered by less than 30 ft of anhydrite.

  10. Salinity and eutrophication management by in situ continuous real-time monitoring and 3D modelling (hydrodynamics coupled with water quality): the case of the Berre lagoon (Mediterranean, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Laurent; Emma, Gouze

    2010-05-01

    The Berre lagoon is one of the biggest Mediterranean lagoon. It is located in the South East of France. It's a shallow semi-confined ecosystem (mean depth 6.5 m, depths greater than 8 m being restricted in the central and South parts). Its only connection to the Mediterranean Sea is the Caronte channel in the South West which allows tidal-driven water exchanges. The lagoon receives fresh water and nutrients from natural tributaries (Arc and Touloubre rivers) that drain high anthropised catchment basins. Moreover, a hydroelectric power plant became the main tributary of the lagoon since 1966: it discharged a mean of 3.3 x109 m3 of fresh water per year (equivalent to 3.4 times the volume of the lagoon) and a mean of 525 000 tons of suspended matter per year, during the period 1966 - 1993. As a consequence, the Berre lagoon became particularly unstable, showing considerable salinity drop and variations (2 to 30) depending on seasonal electricity needs. Nutrients loads by both anthropised rivers and power plant led to frequent colored waters and development of macroalgae. Haline stratification favored anoxia and led to benthos disappearance. Changes were observed in Zostera sp. meadows too. In 2004, the European Court of Justice condemned the French State for not respecting the Athens Protocol (advocating Mediterranean protection against telluric pollution) and requested managing strategies. The hydroelectric power plant (Electricité de France EDF) is not allowed from now on to discharge more than 1.2 x109 m3 of fresh water per year. Besides, EDF has to respect severe salinity constraints favorable to the establishment of a balanced ecosystem. In this context, EDF started an in situ continuous monitoring of the lagoon: CTD probes have been installed at 10 stations and currents have been measured in the Caronte channel. Moreover, the three central buoys have been real time remote transmitting to control instantaneously the impact of fresh water discharge on salinity

  11. Population and osmoregulatory responses of a euryhaline fish to extreme salinity fluctuations in coastal lagoons of the Coorong, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedderburn, Scotte D.; Bailey, Colin P.; Delean, Steven; Paton, David C.

    2016-01-01

    River flows and salinity are key factors structuring fish assemblages in estuaries. The osmoregulatory ability of a fish determines its capacity to tolerate rising salt levels when dispersal is unfeasible. Estuarine fishes can tolerate minor fluctuations in salinity, but a relatively small number of species in a few families can inhabit extreme hypersaline waters. The Murray-Darling Basin drains an extensive area of south-eastern Australia and river flows end at the mouth of the River Murray. The system is characterized by erratic rainfall and highly variable flows which have been reduced by intensive river regulation and water extraction. The Coorong is a coastal lagoon system extending some 110 km south-eastwards from the mouth. It is an inverted estuary with a salinity gradient that typically ranges from estuarine to triple that of sea water. Hypersalinity in the southern region suits a select suite of biota, including the smallmouth hardyhead Atherinosoma microstoma - a small-bodied, euryhaline fish with an annual life cycle. The population response of A. microstoma in the Coorong was examined during a period of considerable hydrological variation and extreme salinity fluctuations (2001-2014), and the findings were related to its osmoregulatory ability. Most notably, the species was extirpated from over 50% of its range during four continuous years without river flows when salinities exceeded 120 (2007-2010). These salinities exceeded the osmoregulatory ability of A. microstoma. Substantial river flows that reached the Coorong in late 2010 and continued into 2011 led salinities to fall below 100 throughout the Coorong by January 2012. Subsequently, A. microstoma recovered to its former range by January 2012. The findings show that the consequences of prolonged periods of insufficient river flows to temperate inverted estuaries will include substantial declines in the range of highly euryhaline fishes, which also may have wider ecological consequences.

  12. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry.

  13. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  14. Photosynthetic pigments of Zoster a noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa in some Albanian lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, Arjana; Babani, Fatbardha; Stamo, Iliriana

    2010-01-01

    In the coastal lagoons of Adriatic Sea Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa are plants with seeds and flowers, that colonizes the sandy bottom of lagoons. They are capable to produce oxygen with very weak light. Characterization of photosynthetic pigments of eelgrass Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa, were performed during the period 2002-2008 in some Adriatic lagoons: Kune-Vaini, Patog, Karavasta and Narta. Dynamics of chlorophylls and carotenoids during the vegetation period of these plants were characterized. As a result, the chlorophyll content of Zoostera noltii taken from the Kune- Vain lagoon is higher than at plants collected from the other lagoons. The photosynthetic pigment content of the Zostera noltii plants is higher than of Ruppia cirrhosa. The differences on the distribution of these species in the analyzed lagoons are represented in this presentation.

  15. Interannual and cyclone-driven variability in phytoplankton communities of a tropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Srichandan, Suchismita; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kumar, Abhishek; Mishra, Deepak R; Bhadury, Punyasloke; Muduli, Pradipta R; Pattnaik, Ajit K; Rastogi, Gurdeep

    2015-12-15

    One of the main challenges in phytoplankton ecology is to understand their variability at different spatiotemporal scales. We investigated the interannual and cyclone-derived variability in phytoplankton communities of Chilika, the largest tropical coastal lagoon in Asia and the underlying mechanisms in relation to environmental forcing. Between July 2012 and June 2013, Cyanophyta were most prolific in freshwater northern region of the lagoon. A category-5 very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) Phailin struck the lagoon on 12th October 2013 and introduced additional variability into the hydrology and phytoplankton communities. Freshwater Cyanophyta further expanded their territory and occupied the northern as well as central region of the lagoon. Satellite remote sensing imagery revealed that the phytoplankton biomass did not change much due to high turbidity prevailing in the lagoon after Phailin. Modeling analysis of species-salinity relationship identified specific responses of phytoplankton taxa to the different salinity regime of lagoon.

  16. Priority pesticides in sediments of European coastal lagoons: A review.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M I; Burrows, Hugh D; Sontag, G; Vale, C; Noronha, J P

    2016-11-15

    This review summarizes the legislation applied to pesticides and highlights the physicochemical properties of the past and recently listed PPs under Water Framework Directive (WFD). It reports important information regarding the analysis, occurrence and long-term screening of PPs in sediments of European coastal lagoons. Among the entire list of PPs, those analyzed have been the organochloride insecticides, such as lindane, hexachlorobenzene and DDT. Although flood events pointed to the possible redistribution of pesticides, which may increase under climate change conditions, few studies are available concerning PPs screening in sediments of European coastal lagoons. Data is scarce not only in terms of the number of listed PPs that have been analyzed but also in terms of their long-term screening. This lack of data on PP concentrations is probably a consequence of the fact that less importance is given to the sediments contamination/quality.

  17. An integrated physical and biological model for anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binxin; Chen, Zhenbin

    2011-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k-ω model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function of temperature. A test of the model applicability is conducted in a covered lagoon digester operated under tropical climate conditions. The commercial CFD software, ANSYS-Fluent, is employed to solve the integrated model. The simulation procedures include solving fluid flow and heat transfer, predicting local resident time based on the converged flow fields, and calculating the BOD reduction and methane production. The simulated results show that monthly methane production varies insignificantly, but the time to achieve a 99% BOD reduction in January is much longer than that in July.

  18. Flooding and Environmental Challenges for Venice and its Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, C. A.; Spencer, T.

    2005-07-01

    Time may be running out for Venice. The frequency of flooding is increasing and Venice is no better protected today than it was in November 1966, when a violent storm surge left the city under 2 metres of floodwater. The environmental future is bleak, with continuing land subsidence, acceleration in the rate of sea level rise and possible changes in storminess in prospect. Surrounding the city is a lagoon ecosystem showing signs of severe environmental degradation. This timely scientific and technical volume synthesises the great volume and diversity of recent interdisciplinary research on Venice and its lagoon. The lessons reported here are relevant not only to Venice but also to all those that live and work under the threat of coastal flooding, including the inhabitants of other great cultural centres, like London and St. Petersburg.

  19. Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.

    1999-11-01

    An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

  20. Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

    1985-02-01

    The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

  1. Comparative study of wastewater lagoon with and without water hyacinth

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.C.; Wolverton, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    A facultative sewage lagoon completely covered with water hyacinths had significant improvement in effluent quality. BOD 5 and total suspended solids (TSS) were 23 and b mg/L respectively. Without water hyacinths, the effluent BOD5 and TSS were 52 and 77 mg/L, respectively. The effluent total organic C concentration was reduced from 72 to 40 mg/L with water hyacinth coverage.

  2. Statistical characterization of spatiotemporal sediment dynamics in the Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniello, Luca; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Botter, Gianluca; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of suspended sediment is crucial when investigating the long-term evolution of tidal landscapes. Here we apply a widely tested mathematical model which describes the dynamics of cohesive and noncohesive sediments, driven by the combined effect of tidal currents and wind waves, using 1 year long time series of observed water levels and wind data from the Venice lagoon. The spatiotemporal evolution of the computed suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is analyzed on the basis of the "peak over threshold" theory. Our analysis suggests that events characterized by high SSC can be modeled as a marked Poisson process over most of the lagoon. The interarrival time between two consecutive over threshold events, the intensity of peak excesses, and the duration are found to be exponentially distributed random variables over most of tidal flats. Our study suggests that intensity and duration of over threshold events are temporally correlated, while almost no correlation exists between interarrival times and both durations and intensities. The benthic vegetation colonizing the central southern part of the Venice lagoon is found to exert a crucial role on sediment dynamics: vegetation locally decreases the frequency of significant resuspension events by affecting spatiotemporal patterns of SSCs also in adjacent areas. Spatial patterns of the mean interarrival of over threshold SSC events are found to be less heterogeneous than the corresponding patterns of mean interarrivals of over threshold bottom shear stress events because of the role of advection/dispersion processes in mixing suspended sediments within the lagoon. Implications for long-term morphodynamic modeling of tidal environments are discussed.

  3. Heavy metals distribution in sediments of Nador lagoon (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloundi, K.; Duplay, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Nador lagoon is a paralic system, located North-East of Morocco. At the present time this ecosystem undergoes an anthropic stress induced by urban, industrial and agricultural releases, and also by fishery activity which enriches this ecosystem in organic and inorganic wastes. A geochemical study has been undertaken, first to define the areas contaminated by heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr and V), and second to caracterize the different mineral phases, which trap these elements. Sediment samples were collected on twenty-eight stations scattered all over the lagoon, and each core (30 cm) was subdivided in two horizons (surface and depth). Mineralogical analyses as well as major and trace elements analyses were performed on surface and deep sediments. The results on major element analyses (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, P) show an enrichment in halite and phosphates in the surface sediments. This highlights on one hand, low water exchange rates between the lagoon and the Mediterranean sea, and on the other hand, an increase in organic releases related to the urban, agricultural and fishery activities. The highest concentrations in inorganic micro-pollutant were recorded N-E of the lagoon and close to Nador city. With reference to the geochemical background, it can be concluded that there is a slight contamination in heavy metals. Moreover, enrichment factor calculations (EF) for heavy metals point out an increase in metal elements as following: Zn>Co>Cr>V>Cu. Sequential extractions were performed to determine the behaviour of these micro-pollutants. Thus, it was shown that carbonates, oxides and phosphates are the preferential mineral phases for trapping these heavy metals.

  4. Industrial waste treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of wastewaters in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, associated equipment, and pretreatment processes are discussed. Included in the references are treatment of wastewaters from breweries, tanneries, paper mills, agricultural operations, and other industrial operations. Descriptions and evaluations of specific facilities are provided. Municipal water and sewage treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 118 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.

    2014-09-01

    Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its

  8. Helminth communities in eels Anguilla anguilla from Adriatic coastal lagoons in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cave, D; Berrilli, F; De Liberato, C; Orecchia, P; Kennedy, C R

    2001-03-01

    The composition and diversity of the total and intestinal component and infra-communities were determined in eels Anguilla anguilla from three shallow lagoons on the Adriatic coast of Italy to determine whether the helminth communities would differ in composition and structure from those in eels from lagoons on the Tyrrhenian coast. The lagoons differed in respect of their management regimes and the extent of freshwater influx. Both freshwater and marine species of helminths were found in the eels in all three lagoons, but the freshwater component was richer in Valle Figheri. A suite of three digenean eel specialist species occurred in all three lagoons, of which any two members dominated each community. This conferred a high degree of similarity between the communities of the three lagoons. The same three species also dominated helminth communities in eels in lagoons along the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy, and compositional similarity levels were similar within and between western and eastern groups. Species richness was higher in the component communities of the eels of the Adriatic lagoons when compared to the Tyrrhenian ones, but diversity and dominance indices were of a similar order of magnitude and range. Intestinal helminth communities were richer and more diverse in two of the Adriatic lagoons because the proportion of eels with zero or one helminth species was, unusually, in the minority. It was nevertheless concluded that infracommunity structure was similar in eels from both western and eastern lagoons and that the hypothesis that it would differ in Adriatic lagoons could not be supported. The findings provide further evidence of the similarity in composition and structure of helminth communities in eels from coastal lagoons throughout Europe.

  9. The Indian Child Welfare Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Katy Jo

    The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…

  10. 76 FR 42722 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Assistant... of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710, the...

  11. 76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  12. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary... section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710,...

  13. Combining radon, short-lived radium isotopes and hydrodynamic modeling to assess submarine groundwater discharge from an anthropized semiarid watershed to a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudron, Paul; Cockenpot, Sabine; Lopez-Castejon, Francisco; Radakovitch, Olivier; Gilabert, Javier; Mayer, Adriano; Garcia-Arostegui, José Luis; Martinez-Vicente, David; Leduc, Christian; Claude, Christelle

    2015-06-01

    In highly anthropized watersheds, surface water tributaries may carry unexpected high quantities of radon and radium to coastal lagoons. Investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with radionuclide tracers is therefore a complex task. In order to quantify SGD and decipher the influence of the different water sources, we combined a radon (222Rn) and short-lived radium (223Ra, 224Ra) survey with the hydrodynamic modeling of a lagoon. We applied it to the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) where surface water tributaries and undocumented emissaries carry water from groundwater drainage and brines from groundwater desalinization. We identified the areas of influence of the plume of radionuclides from the river, located major areas of SGD and proposed a location for two submarine emissaries. Porewater, i.e. interstitial water from underlying sediments, was found to be the most representative SGD end member, compared to continental groundwater collected from piezometers. Mass balances in winter and summer seasons provided yearly SGD fluxes of water of 0.4-2.2 ṡ 108 m3/y (222Rn), 4.4-19.0 ṡ 108 m3/y (224Ra) and 1.3 ṡ 108 m3/y (223Ra, measured in winter only). Tidal pumping was identified as a main driver for recirculated saline groundwater, while fresh submarine groundwater discharge from the aquifer ranged between 2% and 23% of total SGD.

  14. Planning Project in Juvenile Delinquency: Prevention and Control of Delinquency Among Indian Youth in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forslund, Morris A.; Meyers, Ralph E.

    The study was conducted in an effort to ascertain the magnitude and dimensions of the delinquency problem among the American Indian youths from the Wind River Reservation (Wyoming). During the summer of 1971 data were obtained from the records of the Court of Indian Offenses, the Tribal police, the juvenile officer on the reservation, the Riverton…

  15. 76 FR 75906 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, Bemidji, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Resource Director, Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, 3801 Bemidji Avenue NW., Suite 5, Bemidji, MN 56601... recovered from the Big Fork River in Itasca County, MN. At an unknown date, Itasca County Sheriff John Muhar... Indian Affairs Council, 3801 Bemidji Avenue NW., Suite 5, Bemidji, MN 56601, telephone (218)...

  16. 40 CFR 258.42 - Approval of site-specific flexibility requests in Indian country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of site-specific flexibility... site-specific flexibility requests in Indian country. (a) Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community... flexibility provided through this site-specific rule. (9) In seeking any renewal of the authority...

  17. Cockacoeske, Weroansqua of the Pamunkeys, and Indian Resistance in Seventeenth-Century Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Ethan A.

    2012-01-01

    In August 1676 Nathaniel Bacon brought his campaign to "ruin and extirpate all Indians in general" to the Green Dragon Swamp on the upper Pamunkey River. While there, he attacked and massacred nearly fifty Pamunkey Indians, who had been at peace with the government of Virginia for thirty years. Having once formed the backbone of the…

  18. Saline landfill leachate disposal in facultative lagoons for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Orta de Velasquez, M T; Monje-Ramirez, I; Yañez Noguez, I

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of disposing of saline landfill leachates in a Facultative Lagoon Wastewater Treatment Plant (FLWTP). The FLWTP is near a landfill and presents two characteristics: a wastewater influent with low organic matter, and high lagoon salinity due to the soil characteristics. These characteristics made the FLWTP a viable candidate to evaluate the feasibility of adding landfill leachates to the wastewater influent. Different mixtures of leachate with raw wastewater using volumetric ratios of 4%, 6%, and 10% (v/v) were evaluated in facultative lagoon reactors (FLRs). A 10% concentration of leachates in raw wastewater increased BOD5 and COD in the influent from 45 to 110 mg L(-1) and from 219 to 711 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found that the increase in salinity given by the raw wastewater and leachate mixture did not inhibit algae diversity. The types of algae present were Microcystis sp., Merismopedia sp., Euglena sp., Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella, Diatomea and Anacystis sp. However, decreased algae densities were observed, as measured by the decrease in chlorophyll concentration. The results showed that a 100% leachate concentration combined with wastewater did not upset biological treatment in the FLRs. Mean removal efficiencies for BOD5 and COD were 75% and 35%, respectively, giving a final BOD5 lower than 25 mg L(-1). There was also a significant decrease in the leachate heavy metal content when diluted with raw wastewater as result of natural precipitation.

  19. Coastal lagoons and their evolution: A hydromorphological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duck, Robert W.; da Silva, José Figueiredo

    2012-09-01

    From a geoscience perspective, coastal lagoons are essentially ephemeral features which are part of a continuum of coastal environments. Their natural hydromorphological evolution is seldom if ever permitted to take place as a consequence of human action; either directly by engineering interventions, to maintain or create navigable inlets, or indirectly due to activities within their catchment areas. The hydromorphological impacts of historical, contemporary and proposed engineering activities in coastal lagoons around in the world are reviewed and from these a powerful exemplar is that of the Aveiro system in Portugal. Here, two centuries of channelization, jetty and breakwater construction and progressive dredging have transformed a then fluvially dominant system into one that is today tidally dominant. Both the tidal range and tidal prism have increased along with the extent of saline intrusion. The associated stresses imposed by increased tidal currents have, in turn, led to important changes in the sedimentary regime and to the loss of almost all seagrass species which were once abundant in the system. This, along with observations from other related case studies, raises important questions regarding the concept of lagoon ecosystem 'health' and the baseline or reference conditions to which it is assessed.

  20. Plankton bioindicators of environmental conditions in coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemraj, Deevesh A.; Hossain, Md A.; Ye, Qifeng; Qin, Jian G.; Leterme, Sophie C.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal lagoons are characterised by strong spatial gradient of environmental parameters, especially hypersalinity, and are prone to anthropogenic disturbance. The Coorong (South Australia) is an inverse estuarine coastal lagoon separated from the sea by sand dunes. It is exposed to extreme water quality changes that affect its aquatic communities. Here, we used plankton as indicators of extreme environmental fluctuations to monitor and manage the environmental health of such complex systems. We defined the relationship of different plankton communities with water quality fluctuations and determined plankton species suitable for monitoring the ecosystem health. Two distinct communities of phytoplankton and zooplankton were identified, with salinity and nutrients being the principal factors impacting species distribution. Thus, two sets of indicator species were selected based on the different communities observed. Polychaete and gastropod larvae were positive indicators, showing salinity range restriction of brackish to marine. The distribution Acartia cf. fancetti represented healthy hypersaline conditions (salinity 40-60), while Cyclophora sp. and Scrippsiella sp. were negative indicators, correlating with extreme salinity and ammonia levels. The implementation of planktonic organisms as environmental indicators provided a constructive tool for the management of ecosystem health of the Coorong and will be applicable to similar coastal lagoons.

  1. An integrated Pan-European perspective on coastal Lagoons management through a mosaic-DPSIR approach

    PubMed Central

    Dolbeth, Marina; Stålnacke, Per; Alves, Fátima L.; Sousa, Lisa P.; Gooch, Geoffrey D.; Khokhlov, Valeriy; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Lloret, Javier; Bielecka, Małgorzata; Różyński, Grzegorz; Soares, João A.; Baggett, Susan; Margonski, Piotr; Chubarenko, Boris V.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    A decision support framework for the management of lagoon ecosystems was tested using four European Lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine) and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia). Our aim was to formulate integrated management recommendations for European lagoons. To achieve this we followed a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impacts-Responses) approach, with focus on integrating aspects of human wellbeing, welfare and ecosystem sustainability. The most important drivers in each lagoon were identified, based on information gathered from the lagoons’ stakeholders, complemented by scientific knowledge on each lagoon as seen from a land-sea perspective. The DPSIR cycles for each driver were combined into a mosaic-DPSIR conceptual model to examine the interdependency between the multiple and interacting uses of the lagoon. This framework emphasizes the common links, but also the specificities of responses to drivers and the ecosystem services provided. The information collected was used to formulate recommendations for the sustainable management of lagoons within a Pan-European context. Several common management recommendations were proposed, but specificities were also identified. The study synthesizes the present conditions for the management of lagoons, thus analysing and examining the activities that might be developed in different scenarios, scenarios which facilitate ecosystem protection without compromising future generations. PMID:26776151

  2. Decrease in herbicide concentrations and affected factors in lagoons located around Lake Biwa.

    PubMed

    Sudo, M; Nishino, M; Okubo, T

    2006-01-01

    The contamination levels and changes in the concentrations in four lagoons around Lake Biwa of paddy-use herbicide were studied. Four lagoons, Sone-numa (52 days of HRT (hydraulic residence time) estimated from the lagoon volume and the average discharge at the outlet, 21 ha area), Yanagihira-ko (40 days, 5.0 ha), Noda-numa (11 days, 6.0 ha), and Iba-naiko (2 days, 55.5 ha), were selected as monitoring sites. Intensive water sampling was carried out once a week from May to June at the outlet of each lagoon. Although twelve of the monitored herbicides were detected, the maximum concentrations did not exceed the guidelines for water-supply law in Japan. The relation between half-lives in herbicide concentrations and characteristics of a lagoon such as HRT and chlorophyll-a concentrations were examined. The shorter half-lives of herbicide concentrations in lagoons with shorter HRT means that replacement by influent water effectively decreased the pesticide concentrations. Shorter half-lives in lagoons with high chlorophyll-a concentrations between the lagoons with similar HRT suggest that biological degradation during the residence time worked more efficiently in the lagoon with high chlorophyll-a concentrations.

  3. Spatiotemporal variation of bacterial community composition and possible controlling factors in tropical shallow lagoons.

    PubMed

    Laque, Thaís; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Rosado, Alexandre S; Esteves, Francisco A

    2010-05-01

    Bacterial community composition (BCC) has been extensively related to specific environmental conditions. Tropical coastal lagoons present great temporal and spatial variation in their limnological conditions, which, in turn, should influence the BCC. Here, we sought for the limnological factors that influence, in space and time, the BCC in tropical coastal lagoons (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The Visgueiro lagoon was sampled monthly for 1 year and eight lagoons were sampled once for temporal and spatial analysis, respectively. BCC was evaluated by bacteria-specific PCR-DGGE methods. Great variations were observed in limnological conditions and BCC on both temporal and spatial scales. Changes in the BCC of Visgueiro lagoon throughout the year were best related to salinity and concentrations of NO (3) (-) , dissolved phosphorus and chlorophyll-a, while changes in BCC between lagoons were best related to salinity and dissolved phosphorus concentration. Salinity has a direct impact on the integrity of the bacterial cell, and it was previously observed that phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient to bacterial growth in these lagoons. Therefore, we conclude that great variations in limnological conditions of coastal lagoons throughout time and space resulted in different BCCs and salinity and nutrient concentration, particularly dissolved phosphorus, are the main limnological factors influencing BCC in these tropical coastal lagoons.

  4. An integrated Pan-European perspective on coastal Lagoons management through a mosaic-DPSIR approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolbeth, Marina; Stålnacke, Per; Alves, Fátima L.; Sousa, Lisa P.; Gooch, Geoffrey D.; Khokhlov, Valeriy; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Lloret, Javier; Bielecka, Małgorzata; Różyński, Grzegorz; Soares, João A.; Baggett, Susan; Margonski, Piotr; Chubarenko, Boris V.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    A decision support framework for the management of lagoon ecosystems was tested using four European Lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine) and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia). Our aim was to formulate integrated management recommendations for European lagoons. To achieve this we followed a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impacts-Responses) approach, with focus on integrating aspects of human wellbeing, welfare and ecosystem sustainability. The most important drivers in each lagoon were identified, based on information gathered from the lagoons’ stakeholders, complemented by scientific knowledge on each lagoon as seen from a land-sea perspective. The DPSIR cycles for each driver were combined into a mosaic-DPSIR conceptual model to examine the interdependency between the multiple and interacting uses of the lagoon. This framework emphasizes the common links, but also the specificities of responses to drivers and the ecosystem services provided. The information collected was used to formulate recommendations for the sustainable management of lagoons within a Pan-European context. Several common management recommendations were proposed, but specificities were also identified. The study synthesizes the present conditions for the management of lagoons, thus analysing and examining the activities that might be developed in different scenarios, scenarios which facilitate ecosystem protection without compromising future generations.

  5. Influence of Groundwater Seepage on Water Quality and Ecological Health of the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Southern Portugal (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, A. Y.; Newton, A.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater seepage from coastal aquifers has recently been recognized as an overlooked major source of nutrients (N, P) and contaminants to the coastal environment (Biddanda et al., 2009; Fear, Paerl and Braddy, 2007; Kluge et al., 2007; Kroeger and Charette, 2008). Nutrient and contaminants concentrations in groundwater are often much higher than those in river water, compensating for the lower flux of groundwater relative to the lagoon surface water. The Ria Formosa is a coastal lagoon located in the south of Portugal (Algarve, Faro) and surrounded by an intensely farmed area. We hypothesize that water quality and ecological health of the Ria Formosa environments are influenced by past and on-going contamination of terrestrial groundwaters with nutrients from fertilizer, sewage and industry. According to Leote, Ibanhez and Rocha (2005) estimated submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the lagoon to be 3.6 m3 day-1 per linear meter of coastline with freshwater contributions (per volume) ranging from 10% to 50%. SGD as an important nutrient source to the Ria Formosa, estimating annual loads of 36.2 mol (0.507 kg) of Nitrogen, 1.1 mol (0.034 kg) of Phosphorus and 18.6 mol (0.522 kg) of Silicon per meter of coastline. Based on these results, it was suggested that SGD is a potential contributor to the observed nutrification status of the Ria Formosa lagoon. We are testing the following two hypotheses: (1) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of inorganic nutrients in groundwater will be characterized by higher density of Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) distribution, and higher chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen demand, and sediment organic carbon than the pristine site; (2) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of contaminants in groundwater will be characterized by lower AIS dispersal and colonization, and lower chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen

  6. A variational Data Assimilation algorithm to better estimate the salinity for the Berre lagoon with Telemac3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, S. M.; Piacentini, A.; Riadh, A.; Goutal, N.; Razafindrakoto, E.; Zaoui, F.; Gant, M.; Morel, T.; Duchaine, F.; Thual, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Berre lagoon is a receptacle of 1000Mm3 where salty sea water meets fresh water discharged by the hydroelectric plant at Saint-Chamas and by natural tributaries (Arc and Touloubre rivers). Improving the quality of the simulation of the hydrodynamics of the lagoon with TELEMAC 3D, EDF R&D at LNHE aims at optimizing the operation of the hydroelectric production while preserving the lagoon ecosystem. To do so and in a collaborative framework with CERFACS, a data assimilation (DA) algorithm is being implemented, using the Open-Palm coupler, to make the most of continuous (every 15 min) and in-situ salinity measurements at 4 locations in the lagoon. Preliminary studies were carried out to quantify the difference between a reference simulation and the observations on a test period. It was shown that the model is able to relatively well represent the evolution of the salinity field at the observating stations, given some adjustements on the forcing near Caronte. Still, discrepancies up to several g/l remain and could be corrected with the DA algorithm. Additionally, some numerical features should be fixed to insure the robustness of the code with respect to compiling plateforms and parallel computing. Similarly to the meteorological and oceanographic approaches, the observations are used sequentially to update the hydrodynamical state. More specifically, a 3D-FGAT algorithm is used to correct the salinity state at the beginning of an assimilation window. This variational algorithm lies on the hypothesis that the tangent linear physics can be approximated by a persistent model over a chosen time window. Sensitivity tests on a reference run showed that in order to cope with this constraint, the analysis time window should be at most 3h. For instance, it was show that a local positive salinity increment of 0.5 g/l introduced at -5m is dissipated by the numerical model over 1 day (physical and numerical diffusion mostly) (Figure a). Using an average estimate of the

  7. Unlocking Indian Maritime Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    installment of a maritime strategy, Indian strategy has been expanding since India’s partition from the British Empire. India appears poised to assume...After partition it did not represent a totally Indian force, as almost all of its top leadership and most of its strategic planning was conducted by the...arm of the Royal navy and after the partition of the subcontinent and the Royal Indian Naval force, India possessed four sloops, two frigates, one

  8. The effect of floods on sediment contamination in a microtidal coastal lagoon: the lagoon of Lesina, Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Raffaele; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Zonta, Roberto; Fabbrocini, Adele

    2014-10-01

    The effects on the microtidal lagoon of Lesina of runoff and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities were investigated combining chemical analyses of pollutants [11 metals and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs)], determination of organic matter and grain size, and performance of innovative ecotoxicological tests. For metals, enrichment factors >3 for arsenic, nickel, and copper (Cu) were observed in the eastern zone of the lagoon, which is affected by nearby urban activities with discharge of water and domestic waste and by agricultural input with waters rich in fertilizers. Cu was correlated with no other metal, and its high concentrations (≤77 µg g(-1)) may result from the use of Cu-based fungicides in vineyards. Total PAHs (2,230 ± 3,150 ng g(-1)) displayed a wide range of concentrations with hot spots near freshwater inputs from the part of the catchment area exploited for wheat crops. Pyrolitic contamination also emerged, with higher-mass PAH congeners, such as asphalt, bitumen or coal, usually present in higher fractions as the dominant components. Ecotoxicological evaluations recorded moderate to high toxicity levels; the innovative MOT test bioassay showed good discriminatory ability because it identified a lagoon area whose inputs mainly depend on agricultural activities and which is impacted by metals rather than PAHs. Floods during periods of heavy rain and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities may impact vulnerable systems, such as the lagoon of Lesina, where the presence of hot spots with remarkably high pollution values was observed.

  9. Depositional history and fault-related studies, Bolinas Lagoon, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berquist, Joel R.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of core sediments and seismic reflection profiles elucidate the structure and depositional history of Bolinas Lagoon, Calif., which covers 4.4 km 2 and lies in the San Andreas fault zone at the southeast corner of the Point Reyes Peninsula 20 km northwest of San Francisco. The 1906 trace of the San Andreas fault crosses the west side of the lagoon and was determined from (1) tectonically caused salt-marsh destruction indicated by comparison of 1854 and 1929 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.C. & G.S.) topographic surveys, (2) formation of a tidal channel along the border of destroyed salt marshes, and (3) azimuths of the trend of the fault measured in 1907. Subsidence in the lagoon of 30 cm occurred east of the San Andreas fault in 1906. Near the east shore, seismic-reflection profiling indicates the existence of a graben fault that may connect to a graben fault on the Golden Gate Platform. Comparison of radiocarbon dates on shells and plant debris from boreholes drilled on Stinson Beach spit with a relative sea-level curve constructed for southern San Francisco Bay indicates 5.8 to more than 17.9 m of tectonic subsidence of sediments now located 33 m below mean sea level. Cored sediments indicate a marine transgression dated at 7770?65 yrs B.P. overlying freshwater organic-rich lake deposits. Fossil pollen including 2 to 8 percent Picea (spruce) indicate a late Pleistocene (?)-Early Holocene climate, cooler, wetter, and foggier than at present. Above the transgression are discontinuous and interfingering sequences of transgressive-regressive marine, estuarine, and barrier sediments that reflect rapid lateral and vertical shifts of successive depositional environments. Fossil megafauna indicate (1) accumulation in a protected, shallow-water estuary or bay, and (2) that the lagoon was probably continuously shallow and never a deep-water embayment. Analysis of grain-size parameters, pollen frequencies, and organic remains from a core near the north end of

  10. Seasonal Variation of the Macrozoobenthic Community Structure at Low Salinities in a Mediterranean Lagoon (Monolimni Lagoon, Northern Aegean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2004-09-01

    The macrozoobenthic community structure and dynamics at low salinities (0.3-6 psu) in a Mediterranean lagoon (Monolimni lagoon) were investigated. Samples were collected monthly from February 1998 to February 1999 at two sampling stations. Community structure was analyzed by means of uni- and multivariate methods. 21 taxa were collected; the amphipod Corophium orientale and the gastropod Ventrosia maritima dominated the assemblages. Total abundance peaked (50,000-60,000 individuals m-2) in mid or late autumn. Community structure showed an almost even seasonal periodicity; seasonal changes were mainly derived from the intense variation in abundance of most species and the non-occurrence of a few ones (e.g. Corophium insidiosum, Polydora ciliata) in spring and summer. Non- occurrence, which led to a depression of the most diversity indices, was possibly the only direct impact of the extremely low salinities (~0.3 psu) on community structure. The main structuring factors of the community in the deeper outer part of the lagoon were water temperature and depth, and in the innermost part, where a Ruppia maritima meadow occurred, were water temperature and predation pressure by crabs (Carcinus aestuarii) and gobies (Knipowitchia caucasica). A temporary decline in total abundance in summer followed an increase in abundance of these predators. (

  11. Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.; DeSutter, T. M.

    2001-05-01

    Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm/day to 2.4 mm/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), which accounted for over 99 percent of the soluble nitrogen, ranged from 10 ppm to 3500 ppm. On average, nitrogen concentrations in swine lagoons were about five times higher than those at cattle feedlots. The chemical flux density (flux boundary condition) was estimated from the seepage rate and the corresponding waste chemistry data from each lagoon. Results showed that ammonium-N export was between 0.02 and 1.06 kg NH4-N m-2 yr^{-1} with an overall average of about 0.3 kg NH4-N m^{-2} yr^{-1}$ . Similar data are available for other soluble compounds. Soil cores were collected beneath eight lagoons that had been operated from 12 to 25 years. Results showed that NH4-N was strongly adsorbed by the soil clay particles and that nitrogen concentrations often decreased to background levels at 3 m beneath the lagoon. Other ions, such as chloride, penetrated to much lower depths at all locations. The 'reservoir' of NH4-N that exists beneath older lagoons could convert to nitrate and move to lower depths after lagoon closure. Data suggest that the properties if the soil beneath lagoons, the concentration of the waste, the seepage rate, and the depth to groundwater are the crucial factors that affect the risk of groundwater contamination.

  12. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

  13. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  14. Yakima Indian Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Migrant and Indian Education, Toppenish, WA.

    This booklet was prepared by the Yakima Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs, to provide information to the public on the history and customs of the Yakima Indian Nation, as well as explaining life on the Reservation today. The events mentioned range from 1775 to July 1, 1971. Since this document only skims the surface of Yakima culture and history,…

  15. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  16. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

  17. The American Indian Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, George

    This guide provides a basic source of historical and contemporary Indian information from an American Indian perspective and includes study questions at the end of each section. The primary function of this guide is to be a quick-study reference handbook. Basic questions essential to understanding current problems and issues of American Indians…

  18. American Indian Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  19. An American Indian Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tvedten, Benet, Comp.

    The anthology is intended to be a discovery for the many Americans whose superficial knowledge of the American Indians has been derived from history books, Hollywood films, and other stereotyped views of the Indian culture. Understanding and appreciation of a particular culture can be found in the stories and poetry of the people. This small…

  20. Suicide in American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    This book reviews present knowledge about suicidal behavior in American Indians, prevention efforts in Native communities, and recommendations for understanding suicidal behavior and developing suicide prevention efforts. Data from Canadian aboriginal groups is also included. Chapter 1 explains why suicide in American Indians is of concern to…

  1. Black Hawk. The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Maggi

    Born in 1767, Black Hawk was the last great war leader of the Sauk Indians, who lived in the Rock River valley in Illinois. By age 25, he was a famed warrior and leader of his people who raided neighboring tribes until a period of peace and prosperity began about 1800. Various treaties of which the Sauk knew and understood very little deprived the…

  2. Career Education and the American Indian. Fall 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. School of Education.

    These materials are for use in the instruction on current occupations existing on the Standing Rock, Cheyenne River, Sisseton, Lower Brule, Crow Creek, Flandreau, Pine Ridge, Rosebud, and Yankton Sioux Indian Reservations in South Dakota. Objectives of the materials are to help learners identify the geographical locations of each of the nine Sioux…

  3. Indian Heritage: A Selected Book List for All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Public Library, CO.

    This book list, a sampling of resources from the Denver Public Library, pertains to the Indians of North America, especially those west of the Mississippi River. The annotated list is divided into two main parts: "Adult and Young Adult Books, Films, and Records" and "Children's Books, Films, and Records." The bulk of the list is adult and young…

  4. Recent sedimentary history of organic matter and nutrient accumulation in the Ohuira Lagoon, northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Frignani, Mauro; Tesi, Tommaso; Bojórquez-Leyva, Humberto; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2007-08-01

    (210)Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates, as well as a suite of geochemical proxies (Al, Fe, delta(13)C, delta(15)N), were used to assess the time-dependent variations of C, N, and P fluxes recorded in two sediment cores collected at Ohuira Lagoon, in the Gulf of California, Mexico, during the last 100 years. Sedimentary C, N, and P concentrations increased with time and were related to land clearing, water impoundment, and agriculture practices, such as fertilization. C:N:P ratios and delta(13)C suggested an estuarine system that is responsive to increased C loading from a N-limited phytoplankton community, whereas delta(15)N values showed the transition between an estuarine-terrestrial to an estuarine-more marine environment, as a consequence of the declining freshwater supply into the estuary due to the channeling and impoundment of El Fuerte River between 1900 and 1956. The recent increases in nutrient fluxes (2- to 9-fold the pre-anthropogenic fluxes of C and N, and 2 to 13 times for P) taking place in the mainland from the 1940s, were related to the expansion of the intensive agriculture fields and to the more recent development of shrimp farming activities.

  5. Coral reefs of the Mascarenes, Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Turner, John; Klaus, Rebecca

    2005-01-15

    The reefs of the Mascarenes differ in structure and stage of development. Mauritius is the oldest island, bound by a discontinuous fringing reef and small barrier reef, with large lagoon patch reefs. Rodrigues has nearly continuous fringing reefs bounding an extensive lagoon with deep channels and few patch reefs. Reunion, the youngest island, has short stretches of narrow fringing reefs along southwestern coasts. The islets of St Brandon are bound to the east by an extensive arc of fringing reef. Reef mapping of the Mascarenes using satellite imagery provides an estimate of 705 km2 of shallow reef habitats. These areas have been modified over geological time by changes in sea level, ocean-atmosphere disturbances and biological and chemical forcing. Further modification has resulted from historical changes in land-use patterns. Recent economic development has placed many of these reefs at risk from anthropogenic impact. The reefs of the Mascarenes have escaped mass mortality from bleaching to date, which increases their conservation significance within the wider Indian Ocean. The reefs are poorly protected. A case study shows how a geographic information system incorporating reef-habitat maps can help formulate and demonstrate Marine Protected Area boundaries.

  6. Plant growth and elemental uptake by floating vegetation on a single stage swine wastewater lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing on the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2008 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

  7. Using floating vegetation to remove nutrients from an anaerobic swine wastewater lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing in the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2007 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

  8. Improving estimates of N and P loads in irrigation water from swine manure lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The implementation of nutrient management plans (NMPs) for confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) requires recording N and P loads from land-applied manure, including nutrients applied in irrigation water from manure treatment lagoons. By regulation, lagoon irrigation water nutrient records in ...

  9. Decline of phosphorus, copper, and zinc in anaerobic lagoon columns receiving pretreated influent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. These lagoons usually require a sludge management plan for their maintenance consisting of regular sludge removal by mechanical agitation and pumping followed by land application at agr...

  10. Survival of Salmonella enterica in aerated and nonaerated wastewaters from dairy lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces end up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped with...

  11. Changes in sludge accumulation of anaerobic swine lagoons receiving pretreated influent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the changes in sludge depth and volume of anaerobic swine lagoon in North Carolina after six years of applying treatment to the liquid flushed manure prior to entering the lagoon. The farm had seven swine barns with a permitted capacity of 5,145 head feeder to finish (735 head/b...

  12. Methane and ammonia emissions from New Mexico dairy lagoons in summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gaseous emissions of concern from commercial dairy operations include methane and ammonia. Dairy wastewater lagoons are sources of emission for both these gases. We quantified emissions of methane and ammonia from a lagoon system at a commercial open lot dairy in eastern New Mexico using open path l...

  13. Measuring gas emissions from animal waste lagoons with an inverse-dispersion technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques due to non-ideal conditions such as trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and short fetch to establish equilibrated microclimate conditions within the water bo...

  14. Microbial community analysis of swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons by next-generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ducey, Thomas F; Hunt, Patrick G

    2013-06-01

    Anaerobic lagoons are a standard practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. This practice relies heavily on microbiological processes to reduce concentrated organic material and nutrients. Despite this reliance on microbiological processes, research has only recently begun to identify and enumerate the myriad and complex interactions that occur in this microbial ecosystem. To further this line of study, we utilized a next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to gain a deeper insight into the microbial communities along the water column of four anaerobic swine wastewater lagoons. Analysis of roughly one million 16S rDNA sequences revealed a predominance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified as belonging to the phyla Firmicutes (54.1%) and Proteobacteria (15.8%). At the family level, 33 bacterial families were found in all 12 lagoon sites and accounted for between 30% and 50% of each lagoon's OTUs. Analysis by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) revealed that TKN, COD, ORP, TSS, and DO were the major environmental variables in affecting microbial community structure. Overall, 839 individual genera were classified, with 223 found in all four lagoons. An additional 321 genera were identified in sole lagoons. The top 25 genera accounted for approximately 20% of the OTUs identified in the study, and the low abundances of most of the genera suggests that most OTUs are present at low levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that anaerobic lagoons have distinct microbial communities which are strongly controlled by the environmental conditions present in each individual lagoon.

  15. The Defense Committees of Sleepy Lagoon: A Convergent Struggle against Fascism, 1942-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barajas, Frank P.

    2006-01-01

    The Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee originated as an ad hoc committee and evolved to a broad-based movement for legal justice on behalf of seventeen youth convicted of murder and assault charges in connection with the Sleepy Lagoon case in Los Angeles in January 1943. This essay chronicles the multidimensional organizing to shift public opinion in…

  16. Increased bioavailability of mercury in the lagoons of Lomb, Togo: the possible role of dredging.

    PubMed

    Gnandi, Kissao; Han, Seunghee; Rezaie-Boroon, M Hassan; Porrachia, Magali; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2011-02-01

    Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives major waste inputs, has not been dredged and shows less tidal flushing. Accordingly, one naturally believes that the Eastern lagoon is cleaner and probably safe to use due to its natural resources, including fishes to eat. Unexpectedly, we describe here that mercury methylation was greater in the Eastern lagoon, indicating increased bioavailability of mercury, as probably facilitated by past dredging that decreased solid-phase retention of inorganic mercury. Urbanization has historically been more developed in the southern part of the lagoons, which is still reflected in contamination levels of sediment despite dredging, probably because sources of contamination are still more important there today. Such urban contamination emphasizes the need to regulate waste discharges and possible airborne contamination in growing cities of developing countries, and implements environmental and public health monitoring, especially in relation to misbelieves systematically associated with the cleansing effect of dredging activity.

  17. 75 FR 53960 - Chignik Lagoon Power Utility; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Chignik Lagoon Power Utility; Notice of Declaration of Intention and... Lagoon Power Utility. e. Name of Project: Packers Creek Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Packers Creek Hydroelectric Project will be located on Packers Creek, near the community of Chignik...

  18. Influence of nutrient input on the trophic state of a tropical brackish water lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, D.; Patra, Sivaji; Muduli, Pradipta R.; Vardhan, K. Vishnu; R, Abhilash K.; Robin, R. S.; Subramanian, B. R.

    2015-07-01

    Ecosystem level changes in water quality and biotic communities in coastal lagoons have been associated with intensification of anthropogenic pressures. In light of incipient changes in Asia's largest brackish water lagoon (Chilika, India), an examination of different dissolved nutrients distribution and phytoplankton biomass, was conducted through seasonal water quality monitoring in the year 2011. The lagoon showed both spatial and temporal variation in nutrient concentration, mostly altered by freshwater input, regulated the chlorophyll distribution as well. Dissolved inorganic N:P ratio in the lagoon showed nitrogen limitation in May and December, 2011. Chlorophyll in the lagoon varied between 3.38 and 17.66 mg m -3. Spatially, northern part of the lagoon showed higher values of DIN and chlorophyll during most part of the year, except in May, when highest DIN was recorded in the southern part. Statistical analysis revealed that dissolved NH-N and urea could combinedly explain 43% of Chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) variability which was relatively higher than that explained by NO-N and NO-N (12.4%) in lagoon water. Trophic state index calculated for different sectors of the lagoon confirmed the inter-sectoral and inter-seasonal shift from mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions largely depending on nutrient rich freshwater input.

  19. Dynamics of copper and zinc sedimentation in a lagooning system receiving landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Guigue, Julien; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Denimal, Sophie; Steinmann, Marc; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Grisey, Hervé

    2013-11-01

    This study characterises the sediment dredged from a lagooning system composed of a settling pond and three lagoons that receive leachates from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in France. Organic carbon, carbonate, iron oxyhydroxides, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were measured in the sediment collected from upstream to downstream in the lagooning system. In order to complete our investigation of sedimentation mechanisms, leachates were sampled in both dry (spring) and wet (winter) seasonal conditions. Precipitation of calcite and amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides and sedimentation of organic matter occurred in the settling pond. Since different distributions of Zn and Cu concentrations are measured in sediment samples collected downstream in the lagooning system, it is suggested that these elements were not distributed in a similar way in the leachate fractions during the first stage of treatment in the settling pond, so that their sedimentation dynamics in the lagooning system differ. In the lagoons, it was found that organic carbon plays a major role in Cu and Zn mobility and trapping. The presence of macrophytes along the edges provided an input of organic matter that enhanced Cu and Zn scavenging. This edge effect resulted in a two-fold increase in Cu and Zn concentrations in the sediment deposited near the banks of the lagoons, thus confirming the importance of vegetation for the retention of Cu and Zn in lagooning systems.

  20. Induction of Purple Sulfur Bacterial Growth in Dairy Wastewater Lagoons by Circulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine if circulation of diary wastewater induces the growth of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). Methods and Results: Two dairy wastewater lagoons that were similar in size, geographic location, number and type of cattle loading the lagoons were chosen. The only obvious diffe...

  1. Plankton community dynamics in a subtropical lagoonal system and related factors.

    PubMed

    Donadel, Letícia; Cardoso, Luciana de S; Torgan, Lezilda C

    2016-03-01

    Changes of the plankton community in a shallow, subtropical lagoonal system and its relation to environmental conditions were investigated during an annual cycle to provide information on its spatial and seasonal variation pattern. The study carried out at four sites (three in the Peixe lagoon and one in the Ruivo lagoon), which are located in the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, southern Brazil. The system has a temporary connection to the Atlantic Ocean by a narrow channel. The phytoplankton density was higher in the Peixe lagoon whereas the specific richness was higher in the Ruivo lagoon which is also a site with the lower salinity. The phytoplankton biomass near the channel showed seasonal variation with the highest value in fall and lowest in winter. Zooplankton richness was inversely correlated with salinity, and had the highest values in the Ruivo lagoon. Ordination analysis indicated seasonal and spatial patterns in plankton community in this lagoonal system, related to variation in salinity. In addition, the wind action and precipitation were important factors on the spatial and seasonal salinity changes in the lagoon with direct influence on the plankton community dynamics.

  2. Improving N and P estimates for swine manure lagoon irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management plans (NMPs) for confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) require a record of N and P loads from manure land-applications, including irrigation with lagoon water. Mississippi regulations require nutrient records for lagoon irrigation water be based on at least one annual analy...

  3. Project summary. PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE (EPA/600/S2-89/015)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactlvation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was filled with 7.56 mL of ...

  4. Evidence of North Africa’s Green Revolution Preserved in Sedimentary Organic Matter Deposited in Three Coastal Lagoons.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the dep...

  5. Seasonal variation in heat fluxes, predicted emissions of malodorants, and wastewater quality of an anaerobic swine waste lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of p-cresol above a wastewater lagoon were modeled from February through June based on equations developed in a previous study. Using this model, in which p-cresol concentrations were calculated based on lagoon evaporation and net available radiation at the lagoon surface, predic...

  6. Identifying tsunami deposits using shell taphonomy: Sur lagoon, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, S.; Reinhardt, E.; Rothaus, R.; Boyce, J.

    2007-05-01

    On November 28th, 1945 an 8.1 magnitude earthquake focused in the eastern portion of the Makran subduction zone (Arabian Sea) generated a powerful tsunami that destroyed many coastal villages in Pakistan and India. Reports indicate that the tsunami also caused significant damage in Muscat, Oman, although its effects elsewhere in Oman are unknown. A thick bivalve dominated shell horizon was discovered inside the Sur lagoon, which is located on the eastern promontory of Oman (200 km south of Muscat). This shell deposit is significant because it is laterally extensive (> 1 km2), extends deep within the lagoon (>2 km), ranges in thickness from 5 - 25 cm at the sample localities, contains numerous subtidal and offshore bivalve species, and articulated subtidal and offshore bivalve species are abundant. Although there is an absence of typical tsunami indicators such as allochthonous sediment in and around the lagoon, verbal accounts, cultural evidence recovered during coring, and the absence of strong storms during the past 100 years indicates that this shell unit was caused by the 1945 tsunami. In this setting, it would be advantageous to have another proxy for tsunami detection and risk prediction. The use of shell taphonomy is one of the potential indicators and here we present new evidence of its utility. We sampled this unit in eight locations, and compared the shell taphonomy to surface shell samples collected from beach and reworked horizons in the lagoon, and to shell samples from a known tsunami and corresponding storm/ballast deposit in Israel (Reinhardt et al., 2006). Taphonomic analysis yielded promising results, as the two tsunami horizons shared excellent agreement between the amount of fragmented shells, and the percentage of shells displaying angular breaks. Both of these categories were significantly different from the percentage of fragments and angular fragments recovered from the reworked, beach, and storm/ballast deposits, indicating different

  7. Indians in Indian Fiction: The Shadow of the Trickster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velie, Alan R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies mythic dimension of protagonists in novels by American Indian authors Scott Momaday and James Welch. Illustrates discrepancies between White readers' beliefs about Indians and Indian myths of the trickster and how mythologies affect interpretation of the novels. Contrasts use of myth by Indian authors Leslie Silko and Gerald Vizenor. (LFL)

  8. Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J. ); Yruela, I.; Saizjimenez, C. ); Toja, J. ); Leeuw, J.W. De. )

    1991-09-01

    A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C{sub 30}-C{sub 32}, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5{alpha}(H)- and 5{beta}(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17{beta}(H), 21{beta}(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C{sub 30}-C{sub 33} hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

  9. Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimalt, J. O.; Yruela, I.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Toja, J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Albaigés, J.

    1991-09-01

    A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C30-C32, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5α(H)- and 5β(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17β(H),21β(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C30-C33 hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

  10. Survival of Salmonella enterica in aerated and nonaerated wastewaters from dairy lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z

    2014-10-29

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization.

  11. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, G M; Schneider, R C; Colin, P L; Buddemeier, R W; Suchanek, T H

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. Studies of the burial of fallout radionuclides have been conducted on the islands and in several of the large craters, but studies of their vertical distribution have been limited to about the upper 20 cm of the lagoon sediments. We have found elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon.

  12. Modelling of oxygen and nitrogen cycling as a function of macrophyte community in the Thau lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plus, M.; Chapelle, A.; Lazure, P.; Auby, I.; Levavasseur, G.; Verlaque, M.; Belsher, T.; Deslous-Paoli, J.-M.; Zaldívar, J.-M.; Murray, C. N.

    2003-11-01

    A three-dimensional model coupling physical and biological processes for the whole Thau lagoon (Mediterranean coast of France) was developed in order to assess the relationships between macrophytes and the oxygen and nitrogen cycles. Ten species have been inserted as forcing variables in the model. Plankton dynamics, shellfish cultivation impact and mineralization of organic matter are also considered, as well as nutrient and oxygen exchanges between the sediment and the water column. Simulations with and without the macrophytes have shown that the system can be characterized as having a highly structured pattern involving lagoon nitrogen and oxygen cycles. This pattern is created by the combined influence of macrophytes, watershed and oyster farming. The model has been also used to assess the total annual macrophyte production at the whole lagoon scale. Comparisons with phytoplankton production and with results from other temperate lagoons have underlined the high productivity of the Thau lagoon supported by active nutrient regeneration.

  13. The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

  14. Algal fossils from a late precambrian, hypersaline lagoon.

    PubMed

    Oehler, D Z; Oehler, J H; Stewart, A J

    1979-07-27

    Organically preserved algal microfossils from the Ringwood evaporite deposit in the Gillen Member of the Bitter Springs Formation (late Precambrian of central Australia) are of small size, low diversity, and probable prokaryotic affinities. These rather primitive characteristics appear to reflect the stressful conditions that prevailed in a periodically stagnant, hypersaline lagoon. This assemblage (especially in comparison with the much more diverse assemblages preserved in the Loves Creek Member of the same formation) illustrates the potential utility of Proterozoic microbiotas for basin analysis and local stratigraphic correlation and demonstrates the need to base evolutionary considerations and Precambrian intercontinental biostratigraphy on biotas that inhabited less restricted environments.

  15. [Lagoonal and coastal malaria at Cotonou: entomological findings].

    PubMed

    Akogbéto, M

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, malaria control is planned according to the epidemiological context. Various aspects of malaria have been described in sub-Saharan Africa. We report here entomological data from the coastal area of Benin, West Africa, which has many lakes and lagoons. We carried out a longitudinal study in which we investigated the dynamics of populations of malaria vectors in various zones, the frequency of inoculation in these zones, the infestation rate of the Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes collected, the effect of urbanization on malaria transmission, the effects of inundation and of salinity at mosquito breeding sites. A total of 3, 342 identifications were made on a chromosomal basis. Two species of the Anopheles gambiae complex were detected in the coastal and lagoon areas of Benin: An. melas and An. gambiae ss. The density of the populations of these species was highly dependent on the level of urbanization. In traditional villages on the lagoons (such as Agbalilamè, Djegbadji and Kétonou), the density of An. melas (86. 2%) was much higher than that in more urbanized areas (such as Ladji and Abomey-Calavi) (4.9%). We checked for chromosome polymorphism. We detected a 2Rn1 inversion in An. melas, similar to the 2Rn inversion found in mosquitoes in Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The frequency of the n1 inversion and the density of An. melas populations were correlated and both seemed to depend on a single factor, salinity. The epidemiological situation with respect to malaria was very heterogeneous in the lagoon area of Benin. In the city of Cotonou, transmission was seasonal, sporozoite indices and the frequency of inoculation were high, in contrast to what would normally be expected in an urban area. In communities built on the beach, the level of transmission was markedly lower: about 5 infected bites per person per year versus 29 infected bites per person in the center of the city. In the traditional fishing villages, a paradoxical situation was observed in which the

  16. The Chemehuevi Indians of Southern California. Malki Museum Brochure No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald Dean; Miller, Peggy Jeanne

    The only local tribe to migrate into California during recorded history, the Chemehuevi Indians had one of the largest tribal areas in California, though their population probably never exceeded 800. Today most live on the Colorado River Reservation, where they share membership with the Colorado River tribes. First mentioned in a priest's report…

  17. First steps of ecological restoration in Mediterranean lagoons: Shifts in phytoplankton communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leruste, A.; Malet, N.; Munaron, D.; Derolez, V.; Hatey, E.; Collos, Y.; De Wit, R.; Bec, B.

    2016-10-01

    Along the French Mediterranean coast, a complex of eight lagoons underwent intensive eutrophication over four decades, mainly related to nutrient over-enrichment from continuous sewage discharges. The lagoon complex displayed a wide trophic gradient from mesotrophy to hypertrophy and primary production was dominated by phytoplankton communities. In 2005, the implementation of an 11 km offshore outfall system diverted the treated sewage effluents leading to a drastic reduction of anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus into the lagoons. Time series data have been examined from 2000 to 2013 for physical, chemical and biological (phytoplankton) variables of the water column during the summer period. Since 2006, total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations as well as chlorophyll biomass strongly decreased revealing an improvement in lagoon water quality. In summertime, the decline in phytoplankton biomass was accompanied by shifts in community structure and composition that could be explained by adopting a functional approach by considering the common functional traits of the main algal groups. These phytoplankton communities were dominated by functional groups of small-sized and fast-growing algae (diatoms, cryptophytes and green algae). The trajectories of summer phytoplankton communities displayed a complex response to changing nutrient loads over time. While diatoms were the major group in 2006 in all the lagoons, the summer phytoplankton composition in hypertrophic lagoons has shifted towards green algae, which are particularly well adapted to summertime conditions. All lagoons showed increasing proportion and occurrence of peridinin-rich dinophytes over time, probably related to their capacity for mixotrophy. The diversity patterns were marked by a strong variability in eutrophic and hypertrophic lagoons whereas phytoplankton community structure reached the highest diversity and stability in mesotrophic lagoons. We observe that during the re

  18. Investigation of lagoon lakes in Kocacay delta by using remote sensing method.

    PubMed

    Irtem, Emel; Sacin, Yener

    2012-04-01

    Coasts are areas that are under the influence of the interaction of the air, water and land and attract attention with the abundance of their natural resources and therefore are subjected to excessive usage. This excessive usage may disturb the sensitive balance of the coast ecosystem. In this study, the changes in Arapçiftligi, Poyraz, Dalyan lakes area found in Kocacay delta located in the south coast of Marmara sea was evaluated between the periods of 2000 to 2007 with remote sensing method. These lakes, located on the shores, have a very sensitive naturally dynamic balance and very importance in terms of natural surroundings and the coastal zones management plan. It must be known the change of the lakes mentioned above area according to years. Research and applications have demonstrated the advantages of remote sensing and geographic information system techiques on river,delta, lake, lagoon lake, sensitivite areas in a lakeshore, coastal erosion etc. monitoring and management. In the study, we benefited from Erdas and Intergraph-Geomedia 6.1 image processing and GIS, and also from AutoCAD 2007 and NetCAD 4.0 computer-aided design (CAD) software. For 2000, 2001, 2005 and 2007 years (4 number) Landsat-5 TM satellite images belonging to the region were used. As a result of the study, Arapçiftligi, Dalyan and Poyraz lake areas, number of islets that are seen in the lakes were given in respect to years. Arapçiftligi lake shrank 29.5% in size in the years 2000 and 2007. The fact that the lake continued to get smaller in size even in periods of high precipitation may be due to the sediment flowing from the agricultural fields established close to the lake area. Dalyan and Poyraz lakes lost 60% in terms of their surface area in the years 2000 and 2007. In 2000-2001 periods, Dalyan and Poyraz lakes increased in size by 3.2%. The reason for this could be the excessive precipitation and the fact that the seawater from Marmara sea seeps into the lake. Protection of the

  19. Federal Financing of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loon, Eric Van

    Since over 200 million Federal dollars are disbursed annually for American Indian education under Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I, Indian Education Act Title IV, and Johnson O'Malley programs, it is difficult to understand the dismal state of Indian education. However, factors contributing to abuse of…

  20. Information About Indians of Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toothman, Maryann; Jensen, Denise

    An intermediate or junior high level unit on Indians indigenous to Iowa focuses on history, culture, and cultural conflict between the Indians and white Americans. Many of the materials can be adapted for use in other states or for a more general unit on American Indians. Twenty lessons cover the location of Iowa; prehistoric Iowa; Indian society…

  1. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewas (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  2. 75 FR 38834 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...: 2010-16214] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy and Economic Development, Washington, DC 20240, (202) 219-4066. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under Section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of...

  3. The American Indian Development Bank?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

  4. Lobomycosis in Colombian Amer Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Toro, G; Tellez, N

    1992-10-01

    Several foci of lobomycosis among Colombian Amer Indians population were described in the Casanare region of Colombia, near the Orinoco river on the Colombian-Venezuelan border. This paper reports 16 new patients. The prevalence of Lobo's disease was 8.5% in the Amoruas tribe. Nodular lesions were located on the elbow, scapular and lumbar regions, knees, feet and legs. Leg lesions were especially numerous, were confluent and tended to ulcerate. All cases were confirmed histologically. Two Negro patients were also described. The cases bring the total number of confirmed patients with lobomycosis in Colombia to 41. Twenty-five of these were Amer Indian patients from tribes living in the Orinoco and Amazon basins of the country.

  5. Colorado River Basin Development Its Potential Impact on Tribal Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackenberg, Robert A.

    1976-01-01

    Since no mechanism presently exists for the effective distribution of tribal income to tribal members, the wealth created by development of natural resources on the American Indian reservations of the Colorado River Basin will not substantially alter the quality of Indian life. (JC)

  6. 2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map Showing Progress for the Fiscal Year 1927. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1927. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, District #4, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 29, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  7. Mineralogical characteristics of the sediments of a Himalayan river: Yamuna River — a tributary of the Ganges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, P. K.; Vaithiyanathan, P.; Subramanian, V.

    1993-09-01

    Almost the entire suspended load of Yamuna River is transported during the monsoon period; quartz and illite are the dominant minerals of these suspended sediments. Basin lithology, tributary contributions, and sediment grain size seem to control mineral distribution in the sediments. Trace metal concentrations of Yamuna core sediments reflect their mineralogical composition. Illite is the chief clay mineral of the Himalayan river sediments. The mineralogical characteristics of the Himalayan river sediments differ significantly from the Peninsular Indian rivers, which chiefly carry montmorillonite.

  8. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  9. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  10. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  11. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  12. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  13. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  14. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  15. [Antimicrobial activity of Actinomycetale isolated from the lagoon in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Alliouch-Kerboua, Chérifa; Gacemi Kirane, Djamila; La Scola, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In the aim of the study of the taxonomy and the antimicrobial activity, a strain of actinomycete SM2/2GF which was isolated from sediment of the lagoon El-Mellah which is situated in the city of El-Kala in the Northeast of Algeria, was tested against diverse pathogenic microorganisms and against a Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila which was isolated from water of the lagoon El-Mellah. The phenotypic and the molecular characteristics show that the isolate SM2/2GF belongs to the kind Streptomyces. This strain showed an antimicrobial activity against a Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila and the positive-Gram bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as the yeast Candida albicans. It has no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The interesting antimicrobial activity of the strain SM2/2GF against the pathogenic microorganisms could encourage further researches on one or several bioactive molecules which it secretes.

  16. Temporal changes of a macrobenthic assemblage in harsh lagoon sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Como, Serena; Magni, Paolo

    2009-08-01

    An opportunistic macrobenthic assemblage was studied from 2001 to 2003 in a central area of the Cabras lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy), known to be affected by environmental disturbances (i.e. organic over-enrichment of sediments, and episodic events of hypoxia/anoxia and sulphide development). We identified recurrent seasonal changes in this macrobenthic assemblage, with a general impoverishment in summer and a recovery in winter/spring. The nereids Neanthes succinea and Hediste diversicolor were found to replace the spionid Polydora ciliata as the most dominant species in the summer for 3 consecutive years. Occasional, unsynchronized appearances of small-sized deposit feeders, such as Tubificidae, Capitella cf. capitata, chironomid larvae and Hydrobia spp., were observed in winter/spring. We suggest that these changes are driven by the interplay of environmental conditions (worse in summer) with numerous biotic factors. This includes different tolerance levels of taxa to low oxygen concentrations and sulphides, variability in larval supply and post-larval transport, as well as competition for space and food between and within different functional groups, and facilitation through animal bioturbation and sediment reoxidation. A conceptual model is proposed to demonstrate how environmental conditions and biotic interactions may control the benthic assemblage in such a harsh lagoon environment.

  17. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  18. Tourism and Indian Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    A cursory review of Federal support to the Eastern Cherokees shows that the Cherokee Historical Association and not the Cherokee Indians are the recipients and beneficiaries of many Federal grants. (JC)

  19. Indians on the Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamail, Milton H.

    1977-01-01

    Although the Kickapoo have actively sought to preserve their culture at Nacimiento in Coahuila, Mexico, evidence of an eroding culture is found at Eagle Pass, Texas where American Indian migrant workers reside temporarily. (JC)

  20. Indian Summer for Wayfarers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltenbronn, Kyra

    1977-01-01

    A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

  1. Ishi: A Yahi Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Yahi Indians were part of a larger tribal group called the Yana. The Yahi way of life, along with the lives of many other California Indian groups, changed when European and U.S. settlers came to California. In 1872 Ishi and his family were the last of the Yahi living in the Deer Creek (California) area. By 1911 Ishi was the last surviving…

  2. Transport and dispersion of particulate Hg associated with a river plume in coastal Northern Adriatic environments.

    PubMed

    Covelli, Stefano; Piani, Raffaella; Acquavita, Alessandro; Predonzani, Sergio; Faganeli, Jadran

    2007-01-01

    The role of suspended particulate matter (SPM) as an important carrier of mercury (Hg) dispersed into the Gulf of Trieste and in the adjacent Grado lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea) was studied during a high Isonzo River inflow and the resulting river plume formation. Despite the fact that extreme flood events are rare during the year, they account for most of the PHg influx (37-112 ngL(-1)) into the Gulf of Trieste. When the river plume is diverted to the SW under the influence of an E-NE wind, the tidal flux acts as a "transport belt" carrying the PHg, mostly inorganic, into the Grado lagoon. A preliminary estimation indicates that the amount of PHg entrapped in the lagoon basin following a tidal semi-cycle accounts for 1.4 kg/12h, which corresponds to about 49% of the total Hg carried by the tidal flow. These findings should be considered in future remediation strategies in the lagoon environment.

  3. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part II: The Indian Tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    Part II of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Documents are included relative to the Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, Lac du Flambeau, and the Red Cliff bands of Lake Superior Chippewa…

  4. IEEE-1588 Deployed on the Eastern Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Connectivity Secure Shell Management Console 42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 346  Hummingbird HostExplorer Open...Brevard County Florida Indian River Lagoon Banana River Lagoon File: THAMS_map_20101004.pptx 33 miles 5.6 miles Figure 3. THAMS general location map

  5. 25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section 31.3... Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian children who are not eligible for... of maintenance in the school attended, when their presence will not exclude Indian pupils...

  6. Sludge-Drying Lagoons: a Potential Significant Methane Source in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuting; Ye, Liu; van den Akker, Ben; Ganigué Pagès, Ramon; Musenze, Ronald S; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-02

    "Sludge-drying lagoons" are a preferred sludge treatment and drying method in tropical and subtropical areas due to the low construction and operational costs. However, this method may be a potential significant source of methane (CH4) because some of the organic matter would be microbially metabolized under anaerobic conditions in the lagoon. The quantification of CH4 emissions from lagoons is difficult due to the expected temporal and spatial variations over a lagoon maturing cycle of several years. Sporadic ebullition of CH4, which cannot be easily quantified by conventional methods such as floating hoods, is also expected. In this study, a novel method based on mass balances was developed to estimate the CH4 emissions and was applied to a full-scale sludge-drying lagoon over a three year operational cycle. The results revealed that processes in a sludge-drying lagoon would emit 6.5 kg CO2-e per megaliter of treated sewage. This would represent a quarter to two-thirds of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). This work highlights the fact that sludge-drying lagoons are a significant source of CH4 that adds substantially to the overall GHG footprint of WWTPs despite being recognized as a cheap and energy-efficient means of drying sludge.

  7. Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of wastewater pretreatment. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metals, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, fed sequentially with untreated water. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In seven-day chronic tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was as low as 20%, and 100% mortality occurred at 40%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC was > 50% but complete mortality occurred in undiluted effluent. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. Its undiluted effluent had no effect on survival, but did markedly reduce fecundity. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

  8. A comparative study of the pollution status of Sakumo II and Muni lagoons in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tay, Collins; Asmah, Ruby; Biney, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    The pollution status of Sakumo II and Muni Lagoons and Mamahuma and Gbagbla Ankonu feeder streams, which feed Sakumo II along the coast of Ghana, were assessed and compared. As expected of saline waters, pH values of both lagoons fell within a slightly neutral to saline range whilst, the feeder streams were moderately saline. Conductivity distribution also showed saline (>5.0 mS cm(-1)) characteristics of the lagoons, while, the feeder streams are brackish (1.5-5.0 mS cm(-1)). DO concentrations in both lagoons indicated a wide variation. Relatively high BOD and nutrients content of Sakumo II and the feeder streams suggested that, Sakumo II and its feeder streams are moderately to grossly polluted. However, Muni Lagoon was characterized by relatively low BOD and nutrients content suggesting relatively low anthropogenic impact. The ionic dominance patterns for Sakumo II and Muni Lagoons were: Na(+) > Mg(2 + ) > Ca(2 + ) and Cl(-) > HCO(3)(-) > SO(4)(2-), Na(+) > Ca(2 + ) > Mg(2 + ) and Cl(-) > HCO(3)(-) > SO(4)(2-), respectively. Using water quality index (WQI), Sakumo II was found to be grossly polluted and requires mitigation measures, while, Muni Lagoon was of fairly good quality and requires monitoring.

  9. A Bayesian network model for assessing natural estrogen fate and transport in a swine waste lagoon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W; Yost, Erin; Meyer, Michael T; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, C Michael; Reckhow, Kenneth H

    2014-10-01

    Commercial swine waste lagoons are regarded as a major reservoir of natural estrogens, which have the potential to produce adverse physiological effects on exposed aquatic organisms and wildlife. However, there remains limited understanding of the complex mechanisms of physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern the fate and transport of natural estrogens within an anaerobic swine lagoon. To improve lagoon management and ultimately help control the offsite transport of these compounds from swine operations, a probabilistic Bayesian network model was developed to assess natural estrogen fate and budget and then compared against data collected from a commercial swine field site. In general, the model was able to describe the estrogen fate and budget in both the slurry and sludge stores within the swine lagoon. Sensitivity analysis within the model demonstrated that the estrogen input loading from the associated barn facility was the most important factor in controlling estrogen concentrations within the lagoon slurry storage, whereas the settling rate was the most significant factor in the lagoon sludge storage. The degradation reactions were shown to be minor in both stores based on prediction of average total estrogen concentrations. Management scenario evaluations demonstrated that the best possible management options to reduce estrogen levels in the lagoon are either to adjust the estrogen input loading from swine barn facilities or to effectively enhance estrogen bonding with suspended solids through the use of organic polymers or inorganic coagulants.

  10. Genesis, distribution, and dynamics of lagoon marl extrusions along the Curonian Spit, southeast Baltic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Ryabchuk, Daria; Buynevich, Ilya; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhov, Dmitry; Bitinas, Albertas; Pupienis, Donatas

    2016-04-01

    The unique geological process of extrusion of lagoon marl from beneath the massive migrating sand dunes is characteristic for large segments of the Curonian Spit - a ~100-km-long sandy barrier that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. The exposures of a composite set of Holocene organic sediments such as gyttja, clayey gyttja, and gyttja clay, commonly referred to as "lagoon marl", are common along the northern half of the lagoon coast of the spit. These outcrops of lagoon marl rise up to 3-4 m above the lagoon level and were formed by extrusion from their 7-8 m in situ depth beneath the present regional water table. New detailed investigations of the Baltic Sea bottom along the southern half of the Curonian Spit using side-scan sonar, multibeam echosounder, seismic imaging, sediment sampling, and video observations allowed identification and mapping of a unique underwater landscape formed by extensive outcrops of laminated and folded lagoon marl at water depths of 5-15 m. The combined onshore-offshore database indicates that the relict lagoon marl was deformed, compacted, and dehydrated by a massive dune-covered coastal barrier migrating landward (retrograding) over these sediments during the Litorina Sea transgression in a processes termed "dune tectonics". Spatial analysis of structures of the relict sediments traced in offshore geophysical data help constrain the rates of the southeastly migration of the dune massif. A conceptual dynamic model is presented to explain the present occurrence of marl exposures above the regional water table, as well as the occurrence of relict lagoon marl extrusions (diapirs) on the underwater marine slope of the Curonian Spit. This research was funded by a RFBR project 13-05-90711 and RSF project 14-37-00047 «Geoenvironmental conditions of marine management of natural recourses of the Russian sector of South-Eastern Baltic».

  11. Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of minimizing toxicity and reducing wastewater parameters. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metal concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, which received municipal waste. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In a definitive seven-day chronic test with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was 20%, and the IC{sub 50} for reproduction was 22.3%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC and IC{sub 50} were 80 and 71.8%, respectively. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. The NOEC was 80% and the IC{sub 50} was 75.9. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. A 7-day embryo larval test conducted with Pimephales promelas yielded similar results. NOEC values increased through the lagoon system and were 2.5, 40.0, 40.0 and 100%, respectively. Acute TIE procedures implicated both metals and ammonia as primary toxicants. In all tests a sequential reduction in toxicity was observed through the lagoons. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

  12. Comparative study based on sediment characteristics and macrobenthic communities in two Italian lagoons.

    PubMed

    Specchiulli, Antonietta; Renzi, Monia; Scirocco, Tommaso; Cilenti, Lucrezia; Florio, Marisa; Breber, Paolo; Focardi, Silvia; Bastianoni, Simone

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse sediment characteristics and macrobenthic assemblages in two very close Italian coastal lagoons (Lesina and Varano) and to assess the different behaviour between the two basins and the relationship between sediment matrix and benthic organisms within and between the two lagoons. The comparative study was performed in July 2007 at 13 sampling sites in Lesina lagoon and 15 sites in Varano basin for sediment grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and macrobenthic structure analyses. Both lagoons were generally dominated by fine-grained sediments (clay and silt components). The average contents of TOC and TN measured in Lesina was higher than in Varano (3.31% vs 2.52% for TOC and 5,200 microg.g(-1) vs 3,713 microg.g(-1) for TN); in contrast, the TP was lower (540 microg.g(-1) vs 620 microg.g(-1)). Based on macrobenthic community patterns, the central zone in Varano lagoon and the eastern area in Lesina lagoon were characterised by the lowest abundance (168.7 ind.m(-2) and 503.2 ind.m(-2), respectively) and by the lowest number of species, as highlighted by the diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener, H' range was 0.47-1.45 for Lesina and 0.00-1.68 for Varano; Margalef species richness, d range was 0.00-1.67 for Lesina lagoon and 0.00-2.38 for Varano basin). Ordination diagrams suggested an influence of marine and freshwater inputs on the sediment distribution in Varano lagoon and on macrobenthic assemblages in Lesina lagoon.

  13. Regime shifts in coastal lagoons: Evidence from free-living marine nematodes.

    PubMed

    Netto, Sergio A; Fonseca, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    We test the validity of using the regime shift theory to account for differences in environmental state of coastal lagoons as a response to variation in connectivity with the sea, using free-living nematodes as a surrogate. The study is based on sediment samples from the inner and outer portions of 15 coastal lagoons (5 open to the sea, 5 intermittently open/closed, and 5 permanently closed lakes) along the southern coast of Brazil. Environmental data suggested that there are two contrasting environmental conditions, with coastal lakes being significantly different from open and intermittent lagoons. Marine nematode assemblages corroborate these two mutually exclusive alternative stable states (open vs. closed systems), but assemblages from the intermittently open/closed lagoons showed a gradual change in species composition between both systems independently of the environmental conditions. The gradient in the structural connectivity among lagoons and the sea, due to their regime shifts, changes the movement of resources and consumers and the internal physico-chemical gradients, directly affecting regional species diversity. Whereas openness to the sea increased similarity in nematode assemblage composition among connected lagoons, isolation increased dissimilarity among closed lagoons. Our results from a large-scale sampling program indicated that as lagoons lose connectivity with the sea, shifting the environmental state, local processes within individual intermittently open/closed lagoons and particularly within coastal lakes become increasingly more important in structuring these communities. The main implication of these findings is that depending on the local stable state we may end up with alternative regional patterns of biodiversity.

  14. Regime shifts in coastal lagoons: Evidence from free-living marine nematodes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We test the validity of using the regime shift theory to account for differences in environmental state of coastal lagoons as a response to variation in connectivity with the sea, using free-living nematodes as a surrogate. The study is based on sediment samples from the inner and outer portions of 15 coastal lagoons (5 open to the sea, 5 intermittently open/closed, and 5 permanently closed lakes) along the southern coast of Brazil. Environmental data suggested that there are two contrasting environmental conditions, with coastal lakes being significantly different from open and intermittent lagoons. Marine nematode assemblages corroborate these two mutually exclusive alternative stable states (open vs. closed systems), but assemblages from the intermittently open/closed lagoons showed a gradual change in species composition between both systems independently of the environmental conditions. The gradient in the structural connectivity among lagoons and the sea, due to their regime shifts, changes the movement of resources and consumers and the internal physico-chemical gradients, directly affecting regional species diversity. Whereas openness to the sea increased similarity in nematode assemblage composition among connected lagoons, isolation increased dissimilarity among closed lagoons. Our results from a large-scale sampling program indicated that as lagoons lose connectivity with the sea, shifting the environmental state, local processes within individual intermittently open/closed lagoons and particularly within coastal lakes become increasingly more important in structuring these communities. The main implication of these findings is that depending on the local stable state we may end up with alternative regional patterns of biodiversity. PMID:28235030

  15. Toxic metals in Venics lagoon sediments: Model, observation, an possible removal

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, A.; Molinaroli, E.

    1994-11-01

    We have modeled the distribution of nine toxic metals in the surface sediments from 163 stations in the Venice lagoon using published data. Three entrances from the Adriatic Sea control the circulation in the lagoon and divide it into three basins. We assume, for purposes of modeling, that Porto Marghera at the head of the Industrial Zone area is the single source of toxic metals in the Venice lagoon. In a standing body of lagoon water, concentration of pollutants at distance x from the source (C{sub 0}) may be given by C=C{sub 0}e{sup -kx} where k is the rate constant of dispersal. We calculated k empirically using concentrations at the source, and those farthest from it, that is the end points of the lagoon. Average k values (ppm/km) in the lagoon are: Zn 0.165, Cd 0.116, Hg 0.110, Cu 0.105, Co 0.072, Pb 0.058, Ni 0.008, Cr (0.011) and Fe (0.018 percent/km), and they have complex distributions. Given the k values, concentration at source (C{sub 0}), and the distance x of any point in the lagoon from the source, we have calculated the model concentrations of the nine metals at each sampling station. Tides, currents, floor morphology, additional sources, and continued dumping perturb model distributions causing anomalies (observed minus model concentrations). Positive anomalies are found near the source, where continued dumping perturbs initial boundary conditions, and in areas of sluggish circulation. Negative anomalies are found in areas with strong currents that may flush sediments out of the lagoon. We have thus identified areas in the lagoon where higher rate of sediment removal and exchange may lesson pollution. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Trophic structure and functioning in a eutrophic and poorly flushed lagoon in southwestern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsing-Juh; Dai, Xiao-Xun; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Su, Huei-Meei; Lo, Wen-Tseng; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Fang, Lee-Shing; Hung, Jia-Jang

    2006-07-01

    Tapong Bay, a eutrophic and poorly flushed tropical lagoon, supports intensive oyster culture. Using the Ecopath approach and network analysis, a mass-balanced trophic model was constructed to analyze the structure and matter flows within the food web. The lagoon model is comprised of 18 compartments with the highest trophic level of 3.2 for piscivorous fish. The high pedigree index (0.82) reveals the model to be of high quality. The most-prominent living compartment in terms of matter flow and biomass in the lagoon is cultured oysters and bivalves, respectively. The mixed trophic impacts indicate that phytoplankton and periphyton are the most-influential living compartments in the lagoon. Comparative analyses with the eutrophic and well-flushed Chiku Lagoon and non-eutrophic tropical lagoons show that high nutrient loadings might stimulate the growth and accumulation of phytoplankton and periphyton and therefore support high fishery yields. However, net primary production, total biomass, fishery yields per unit area, and mean transfer efficiency of Tapong Bay were remarkably lower than those of Chiku Lagoon. The lower transfer efficiency likely results from the low mortality of cultured oysters and invasive bivalves from predation or the lower density of benthic feeders constrained by the hypoxic bottom water as a result of poor flushing. This might therefore result in a great proportion of flows to detritus. However, the hypoxic bottom water might further reduce the recycling of the entering detritus back into the food web. In contrast to many estuaries and tropical lagoons, poor flushing of this eutrophic tropical lagoon might induce a shift from detritivory to herbivory in the food web.

  17. The potential for water hyacinth to improve the quality of Bogota River water in the Muña Reservoir: comparison with the performance of waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, E; Garzón, A

    2002-01-01

    The potential application of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in organic matter degradation, sedimentation, nutrient and heavy metal absorption and sulfur reduction in the Muña Reservoir has been tested in experimental lagoons. The lagoons were operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 6, 9 and 15 days. One lagoon was covered with Water Hyacinth, which is naturally growing in the Muña Reservoir, while another lagoon was operated as a conventional oxidation pond. The Water Hyacinth lagoon had better removal efficiencies for almost all parameters measured: BOD5, total suspended solids, COD, nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals. The oxidation lagoon was facultative for HRT of 9 and 15 days, and anoxic when operated at 6 days HRT. At HRT of 15 days the water quality in the effluent of the covered lagoon corresponded to 12 mg/l of BOD, 6 mg/l of suspended solids and 0.8 mg/l of hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide levels in the Muña reservoir can be substantially reduced at HRT higher than 15 days in both lagoons. The uncovered lagoon had better hydrogen sulfide removal during the day but presents high levels at night. If the hydraulic retention time in the Muña reservoir is increased, the water quality of the Bogota river can be substantially improved for all the HRTs tested in the pilot units. HRT seems to give a better prediction of overall effluent water quality than surface loading. More research is needed in order to define the optimum water hyacinth density in the Muña reservoir to determine its influence on the water quality of the effluent. The influence is expected to be negative due to an internal increase of BOD, solids, nutrients and metals loads due to plant decay.

  18. Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Markes E.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Backus, David H.; González, Maria R.

    2012-07-01

    Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of thrombolites with a knobby surface morphology 2 cm to 3 cm in relief and internal clotting without any sign of laminations. Outward from this zone, thrombolitic construction thins to merge with a white calcified crust below which a soft substratum of dark organic material 4 cm to 6 cm in thickness is concealed. The substratum is laminated and heavily mucilaginous, as observed along the edges of extensive shrinkage cracks in the overlying crust. The thrombolitic crust is anchored to the shore, while the thinner crust and associated stromatolitic mats float on the surface of the lagoons. Laboratory cultures of the dark organic material yielded the solitary cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis as the predominant taxon interspersed with filamentous forms. In decreasing order of abundance, other morphotypes present include Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Geitlerinema, Chroococus, and probably Spirulina. The larger of the two island lagoons follows an east-west azimuth and covers 0.225 km2, while the smaller lagoon has a roughly north-south axis and covers only 0.023 km2. The salinity of water in the smaller lagoon was measured as148 ppt. Pliocene strata along the edge of the smaller modern lagoon include siltstone bearing calcified platelets suggestive of a microbial origin. Dry lagoons abandoned during the later Quaternary occur inland at higher elevations on the island, but retain no fossils except for sporadic white crusts cemented on cobbles around distinct margins. Raised Quaternary lagoons parallel to the big lagoon on Isla Angel de la Guarda are partly obscured by flood

  19. Identification and characterisation of potential sources of nitrate pollution in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) applying a multi-isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccon, P.; Leis, A.; Marca, A.; Kaiser, J.; Campisi, L.; Böttcher, M. E.; Savarino, J.; Escher, P.; Eisenhauer, A.; Erbland, J.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrate (δ15N, δ18O and Δ17O), boron (δ11B) and water (δ2H and δ18O) were used to identify and characterize of multiple nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and part of its catchment area. The stable isotopes in nitrate measured by the denitrifier method have been adopted to differentiate among nitrate coming from agriculture (synthetic and natural fertilizers), airborne nitrate and nitrate from nitrification processes in soils. Boron isotopes have been used to identify the impact of domestic wastewaters to the aquatic system using the LA-MC-ICP-MS method. The combined use of NO3 and B isotopes has proved to be an effective means in identifying multiple nitrate pollution sources because these isotopes co-migrate in many environmental settings, their isotopes are fractionated by different environmental processes, and because wastewater and fertilizers may have distinct isotopic signatures for N and B. The stable isotopes of water have been used to calculate mixing ratios between sea and fresh water as well as to estimate the mean altitude of the recharge area of surface waters. Additionally, the stable isotopes of sulphate (δ34S and δ18O) have been adopted to trace natural and anthropogenic sources of sulphur in agricultural watersheds as well as in coastal systems. In order to characterize the chemical composition of the different water types the concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, HCO3-, PO43-, total phosphorus and total boron have been analyzed. Moreover, the physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, salinity and temperature have been measured. To identify the origins and fate of nitrate a water monitoring program was implemented in the Marano lagoon and part of its catchment area. The water monitoring program involved the collection of water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater up-welling line, groundwater

  20. Marine microbial communities of the Great Barrier Reef lagoon are influenced by riverine floodwaters and seasonal weather events

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Candice; Morgan, Thomas C.; Tonin, Hemerson; Rich, Virginia; Schaffelke, Britta; Bourne, David G.; Tyson, Gene W.

    2016-01-01

    The role of microorganisms in maintaining coral reef health is increasingly recognized. Riverine floodwater containing herbicides and excess nutrients from fertilizers compromises water quality in the inshore Great Barrier Reef (GBR), with unknown consequences for planktonic marine microbial communities and thus coral reefs. In this baseline study, inshore GBR microbial communities were monitored along a 124 km long transect between 2011 and 2013 using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Members of the bacterial orders Rickettsiales (e.g., Pelagibacteraceae) and Synechococcales (e.g., Prochlorococcus), and of the archaeal class Marine Group II were prevalent in all samples, exhibiting a clear seasonal dynamics. Microbial communities near the Tully river mouth included a mixture of taxa from offshore marine sites and from the river system. The environmental parameters collected could be summarized into four groups, represented by salinity, rainfall, temperature and water quality, that drove the composition of microbial communities. During the wet season, lower salinity and a lower water quality index resulting from higher river discharge corresponded to increases in riverine taxa at sites near the river mouth. Particularly large, transient changes in microbial community structure were seen during the extreme wet season 2010–11, and may be partially attributed to the effects of wind and waves, which resuspend sediments and homogenize the water column in shallow near-shore regions. This work shows that anthropogenic floodwaters and other environmental parameters work in conjunction to drive the spatial distribution of microorganisms in the GBR lagoon, as well as their seasonal and daily dynamics. PMID:26839738