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Sample records for indian white prawn

  1. Effect of high pressure treatment on microbiological quality of Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Ginson, J; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Bindu, J; Kamalakanth, C K; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-04-01

    High pressure treatment of 250 MPa for 6 min at 25 °C was applied to headless Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) to evaluate changes in microbiological characteristics of the species during chilled storage. Changes in load of mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., H2S producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and yeast & mold were estimated in pressurized and un-pressurized samples during chilled storage. All microbes were reduced significantly after high pressure treatment and there was significant difference in microbial quality of control and high pressure treated samples in the entire duration of chilled storage (p < 0.05). There was delay in the growth of Enterobacteriaceae and H2S producing bacteria up to 6th and 9th day of storage, respectively in high pressure treated samples. In high pressure treated sample, no lag phase (λ) was observed for psychrotrophic bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, B. thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria; however, other bacteria showed a reduced lag phase during chilled storage. Kinetic parameter such as specific growth rate (μmax) in high pressure treated samples was significantly reduced in most of the bacterial groups except for psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Mesophilic bacterial count of control samples crossed the marginal limit of acceptability on 12th day and unacceptable limit on 18th day of storage, whereas high pressure treated samples never breached the acceptability limit during entire duration of chilled storage. The present study indicated that application of high pressure processing can be used to improve microbial quality of Indian white prawn and extend the chilled storage life.

  2. Full-length cloning and phylogenetic analyses of translationally controlled tumour protein and ferritin genes from the Indian white prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards).

    PubMed

    Nayak, S; Ramaiah, N; Meena, R M; Sreepada, R A

    2014-02-01

    Elucidation, through molecular analyses, of bacterial afflictions in commercially important aquaculture-reared shrimps is pivotal for the prevention and/or control of disease outbreaks. In this study, we examined the phylogenetic relatedness and compared the possible immune-related functional roles of both translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) and ferritin genes with previous studies. Both TCTP and ferritin genes were substantially upregulated in the Indian white prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards), post-larvae following bath challenge with the virulent strain of bacteria, Vibrio harveyi D3. Full-length cloning of these genes by rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends -polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) yielded 727-base pair (bp)-long TCTP and 1212-bp-long ferritin gene sequences. Their open reading frames (ORFs) were 507 and 510 bp, respectively. The TCTP-ORF coded for 168 amino acids with three substitutions at positions 37, 141, 155, and the ferritin ORF coded for 170 amino acids with no species-specific substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis suggested the closest relatedness of both TCTP and ferritin from F. indicus to Chinese white prawn, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck). In addition to reporting the full-length sequences of these immune-relevant genes, this study highlighted their conserved natures, which perhaps make them important defence-related proteins in the innate immune system of F. indicus.

  3. White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2012-09-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD

  4. White Tail Disease of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Sahul Hameed, A S; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2012-09-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most important cultured freshwater prawn in the world and it is now farmed on a large scale in many countries. Generally, freshwater prawn is considered to be tolerant to diseases but a disease of viral origin is responsible for severe mortalities in larval, post-larval and juvenile stages of prawn. This viral infection namely white tail disease (WTD) was reported in the island of Guadeloupe in 1995 and later in Martinique (FrenchWest Indies) in Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, Australia and Malaysia. Two viruses, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus-like particle (XSV) have been identified as causative agents of WTD. MrNV is a small icosahedral non-enveloped particle, 26-27 nm in diameter, identified in the cytoplasm of connective cells. XSV is also an icosahedral virus and 15 nm in diameter. Clinical signs observed in the infected animals include lethargy, opaqueness of the abdominal muscle, degeneration of the telson and uropods, and up to 100 % within 4 days. The available diagnostic methods to detect WTD include RT-PCR, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization and ELISA. In experimental infection, these viruses caused 100 % mortality in post-larvae but failed to cause mortality in adult prawns. The reported hosts for these viruses include marine shrimp, Artemia and aquatic insects. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of MrNV and XSV in M. rosenbergii. The results indicate that WTD may be transferred from infected brooders to their offspring during spawning. Replication of MrNV and XSV was investigated in apparently healthy C6/36 Aedes albopictus and SSN-1 cell lines. The results revealed that C6/36 and SSN-1cells were susceptible to these viruses. No work has been carried out on control and prevention of WTD and dsRNA against protein B2 produced RNAi that was able to functionally prevent and reduce mortality in WTD

  5. Anaphylactic shock to oysters and white fish with generalized urticaria to prawns and white fish.

    PubMed

    González Galán, I; García Menaya, J M; Jiménez Ferrera, G; González Mateos, G

    2002-01-01

    Because seafood consumption is moderate-to-high in Spain, allergic reactions to seafood such as fish, crustacea and mollusc are fairly frequent. The clinical features of these reactions depend on the implicated species and whether the reaction is provoked by ingestion, handling or vapor inhalation. Because different species have common antigenic structures, cross-sensitization is frequent, especially between crustaceans and molluscs. Contamination of fish by nematodes (Anisakis) may produce severe reactions. We report the case of a female patient with no personal or family history of allergy who experienced two episodes of anaphylactic shock: the first occurred immediately after eating oysters and the second after ingestion of white fish. The patient also developed generalized urticaria provoked by crustacean (prawns) and white fish. The results of skin prick tests were negative for fish, shellfish, crustacean and oysters while in vitro tests were positive for oyster, prawns, Anisakis, Ascaris and Echinococcus, although stool samples and gastric endoscopy were negative.

  6. An Indian in White America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Mark; Reyer, Carolyn, Ed.

    In his autobiography, Mark Monroe relates his life experiences as a Lakota Sioux Indian in White America. The book begins with Monroe reminiscing about his happy childhood on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota. In 1941 his family moved to Alliance, Nebraska, and his father Dakota. In 1941 his family moved to Alliance, Nebraska, and his father…

  7. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas. PMID:20862200

  8. Toll receptor response to white spot syndrome virus challenge in giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinling; Zhao, Lingling; Jin, Min; Li, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Chen, Yihong; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls. The transcripts of MrToll are mainly distributed in the heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. A low level of MrToll expression can be detected in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ. MrToll expression in gills was gradually upregulated to the highest level from 24 h to 48 h during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression levels of the crustin (Cru) genes Cru3 and Cru7 in gills were relatively lower than those of Cru2 and Cru4. The expression levels of Cru3 and Cru7 were inhibited after the RNA interference of MrToll in gills during the WSSV challenge. The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) genes ALF2, ALF3, ALF4, and ALF5 were also regulated by MrToll in gills during the virus challenge. These findings suggest that MrToll may contribute to the innate immune defense of M. rosenbergii against WSSV.

  9. Antibiotics in South Indian coastal sea and farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Venkatesh; Nagalingam, Arun Kumar; Ranganathan, Hari Prasad; Kandhikuppam, Krishnamoorthy Bharathi; Kothandam, Hari Prasath; Vasu, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Sulphonamides and chloramphenicol antibiotics were analysed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in sea and farmed prawn (Penaeus monodon) samples obtained from the coastal region of southern India during 2011-2012. Average recoveries were 77-99% and precision was between 1% and 8%. The results revealed that in sea prawn samples neither of the two antibiotics was detected, but in farmed samples from coastal Andhra Pradesh some sulphonamides were detected in a concentration range greater than the maximum residual limit as set by Council Directive 2377/90 EC. PMID:24779904

  10. Toll receptor response to white spot syndrome virus challenge in giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinling; Zhao, Lingling; Jin, Min; Li, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Chen, Yihong; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls. The transcripts of MrToll are mainly distributed in the heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. A low level of MrToll expression can be detected in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ. MrToll expression in gills was gradually upregulated to the highest level from 24 h to 48 h during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression levels of the crustin (Cru) genes Cru3 and Cru7 in gills were relatively lower than those of Cru2 and Cru4. The expression levels of Cru3 and Cru7 were inhibited after the RNA interference of MrToll in gills during the WSSV challenge. The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) genes ALF2, ALF3, ALF4, and ALF5 were also regulated by MrToll in gills during the virus challenge. These findings suggest that MrToll may contribute to the innate immune defense of M. rosenbergii against WSSV. PMID:27542619

  11. Immune gene discovery by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of hemocytes in the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yafei; Liu, Ping; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian; Chen, Ping

    2013-01-01

    The ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda is one of the most important commercial species in eastern China. However, little information of immune genes in E. carinicauda has been reported. To identify distinctive genes associated with immunity, an expressed sequence tag (EST) library was constructed from hemocytes of E. carinicauda. A total of 3411 clones were sequenced, yielding 2853 ESTs and the average sequence length is 436 bp. The cluster and assembly analysis yielded 1053 unique sequences including 329 contigs and 724 singletons. Blast analysis identified 593 (56.3%) of the unique sequences as orthologs of genes from other organisms (E-value < 1e-5). Based on the COG and Gene Ontology (GO), 593 unique sequences were classified. Through comparison with previous studies, 153 genes assembled from 367 ESTs have been identified as possibly involved in defense or immune functions. These genes are categorized into seven categories according to their putative functions in shrimp immune system: antimicrobial peptides, prophenoloxidase activating system, antioxidant defense systems, chaperone proteins, clottable proteins, pattern recognition receptors and other immune-related genes. According to EST abundance, the major immune-related genes were thioredoxin (141, 4.94% of all ESTs) and calmodulin (14, 0.49% of all ESTs). The EST sequences of E. carinicauda hemocytes provide important information of the immune system and lay the groundwork for development of molecular markers related to disease resistance in prawn species. PMID:23092732

  12. An Investigation into Occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus Outbreak in Traditional Paddy Cum Prawn Fields in India

    PubMed Central

    Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K. M.; Mohamed Hatha, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    A yearlong (September 2009–August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8 mg/L) throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds. PMID:22593673

  13. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of peroxiredoxin 5 gene in the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Liu, Ping; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian; Gao, Baoquan; Chen, Ping

    2013-12-01

    Peroxiredoxin is a superfamily of antioxidative proteins that play important roles in protecting organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species. In this study, a full-length of peroxiredoxin 5 (designated EcPrx5) cDNA was cloned from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of the EcPrx5 was of 827 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 14 bp, a 3' UTR of 228 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame of 585 bp encoding a polypeptide of 194 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 20.83 kDa and estimated isoelectric point of 7.62. BLAST analysis revealed that amino acids of EcPrx5 shared 89, 68, 66, 65, 53 and 51 % identity with that of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Megachile rotundata, Harpegnathos saltator, Acromyrmex echinatior, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens counterparts, respectively. The conserved Prx domain and the signature of peroxiredoxin catalytic center identified in EcPrx5 suggested that EcPrx5 belonged to the atypical 2-Cys Prx subgroup. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that EcPrx5 could be detected in all the tested tissues with highest expression level in hepatopancreas. As time progressed, the expression level of EcPrx5 both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased in the first 6 h after Vibrio anguillarum and white spot syndrome virus challenge, and showed different expression profiles. The results indicated that EcPrx5 involved in immune response against bacterial and viral infection in E. carinicauda. PMID:24141991

  14. Red Women, White Policy: American Indian Women and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Linda Sue

    This paper discusses American Indian educational policies and implications for educational leadership by Indian women. The paper begins with an overview of federal Indian educational policies from 1802 to the 1970s. As the tribes have moved toward self-determination in recent years, a growing number of American Indian women have assumed leadership…

  15. Molecular responses of calreticulin gene to Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV challenge in the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Liu, Ping; Li, Jitao; Wang, Yun; Li, Jian; Chen, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), as a highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum luminal resident protein, plays important roles in Ca(2+) homeostasis, molecular chaperoning and response to viral infection. In this study, a full-length cDNA of CRT (designated EcCRT) was cloned from hemocytes of the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EcCRT was 1725 bp, which contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 57 bp, 3'-UTR of 453 bp with a poly (A) tail, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1215 bp, encoding a 404 amino-acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 46.51 kDa and estimated isoelectric point of 4.32. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcCRT shared high identity (82%-85%) with that of other crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EcCRT of E. carinicauda was clustered together with CRT of other shrimps, indicating that EcCRT should be a member of the CRT family. Quantitative real-time RT-qPCR analysis indicated that EcCRT was expressed in hemocytes, gill, hepatopancreas, muscle, ovary, intestine, stomach and eyestalk, with the highest expression level in hemocytes. After Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV challenge, the expression level of EcCRT transcripts both in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas of E. carinicauda were up-regulated in the first 6 h, respectively. The results suggested that EcCRT might be associated with the immune defenses to V. anguillarum and WSSV in E. carinicauda.

  16. Alcohol consumption patterns among American Indian and white college students.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S P; Dodder, R A

    1984-09-01

    College students in Oklahoma completed a self-administered questionnaire to compare the drinking behaviors of culturally active American Indians (N = 34 men and 24 women) an Whites (N = 181 men and 250 women). Significantly more Indians were classified as drinkers, but they had begun drinking at a somewhat later age. Both groups indicated a preference for beer, and they were quite similar in quantity and frequency of beer consumption. White students reported drinking significantly more wine and distilled spirits, and drinking more often in public places, such as bars, pubs, restaurants and parked cars; Indians drank more in their own homes and in the homes of friends. White students tended to cite hedonistic reasons for drinking whereas Indians reported escapist or social reasons and drinking to "get high." Drinking-related problems were reported somewhat more often by Indian students, notably so by Indian women. Indians were more inclined to report the more serious drinking problems of being arrested, blacking out, interference with school or work, an difficulties in human relationships. White students more often cited problems of nausea or vomiting, drinking and driving, doing something that was later regretted and damaging property. It was suggested that the higher Indian arrest rate could be indicative of police bias and that the reports of problem drinking among Indian women be investigated further.

  17. Indian School: Teaching the White Man's Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael L.

    This book for young people examines the history, purpose, and daily routine of government-operated boarding schools for American Indians and tells the personal stories, often in their own words, of several young students. Chapter 1 describes the journey to Pennsylvania of the first Indian children to attend the Carlisle school in 1879. Chapter 2…

  18. Mortality from Infectious Diseases among New Mexico's American Indians, Hispanic Whites, and Other Whites, 1958-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines ethnic differences in infectious disease-related mortality in New Mexico's American Indian, Hispanic White, and other White populations from 1958-87. Findings indicate that for most infectious causes, American Indians had the highest mortality rates, followed by Hispanics. Discusses the influence of cultural beliefs and medical practices.…

  19. Responses of three very large inducible GTPases to bacterial and white spot syndrome virus challenges in the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Ding, Zhengfeng; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by cells in response to invasion by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. Very large inducible GTPases (VLIG) are the latest IFN-inducible GTPase family to be discovered and are the largest known GTPases of any species. However, VLIG proteins from invertebrates have yet to be characterized. In this study, three forms of VLIGs designated as MrVLIG1, MrVLIG2, and MrVLIG3 were cloned from the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrVLIG1 has a 5445 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding an 1814-amino acid protein. The complete nucleotide sequence of MrVLIG2 cDNA is 7055 bp long consisting of a 5757 bp ORF encoding a protein with 1918 amino acids. The full length of the MrVLIG3 gene consists of 5511 bp with a 3909 bp ORF encoding a peptide with 1302 amino acids. BLASTP and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the three MrVLIGs are clustered into one subgroup and, together with other vertebrate VLIGs, into a branch. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the mRNAs of the three MrVLIGs were widely expressed in almost all detected tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. They were also detected in the intestine but with relatively low expression levels. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA transcripts of the MrVLIGs in the hepatopancreas were significantly expressed at various time points after infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus. In summary, the three isoforms of VLIG genes participate in the innate immune response of the shrimps to bacterial and viral infections.

  20. The roles of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α-subunit gene from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda in response to salinity stresses.

    PubMed

    Li, Jitao; Ma, Peng; Liu, Ping; Chen, Ping; Li, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NAK) is one important transporter protein and plays a key role in maintaining osmotic homeostasis in low and high salinity acclimation in variety of crustacean species. The ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda is an euryhaline and economic shrimp species in China, but it remains unclear about its mechanism of salinity adaption. In this study, a full-length of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit (α-NAK) cDNA was cloned from E. carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of α-NAK was of 3680 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 3030 bp encoding a polypeptide of 1009 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 112.27 kDa. Eight transmembrane domains and two sites of phosphorylation and ATP binding were identified in E. carinicauda α-NAK. BLAST analysis revealed that the sequence of α-NAK amino acids of E. carinicauda shared more than 75% homologies with those of other crustacean. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that E. carinicauda α-NAK gene could be detected in all the tested tissues with highest expression level in gill. The expression profiles of E. carinicauda α-NAK transcripts were analyzed in gill and hepatopancreas tissues after salinity stresses. The results showed that the expression level of E. carinicauda α-NAK gene in both gill and hepatopancreas reached peak at different time after low and high salinity stresses, and showed different expression profiles. The expression profiles of proPO transcripts in gills after salinity stresses also indicated α-NAK and proPO played synergistic actions for salinity responses in E. carinicauda. These results indicated that E. carinicauda α-NAK involved in stress responses against salinity.

  1. Responses of three very large inducible GTPases to bacterial and white spot syndrome virus challenges in the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Ding, Zhengfeng; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by cells in response to invasion by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. Very large inducible GTPases (VLIG) are the latest IFN-inducible GTPase family to be discovered and are the largest known GTPases of any species. However, VLIG proteins from invertebrates have yet to be characterized. In this study, three forms of VLIGs designated as MrVLIG1, MrVLIG2, and MrVLIG3 were cloned from the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrVLIG1 has a 5445 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding an 1814-amino acid protein. The complete nucleotide sequence of MrVLIG2 cDNA is 7055 bp long consisting of a 5757 bp ORF encoding a protein with 1918 amino acids. The full length of the MrVLIG3 gene consists of 5511 bp with a 3909 bp ORF encoding a peptide with 1302 amino acids. BLASTP and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the three MrVLIGs are clustered into one subgroup and, together with other vertebrate VLIGs, into a branch. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the mRNAs of the three MrVLIGs were widely expressed in almost all detected tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. They were also detected in the intestine but with relatively low expression levels. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA transcripts of the MrVLIGs in the hepatopancreas were significantly expressed at various time points after infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus. In summary, the three isoforms of VLIG genes participate in the innate immune response of the shrimps to bacterial and viral infections. PMID:26850335

  2. Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31

    SciTech Connect

    Li Li; Xie Xixian; Yang Feng . E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-09-15

    Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A fragment of WSV340 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with a 6His-tag, and then specific antibody was raised. Western blot analysis and the immunoelectron microscope method (IEM) confirmed that VP31 was present exclusively in the viral envelope fraction. The neutralization experiment suggested that VP31 might play an important role in WSSV infectivity.

  3. Faecal pH, bile acid and sterol concentrations in premenopausal Indian and white vegetarians compared with white omnivores.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S; Sanders, T A; Owen, R W; Thompson, M H

    1998-06-01

    Faecal bulk, pH, water content, the concentrations of neutral sterols and bile acids and dietary intakes were measured in twenty-two Indian vegetarian, twenty-two white omnivorous and eighteen white vegetarian premenopausal women. Faecal bulk and water content were greater and pH lower in the Indian vegetarians. Total faecal animal sterol and coprostanol concentrations expressed on a dry-weight basis were lower in the vegetarians compared with the omnivores. The faecal sterol concentrations were correlated with dietary cholesterol intake. Primary bile acids were detected in six Indian vegetarians, two white vegetarians and two white omnivores; secondary bile acids were detected in all the white omnivores and vegetarian subjects but not in two of the Indian vegetarians. Total faecal free bile acid and conjugated bile acid concentrations were lower in the white vegetarians compared with the omnivores. Faecal lithocholic acid concentrations were lower in both Indian and white vegetarians. The lithocholic: deoxycholic acid ratio and coprostanol: total animal sterols ratio were significantly lower in the Indian vegetarians compared with the omnivores. Both ratios were positively correlated with faecal pH. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were undertaken in order to identify which nutrients influenced faecal pH, lithocholic and deoxycholic acid concentrations. The intakes of starch and dietary fibre were negatively associated with faecal concentrations of lithocholic and deoxycholic acid. Starch intake alone was negatively associated with faecal pH. The results of this study confirm that diets high in dietary fibre decrease faecal bile acid concentrations and suggest that the complex carbohydrates present in Indian vegetarian diets influence faecal pH and inhibit the degradation of faecal steroids.

  4. Red Tape--White Tape: Federal-Indian Funding Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Richard C.; Agar, Michael H.

    1979-01-01

    Historical, structural, cross-cultural, and communication problems within four federally funded Indian drug abuse treatment programs caused conflict between federal agencies and Indians and within the Indian communities themselves. Many of the problems duplicated those encountered in dealing with alcohol abuse among Indians. (SB)

  5. Prevalence of substance use among white and American Indian young adolescents in a Northern Plains state.

    PubMed

    Spear, Suzanne; Longshore, Douglas; McCaffrey, Daniel; Ellickson, Phyllis

    2005-03-01

    This article documents the prevalence of self-reported substance use among White and American Indian adolescents enrolled in seventh grade (ages 12 through 13) in 1997 in a Northern Plains state. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire preceding adolescents' participation in a randomized field trial of Project Alert, a seventh and eighth grade substance use prevention curriculum. Rates of lifetime and past-month use of cigarettes and marijuana were higher among American Indians than among Whites of the same gender. American Indian girls exceeded American Indian boys as well as White girls and White boys on lifetime and past-month use of cigarettes and marijuana as well as alcohol and inhalants; differences on cigarette and inhalant use reached statistical significance. These findings add to the sparse literature on substance use among adolescents as young as 12 through 13 years old and underscore the importance of examining gender-specific substance use patterns early in adolescence.

  6. RACE, COPING STRATEGIES, AND SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIORS: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS EXAMINING WHITE AND AMERICAN INDIAN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The association between stress exposure and substance use has been the subject of numerous studies. However, no prior study has explored the role of coping strategies in moderating the stress-substance use association for American Indian adolescents. Our preliminary study of coping strategies and substance use among a sample (n=568) of rural American Indian and white adolescents revealed a number of similarities across both groups, but also some important differences. Results of logistic regression analyses revealed that the relationship between an avoidant coping strategy and marijuana use differed for whites and American Indians. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:24041130

  7. Race, coping strategies, and substance use behaviors: a preliminary analysis examining white and American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    McNulty Eitle, Tamela; Eitle, David

    2014-02-01

    The association between stress exposure and substance use has been the subject of numerous studies. However, no prior study has explored the role of coping strategies in moderating the stress-substance use association for American Indian adolescents. Our preliminary study of coping strategies and substance use among a sample (n = 568) of rural American Indian and white adolescents revealed a number of similarities across both groups, but also some important differences. Results of logistic regression analyses revealed that the relationship between an avoidant coping strategy and marijuana use differed for whites and American Indians. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  8. Studies on the ingestion characteristics of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Yang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xian-Zhong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Ding, Fu-Jiang

    2000-12-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  9. Adventure Therapy with American Indian Youth. AEE White Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Experiential Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Indian population is a young one; the median age is 28.0, with 34% under 18 years old. In contrast, the median age for the overall U.S. population is 35.3, with 26% younger than 18 (Hawkins, Cummins, & Marlatt, 2004). It is difficult to avoid resorting to statistical hyperbole when describing the problems facing American Indian and…

  10. Factors Associated With American Indian and White Adolescent Drug Selling in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365

  11. Between Indian and White Worlds: The Cultural Broker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szasz, Margaret Connell, Ed.

    During the five centuries of contact between Native and non-Native peoples of the Americas, thousands of intermediaries have moved across the continents' cultural frontiers. These cultural brokers have included traders, missionaries, persons of mixed race, diplomats, Indian schoolchildren attending missionary or government boarding schools, White…

  12. Hollywood Addresses Postwar Assimilation: Indian/White Attitudes in "Broken Arrow."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleiss, Angela

    1987-01-01

    Examines Western films in context of post-World War II attitudes regarding racial equality. Film "Broken Arrow" and Eliott Arnold's novel "Blood Brother," both recounting story of Apache chief Cochise, examined as benchmark works in national racial attitudes. Films generally seen as supporting Indian assimilation into White culture. (TES)

  13. Self-Concept in American Indian and White Children: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Cranwell, Ford R.

    1989-01-01

    Examination of 71 American Indian and 149 White children from grades three through six on an open self-description measure and a transformational measure of self-concept reveals differences between the groups on specific external, behavioral, and internal attributes of self-concept. (Author/BJV)

  14. Moderating Effects of Perceived Social Benefits on Inhalant Initiation Among American Indian and White Youth

    PubMed Central

    Swaim, Randall C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether perceived social benefits moderated the relationship between social influence variables (school attachment, peer inhalant use, perceived family caring, parental monitoring) and stage of inhalant initiation (Study 1), and lifetime inhalant use (Study 2). Participants were 7th–12th grade students attending schools on or near American Indian reservations with comparisons made between American Indian and White students. A total of 3498 American Indian and 1596 White students were surveyed. Differences in mean levels of social influence variables were found across ethnicity and stage of inhalant initiation and lifetime inhalant use. SEM models were evaluated to examine variable relationships for the two studies. For Study 1, social influence variables did not clearly differentiate early versus later inhalant initiators, and perceived social benefits failed to serve as a moderator. More differences were observed between users and non-users across measures of social influence (Study 2). Perceived social benefits generally did not moderate the relationships with two exceptions. Low perceived social benefits provided greater protection against the influence of peers on lifetime inhalant use among White students, while high perceived social benefits increased risk of peer influence among American Indian students. PMID:26962974

  15. The Moderating Effects of Perceived Emotional Benefits on Inhalant Initiation Among American Indian and White Youth

    PubMed Central

    Swaim, Randall C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhalant use co-occurs with emotional distress. Inhalant use may be a means of self-medicating distress, but more recent study focuses on the cognitive appraisal of personal benefits of using substances. Objectives Objectives were to determine whether emotional distress variables predict early versus later initiation of inhalant use, whether such relationships differ between American Indian and white youth, and whether perceived emotional benefits of inhalant use moderates the relationship between emotional distress and stage of inhalant initiation. Methods Data were from a study of 7–12th grade American Indian youth who live on or near reservations. A total of 856 students from 32 schools surveyed from 2009 to 2012, who reported having used inhalants (American Indian = 683; white = 173), were surveyed about age first use of inhalants, levels of emotional distress, and perceived benefits of inhalant use. SEM models were used to assess study objectives. Results Depression and anger did not discriminate between early and later initiation. Lower self-esteem related to earlier initiation, but only among American Indian students. Perceived emotional benefits of inhalant use did not moderate the relationship between self-esteem and stage of initiation. Discussion and Conclusions Among middle school and high school American Indian and white youth living on or near American Indian reservations, emotional distress is not strongly related to stage of inhalant initiation. Scientific Significance These findings raise questions about the timing and strength of relationship between emotional distress and early inhalant initiation. Prospective studies are need to assess this relationship more fully. PMID:26246198

  16. Indian Heart/White Man's Head: Native-American Teachers in Indian Schools, 1880-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gere, Anne Ruggles

    2005-01-01

    The figure of the Native-American teacher remains largely absent in histories of the teaching profession in this country and of the government-operated Indian schools that emerged and flourished at the turn of the last century. At a time when a growing literature is enlarging the understanding of what schooling has meant and means to minority…

  17. Disparities in Functional Outcomes during Inpatient Rehabilitation between American Indian/Alaska Native and White Children.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Molly M; Bjornson, Kristie; Christensen, Ana; Harmon, Rachel; Apkon, Susan D

    2016-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children have a high risk for poor health outcomes. Race/ethnicity and functional impairments are linked with health care disparities. While data exist for other race/ethnicity groups, little is known about outcomes for AI/AN children with functional impairments. In this study the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM®) was used to determine differences in outcomes between AI/AN and White children receiving inpatient rehabilitation for functional impairments at one pediatric rehabilitation facility. American Indian/Alaska Native and White children had similar impairment types and functional levels at admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Both groups experienced functional improvement during rehabilitation. At discharge, AI/AN children had lower total functional scores and had less improvement in mobility scores compared with White children, with more impairment in physical mobility at discharge. This is one of the first studies to show a disparity in functional outcomes for AI/AN children compared with White children during inpatient rehabilitation.

  18. Linking 'White Oppression' and HIV/AIDS in American Indian Etiology: Conspiracy Beliefs among AI MSMs and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, Brian Joseph; Keesee, Marguerite

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the use of conspiracy beliefs by American Indian (AI) men who have sex with men and their peers to explain the origins of HIV/AIDS. We found that one-third (N = 15) of the individuals surveyed believed that HIV/AIDS was intentionally created by "Whites, White Christians, or the Federal…

  19. Cultural intersections: a qualitative inquiry into the experience of Asian Indian-White interracial couples.

    PubMed

    Inman, Arpana G; Altman, Abby; Kaduvettoor-Davidson, Anju; Carr, Amanda; Walker, Jessica A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the "lived experience" of Asian Indian (AI)-White couples in interracial marriages. Ten highly educated AI-White professional couples were individually interviewed about their subjective experience of being in an interracial marriage, the challenges and strengths of this marriage, and the potential role of culture in their marriages. Data were analyzed using the Consensual Qualitative Research methodology. Results indicated that the couples' marital experiences were influenced by a complex intersection of ecosystemic factors with significant psychological impacts. These findings highlight shortcomings in drawing simplistic conclusions regarding the success or failure of an interracial marriage and have important implications for theory, research, and clinical practice.

  20. Cultural intersections: a qualitative inquiry into the experience of Asian Indian-White interracial couples.

    PubMed

    Inman, Arpana G; Altman, Abby; Kaduvettoor-Davidson, Anju; Carr, Amanda; Walker, Jessica A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the "lived experience" of Asian Indian (AI)-White couples in interracial marriages. Ten highly educated AI-White professional couples were individually interviewed about their subjective experience of being in an interracial marriage, the challenges and strengths of this marriage, and the potential role of culture in their marriages. Data were analyzed using the Consensual Qualitative Research methodology. Results indicated that the couples' marital experiences were influenced by a complex intersection of ecosystemic factors with significant psychological impacts. These findings highlight shortcomings in drawing simplistic conclusions regarding the success or failure of an interracial marriage and have important implications for theory, research, and clinical practice. PMID:21564064

  1. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard. PMID:25895272

  2. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard.

  3. Formal Education on the White Mountain Apache Reservation; Report of a Self-Study Conference. The National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 25, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ned; Chilcott, John H.

    In one phase of the National Study of American Indian Education, local Indian communities were encouraged to conduct their own self-studies of American Indian education. In keeping with this, a conference was held to determine the attitudinal responses of White Mountain Apaches (aged 20-48) to the following general topics concerning Indian…

  4. Food Insecurity and Obesity Among American Indians and Alaska Natives and Whites in California

    PubMed Central

    JERNIGAN, VALARIE BLUE BIRD; GARROUTTE, EVA; KRANTZ, ELIZABETH M.; BUCHWALD, DEDRA

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity is linked to obesity among some, but not all, racial and ethnic populations. We examined the prevalence of food insecurity and the association between food insecurity and obesity among American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs) and a comparison group of whites. Using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, we analyzed responses from 592 AIs/ANs and 7371 white adults with household incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level. Food insecurity was measured using a standard 6-item scale. Sociodemographics, exercise, and obesity were all obtained using self-reported survey data. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations. The prevalence of food insecurity was similar among AIs/ANs and whites (38.7% vs 39.3%). Food insecurity was not associated with obesity in either group in analyses adjusted for sociodemographics and exercise. The ability to afford high-quality foods is extremely limited for low-income Californians regardless of race. Health policy discussions must include increased attention on healthy food access among the poor, including AIs/ANs, for whom little data exist. PMID:26865900

  5. Fifteen-Minute Comprehensive Alcohol Risk Survey: Reliability and Validity Across American Indian and White Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Kominsky, Terrence K; Livingston, Bethany J; Garrett, Brady A; Molina, Mildred Maldonado; Boyd, Misty L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American Indians (AIs) suffer from significant alcohol-related health disparities, and increased risk begins early. This study examined the reliability and validity of measures to be used in a preventive intervention trial. Reliability and validity across racial/ethnic subgroups are crucial to evaluate intervention effectiveness and promote culturally appropriate evidence-based practice. Method: To assess reliability and validity, we used three baseline surveys of high school students participating in a preventive intervention trial within the jurisdictional service area of the Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. The 15-minute alcohol risk survey included 16 multi-item scales and one composite score measuring key proximal, primary, and moderating variables. Forty-four percent of the students indicated that they were AI (of whom 82% were Cherokee), including 23% who reported being AI only (n = 435) and 18% both AI and White (n = 352). Forty-seven percent reported being White only (n = 901). Results: Scales were adequately reliable for the full sample and across race/ethnicity defined by AI, AI/White, and White subgroups. Among the full sample, all scales had acceptable internal consistency, with minor variation across race/ethnicity. All scales had extensive to exemplary test–retest reliability and showed minimal variation across race/ethnicity. The eight proximal and two primary outcome scales were each significantly associated with the frequency of alcohol use during the past month in both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal models, providing support for both criterion validity and predictive validity. For most scales, interpretation of the strength of association and statistical significance did not differ between the racial/ethnic subgroups. Conclusions: The results support the reliability and validity of scales of a brief questionnaire measuring risk and protective factors for alcohol use among AI adolescents, primarily members of the

  6. A comparison of risk factors associated with suicide ideation/attempts in American Indian and White youth in Montana.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Karen; Tiesman, Hope; Stewart, Jera; Hobbs, Gerald R; Knox, Sarah S

    2015-01-01

    We examined racial/ethnic and gender-specific associations between suicide ideation/attempts and risky behaviors, sadness/hopelessness, and victimization in Montana American Indian and White youth using 1999-2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in stratified racial/ethnic-gender groups. The primary results of this study show that although the American Indian youth had more statistically significant suicidal thoughts and attempts than the White youth, they had fewer statistically significant predictors compared to the White youth. Sadness/hopelessness was the strongest, and the only statistically significant, predictor of suicide ideation/attempts common across all four groups. The unhealthy weight control cluster was a significant predictor for the White youth and the American Indian/Alaska Native girls; the alcohol/tobacco/marijuana cluster was a significant predictor for the American Indian boys only. Results show important differences across the groups and indicate directions for future research targeting prevention and intervention.

  7. Welcome to a New World: Experiences of American Indian Tribal College and University Transfer Students at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makomenaw, Matthew Van Alstine

    2012-01-01

    This study utilizes an Indigenous methodology and phenomenological methods to better understand the experiences of eight American Indian tribal college and university (TCU) students who transferred to four-year Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). The participants attended TCUs and PWIs located in the Midwest, a geographic area that is…

  8. Crystal methamphetamine use among American Indian and White youth in Appalachia: Social context, masculinity, and desistance

    PubMed Central

    BROWN, RYAN A.

    2010-01-01

    Rural areas and American Indian reservations are hotspots for the use of crystal methamphetamine (“meth”) in the United States, yet there is little ethnographic data describing meth use in these areas. This study draws upon three years of ethnographic work conducted with American Indian and White youth in Appalachia during the height of the meth epidemic. It describes how historical, cultural, and socioeconomic processes influence vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia, and highlights the role of social relationships and meaning-making in facilitating desistance and recovery from meth use. The first section shows how crystal meth filled a particular functional niche in the lives of many young men, alleviating boredom and anomie linked to recent socioeconomic changes and labor opportunities in the region, and intersecting with local understandings of masculinity and forms of military identity. Here, ethnographic and interview data converge to illustrate how social role expectations, recent socioeconomic change, and meth’s pharmacological properties converge to create vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia. The second section draws upon two American Indian narratives of desistance. These youth described recently severed social relationships and acute feelings of social isolation during the initiation of meth use. Both also described dramatic close calls with death that facilitated their eventual desistance from use, involving repaired social relationships and the establishment of new lives and hope. These interviews illustrate how changes in social relationships were linked with both initiation and desistance from meth use, and how religious interpretations of near-death experiences structured narratives of cessation and redemption. PMID:21637733

  9. You Are Not an Indian without a Roll Number or White Card.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard P.; Ross, Pat

    The United States Office of Indian Education is requesting that all children who are served in the Indian Education Program prove their Indian ancestry with a roll number or Certificate Degree of Indian Blood (CDIB) card. This practice is discriminatory because (1) the Native American is the only ethnic group in the United States that must prove…

  10. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in an American Indian Reservation Community: Results from the White Mountain Apache Surveillance System, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwik, Mary F.; Barlow, Allison; Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Walkup, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe characteristics and correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among the White Mountain Apache Tribe. NSSI has not been studied before in American Indian samples despite associated risks for suicide, which disproportionately affect American Indian youth. Method: Apache case managers collected data through a tribally…

  11. Can the Red Man Help the White Man? A Denver Conference with the Indian Elders (1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Sylvester M., Ed.

    Edited proceedings of the 1968 Denver Conference of Indian Elders (a joint project sponsored by the Myrin Institute with the coorperation of Arrow Incorporated and the Bureau of Indian Affairs) are presented in book form for purposes of exploring the extent to which American Indian philosophy/religion can be utilized to help solve the complex…

  12. American Indians and natural resource development: indigenous peoples' land, now sought after, has produced new Indian-white problems

    SciTech Connect

    Snipp, C.M.

    1986-10-01

    In the colonial period of US history, American Indian tribes enjoyed the status of political sovereigns, and dealt as equals with the English Crown and colonial authorities. In the years following US independence, legal, administrative, and military actions were used to redefine the meaning of tribal sovereignty. Conceptualizing these developments, captive nations refers to the limited sovereignty of tribes and their isolation and detachment from mainstream American society. Recently, natural resource development on their land and especially the discovery of energy resources has had a major impact on the structure of Federal-Indian relations and the political status of Indian tribes in American society. Willingly or unwillingly, many tribes are in the process of renegotiating their status with the Federal Government as a consequence of the resource development. As a result, these former captive nations are now more aptly described as internal colonies.

  13. Identification of a bacterial pathogen associated with Porites white patch syndrome in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Séré, Mathieu G; Tortosa, Pablo; Chabanet, Pascale; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Sweet, Michael J; Schleyer, Michael H

    2015-09-01

    Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS) is a coral disease recently described in the Western Indian Ocean. This study aimed to isolate and identify potential pathogens associated with PWPS utilizing both culture and nonculture screening techniques and inoculation trials. A total of 14 bacterial strains (those dominant in disease lesions, absent or rare in healthy tissues and considered potential pathogens in a previous study) were cultured and used to experimentally inoculate otherwise healthy individuals in an attempt to fulfil Henle-Koch's postulates. However, only one (P180R), identified as closely related (99-100% sequence identity based on 1.4 kb 16S RNA sequence) to Vibrio tubiashii, elicited signs of disease in tank experiments. Following experimental infection (which resulted in a 90% infection rate), the pathogen was also successfully re-isolated from the diseased tissues and re-inoculated in healthy corals colonies, therefore fulfilling the final stages of Henle-Koch's postulates. Finally, we report that PWPS appears to be a temperature-dependent disease, with significantly higher tissue loss (anova: d.f. = 2, F = 39.77, P < 0.01) occurring at 30 °C [1.45 ± 0.85 cm(2) per day (mean ± SE)] compared to ambient temperatures of 28 and 26 °C (0.73 ± 0.80 cm(2) per day (mean ± SE) and 0.51 ± 0.50 cm(2) per day (mean ± SE), respectively).

  14. Identification of a bacterial pathogen associated with Porites white patch syndrome in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Séré, Mathieu G; Tortosa, Pablo; Chabanet, Pascale; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Sweet, Michael J; Schleyer, Michael H

    2015-09-01

    Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS) is a coral disease recently described in the Western Indian Ocean. This study aimed to isolate and identify potential pathogens associated with PWPS utilizing both culture and nonculture screening techniques and inoculation trials. A total of 14 bacterial strains (those dominant in disease lesions, absent or rare in healthy tissues and considered potential pathogens in a previous study) were cultured and used to experimentally inoculate otherwise healthy individuals in an attempt to fulfil Henle-Koch's postulates. However, only one (P180R), identified as closely related (99-100% sequence identity based on 1.4 kb 16S RNA sequence) to Vibrio tubiashii, elicited signs of disease in tank experiments. Following experimental infection (which resulted in a 90% infection rate), the pathogen was also successfully re-isolated from the diseased tissues and re-inoculated in healthy corals colonies, therefore fulfilling the final stages of Henle-Koch's postulates. Finally, we report that PWPS appears to be a temperature-dependent disease, with significantly higher tissue loss (anova: d.f. = 2, F = 39.77, P < 0.01) occurring at 30 °C [1.45 ± 0.85 cm(2) per day (mean ± SE)] compared to ambient temperatures of 28 and 26 °C (0.73 ± 0.80 cm(2) per day (mean ± SE) and 0.51 ± 0.50 cm(2) per day (mean ± SE), respectively). PMID:26193772

  15. Report On: Arizona Indian Water Rights Conference (White Mountain Apache Reservation, August 21-23, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    Established by the Arizona Legislature in 1953, the Arizona Commission on American Indian Affairs serves as the official link between the tribal autonomies and the State government, its legislature, and elected officials. Its primary purpose has been to study conditions among Indians residing within the State. Among the commission's goals are: (1)…

  16. Bacterial communities associated with Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS) on three western Indian Ocean (WIO) coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Séré, Mathieu G; Tortosa, Pablo; Chabanet, Pascale; Turquet, Jean; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Schleyer, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    The scleractinian coral Porites lutea, an important reef-building coral on western Indian Ocean reefs (WIO), is affected by a newly-reported white syndrome (WS) the Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS). Histopathology and culture-independent molecular techniques were used to characterise the microbial communities associated with this emerging disease. Microscopy showed extensive tissue fragmentation generally associated with ovoid basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates. Results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed a high variability between bacterial communities associated with PWPS-infected and healthy tissues in P. lutea, a pattern previously reported in other coral diseases such as black band disease (BBD), white band disease (WBD) and white plague diseases (WPD). Furthermore, substantial variations in bacterial communities were observed at the different sampling locations, suggesting that there is no strong bacterial association in Porites lutea on WIO reefs. Several sequences affiliated with potential pathogens belonging to the Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae were identified, mainly in PWPS-infected coral tissues. Among them, only two ribotypes affiliated to Shimia marina (NR043300.1) and Vibrio hepatarius (NR025575.1) were consistently found in diseased tissues from the three geographically distant sampling localities. The role of these bacterial species in PWPS needs to be tested experimentally.

  17. Indian Self-Rule. First-Hand Accounts of Indian-White Relations from Roosevelt to Reagan. Current Issues in the American West, Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philp, Kenneth R., Ed.

    Keynote addresses and panel sessions at a conference examining Indian history in the 50 years since the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) are collected in this volume. Part One discusses the Indian New Deal and federal Indian policy from 1933-1945. Part Two deals with 1945-1960 and the federal policy of terminating tribal status. Part…

  18. Making Contact: Working with the White Mountain Apache on "Indian Summer."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabal, Rob

    1997-01-01

    Chronicles the author's experience of working with a group of Apache actors and cultural experts on the production of a feature-length narrative, "Indian Summer." Finds that, in this case, the process of cross-cultural collaboration was successful in uniting different people from different cultures in a common purpose. (PA)

  19. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  20. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  1. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus).

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  2. Use of prawn blood agar hemolysis to screen for bacteria pathogenic to cultured tiger prawns Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chang, C I; Liu, W Y; Shyu, C Z

    2000-11-14

    A newly developed prawn blood agar consisting of 1 ml of tiger prawn hemolymph in medium containing 200 ppm Rose Bengal was used to determine the hemolytic activity of 35 isolates of bacteria obtained from cultured tiger prawns Penaeus monodon and their rearing water. For comparison, the hemolytic activity of these isolates was also determined in sheep blood agar. Nine isolates (25.7% of total) showed different hemolytic reactions on prawn blood agar and sheep blood agar. From the 35 isolates, 8 with various hemolytic characteristics were selected and the relationship between the type of hemolytic activity and pathogenicity was determined and compared. Four isolates that showed hemolytic activity in prawn blood agar caused high mortality to cultured tiger prawns. By contrast, a significantly lower mortality rate was observed for tiger prawns injected with 4 isolates that did not exhibit hemolytic activity on prawn blood agar. Results further showed that mortality did not correlate with hemolytic activity determined using sheep blood agar. Prawn blood agar containing P. monodon hemocytes was faster and more accurate for determining prawn hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates.

  3. Use of prawn blood agar hemolysis to screen for bacteria pathogenic to cultured tiger prawns Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chang, C I; Liu, W Y; Shyu, C Z

    2000-11-14

    A newly developed prawn blood agar consisting of 1 ml of tiger prawn hemolymph in medium containing 200 ppm Rose Bengal was used to determine the hemolytic activity of 35 isolates of bacteria obtained from cultured tiger prawns Penaeus monodon and their rearing water. For comparison, the hemolytic activity of these isolates was also determined in sheep blood agar. Nine isolates (25.7% of total) showed different hemolytic reactions on prawn blood agar and sheep blood agar. From the 35 isolates, 8 with various hemolytic characteristics were selected and the relationship between the type of hemolytic activity and pathogenicity was determined and compared. Four isolates that showed hemolytic activity in prawn blood agar caused high mortality to cultured tiger prawns. By contrast, a significantly lower mortality rate was observed for tiger prawns injected with 4 isolates that did not exhibit hemolytic activity on prawn blood agar. Results further showed that mortality did not correlate with hemolytic activity determined using sheep blood agar. Prawn blood agar containing P. monodon hemocytes was faster and more accurate for determining prawn hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates. PMID:11145455

  4. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the land.…

  5. H-deficient blood groups of Reunion island. II. Differences between Indians (Bombay Phenotype) and whites (Reunion phenotype).

    PubMed

    Le Pendu, J; Gerard, G; Vitrac, D; Juszczak, G; Liberge, G; Rouger, P; Salmon, C; Lambert, F; Dalix, A M; Oriol, R

    1983-05-01

    Two variants of recessive, H-deficient nonsecretor individuals (h/h, se/se) were identified on Reunion Island: (1) H-negative individuals corresponding to the classical Bombay phenotypes (OhO, OhA, OhB, OhAB) who lack completely the H antigen on their red cells; all of them were Indian and had strong anti-H antibodies reacting with normal O and Oh red cells from whites; and (2) H-weak individuals (Oh, Ah, Bh, ABh). This phenotype represented the majority (85%) of the H-deficient phenotypes on Reunion Island, and all of them were white. They had only a weak expression of the H antigen and showed small but detectable amounts of ABH antigens on their red cells. Their anti-H antibodies reacted with normal O erythrocytes, but failed to react with Oh red cells, regardless of the ethnic origin of the donor. They were all from the same geographical area on the Island (Cilaos) and showed homogeneous titers of anti-H antibodies in sera. We propose to call this particular variant of weak H phenotype, belonging to the so-called para-Bombay series, Reunion.

  6. Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on oxygen consumption rate of Chinese prawn, giant tiger prawn and giant freshwater prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xi-Lin; Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Shi, Yong-Hai; Liu, Wen-Cui; Xu, Gui-Rong; Li, Shi-Hua

    1999-06-01

    Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn ( Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn ( P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate ( V, mg/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature, V increased with water temperature and dissolved oxygen content. The V of the above three prawn species increased 0.085 mg/g·h, 0.093 mg/g·h and 0.08 mg/g·h respectively with each °C of rising temperature. The comatose point and stifling point of the juveniles rose obviously at unsuitable temperature.

  7. Identification and function of 11 Rab GTPases in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Rab GTPases, members of the Ras-like GTPase superfamily, are central elements in endocytic membrane trafficking. However, little is known of the Rab genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In this study, 11 Rab genes were identified from M. rosenbergii. All MrRabs have a RAB domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these 11 MrRabs were divided into different groups. The MrRab genes were ubiquitously expressed in heart, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestines. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the MrRab genes were significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the prawns, indicating that MrRabs might play an important role in innate immune response against WSSV. Moreover, after challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the expression levels of all MrRabs in the hepatopancreas were also upregulated, which might indicated the involvement of MrRabs in prawns antibacterial immunity. In all, these preliminary results showed that MrRabs were involved in innate immunity of M. rosenbergii.

  8. First description of 'Chalky back' phenomenon in banana prawns (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) and its possible association with Vibrio and Photobacterium species.

    PubMed

    Hatje, Eva; Minniti, Giusi; Stewart, Michael J; Neuman, Christina; Knibb, Wayne; Katouli, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    Here we report a newly identified 'Chalky back' phenomenon in banana prawns (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) farmed in North Queensland, Australia. This was characterized by localized white discoloured segmentation of the cervical groove, moreover, after cooking the prawns exploded, making them unfit for commercial sale. Histological examination revealed breakdown of gut and abdominal muscle tissue in some moribund specimens. We selectively isolated Vibrio spp., which are known prawn pathogens, from healthy and Chalky back specimens. Isolated bacteria were identified, typed and tested for the presence of eight virulence genes (VGs), biofilm formation, adherence and cytotoxicity to fish cells. In all, 32 isolates were recovered and identified as Vibrio harveyi, V. owensii, V. sinaloensis-like, V. campbellii, V. shilonii, Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium damselae using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All V. harveyi carried VGs coding for haemolysin, toxR and flagella; formed biofilm; and adhered to both cell lines. This was similar to the V. sinaloensis-like strains that were only isolated from Chalky back specimens. Our data suggest that Vibrio spp. may play a role in the pathogenesis of Chalky back. This study is the first report of Chalky back phenomenon in farmed banana prawns that needs to be closely monitored by the industry. PMID:26825678

  9. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of Fein-Penaeidin from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    PubMed Central

    Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Shanthi, Sathappan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Penaeidins are members of a special family of antimicrobial peptide existing in penaeid shrimp and play an important role in the immunological defense of shrimp. Here, we report a penaeidin sequence cloned from the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaus indicus (Fein-Penaeidin). The Fein-Penaeidin open reading frame encodes a 77 amino acid peptide including a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequences of Fein-Penaeidin include a proline rich N-terminal domain and a carboxyl-domain that contains six cysteine residues. Structural analysis revealed an alpha-helix in its secondary structure and the predicted 3D structure indicated two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison with other known peaneidin suggest the gene shows high similarity to that of penaeidin from Peneaus monodon (95%), F. indicus (80%) and Fenneropenaeus chinensis (74%). Fein-Penaeidin was examined in normal and microbial challenged shrimp and was found to be constitutively expressed in haemocytes, Heart, gills, muscles, intestine, hepatopancreas and eyestalk. Bacterial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, inducing expression at 6 h post injection indicating the penaeidin involved in the innate immunity. PMID:24371565

  10. Patterns of mammography use among Hispanic, American Indian, and non-Hispanic White women in New Mexico, 1994-1997.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, F D; Rosenberg, R D; Hunt, W C; Stauber, P; Key, C R

    2000-09-01

    For screening efforts to maximally reduce mortality in the general population, a large proportion of women need to utilize mammography routinely. To investigate utilization of mammography in a community setting, the authors used population-based data collected by the New Mexico Mammography Project for residents of the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area for the period 1994-1997. The authors computed screening rates and the proportion of women who routinely use mammography. The utilization of mammography was low. Only 50% of the women aged 50-74 years were screened each year. Less than one third of women aged 40-49 years or 75 years and older were screened annually. The percentage of women who routinely used mammography on an annual or biennial basis was low in all age groups, especially among Hispanics and American Indians. Women aged 50-74 years had the highest percentage of routine annual mammography use, ranging from 30% in non-Hispanic Whites to 20% in Hispanics. Current utilization of mammography in community-based screening efforts is unlikely to achieve a potential 30% reduction in breast cancer mortality. Interventions are needed to increase the routine use of mammography.

  11. Food sources and carbon dudget of chinese prawn Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Fang

    2002-03-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semi-intensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20 28)×10-3.

  12. Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1980-05-01

    Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

  13. Spring Chinook Salmon Production for Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Annual Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Doulas, Speros

    2007-01-01

    This annual report covers the period from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2006. Work completed supports the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) effort to restore a locally-adapted stock of spring Chinook to the Umatilla River Basin. During the year, staff at the Little White Salmon/Willard National Fish Hatchery Complex have completed the rearing of 218,764 Brood Year 2004 spring Chinook salmon for release into the Umatilla River during spring 2006 and initiated production of approximately 220,000 Brood Year 2005 spring Chinook for transfer and release into the Umatilla River during spring 2007. All work under this contract is performed at the Little White Salmon and Willard National Fish Hatcheries (NFH), Cook, WA.

  14. Suicidal ideation in American Indian/Alaska Native and White adolescents: The role of social isolation, exposure to suicide, and overweight.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Kapoor, Anna; Nelson, Lonnie A; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Comtois, Katherine A; Walker, Leslie R; Buchwald, Dedra S

    2016-01-01

    Social isolation, exposure to suicide, and overweight increase suicidal ideation in adolescents, but no study to date has examined their relative significance in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth. Generalized estimating equations and path analyses were used to measure the significance and mediation of these variables in the suicidal ideation of 721 AI/ANs and 12,107 White adolescents. Social isolation, exposure to suicide, and overweight were risk factors for suicidal ideation in both races, and the associations among the variables of interest and suicidal ideation varied by race. Interventionists need to consider race in the prevention of suicidal ideation in AI/AN and White youth. PMID:27536899

  15. “Culture” in Diabetes-Related Beliefs among Low- and High-Education African American, American Indian, and White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Eddie H.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Saldana, Santiago; Reynolds, Teresa; Bell, Ronny A.; Kirk, Julienne K.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes and subsequent complications are often attributed to culture; however, previous diabetes disparities research is restricted to in-depth ethnic-specific samples or to comparative study designs with limited belief assessment. The goal of this study is to improve understanding of the cultural basis for variation in diabetes beliefs. Design Cross-sectional Setting Rural North Carolina Participants Older adults (aged 60+) with diabetes, equally divided by ethnicity (White, African American, American Indian) and gender (N=593). Interventions Guided by Explanatory Models of Illness and Cultural Consensus research traditions, trained interviewers collected data using 38 items in four diabetes belief domains: causes, symptoms, consequences, and medical management. Items were obtained from the Common Sense Model of Diabetes Inventory (CSMDI). Main Outcome Beliefs about diabetes. Response options for each diabetes belief item were “agree,” “disagree” and “don’t know”. Collected data were analyzed using Anthropac (version 4.98) and Latent Gold (version 4.5) programs. Results There is substantial similarity in diabetes beliefs among African Americans, American Indians, and Whites. Diabetes beliefs were most similar in the “symptoms” and “consequences” domains compared to beliefs pertaining to “causes” and “medical management.” Although some discrete beliefs differed by ethnicity, systematic differences by ethnicity were observed for specific educational groups. Conclusions Socioeconomic conditions influence diabetes beliefs rather than “ethnicity” per se. PMID:23140078

  16. Coral disease in the Indian Ocean: taxonomic susceptibility, spatial distribution and the role of host density on the prevalence of white syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Frisch, Ashley J

    2010-02-24

    Coral diseases, such as white diseases and white syndrome (WS), have caused widespread damage to coral reefs throughout the Caribbean and are increasing in prevalence on Pacific Ocean reefs. The current study confirms that WS is also present on coral reefs in the Indian Ocean and tests whether patterns in taxonomic susceptibility and spatial variability conform to patterns of WS reported in the Pacific Ocean. Underwater surveys at 19 sites around Christmas and Cocos Islands revealed that WS primarily affects Acropora plate corals (A. clathrata, A. cytherea and A. hyacinthus), and prevalence of WS varied significantly across all 3 spatial scales investigated (island, exposure and depth). Approximately 13.0% (range = 0 to 43% per site) of plate corals at Christmas Island sites exhibited WS compared to <1% at the Cocos Islands. At Christmas Island, WS prevalence was greater in shallow (31.5%) than in deeper water (6.7%) and greatest on the northern (leeward) side of the island (31.5%) compared to the more exposed coastlines (0 to 1.5%). Importantly, the spatial distribution of WS was positively correlated with host density, but not with hard coral cover, suggesting a role of host density in WS outbreaks. Overall the present study has established that WS is impacting remote, near-pristine reefs in the Indian Ocean. However, the highly variable spatial distribution of WS illustrates that patterns in disease prevalence, and the subsequent impact on coral reefs, can be location- or region-specific.

  17. Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

  18. Indian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marilyn Irvin

    With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

  19. Attitudes toward HPV Vaccination among Rural American Indian Women and Urban White Women in the Northern Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchwald, Dedra; Muller, Clemma; Bell, Maria; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf

    2013-01-01

    Background: American Indian women in the Northern Plains have a high incidence of cervical cancer. We assessed attitudes on vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in this population. Method: In partnership with two tribal communities, from 2007 to 2009, we surveyed women 18 to 65 years old attending two reservation clinics ("n" =…

  20. Beyond the Violence: Indian Agriculture, White Removal, and the Unlikely Construction of the Northern Cheyenne Reservation, 1876-1900

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, James R., III

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-six Cheyenne families followed Little Wolf to his self-imposed exile near Rosebud Creek. To most observers, this blind loyalty to a fallen leader required little explanation. After all, Little Wolf had recently led his people in a costly yet courageous escape from Indian Territory, fighting through the dead of winter back to the Northern…

  1. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit One: Indian America Before White Settlement. Grade Six. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Unit I for grade six deals with the American Indian in a cross cultural approach. Pupils use case studies to examine the Aztecs, who were later conquered by the Spanish, and the Iroquois, who came into contact with the French and English, as total cultures and draw comparisons between the two. The main part of each resource unit is set up in a…

  2. American Indian/Alaskan Native Undergraduate Retention at Predominantly White Institutions: An Elaboration of Tinto's Theory of College Student Departure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Junghee; Donlan, William; Brown, Eddie F.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports findings from a major public university sponsored study undertaken with the intention of (a) improving university understanding of factors affecting American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) undergraduates' persistence at this institution, and (b) identifying in what areas, and in what manner, this institution could improve…

  3. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among prawn seed collectors of Sunderbans.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Das, Banibrata; Ghoshal, Goutam; Das, Tamal; Ghosh, Tirthankar; Ganguly, Ramjyoti; Samanto, Kshinangsu

    2008-12-01

    In India, particularly in Sunderban of West Bengal, collection of prawn seeds is one of the major earning resources among prawn seed collectors. They are compelled to carry out a considerable amount of hard, manual, rigorous tasks in the river of the Sunderban area for collecting prawn seeds. They have to adopt some undesirable postures that may lead to the development of musculo skeletal disorder (MSD). The main aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalent postures adopted by the prawn seed collectors during individual prawn seed collection and to analyze the causation of discomfort feeling related with those postures. For this study, 21 male and 25 female prawn seed collectors were selected randomly and a detailed posture analysis was performed among them by means of OWAS method. It was observed that these workers worked continuously in awkward postures during certain prawn seed collection activity and consequently they suffered from discomfort feeling (pain) in different parts of the body.

  4. Solar aquaculture: A wintering technique for parent prawns

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Jin Long

    1994-09-01

    A new method of providing the warm water needed for parent prawn wintering using solar energy is described. Using solar energy for prawn wintering involves heat collection, heat storage and temperature maintenance. The system designed provides sufficient energy for the safe wintering of prawns with suitable water temperatures. The temperature control facilities consist of three parts: a salt gradient solar pond, a shallow solar pond and a plastic house. The technique involves use of a shallow solar pond for collection and storage of heat. The average temperature in the wintering pond plastic house was 11 degrees C and the minimum temperature in January was 5.4 degrees C. This system allowed the wintering process to be conducted using solar energy alone and may extend aquaculture to higher latitudes. The ratio of net profit with the solar energy system over investment is 1.5 which makes it economically viable.

  5. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE PRAWN NERVE SHEATHS

    PubMed Central

    Doggenweiler, C. F.; Heuser, John E.

    1967-01-01

    The sheaths from freshly teased nerve fibers of the prawn exhibit a positive radial birefringence, consistent with their EM appearance as highly organized laminated structures composed of numerous thin cytoplasmic sheets or laminae bordered by unit membranes and arranged concentrically around the axon. The closely apposed membranes in these sheaths are fragile and often break down into rows of vesicles during fixation. Desmosome-like attachment zones occur in many regions of the sheath. The membranes within these zones resist vesiculation and thereby provide a "control" region for relating the type of vesicles formed in the fragile portions of the sheaths to the specific fixation conditions. It is proposed that during fixation the production of artifactual vesicles is governed by an interplay of three factors: (a) direct chemical action of the fixative on the polar strata of adjacent unit membranes, (b) osmotic forces applied to membranes during fixation, and (c) the pre-existing natural relations between adjacent membranes. It is found that permanganate best preserves the continuity of the membranes but will still produce vesicles if the fixative exerts severe osmotic forces. These results support other reports (19) of the importance of comparing tissues fixed by complementary procedures so that systematic artifacts will not be described as characteristic of the natural state. PMID:4166578

  6. Twelve polymorphic microsatellites in Oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Feng, J B; Li, J L

    2008-09-01

    Oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is a commercially important freshwater prawn species in China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Due to overfishing for food, the wild stocks M. nipponense are endangered. Twenty microsatellite loci were isolated from the M. nipponense. Twelve of these loci were polymorphic (seven to 16 alleles per locus), with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.68 to 0.86 (n = 48). These polymorphic loci provide a valuable tool for assessing genetic diversity of wild and cultured populations.

  7. Indian Women: An Historical and Personal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rosemary Ackley

    1975-01-01

    Several issues relating to Indian women are discussed. These include (1) the three types of people to whom we owe our historical perceptions of Indian women, (2) role delineation in Indian society; (3) differences between Indian women and white women, and (4) literary role models of Indian women. (Author/BW)

  8. Extraction from prawn shells of substances cryoprotective for Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Shimodori, S; Moriya, T; Kohashi, O; Faming, D; Amako, K

    1989-01-01

    Substances cryoprotective for Vibrio cholerae were detected from prawn shells immersed in phosphate-buffered saline. This cryoprotective activity was heat resistant and sensitive to treatment with trypsin. For the exhibition of its full activity, the presence of Mg ion was indispensable. The cryoprotective activity of this substance was more active than that of other known cryoprotectants, like glycerol or serum. PMID:2604409

  9. Toxicity of rotenone to giant river freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculturists have often suffered predation losses in the production of freshwater giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii due to the presence of wild fish species in culture ponds. The piscicide rotenone is widely used to remove undesirable fish species from ponds. Although evidence in the t...

  10. Stable isotope and trace metal compositions of Australian prawns as a guide to authenticity and wholesomeness.

    PubMed

    Carter, J F; Tinggi, U; Yang, X; Fry, B

    2015-03-01

    This research has explored the potential of stable isotope and trace metal profiles to distinguish Australian prawns from prawns imported from neighbouring Asian countries. Australian prawns were collected mostly from the Brisbane area. Strong differences in Australian vs. imported prawns were evident from both the isotope and trace element data, with the differences most likely occurring because imported prawns are typically reared in aquaculture facilities and frozen prior to sale in Australia. The aquaculture origins are characterised by comparatively; low δHVSMOW, δ(13)CVPDB values, low concentrations of arsenic, zinc and potassium, and high water contents (>80%). Relatively high arsenic and cadmium contents were found within Australian prawns, but the concentrations did not exceed local human health guidelines.

  11. Three different anti-lipopolysaccharide factors identified from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qian; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Xin-Chang; Jie-Du; Hui, Kai-Min; Zhang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Wen

    2012-10-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a type of basic protein and an important antimicrobial peptide that can bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This protein shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. In this study, three forms of ALF designated as MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 were identified from giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 genes encode 133, 121, and 120 amino acids of the corresponding proteins, respectively. All these ALF proteins contain LPS-binding domain with two conserved cysteine residues. The genomic sequences of MrALF5 and MrALF7 were amplified. The genomic structures of MrALF5 and MrALF7 comprise three exons interrupted by two introns. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrALF5, MrALF6, and MrALF7 were clustered into clade II. Evolutionary analysis showed that ALF genes from M. rosenbergii may suffer a rapid evolution. MrALF5 was expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas, gills, and heart. MrALF6 was mainly distributed in the intestine and hepatopancreas. The highest expression level of MrALF7 was detected in the hepatopancreas. MrALF6, as well as MrALF7, was downregulated by Escherichia coli challenge, and all three ALF genes were upregulated by Vibrio or white spot syndrome virus challenge. MrALF6 was also upregulated by Staphylococcus aureus challenge. In summary, the three isoforms of ALF genes may participate in the innate immune response against bacteria and virus infecting the giant fresh water prawn. PMID:22800688

  12. Cloning and characterization of two different ficolins from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Xian-Wei; Huang, Ying; Hui, Kai-Min; Shi, Yan-Ru; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2014-06-01

    Ficolins, a kind of lectin containing collagen-like and fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs, also known as FBG or FREP), are involved in the first line of host defense against pathogens. In this study, two ficolins, namely, MrFico1 and MrFico2, from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were identified. In contrast to other ficolins, these two ficolins have no collagen-like domain, but such ficolins contain a coiled region and a FReD domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2, together with two ficolin-like proteins from Pacifastacus leniusculus, belonged to one group. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that both MrFico1 and MrFico2 were expressed in hepatopancreas, stomach and intestine, with the highest expression in stomach for MrFico1, compared to the highest expression in hepatopancreas for MrFico2. qRT-PCR analysis also showed that MrFico1 was obviously upregulated upon Vibrio anguillarium challenge, while MrFico2 was upregulated after challenged by V. anguillarium or white spot syndrome virus. Bacterium-binding experiment showed that MrFico1 and MrFico2 could bind to different microbes, and sugar-binding assay revealed that these two ficolins could also bind to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, the glycoconjugates of bacteria surface. Moreover, these two ficolins could agglutinate bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner, and the results of bacteria clearance experiment showed that both ficolins could facilitate the clearance of injected bacteria in the prawn. Our results suggested that MrFico1 and MrFico2 may function as pattern-recognition receptors in the immune system of M. rosenbergii.

  13. Ecology of nonnative Siberian prawn (Palaemon modestus) in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the abundance, distribution, and ecology of the nonnative Siberian prawn Palaemon modestus in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA. Analysis of prawn passage abundance at three Snake River dams showed that populations are growing at exponential rates, especially at Little Goose Dam where over 464,000 prawns were collected in 2015. Monthly beam trawling during 2011–2013 provided information on prawn abundance and distribution in Lower Granite and Little Goose Reservoirs. Zero-inflated regression predicted that the probability of prawn presence increased with decreasing water velocity and increasing depth. Negative binomial models predicted higher catch rates of prawns in deeper water and in closer proximity to dams. Temporally, prawn densities decreased slightly in the summer, likely due to the mortality of older individuals, and then increased in autumn and winter with the emergence and recruitment of young of the year. Seasonal length frequencies showed that distinct juvenile and adult size classes exist throughout the year, suggesting prawns live from 1 to 2 years and may be able to reproduce multiple times during their life. Most juvenile prawns become reproductive adults in 1 year, and peak reproduction occurs from late July through October. Mean fecundity (189 eggs) and reproductive output (11.9 %) are similar to that in their native range. The current use of deep habitats by prawns likely makes them unavailable to most predators in the reservoirs. The distribution and role of Siberian prawns in the lower Snake River food web will probably continue to change as the population grows and warrants continued monitoring and investigation.

  14. Growing Up Indian: Stories from the Life of Louie Gingras, an 82 Year Old Kootenai Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingras, Louie

    Eleven short stories from the life of Louie Gingras, an 82-year-old Kootenai Indian, illustrate many aspects of Indian culture. Accompanied by black and white drawings, ths stories describe daily life, mission schools, the Carlisle Indian School, Indian medicine, discipline for children, spiritual powers, beliefs, and several ceremonies. The book…

  15. The "Prawn-in-the-Tube" Procedure in the Cuttlefish: Habituation or Passive Avoidance Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickel, Ludovic; Chichery, Marie-Paule; Agin, Veronique; Chichery, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether or not habituation contributes to the regulation of the inhibition of predatory behavior observed during the "prawn-in-the-tube" training procedure. When presented with prawns that are visible behind glass but untouchable, cuttlefish promptly learn to inhibit their capture attempts. The first three experiments…

  16. Prawns, barnacles, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: effect modifiers or diagnostic confounders [corrected].

    PubMed

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; González-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V; Armisén, M

    2007-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman with no history of atopy reported several episodes of generalized urticaria and shortness of breath after eating shellfish (prawns and barnacles) but with good tolerance of the same foods between episodes. Skin prick tests (SPTs), serum enzyme allergosorbent tests (EAST) for specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, Western blot and inhibition assays, and oral challenge tests with prawns, barnacles, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and alcohol as potential effect modifiers were performed. Specific IgE to both barnacle and prawn were detected by SPTs and EAST. Results from a Western blot of raw prawn revealed an IgE binding band of 37 kDa and IgE binding bands of 143, 83, 38, 32, and 20 kDa appeared in the raw barnacle assay. Oral challenge tests were positive with prawns and prawn extract only if preceded by NSAIDs. Oral challenges with NSAIDs alone, prawns alone, barnacles with or without NSAIDs and alcohol led to no reaction. A synergistic effect of NSAIDs in inducing anaphylaxis after prawn intake was confirmed. No similar effect was achieved with barnacles despite the presence of specific IgE. Additional factors needed to elicit a clinical reaction in food allergy may not be obvious and several oral challenge protocols are mandatory in such cases.

  17. Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the haemocyte profile of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Cheng, W; Chen, J C

    2001-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated for its total haemocyte count (THC) based on season, sex, size and feeding rate. The THC, when the prawns were subjected to injections of foreign materials was also investigated. The prawns displayed the highest and lowest THC in autumn and winter respectively, with no significant difference between male and female, or among animals with a body weight range of 7-115 g. The prawns displayed the lowest THC at D3 stage, and the highest in C stage. The prawns displayed the lowest THC when they were fed at 0.1% feeding rate among feeding rates of 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% body weight x day(-1). Prawns injected with carbon powder and Enterococcus showed increased THC during the first 6 h. Prawns injected with saline and carbon powder had the lowest THC after 30 h, and recovered to the normal value after 54 h. Prawns injected with Enterococcus showed the lowest THC after 42 h, and showed delayed recovery.

  18. The Little White School House: The Impact of Progressive Reform on the Social and Educational Policy of the United States Indian Service and Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1895-1940.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Guy Blaise

    Christian (1880-1900) and Progressive (1920-1940) reforms affected the U.S. government's attempt to acculturate and educate American Indians. Religious groups supported the Dawes Allotment Act (1887), which allotted parcels of land, previously tribally held, to individual Indians. This led to de-tribalization, loss of cultural identity, and loss…

  19. The Flood. Second edition. Indian Culture Series DH-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Hap

    The booklet, illustrated with black and white photographs and drawings, contains 16 one to three page versions of the story of the great flood. Versions of the story as told by representatives of the Skokomish Indians of Western Washington, Apache Indians of New Mexico, Athabascan Indians of Alaska, Shasta Indians of California, Yakima Indians of…

  20. American Indian History and Writing from Home: Constructing an Indian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fixico, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    If the typical premise of American Indian history is actually the history of Indian-white relations, then the "other" side of the coin must be turned over for understanding an Indian point of view and what is called "writing from home." Conceptually, "writing from home" is the challenge of historians who are American Indian and who write history…

  1. Metal accumulation in the greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, in Sydney and Port Hacking estuaries, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lewtas, K L M; Birch, G F; Foster-Thorpe, C

    2014-01-01

    Metal concentrations of the inshore greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, and surface sediments from locations within Sydney estuary and Port Hacking (Australia) were assessed for bioaccumulation and contamination. The current study aimed to assess metal concentrations in prawn tissue (tail muscle, exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and gills), relate whole body prawn tissue metal concentrations to sediment metal concentrations and animal size, as well as assess prawn consumption as a risk to human health. Metal concentrations were highest in sediment and prawns from contaminated locations (Iron Cove, Hen and Chicken Bay and Lane Cove) in Sydney estuary compared with the reference estuary (Port Hacking). Concentrations in sediments varied considerably between sites and between metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and although concentrations exceeded Interim Sediment Quality Guideline-Low values, metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were below Australian National Health and Medical Research Council human consumption guidelines in prawn tail muscle tissue. Metal concentrations in prawn tail muscle tissue were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) amongst locations for Pb, Zn and Cd, and metal concentrations were generally highest in gills tissue, followed by the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and tail muscle. The exoskeleton contained the highest Sr concentration; the hepatopancreas contained the highest As, Cu and Mo concentrations; and the gills contained the highest Al, Cr, Fe and Pb concentrations. Concentrations of Pb, As and Sr were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between size groups amongst locations. PMID:23852467

  2. Metal accumulation in the greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, in Sydney and Port Hacking estuaries, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lewtas, K L M; Birch, G F; Foster-Thorpe, C

    2014-01-01

    Metal concentrations of the inshore greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, and surface sediments from locations within Sydney estuary and Port Hacking (Australia) were assessed for bioaccumulation and contamination. The current study aimed to assess metal concentrations in prawn tissue (tail muscle, exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and gills), relate whole body prawn tissue metal concentrations to sediment metal concentrations and animal size, as well as assess prawn consumption as a risk to human health. Metal concentrations were highest in sediment and prawns from contaminated locations (Iron Cove, Hen and Chicken Bay and Lane Cove) in Sydney estuary compared with the reference estuary (Port Hacking). Concentrations in sediments varied considerably between sites and between metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and although concentrations exceeded Interim Sediment Quality Guideline-Low values, metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were below Australian National Health and Medical Research Council human consumption guidelines in prawn tail muscle tissue. Metal concentrations in prawn tail muscle tissue were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) amongst locations for Pb, Zn and Cd, and metal concentrations were generally highest in gills tissue, followed by the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and tail muscle. The exoskeleton contained the highest Sr concentration; the hepatopancreas contained the highest As, Cu and Mo concentrations; and the gills contained the highest Al, Cr, Fe and Pb concentrations. Concentrations of Pb, As and Sr were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between size groups amongst locations.

  3. Correlates of overweight and obesity among American Indian/Alaska Native and Non-Hispanic White children and adolescents: National Survey of Children's Health, 2007.

    PubMed

    Ness, Maria; Barradas, Danielle T; Irving, Jennifer; Manning, Susan E

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for overweight and obesity may be different for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children compared to children of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, as obesity prevalence among AI/AN children remains much higher. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, behavioral (child's sport team participation, vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and computer use), household (parental physical activity, frequency of family meals, rules limiting television viewing, and television in the child's bedroom), neighborhood (neighborhood support, perceived community and school safety, and presence of parks, sidewalks, and recreation centers in the neighborhood), and sociodemographic (child's age and sex, household structure, and poverty status) correlates of overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥85th percentile for age and sex) were assessed among 10-17 year-old non-Hispanic white (NHW) and AI/AN children residing in Alaska, Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota (n = 5,372). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.0 % among NHW children and 48.3 % among AI/AN children in this sample. Viewing more than 2 h of television per day (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.0; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-2.8), a lack of neighborhood support (aOR = 1.9; 95 % CI = 1.1-3.5), and demographic characteristics were significantly associated with overweight/obesity in the pooled sample. Lack of sport team participation was significantly associated with overweight/obesity only among AI/AN children (aOR = 2.7; 95 % CI = 1.3-5.2). Culturally sensitive interventions targeting individual predictors, such as sports team participation and television viewing, in conjunction with neighborhood-level factors, may be effective in addressing childhood overweight/obesity among AI/AN children. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  4. Crustin, a WAP domain containing antimicrobial peptide from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: immune characterization.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Gudimella, Ranganath; Milton, James; Singh, Arun; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Kasi, Marimuthu; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Crustin (MrCrs) was sequenced from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrCrs protein contains a signal peptide region at N-terminus between 1 and 22 and a long whey acidic protein domain (WAP domain) at C-terminus between 57 and 110 along with a WAP-type 'four-disulfide core' motif. Phylogenetic results show that MrCrs is clustered together with other crustacean crustin groups. MrCrs showed high sequence similarity (77%) with crustin from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Japanese spiny lobster Panulirus japonicas. I-TASSER uses the best structure templates to predict the possible structures of MrCrs along with PDB IDs such as 2RELA and 1FLEI. The gene expressions of MrCrs in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with virus including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila (Gram-negative) and Enterococcus faecium (Gram-positive) were examined using quantitative real time PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCrs gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCrs protein agglutinated with the bacteria considered for analysis at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, except Lactococcus lactis. The bactericidal results showed that the recombinant MrCrs protein destroyed all the bacteria after incubation, even less than 6 h. These results suggest that MrCrs is a potential antimicrobial peptide, which is involved in the defense system of M. rosenbergii against viral and bacterial infections.

  5. Characterization of a gC1qR from the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ting; Huang, Xin; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Yan-Ru; Hui, Kai-Min; Ren, Qian

    2015-03-01

    gC1qR, as a multicompartmental and a multifunctional protein, plays an important role in innate immunity. In this study, a gC1qR homolog (MrgC1qR) in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified. MrgC1qR, a 258-amino-acid polypeptide, shares high identities with gC1qR from other species. MrgC1qR gene was expressed in different tissues and was highest expressed in the hepatopancreas. In addition, the MrgC1qR transcript was significantly enhanced after 6 h of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or post 2 h, 24 h of Vibrio anguillarum challenge compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, recombinant MrgC1qR (rMrgC1qR) had bacterial binding activity, the result also revealed that rMrgC1qR could bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS or PGN, suggesting that MrgC1qRmight function as a pathogen-recognition receptor (PRR). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays showed that rMrgC1qR with GST-tag could bind to rMrFicolin1 or rMrFicolin2 with His-tag. Altogether, these results may demonstrate a role for MrgC1qR in innate immunity in the giant freshwater prawns.

  6. Making Education Work for the American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiago, Robert K.

    1981-01-01

    Education has been used as the primary weapon in the White man's arsenal toward changing Indian tribal cultures. Indians are often treated in the classroom as an almost mythical group of people. Textbooks which contain incorrect or stereotypical information often cause Indian children to develop negative self-perceptions. (JN)

  7. The Mainstream--Where Indians Drown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Charles W., Jr.

    A proposed solution to "the Indian problem" of economic dependence and psychological crippling, in comparison with the tragedy of the white man's well meaning "common sense" approach to "Get them into the Mainstream", is geared to the Indian's traditional orientation. The 18-year history of the Bureau of Indian Affairs relocation program will be…

  8. History and Acculturation of the Dakota Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlee, James L.; Malan, Vernon D.

    Relating the history of the Dakota Indians from their origins to the present time, this document also examines the effects of acculturation on these Sioux people. Beginning with the Paleo-Indians of North America, it details the structure of the Dakota culture and attempts to acculturate the Indians into white society. Historical and current…

  9. Great Indian Chiefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastron, Allen

    Brief biographies and pen and ink portraits of over 40 chiefs and other distinguised American Indians comprise this book. Each page contains a full page portrait and a biography that notes tribal affiliation, important dates, geographical location, major accomplishments, and dealings with other tribes, white settlers, and the United States or…

  10. Grassroots Suggestions for Linking Native-Language Learning, Native American Studies, and Mainstream Education in Reservation Schools with Mixed Indian and White Student Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Phyllis Bo-yuen

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous-language education is critical in the rural and small-town communities with mixed native and non-native populations that constitute the headwaters of many dying tongues. Emerging from interviews conducted in 2002 and 2003 on the Flathead Indian Reservation with 89 study participants holding diverse perspectives is the need for a…

  11. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Natives have 1.5 times the ... Cause of Death (By rank) # American Indian/Alaska Native Deaths American Indian/Alaska Native Death Rate #Non- Hispanic White ...

  12. Contrasting patterns of habitat use by prawns and crayfish in a headwater marsh of the St. Johns River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, Frank; Babbitt, Kimberly J.; McIvor, Carole C.; Miller, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    We compared seasonal patterns of habitat use by the prawn Palaemonetes paludosus and the crayfish Procambarus alleni in Blue Cypress Marsh Conservation Area, Florida. Prawn densities were similar to those found in other oligotrophic wetlands of southern Florida, whereas crayfish densities were much greater than reported previously for other wetlands in the area. Prawns and crayfish had strikingly different patterns of habitat use. Prawn density and biomass were similar in wet prairies and sloughs, whereas crayfish density and biomass were significantly higher in wet prairies. Within habitats, the abundance of prawns and crayfish generally increased with increasing structural complexity and the abundance of crayfish generally decreased with increasing water depth. Differences in risk of predation, frequency of agonistic encounters, food availability, and other factors likely contributed to observed patterns of habitat use. Because of differences in their ability to burrow and avoid concentration into dry-season refugia, prawns and crayfish responded very differently to seasonal variation in hydrologic conditions. Prawn densities were initially low (following a severe drought) and then increased during much of the study period, whereas crayfish densities were relatively stable throughout the study period. Overall, it appears that prawns are more responsive to antecedent hydrologic conditions and crayfish are more responsive to the availability of suitable habitats such as wet prairies.

  13. Genetic diversity of cultured and wild populations of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii based on microsatellite analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in the Western Hemisphere is primarily, if not entirely, based on thirty-six individual prawn introduced to Hawaii from Malaysia in 1965 and 1966. Little information is available regarding the genetic background or current population status of cult...

  14. A rapid approach to evaluate putative nursery sites for penaeid prawns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew D.; Smith, James A.; Boys, Craig A.; Whitney, Hannah

    2016-08-01

    Identifying nursery habitats for an aquatic species generally requires tracing adult individuals back through time and space to the area or habitat in which they developed as juveniles. We develop and trial a study design and analytical approach to evaluate the suitability of using stable isotopes to trace emigrating prawns to putative nursery sites, and evaluate assumptions inherent in the application of the approach using two penaeid species with Type-II life cycles: Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus and Metapenaeus macleayi. Prawns were collected in putative nursery sites within the Hunter River, Australia, and analysed as composite samples of 6 individuals to provide habitat-specific isotopic signatures. Prawns emigrating from the mouth of the river were used as a proxy for individuals recruiting to the adult population, and assigned to putative nursery sites using a probabilistic mixing model and a simple, distance-based approach. Bivariate (δ15N and δ13C) isotopic data was sufficient to distinguish prawns from different putative nursery sites, and isotopic composition correlated closely with salinity. Approximately 90% of emigrating prawns collected could be assigned to these sites using bivariate isotopic data, and both analytical approaches gave similar results. The design developed here is broadly applicable to a suite of penaeid species, but its application will be most powerful when sampling is also aimed at understanding nursery function by simultaneous monitoring of size structure/growth, density, and trophic relationships within nursery habitats.

  15. TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

  16. TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  17. GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) Modulates Aggression in the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Torres-González, Alejandra M.; Rullan-Matheu, Yarely; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Sosa, María A.

    2010-01-01

    The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a tropical crustacean with characteristics similar to those of lobsters and crayfish. Adult males develop through three morphological types—small (SC), yellow (YC), and blue claws (BC)—with each representing a level in the dominance hierarchy of a group, BC males being the most dominant. We are interested in understanding the role played by neuropeptides in the mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in this type of prawn. SIFamides are a family of arthropod peptides recently identified in the central nervous system of insects and crustaceans, where it has been linked to olfaction, sexual behavior, and gut endocrine functions. One of the six SIFamide isoforms, GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide), is highly conserved among decapod crustaceans such as crabs and crayfish. We wanted to determine whether Gly-SIFamide plays a role in modulating aggression and dominant behavior in the prawn. To do this, we performed behavioral experiments in which interactions between BC/YC pairs were recorded and quantified before and after injecting Gly-SIFamide directly into the circulating hemolymph of the living animal. Behavioral data showed that aggression among interacting BC/YC prawns was enhanced by injection of Gly-SIFamide, suggesting that this neuropeptide does have a modulatory role for this type of behavior in the prawn. PMID:20040755

  18. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

  19. Prawn biomonitors of nutrient and trace metal pollution along Asia-Pacific coastlines.

    PubMed

    Fry, Brian; Carter, James F; Tinggi, Ujang; Arman, Ali; Kamal, Masud; Metian, Marc; Waduge, Vajira Ariyaratna; Yaccup, Rahman Bin

    2016-12-01

    To assess coastal ecosystem status and pollution baselines, prawns were collected from the commercial catches of eight Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand). Samples collected from 21 sites along regional coastlines were analysed for trace metal and stable isotopic compositions of H, C, N, O and S. A combination of simple averaging and multivariate analyses was used to evaluate the data. Sites could be assigned to easily recognise polluted and unpolluted groups based on the prawn results. Some filter-feeding clams were also collected and analysed together with the benthic-feeding prawns, and the prawns generally had lower trace metal burdens. Climate change effects were not strongly evident at this time, but altered ocean circulation and watershed run-off patterns accompanying future climate change are expected to change chemical patterns recorded by prawns along these and other coastlines. Stable isotopes, especially (15)N, can help to distinguish between relatively polluted and unpolluted sites.

  20. Prawn biomonitors of nutrient and trace metal pollution along Asia-Pacific coastlines.

    PubMed

    Fry, Brian; Carter, James F; Tinggi, Ujang; Arman, Ali; Kamal, Masud; Metian, Marc; Waduge, Vajira Ariyaratna; Yaccup, Rahman Bin

    2016-12-01

    To assess coastal ecosystem status and pollution baselines, prawns were collected from the commercial catches of eight Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand). Samples collected from 21 sites along regional coastlines were analysed for trace metal and stable isotopic compositions of H, C, N, O and S. A combination of simple averaging and multivariate analyses was used to evaluate the data. Sites could be assigned to easily recognise polluted and unpolluted groups based on the prawn results. Some filter-feeding clams were also collected and analysed together with the benthic-feeding prawns, and the prawns generally had lower trace metal burdens. Climate change effects were not strongly evident at this time, but altered ocean circulation and watershed run-off patterns accompanying future climate change are expected to change chemical patterns recorded by prawns along these and other coastlines. Stable isotopes, especially (15)N, can help to distinguish between relatively polluted and unpolluted sites. PMID:26982881

  1. Regulation of essential heavy metals (Cu, Cr, and Zn) by the freshwater prawn macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards)

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayram, K.; Geraldine, P.

    1996-02-01

    Despite the low concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding medium, aquatic organisms take them up and accumulate them in their soft tissues to concentrations several fold higher than those of ambient levels. Knowledge of accumulation patterns of a particular trace metal is a prerequisite for understanding the significance of an observed metal concentration in a particular animal, especially from the aspect of biomonitoring. Many marine invertebrates accumulate heavy metals without any regulation and the accumulation necessarily being associated with mechanisms to store the metals in a detoxified form. Two detoxification mechanisms have been described, both of which may occur in one specimen. Heavy metals can either be bound up in insoluble metalliferous {open_quote}granules{close_quote}, or are bound to soluble metal-binding ligands, such as metallothioneins. Some marine decapod crustaceans have an innate ability to regulate the internal concentrations of essential but potentially toxic metals within a constant level, presumably to meet their metabolic demands. However, at present, there is no such information relating to freshwater decapod crustaceans, especially shrimps which occupy a totally different environment. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, a potential aquaculture species for freshwater is found in abundance in one of the major Indian rivers, the Cauvery. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine whether the freshwater prawn, M. malcolmsonlii, is able to regulate the three essential elements, copper, chromium and zinc, over a wide range of dissolved concentrations. These three metals were chosen because the Cauvery River receives pollutants containing these metals.

  2. Qualitative mathematical models to support ecosystem-based management of Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Rothlisberg, Peter C; Loneragan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    A major decline in the catch of the banana prawn [shrimp], Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) merguiensis, occurred over a six-year period in the Weipa region of the northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Three main hypotheses have been developed to explain this decline: (1) prawn recruitment collapsed due to overfishing; (2) recruitment collapsed due to a change in the prawn's environment; and (3) adult banana prawns were still present, but fishers could no longer effectively find or catch them. Qualitative mathematical models were used to link population biology, environmental factors, and fishery dynamics to evaluate the alternative hypotheses. This modeling approach provides the means to rapidly integrate knowledge across disciplines and consider alternative hypotheses about how the structure and function of an ecosystem affects its dynamics. Alternative models were constructed to address the different hypotheses and also to encompass a diversity of opinion about the underlying dynamics of the system. Key findings from these analyses are that: instability in the system can arise when discarded fishery bycatch supports relatively high predation pressure; system stability can be enhanced by management of fishing effort or stock catchability; catch per unit effort is not necessarily a reliable indicator of stock abundance; a change in early-season rainfall should affect all stages in the banana prawn's life cycle; and a reduced catch in the Weipa region can create and reinforce a shift in fishing effort away from Weipa. Results from the models informed an approach to test the hypotheses (i.e., an experimental fishing program), and promoted understanding of the system among researchers, management agencies, and industry. The analytical tools developed in this work to address stages of a prawn life cycle and fishery dynamics are generally applicable to any exploited natural. resource. PMID:26255373

  3. The effect of copper nanoparticles supplementation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae.

    PubMed

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Saravana Bhavan, Periyakali; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) on growth, biochemical constituents, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant, metabolic enzyme levels, and non specific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The Cu-NPs (200 nm) were synthesized by facile and environmental friendly hydrothermal method. Cu-NPs were supplemented at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diets. These Cu-NPs supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for 90 days. Results showed significant (P<0.05) improvements were observed in survival, growth, digestive enzyme activities, concentrations of biochemical constituents and total and differential haemocytes count of prawns fed with 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed. Prawns fed with 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed showed negative performance. Activity of antioxidants and metabolic enzymes in the muscle and hepatopancreas of prawns showed no significant alterations (P>0.05) prawns fed with up to 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feeds. Whereas, prawns fed with 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) supplemented feed showed significant (P<0.05) elevations in antioxidant and metabolic enzymes activities. Hence, 40-80 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) diets may have toxic effect to M. rosenbergii. Hence, present study suggests that 20 mg Cu-NPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating better survival, growth and immune response of M. rosenbergii PL.

  4. Qualitative mathematical models to support ecosystem-based management of Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Rothlisberg, Peter C; Loneragan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    A major decline in the catch of the banana prawn [shrimp], Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) merguiensis, occurred over a six-year period in the Weipa region of the northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Three main hypotheses have been developed to explain this decline: (1) prawn recruitment collapsed due to overfishing; (2) recruitment collapsed due to a change in the prawn's environment; and (3) adult banana prawns were still present, but fishers could no longer effectively find or catch them. Qualitative mathematical models were used to link population biology, environmental factors, and fishery dynamics to evaluate the alternative hypotheses. This modeling approach provides the means to rapidly integrate knowledge across disciplines and consider alternative hypotheses about how the structure and function of an ecosystem affects its dynamics. Alternative models were constructed to address the different hypotheses and also to encompass a diversity of opinion about the underlying dynamics of the system. Key findings from these analyses are that: instability in the system can arise when discarded fishery bycatch supports relatively high predation pressure; system stability can be enhanced by management of fishing effort or stock catchability; catch per unit effort is not necessarily a reliable indicator of stock abundance; a change in early-season rainfall should affect all stages in the banana prawn's life cycle; and a reduced catch in the Weipa region can create and reinforce a shift in fishing effort away from Weipa. Results from the models informed an approach to test the hypotheses (i.e., an experimental fishing program), and promoted understanding of the system among researchers, management agencies, and industry. The analytical tools developed in this work to address stages of a prawn life cycle and fishery dynamics are generally applicable to any exploited natural. resource.

  5. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  6. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    PubMed Central

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; N’Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis. PMID:26195752

  7. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; D'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.                            

  8. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; N'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A

    2015-08-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite's intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village's river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.

  9. A cytosolic glutathione s-transferase, GST-theta from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: molecular and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Ramaswamy, Harikrishnan; Arasu, Abirami; Sathyamoorthi, Akila

    2014-08-10

    Glutathione S-transferases play an important role in cellular detoxification and may have evolved to protect cells against reactive oxygen metabolites. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of glutathione s-transferase-theta (GST-θ) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. A full length cDNA of GSTT (1417 base pairs) was isolated and characterized bioinformatically. Exposure to virus (white spot syndrome baculovirus or M. rosenbergii nodovirus), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila or Vibrio harveyi) or heavy metals (cadmium or lead) significantly increased the expression of GSTT (P<0.05) in hepatopancreas. Recombinant GST-θ with monochlorobimane substrate had an optimum activity at pH7.5 and 35 °C. Furthermore recombinant GST-θ activity was abolished by the denaturants triton X-100, Gua-HCl, Gua-thiocyanate, SDS and urea in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the results suggest a potential role for M. rosenbergii GST-θ in detoxification and possibly conferring immune protection.

  10. Molecular Characterisation of Colour Formation in the Prawn Fenneropenaeus merguiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Nicole G.; Elizur, Abigail; Brooks, Peter; Kuballa, Anna V.; Anderson, Trevor A.; Knibb, Wayne R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Body colouration in animals can have a range of functions, with predator protection an important aspect of colour in crustaceans. Colour determination is associated with the carotenoid astaxanthin, which is taken up through the diet and stabilised in the tissues by the protein crustacyanin. As a variety of genes are found to play a role in colour formation in other systems, a holistic approach was employed in this study to determine the factors involved in Fenneropenaeus merguiensis colouration. Results Full length F. merguiensis crustacyanin subunit A and C sequences were isolated. Crustacyanin subunit A and C were found in the F. merguiensis transcriptomes of the muscle/cuticle tissue, hepatopancreas, eye stalk and nervous system, using 454 next generation sequencing technology. Custom microarray analysis of albino, light and dark F. merguiensis cuticle tissue showed genes encoding actin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and arginine kinase to be 4-fold or greater differentially expressed (p<0.05) and down-regulated in albinos when compared to light and dark samples. QPCR expression analysis of crustacyanin and total astaxanthin pigment extraction revealed significantly (p<0.05) lower crustacyanin subunit A and C gene transcript copy numbers and total astaxanthin levels in albinos than in the light and dark samples. Additionally, crustacyanin subunit A and C expression levels correlated positively with each other. Conclusions This study identified gene products putatively involved in crustacean colouration, such as crustacyanin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and forms of actin, and investigated differences in gene expression and astaxanthin levels between albino, light and dark coloured prawns. These genes open a path to enhance our understanding of the biology and regulation of colour formation. PMID:23441225

  11. Effect of salt treatments on survival and consumer acceptance of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post harvest acclimation of live freshwater prawns to a mixture of water and marine salt increases the consumer acceptability of the finished product. However, the high cost of marine salts prohibits their use in commercial practice. Therefore, the identification of successful, cost effective salt a...

  12. Desperate Prawns: Drivers of Behavioural Innovation Vary across Social Contexts in Rock Pool Crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Callum; Wilson, Alastair J.; Thornton, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Innovative behaviour may allow animals to cope with changes in their environment. Innovative propensities are known to vary widely both between and within species, and a growing body of research has begun to examine the factors that drive individuals to innovate. Evidence suggests that individuals are commonly driven to innovate by necessity; for instance by hunger or because they are physically unable to outcompete others for access to resources. However, it is not known whether the factors that drive individuals to innovate are stable across contexts. We examined contextual variation in the drivers of innovation in rock pool prawns (Palaemon spp), invertebrates that face widely fluctuating environments and may, through the actions of tides and waves, find themselves isolated or in groups. Using two novel foraging tasks, we examined the effects of body size and hunger in prawns tested in solitary and group contexts. When tested alone, small prawns were significantly more likely to succeed in a spatial task, and faster to reach the food in a manipulation task, while hunger state had no effect. In contrast, size had no effect when prawns were tested in groups, but food-deprived individuals were disproportionately likely to innovate in both tasks. We suggest that contextual variation in the drivers of innovation is likely to be common in animals living in variable environments, and may best be understood by considering variation in the perception of relative risks and rewards under different conditions. PMID:26488728

  13. A Simple "in Vitro" Culture of Freshwater Prawn Embryos for Laboratory Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porntrai, Supaporn; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2008-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn ("Macrobrachium rosenbergii" De Man) embryos can be cultured "in vitro" to hatching in 15% (v/v) artificial seawater (ASW). This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for studying embryo…

  14. Desperate Prawns: Drivers of Behavioural Innovation Vary across Social Contexts in Rock Pool Crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Callum; Wilson, Alastair J; Thornton, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Innovative behaviour may allow animals to cope with changes in their environment. Innovative propensities are known to vary widely both between and within species, and a growing body of research has begun to examine the factors that drive individuals to innovate. Evidence suggests that individuals are commonly driven to innovate by necessity; for instance by hunger or because they are physically unable to outcompete others for access to resources. However, it is not known whether the factors that drive individuals to innovate are stable across contexts. We examined contextual variation in the drivers of innovation in rock pool prawns (Palaemon spp), invertebrates that face widely fluctuating environments and may, through the actions of tides and waves, find themselves isolated or in groups. Using two novel foraging tasks, we examined the effects of body size and hunger in prawns tested in solitary and group contexts. When tested alone, small prawns were significantly more likely to succeed in a spatial task, and faster to reach the food in a manipulation task, while hunger state had no effect. In contrast, size had no effect when prawns were tested in groups, but food-deprived individuals were disproportionately likely to innovate in both tasks. We suggest that contextual variation in the drivers of innovation is likely to be common in animals living in variable environments, and may best be understood by considering variation in the perception of relative risks and rewards under different conditions. PMID:26488728

  15. A cadmium metallothionein gene of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis, 1950) and its expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-11-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins capable of binding heavy metal ions. A cadmium metallothionein ( EcMT — Cd) cDNA with a 189 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 62 amino acid protein was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda. Seventeen cysteines were in the deduced amino acid sequence, and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was revealed in different metallothioneins in other species. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence did not contain any aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp), and phenylalanine (Phe). EcMT—Cd mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues (the ovary, muscle, stomach, and hepatopancreas), and its expression profiles in the hepatopancreas were very different when shrimps were exposed to seawater containing either 50 μmol/L CuSO4 or 2.5 μmol/L CdCl 2. The expression of EcMT-Cd was significantly up-regulated in shrimp exposed to CuSO4 for 12 h and down-regulated in shrimps exposed to CdCl2 for 12 h. After 24 h exposure to both metals, its expression was down-regulated. By contrast, at 48 h the EcMT-Cd was up-regulated in test shrimps exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cd was very low or even absent before the zoea stage, and the expression of EcMT-Cd was detected from mysis larvae-I, then its expression began to rise. In conclusion, a cadmium MT exists in E. carinicauda that is expressed in different tissues and during different developmental stages, and responds to the challenge with heavy metal ions, which provides a clue to understanding the function of cadmium MT.

  16. Molecular and immunological responses of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to the organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Rahmawaty, Atiek; Chang, Zhong-Wen

    2013-04-15

    Trichlorfon is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is used as an agriculture pesticide to destroy insects, a human medicine to combat internal parasites, and an ectoparasiticide in the livestock and aquaculture industries, but which has caused aquatic toxicity in the prawn industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trichlorfon on molecular and enzymatic processes of the immunological response of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) with 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24h of exposure. The total hemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined to evaluate immunological responses and oxidative stress. Results showed that THCs of the prawn exposed to trichlorfon at both concentrations (0.2 and 0.4mgL(-1)) had increased after 12 and 24h; SOD and PO activities had significantly increased at 3h, whereas production of RBs had dramatically increased as oxidative stress at each sampling time after exposure to trichlorfon compared to the control. A potential biomarker of OPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) revealed a significant decrease after exposure for 6h, and showed a time-dependent tendency. Immune gene expressions, including prophenoloxidase (proPO), the lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), α2-macroglubulin (α2M), transglutaminase (TG), and copper, zinc (Cu,Zn)-SOD, of prawns exposed to trichlorfon at 0, 0.2, and 0.4mgL(-1) for 0, 6, and 24h were further evaluated. Expressions of all of the immune genes significantly decreased when prawns were exposed to 0.4mgL(-1) trichlorfon for 24h, and among them, an increase in SOD expression was seen after exposure to 0.4mgL(-1) for 6h. Prawns exposed to trichlorfon within 24h exhibited the decrease of circulating hemocytes, and also the induction of oxidative stress, which caused subsequent damage to DNA formation of immune genes. From these

  17. Europe's Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feest, Christian F.

    1990-01-01

    American Indians are regularly cited as models by and for Europeans. On closer examination, these "Indians" turn out to be a fictional assemblage fabricated over the past five centuries to serve specific cultural and emotional needs of its inventors. Studies changing representations of the Indian as used by European cultures. (AF)

  18. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  19. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased ( P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups ( P >0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  20. Risk assessment of pesticides used in rice-prawn concurrent systems in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Rico, Andreu; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Van den Brink, Paul J; Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Rashid, Harunur

    2016-10-15

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the occupational health hazards posed by the application of pesticides in rice-prawn concurrent systems of south-west Bangladesh and to assess their potential risks for the aquatic ecosystems that support the culture of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Information on pesticide use in rice-prawn farming was collected through structured interviews with 38 farm owners held between January and May of 2012. The risks of the pesticide use to human health were assessed through structured interviews. The TOXSWA model was used to calculate pesticide exposure (peak and time-weighted average concentrations) in surface waters of rice-prawn systems for different spray drift scenarios and a simple first tier risk assessment based on threshold concentrations derived from single species toxicity tests were used to assess the ecological risk in the form of risk quotients. The PERPEST model was used to refine the ecological risks when the first tier assessment indicated a possible risk. Eleven synthetic insecticides and one fungicide (sulphur) were recorded as part of this investigation. The most commonly reported pesticide was sulphur (used by 29% of the interviewed farmers), followed by thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and phenthoate (21%). A large portion of the interviewed farmers described negative health symptoms after pesticide applications, including vomiting (51%), headache (18%) and eye irritation (12%). The results of the first tier risk assessment indicated that chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and malathion may pose a high to moderate acute and chronic risks for invertebrates and fish in all evaluated spray drift scenarios. The higher tier assessment using the PERPEST model confirmed the high risk of cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos for insects and macro- and micro-crustaceans thus indicating that these pesticides may have severe adverse consequences for the prawn

  1. Risk assessment of pesticides used in rice-prawn concurrent systems in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Rico, Andreu; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Van den Brink, Paul J; Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Rashid, Harunur

    2016-10-15

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the occupational health hazards posed by the application of pesticides in rice-prawn concurrent systems of south-west Bangladesh and to assess their potential risks for the aquatic ecosystems that support the culture of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Information on pesticide use in rice-prawn farming was collected through structured interviews with 38 farm owners held between January and May of 2012. The risks of the pesticide use to human health were assessed through structured interviews. The TOXSWA model was used to calculate pesticide exposure (peak and time-weighted average concentrations) in surface waters of rice-prawn systems for different spray drift scenarios and a simple first tier risk assessment based on threshold concentrations derived from single species toxicity tests were used to assess the ecological risk in the form of risk quotients. The PERPEST model was used to refine the ecological risks when the first tier assessment indicated a possible risk. Eleven synthetic insecticides and one fungicide (sulphur) were recorded as part of this investigation. The most commonly reported pesticide was sulphur (used by 29% of the interviewed farmers), followed by thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and phenthoate (21%). A large portion of the interviewed farmers described negative health symptoms after pesticide applications, including vomiting (51%), headache (18%) and eye irritation (12%). The results of the first tier risk assessment indicated that chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and malathion may pose a high to moderate acute and chronic risks for invertebrates and fish in all evaluated spray drift scenarios. The higher tier assessment using the PERPEST model confirmed the high risk of cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos for insects and macro- and micro-crustaceans thus indicating that these pesticides may have severe adverse consequences for the prawn

  2. Advanced Placement Courses and American Indian Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment in Advanced Placement (AP) courses and performance on Advanced Placement examinations for American Indians in the U.S. for 2007 was analyzed. Scores on AP examinations, overall and then for five AP courses, were compared to the AP examination scores of White students. In every case, American Indians had AP examination scores that were…

  3. Tecumseh. The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraff, Anne

    Tecumseh, famed for his skills as an orator, warrior, military strategist, and leader of his Shawnee people, has been called one of the great American leaders. In 1812 he assembled 3,000 warriors from 32 American Indian tribes in an effort to save the Indian lands from the onslaught of the white soldiers and settlers. It was the largest Indian…

  4. Toxicity Assessment on the Levels of Select Metals in the Critically Endangered Indian White-backed Vulture, Gyps bengalensis, in India.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Jayakumar; Subramanian, Muralidharan

    2015-06-01

    To assess the potential contribution of metals to the catastrophic population decline of the White-backed Vulture, Gyps bengalensis, their concentrations in various organs was quantified. Liver, kidney, pectoral muscle, gut contents and femur bone were collected from dead birds between 1999 and 2008. These samples were analysed for lead, cadmium, copper and zinc, which were detected in all organs with no significant variation among tissues or between sexes. Moreover, high lead levels in liver (8.56 µg/g wet weight) and kidney (9.31 µg/g wet weight) in some individuals indicate toxic effects. Nonetheless, the levels of most metals measured in the present study may be considered as normal.

  5. Influence of short term exposure of TBT on the male reproductive activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    PubMed

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Pandiyarajan, Jayaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the histopathological and hormonal changes during spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was documented. Three experimental concentrations such as 10, 100 and 1,000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 45 days. After TBT exposure, the reproductive activities like sperm count and sperm length were decreased when compared with control. Further, abnormal structure of the seminiferous tubule, decrease in spermatozoa concentration, diminution of the seminiferous tubule membrane and the abundance of spermatocytes in the testis were noticed in treated prawns. Interestingly, radioimmunoassay clearly revealed the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT has considerably reduced the level of testosterone and caused the impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii.

  6. An Historical Overview of Indian Education with Evaluations and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightman, Lehman L.

    Tracing the history of American Indian education from the coming of the white man to the present day, this position paper presents evaluations and recommendations from an Indian point of view. Among the major topic divisions are: (1) Historical Background; (2) Government Support of Early Indian Education; (3) Early Education Falls Short of Its…

  7. Sir William Johnson and the Indians of New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Milton W.

    In order to make the vast literature about the history of Indian and white relations in New York readily accessible to teachers, students, and general readers, this booklet brings together the main points of the relationship between the Indians and Sir William Johnson. Johnson is a key figure in the Indian story of New York state during the 1770s.…

  8. Cultural Disintegration Perpetuated through Substance Abuse among American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence Armand

    Alcohol, perhaps more than any other factor, symbolizes the degree of cultural disintegration experienced by American Indians today. It has been recognized as a symptom of the numerous cultural adjustments forced upon American Indians since white contact. Indeed, alcohol among Indian groups was prohibited for a far longer period than the…

  9. American Indian World View and the Outward Bound Concept: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Peter

    To establish a philosophical meeting ground between Indians and white men, this document compares the Indian world view with the concept of Outward Bound. Part 1 points out the similarity between the Indian world view and the thinking behind the white man's interest in wilderness experience as a character builder, and compares the Outward Bound…

  10. Isolation and characterization of a female-specific DNA marker in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, T; Aflalo, E D; Weil, S; Kashkush, K; Sagi, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a female-specific DNA marker in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was identified through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The AFLP-derived sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was tested in over 200 individuals, giving reproducible sex identification. Further molecular characterization of the sex-marker's genomic region (∼3 kb long) revealed the presence of tandem and inverted repeats. The ∼3-kb sequence was identified both in male and female prawns, but with subtle differences: a deletion of 3 bp (present in female prawn but absent in male prawn) identified upstream of the SCAR marker sequence and two female-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both indicating that male prawns are homozygous, whereas female prawns are heterozygous in this locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed the ∼3-kb sequence to be unique: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a unique sex-specific sequence observed in situ in crustaceans. The sex-specific marker identified in M. rosenbergii may have considerable applied merit for crustacean culture in that it will enable the determination of genetic sex at early developmental stages when phenotypic differences are not identifiable. PMID:21522169

  11. Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-08-01

    White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR. PMID:23952017

  12. Production of recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (r-MCP43) of giant freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii (de Man) for immunological diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Farook, M A; Madan, N; Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-08-01

    White tail disease (WTD) caused by Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) is a serious problem in prawn hatcheries. The gene for capsid protein of MrNV (MCP43) was cloned into pRSET B expression vector. The MCP43 protein was expressed as a protein with a 6-histidine tag in Escherichia coli GJ1158 with NaCl induction. This recombinant protein, which was used to raise the antiserum in rabbits, recognized capsid protein in different WTD-infected post-larvae and adult prawn. Various immunological methods such as Western blot, dot blot and ELISA techniques were employed to detect MrNV in infected samples using the antiserum raised against recombinant MCP43 of MrNV. The dot blot assay using anti-rMCP43 was found to be capable of detecting MrNV in WTD-infected post-larvae as early as at 24 h post-infection. The antiserum raised against r-MCP43 could detect the MrNV in the infected samples at the level of 100 pg of total protein. The capsid protein of MrNV estimated by ELISA using anti-rMCP43 and pure r-MCP43 as a standard was found to increase gradually during the course of infection from 24 h p.i. to moribund stage. The results of immunological diagnostic methods employed in this study were compared with that of RT-PCR to test the efficiency of antiserum raised against r-MCP43 for the detection of MrNV. The Western blot, dot blot and ELISA detected all MrNV-positive coded samples as detected by RT-PCR.

  13. The Indian and Education. Monograph No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahenakew, David

    I am an American Indian, and I believe education to be something totally different from what the white man believes it to be, for he sees education as factories, roads, space travel, degrees, high salaries, and a means to be a good life. I cannot separate the white man's education from the political/military strategies practiced against my race…

  14. The effect of astaxanthin on resistance of juvenile prawns Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) to physical and chemical stress.

    PubMed

    Tizkar, Babak; Seidavi, Alireza; Ponce-Palafox, Jesús Trinidad; Pourashoori, Parastoo

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquaculture and its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX) to the shock and stress of different physicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland) at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50 mg/kg, AX100 with 100 mg/kg, and AX150 with 150 mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1000L) used for holding prawns. Three replicate aquaria were initially stocked with 36 org/m2 per tank. During the trial, prawns were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod with an ordinary incandescent lamp, and the water quality parameters were maintained as follows: water temperature, 25-26°C; salinity, 1 g/L; pH, 8.5-8.8; dissolved oxygen, 6.0-6.5 mg/L; and ammonia-nitrogen, 0.05 mg/L. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. At the end of the growing period, the prawns were exposed to thermal shock (0°C), ammonia (0.75 mg/L), and reduced oxygen (0.5 mg/L). The time to lethargy and the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX150 diet showed

  15. Impact of tributyltin on antioxidant and DNA damage response in spermatozoa of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rani, K Umaa; Musthafa, M Saiyad; War, Mehrajuddin; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Shareef, T H Mohamed Ahadhu; Nawas, P Mohideen Askar

    2015-12-01

    Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on antioxidant [total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and DNA damage levels in the spermatozoa were studied and reported here for the first time in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Three groups of (n = 10 in each group) fishes were exposed to three different nominal concentrations of TBT viz., 1, 2, and 4 mg L(-1) along with control group for 90 days. Significant decrease of antioxidant and increased DNA damage levels were seen at higher doses of 2 and 4 mg L(-1). In prawn, the antioxidant level plays a vital role in sperm protection, activation, differential functions related to the physiology, and reproductive behavior. This study serves as a biomonitoring tool to assess the TBT effects on reproductive behavior of aquatic biota.

  16. Feasibility of using hydrothermal resources in Malaysian prawn aquaculture. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.I.J.; Rhodes, R.J.; Wannamaker, A.W.

    1982-08-01

    The potential application of geothermal resources in South Carolina for freshwater prawn aquaculture was examined. In coastal S.C. 23 existing geothermal well sites were identified which encompassed an area which ranged from Georgetown to Beaufort. Depth averaged approx. 615 m while temperature averaged approx. 37/sup 0/C. Artesian flow rates varied from 190 to 2650 1/min. Detailed water quality analyses were conducted at 12 sites. In general, major differences from surface waters were in chlorides, fluorides, dissolved solids, ph, alkalinity, and ammonia levels. A detailed replicated laboratory study was conducted to examine the effect of geothermal water on growth and survival of prawns. After 42 days very poor survival was recorded from the various 100% geothermal water treatments. However, 50:50 mixture of shallow well water and geothermal water resulted in a survival rate of 83%, which was similar to the control treatments. Growth was also similar to that observed among the control animals.

  17. [Nutrition of juvenile prawn Macrobrachium carcinus (Crustacea: Decapoda) with diets of vegetable and marine residues].

    PubMed

    Casas-Sánchez, R; Vaillard-Nava, Y; Re-Araujo, A D

    1995-01-01

    Juvenile prawn Macrobrachium carcinus were fed two different diets: restaurant by-products (diet I) and fish and vegetable market by-products (diet II). These diets were evaluated by proximal analysis, assimilation efficiency and the factor conversion rate (FCR). Diet I registered a higher efficiency, but there was no difference in the growth rate. The growth mean (G. L.) for three months was 0.254 +/- 0.13 cm (diet I) and 0.191 +/- 0.1 cm (diet II). The conversion rate was good for both, suggesting that 6 to 7 kg of food are needed to obtain 1 kg of prawn. Survival was 76% and 100% for diets I and II, respectively.

  18. Recruitment and origin of penaeid prawn postlarvae in two South-east African estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, A. T.; Cyrus, D. P.

    1991-09-01

    Input of postlarval stages into the penaeid prawn stocks of Natal, South Africa, was investigated by monitoring immigration into the St Lucia and Kosi estuaries. Five species, Penaeus japonicus Bate, P. indicus Milne Edwards, P. semisulcatus de Haan, P. monodon Fabricius and Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) were recorded. Recruitment into the more northerly Kosi estuary, where offshore conditions are influenced by the south-flowing Agulhas Current, was totally dominated by P. japonicus. At St Lucia, at the northern end of the Tugela Bank, similar numbers of P. japonicus and P. indicus were recorded as well as smaller numbers of the other three species. The differences imply that the Tugela Bank provides the major postlarval input of commercially important species to St Lucia and suggests a greater degree of isolation of the Natal penaeid prawn populations than previously thought.

  19. Total and inorganic arsenic in freshwater fish and prawn in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saipan, Piyawat; Ruangwises, Suthep; Tengjaroenkul, Bundit; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2012-10-01

    Total and inorganic arsenic levels were determined in 120 samples of eight freshwater animal species collected from five distribution centers in the central region of Thailand between January and March 2011. Eight species with the highest annual catch, consisting of seven fish species and one prawn species, were analyzed. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic (on a wet weight basis) ranged from 0.010 μg/g in giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to 0.230 μg/g in striped snakehead (Channa striata). Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) exhibited the highest mean concentrations of total arsenic (0.459 ± 0.137 μg/g), inorganic arsenic (0.121 ± 0.044 μg/g), and percentage of inorganic arsenic (26.2%). Inorganic arsenic levels found in freshwater animals in this study were much lower than the Thai regulatory standard of 2 μg/g. PMID:23043844

  20. Total and inorganic arsenic in freshwater fish and prawn in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saipan, Piyawat; Ruangwises, Suthep; Tengjaroenkul, Bundit; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2012-10-01

    Total and inorganic arsenic levels were determined in 120 samples of eight freshwater animal species collected from five distribution centers in the central region of Thailand between January and March 2011. Eight species with the highest annual catch, consisting of seven fish species and one prawn species, were analyzed. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic (on a wet weight basis) ranged from 0.010 μg/g in giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to 0.230 μg/g in striped snakehead (Channa striata). Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) exhibited the highest mean concentrations of total arsenic (0.459 ± 0.137 μg/g), inorganic arsenic (0.121 ± 0.044 μg/g), and percentage of inorganic arsenic (26.2%). Inorganic arsenic levels found in freshwater animals in this study were much lower than the Thai regulatory standard of 2 μg/g.

  1. Isolation and molecular identification of planctomycete bacteria from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, J A; Gwilliam, H G; Lindsay, M; Lichanska, A; Belcher, C; Vickers, J E; Hugenholtz, P

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria phenotypically resembling members of the phylogenetically distinct planctomycete group of the domain Bacteria were isolated from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon. A selective medium designed in the light of planctomycete antibiotic resistance characteristics was used for this isolation. Planctomycetes were isolated from both healthy and monodon baculovirus-infected prawn postlarvae. The predominant colony type recovered from postlarvae regardless of viral infection status was nonpigmented. Other, less commonly observed types were pink or orange pigmented. A planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA-directed probe was designed and used to screen the isolates for their identity as planctomycetes prior to molecular phylogenetic characterization. 16S rRNA genes from nine prawn isolates together with two planctomycete reference strains (Planctomyces brasiliensis and Gemmata obscuriglobus) were sequenced and compared with reference sequences from the planctomycetes and other members of the domain Bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses and sequence signatures of the 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the prawn isolates were members of the planctomycete group. Five representatives of the predominant nonpigmented colony type were members of the Pirellula group within the planctomycetes, as were three pink-pigmented colony type representatives. Homology values and tree topology indicated that representatives of the nonpigmented and pink-pigmented colony types formed two discrete clusters within the Pirellula group, not identical to any known Pirellula species. A sole representative of the orange colony type was a member of the Planctomyces group, virtually identical in 16S rDNA sequence to P. brasiliensis, and exhibited distinctive morphology. PMID:8979353

  2. Involvement of opioid peptides in the regulation of reproduction in the prawn Penaeus indicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The possible involvement of an endogenous opioid system in the regulation of ovarian development in the prawn Penaeus indicus was investigated. Injection of leucine-enkephalin significantly increased the ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of methionine-enkephalin significantly decreased the ovarian index and oocyte diameters. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that an opioid system is involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans.

  3. Impact of cyclones and aquatic macrophytes on recruitment and landings of tiger prawns Penaeus esculentus in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loneragan, N. R.; Kangas, M.; Haywood, M. D. E.; Kenyon, R. A.; Caputi, N.; Sporer, E.

    2013-07-01

    The cover of seagrasses and macroalgae, landings and fishery-independent measures of spawning stock and recruitment for brown tiger prawns, were monitored immediately following a major cyclone in Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia in March 1999. Anecdotal evidence on the extent of seagrass from 1990 to 1998 suggests that the cyclone caused a major, immediate disruption and loss of the seagrass/macroalgal beds (to ≤2% cover), the critical prawn nursery habitat, and mangroves in the shallow inshore waters of the system. Prawn landings and recruitment to the fishery were not affected in the year of the cyclone, but were markedly lower in the two years immediately afterwards and then increased as the cover of macrophytes increased to over 40% in 2003. Tiger prawn landings and catch rates were not affected in Shark Bay, a system 500 km south of Exmouth Gulf that did not experience cyclonic disturbance. Seagrasses in Exmouth Gulf showed a succession of species from small colonising species (Halophila ovalis and Halodule uninervis) to larger, broad-leaved species (Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium) only two years after the cyclone. The recruitment and landings of tiger prawns were correlated significantly with the total cover of macroalgae and seagrass. The large loss of seagrass and macroalgae reduced the settling habitat for postlarvae and the nursery habitat for juvenile tiger prawns, probably leading to the lower recruitment to the fishery. These findings suggest that the extent of seagrass and macroalgae are some of the factors defining the productivity of the tiger prawn fishery in Exmouth Gulf.

  4. Historic Distrust and the Counseling of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockart, Barbetta

    1981-01-01

    Since establishment of trust is crucial to counseling relationships, American Indian distrust of non-Indians must be dealt with for successful counseling. Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines Road, Portland, OR 97201. (CM)

  5. Production of Cost-Effective Mesoporous Materials from Prawn Shell Hydrocarbonization.

    PubMed

    Román, S; Ledesma, B; Álvarez-Murillo, A; Sabio, E; González, J F; González, C M

    2016-12-01

    In this work, prawn shell was studied as raw material for the production of mesoporous adsorbents via hydrocarbonization, studying the effect of temperature and time on the process reactivity and final characteristics of the hydrochars. By suitable characterization technique analyses (N2 adsorption at 77 K, SEM observation, ultimate analysis, surface composition), the materials were examined. It was found that in both cases mesoporous materials with low values of S BET due to the presence of CaCO3 on the material structure. In order to provide a potential application for these materials, the adsorption behaviour of hydrochars (HCs) as well as that of pristine prawn shells and ashes from prawn shell combustion was studied for the first time with the model compound p-nitrophenol (PNP). The results indicated that HC treatment was beneficial and enhanced adsorption performance, especially at high values of equilibrium concentration, attaining adsorption capacities up to 1.6 mg g(-1). PMID:27680741

  6. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 μg/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  7. Nutrient budgets and effluent characteristics in giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Dey, Lambodar

    2014-05-01

    It is important to understand nutrient budgets of aquaculture practices for efficiency of input resources and to utilize all output nutrient sources. The aim of the present study was to develop a nutrient budget for giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture ponds. The study was conducted in farmer's ponds (0.25-0.5 ha) of Odisha, India, and the results showed that feed accounted 97% total nitrogen (N), 98.7% total phosphorus (P) and 90% total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvested prawn accounted for recovery of 37% N, 10% P and 15% OC, respectively. The N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 52%, 76%, and 65%, respectively. Nutrient loads in the effluents were 2.22 ± 0.66 kg inorganic N, 0.40 ± 0.15 kg P, and 21.01 ± 6.4 kg OC per ton of prawn production. The present study implicated that high nutrient values observed in both water and sediment provide important opportunities for nutrient reuse through pond sediment applications to croplands as an organic manure, as well as pond water irrigation to crops as a "liquid fertilizer".

  8. Indian Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

  9. Isolation of prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein gene and its expression in responding to bacterial and viral infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qianqian; Li, Jian; Duan, Yafei; Li, Jitao; Sun, Ming; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-04-01

    The pattern recognition proteins (PRPs) play a major role in immune response of crustacean to resist pathogens. In the present study, as one of PRPs, lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) gene in the ridge tail white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) ( EcLGBP) was isolated. The full-length cDNA of EcLGBP was 1338 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 366 amino acid residules. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcLGBP shared high similarities with LGBP and BGBP from other crustaceans. Some conservative domains were predicted in EcLGBP sequence. EcLGBP constitutively expressed in most tissues at different levels, and the highest expression was observed in hepatopancreas. With infection time, the cumulative mortality increased gradually followed by the proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The expression of EcLGBP in response to V. parahaemolyticus infection was up-regulated in hemocytes and hepatopancreas, and the up-regulation in hepatopancreas was earlier than that in hemocytes. EcLGBP expression after WSSV infection increased at 3 h, then significantly decreased in both hemocytes and hepatopancreas. The results indicated that EcLGBP was involved in the immune defense against bacterial and viral infections.

  10. Molecular profiles and pathogen-induced transcriptional responses of prawn B cell lymphoma-2 related ovarian killer protein (BOK).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have reported a molecular characterization of the first B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) related ovarian killer protein (BOK) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). BOK is a novel pro-apoptotic protein of the BCL-2 family that entails in mediating apoptosis to remove cancer cells. A cDNA sequence of MrBOK was identified from the prawn cDNA library and its full length was obtained by internal sequencing. The coding region of MrBOK yields a polypeptide of 291 amino acids. The analysis revealed that MrBOK contains a transmembrane helix at V(261)-L(283) and a putative BCL-2 family domain at V(144)-W(245). MrBOK also possessed four putative BCL-2 homology domains including BH1, BH2, BH3 and weak BH4. The BH3 contains 21 binding sites and among them five residues are highly conserved with the aligned BOK proteins. The homology analysis showed that MrBOK shared maximum similarity with the Caligus rogercresseyi BOK A. The topology of the phylogenetic tree was classified into nine sister groups which includes BOK, BAK, BAX, BAD, BCL-2, BCL-XL, NR13 and MCL members. The BOK protein group further sub-grouped into vertebrate and invertebrate BOK, wherein MrBOK located within insect monophyletic clad of invertebrate BOK. The secondary structural analysis showed that MrBOK contains 11 α-helices (52.2%) which are connected over random coils (47.7%). The 3D structure of MrBOK showed three central helices (α6, α7 and α8) which formed the core of the protein and are flanked on one side by α1, α2 and α3, and on the other side by α4, α5 and α11. MrBOK mRNA is expressed most abundantly (P < 0.05) in ovary compared to other tissues taken for analysis. Hence ovary was selected to study the possible roles of MrBOK mRNA regulation upon bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) and viral [white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus] infection. During bacterial and viral infection, the highest MrBOK mRNA transcription was varied

  11. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-Babu, P

    2013-11-15

    This study was framed to investigate the (60)Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of (60)Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3,000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could affect the vital physiological functions such as respiration, osmotic and ionic regulation in gills and muscles; absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas which in turn could adversely affect the growth and survival of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii.

  12. Asthma education and quality of life in the community: a randomised controlled study to evaluate the impact on white European and Indian subcontinent ethnic groups from socioeconomically deprived areas in Birmingham, UK

    PubMed Central

    Moudgil, H; Marshall, T; Honeybourne, D

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Whether asthma morbidity in minority groups can be reduced by preventative health care measures delivered in the relevant ethnic dialects requires further evaluation. This study reports clinical outcomes and quality of life from a community based project investigating white European (W/E) and Indian subcontinent (ISC) ethnic groups with asthma living in deprived inner city areas of Birmingham, UK.
METHODS—Six hundred and eighty nine asthmatic subjects (345 W/E, 344 ISC) of mean (SD) age 34.5 (15) years (range 11-59) and mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 80% predicted were interviewed in English, Punjabi, Hindi, or Urdu. Subjects randomised to the active limb of a prospective, open, randomised, controlled, parallel group, 12 month follow up study underwent individually based asthma education and optimisation of drug therapy with four monthly follow up (active intervention). Control groups were seen only at the beginning and end of the study. Urgent or emergency interactions with primary and secondary health care (clinical outcomes) and both cross sectional and longitudinal data from an Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) were analysed.
RESULTS—Clinical outcomes were available for 593 subjects. Fewer of the active intervention group consulted their GP (41.8% versus 57.8%, odds ratio (OR) 0.52 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.74)) or were prescribed antibiotics (34.9% versus 51.2%, OR 0.51 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.72)), but by ethnicity statistically significant changes occurred only in the W/E group with fewer also attending A&E departments and requiring urgent home visits. Active intervention reduced the number of hospital admissions (10 versus 30), GP consultations (341 versus 476), prescriptions of rescue oral steroids (92 versus 177), and antibiotics (220 versus 340), but again significant improvements by ethnicity only occurred in the active W/E group. AQLQ scores were negatively skewed to the higher values; regression analysis showed

  13. A Victim of Its Own Success: The Story of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian Fair, 1910-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Josh

    2006-01-01

    The Indian fair is that rare example of a government program for Indians gone terribly right. Implemented by the Office of Indian Affairs on reservations in the early 1900s, Indian fairs allowed Native people to exhibit their crops, livestock, and domestic handiwork in competition for prizes much the same way whites did at their numerous county…

  14. Indians in the American System: Past and Present, Student Book. The Lavinia and Charles P. Schwartz Citizenship Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbury, Ian; Westbury, Susan

    The purpose of this curriculum unit on citizenship education is to enrich the way students think about American Indians by presenting the history of American Indians and their relationship with white Americans. The first chapter discusses the kinds of ideas people have about Indians, especially stereotypes of Indians being wild, red-colored, and…

  15. Identification of five anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yili; Tang, Ting; Gu, Jihai; Li, Xiang; Yang, Xue; Gao, Xiaobin; Liu, Fengsong; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-10-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are a group of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and antiviral activities mainly found in crustaceans and horseshoe crabs. In the present study, we identified 5 ALF expression sequence tags (ESTs) through analysis of the established M. nipponense transcriptome, and cloned their full-length cDNA sequences using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The 5 ALFs were designated as MnALF1-5, and all of them showed high similarity with their Macrobrachium rosenbergii homologs in the phylogenetic analyses, especially in LPS binding domains. In healthy adult prawns, we found the highest expression of MnALF2 and MnALF4 in haemocytes, and the highest expression of MnALF4 and MnALF3 in intestine. Some isoforms of MnALF were down-regulated but the majority was up-regulated in different prawn tissues upon Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. To conform the expected antimicrobial activities harbored in MnALFs' LPS binding domains, we used a synthesized peptide cMnALF24 that corresponds to the LPS binding domain of MnALF2 as a representative molecule for the antibacterial activity test, and found that cMnALF24 possessed strong and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, but no inhibition activity against fungi; Meanwhile, in the hemolytic test, cMnALF24 showed weak hemolysis activities (around 10%) to the rabbit red blood cells at concentrations of 0.67-33.50 μM. This study provides insights into understanding the antibacterial function of ALFs in the innate immunity of freshwater prawn, and reports a peptide that can be a potential drug candidate with good efficacy against bacterial infection and low toxicity to host cells. PMID:26159095

  16. Toxicity of cryoprotectants agents in freshwater prawn embryos of Macrobrachium amazonicum.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Arthur Vinícius Lourenço; Castro, Elias José Teles; Barbosa, Mariana Silva Alves; de Sousa, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins; de Araújo Neto, Manoel Paiva; Filho, Aldeney Andrade Soares; de Souza Sampaio, Celia Maria

    2015-12-01

    The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ≤ 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl. PMID:25255785

  17. Population Structure and Historical Demography of the Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ta-Jen; Wang, Daryi; Lee, Ying-Chou; Tzeng, Tzong-Der

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn, and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan. Mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA were combined and used to elucidate the population structure and historical demography of oriental river prawn in Taiwan. A total of 202 individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations was 0.01217, with values ranging from 0.00188 (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, northern Taiwan) to 0.01425 (Mingte Reservoir, MTR, west-central Taiwan). All 76 haplotypes were divided into 2 lineages: lineage A included individuals from all sampling areas except SMR, and lineage B included specimens from all sampling locations except Chengching Lake Reservoir (CLR) and Liyu Lake Reservoir (LLR). All FST values among nine populations were significantly different except the one between Jhonggang River Estuary (JGE, west-central Taiwan) and Kaoping River Estuary (KPE, southern Taiwan). UPGMA tree of nine populations showed two main groups: the first group included the SMR and Tamsui River Estuary (TSE) (both located northern Taiwan), and the second one included the other seven populations (west-central, southern and eastern Taiwan). Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18,000 years ago. PMID:26716687

  18. The Performance of American Indian Children on the Draw-A-Man Test. National Study of American Indian Education, Series III, No. 2, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levensky, Kay

    As a part of the National Study of American Indian Education, this document reports on 1700 American Indian primary school children (representing 14 tribal groups and 12 states) who were administered the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test (DAM) as a measure of mental alertness. A comparison is given of the Indian and white children's scores. It appears…

  19. Cyanobacteria and prawn farming in northern New South Wales, Australia--a case study on cyanobacteria diversity and hepatotoxin bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kankaanpaeae, Harri T.; Holliday, Jon; Schroeder, Helge; Goddard, Timothy J.; Fister, Richard von; Carmichael, Wayne W

    2005-03-15

    Harmful cyanobacteria pose a hazard to aquatic ecosystems due to toxins (hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin) they produce. The microcystins and nodularins are potent toxins, which are also tumor promoters. The microcystins and nodularins may accumulate into aquatic organisms and be transferred to higher trophic levels, and eventually affect vector animals and consumers. Prawn farming is a rapidly growing industry in Australia. Because information regarding effects of cyanobacteria at prawn farms was lacking, we examined diversity of cyanobacteria and toxin production plus bioaccumulation into black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) under both field (northern New South Wales, Australia, December 2001-April 2002) and laboratory conditions. Samples were analyzed for hepatotoxins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum density of cyanobacteria (1 x 10{sup 6} to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l) was reached in April. Cyanobacteria encountered were Oscillatoria sp. (up to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Pseudanabaena sp. (up to 1.8 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Microcystis sp. (up to 3.5 x 10{sup 4} cells/l), and Aphanocapsa sp. (up to 2 x 10{sup 4} cells/l). An uncommon cyanobacterium, Romeria sp. (up to 2.2 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), was also observed. Contrasting earlier indications, toxic Nodularia spumigena was absent. Despite that both Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis sp. are potentially hepatotoxic, hepatotoxin levels in phytoplankton samples remained low (up to 0.5-1.2 mg/kg dw; ELISA) in 2001-2002. ELISA was found suitable not only for phytoplankton but prawn tissues as well. Enzymatic pretreatment improved extractability of hepatotoxin from cyanobacteria (nodularin from N. spumigena as an example), but did not generally increase toxin recovery from prawn hepatopancreas. There were slightly increasing hepatotoxin concentrations in prawn hepatopancreas (from 6-20 to 20-80 {mu}g/kg dw; ELISA) during the

  20. Indian Summer

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  1. Insights into Sexual Precocity of Female Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense through Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongxia; Li, Xilian; Sun, Yuhang; Hou, Fujun; Zhang, Yufei; Li, Fei; Gu, Zhimin; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is the most prevalent aquaculture species in China. The sexual precocity in this species has received considerable attention in recent years because more and more individuals matured at a small size, which devalues the commercial production. In this study, we developed deep-coverage transcriptomic sequencing data for the ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using next-generation RNA sequencing technology and attempted to provide the first insight into the molecular regulatory mechanism of sexual precocity in this species. Results A total of 63,336 unigenes were produced from the ovarian cDNA libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Through BLASTX searches against the NR, STRING, Pfam, Swissprot and KEGG databases, 15,134 unigenes were annotated, accounting for 23.89% of the total unigenes. 5,195 and 3,227 matched unigenes were categorized by GO and COG analysis respectively. 15,908 unigenes were consequently mapped into 332 KEGG pathways, and many reproduction-related pathways and genes were identified. Moreover, 26,008 SSRs were identified from 18,133 unigenes. 80,529 and 80,516 SNPs were yielded from ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, respectively, and 29,851 potential SNPs between these two groups were also predicted. After comparing the ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, 549 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 9 key DEGs that may be related to sexual precocity of M. nipponense were identified. 20 DEGs were selected for validation by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) and 19 DEGs show consistent expression between QPCR and RNAseq-based differential expression analysis datasets. Conclusion This is the first report on the large-scale RNA sequencing of ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M

  2. Blueprints for Indian Education: Improving Mainstream Schooling. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Robin A.

    The Indian Nations At Risk Task Force and the White House Conference on Indian Education suggested systemic reforms that would improve the education of Native students who attend public schools. These reforms focus on fostering intercultural harmony in schools, improving teacher preparation, developing instructional curricula and strategies that…

  3. The Original Americans: U.S. Indians. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    About 1.5 million people in the United States identify themselves as Indians. Despite great cultural diversity, all Native groups have a common feature: they suffer poverty and related problems stemming from their relationship to White America. For four generations, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) has exercised an incredible degree of economic…

  4. Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Mary C.

    This study of the attitudes and status of West Indian immigrants in the United States, based on interviews with 59 West Indian immigrants, 83 adolescent and young adult children of immigrants, 27 African Americans, 25 White Americans, and 6 coworkers of immigrants shows the changes that occur as immigrants confront the realities of U.S. life. West…

  5. New Teaching Methods for the Reservation Indian Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Hulda R.

    To reverse the pattern of school failure so common among reservation Indian children, the reservation teacher must modify classroom structure and curriculum to take advantage of cultural strengths and accommodate cultural differences of her students. Many practices of the average white classroom are antithetical to Indian child rearing practices;…

  6. Cultural and Historical Perspectives concerning American Indian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Sandra K.

    This paper discusses the cultural roles of Indian women in the past and the translation of those roles in today's world. Historically, the Indian woman was educated by her mother and other older women to assume duties ranging from wife and mother to respected counselor, medicine woman, and warrior. Contact with White explorers and settlers made…

  7. Effect of crude oil petroleum hydrocarbons on protein expression of the prawn Macrobrachium borellii.

    PubMed

    Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Gutierrez Rivera, J N; Vázquez Boucard, C; Heras, H

    2013-05-01

    Hydrocarbon pollution is a major environmental threat to ecosystems in marine and freshwater environments, but its toxicological effect on aquatic organisms remains little studied. A proteomic approach was used to analyze the effect of a freshwater oil spill on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To this aim, proteins were extracted from midgut gland (hepatopancreas) of male and female prawns exposed 7 days to a sublethal concentration (0.6 ppm) of water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF). Exposure to WSF induced responses at the protein expression level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed by WSF exposure. Seven proteins were identified using MS/MS and de novo sequencing. Nm23 oncoprotein, arginine methyltransferase, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase were down-regulated, whereas two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms and a lipocalin-like crustacyanin (CTC) were up-regulated after WSF exposure. CTC mRNA levels were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR showing an increased expression after WSF exposure. The proteins identified are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, detoxification, transport of hydrophobic molecules and cellular homeostasis among others. These results provide evidence for better understanding the toxic mechanisms of hydrocarbons. Moreover, some of these differentially expressed proteins would be employed as potential novel biomarkers.

  8. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Cassandra L; White, William T; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended. PMID:27218654

  9. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Cassandra L; White, William T; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended.

  10. Steroids and genes related to steroid biosynthesis in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Siangcham, Tanapan; Suwansa-ard, Saowaros; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2016-03-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is important to many Asian countries due to its high economic value as an aquaculture product. With demand increasing, there is requirement for a better understanding of the biosynthetic components that regulate its growth and reproduction, including steroids, in order to help increase production. Vertebrate-type steroids and their receptors were identified in crustaceans and implicated in reproduction. In this study, we presented the sex steroids estradiol and progesterone by LC-MS/MS in female M. rosenbergii, and reveal steroidogenic-related genes by in silico analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis with other species was performed to confirm their putative role, as well as tissue-specific and quantitative gene expression. We reveal 29 transcripts that encode for steroidogenic-related proteins, including steroidogenic enzymes, a nuclear steroid hormone receptors, and a steroidogenic factor. Moreover, we identified for the first time the presence of steroidogenic factor 1, StAR-related lipid transfer protein, estradiol receptor- and progesterone-like protein in M. rosenbergii. Those targeted for gene expression analysis (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen sulfotransferase and progesterone receptor-like) showed widespread expression within many tissues, and at relatively high levels in the central nervous system (CNS) during ovarian maturation. In summary, we provide further evidence for the existence of steroidogenic pathways in crustaceans, which may be useful for advancing prawn aquaculture.

  11. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Cassandra L.; White, William T.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.

    2016-01-01

    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended. PMID:27218654

  12. A New Look at the Role of Women in Indian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Valerie S.

    1975-01-01

    Three conclusions are discussed: (1) women in American Indian societies were generally viewed as inferior to men; (2) their daily routines were really not much different from those of white women; and (3) a number of Indian women were provided economic, social, and political opportunities not afforded white women. (Author/JC)

  13. Self Destructive Behaviors in American Indian and Alaska Native High School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Michael L.; Lester, David

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of responses of 10,251 high school students surveyed in the 1997 National School-Based Youth Risk Survey indicated that American Indian males more frequently carried weapons, attempted suicide, and used drugs than did White or Black youths. American Indian females more frequently attempted suicide and used cocaine than did White or Black…

  14. Cancer Incidence, Survival, and Mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horm, John W.; Burhansstipanov, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Overall cancer incidence among southwestern American Indians is less than half that of U.S. whites; Alaska Native and white rates are similar. However, both native groups have elevated rates for specific cancers (stomach, liver, and gallbladder), and Indians have low five-year survival rates. Data tables outline incidence, mortality, and survival…

  15. American Indian Education: Culture and Diversity in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Linda Sue; Hastings, Jimmy Darrell

    This paper discusses policy trends in American Indian higher education. Until the latter half of this century, teaching and learning diversity for American Indian students had meant assimilation into the white culture. It did not include retaining Indian value systems or beliefs, and against this background federal educational policies on Indian…

  16. American Indian and Alaska native aboriginal use of alcohol in the United States.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P J

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol beverages prior to White contact originated with the Mayan and the Aztec Nations and spread to the American Indians of the Southwest. Surprisingly, there are a number of accounts of alcohol use among other American Indians and Alaska Natives. Beverages were limited to wine and beer, and included: balche, pulque, and "haren a pitahaya" wines, tulpi beer and other beverages. White contact brought dramatic shifts in the use and function of alcoholic beverages in American Indian and Alaska Native societies. PMID:8935245

  17. American Indian and Alaska native aboriginal use of alcohol in the United States.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P J

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol beverages prior to White contact originated with the Mayan and the Aztec Nations and spread to the American Indians of the Southwest. Surprisingly, there are a number of accounts of alcohol use among other American Indians and Alaska Natives. Beverages were limited to wine and beer, and included: balche, pulque, and "haren a pitahaya" wines, tulpi beer and other beverages. White contact brought dramatic shifts in the use and function of alcoholic beverages in American Indian and Alaska Native societies.

  18. Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

    2013-07-01

    The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae.

  19. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  20. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae.

  1. Indian summer.

    PubMed

    Rose, V

    1991-12-01

    Health visitor, Val Rose, won a Florence Nightingale memorial fund scholarship to travel to the Navajo Indian reservation in north America. The health problems of the Navajo are similar to those affecting the traveller population on her own caseload, forced by changing circumstances and legislation to settle on local authority sites in England. Here she describes some of the health problems arising from the settlement of nomadic people. PMID:1765529

  2. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    PubMed

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii.

  3. A Bibliographic Essay Pertaining to Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Scott

    Introduced by a discussion of the fact that most of the works cited describe Navajos as they "used to be" and an admonition against the common practice of placing all Navajos, or all Indians, under one stereotype, this bibliographic essay traces the history of Navajo contact with the white man and emphasizes efforts at educational development. Six…

  4. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.21 Indian and Indian tribe. (a) Indian means an individual who is a member of an Indian tribe. (b) Indian tribe means any Federal or State Indian tribe,...

  5. Dorsal transcription factor is involved in regulating expression of crustin genes during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. In this study, we identified a dorsal homolog (MrDorsal) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA of MrDorsal comprised 2533 bp with an open reading frame of 1986 bp, which encoded a peptide of 661 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that MrDorsal contains a Rel homolog domain and an IPT/TIG (i.e., Ig-like, plexin, and transcription factors) domain. The signature sequence of dorsal protein FRYMCEG existed in the deduced amino acid sequence. Sequence analysis showed that MrDorsal shared high similarities with Dorsal from invertebrate species. MrDorsal was abundant in the hemocytes and gills of healthy prawns but minute levels were detected in other tissues. The expression of MrDorsal was significantly upregulated 48 h after the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-) challenge. Knockdown of MrDorsal using double-stranded RNA could suppress the transcription of crustin genes (MrCrustin2 and MrCrustin4) in gills of prawns after 48 h of the WSSV challenge. Results indicated that MrDorsal was involved to regulate the expression of crustin genes and it might play potential important roles during WSSV infection. PMID:27181712

  6. [Oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid residues in kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus) and the effect of cooking procedures on the residues].

    PubMed

    Uno, Kazuaki

    2002-04-01

    Tissue distribution and residue depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxolinic acid (OA) were studied in the kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus). The prawn were kept in tanks with recirculated artificial seawater at a salinity of 22-23@1000. The water temperature was maintained at 25 degrees C. The average body weight was 22.9 +/- 4.9 g for OTC and 22.5 +/- 3.6 g for OA. The drug was mixed with the diet and orally administered through a catheter to the prawn. The doses of OTC and OA, respectively, were 50 mg/kg body weight. At each sample time, four prawns were sacrificed and tissues were sampled. OTC and OA levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. At the highest levels, the concentrations of OTC were in the other: shell (13.57 micrograms/g) > hemolymph (12.20 micrograms/mL) > muscle (8.30 micrograms/g). For OA, the order was: shell (20.74 micrograms/g) > hemolymph (7.06 micrograms/mL) > muscle (2.05 micrograms/g). The elimination half-lives of hemolymph and muscle were 44.7 and 46.8 hours for OTC and 55.0 and 107.9 hours for OA, respectively. Residual OTC could not be detected in hemolymph and muscle at 20 days after dosing. Residual OA disappeared from hemolymph and muscle at 25 days after dosing. A 25-day period for OTC and 30-day period for OA could be regarded as the proper withdrawal time established for kuruma prawn by the Pharmaceutical Law in Japan. However, the elimination half-lives of shell for OTC and OA could not be calculated because both drug residues persisted in shell tissues, and the elimination phase was not completed during the experimental period. Residual OTC (14.10 +/- 2.26 micrograms/g, n = 6) and OA (0.32 +/- 0.06 microgram/g, n = 7) were detected in exuviae at 3 days and 4 days after dosing, respectively. Residual OTC was reduced to 50-70% in muscle by the usual methods of cooking (boiling, baking at 200 degrees C and frying at 180 degrees C), whereas reduction levels in shell were only 20-30%. Residual OA was

  7. Gamma irradiation-aided chitin/chitosan extraction from prawn shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlous, M.; Tahtat, D.; Benamer, S.; Nacer Khodja, A.

    2007-12-01

    Chitin and chitosan were extracted from prawn shells. The influence of a 25 kGy irradiation dose on the deproteination process was investigated. The deproteination degree was followed by Lowry-Folin method. The demineralisation degree versus reaction time with 1 N hydrochloric acid solution was followed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Chitin and chitosan obtained were characterised by FTIR spectrometry. The influence of some parameters, such as reaction time, alkaline concentration and temperature on the deacetylation degree was also investigated. The deacetylation degree was evaluated by FTIR spectrometry using the bands at 1320 cm -1 and 1420 cm -1. It was found that the irradiation of the shells at a dose of 25 kGy reduces the time of the deproteination reaction by a factor of three, comparatively to the non-irradiated samples.

  8. The complete mitogenome of the rock pool prawn Palaemon serenus (Heller, 1862) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the rock pool prawn (Palaemon serenus), is sequenced, making it the third for genera of the family Palaemonidae and the first for the genus Palaemon. The mitogenome is 15,967 base pairs in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The P. serenus mitogenome has an AT bias of 58.97% and a base composition of 29.79% for T, 24.14% for C, 29.18% for A, and 16.89% for G. The mitogenome gene order of P. serenus is identical to Exopalaemon carinicauda. PMID:25693708

  9. Use of ethanol production by-products for producing microalgae, tilapia, and freshwater prawns

    SciTech Connect

    Behrends, L.L.; Kingsley, J.B.; Price, A.H. III

    1983-01-01

    By-products from fermentation of grains to alcohol are highly valued as feed supplements for beef and dairy cattle, swine, and poultry. The quantity of wet distillers by-products (stillage) from fuel alcohol production is expected to increase greatly. Unlike dried distillers by-products, wet distillers by-products have generally been abandoned as feed supplements for livestock because of high water content, cost of handling, and storage problems. Using wet distillers by-products as a fertilizer or feed supplement in aquatic production systems appears promising. Two experiments were conducted to determine relationships between stillage application rates and production of microalgae and yields of tilapia (fish) and freshwater prawns (shrimp). Dissolved oxygen concentrations and several other water quality parameters were also monitored. 19 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Lyons, Russell E.; Dinh, Hung; Hurwood, David A.; McWilliam, Sean; Mather, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii or GFP), is the most economically important freshwater crustacean species. However, as little is known about its genome, 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA was undertaken to characterise its transcriptome and identify genes important for growth. Methodology and Principal Findings A collection of 787,731 sequence reads (244.37 Mb) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing analysis of cDNA prepared from muscle, ovary and testis tissues taken from 18 adult prawns was assembled into 123,534 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of these, 46% of the 8,411 contigs and 19% of 115,123 singletons possessed high similarity to sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database, with most significant (E value < 1e–5) contig (80%) and singleton (84%) matches occurring with crustacean and insect sequences. KEGG analysis of the contig open reading frames identified putative members of several biological pathways potentially important for growth. The top InterProScan domains detected included RNA recognition motifs, serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domains, actin-like families, and zinc finger domains. Transcripts derived from genes such as actin, myosin heavy and light chain, tropomyosin and troponin with fundamental roles in muscle development and construction were abundant. Amongst the contigs, 834 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1198 indels and 658 simple sequence repeats motifs were also identified. Conclusions The M. rosenbergii transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs. PMID:22174756

  11. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  12. THE FINE STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF NERVE FIBERS, SHEATHS, AND GLIAL CELLS IN THE PRAWN, PALAEMONETES VULGARIS

    PubMed Central

    Heuser, John E.; Doggenweiler, Carlos F.

    1966-01-01

    In view of reports that the nerve fibers of the sea prawn conduct impulses more rapidly than other invertebrate nerves and look like myelinated vertebrate nerves in the light microscope, prawn nerve fibers were studied with the electron microscope. Their sheaths are found to have a consistent and unique structure that is unlike vertebrate myelin in four respects: (1) The sheath is composed of 10 to 50 thin (200- to 1000-A) layers or laminae; each lamina is a cellular process that contains cytoplasm and wraps concentrically around the axon. The laminae do not connect to form a spiral; in fact, no cytoplasmic continuity has been demonstrated among them. (2) Nuclei of sheath cells occur only in the innermost lamina of the sheath; thus, they lie between the sheath and the axon rather than outside the sheath as in vertebrate myelinated fibers. (3) In regions in which the structural integrity of the sheath is most prominent, radially oriented stacks of desmosomes are formed between adjacent laminae. (4) An ∼200-A extracellular gap occurs around the axon and between the innermost sheath laminae, but it is separated from surrounding extracellular spaces by gap closure between the outer sheath laminae, as the membranes of adjacent laminae adhere to form external compound membranes (ECM's). Sheaths are interrupted periodically to form nodes, analogous to vertebrate nodes of Ranvier, where a new type of glial cell called the "nodal cell" loosely enmeshes the axon and intermittently forms tight junctions (ECM's) with it. This nodal cell, in turn, forms tight junctions with other glial cells which ramify widely within the cord, suggesting the possibility of functional axon-glia interaction. PMID:5968976

  13. Post-embryonic transcriptomes of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: multigenic succession through metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of

  14. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense).

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Tzong-Der; Pao, Yueh-Yang; Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  15. Post-Embryonic Transcriptomes of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Multigenic Succession through Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of

  16. Retardation of post-mortem changes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) stored in ice by legume seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji; Yoshida, Asami

    2012-11-15

    Meat quality of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts at different concentrations was monitored during 10 days of iced storage. During storage, the control sample (without treatment) had a higher pH, TCA-soluble peptide content, heat soluble collagen content, proteolytic activities and psychrophilic bacterial count than did samples treated with soybean and bambara groundnut extracts. Conversely, shear force value and likeness scores of the control sample decreased (p<0.05), more likely associated with softening of muscle. The decrease in myosin heavy chain in the control sample was found after 6 days of storage. However, no changes in protein patterns of samples treated with soybean extracts at 2.5 mg/mL were found after 10 days of storage. Therefore, the injections of legume seed extracts, especially soybean extract, at a sufficient concentration, could be a means to retard muscle softening and maintain the qualities of freshwater prawn during iced storage.

  17. Eastern Bolivia: The White Promised Land. IWGIA Document 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Norman

    The Indians of Bolivia, already exploited by a military dictatorship, will have to take up more of the white man's burden if South Africans and Rhodesians accept an invitation to colonize the country. White South Africans, accustomed to the excesses of their own police, will find much that is familiar in Bolivia. Bolivia is a poor country, its per…

  18. Creepy White Gaze: Rethinking the Diorama as a Pedagogical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterzuk, Andrea; Mulholland, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on gaze and postcolonial theory, this article provides a theoretical discussion of a problematic photograph published in a provincial teachers' newsletter. The photo consists of a White settler child and two White settler educators gathered around his heritage fair entry diorama entitled "Great Plains Indians." This article analyzes this…

  19. Trophic ecology of the freshwater prawn, Pseudopalaemon bouvieri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Northeastern Argentina, with remarks on population structure.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Romina Patricia; Collins, Pablo Agustín; Poi de Neiff, Alicia S Guadalupe

    2012-03-01

    Freshwater decapod crustaceans are important components of food webs in these environments, but little is known about the diet of species that live in tropical waters. We studied the feeding ecology of the prawn Pseudopalaemon bouvieri and its population structure in two different areas with six lagoons, with a different composition and abundance of aquatic macrophytes. At each site of macrophytes banks, 18 prawns sample was collected with a hand net (1mm mesh size) from 1m2. In the laboratory, prawns cephalothorax length was measured, sex determined, and a total of 208 stomachs were examined for food items. Our results showed that the population abundance varied between 10 ind/m2 and 1 411 ind/m2. The cephalothorax length ranged between 6mm and 21mm, and the male:female ratio varied between 0.3 and 1.0, with a higher proportion of ovigerous females (21%) in area one than area two. P. bouvieri is omnivorous, and its diet was principally based on algae, plant remains, Protozoa, Rotifera, Oligochaeta, Crustacea, Insecta, detritus and other items. The analysis of the stomach content did not reveal any significant difference in the diet between juveniles and adults, and males and females of both areas consumed a similar diet (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0.8273). We concluded that the dietary items consumed by prawns and the niche breadth were similar between the two areas, although the proportion of items consumed varied between lagoons of both areas. The density of P. bouvieri was different between areas, but the size of cephalothorax (CL) was similar. PMID:22458226

  20. Habitat Type Influences the Microhabitat Preference of Juvenile Tiger Prawns ( Penaeus esculentusHaswell and Penaeus semisulcatusDe Haan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, R. A.; Loneragan, N. R.; Hughes, J. M.; Staples, D. J.

    1997-09-01

    The microhabitat preferences of juvenile tiger prawns (3-10 mm carapace length),Penaeus esculentusandPenaeus semisulcatus, were tested in the field at Groote Eylandt, in the western Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. A partitioned apparatus containing live seagrass was used. Both species of prawns selected seagrass (Syringodium isoetifolium) over bare substrate. JuvenileP. esculentus, the most abundant species in this region, were also given paired choices of seagrasses with different leaf morphologies (representing a range of structural complexity) and sediments of different particle size. They selected a seagrass with broad, long leaves (Cymodocea serrulata) over one with narrow, long leaves (S. isoetifolium), which in turn was selected over the seagrasses with narrow, short leaves (Halodule uninervisand shortenedS. isoetifolium). Predation experiments have shown that juvenileP. esculentusare detected and eaten less often in broad, long-leaved seagrass than in narrow, short-leaved seagrass or bare substrate, so their preference for the former may shelter them from predators. No habitat preference was evident forP. esculentuswhen offered a choice between sediments consisting mainly of sand (71% sand particles) and silt (60% of silt and clay). The selection by both species of tiger prawn of seagrass over bare substrate, andP. esculentus's selection of seagrass with long, broad leaves, provides an explanation for the distribution of juvenile tiger prawns in the field. Thus, in the seagrass beds around Groote Eylandt,P. esculentusis more abundant in seagrass with broad, long leaves than in seagrass with short, thin leaves. In addition, its distribution in this region is relatively independent of sediment type. Leaf surface area (or habitat structural complexity) appears to be the main determinant of distribution for juvenileP. esculentus.

  1. The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non

  2. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the β-actin gene from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda.

    PubMed

    Liang, J P; Wang, Y; Ge, Q Q; Li, J T; Liu, P; Li, J; Nie, G X

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a highly conserved protein that is found in all eukaryotic cells, and has been widely used as an internal control gene in gene expression studies. In this study, we cloned an actin gene (named Ecβ-actin) from Exopalaemon carinicauda and determined its expression levels. The full-length cDNA of Ecβ-actin was 1335 bp long, comprising a 1131-bp ORF encoding 376 amino acids, a 65-bp 5'-UTR, and a 139-bp 3'-UTR with a poly(A) tail. The A + T content was approximately 79% in the 3'-UTR of the Ecβ-actin mRNA. The 3'-UTR contained two repeats of the AUUUA motif. The putative protein Ecβ-actin showed high identity (97-99%) with other actins from various species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ecβ-actin belongs to Crustacea, although it formed a singleton sub-branch that was located a short distance from crabs and other shrimp species. Ecβ- actin expression was detected in the hepatopancreas, ovary, muscle, gill, stomach, and hemocytes, and was strongly expressed in the hemocytes and ovary of E. carinicauda. Ecβ-actin mRNA expression varied during ovarian development, with high levels observed at stages I and V. Therefore, caution should be taken when using the Ecβ-actin gene as an endogenous control gene. PMID:27173226

  3. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the β-actin gene from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda.

    PubMed

    Liang, J P; Wang, Y; Ge, Q Q; Li, J T; Liu, P; Li, J; Nie, G X

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a highly conserved protein that is found in all eukaryotic cells, and has been widely used as an internal control gene in gene expression studies. In this study, we cloned an actin gene (named Ecβ-actin) from Exopalaemon carinicauda and determined its expression levels. The full-length cDNA of Ecβ-actin was 1335 bp long, comprising a 1131-bp ORF encoding 376 amino acids, a 65-bp 5'-UTR, and a 139-bp 3'-UTR with a poly(A) tail. The A + T content was approximately 79% in the 3'-UTR of the Ecβ-actin mRNA. The 3'-UTR contained two repeats of the AUUUA motif. The putative protein Ecβ-actin showed high identity (97-99%) with other actins from various species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ecβ-actin belongs to Crustacea, although it formed a singleton sub-branch that was located a short distance from crabs and other shrimp species. Ecβ- actin expression was detected in the hepatopancreas, ovary, muscle, gill, stomach, and hemocytes, and was strongly expressed in the hemocytes and ovary of E. carinicauda. Ecβ-actin mRNA expression varied during ovarian development, with high levels observed at stages I and V. Therefore, caution should be taken when using the Ecβ-actin gene as an endogenous control gene.

  4. Effect of legume seed extracts on the inhibition of proteolytic activity and muscle degradation of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii).

    PubMed

    Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    Trypsin inhibitors in the extracts from soybean (Glycine max), adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and red kidney bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris) varied in amount and molecular weight. The soybean extract had the highest level of trypsin inhibitor with molecular weight (MW) of 21kDa, followed by bambara groundnut extract possessing trypsin inhibitor with MW of 15kDa. Both extracts showed a more effective inhibition towards crude protease extract (CE) from the hepatopancreas of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) than the extracts from adzuki and red kidney beans. Activity staining also reconfirmed the higher inhibitory activity on CE from hepatopancreas by the extracts from both soybean and bambara groundnut. The extracts from all seeds were able to inhibit the degradation of fresh water prawn meat containing CE in a concentration dependent manner. Based on inhibitor study, the extracts from soybean and bambara groundnut can be a potential aid to suppress the muscle softening of fresh water prawn, mediated by trypsin-like proteases released from hepatopancreas, during extended iced storage.

  5. Expression of biotransformation and oxidative stress genes in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.

    PubMed

    Gaume, Béatrice; Dodet, Nathalie; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lemoine, Soazig

    2015-06-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used between 1972 and 1993 in the French West Indies to control the root borer in banana fields. Chlordecone use resulted in long-term pollution of soils, contamination of waters, of aquatic organisms, and of fields. Chlordecone is known to be neurotoxic, to increase prostate cancer, and to have negative effects on cognitive and motor development during infancy. In Guadeloupe, most of the freshwater species living in contaminated rivers exceed the French legal limit of 20 μg·kg(-1) wet weight. In the present study, we chose a transcriptomic approach to study the cellular effects of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an important economical species in Guadeloupe. Quantitative PCR revealed an induction of genes involved in defense mechanism against oxidative stress (catalase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase) in prawns exposed to low environmental concentrations of chlordecone after 12 and 24 h of exposure. In prawns reared in a contaminated farm, transcription of genes involved in the biotransformation process (cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) were induced after 8 days of exposure. Our results provide information on the mechanims of defense induced by chlordecone in aquatic crustacean species. This gene expression study of selected genes should be further strengthened by proteomic analyses and enzymatic activity assays to confirm the response of these biomarkers of stress in crustaceans and to give new insights into the mechanism of toxicity by chlordecone.

  6. A first insight into temperature stress-induced neuroendocrine and immunological changes in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Cheng, Winton

    2015-11-01

    Haemolymph norepinephrine (NE); total haemocyte count (THC); respiratory bursts (RBs); superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytic activity; and prophenoloxidase (proPO)-system-related genes (lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein: LGBP, proPO, peroxinectin: PE, and α2-macroglobulin: α2-M) in haemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were investigated after transferring them from 28 °C to 22 °C, 28 °C, and 34 °C respectively. The results revealed that haemolymph NE, hyaline cells (HCs), and PO activity per granulocyte increased from 30 to 120 min of exposure, and however, RBs and phagocytic activity significantly decreased from 30 to 120 min of exposure as well as granular cells (GCs), semigranular cells (SGCs), and SOD activity decreased from 60 to 120 min of exposure for the prawns subjected to temperature stress. The proPO-system-related gene expression markedly increased with 60-120 min of exposure for the prawns transferred from 28 °C to 22 °C and 34 °C, except α2M at 120 min. These results provide a first insight into the effects of temperature stress on haemolymph NE level and immune functions in prawns and suggest that temperature-stress-induced acute modulation in immunity is associated with the release of haemolymph NE in M. rosenbergii.

  7. Spermatophore affects the egg-spawning and egg-carrying behavior in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Kruangkum, Thanapong; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-10-01

    In crustaceans, mating occurs during the ecdysis after female molting. During this period, a male transfers its spermatophore into a female which, in some species, stores the spermatophore for a long period prior to spawning and fertilization. However, in some species including the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the male deposits its spermataphore onto the external surface of the thoracic segment of the female which affects the spawning time and maternal behavior. This study investigated the spawning behavior of the M. rosenbergii females, which was divided into pre-spawning, spawning, and post-spawning phases. It was revealed that mated female prawns with attached spermatophore exhibited an earlier spawning than unmated individuals, leading to assessment of the factors that may elicit this phenomenon. Four groups of female prawns were allocated to groups including mating females with spermatophore still attached, mating females with the spermatophore removed, artificially inseminated females with spermatophores, and an unmated control. There was a significant reduction in the time of egg-spawning in the presence of spermatophores, and the mating activity was also a contributing factor. Furthermore, over 90% of the mated and artificially inseminated females in which spermatophores were deposited carried the eggs in the abdominal brood chamber until completion of embryonic development while others discarded the eggs within 2 days post-spawning. This study implies that the spermatophore may contain ovulation-inducing factors which stimulate an earlier spawning and fostering of brooding behavior.

  8. Effects of (60)Co gamma irradiation on behavior and gill histoarchitecture of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DE MAN).

    PubMed

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-babu, P

    2013-06-01

    Present study was designed to observe the effects of (60)Co gamma radiation in behavioral and histological changes in the gills of giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The adult prawns were irradiated with four different dose levels (3mGy, 30mGy, 300mGy and 3000mGy) and the control group (without irradiation) was maintained separately. Behavioral changes like hyperactivity, loss of balance, reduced swimming rate, slower rate of food intake and convulsions were observed in higher dose levels of 300mGy and 3000mGy. The histological alterations such as accumulated haemocytes in haemocoelic spaces, abnormal gill tips, lifted lamellar epithelium, swollen and fused lamellae, hyperplasic, necrotic, clavate-globate and complete disorganization of lamellae were observed in (60)Co gamma irradiated prawns. Significantly more considerable histological alterations were observed in the highest dose level of 3000mGy, but no mortality was evidenced. This study serves as biomonitoring tool to assess the radiation pollution in the aquatic environment.

  9. Effect of legume seed extracts on the inhibition of proteolytic activity and muscle degradation of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii).

    PubMed

    Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    Trypsin inhibitors in the extracts from soybean (Glycine max), adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and red kidney bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris) varied in amount and molecular weight. The soybean extract had the highest level of trypsin inhibitor with molecular weight (MW) of 21kDa, followed by bambara groundnut extract possessing trypsin inhibitor with MW of 15kDa. Both extracts showed a more effective inhibition towards crude protease extract (CE) from the hepatopancreas of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) than the extracts from adzuki and red kidney beans. Activity staining also reconfirmed the higher inhibitory activity on CE from hepatopancreas by the extracts from both soybean and bambara groundnut. The extracts from all seeds were able to inhibit the degradation of fresh water prawn meat containing CE in a concentration dependent manner. Based on inhibitor study, the extracts from soybean and bambara groundnut can be a potential aid to suppress the muscle softening of fresh water prawn, mediated by trypsin-like proteases released from hepatopancreas, during extended iced storage. PMID:25212342

  10. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

    2012-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

  11. Identification of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense exposed to environmental hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengming; Xuan, Fujun; Ge, Xianping; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Shiyong

    2014-01-25

    Hypoxia represents a major physiological challenge for prawn culture, and the hepatopancreas plays an important role in these processes. Here, we applied high-throughput sequencing technology to detect the gene expression profile of the hepatopancreas in Macrobrachium nipponense in response to hypoxia for 3 h and hypoxia for 24 h. Gene expression profiling identified 1925 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated by dissolved oxygen availability. Functional categorization of the differentially expressed genes revealed that oxygen transport, electron transport chain, reactive oxygen species generation/scavenging, and immune response were the differentially regulated processes occurring during environmental hypoxia. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using six genes independently verified the tag-mapped results. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed, for the first time, hemocyanin protein expression as significant hypoxia-specific signature in prawns,which opens the way for in depth molecular studies of hypoxia exposure. The analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in oriental river prawn provides a preliminary basis for a better understanding of the molecular response to hypoxia exposures. PMID:24498647

  12. Identification of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense exposed to environmental hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengming; Xuan, Fujun; Ge, Xianping; Fu, Hongtuo; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Shiyong

    2013-10-25

    Hypoxia represents a major physiological challenge for prawn culture, and the hepatopancreas plays an important role in these processes. Here, we applied high-throughput sequencing technology to detect the gene expression profile of the hepatopancreas in M. nipponense in response to hypoxia for 3h and hypoxia for 24h. Gene expression profiling identified 1925 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated by dissolved oxygen availability. Functional categorization of the differentially expressed genes revealed that oxygen transport, electron transport chain, reactive oxygen species generation/scavenging, and immune response were the differentially regulated processes occurring during environmental hypoxia. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using six genes independently verified the tag-mapped results. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed, for the first time, hemocyanin protein expression as significant hypoxia-specific signatures in prawns, which opens the way for in depth molecular studies of hypoxia exposure. The analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in oriental river prawn provides a preliminary basis for a better understanding of the molecular response to hypoxia exposures. PMID:24513331

  13. Identification and characterization of differentially expressed transcripts in the gills of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Barman, Hirak Kumar; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Das, Varsha; Mohapatra, Shibani Dutta; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Mohanta, Ramya; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rath, Surya Narayan

    2012-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH) tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn. PMID:22619594

  14. The Successful Educational Journeys of American Indian Women: Forming Aspirations for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2014-01-01

    American Indians (AIs) have lower higher education enrollment and completion rates than Whites and most minority groups. AI women, however, participate at higher rates than AI men, White women, and White men. Research has not examined what contributes to their higher education aspirations. This study explored the middle and high school experiences…

  15. A novel single-domain peptide, anti-LPS factor from prawn: synthesis of peptide, antimicrobial properties and complete molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we reported a complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics features, gene expression, peptide synthesis and its antimicrobial activities of an anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) factor (ALF) cDNA identified from the established cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (named as MrALF). The mature protein has an estimated molecular weight of 11.240 kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.46. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrALF contains an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) region between T54 and P77 with two conserved cysteine residues (Cys55 and Cys76) which have an anti-parallel β-sheet confirmation. The β-sheet is predicted as cationic with hydrophobic nature containing a net charge of +5. The depicted AMP region is determined to be amphipathic with a predicted hydrophobic face 'FPVFI'. A highest MrALF gene expression was observed in hemocytes and is up-regulated with virus [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV)], bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) and Escherichia coli LPS at various time points. The LPS binding region of MrALF peptide was synthesized to study the antimicrobial property, bactericidal efficiency and hemolytic capacity. The peptide showed antimicrobial activity against both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The bactericidal assay showed that the peptide recognized the LPS of bacterial cell walls and binding on its substrate and thereby efficiently distinguishing the pathogens. The hemolytic activity of MrALF peptide is functioning in a concentration dependant manner. In summary, the comprehensive analysis of MrALF showed it to be an effective antimicrobial peptide and thus it plays a crucial role in the defense mechanism of M. rosenbergii. PMID:24269604

  16. No Turning Back: A Hopi Indian Woman's Struggle to Live in Two Worlds. As Told to Vada F. Carlson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qoyawayma, Polingaysi

    For high school and adult readers this autobiography of Polingaysi Qoyawayma (Elizabeth Q. White) relates a Hopi Indian woman's struggle to adjust to an alien culture and to develop teaching methods to bridge the gap between Indians and the white world. Information on Hopi legends and ceremonies introduce the reader to the Hopi way of life. Born…

  17. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.21 Indian and Indian tribe. (a) Indian means an individual who is a member of an Indian tribe. (b) Indian tribe means any Federal...

  18. The Indian Wars Again?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    1991-01-01

    Explains history of federal-Indian relationship and changing tribal sovereignty rights. Describes treaty disputes and Indian-non-Indian conflicts in Washington, Wisconsin, and Oklahoma. Describes general nature of Indian alliances and support networks. Discusses possible roles for social scientists and social-science studies to mitigate Indian…

  19. Indian Education Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Lu Celia, Ed.

    Designed in Oklahoma as a teaching aid for teachers in Indian education, this booklet is organized according to the subject areas of the curriculum. It provides a ready resource on Indian culture and should thus be of value to teachers who work with both Indian and non-Indian students. Guidelines for curriculum development in multicultural…

  20. Indian Ledger Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Offers an innovative way to teach mid-nineteenth century North American Indian history by having students create their own Indian Ledger art. Purposes of the project are: to understand the role played by American Indians, to reveal American Indian stereotypes, and to identify relationships between cultures and environments. Background and…

  1. KNOW YOUR NEVADA INDIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POEHLMAN, CHARLES H.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE SOCIOCULTURAL BACKGROUNDS OF THE PAIUTE, WASHOE, AND SHOSHONE INDIANS OF NEVADA. INCLUDED ARE AN OUTLINE OF GENERAL PROBLEMS PERTAINING TO INDIAN EDUCATION, SOME DISTINCT CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE DOMINANT NON-INDIAN SOCIETY AND THE INDIAN SOCIETY, AND THE PREHISTORIC ASPECTS OF THE…

  2. American Indian Sports Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxendine, Joseph B.

    This book chronicles the story of sports among American Indians. Part 1 examines the nature and role of games in traditional Indian life, with five chapters on: Indian concepts of sport; ball games; foot racing; other sports; children's play; and games of chance. Part 2 looks at the emergence of Indians in modern sport, with five chapters on:…

  3. Indian Country: A History of Native People in America and Indian Country: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Karen D.; Harjo, Lisa D.

    Appropriate for the middle grades through junior high school, this book and accompanying teacher's guide provide a curriculum for teaching American Indian history. Following an overview of the European encounter and the early years of White penetration into North America, the book focuses on five distinct periods of U.S. government policy toward…

  4. Cowboys and Indians: Perceptions of Western Films among American Indians and Anglos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, JoEllen

    1992-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of how minorities participate in and rework the central myths of the dominant culture. The responses of 20 Anglo White males versus 20 American Indian males to a western film showed that the meaning imputed to cultural works varies over social space. (JB)

  5. Working the Indian Field Days: The Economy of Authenticity and the Question of Agency in Yosemite Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Boyd

    2010-01-01

    Originally conceived by National Park Service (NPS) officials as a way to "revive and maintain the interest of Indians in their own games and industries," the Yosemite Indian Field Days were part rodeo, part pageant, and part craft fair. Through its activities, the Field Days offered white tourists the opportunity to encounter "real" Indians whose…

  6. Impacts of trawling on benthic macro-fauna and -flora of the Spencer Gulf prawn fishing grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svane, Ib; Hammett, Zoe; Lauer, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The overall effects of trawling on benthic habitats and their assemblages are dependent on the distribution and intensity of trawl effort. The benthic habitats of the Spencer Gulf prawn trawling grounds are subjected to known variable levels of trawling disturbance recorded from fisher's logbooks. These habitats have not been quantitatively investigated. The aim of the study was firstly to characterise the macro-faunal and -floral assemblages and secondly, to comparatively assess trawl impact by testing the null hypothesis of no differences between five sites exposed to different intensity of trawl effort. The distribution and abundance of benthic macro-fauna and -flora were studied at two sampling resolutions by using beam trawl sampling (˜10,000 m 2) and underwater stereophotography (˜4.5 m 2) at five sites with different levels of trawl disturbance (effort). The results showed that the Spencer Gulf prawn trawling grounds are characterised by sandy sediments with a low content of silt and clay, with the exception of one site with very fine gravel. Biomass, abundance and cover of macro-fauna and -flora were generally low throughout, but with large differences among sites. Biomass, abundance and cover were found to be negatively correlated to both trawl hours from 1994-1998 and during the period of study. ANOSIM and SIMPER analyses using biomass, abundance and percentage cover as variables showed significant differences between sites with eight species or taxonomic groups contributing more than 10% to the observed similarity within sites. The two northern sites were dominated by sponges and the bearded mussel, Trichomya hirsutus, and the southern hammer oyster, Malleus meridianus. Other species that contributed to the similarity within sites were the ascidian, Polycarpa viridis, mobile epifauna (the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, and the western king prawn, Penaeus (Melicertus) latisulcatus) and demersal fish species (Degens leatherjacket, Thamnaconus

  7. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian Values" relates…

  8. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV)

    PubMed Central

    Alinejad, T.; Bin, Kwong Q.; Vejayan, J.; Othman, R.Y.; Bhassu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns. PMID:26106581

  9. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed protein in hemocytes of wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV).

    PubMed

    Alinejad, T; Bin, Kwong Q; Vejayan, J; Othman, R Y; Bhassu, S

    2015-09-01

    Epizootic diseases cause huge mortality and economical loses at post larvae stages in freshwater prawn aquaculture industry. These prawns seem less susceptible to viral diseases except for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). During viral infection in prawns, hemocytes are the primary organ that shows immunological response within the early stages of infection. We applied proteomic approaches to understand differential expression of the proteins in hemocytes during the viral disease outbreak. To aid the goal, we collected Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstocks from the local grow out hatchery which reported the first incidence of IHHNV viral outbreak during larvae stage. Primarily, application of the OIE primer targeting 389 bp fragments of IHHNV virus was used in identification of the infected and non-infected samples of the prawn breeding line. Analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed specific down-regulation of Arginine kinase and Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and up/down-regulation of Prophenoloxidase1 and hemocyanin isoforms. These proteins were validated using semi quantitative RT-PCR and gene transcripts at mRNA level. These identified proteins can be used as biomarkers, providing a powerful approach to better understanding of the immunity pathway of viral disease with applications in analytic and observational epidemiology diagnosis. Proteomic profiling allows deep insight into the pathogenesis of IHHNV molecular regulation and mechanism of hemocyte in freshwater prawns.

  10. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  11. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  12. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2014-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5–2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

  13. Radiation-resistant Macrococcus caseolyticus (A) isolated from radiation-processed semidried prawns.

    PubMed

    Karani, Manisha; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Kakatkar, Aarti; Gautam, Raj Kamal; Sukhi, Shibani; Pansare-Godambe, Lipika; Bandekar, Jayant

    2015-01-01

    A radiation-resistant bacterial isolate from gamma-radiation-processed (5 kGy) semidried prawns was identified as a new strain of Macrococcus caseolyticus and was designated as M. caseolyticus (A) on the basis of morphological and biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing. DNA-DNA hybridization studies with M. caseolyticus DSM 20597(T) further confirmed the isolate as M. caseolyticus. Major fatty acids present in M. caseolyticus (A) were C14:0, C16:1ω11c, and C18:1ω9c, whereas C15:0anteiso, C16:0iso, and C18:0iso were absent. The closest match for the isolate, as per fatty acid methyl ester analysis, was M. caseolyticus DSM 20597(T). However, the similarity index was significantly low (0.112), which indicates that the isolate could be a new strain of M. caseolyticus. The decimal reduction dose (D10) for M. caseolyticus (A), M. caseolyticus JCSC5402, and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC96 was 1.18, 0.607, and 0.19 kGy, respectively. This is the first report on radiation resistance of M. caseolyticus. Macrococcus caseolyticus (A) is more resistant to gamma and UV radiation stress than are M. caseolyticus JCSC5402 and S. aureus MTCC96; however, it is sensitive to heat as well as desiccation stress.

  14. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series.

    PubMed

    Henares, M N P; Camargo, A F M

    2014-11-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec) and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm). The means of suspended particulate material (SPM), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P-orthophosphate (PO4-P) and total phosphorus (TP) of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05). The effluent treated in Ec and EcSm wetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%), TKN (33.7%) and PO4-P (26.7%) was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P). The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients.

  15. Molecular cloning and expression of two HSP70 genes in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Yang, Wei-Jun; Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Rao, Ranga K.

    2004-01-01

    Two complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) clones encoding 2 different 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSPs) were isolated from the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The cDNA clones were 2448 and 2173 bp in length and contained 1950- and 1734-bp open reading frames (ORFs), respectively. The ORFs encoded 649– and 577–amino acid polypeptides, which were named Mar-HSC70 and Mar-HSP70, respectively, according to the sequence identities with other known HSC70s and HSP70s and based on their inducibility in response to heat shock stress (at 35°C). Genomic DNA sequence analysis revealed no introns in either gene. The major structural differences between the 2 proteins were a 60–amino acid segment and a 14–amino acid segment present in the N-terminal and C-terminal, respectively, of Mar-HSC70 that were not found in Mar-HSP70. Northern blotting and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that the Mar-HSP70 gene was expressed under heat shock (35°C) stress in a non–tissue-specific manner. In contrast, Mar-HSC70 messenger ribonucleic acid was constitutively expressed in every tissue except muscle, and its expression in response to heat shock (at 35°C) changed only in muscle. PMID:15544169

  16. Identification and occurrence of endogenous semicarbazide in prawns and crabs from Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Si; Xu, Hanxiang; Zhang, Shuai; Yan, Zhongyong; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Semicarbazide (SEM) is a side-chain metabolite of the antibiotic drug nitrofurazone (NFZ) and is employed as a conclusive marker for the use of banned NFZ. Recent studies have shown that SEM in aquatic crustaceans can be derived natively or from other sources. The presence and distribution of endogenous SEM within aquatic crustaceans is examined in this paper, which finds that the SEM content varies amongst the muscle, shell, and viscera of various prawn and crab species within the range of 0.35-26.62 ng g(-1). The effects of heating and hypochlorite treatment on SEM levels were examined. The results indicate that thermal processing introduced a more significant impact, resulting in a maximum SEM value of 15.48 ng g(-1) in a sample of shell of Portunus trituberculatus crab, while SEM levels in muscle samples were not affected by the duration of heating. Though 6% active chlorine treatment led to SEM production ranging between 39.9 and 196.4 ng g(-1) in muscle samples from various crustaceans, SEM is unlikely to originate from hypochlorite or chlorine in practice where there are limits to actual chlorine in sanitation water and facilities. 5-Nitro-2-furaldehyde (NF) was proposed as a selective marker to differentiate between endogenous SEM and NFZ-derived SEM in seafood.

  17. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  18. Dietary supplementation of green synthesized manganese-oxide nanoparticles and its effect on growth performance, muscle composition and digestive enzyme activities of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Asaikkutti, Annamalai; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Vimala, Karuppaiya; Karthik, Madhayan; Cheruparambath, Praseeja

    2016-05-01

    The green synthesized Mn3O4 nanoparticles (manganese-oxide nanoparticles) using Ananas comosus (L.) peel extract was characterized by various techniques. HR-SEM photograph showed that manganese-oxide nanoparticles (Mn-oxide NPs) were spherical in shape, with an average size of 40-50 nm. The Zeta potential revealed the surface charge of Mn-oxide NPs to be negative. Further, the Mn-oxide NPs were dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with Mn-oxide NPs at the rates of 0 (control), 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12, 15 and 18 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented Mn-oxide NPs were fed in M. rosenbergii for a period of 90 days. The experimental study demonstrated that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 3-18 mg Mn-oxide NPs/kg shows enhanced (P<0.05) growth performance, including final weight and weight gain (WG). Significant differences (P<0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in prawn fed with different diets. Additionally, prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets achieved significant (P<0.05) improvement in growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and muscle biochemical compositions, while, the prawns fed with 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs showed enhanced performance. Prawns fed on diet supplemented with 16 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher total protein level. The antioxidants enzymatic activity (SOD and CAT) metabolic enzymes status in muscle and hepatopancreas showed no significant (P>0.05) alterations in prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets. Consequently, the present work proposed that 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival, growth and production of M. rosenbergii. Therefore, the data of the present study recommend the addition of 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs diet to developed prawn growth and antioxidant defense system. PMID:27049122

  19. Dietary supplementation of green synthesized manganese-oxide nanoparticles and its effect on growth performance, muscle composition and digestive enzyme activities of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Asaikkutti, Annamalai; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Vimala, Karuppaiya; Karthik, Madhayan; Cheruparambath, Praseeja

    2016-05-01

    The green synthesized Mn3O4 nanoparticles (manganese-oxide nanoparticles) using Ananas comosus (L.) peel extract was characterized by various techniques. HR-SEM photograph showed that manganese-oxide nanoparticles (Mn-oxide NPs) were spherical in shape, with an average size of 40-50 nm. The Zeta potential revealed the surface charge of Mn-oxide NPs to be negative. Further, the Mn-oxide NPs were dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with Mn-oxide NPs at the rates of 0 (control), 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12, 15 and 18 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented Mn-oxide NPs were fed in M. rosenbergii for a period of 90 days. The experimental study demonstrated that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 3-18 mg Mn-oxide NPs/kg shows enhanced (P<0.05) growth performance, including final weight and weight gain (WG). Significant differences (P<0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in prawn fed with different diets. Additionally, prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets achieved significant (P<0.05) improvement in growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and muscle biochemical compositions, while, the prawns fed with 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs showed enhanced performance. Prawns fed on diet supplemented with 16 mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher total protein level. The antioxidants enzymatic activity (SOD and CAT) metabolic enzymes status in muscle and hepatopancreas showed no significant (P>0.05) alterations in prawns fed with 3.0-18 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets. Consequently, the present work proposed that 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival, growth and production of M. rosenbergii. Therefore, the data of the present study recommend the addition of 16 mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs diet to developed prawn growth and antioxidant defense system.

  20. 75 FR 1384 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: Initial. CFDA Numbers:...

  1. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  2. American Indian Epistemologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajete, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides general insights into American Indian epistemologies that can assist student affairs professionals in their work and examines the shared understandings of American Indians with regard to tribal knowledge and education.

  3. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  4. Indian Education Project: An Abridgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sharon

    Synthesizing two priority proposals identified by the Indian Education Project of Michigan, this report outlines a proposal for establishing an Indian Education Center (staffed by American Indians and advised by a University Advisory Committee made up of Indian parents and the Indian community) to meet the needs of Indian students and…

  5. Cloning and characterization of a LPS-regulatory gene having an LPS binding domain in kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Hiroki; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Morii, Kayoko; Harada, Hideaki; Kohchi, Chie; Nishizawa, Takashi; Taniguchi, Yoshie; Uenobe, Maya; Honda, Teruko; Kondoh, Masakazu; Takahashi, Yukinori; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2006-05-01

    LPS is known as an effective stimulator of the immune system in various animals, including mammals and horseshoe crabs (HSC). Both of these animal groups have suppressive regulatory proteins for the LPS response, e.g. the bactericidal/permeability increasing protein in mammals and anti-LPS factor (ALF) in HSC. Prawns are a valuable aquaculture species, but the regulatory molecules and/or mechanisms that respond to LPS are largely unknown. To investigate the molecular mechanism of the LPS response in kuruma prawns, we cloned a cDNA having a LPS binding domain. A full-length cDNA gene, denoted as M-ALF (Marsupenaeus japonicus ALF-like peptide) was cloned that consisted of 746bp and encoded 123 amino-acid residues. The 3' non-translated region of this gene had the pentamer of ATTTA repeated four times; this is known as sequences for messenger RNA stabilization. Deduced amino-acid sequences showed a 42% homology with Japanese HSC-ALF. In particular, both have clusters of basic and hydrophobic amino acids, indicating that the region is probably binding to lipid A. The mRNA expression was determined for hemocytes, lymphoid organs, hearts, intestines and gills by RT-PCR. The mRNA expression was augmented 1.5-3h after LPS administration in lymphoid organs, but then decreased to normal level at 6h. Synthetic peptides containing Cys30 to Cys51 had LPS neutralizing activity to the Limulus reaction and NO production in RAW264.7 cells. These data suggest that in kuruma prawns, M-ALF acts as a LPS regulator during the acute phase response after invasion of pathogens. PMID:16442159

  6. National Indian Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Karen Kay

    2006-01-01

    This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

  7. Urban American Indian Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Josea

    This document begins by dispelling several misperceptions about American Indians that are especially pernicious to older American Indians living in cities, and then goes on to discuss what is known about urban American Indian elders and the implications for planning and service delivery for Area Agencies on Aging and contractor agencies. It notes…

  8. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  9. Indians into Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N.

    Located at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Indians Into Medicine (INMED) is a multi-faceted program providing academic, financial, and personal support for Indian students preparing for health careers. The program has the following goals: (1) increase awareness and motivation among Indian students with the potential for health…

  10. Toxic impact of aldrin on acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros: In vitro study

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.S.; Jayaprada, P.; Rao, K.V.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The increasing contamination of the aquatic environment by the indiscriminate and widespread use of different kinds of pesticides is a serious problem for environmental biologists. Organochlorine insecticides are more hazardous since they are not only more toxic but also leave residues in nature. The deleterious effects of aldrin on several crustaceans have been studied. But studies concerning the impact of aldrin on biochemical aspects of crustaceans are very much limited. The present study is aimed at probing the in vitro effects of aldrin on the acid and alkaline phosphatase activity levels in selected tissues of penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius).

  11. Indian Continental Rainfall and Indian Ocean SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, G. A.; Harrison, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    We here explore the spatial structure of the interannual variability of southwest monsoon precipitation over the Indian subcontinent, based on gridded precipitation over the period 1982-2001, and its association to Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) structures. We find that India is dominated by two independent regions of strong mean and variance in precipitation: the Western Ghats and the central plains region. We explore statistical relationships of precipitation anomaly in these two regions and All-India Rainfall, with SSTA in the Indian Ocean. We are able to find strong (r ~0.6-0.7) simultaneous and lead correlations between distinct Indian Ocean SSTA patterns and precipitation anomaly in the two regions, but do not find similarly strong connections with All-India rainfall. June through September (JJAS) Western Ghats precipitation (WGP) is positively correlated with JJAS western Arabian Sea SSTA, and July through September (JAS) WGP is positively correlated with June western Arabian Sea SSTA.Meanwhile, JJAS Central Plains precipitation (CPP) is negatively correlated with JJAS SSTA off the coasts of Sumatra and Java, and JAS CPP is negatively correlated with June Sumatra and Java SSTA. We are also able to find significant correlations (r ~0.5-0.7) at longer leads, in which JJAS WGP is positively correlated with SSTA in the southwest Indian Ocean in the previous northeast monsoon, and JJAS CPP is negatively correlated with SSTA in the southern Indian Ocean. The correlations between each regional precipitation index and SSTA provides stronger statistical connections that examining the Indian subcontinent as a whole. These statistical connections could possibly be used in the statistical prediction of Indian southwest monsoon precipitation. Further, examination of the dynamics controlling interannual precipitation variability in the Indian subcontinent should likely be explored independently for each of these two regions, rather than for the Indian

  12. Imagined Pain Tolerance Test: An Instrument to Measure American Indians' Perception of Their Tolerance of Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Gary A.

    1981-01-01

    The Imagined Pain Tolerance Test, a paper and pencil test designed to test differences in perceptions between American Indians and non-Indians, appears to have utility as a research instrument. Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines Road, Portland, OR 97201. (Author/CM)

  13. Why Do British Indian Children Have an Apparent Mental Health Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Anna; Patel, Vikram; Leon, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies document a mental health advantage in British Indian children, particularly for externalising problems. The causes of this advantage are unknown. Methods: Subjects were 13,836 White children and 361 Indian children aged 5-16 years from the English subsample of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys. The…

  14. SUMMARY AND OBSERVATIONS IN THE DAKOTAS AND MINNESOTA. INDIAN COMMUNITIES AND PROJECT HEAD START.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WAX, MURRAY L.; WAX, ROSALIE H.

    THE PROBLEMS OF GAINING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IS A MAJOR ONE IN MANY OF THE PROGRAMS AIMED AT ASSISTING THE AMERICAN INDIAN. THIS PROBLEM IS USUALLY INTENSIFIED WHEN WHITE PERSONS, ASSUMING THAT THEY CAN DO MORE THAN THE COMMUNITY ITSELF, INTERVENE TO THE PARTIAL EXCLUSION OF THE INDIANS. IN SPITE OF THIS PROBLEM, THE HEAD START PROGRAMS FOR…

  15. Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit IV: The Culturally Disadvantaged Mexican-American, Puerto Rican, Caucasian, and American Indian Pupil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth R.

    The fourth in a series of teacher education units on the disadvantaged pupil discusses Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Appalachians and Southern white migrants, and American Indians. It is noted that the Negroes and whites are members of a subculture of the dominant culture, whereas the Spanish background and Indian pupils are products of…

  16. Genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Hung; Nguyen, Nguyen Hong

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males) and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females). In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (-0.96), whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76). Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic) component for male morphotypes, giving

  17. Complete larval development of the Monkey River Prawn Macrobrachium lar (Palaemonidae) using a novel greenwater technique.

    PubMed

    Lal, Monal M; Seeto, Johnson; Pickering, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    This study documents the complete larval development of the Monkey River Prawn Macrobrachium lar using a new greenwater rearing technique. Approximately 6,000 larvae were reared for 110 days at an initial stocking density of 1 ind./6 L. Salinity at hatch was 10 ± 2 ppt and progressively increased to 30 ± 2 ppt until decapodids had metamorphosed. Temperature was maintained at 28 ± 0.5°C, pH at 7.8 ± 0.2, DO2 > 6.5 mg/L and NH(4+) and NH3 ≤ 1.5 and ≤0.1 ppm respectively throughout the culture period. Larval development was extended and occurred through 13 zoeal stages, with the first decapodid measuring 6.2 ± 0.63 mm in total length observed after 77 days. 5 decapodids in total were produced, and overall survival to this stage was 0.08%. Overall, the pattern of larval growth shares similarities with those of other Macrobrachium spp. that have a prolonged/normal type of development, and it is likely that larvae underwent mark time moulting which contributed to the lengthened development duration. While this study represents a significant breakthrough in efforts to domesticate M. lar, improvement of larval survival rates and decreased time till metamorphosis are required before it can become fully viable for commercial scale aquaculture.

  18. Genetic Inheritance of Female and Male Morphotypes in Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii is unique with males categorized in five different morphotypes (small claw, orange claw, blue claw, old blue claw and no claw males) and females in three reproductive statuses (mature ovary, berried and spawned females). In the present study we examined genetic inheritance of female and male morphotypes, their body weights and genetic associations between morphotypes and body traits. Restricted maximum likelihood fitting a multi-trait animal model was performed on a total of 21,459 body records collected over five generations in a GFP population selected for high growth rate. The estimates of variance components showed that there were substantial differences in additive genetic variance in body weight between male morphotypes. The low and significantly different from one genetic correlations between the expressions of body weight in male morphotypes also suggest that these traits should be treated as genetically different traits in selective breeding programs. By contrast, body weights of female types are essentially the same characters as indicated by the high genetic correlations between homologous trait expressions. In addition to body weight, male morphotypes and female reproductive statuses were treated as traits in themselves and were analysed as binary observations using animal and sire linear mixed models, and logit and probit threshold models. The estimates of heritability back-transformed from the liability scale were in good agreement with those obtained from linear mixed models, ranging from 0.02 to 0.43 for male morphotypes and 0.06 to 0.10 for female types. The genetic correlations among male morphoptypes were generally favourable. Body weight showed negative genetic associations with SM (−0.96), whereas those of body weight with other male morphotypes were positive (0.25 to 0.76). Our results showed that there is existence of heritable (additive genetic) component for male morphotypes, giving

  19. Complete larval development of the Monkey River Prawn Macrobrachium lar (Palaemonidae) using a novel greenwater technique.

    PubMed

    Lal, Monal M; Seeto, Johnson; Pickering, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    This study documents the complete larval development of the Monkey River Prawn Macrobrachium lar using a new greenwater rearing technique. Approximately 6,000 larvae were reared for 110 days at an initial stocking density of 1 ind./6 L. Salinity at hatch was 10 ± 2 ppt and progressively increased to 30 ± 2 ppt until decapodids had metamorphosed. Temperature was maintained at 28 ± 0.5°C, pH at 7.8 ± 0.2, DO2 > 6.5 mg/L and NH(4+) and NH3 ≤ 1.5 and ≤0.1 ppm respectively throughout the culture period. Larval development was extended and occurred through 13 zoeal stages, with the first decapodid measuring 6.2 ± 0.63 mm in total length observed after 77 days. 5 decapodids in total were produced, and overall survival to this stage was 0.08%. Overall, the pattern of larval growth shares similarities with those of other Macrobrachium spp. that have a prolonged/normal type of development, and it is likely that larvae underwent mark time moulting which contributed to the lengthened development duration. While this study represents a significant breakthrough in efforts to domesticate M. lar, improvement of larval survival rates and decreased time till metamorphosis are required before it can become fully viable for commercial scale aquaculture. PMID:25332868

  20. Reproductive biology of the prawn Melicertus kerathurus (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in Thermaikos Gulf (N. Aegean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, Kosmas; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The reproductive biology including insemination frequency, ovarian maturation, gonadosomatic index (GSI), size at first maturity, and fecundity of Melicertus kerathurus were investigated using monthly samples from Thermaikos Gulf. Insemination was recorded by the presence of a spermatophore in the thelycum, and ovarian development was based on macroscopic ovarian staging (ST1-ST5). Inseminated females were found throughout the year with high percentages recorded from April to July. Although all ovarian stages were represented in mated females, insemination increased with size and ovarian maturation. High percentages of vitellogenic or mature ovarian stages were observed from May to July, while immature and developing ovaries were predominant mainly in winter. Spawned ovaries occurred from May to October. Carapace length at first maturity based on the presence of a spermatophore (CL50sp) was estimated at 39.20 mm, while that based on the presence of vitellogenic and mature ovaries (CL50ov) at 40.70 mm. The seasonal peak in the proportion of mature females (ST4) varied with size. Inseminated females at ST4 and GSI peaked in June-July. GSI varied in relation to insemination status and ovarian stage. In large females (>50 mm CL), the decline in mature ovaries and GSI increment with size indicates a relative reduction in the reproductive output. The number of oocytes ranged from 62,742 to 602,947 (mean ± SD: 268,000 ± 113,000). As the prawns are targeted during the spawning season, mainly by the artisanal fishery, and female size at first maturity is selected by artisanal net size, managerial measures toward artisanal fishery should be implemented.

  1. Race and the Teacher-Student Relationship: Interpersonal Connections between West Indian Students and Their Teachers in a New York City High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warikoo, Natasha

    2004-01-01

    Through a review of interviews with West Indian, African American, and white teachers at a New York City high school with a large West Indian population (ages 14 to 18), in this paper I discuss the complicated nature of teacher-student matching, and its impact on student achievement. I find that West Indian teachers have strong points of…

  2. Female-only sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism markers support ZW/ZZ sex determination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2013-12-01

    Sex determination mechanisms in many crustacean species are complex and poorly documented. In the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a ZW/ZZ sex determination system was previously proposed based on sex ratio data obtained by crosses of sex-reversed females (neomales). To provide molecular evidence for the proposed system, novel sex-linked molecular markers were isolated in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 64 primer combinations was employed to screen prawn genomes for DNA markers linked with sex loci. Approximately 8400 legible fragments were produced, 13 of which were uniquely identified in female prawns with no indication of corresponding male-specific markers. These AFLP fragments were reamplified, cloned and sequenced, producing two reliable female-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Additional individuals from two unrelated geographic populations were used to verify these findings, confirming female-specific amplification of single bands. Detection of internal polymorphic sites was conducted by designing new primer pairs based on these internal fragments. The internal SCAR fragments also displayed specificity in females, indicating high levels of variation between female and male specimens. The distinctive feature of female-linked SCAR markers can be applied for rapid detection of prawn gender. These sex-specific SCAR markers and sex-associated AFLP candidates unique to female specimens support a sex determination system consistent with female heterogamety (ZW) and male homogamety (ZZ).

  3. Changes in the levels, expression, and possible roles of serotonin and dopamine during embryonic development in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the changes in the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), and their possible roles during embryonic development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The 5-HT and DA concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The levels of 5-HT and DA gradually increased from early developing embryos to late developing embryos. The 5-HT concentrations gradually increased from the pale yellow egg to orange egg stages, and reaching a maximum at the black egg stage. DA concentrations were much lower in the early embryos than those of 5-HT (P<0.05), and gradually increased to reach the highest level at the black egg stage. Immunohistochemically, 5-HT was firstly detected in the early embryonic stages, whereas DA developed later than 5-HT. Functionally, 5-HT-treated female prawns at doses of 2.5×10(-5), 2.5×10(-6) and 2.5×10(-7)mol/prawn, produced embryos with significantly shortened lengths of early embryonic stages, whereas DA-treated prawns at all three doses, exerted its effects by significantly lengthening the period of mid-embryonic stage onwards. These results suggest significant involvement of 5-HT and DA in embryonic developmental processes of this species.

  4. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor.

  5. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor. PMID:27486834

  6. Infection with schistosome parasites in snails leads to increased predation by prawns: implications for human schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Scott J; De Leo, Giulio A; Wood, Chelsea L; Sokolow, Susanne H

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis - a parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people across the globe - is primarily transmitted between human definitive hosts and snail intermediate hosts. To reduce schistosomiasis transmission, some have advocated disrupting the schistosome life cycle through biological control of snails, achieved by boosting the abundance of snails' natural predators. But little is known about the effect of parasitic infection on predator-prey interactions, especially in the case of schistosomiasis. Here, we present the results of laboratory experiments performed on Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria glabrata snails to investigate: (i) rates of predation on schistosome-infected versus uninfected snails by a sympatric native river prawn, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, and (ii) differences in snail behavior (including movement, refuge-seeking and anti-predator behavior) between infected and uninfected snails. In predation trials, prawns showed a preference for consuming snails infected with schistosome larvae. In behavioral trials, infected snails moved less quickly and less often than uninfected snails, and were less likely to avoid predation by exiting the water or hiding under substrate. Although the mechanism by which the parasite alters snail behavior remains unknown, these results provide insight into the effects of parasitic infection on predator-prey dynamics and suggest that boosting natural rates of predation on snails may be a useful strategy for reducing transmission in schistosomiasis hotspots. PMID:26677260

  7. Extension of the shelf life of prawns (Penaeus japonicus) by vacuum packaging and high-pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, M E; Pérez-Mateos, M; Borderías, J A; Montero, P

    2000-10-01

    The present study has investigated the application of high pressures (200 and 400 MPa) in chilled prawn tails, both conventionally stored (air) and vacuum packaged. Vacuum packaging and high-pressure treatment did extend the shelf life of the prawn samples, although it did affect muscle color very slightly, giving it a whiter appearance. The viable shelf life of 1 week for the air-stored samples was extended to 21 days in the vacuum-packed samples, 28 days in the samples treated at 200 MPa, and 35 days in the samples pressurized at 400 MPa. Vacuum packaging checked the onset of blackening, whereas high-pressure treatment aggravated the problem. From a microbiological point of view, batches conventionally stored reached about 6 log CFU/g or even higher at 14 days. Similar figures were reached in total number of bacteria in vacuum-packed samples and in pressurized at 200-MPa samples at 21 days. When samples were pressurized at 400 MPa, total numbers of bacteria were below 5.5 log CFU/g at 35 days of storage. Consequently, a combination of vacuum packaging and high-pressure treatment would appear to be beneficial in prolonging freshness and preventing spotting.

  8. Three-dimensional reconstruction of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) spermatozoa using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianyi; Paterson, Brian D; Webb, Robyn; Johnston, Stephen D

    2016-05-01

    Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) was used in this study to examine the ultrastructural morphology of Penaeus monodon spermatozoa. SBF-SEM provided a large dataset of sequential electron-microscopic-level images that facilitated comprehensive ultrastructural observations and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sperm cell. Reconstruction divulged a nuclear region of the spermatophoral spermatozoon filled with decondensed chromatin but with two apparent levels of packaging density. In addition, the nuclear region contained, not only numerous filamentous chromatin elements with dense microregions, but also large centrally gathered granular masses. Analysis of the sperm cytoplasm revealed the presence of degenerated mitochondria and membrane-less dense granules. A large electron-lucent vesicle and "arch-like" structures were apparent in the subacrosomal area, and an acrosomal core was found in the acrosomal vesicle. The spermatozoal spike arose from the inner membrane of the acrosomal vesicle, which was slightly bulbous in the middle region of the acrosomal vesicle, but then extended distally into a broad dense plate and to a sharp point proximally. This study has demonstrated that SBF-SEM is a powerful technique for the 3D ultrastructural reconstruction of prawn spermatozoa, that will no doubt be informative for further studies of sperm assessment, reproductive pathology and the spermiocladistics of penaeid prawns, and other decapod crustaceans. PMID:26877112

  9. Leadership Preferences of Indian and Non-Indian Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, D. C.; Nilson, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    Among 86 Indian and non-Indian volleyball competitors, non-Indian players indicated significantly greater preferences for leadership that involved democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, or social support. Indians may adapt their behavior by participating in non-Indian games, without changing their traditional value orientations. Contains 22…

  10. 78 FR 10631 - List of Allottees or Heirs Determined To Receive Monetary Compensation Under the White Earth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... White Earth Reservation Land Settlement Act of 1985, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 8(c) of the White Earth Land Settlement Act of 1985...: The White Earth Reservation Land Settlement Act of 1985, Public Law 99-264 (100 Stat. 61) as...

  11. Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Danyi, S; Widart, J; Douny, C; Dang, P K; Baiwir, D; Wang, N; Tu, H T; Tung, V T; Phuong, N-T; Kestemont, P; Scippo, M-L

    2011-04-01

    Determination and kinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 34, 142-152. The fluoroquinolones enrofloxacin (EF) and ciprofloxacin (CF) residues were investigated in the edible tissues of two important Asian aquacultured species such as Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) using a sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method. Fish and prawn were treated with medicated feed with multiple doses of EF, in field conditions. A validation study of the analytical method was realized in terms of linearity, specificity, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), recovery and decision limit (CCα). The time needed before the antibiotic disappears from animal tissues or reach the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100μg/kg) was assessed. The concentration values of EF detected in Tra catfish tissue were between the MRL and 2×MRL concentrations, according to the fish density, 7days following the end of the enrofloxacin treatment (20mg/kg body weight per day, for seven consecutive days). The concentration value of ER in prawn tissue was lower than the MRL and the limit of quantification (LOQ, 14μg/kg) 5 and 7days after the stop of the EF treatment (50mg/kg body weight per day, for five consecutive days), respectively. The mean detected levels of CF was much lower in comparison with that of EF, indicating that only a small part of EF is metabolized into CF (<5%) in both Tra catfish and prawn.

  12. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  13. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  14. 25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section 31.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION FEDERAL SCHOOLS FOR INDIANS § 31.3 Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian children who are not eligible...

  15. 25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section 31.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION FEDERAL SCHOOLS FOR INDIANS § 31.3 Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian children who are not eligible...

  16. The Indian Child Welfare Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Katy Jo

    The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…

  17. The Attitudes of Toronto Students Towards the Canadian Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, Toronto (Ontario).

    Responses were recorded of discussion groups comprising approximately 550 students from 22 schools (grades 7-13) in Toronto, Canada, and surrounding boroughs. Discussions were led by 7 students from Glendon College in Toronto and were structured so that attitudes of the white urban students toward the Canadian Indian could be sampled. Categories…

  18. Tribes of Men: John Joseph Mathews and Indian Internationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutenski, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses John Joseph Mathews and Indian internationalism. As an old man, Osage intellectual, writer, and historian, John Joseph Mathews recalled his expatriation from the United States during the 1920s. After growing up in Pawhuska, Oklahoma, seat of the Osage Nation, where he had been born in 1894 to a white mother…

  19. Counselor Dress Cues: Evaluations by American Indians and Caucasians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littrell, Mary Ann; Littrell, John M.

    1983-01-01

    American Indian and White high school students differed in their perceptions of counselors' empathy, warmth, genuiness, and concreteness as conveyed through the types of clothes the counselors wore. Students' perceptions did not differ with the sex of the student or (except for empathy) with the sex of the counselor. (Author/MJL)

  20. Alcoholism: Devastation for Indians. 36 Lessons on Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, William A.

    In an attempt to educate American Indians about the problems of alcohol abuse, the 36-lesson book presents historical, cultural, legal, medical, social, and personal facts about alcohol and alcohol abuse. Each 3- or 4-page lesson is illustrated in black and white and consists of an introductory narrative, learning activities, and follow-up…

  1. Sarah Winnemucca. Raintree/Rivilo American Indian Stories Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Mary Frances

    Sarah Winnemucca was a full-blood Paiute Indian born in 1844 in Nevada. The Paiute hunted and gathered and lived in wigwams constructed of branches, brush, and hides. Sarah's grandfather, Captain Truckee, befriended the explorer John C. Fremont and went with him to California. Captain Truckee admired White people's clothing and houses and,…

  2. Indian and non-Indian water development. [Western US

    SciTech Connect

    McCool, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation contrasts the development of Indian and non-Indian water development. Indian water rights, although based upon long-standing legal principles, have had a minimal impact on the actual development of Indian water resources. As a result, Indian water resources remain largely undeveloped. In contrast, non-Indian water resources remain largely undeveloped. In contrast, non-Indian water development has proceeded at a rapid pace. A tripartite alliance of congressional subcommittees, federal agencies, and water user interest groups have provided the political support for continued high-level funding for non-Indian water projects. In the American west, where water must be diverted to be used, Indians and non-Indians are competitors for both water and water projects. Until recently Indians could not compete effectively in the political milieu of water policy. However, changes in approach, methods, and political conditions have made Indian tribes more competitive in the struggle for water rights and water projects.

  3. Logging the Great Lakes Indian Reservations: The Case of the Bad River Band of Ojibwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen-Adams, Michelle M.; Langston, Nancy E.; Mladenoff, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The harvest of the Great Lakes primary forest stands (ca. 1860-1925) transformed the region's ecological, cultural, and political landscapes. Although logging affected both Indian and white communities, the Ojibwe experienced the lumber era in ways that differed from many of their white neighbors. When the 125,000-acre Bad River Reservation was…

  4. An unconventional antimicrobial protein histone from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: analysis of immune properties.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Roy, Arpita; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we have reported the first histone characterized at molecular level from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrHis). A full length cDNA of MrHis (751 base pairs) was identified from an established M. rosenbergii cDNA library using GS-FLX technique. It encodes 137 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 15 kDa and an isoelectric point of 10.5. MrHis peptide contains a histone H2A signature between 21 and 27 amino acids. Homologous analysis showed that MrHis had a significant sequence identity (99%) with other known histone H2A groups especially from Penaeus monodon. Phylogenetic analysis of MrHis showed a strong relationship with other amino acid sequences from histone H2A arthropod groups. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the MrHis belongs to histone H2A superfamily and H2A1A sub-family. Secondary structure of MrHis showed that the protein contains 50.36% α-helical region and 49.64% coils. The 3D model of MrHis was predicted by I-Tasser program and the model was evaluated for quality analysis including C-score analysis, Ramachandran plot analysis and RMSD analysis. The surface view analysis of MrHis showed the active domain at the N terminal. The antimicrobial property of MrHis protein was confirmed by the helical structure and the total hydrophobic surface along with its net charge. The MFE of the predicted RNA structure of MrHis is -128.62 kcal/mol, shows its mRNA stability. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel analysis of the N-terminal of MrHis showed a perfect amphipathic nature of the peptide. Significantly (P < 0.05) highest gene expression was noticed in the hemocyte and is induced with viral (WSBV and MrNV) and bacteria (A eromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The coding sequence of recombinant MrHis protein was expressed in a pMAL vector and purified to study the antimicrobial properties. The recombinant product showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria

  5. A political history of the Indian Health Service.

    PubMed

    Bergman, A B; Grossman, D C; Erdrich, A M; Todd, J G; Forquera, R

    1999-01-01

    One of the few bright spots to emerge from the history of relations between American Indians and the federal government is the remarkable record of the Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS has raised the health status of Indians to approximate that of most other Americans, a striking achievement in the light of the poverty and stark living conditions experienced by this population. The gains occurred in spite of chronically low funding and can be attributed to the combination of vision, stubbornness, and political savvy of the agency's physician directors and the support of a handful of tribal leaders and powerful allies in the Congress and the White House. Despite the agency's imperfections and the sizeable health problems that still exist among American Indians and Alaskan Natives, the IHS is an example of one federal program that has worked.

  6. Consensus physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop; Nigam, Priyanka; Hills, Andrew P; Chadha, Davinder S; Sharma, Vineeta; Deepak, K K; Vikram, Naval K; Joshi, Shashank; Chauhan, Ashish; Khanna, Kumud; Sharma, Rekha; Mittal, Kanchan; Passi, Santosh Jain; Seth, Veenu; Puri, Seema; Devi, Ratna; Dubey, A P; Gupta, Sunita

    2012-01-01

    India is currently undergoing rapid economic, demographic, and lifestyle transformations. A key feature of the latter transformation has been inappropriate and inadequate diets and decreases in physical activity. Data from various parts of India have shown a steady increase in the prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), etc., frequently in association with overweight or obesity. Comparative data show that Asian Indians are more sedentary than white Caucasians. In this review, the Consensus Group considered the available physical activity guidelines from international and Indian studies and formulated India-specific guidelines. A total of 60 min of physical activity is recommended every day for healthy Asian Indians in view of the high predisposition to develop T2DM and CHD. This should include at least 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, 15 min of work-related activity, and 15 min of muscle-strengthening exercises. For children, moderate-intensity physical activity for 60 min daily should be in the form of sport and physical activity. This consensus statement also includes physical activity guidelines for pregnant women, the elderly, and those suffering from obesity, T2DM, CHD, etc. Proper application of guidelines is likely to have a significant impact on the prevalence and management of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, T2DM, and CHD in Asian Indians.

  7. Contemporary American Indian Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Sidner

    2009-01-01

    In his keynote address to the Fifth Annual American Indian Studies Consortium in 2005 David Wilkins began by commenting on earlier attempts to formally organize such a gathering in ways that might help establish and accredit Indian studies programs. He said he had the sense that the thrust of earlier meetings "was really an opportunity for Native…

  8. The (East) Indian Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Josephine

    The focus of this paper is on the social, cultural, and psychological problems women of East Indian origin share with other immigrant women in Canada. Also examined are problems that are unique to the East Indian woman and the ways in which she deals with the challenges, conflicting cultural values, and expectations that confront her. The…

  9. Indians in Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollow, Kitty, Ed.; Heuving, Jeanne, Ed.

    Every student in high school is faced with the question of what to do after graduation. American Indian students, whether on or off reservations, need ideas as to what is available to them. This compilation of interviews with 10 individuals who are maintaining their "Indian identity" and making contributions in the working world provides role…

  10. Indian Inuit Pottery '73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A unique exhibit of Canadian Native Ceramics which began touring various art galleries in September 1973 is described both verbally and photographically. The Indian Inuit Pottery '73 display, part of the 1973 International Ceramics Exhibition, includes 110 samples of craftsmanship from Indian and Inuit artists across Canada. (KM)

  11. Indians of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the American Indian in California from prehistoric to modern times indicates the hardships and economic disadvantages which the Indians have suffered in the acculturation process. Discussion of the treaties which were negotiated and the Federal legislation which was passed indicates an attempt on the part of modern day…

  12. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

  13. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  14. Interrupting White Mountain Apache Language Shift: An Insider's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adley-SantaMaria, Bernadette

    1999-01-01

    A White Mountain Apache (WMA) doctoral student collaborating with a non-Indian linguist on a grammar book project discusses the status of the WMA language; causes of WMA language shift; aspects of insider-outsider collaboration; implications for revitalization and maintenance of indigenous languages; and the responsibilities of individuals,…

  15. Isolation of a bacterium resembling Pirellula species from primary tissue culture of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, J A; Sambhi, S K; Paynter, J L; Hawkins, J A; Atherton, J G

    1991-01-01

    During attempts to establish tissue cultures from hepatopancreas, heart, and hemolymph of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), using a medium including penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin B, bacterial contamination in the form of a sheet of growth attached to the tissue culture vessel was a persistent problem. Contaminant bacteria were teardrop-shaped cells arranged in rosettes, and electron microscopy revealed buds, crateriform structures, and the absence of a peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall, features characteristic of bacteria in the Planctomyces-Pirellula group, a phylogenetically distinct group of eubacteria. Two strains of contaminant bacteria were isolated in pure culture. Both exhibited morphology and antibiotic resistance consistent with their membership in the Planctomyces-Pirellula group (order Planctomycetales) of eubacteria. Tissue culture media for marine invertebrates may select for such bacteria if high concentrations of cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics are included. Images PMID:1781677

  16. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; O'Doherty, John V; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo.

  17. Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; Sweeney, Torres; Hayes, Maria; O'Doherty, John V

    2015-01-01

    The potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo.

  18. The 'W' prawn-trawl with emphasised drag-force transfer to its centre line to reduce overall system drag.

    PubMed

    Balash, Cheslav; Sterling, David; Binns, Jonathan; Thomas, Giles; Bose, Neil

    2015-01-01

    For prawn trawling systems, drag reduction is a high priority as the trawling process is energy intensive. Large benefits have occurred through the use of multiple-net rigs and thin twine in the netting. An additional positive effect of these successful twine-area reduction strategies is the reduced amount of otter board area required to spread the trawl systems, which leads to further drag reduction. The present work investigated the potential of redirecting the drag-strain within a prawn trawl away from the wings and the otter boards to the centre line of the trawl, where top and bottom tongues have been installed, with an aim to minimise the loading/size of the otter boards required to spread the trawl. In the system containing the new 'W' trawl, the drag redirected to the centre-line tongues is transferred forward through a connected sled and towing wires to the trawler. To establish the extent of drag redirection to the centre-line tongues and the relative drag benefits of the new trawl system, conventional and 'W' trawls of 3.65 m headline length were tested firstly over a range of spread ratios in the flume tank, and subsequently at optimum spread ratio in the field. The developed 'W' trawl effectively directed 64% of netting-drag off the wings and onto the centre tongues, which resulted in drag savings in the field of ∼20% for the associated 'W' trawl/otter-board/sled system compared to the traditional trawl/otter-board arrangement in a single trawl or twin rig configuration. Furthermore, based on previously published data, the new trawl when used in a twin rig system is expected to provide approximately 12% drag reduction compared to quad rig. The twin 'W' trawl system also has benefits over quad rig in that a reduced number of cod-end/By-catch Reduction Device units need to be installed and attended each tow.

  19. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Áine M.; O’Doherty, John V.; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo. PMID:26901760

  20. Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Áine M.; Sweeney, Torres; Hayes, Maria; O’Doherty, John V.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo. PMID:26636332

  1. Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; Sweeney, Torres; Hayes, Maria; O'Doherty, John V

    2015-01-01

    The potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo. PMID:26636332

  2. FEDERAL INDIAN POLICY AS IT AFFECTS LOCAL INDIAN AFFAIRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKINLEY, FRANCIS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS AN ADDRESS WHICH DISCUSSES THE PROBLEMS RELATED TO INDIAN EDUCATION AND SEVERAL PROGRAMS WHICH ATTEMPT TO OVERCOME THESE PROBLEMS. THE PROBLEMS PRESENTED INCLUDE THE INDIAN'S EXTREME POVERTY, HIS LOW ASPIRATION LEVEL, HIS SELF-IMAGE, INDIAN ACCULTURATION, AND SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE INDIAN. THE PROGRAMS DISCUSSED ARE--A…

  3. Drug and alcohol abuse intervention in American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S

    1985-01-01

    American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use

  4. Drug and alcohol abuse intervention in American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S

    1985-01-01

    American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use

  5. Detection and phylogenetic profiling of nodavirus associated with white tail disease in Malaysian Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.

    PubMed

    Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Moeini, Hassan; Tan, Wen Siang; Yusoff, Khatijah; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Chu, Kua Beng; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-05-01

    White tail disease (WTD) is a serious viral disease in the hatcheries and nursery ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in many parts of the world. A new disease similar to WTD was observed in larvae and post larvae of M. rosenbergii cultured in Malaysia. In the present study, RT-PCR assay was used to detect the causative agents of WTD, M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) using specific primers for MrNV RNA2 and XSV. The results showed the presence of MrNV in the samples with or without signs of WTD. However, XSV was only detected in some of the MrNV-positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA2 of our Malaysian isolates were significantly different from the other isolates. Histopathological studies revealed myofiber degeneration of the tail muscles and liquefactive myopathy in the infected prawns. This was the first report on the occurrence of MrNV in the Malaysian freshwater prawn. PMID:22223294

  6. Fur Production as a Specialized Activity in a World System: Indians in the North American Fur Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardulias, P. Nick

    1990-01-01

    Examines the fur trade as critical fulcrum in Indian-White contact, focusing on craft specialization as the Native response to the international market system. Describes effects on Indian dependence on European trade goods, Native territorial boundaries and population distribution, social and family structures, and animal populations. Contains 73…

  7. Community Background Reports: Pawnee, Oklahoma. National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 3, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Larry M.

    A third paper of the first series (Community Backgrounds of Education in the Communities Which Have been Studied) contributes to the final report of a National Study of American Indian Education and relates to Pawnee (Pawnee County), Oklahoma. Economic, social, and demographic data are presented for Indian, Negro, and "White" subgroups of the…

  8. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gercken, Becca

    2010-01-01

    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  9. 75 FR 38834 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Class III Tribal-State Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the Compact between the... compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The duration of...

  10. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  11. 78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming... compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This amendment...

  12. 75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  13. 76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  14. 76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Amendment changes the... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Compact Amendment. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the 2010 Amendments...

  15. 77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  16. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Compact authorizes the... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the State of Oklahoma...

  17. 76 FR 42722 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Compact authorizes the Kialegee Tribal Town of Oklahoma to engage in certain Class III gaming activities, provides for certain... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  18. 76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  19. 77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  20. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Compact Amendment. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the 2010 Amendments...

  1. 78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming... compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This amendment...

  2. 77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  3. 76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  4. 75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Approved Compact between... compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The compact...

  5. Indian Students and College Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean

    A study examined the extent to which high schools are preparing American Indian students for college. Counselors were surveyed at 47 on- and off-reservation high schools serving Indian students in 16 states. Only 17 percent of Indian students in the schools were enrolling in college. Under 10 percent of Indian students were taking 4 years of…

  6. Indian Teachers and School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavers, Dean

    2000-01-01

    Past failures in American Indian education are linked to lingering assimilationist practices, outdated curricula, and low expectations of Indian youth. A key to improving Indian education is changing school culture and increasing the numbers of Indian teachers and administrators. Elements of a model teacher education program are presented, and…

  7. Some Resources in Indian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marken, Jack W.

    This paper discusses some of the resources in the literature by and about the American Indian and lists numerous anthologies and bibliographies in this area. More than 40 publications are listed, including "Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian,""American Indian Almanac,""Ethnographic Bibliography of North America,""American Indian Prose…

  8. Toxicity of the organophosphorous insecticide metamidophos (o,s-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate) to larvae of the freshwater prawn and the blue shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, L.M.; Sanchez, J. )

    1989-08-01

    The organophosphorous insecticide O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate (Metamidophos, Tamaron, Monitor, Hamidop) is widely used for pest control in tropical crops. If washed down to streams and estuaries its residues could adversely affect populations of commercially important crustaceans, like those of the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the penaeid shrimp Penaeus stylirostris. This paper presents information on the toxicity of O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate to larvae of M. rosenbergii and P. stylirostris.

  9. Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4 ng kg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii.

  10. A new record of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium spinipes (Schenkel, 1902) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from Taiwan, with notes on its taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Shy, Jhy-Yun; Wowor, Daisy; Ng, Peter K L

    2013-11-04

    The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium spinipes (Schenkel, 1902) is recorded from Taiwan for the first time and extends the distribution of the species to north of the Tropic of Cancer. The Taiwanese specimens differ slightly from material from Indonesian Papua in the density of the spination of the adult second pereipods, the relative length of the ridge of the posterior submedian plate of thoracite sternite 4, and the color of the carapace, abdomen and pleural condyles.

  11. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  12. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  13. Prediction of total volatile basic nitrogen contents using wavelet features from visible/near-infrared hyperspectral images of prawn (Metapenaeus ensis).

    PubMed

    Dai, Qiong; Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhu, Zhiwei; Pu, Hongbin

    2016-04-15

    A visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system (400-1000 nm) coupled with wavelet analysis was used to determine the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) contents of prawns during cold storage. Spectral information was denoised by conducting wavelet analysis and uninformative variable elimination (UVE) algorithm, and then three wavelet features (energy, entropy and modulus maxima) were extracted. Quantitative models were established between the wavelet features and the reference TVB-N contents by using three regression algorithms. As a result, the LS-SVM model with modulus maxima features was considered as the best model for determining the TVB-N contents of prawns, with an excellent RP(2) of 0.9547, RMSEP=0.7213 mg N/100g and RPD=4.799. Finally, an image processing algorithm was developed for generating a TVB-N distribution map. This study demonstrated the possibility of applying the HSI imaging system in combination with wavelet analysis to the monitoring of TVB-N values in prawns. PMID:26616948

  14. Analysis of the allergenic proteins in black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and characterization of the major allergen tropomyosin using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Rahman, Anas M Abdel; Kamath, Sandip; Lopata, Andreas L; Helleur, Robert J

    2010-08-30

    Crustaceans are the third most prevalent cause of food-induced anaphylaxis after peanuts and tree nuts. The severity of the allergenic proteins depends mainly on the amino acid sequence that induces production of IgE antibodies. In black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), the crude protein extract was profiled and its allergenic potency was examined against patient's sera. Proteins having strong immunoreactivity with patient's IgE were characterized using peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). Tropomyosin (TM) (33 kDa), myosin light chain (20 kDa), and arginine kinase (40 kDa) were identified as allergenic proteins. Tropomyosin, the most abundant and potent allergen, was purified using ion-exchange chromatography for de novo sequencing experiments. Using bottom up tandem mass spectrometry, the full amino acid sequence was achieved by a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (QqToF). Myosin light chain and arginine kinase were also characterized, and their related peptides were de novo sequenced using the same approach. The immunological reactivity of the crude prawn extracts and purified TM samples were analyzed using a large number of patients' sera. A signature peptide was assigned for the TM protein for future quantification work of black tiger prawn TM levels in different matrices (i.e. water, air, food) in the seafood industry. PMID:20658686

  15. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  16. 25 CFR 502.13 - Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian tribe. 502.13 Section 502.13 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.13 Indian tribe. Indian tribe means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group...

  17. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  18. 25 CFR 502.13 - Indian tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian tribe. 502.13 Section 502.13 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.13 Indian tribe. Indian tribe means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group...

  19. Increased arterial stiffness in South Dakota American Indian children.

    PubMed

    Litz, Andrew M; Van Guilder, Gary P

    2016-02-01

    Arterial stiffness has been observed in white American obese children, yet there are no data in American Indian youth, who are affected disproportionately by the cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity and its accompanying risk factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of childhood overweight-obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors with arterial stiffness in South Dakota white American and American Indian children. Thirty-six (28 white American and 8 American Indian) children (age, 13 ± 1 years; grades 6-8) from a rural South Dakota elementary and middle school were studied: 18 had a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI), 19.5 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)) and 18 were overweight-obese (BMI, 26.8 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)). Arterial stiffness was assessed using applanation tonometry via pulse wave analysis to determine carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV) and aortic augmentation index (AIx). There were no differences (P = 0.94) in crPWV between healthy weight (7.1 ± 1.4 m/s) and overweight-obese (7.3 ± 1.0 m/s) children, even after controlling for risk factors. However, crPWV was markedly elevated (P = 0.002) in overweight-obese American Indian children (7.7 ± 1.1 m/s) compared with white American children (6.8 ± 0.5 m/s), and these differences remained after controlling for blood pressure and more severe obesity in the American Indians. An obesity-matched subgroup analysis indicated that crPWV (7.7 ± 1.1 vs 6.8 ± 0.4 m/s) remained significantly greater in the American Indians (P = 0.03). There were no between-group differences in aortic AIx. These findings indicate an adverse influence of American Indian ethnicity on arterial stiffening in children with elevated adiposity. Arterial stiffness in American Indian children may accelerate early adulthood vascular disease. PMID:26761621

  20. Tourism and Indian Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    A cursory review of Federal support to the Eastern Cherokees shows that the Cherokee Historical Association and not the Cherokee Indians are the recipients and beneficiaries of many Federal grants. (JC)

  1. Ishi: A Yahi Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Yahi Indians were part of a larger tribal group called the Yana. The Yahi way of life, along with the lives of many other California Indian groups, changed when European and U.S. settlers came to California. In 1872 Ishi and his family were the last of the Yahi living in the Deer Creek (California) area. By 1911 Ishi was the last surviving…

  2. Water resources of the White Earth Indian Reservation, northwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Surface water also is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type. Lake waters are hard and alkaline and are mesotrophic to eutrophic in productivity. Quality of the lake and stream water is suitable for native forms of freshwater biota, although the concentration of total recoverable mercury exceeds the 0.012 micrograms per liter maximum contaminant level; that level, established by USEPA for the organic form of dissolved mercury, is intended to protect against chronic effects on freshwater life. Available information, however, indicates that the amount of mercury in edible tissue from fish in alkaline lakes of northwestern Minnesota is within safe limits. The concentrations of phosphorus and nitrate in the streams are below levels that indicate pollution problems.

  3. Confronting White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalwell, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Even as the United States becomes more diverse, a new era of "white flight" is unfolding. Whether they live in urban, suburban or rural communities, white students are likely to attend schools that reinforce their perceptions of cultural dominance. The average white student attends a school where 77 percent of the student body is of their race.…

  4. Resources for Teaching About American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Lists selected resources for teaching about American Indians available from the ERIC database. Topics of resources include Navajo history, Pacific Northwest history, Indians of Oklahoma, Indian traditions, Plains Indian culture, and Pawnee history. (AEM)

  5. Indian Control of Indian Education: A Burkian Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Bryan

    1985-01-01

    Applies Burke's concept of orientation (relationships developed by contingencies of experiences) to the place of Indians within the Canadian educational system, focusing upon the issues of band controlled schools, residential school systems, and Indian orientations to education. (NEC)

  6. Incorporation of Whole, Ancient Grains into a Modern Asian Indian Diet: Practical Strategies to Reduce the Burden of Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Anjali A.; Azar, Kristen M. J.; Gardner, Christopher D.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2011-01-01

    Refined carbohydrates, such as white rice and white flour, are the mainstay of the modern Asian Indian diet, and may contribute to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. Prior to the 1950s, whole grains such as amaranth, barley, brown rice, millet, and sorghum were more commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. These grains and other non-Indian grains such as couscous, quinoa, and spelt are nutritionally advantageous and may be culturally acceptable carbohydrate substitutes for Asian Indians. This review focuses on practical recommendations for culturally sensitive carbohydrate modification in a modern Asian Indian diet, in an effort to reduce type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:21790614

  7. A transcriptome study on Macrobrachium rosenbergii hepatopancreas experimentally challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Rao, Rama; Bhassu, Subha; Bing, Robin Zhu Ya; Alinejad, Tahereh; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The world production of shrimp such as the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is seriously affected by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There is an urgent need to understand the host pathogen interaction between M. rosenbergii and WSSV which will be able to provide a solution in controlling the spread of this infectious disease and lastly save the aquaculture industry. Now, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), we will be able to capture the response of the M. rosenbergii to the pathogen and have a better understanding of the host defence mechanism. Two cDNA libraries, one of WSSV-challenged M. rosenbergii and a normal control one, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. After de novo assembly and clustering of the unigenes from both libraries, 63,584 standard unigenes were generated with a mean size of 698bp and an N50 of 1137bp. We successfully annotated 35.31% of all unigenes by using BLASTX program (E-value <10-5) against NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) databases. Gene Ontology (GO) assessment was conducted using BLAST2GO software. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by using the FPKM method showed 8443 host genes were significantly up-regulated whereas 5973 genes were significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune related genes were grouped into 15 animal immune functions. The present study showed that WSSV infection has a significant impact on the transcriptome profile of M. rosenbergii's hepatopancreas, and further enhanced the knowledge of this host-virus interaction. Furthermore, the high number of transcripts generated in this study will provide a platform for future genomic research on freshwater prawns.

  8. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.

    1999-05-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy`s INEEL lands are ever opened to public access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians.

  9. Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

    Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian folk story; "How the Animals…

  10. Mission Indians and Indians of California Land Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipek, Florence C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses California Indian Claims Cases, focussing on the Indians of California Case. Presents a background sketch of the major claims and the nature of influences determining the wording of petitions, particularly in the Missions Indian Claims Case in which anthropological misunderstanding of socio-political-territorial organizations created…

  11. Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by establishing…

  12. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  13. 78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Compact between the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians and the State of California taking effect. DATES... activities on Indian lands. The Compact between the State of California and the North Fork Rancheria of...

  14. 78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation... Chippewa-Cree Indians of the Rocky Boy's Reservation and the State of Montana submitted a Class III...

  15. Hamlin Garland and the Indian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Lonnie E.

    1974-01-01

    Written to stimulate interest in an evaluation of Hamlin Garland's total production of work on the American Indian, this article suggests a reevaluation of some of Garland's work in light of the current interest in American Indian studies. (JC)

  16. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  17. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  18. The distribution of APGWamide and RFamides in the central nervous system and ovary of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Palasoon, Ronnarong; Panasophonkul, Sasiporn; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Hanna, Peter; Sobhon, Prasert; Chavadej, Jittipan

    2011-06-01

    Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the distribution of both APGWamide-like and RFamide-like peptides in the central nervous system (CNS) and ovary of the mature female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. APGWamide-like immunoreactivity (ALP-ir) was found only within the sinus gland (SG) of the eyestalk, in small- and medium-sized neurons of cluster 4, as well as their varicosed axons. RFamide-like immunoreactivity (RF-ir) was detected in neurons of all neuronal clusters of the eyestalk and CNS, except clusters 1 and 5 of the eyestalk, and dorsal clusters of the subesophageal, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia. The RF-ir was also found in all neuropils of the CNS and SG, except the lamina ganglionaris. These immunohistochemical locations of the APGWamide-like and RF-like peptides in the eyestalk indicate that these neuropeptides could modulate the release of the neurohormones in the sinus gland. The presence of RFamide-like peptides in the thoracic and abdominal ganglia suggests that it may act as a neurotransmitter which controls muscular contractions. In the ovary, RF-ir was found predominantly in late previtellogenic and early vitellogenic oocytes, and to a lesser degree in late vitellogenic oocytes. These RFs may be involved with oocyte development, but may also act with other neurohormones and/or neurotransmitters within the oocyte in an autocrine or paracrine manner.

  19. A molecular approach towards the taxonomy of fresh water prawns Macrobrachium striatum and M. equidens (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) using mitochondrial markers.

    PubMed

    Jose, Deepak; Nidhin, B; Anil Kumar, K P; Pradeep, P J; Harikrishnan, M

    2016-07-01

    Genus Macrobrachium includes freshwater prawns which inhabit most diverse habitats ranging from low saline areas to inland hill streams and impounded water bodies. Being morphologically conserved, this genus has been exposed to severe disputes related to their taxonomy, systematics and phylogeny. Macrobrachium striatum and M. equidens represent two morphologically related congeneric species within this genus. Earlier, M. striatum was considered as a striped form of M. equidens. Though these species are now well-described morphologically and differentiated into two species, no molecular level investigation has been carried out in support of their speciation. We report a study on M. striatum and M. equidens with emphasis to their molecular data through mitochondrial markers (16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I). Results obtained from developed molecular markers of the two species revealed considerable genetic differentiation between them. Phylogram generated using Minimum evolution and Neighbour joining analyses differentiated M. striatum and M. equidens as two independent species. Genetic distance data showed high interspecific divergence (ranging from 3.9% to 17.0% for 16S rRNA sequences and 13.8% to 21.0% for COI sequences) between M. striatum and M. equidens confirming the findings of phylogram. Hence, it could be delineated that M. striatum and M. equidens represent two distinct species within genus Macrobrachium with emphasis to their morphology and genetics.

  20. Effects of Artificial Shelter and Chitosan on Growth Performance of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri de Man, 1911).

    PubMed

    Jongyotha, Suriya; Doolgindachbaporn, Sompong; Suraniranat, Prawit

    2015-04-01

    Two experiments were carried out at the Department of Fisheries, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand during September 2013 to February 2014 aiming to pursue both the better growth performance and survival rate of the freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium lanchesteri) where a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications was used for each experiment. For experiment 1, different percentages of grass shelter were used, i.e. 0% (Control, T1), 25% (T2), 50% (T3) and 75% (T4). For experiment 2, different percentages of commercial chitosan were used, i.e. 0% (Control, T1), 25% (T2), 50% (T3) and 75% (T4). Both experiments were carried out at the same time and each of them was lasted for 75 days. The results showed that the added grass shelter gave significantly higher Total Weight (TW) and Survival Rate (SR) than the control treatment. However, there were no significant differences found on TW and SR among the added grass shelter treatments (T2 up to T4). Chitosan gave significantly higher TW, AW and Number of Molting (NM) than the control treatment. There were no significant differences on TW, NM and AW found amongst the chitosan treatments. The results of the experiment 1 showed that the best rate of grass shelter for the culturing of the Macrobrachium lanchesteri was at a rate of 25% (T 2) and the best rate of the chitosan was at a rate of 4% (Diet 3) for the Experiment 2.

  1. A Preliminary Study of the Algicidal Mechanism of Bioactive Metabolites of Brevibacillus laterosporus on Oscillatoria in Prawn Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wen; Huang, Xianghu; Li, Changling

    2014-01-01

    The algae, Oscillatoria, is commonly found in prawn ponds and can lead to reduced productivity. We examined metabolites of the bacteria Brevibacillus laterosporus for algicidal qualities. To determine the possible algicidal mechanisms of these bioactive metabolites, different amounts of sterile filtrate of bacterial suspensions were added to cultures containing Oscillatoria. The dry weight, the concentrations of chlorophyll-a (chl-a), phycobiliprotein (PC, phycocyanin; APC, allophycocyanin; PE, phycoerythrin), and MDA (malondialdehyde) and the activities of SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase), and CAT (catalase) of algae were measured during the algicidal application. The results showed that lower concentrations of the sterile filtrate (addition ≤ 4 mL) accelerated the growth rate of Oscillatoria, but significant inhibition and lysis were observed with higher concentrations (addition ≥ 8 mL). In two trials (the additions were 8 mL and 10 mL, respectively), the algal dry weights were reduced by 26.02% and 45.30%, and the chl-a concentrations were decreased by 46.88% and 63.73%, respectively, after seven days. During the algicidal treatment, the concentrations of PC, APC, PE, and MDA and the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were significantly increased in the early cultivation and declined quickly at later stages. Finally, the algae-lysing mechanism of the bioactive metabolites of the bacteria Brevibacillus laterosporus on Oscillatoria had been proposed. PMID:24744687

  2. Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes in Hemocytes from Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Exposed to an Elevated Level of Copper.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Xian, Jian-An; Qian, Kun; Wang, An-Li

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the expression level of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in hemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to copper by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the mRNA expression of Cu, Zn-SOD increased to reach a peak at 6 h, then recovered to its normal level at 48 h. CAT expression level was significantly increased at 12 h and reached a peak at 24 h, but recovered to its normal level later. GPx expression level was significantly increased at 6 h and reached the peak at 12 h. GST expression level was significantly induced from 12 to 24 h and then dropped to its normal level at 48 h. These results indicated that antioxidant enzymes were inducible, possibly for removing excessive reactive oxygen species to protect prawn from oxidative stress.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zheng; Yuan, Junfa; Shi, Zhengli; Yuan, Xuemei; Lin, Lingyun; Xu, Yang; Yao, Jiayun; Hao, Guijie; Shen, Jinyu

    2016-02-02

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV), was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region (IGR) and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs). Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV) than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zheng; Yuan, Junfa; Shi, Zhengli; Yuan, Xuemei; Lin, Lingyun; Xu, Yang; Yao, Jiayun; Hao, Guijie; Shen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV), was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region (IGR) and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs). Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV) than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26848659

  5. A preliminary study of the algicidal mechanism of bioactive metabolites of Brevibacillus laterosporus on Oscillatoria in prawn ponds.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wen; Huang, Xianghu; Li, Changling

    2014-01-01

    The algae, Oscillatoria, is commonly found in prawn ponds and can lead to reduced productivity. We examined metabolites of the bacteria Brevibacillus laterosporus for algicidal qualities. To determine the possible algicidal mechanisms of these bioactive metabolites, different amounts of sterile filtrate of bacterial suspensions were added to cultures containing Oscillatoria. The dry weight, the concentrations of chlorophyll-a (chl-a), phycobiliprotein (PC, phycocyanin; APC, allophycocyanin; PE, phycoerythrin), and MDA (malondialdehyde) and the activities of SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase), and CAT (catalase) of algae were measured during the algicidal application. The results showed that lower concentrations of the sterile filtrate (addition ≤ 4 mL) accelerated the growth rate of Oscillatoria, but significant inhibition and lysis were observed with higher concentrations (addition ≥ 8 mL). In two trials (the additions were 8 mL and 10 mL, respectively), the algal dry weights were reduced by 26.02% and 45.30%, and the chl-a concentrations were decreased by 46.88% and 63.73%, respectively, after seven days. During the algicidal treatment, the concentrations of PC, APC, PE, and MDA and the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were significantly increased in the early cultivation and declined quickly at later stages. Finally, the algae-lysing mechanism of the bioactive metabolites of the bacteria Brevibacillus laterosporus on Oscillatoria had been proposed.

  6. Molecular Analysis of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium olfersii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) Supports the Existence of a Single Species throughout Its Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Natália; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis

    2013-01-01

    Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3) nDNA). Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated) from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species. PMID:23382941

  7. Effects of trawling on the diets of common demersal fish by-catch of a tropical prawn trawl fishery.

    PubMed

    Dell, Q; Griffiths, S P; Tonks, M L; Rochester, W A; Miller, M J; Duggan, M A; van der Velde, T D; Pillans, R D; Coman, G J; Bustamante, R H; Milton, D A

    2013-03-01

    The ecological effect of prawn trawling on the benthos of the Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia, was investigated by examining stomach contents of common demersal fishes incidentally caught as by-catch in the fishery. Fishes were collected from high and low fishing intensity sites in three regions based on vessel monitoring system data. The diets of eight species of benthic fish predators were compared between regions and fishing intensities. A regional effect on diet was evident for seven species. Only one generalist species had no significant difference in diet among the three regions. For the comparisons within each region, five predator species had significantly different diet between high and low fishing intensities in at least one region. Across the three regions, high fishing intensity sites had predators that consumed a greater biomass of crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms. At low fishing intensity sites, predators had diets comprising a greater biomass of cnidarians and teleosts, and a different assemblage of molluscs, crustaceans and fishes. These changes in diet suggest that there may have been a shift in the structure of the benthic community following intensive fishing. Analysis of predator diets is a useful tool to help identify changes in the benthic community composition after exposure to fishing. This study also provided valuable diet information on a range of abundant generalist benthic predators to improve the ecosystem modelling tools needed to support ecosystem-based fisheries management.

  8. Expression Profile of Antioxidant Enzymes in Hemocytes from Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Exposed to an Elevated Level of Copper.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Xian, Jian-An; Qian, Kun; Wang, An-Li

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the expression level of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in hemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to copper by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the mRNA expression of Cu, Zn-SOD increased to reach a peak at 6 h, then recovered to its normal level at 48 h. CAT expression level was significantly increased at 12 h and reached a peak at 24 h, but recovered to its normal level later. GPx expression level was significantly increased at 6 h and reached the peak at 12 h. GST expression level was significantly induced from 12 to 24 h and then dropped to its normal level at 48 h. These results indicated that antioxidant enzymes were inducible, possibly for removing excessive reactive oxygen species to protect prawn from oxidative stress. PMID:26215459

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Dicistrovirus Associated with Moralities of the Great Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zheng; Yuan, Junfa; Shi, Zhengli; Yuan, Xuemei; Lin, Lingyun; Xu, Yang; Yao, Jiayun; Hao, Guijie; Shen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean and is farmed in many countries. Since 2009, a larval mortality syndrome of M. rosenbergii has broken out and spread widely in the main breeding area, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangxi, and Guangdong Provinces in mainland China. A novel virus, named Macrobrachium rosenbergii Taihu virus (MrTV), was isolated from the moribund larvae and was determined to be the causative agent of the M. rosenbergii larval mortality syndrome by experimental infection. Further genomic sequencing suggested that the MrTV genome is monopartite, 10,303 nt in length, and dicistronic with two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region (IGR) and flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs). Phylogenetic analysis using the full-length genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that MrTV was more closely related to the taura syndrome virus (TSV) than to any other viruses. According to these molecular features, we proposed that MrTV is a new species in the genus Aparavirus, family Dicistroviridae. These results may shed light on controlling larval mortality syndrome in M. rosenbergii. PMID:26848659

  10. Indian womanhood: some psychological concepts.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Dhanalakshmi; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Indian womanhood today is at crossroads. The present paper discusses the status of Indian womanhood and its psychological underpinnings. It discusses how Indian women have suffered at the hands of their families and society leaving no path but to succumb to psychiatric illness. The role of mental health professionals and family members in supporting and promoting growth and development of the Indian woman is outlined. PMID:25838719

  11. Phylogeography and taxonomy of White-chinned and Spectacled Petrels.

    PubMed

    Mareile Techow, N M S; Ryan, Peter G; O'Ryan, Colleen

    2009-07-01

    The genus Procellaria traditionally consists of four species, two restricted to New Zealand and two widespread in the Southern Ocean. All four are threatened because of incidental mortality on longlines and other fishing gear. The White-chinned Petrel P. aequinoctialis is the seabird killed in largest numbers by fisheries in the Southern Ocean. A spectacled form recently has been elevated to species status, Spectacled Petrel P. conspicillata, based on differences in morphometrics, vocalisations and breeding phenology. Cytochrome b sequences support species status for the Spectacled Petrel and show that the White-chinned Petrel has two regional populations, one around New Zealand and one throughout the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. White-chinned and Spectacled Petrels segregated approximately 0.90 million years ago by allopatric fragmentation, and the two populations within White-chinned Petrels diverged approximately 0.35 million years ago. Climate changes and corresponding changes in ocean currents are most likely responsible for these patterns. PMID:19364537

  12. 76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the Tribal-State... Federal Register notice of approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III...

  13. 77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the Tribal-State... Register notice of approved Tribal--State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III...

  14. 76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an approval of the gaming... Register notice of approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III...

  15. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  16. QUESTIONS REGARDING AMERICAN INDIAN CRIMINALITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEWART, OMER C.

    FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT, AMERICAN INDIAN MEANS A SOCIAL-LEGAL GROUP. THE STATISTICS WERE OBTAINED FROM FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SOURCES. IN 1960, THERE WERE OVER 70,000 INDIAN ARRESTS OUT OF FOUR MILLION ARRESTS REPORTED TO THE F.B.I. THE PER CAPITA AMERICAN INDIAN CRIMINALITY IS NEARLY SEVEN TIMES THE NATIONAL AVERAGE, NEARLY…

  17. Facts about American Indian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian College Fund, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

  18. Leadership Challenges in Indian Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horse, Perry

    2002-01-01

    American Indian leaders must meld the holistic and cyclical world view of Indian peoples with the linear, rational world view of mainstream society. Tribal leaders need to be statesmen and ethical politicians. Economic and educational development must be based on disciplined long-range planning and a strong, Indian-controlled educational base.…

  19. The American Indian: A Microcourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Norman; And Others

    Designed for secondary students and dealing with the concept of ethnicity in an urban setting, this microcourse on the American Indian presents general information on American Indians and an in-depth study of Indians within the Chicago, Illinois area. Included in this curriculum guide are: seven specific behavioral objectives; course content (some…

  20. A History of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon; Eder, Jeanne

    The goal of assimilating American Indians into an alien culture seemed inevitable as superior weaponry and foreign diseases conquered the Indians. Only in the 20th century has serious consideration been given to allowing Indians to choose their own destiny. Using many excerpts from historical accounts, this book describes educational efforts by…

  1. Indian Youth Leadership Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, McClellan

    The Indian Youth Leadership Program and the Indian Youth Leadership Camp (IYLC) were created in 1981 in response to the need to develop specific skills in Indian youth who will assume leadership positions in the future at the family, school, community, tribal, and national level. Patterned after the National Youth Leadership Camp, the IYLC emerged…

  2. Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

    Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

  3. The population crash of the white-rumped vulture, and its struggle to recover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Gilbert, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The white-rumped vulture Gyps bengalensis was once the most abundant bird of prey on the Indian sub-continent. This species easily adapted to life in urban settings; thriving as a keystone species that maintained an ecological balance between the living and the dead. Dead livestock comprised the bulk of the white-rumped vulture diet and was ultimately responsible for its catastrophic population crash. Within ten years of the first documented population declines more than 99% of the white-rumped vultures were lost. The white-rumped vulture was listed as critically endangered in 2000 and has since remained at high risk for extinction.

  4. Resisting the Script of Indian Education: Zitkala Sa and the Carlisle Indian School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoch, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    Offers a "definition" of Zitkala Sa as an Indian teacher who, at the turn of the 20th century, challenged and countered educational norms that silenced Indian voices and erased Indian culture. Examines her autobiographical essays, "Impressions of an Indian Childhood,""The School Days of an Indian Girl," and "An Indian Teacher among Indians," in…

  5. The White Promised Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Norman

    1978-01-01

    Describing Bolivia's interest in encouraging Caucasian immigrants from South Africa, for purposes of settling and developing traditionally Indian lands, this article details the miserable conditions of slavery and cultural/physical genocide currently operative in Bolivia. (JC)

  6. May the Circle Be Unbroken: A New Decade. Final Report on the National Indian Conference on Aging (3rd, Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 8-10, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Council on Aging, Albuquerque, NM.

    Focusing on six major topics to be addressed at the 1981 White House Conference (economic security, physical and mental health, social well being, older Americans as a national resource, creating an age-integrated society, and research), the National Indian Conference attracted 1,165 persons from more than 140 tribes (592 being Indian elders over…

  7. U.S. Indian Policy, 1865-1890: As Illuminated through the Lives of Charles A. Eastman and Elaine Goodale Eastman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Gretchen Cassel

    2008-01-01

    This article lays out U.S. Indian policy in the Great Plains during the twenty-five years after the Civil War by examining chronologically specific "players" that shaped and reshaped that policy: the U.S. Army, the President and Interior Department, Congress, religious organizations, whites in the Indian reform movement, settlers surging west,…

  8. Comfortable Fictions and the Struggle for Turf: An Essay Review of "The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies," Edited by James A. Clifton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloria, Vine, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Clifton's collection of essays attacks recent pro-Indian "fictions" (including Native spirituality and the relationship between the Iroquois League and the U.S. Constitution) as politically motivated romanticism and nonsense. The authors are struggling to maintain white intellectual authority over definitions of Indian identity and interpretations…

  9. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A; Lyons, Russell E; Salin, Krishna R; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world's most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium. PMID:27164098

  10. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A; Lyons, Russell E; Salin, Krishna R; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B

    2016-05-07

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world's most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium.

  11. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyungtaek; Yoon, Byung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Wook; Hurwood, David A.; Lyons, Russell E.; Salin, Krishna R.; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Ilseon; Chand, Vincent; Mather, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world’s most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium. PMID:27164098

  12. CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION, REPORT OF THE FIRST ALL-INDIAN STATEWIDE CONFERENCE ON CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORBES, JACK D.

    A CONFERENCE ON CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION WAS HELD IN MARCH, 1967, AT STANISLAUS STATE COLLEGE. THE CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS INCLUDE ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS FROM REPRESENTATIVE SCHOOLS WITH A HIGH PROPORTION OF INDIAN STUDENTS IN CALIFORNIA, ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND SOCIAL SCIENTISTS FROM VARIOUS COLLEGES, AND INDIANS FROM REPRESENTATIVE AREAS…

  13. Downriver Indians' Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Exline, Jesse

    Yurok Indian legends in Yurok Unifon text include English translations of the entire texts in order to produce fluent reading for English speakers and a continuous text for Yurok readers. Although corresponding sentences are numbered, translation is not word-for-word or sentence-for-sentence. The five stories refer to a time when animals could…

  14. Indians of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

  15. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Navajo, Apache, Hopi, Pima, Papago, Yuma, Maricopa, Mohave, Cocopah, Havasupai, Hualapai, Yavapai, and Paiute Indian tribes of Arizona are presented. Further information is given concerning the educational, housing, employment, and economic development taking place on the…

  16. American Indian Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    Designed to aid librarians, school teachers, and others in need of American Indian references and reference sources, this compilation covers a wide variety of material which has generally been scattered throughout various individual references. Specifically, this reference book includes: (1) Location of Tribes by State; (2) Locations of Tribes by…

  17. The Urban Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Winona DuBray

    The document presents six articles that provide a glimpse of the uniqueness of American Indian cultural conflict, focusing on aspects of the culture which warrant special attention. Since there are over 100 tribes, an effort was made to enumerate commonalities amongst the tribal cultures in looking at issues raised in the urban areas throughout…

  18. Problems of Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Marigold

    Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…

  19. Indian School Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil H.

    This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age from 4 to…

  20. Indian Wisdom Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanche, Jerry D.

    Rather than simply recreating a real or imagined event or experience for entertainment purposes, the wisdom stories of the American Indians were sophisticated teaching devices that kept alive the history and traditions of the tribe at the same time that they instructed the young tribe members in the areas of history, geography, nature study, and…

  1. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Published by the U.S. Department of the Interior, this brief booklet on the historical development of the Cherokee Nation emphasizes the Tribe's relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its improved economy. Citing tourism as the major tribal industry, tribal enterprises are named and described (a 61 unit motor court in existence since…

  2. American Indian Recipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  3. Indians of Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Maps, photographs, and illustrations are included in this introductory history of Indians in Washington state. The tribal groups of the area are classified by geographic and cultural region as Coastal, Puget Sound, and Plateau tribes, and the majority of the resource booklet provides information about the history and culture of each group.…

  4. Indian Reserved Water Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

  5. Early Indian People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doermann, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

  6. Indians of the Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

  7. Indian Astronomy: History of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  8. The Indian Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talapatra, Dipak C.

    1993-01-01

    The Indian Space program aimed at providing operation space services in communications and remote sensing and using state-of-the-art space technologies is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the development and operation of satellites and launch vehicles for providing these space services.

  9. Tests for American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ. Test Collection.

    The revised annotated bibliography describes 29 standardized tests appropriate for use with American Indians from preschool through high school levels, furnishing authors, copyright date, appropriate age level, physical format (microfiche), and publisher. A separate listing provides names, addresses, and telephone numbers of 11 major U.S.…

  10. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

  11. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions.

  12. Dietary Studies on the Predatory Fishes of the Norman River Estuary, with Particular Reference to Penaeid Prawns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salini, J. P.; Brewer, D. T.; Blaber, S. J. M.

    1998-06-01

    The predatory fish community and their prey in the Norman Rivere estuary, Gulf of Carpentaria Australia, are compared with the communities of other tropical inshore areas, to investigate patterns of predation in tropical inshore areas particularly in relation to penaeid prawns. Abiotic factors (turbidity, freshwater input) and diversity of habitat types affect the composition of both prey and predator communities, resulting in large differences in the communities of tropical inshore waters. The stomach contents of 2059 predatory fish from the Norman River estuary were analysed over four sampling trips in the wet and dry seasons. The stomachs of 61% (1255 fish) of 54 species contained a total of 676·2 g (dry weight) of food, while 39% (804 fish) were empty. Teleosts were the main component of the diet (by dry weight) of 13 of the 22 species analysed, followed by annelids for two species. Five species had only teleosts in their stomachs. Most predator species ate benthic or bentho-pelagic prey, while three species— Rhizoprionodon taylori, Scomberoides commersonianusand Leptobrama mulleri—ate mainly pelagic prey. Although 19 species ate some penaeids, only Polydactylus sheridaniate little else. This species, Lates calcariferand Eleutheronema tetradactylumate 94·5% of all the penaeid prey and 97·9% of all the commercially important penaeid prey recorded in the study. Penaeid predation indices (calculated from gillnet catch rates, proportion of penaeids in the diet and a consumption rate of 3% body weight per day) were 0·23 g of penaeid per net-metre per day for P. sheridani, 0·15 for L. calcariferand 0·03 for E. tetradactylum. Commercially important penaeid predation indices were 0·11, 0·13 and 0·01, respectively. These values are intermediate between those previously recorded for the main penaeid predators in other inshore areas of the Gulf of Carpentaria (Embley River estuary and Groote Eylandt).

  13. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and mRNA Expression of Hemocyanin Subunit in Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Youqin; Ding, Zhili; Sun, Shengming; Wang, Ligai; Ye, Jinyun

    2016-01-01

    Hemocyanin is a copper-containing protein with immune function against disease. In this study, a hemocyanin subunit named MnHc-1 was cloned from Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnHc-1 was 2,163 bp with a 2,028-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 675 amino acids. The MnHc-1 mRNA was expressed in the hepatopancreas, gill, hemocytes, intestine, ovary, and stomach, with the highest level in the hepatopancreas. In the infection trial, the MnHc-1 mRNA transcripts in the hemocytes were significantly downregulated at 3 h after injection of Aeromonas hydrophila and then upregulated at 6 h and 12 h, followed by a gradual recovery from 24 to 48 h. The MnHc-1 transcriptional expression in the hepatopancreas was measured after M. nipponense were fed seven diets with 2.8, 12.2, 20.9, 29.8, 43.1, 78.9, and 157.1 mg Cu kg−1 for 8 weeks, respectively. The level of MnHc-1 mRNA was significantly higher in the prawns fed 43.1–157.1 mg Cu kg−1 diet than in that fed 2.8–29.8 mg Cu kg−1 diet. This study indicated that the MnHc-1 expression can be affected by dietary copper and the hemocyanin may potentially participate in the antibacterial defense of M. nipponense.

  14. Subcellular localization and kinetic characterization of a gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase from the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    França, Juliana L; Pinto, Marcelo R; Lucena, Malson N; Garçon, Daniela P; Valenti, Wagner C; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2013-07-01

    The stimulation by Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), NH4 (+), and ATP of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a gill microsomal fraction from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was examined. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit is distributed predominantly within the intralamellar septum, while Western blotting revealed a single α-subunit isoform of about 108 kDa M r. Under saturating Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+) concentrations, the enzyme hydrolyzed ATP, obeying cooperative kinetics with V(M) = 115.0 ± 2.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.10 ± 0.01 mmol L(-1). Stimulation by Na(+) (V(M) = 110.0 ± 3.3 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.30 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), Mg(2+) (V(M) = 115.0 ± 4.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 0.96 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)), NH4 (+) (V(M) = 141.0 ± 5.6 U mg(-1), K(0.5) = 1.90 ± 0.04 mmol L(-1)), and K(+) (V(M) = 120.0 ± 2.4 U mg(-1), K(M) = 2.74 ± 0.08 mmol L(-1)) followed single saturation curves and, except for K(+), exhibited site-site interaction kinetics. Ouabain inhibited ATPase activity by around 73% with K(I) = 12.4 ± 1.3 mol L(-1). Complementary inhibition studies suggest the presence of F0F1-, Na(+)-, or K(+)-ATPases, but not V(H(+))- or Ca(2+)-ATPases, in the gill microsomal preparation. K(+) and NH4(+) synergistically stimulated enzyme activity (≈25%), suggesting that these ions bind to different sites on the molecule. We propose a mechanism for the stimulation by both NH4(+), and K(+) of the gill enzyme.

  15. Characterization of a prawn OA/TA receptor in Xenopus oocytes suggests functional selectivity between octopamine and tyramine.

    PubMed

    Jezzini, Sami H; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Sosa, María A

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the characterization of an octopamine/tyramine (OA/TA or TyrR1) receptor (OA/TAMac) cloned from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an animal used in the study of agonistic social behavior. The invertebrate OA/TA receptors are seven trans-membrane domain G-protein coupled receptors that are related to vertebrate adrenergic receptors. Behavioral studies in arthropods indicate that octopaminergic signaling systems modulate fight or flight behaviors with octopamine and/or tyramine functioning in a similar way to the adrenalins in vertebrate systems. Despite the importance of octopamine signaling in behavioral studies of decapod crustaceans there are no functional data available for any of their octopamine or tyramine receptors. We expressed OA/TAMac in Xenopus oocytes where agonist-evoked trans-membrane currents were used as readouts of receptor activity. The currents were most effectively evoked by tyramine but were also evoked by octopamine and dopamine. They were effectively blocked by yohimbine. The electrophysiological approach we used enabled the continuous observation of complex dynamics over time. Using voltage steps, we were able to simultaneously resolve two types of endogenous currents that are affected over different time scales. At higher concentrations we observe that octopamine and tyramine can produce different and opposing effects on both of these currents, presumably through the activity of the single expressed receptor type. The pharmacological profile and apparent functional-selectivity are consistent with properties first observed in the OA/TA receptor from the insect Drosophila melanogaster. As the first functional data reported for any crustacean OA/TA receptor, these results suggest that functional-selectivity between tyramine and octopamine is a feature of this receptor type that may be conserved among arthropods.

  16. Characterization of a Prawn OA/TA Receptor in Xenopus Oocytes Suggests Functional Selectivity between Octopamine and Tyramine

    PubMed Central

    Jezzini, Sami H.; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Sosa, María A.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the characterization of an octopamine/tyramine (OA/TA or TyrR1) receptor (OA/TAMac) cloned from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an animal used in the study of agonistic social behavior. The invertebrate OA/TA receptors are seven trans-membrane domain G-protein coupled receptors that are related to vertebrate adrenergic receptors. Behavioral studies in arthropods indicate that octopaminergic signaling systems modulate fight or flight behaviors with octopamine and/or tyramine functioning in a similar way to the adrenalins in vertebrate systems. Despite the importance of octopamine signaling in behavioral studies of decapod crustaceans there are no functional data available for any of their octopamine or tyramine receptors. We expressed OA/TAMac in Xenopus oocytes where agonist-evoked trans-membrane currents were used as readouts of receptor activity. The currents were most effectively evoked by tyramine but were also evoked by octopamine and dopamine. They were effectively blocked by yohimbine. The electrophysiological approach we used enabled the continuous observation of complex dynamics over time. Using voltage steps, we were able to simultaneously resolve two types of endogenous currents that are affected over different time scales. At higher concentrations we observe that octopamine and tyramine can produce different and opposing effects on both of these currents, presumably through the activity of the single expressed receptor type. The pharmacological profile and apparent functional-selectivity are consistent with properties first observed in the OA/TA receptor from the insect Drosophila melanogaster. As the first functional data reported for any crustacean OA/TA receptor, these results suggest that functional-selectivity between tyramine and octopamine is a feature of this receptor type that may be conserved among arthropods. PMID:25350749

  17. White Teachers Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Avner; Garrett, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the increasing racial diversity in American schools and the consistently homogenous teacher workforce in the United States, understanding the ways white teachers consider and attend to racial issues is of crucial importance to the educational landscape. This paper, based on a qualitative study, explores five white American…

  18. Sailing to White Boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a composite red-green-blue image of the rock called White Boat. It is the first rock target that Spirit drove to after finishing a series of investigations on the rock Adirondack. White Boat stood out to scientists due to its light color and more tabular shape compared to the dark, rounded rocks that surround it.

  19. Whites in Desegregated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL. Center for Equal Education.

    In 1972, over 1.3 million white children attended schools in which they were a minority. This document consists of articles addressing this little studied phenomenon. In Gretchen Schafft's article, an anthropological method is employed to study the role of white children in a predominantly black junior high school in Washington, D.C. Jean Le…

  20. Elevation from east. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation from east. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage behind. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  1. Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White Holly on right. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  2. Indian scales and inventories

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  3. Detection and genetic profiling of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in wild berried freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii collected for hatchery production.

    PubMed

    Hazreen Nita, M K; Kua, B C; Bhassu, S; Othman, R Y

    2012-04-01

    Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) has been detected widely in penaeid culture facilities in Asia and the Americas. IHHNV infection on sub-adult and postlarvae of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii which had caused up to 80% mortalities was first reported in Southeast Taiwan in 2006. In Malaysia, although, there has been no report on IHHNV infections in M. rosenbergii, preliminary work suggests that there is an urgent need to setup a screening protocol for IHHNV for both wild and cultured populations. In this study, polymerase chain reaction based screening was carried out on 30 randomly sampled berried wild M. rosenbergii before and after spawning. All samples did not showed any sign of IHHNV infection. However, the results showed that 20% of the samples were IHHNV positive. Sequence analysis of the amplified band using NCBI-BLAST showed that the putative IHHNV sequence had 98% nucleotide sequence (388 bp) identity with the IHHNV isolate AC-05-005 non-structural protein 1 gene and seven other IHHNV strains in the data bank further affirming the suggestion on the presence of IHHNV in wild freshwater prawn populations in Malaysia.

  4. The cloning of the cdk2 transcript and the localization of its expression during gametogenesis in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Liu, Ping; Li, Zhen; Chen, Ying; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2013-08-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) are key regulators of the cell cycle. In mammals, cdk2 plays an essential role in the meiosis of spermatocytes and oocytes. To investigate the role of cdk2 kinase during gametogenesis in crustaceans, we cloned a complete cDNA sequence of cdk2 from the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and examined its localization and expression in the developing gonads. The prawn cdk2 cDNA is 1,745 bp in length and encodes a putative protein of 305 amino acids. The deduced protein contains a conserved cyclin binding motif PSTAIRE and shares high homology with reported cdk2 kinases of other species. RT-PCR analysis showed a wide distribution of the cdk2 mRNA in all tested organs including the testis, ovary, heart, muscles, hepatopancreas and gills, and the highest level of expression in the ovary and testis. Localization by in situ hybridization of cdk2 mRNA in the ovary showed high expression in the ooplasm of previtellogenic and the nuclei of late vitellogenic oocytes. In testicular sections, cdk2 transcript is low in spermatogonia, high in spermatocytes, but reduced in spermatids and sperm. The high expression of the cdk2 transcripts in meiotic spermatocytes and oocytes indicated that the cdk2 gene has the conservative function in the germ cells meiosis during gametogenesis.

  5. Variation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in ovaries and its effects on ovarian maturation and oocyte proliferation in the giant fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Siangcham, Tanapan; Sugiyama, Eiji; Soonklang, Nantawan; Meeratana, Prasert; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-11-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important bioactive mediators for many physiological functions. In some decapod crustaceans, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been detected in reproductive organs, and may play a role in the control of ovarian maturation. However, in the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the presences of PGE2 and key enzymes for PGE2 biosynthesis, as well as its effects on ovarian maturation have not yet been investigated. In this study we reported the presence of PGE2, cyclooxygenase1 (COX1) and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the ovarian tissues of M. rosenbergii, using immunohistochemistry. Intense immunoreactivities of PGE2 (PGE2-ir), COX1 (Cox1-ir) and PGES (PGES-ir) were detected in previtellogenic oocytes (Oc1 and Oc2), while the immunoreactivities were absent in the late vitellogenic oocytes (Oc4). This finding supports the hypothesis that the PGE2 biosynthesis occurs in the ovary of this prawn. To ascertain this finding we used LC-MS/MS to quantitate PGE2 concentrations during ovarian developmental cycle. The levels of PGE2 were significantly higher in the early ovarian stages (St I and II) than in the late stages (St III and IV). Moreover, we found that administration of PGE2 stimulated the ovarian maturation in this species by shortening the length of the ovarian cycle, increasing ovarian-somatic index, oocyte proliferation, and vitellogenin (Vg) level in the hemolymph.

  6. [Niche characteristics of common microalgae communities in prawn-aquaculture pond in terms of water temperature, salinity, nitrogen, and phosphorus resources].

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-feng; Chen, Su-wen; Li, Zhuo-jia; Cao, Yu-cheng; Yang, Ying-ying

    2009-01-01

    A 4-factorial (water temperature, salinity, nitrogen, and phosphorus) experiment was designed to study the niche characteristics of four common microalgae communities in prawn-aquaculture pond. The results showed that the niche breadth was the greatest for Cryptomonas erosa in temperature and salinity resources (0.980 and 0.988, respectively) and for Niztzschia closterium in nitrogen and phosphorus resources (0.990), but the smallest for Chlorella pyrenoidosa in all test resources, with an average value of 0.926. As for niche overlap, it was the smallest for C. erosa and C. pyrenoidosa in temperature and salinity resources (0.809 and 0.702, respectively) and for C. erosa and N. closterium in nitrogen and phosphorus resources (0.829), but the greatest for C. pyrenoidosa and Nannichloropsis oculata in temperature, salinity, and nitrogen and phosphorus resources, with the values being 0.986, 0.974 and 0.989, respectively. All of these suggested that in prawn-aquaculture pond, C. erosa could be bred with any other three of the microalgae communities, while N. oculata and C. pyrenoidosa should not be bred together for their obvious competition

  7. Auto-induction for high yield expression of recombinant novel isoallergen tropomyosin from King prawn (Melicertus latisulcatus) for improved diagnostics and immunotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Martina; Kamath, Sandip D; Saptarshi, Shruti R; Smout, Michael J; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-12-15

    Food allergies are increasing worldwide, demonstrating a considerable public health concern. Shellfish allergy is one of the major food groups causing allergic sensitization among adults and children, affecting up to 2% of the general world population. Tropomyosin (TM) is the major allergen in shellfish and frequently used in the diagnosis of allergic sensitization and the detection of cross-contaminated food. To improve and establish better and more sensitive diagnostics for allergies and immunotherapeutics, large quantities of pure allergens are required. To establish a reproducible method for the generation of pure recombinant tropomyosin we utilized in this study different Escherichia coli strains (NM522, TOP10 and BL21(DE3)RIPL). In addition, isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) induction was compared with a novel auto-induction system to allow the generation of larger quantities of recombinant allergen. We demonstrated that the B-strain of E. coli is better for the expression of TM compared to the K-strain. Moreover, a higher yield could be achieved when using the auto-induction system, with up to 62 mg/l. High yield expressed recombinant TM from King prawn (KP) was compared to recombinant TM from Black tiger prawn (Pen m 1). We demonstrated that recombinant TM from KP and known isoallergen Pen m 1 have very similar molecular and immunological characteristics. Overall, we demonstrate that auto-induction can be used to express larger quantities of recombinant allergens for the development of diagnostic, to quantify allergens as well as immunotherapeutics employing isoallergens.

  8. Short-term consequences of a benthic cyanobacterial bloom ( Lyngbya majuscula Gomont) for fish and penaeid prawns in Moreton Bay (Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, S. J.; Pittman, K. M.

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the phenology and ecological consequences of a benthic filamentous cyanobacterial bloom ( Lyngbya majuscula) in Deception Bay (Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia). Bloom initiation occurred in mid December 1999 and expanded to encompass an 8 km 2 area by April 2000. Small fish and penaeid prawns (<25 cm total length) were quantitatively sampled through periods designated as before, during and after the bloom using a combination of pop-netting within mangroves and beam trawling over adjacent seagrass beds. Data on larger-bodied fish were compiled from daily fishing logs provided by local commercial fishers. Changes in dry mass of bloom material caught in nets and changes in water chemistry were also measured. Mean concentrations of ammonia-N in residual water within mangroves were several orders of magnitude higher in the affected area than in the control and dissolved oxygen was markedly lower in affected areas. Across the study area, mean density, live mass and number of species declined during the bloom, with fish assemblages using mangroves showing greater decline than assemblages using seagrasses. Response at the species level was highly variable; generally, epibenthic species showed a more sustained decline than demersals. Mean monthly fish catch was significantly lower in bloom than non-bloom years. This study has also demonstrated that throughout the bloom, the affected area continued to support a highly diverse and abundant fish and prawn assemblage, and probably maintained its function as an important nursery habitat for many species.

  9. Will the "Real" Indians Please Stand Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pewewardy, Cornel

    1998-01-01

    Explores what it means to be an American Indian in an era in which nearly half of the identifiable Indians live off the reservations and in urban areas. As the principal definition of "Indian-ness" today, the issue of blood quantum leads to misunderstandings. Being an Indian, to the author, is being a person connected to a tribe. (SLD)

  10. 25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT General Contract Requirements § 273.45...

  11. Diabetes among American Indians: Tribes Hope Traditional Methods Can Lead to a Healthier Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2002-01-01

    American Indians are three times more likely than Whites to have type 2 diabetes. Research shows that lifestyle treatments improving diet and increasing exercise are more effective than medications at preventing and treating the disease. A program featuring talking circles and emotional and spiritual counseling by Native elders promotes a…

  12. Indian Mothers' Perceptions of Their Roles in Their Daughters' University Course Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khambhaita, Priya

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new findings on the experiences of Indian mothers in the roles they play in their daughters' higher education (HE) subject choices. Whilst there are existing studies on White British mothers and parents more generally in terms of parental involvement in education, and a growing number of papers presenting results on…

  13. The Evolution of Indian Leadership on the Great Plains, 1759-1950.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schusky, Ernest L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes political change among Plains tribes, particularly the Dakota. Shows how Indian political organization adapted to changing economic, social, and environmental conditions. Discusses the change from bands to tribes to chiefdoms to community political organizations able to offer resistance to the dominant white society while maintaining…

  14. Reframing Diabetes in American Indian Communities: A Social Determinants of Health Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Felicia M.

    2012-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience some of the greatest health inequities of any group within the United States. AI/ANs are diagnosed with diabetes more than twice as often as non-Hispanic white Americans. Diabetes is a chronic preventable disease often associated with individual risk factors and behaviors that indicate what…

  15. Crosscultural Contacts: Changes in the Diet and Nutrition of the Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Judy

    1986-01-01

    Describes changes in Navajo food sources in pre-colonial times, through nineteenth-century war with American soldiers and to contemporary times. Discusses nutritional value of Navajo diets, suggesting food changes following Indian contact with economically developed White culture was harmful to Navajo health. Suggests areas for further study. (TES)

  16. Art & Indian Children of the Dakotas. An Introduction to Art and Other Ideas. Series Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiotte, Arthur

    Through the use of black and white photographs and drawings interspersed with narrative, this text attempts to foster awareness and appreciation of art in the life of the Lakota Indians. The concepts of space and mass are illustrated. The result of combining masses and spaces into various forms of sculpture (bas relief, monolithic, mobile,…

  17. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  18. Effects of Aerosols over the Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aerosols that contain black carbon both absorb and reflect incoming sunlight. Even as these atmospheric particles reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the surface, they increase the amount of solar energy absorbed in the atmosphere, thus making it possible to both cool the surface and warm the atmosphere. The images above show satellite measurements of the region studied during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX)a vast region spanning the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal (west to east), and from the foot of the Himalayan Mountains, across the Indian subcontinent to the southern Indian Ocean (north to south). The Aerosol images show aerosol pollution (brownish pixels) in the lower atmosphere over the INDOEX study area, as measured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Terra. These were composited from March 14-21, 2001. The Albedo images show the total solar energy reflected back to space, as measured by Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) aboard Terra. White pixels show high values, greens are intermediate values, and blues are low. Note how the aerosols, particularly over the ocean, increase the amount of energy reflected back to space. The Atmospheric Warming images show the absorption of the black carbon aerosols in the atmosphere. Where the aerosols are most dense, the absorption is highest. Red pixels indicate the highest levels of absorption, blues are low. The Surface Cooling images show that the aerosol particles reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the surface. Dark pixels show where the aerosols exert their cooling influence on the surface (or a high magnitude of negative radiative forcing). The bright pixels show where there is much less aerosol pollution and the incoming sunlight is relatively unaffected.

  19. Indian Ocean analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Gary

    1992-01-01

    The background and goals of Indian Ocean thermal sampling are discussed from the perspective of a national project which has research goals relevant to variation of climate in Australia. The critical areas of SST variation are identified. The first goal of thermal sampling at this stage is to develop a climatology of thermal structure in the areas and a description of the annual variation of major currents. The sampling strategy is reviewed. Dense XBT sampling is required to achieve accurate, monthly maps of isotherm-depth because of the high level of noise in the measurements caused by aliasing of small scale variation. In the Indian Ocean ship routes dictate where adequate sampling can be achieved. An efficient sampling rate on available routes is determined based on objective analysis. The statistical structure required for objective analysis is described and compared at 95 locations in the tropical Pacific and 107 in the tropical Indian Oceans. XBT data management and quality control methods at CSIRO are reviewed. Results on the mean and annual variation of temperature and baroclinic structure in the South Equatorial Current and Pacific/Indian Ocean Throughflow are presented for the region between northwest Australia and Java-Timor. The mean relative geostrophic transport (0/400 db) of Throughflow is approximately 5 x 106 m3/sec. A nearly equal volume transport is associated with the reference velocity at 400 db. The Throughflow feeds the South Equatorial Current, which has maximum westward flow in August/September, at the end of the southeasterly Monsoon season. A strong semiannual oscillation in the South Java Current is documented. The results are in good agreement with the Semtner and Chervin (1988) ocean general circulation model. The talk concludes with comments on data inadequacies (insufficient coverage, timeliness) particular to the Indian Ocean and suggestions on the future role that can be played by Data Centers, particularly with regard to quality

  20. White is green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Hal

    1998-12-01

    Green is the center of the visible spectrum and the hue to which we are most sensitive. In RGB color, green is 60 percent of white. When we look through a prism at a white square, as Goethe did, we see white between yellow and cyan, just where green appears in the spectrum of Newton. Additional arguments were published previously and appear at www.csulb.edu/-percept, along with the Percept color chart of the hue/value relationships. A new argument, derived from the perception of leaves, is presented here. The Percept color chart transformed into a color wheel is also presented.

  1. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  2. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success.

  3. Indians Giving: The New Philanthropy in Indian Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1994-01-01

    Describes five model philanthropic programs that provide funding to Native American causes. Indicates that Native Americans are creating their own foundations and working as partners with non-Indian philanthropies. Discusses the Seventh Generation Fund, American Indian College Fund, Eagle Staff Fund Collaborative, Montana Community Foundation, and…

  4. Indians as Resources: The Changing Relationship between Indians and Anthropologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Michael M.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional academic or curatorial associations with North American Indians--treating them as informants, subjects, students, or specimens--is no longer sufficient because these associations imply unequal relations with anthropologists and curators in the superior position. Indians now want, expect, and demand equality; and new relationships are…

  5. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.

    In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust.

    CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also

  6. When White Dwarfs Collide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Wendy Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    3D models of white dwarf collisions are used to assess the likelihood of double-degenerate mergers as progenitors for Type Ia supernovae (henceforth SNIa) and to identify observational signatures of double-degenerate collisions. Observations of individual SNIa, SNIa rates in different galaxy types, and double white dwarf binary systems suggest that mergers or collisions between two white dwarfs play a role in the overall SNIa population. Given the possibility of two progenitor systems (single-degenerate and double-degenerate), the sample of SNIa used in cosmological calcula- tions needs to be carefully examined. To improve calculations of cosmological parameters, the development of calibrated diagnostics for double-degenerate progenitor SNIa is essential. Head-on white dwarf collision simulations are used to provide an upper limit on the 56Ni production in white dwarf collisions. In chapter II, I explore zero impact parameter collisions of white dwarfs using the Eulerian grid code FLASH. The initial 1D white dwarf profiles are created assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and a uniform composition of 50% 12C and 50% 16O. The masses range from 0.64 to 0.81 solar masses and have an isothermal temperature of 107 K. I map these 1D models onto a 3D grid, where the dimensions of the grid are each eight times the white dwarf radius, and the dwarfs are initially placed four white dwarf radii apart (center to center). To provide insight into a larger range of physical possibilities, I also model non-zero impact parameter white dwarf collisions (Chapter III). Although head-on white dwarf collisions provide an upper limit on 56Ni production, non-zero impact parameter collisions provide insight into a wider range of physical scenarios. The initial conditions (box size, initial separation, composition, and initial temperature) are identical to those used for the head-on collisions (Chapter II) for the same range of masses. For each mass pair- ing, collision simulations are carried

  7. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  8. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

  9. Beyond Black and White.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, James P.

    Black and white conflict is a by-product of a more basic problem: the failure of this society to develop a social system that enables all people to meet their basic human needs at a reasonable level. Until this is done, we will not be able to move beyond black and white. The underlying problem is related to a sudden acceleration of human history…

  10. Indian women cry foul.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen organizations in Bombay issued a position statement on women's reproductive health and family planning as part of a national Planned Parenthood Foundation 1990's meeting on new contraception. The statement asserted that women needed to have an understanding of their bodies, wanted contraceptives that would not harm physiological functions, and desired men's and women's joint responsibility for reproduction. Women's groups voiced a concern about women gaining awareness of their ability to control their own health and contraception. The Indian government has been concerned with population control since 1952 and has stressed reducing the birth rate rather than providing for people's needs. The Indian government has followed the advice of Western nations and promoted the IUD during the 1960s, vasectomies during the 1970s, female sterilization during the 1980s, and long acting contraceptives during the 1990s. Government policy after the 1970s that focused on women's methods was viewed as coercive. Women's groups such as Stree Shakti Sanghatana, Saheli, and Chingari and the Andhra Pradesh Civil Liberties Union protested the Indian's governments promotion of injectable contraceptives such as NET-EN which were considered hazardous to women's health. Women's groups asked for legislative action, which helped to focus discussion and debate on the issues of the side effects of contraception. The concern was raised that people needed to be made aware of the issues and that the NET-EN campaign was only a dialogue among experts. Women's groups have focused on creating understanding about family planning rather than on simplistic labeling of harmful contraception. Demands should be put in a positive framework that redefines couple relationships, explores a variety of expressions of sexuality, and asserts the primacy of women's decision making about reproduction.

  11. The Healing Forest: White Bison Helps Re-Vision Corporations and Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1993-01-01

    White Bison, a Native-owned training center, offers a comprehensive long-term program based on American Indian principles and aimed at managing organizational or community development. Participants build unity and empower themselves by examining their own beliefs and values that affect the workplace and by giving each other legitimate positive…

  12. 78 FR 55649 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Southern White Rhino (Ceratotherium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ..., private collectors, zoos, museums, taxidermists, and game reserves have been documented (USFWS Office of... FR 8491-8498]. The Indian rhino was also later listed as endangered under the Endangered Species.... 2010, p. 9). The white rhino is estimated to have a lifespan of 40 to 50 years in captivity...

  13. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective.

  14. Historicizing Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-01-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

  15. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  16. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  17. A transcriptomic scan for potential candidate genes involved in osmoregulation in an obligate freshwater palaemonid prawn (Macrobrachium australiense)

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, Md. Lifat; Nguyen, Viet Tuan; Mather, Peter B.; Hurwood, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype) addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance) ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. Methods To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW) crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i), reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii), performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas) and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology. This species was targeted because it can complete its life cycle totally in freshwater but, like many Macrobrachium sp., can also tolerate brackish water conditions and hence should have genes associated with tolerance of both FW and saline conditions. Results We obtained between 55.4 and 65.2 million Illumina read pairs from four cDNA libraries. Overall, paired end sequences assembled into a total of 125,196 non-redundant contigs (≥200 bp) with an N50 length of 2,282 bp and an average contig length of 968 bp. Transcriptomic analysis of M. australiense identified 32 different gene families that were potentially involved with osmoregulatory capacity. A total of 32,597 transcripts were specified with gene ontology (GO) terms identified on the basis of GO categories. Abundance estimation of expressed genes based on TPM (transcript per million) ≥20 showed 1625 transcripts commonly expressed in all four libraries. Among the

  18. Dietary supplementation of zinc nanoparticles and its influence on biology, physiology and immune responses of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Radhakrishnan, Subramanian; Seenivasan, Chandirasekar; Manickam, Narasimman; Srinivasan, Veeran

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary zinc nanoparticles (size 50 nm) on the growth, biochemical constituents, enzymatic antioxidant levels and the nonspecific immune response of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The concentrations of dietary supplement zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet, and the level of Zn in ZnNP-supplemented diets were 0.71, 10.61, 20.73, 40.73, 60.61 and 80.60 mg kg(-1), respectively. ZnNP-incorporated diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial body weight, 0.18 ± 0.02 g) in a triplicate experimental setup for a period of 90 days. ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL up to 60 mg kg(-1) showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved performance in survival, growth and activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase). The concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, total amino acid, total carbohydrate and total lipid), total haemocyte count and differential haemocyte count were elevated in 10-60 mg kg(-1) ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL. However, the PL fed with 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) showed negative results. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], metabolic enzymes [glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT)] and the process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the hepatopancreas and muscle showed no significant alterations in 10-60 mg kg(-1) ZnNP supplemented feed fed PL. Whereas, 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) supplemented feed fed PL showed significant elevations in SOD, CAT, LPO, GOT and GPT. Therefore, 80 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) was found to be toxic to M. rosenbergii PL. Thus, the study suggests that up to 60 mg ZnNPs kg(-1) can be supplemented for regulating survival, growth and immunity of M. rosenbergii.

  19. Characterization of two novel ADP ribosylation factors from giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their responses to WSSV challenge.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zheng-Feng; Ren, Jie; Tan, Jing-Min; Wang, Zheng; Yin, Shao-Wu; Huang, Ying; Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Ren, Qian

    2015-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) are small GTP-binding proteins that have an essential function in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. To date, little information is available on the Arfs in the economically important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their relationship to viral infection. Here we identified two Arf genes from M. rosenbergii (MrArf1 and MrArf2) for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrArf1, together with MjArf1 from shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus belonged to Class I Arfs. By contrast, MrArf2 didn't not match any of the Arfs classes of I/II/III, although it could be clustered with an Arf protein from M. japonicas called MjArfn, which may represent an analog of the Arf. MrArf1 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues, with the highest transcription level in the hepatopancreas, whereas MrArf2 was only highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and exhibited very low levels in the heart, stomach, gills and intestine. The expression level of MrArf1 in the gills was down-regulated post 24 h WSSV challenge, and reached the maximal level at 48 h. MrArf1 in the hepatopancreas went up from 24 to 48 h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 transcript in the gill also went down at 24 h and then was upregulated at 48 h WSSV challenge. MrArf2 increased significantly in the hepatopancreas 24 h after infection and then went down at 48 h WSSV challenge. RNAi results showed that knockdown of MrArf1 or MrArf2 could inhibit the expression of the envelope protein gene vp28 of the WSSV. So, it could be speculated that MrArf1 and MrArf2 might play important roles in the innate immune system against WSSV infection.

  20. Deep parallel sequencing reveals conserved and novel miRNAs in gill and hepatopancreas of giant freshwater prawn.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tian Tian; Chen, Maoshan; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann; Khairuddin, Norliana; Mohd Shamsudin, Maizatul Izzah; Zhang, Guojie; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~20-22 nucleotides, non protein-coding RNA regulatory genes that post-transcriptionally regulate many protein-coding genes, influencing critical biological and metabolic processes. While the number of known microRNA is increasing, there is currently no published data for miRNA from giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (M. rosenbergii), a commercially cultured and economically important food species. In this study, we identified novel miRNAs in the gill and hepatopancreas of M. rosenbergii. Through a deep parallel sequencing analysis and an in silico data analysis approach, 327 miRNA families were identified from small RNA libraries with reference to both the de novo transcriptome of M. rosenbergii obtained from RNA-Seq and to miRBase (Release 18.0, November 2012). Based on the identified mature miRNA and recovered precursor sequences that form appropriate hairpin structures, three conserved miRNA (miR125, miR750, miR993) and 27 novel miRNA candidates encoding messenger-like non-coding RNA were identified. miR-125, miR-750, G-m0002/H-m0009, G-m0005, G-m0008/H-m0016, G-m0011/H-m0027 and G-m0015 were selected for experimental validation with stem-loop quantitative RT-PCR and were found to be coherent with the expression profile of deep sequencing data as evaluated with Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.835178 for miRNA in gill, r = 0.724131 for miRNA in hepatopancreas). Using a combinatorial approach of pathway enrichment analysis and inverse expression relationship of miRNA and mRNA, four co-expressed novel miRNA candidates (G-m0005, G-m0008/H-m0016, G-m0011/H-m0027, and G-m0015) were found to be associated with energy metabolism. In addition, the expression of the three novel miRNA candidates (G-m0005, G-m0008/H-m0016, and G-m0011/H-m0027) were also found to be significantly reduced at 9 and 24 h post infection in M. rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, suggesting a functional

  1. 75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the Tribal-State Compact between the Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Tribe and the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming... Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. On December 17, 2009, the Assistant...

  2. 77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Deemed Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Deemed... engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. On July 12, 2012, the State of Oregon and the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians submitted Amendment I to the Class III compact approved...

  3. 78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of an Agreement to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian... the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The Amendment consists...

  4. 78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Class III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians and the... purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The Amended and Restated...

  5. 75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the State of Oregon and the Siletz Indians of... engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Amendment allows for multi- player games...

  6. 77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval by the Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Tribe and the... engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The existing Class III Gaming......

  7. 78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the approval of an amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin and the... purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. On March 19, 2013, the...

  8. California Indian Food and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

  9. American Indian Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, John E., Ed.

    Assuming that the client is central to any service program, the American Indian Task Force examined a national sample of "grass roots" social service organizations and/or individuals and schools of social work to determine the capability of providing relevant social work education to American Indians. Accordingly, the highest priorities…

  10. Women Leaders in Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1992-01-01

    Draws from interviews with women serving as tribal college presidents in discussing the current and traditional roles of women in Indian society, why women lead 10 of the 28 member colleges of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium, the need for balanced leadership, and women's future role. (DMM)

  11. The Indian Heritage of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephy, Alvin M., Jr.

    In this book nominated for the National Book Award, the author presents the past, present, and future of the Indians of North, Central, and South America with current archaeological findings which add to the knowledge about Indians. As noted, the volume contains information from the works of a large number of people who, since the time of…

  12. American Indians of the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Bertha P.

    Designed for both the specialist and nonspecialist, the book provides a synthesis of Southwestern Indian culture based on long familiarity with the people. Chapter 1 describes the physical aspects of American Indians, land and Aboriginal inhabitants, and development of socio-religious patterns. Chapter II is about Pueblo Peoples (Tanoans,…

  13. Education and the Urban Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joann Sebastian

    Due to the Federal relocation programs, American Indian migration to urban areas has intensified over the past 20 years. The Indian who moves from the reservation to the city encounters an alien culture and, consequently, experiences immense difficulties in securing employment, housing, health services, and fair, unprejudiced treatment from law…

  14. American Indian Youth Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the prevalence of suicide and suicidal ideation among American Indian adolescents. Unique risk and protective factors, and historical trauma and associated symptoms, are explored in the context of American Indian adolescent suicide. The need for culturally-sensitive interventions are necessary, and an example of a…

  15. Health Education for Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werden, Patricia K.

    An understanding of human beings is essential to public health service as well as school health education. Cultural factors were especially important in the case of the American Indian, as many Indian problems are interrelated with socioeconomic problems, resulting in poor nutrition, housing, and sanitation. Alcohol, suicide, and improper use of…

  16. "Red Power" and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, G. Louis

    The document is the result of research conducted on 14 Indian reservations and one settlement in the Southwest, Midwest, West, and Pacific Northwest by Illinois State University in the summer of 1970. Some 124 Indians were interviewed, many of whom were leaders and participants in various Red Power organizations. As noted, the dominant impression…

  17. Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Walter P.; McGregor, Tony L.

    This paper describes the use of Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language (KPISL) in one small, Keresan-speaking pueblo in central New Mexico, where 15 out of 650 tribal members have severe to profound hearing loss (twice the national average). KPISL did not originate for the same purposes as the Plains Indian Sign Language, (PISL) which was developed…

  18. American Indians in Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1989-01-01

    The number of American Indians enrolled in institutions of higher education is very small. Enrollment figures for fall 1984 show Indians made up .68% of the total enrollment in institutions of higher education in the country, but only 15% of them were in universities. Their largest representation was in two-year institutions, where 54% of Indian…

  19. Handbook for Indian Parent Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Louise; Gelardi, Sal

    The 1980 handbook defines parental involvement and elaborates on the functions and authority of parent committees. Funding sources which are most likely to require American Indian parent committees are identified as: Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title I; Johnson-O'Malley; and Indian Education, Title IV-A. Information is provided on:…

  20. Human Behavior and American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Wynne DuBray; Eisenbise, Margaret DeOcampo

    Divided into five sections, the monograph is intended to make students aware that the practices customary to social work agencies are not relevant to the needs of most American Indian clientele. The first section provides an overview of the following historical, geographical, and cultural areas of American Indian tribes: California, Plateau, Great…