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Sample records for indices epidemiological study

  1. Socioeconomic indicators in epidemiologic research: A practical example from the LIFEPATH study.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Angelo; Ricceri, Fulvio; Stringhini, Silvia; Carmeli, Cristian; Kivimaki, Mika; Bartley, Mel; McCrory, Cathal; Bochud, Murielle; Vollenweider, Peter; Tumino, Rosario; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Barros, Henrique; Giles, Graham; Severi, Gianluca; Costa, Giuseppe; Vineis, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Several social indicators have been used in epidemiological research to describe socioeconomic position (SEP) of people in societies. Among SEP indicators, those more frequently used are education, occupational class and income. Differences in the incidence of several health outcomes have been reported consistently, independently from the indicator employed. Main objectives of the study were to present the socioeconomic classifications of the social indicators which will be employed throughout the LIFEPATH project and to compare social gradients in all-cause mortality observed in the participating adult cohorts using the different SEP indicators. Information on the available social indicators (education, own and father's occupational class, income) from eleven adult cohorts participating in LIFEPATH was collected and harmonized. Mortality by SEP for each indicator was estimated by Poisson regression on each cohort and then evaluated using a meta-analytical approach. In the meta-analysis, among men mortality was significantly inversely associated with both occupational class and education, but not with father's occupational class; among women, the increase in mortality in lower social strata was smaller than among men and, except for a slight increase in the lowest education category, no significant differences were found. Among men, the proposed three-level classifications of occupational class and education were found to predict differences in mortality which is consistent with previous research. Results on women suggest that classifying them through their sole SEP, without considering that of their partners, may imply a misclassification of their social position leading to attenuation of mortality differences.

  2. Socioeconomic indicators in epidemiologic research: A practical example from the LIFEPATH study

    PubMed Central

    d’Errico, Angelo; Ricceri, Fulvio; Stringhini, Silvia; Carmeli, Cristian; Kivimaki, Mika; Bartley, Mel; McCrory, Cathal; Bochud, Murielle; Vollenweider, Peter; Tumino, Rosario; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Barros, Henrique; Giles, Graham; Severi, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Background Several social indicators have been used in epidemiological research to describe socioeconomic position (SEP) of people in societies. Among SEP indicators, those more frequently used are education, occupational class and income. Differences in the incidence of several health outcomes have been reported consistently, independently from the indicator employed. Main objectives of the study were to present the socioeconomic classifications of the social indicators which will be employed throughout the LIFEPATH project and to compare social gradients in all-cause mortality observed in the participating adult cohorts using the different SEP indicators. Methods Information on the available social indicators (education, own and father’s occupational class, income) from eleven adult cohorts participating in LIFEPATH was collected and harmonized. Mortality by SEP for each indicator was estimated by Poisson regression on each cohort and then evaluated using a meta-analytical approach. Results In the meta-analysis, among men mortality was significantly inversely associated with both occupational class and education, but not with father’s occupational class; among women, the increase in mortality in lower social strata was smaller than among men and, except for a slight increase in the lowest education category, no significant differences were found. Conclusions Among men, the proposed three-level classifications of occupational class and education were found to predict differences in mortality which is consistent with previous research. Results on women suggest that classifying them through their sole SEP, without considering that of their partners, may imply a misclassification of their social position leading to attenuation of mortality differences. PMID:28557991

  3. An Illustration of Errors in Using the P Value to Indicate Clinical Significance or Epidemiological Importance of a Study Finding.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joseph; Hong, Jaeyoung; Esie, Precious; Bernstein, Kyle T; Aral, Sevgi

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a simulation study to illustrate that P values can suggest but not confirm statistical significance; and they may not indicate epidemiological significance (importance). We recommend that researchers consider reporting effect sizes as P values in conjunction with confidence intervals or point estimates with standard errors to indicate precision (uncertainty).

  4. Comparison of indicators of material circumstances in the context of an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Nkosi, Thomas Matukala; Parent, Marie-Elise; Siemiatycki, Jack; Pintos, Javier; Rousseau, Marie-Claude

    2011-07-18

    Since individual-level income is difficult to collect, investigators often rely on group-based measures derived from census data. No study has assessed the use of residential property values as an indicator of individual material circumstances. We aimed to compare two proxy indicators of material circumstances, one based on residential value and the other on median census tract income, to self-reported household income. We used data from a case-control study (1996-2002), restricting analyses to 676 residents of the Island of Montreal for whom the three indicators were available. The degree of discrepancy between the residential value index, census income, and self-reported household income--each in 5 categories--was estimated, along with overall and weighted Kappas. When comparing residential value index and census income to self-reported household income, perfect concordance was observed for 38% and 30% of subjects, respectively; very good concordance, defined as ≤1 category difference, was observed for 76% and 69% of subjects, respectively. When compared to self-reported household income, overall and weighted Kappas showed stronger agreement with residential value index (weighted Kappa=0.37, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.42) than with census income (weighted Kappa=0.25, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.30). A residential value index may provide a measure of material circumstances that is closer to self-reported household income than the commonly used census income. Each indicator presents advantages and disadvantages, and their choice may depend on study objectives and feasibility.

  5. Review and Recommendations for Zero-inflated Count Regression Modeling of Dental Caries Indices in Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, John W.; Long, D. Leann; Kincade, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past five to ten years, zero-inflated count regression models have been increasingly applied to the analysis of dental caries indices (e.g., DMFT, dfms, etc). The main reason for that is linked to the broad decline in children’s caries experience, such that dmf and DMF indices more frequently generate low or even zero counts. This article specifically reviews the application of zero-inflated Poisson and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to dental caries, with emphasis on the description of the models and the interpretation of fitted model results given the study goals. The review finds that interpretations provided in the published caries research are often imprecise or inadvertently misleading, particularly with respect to failing to discriminate between inference for the class of susceptible persons defined by such models and inference for the sampled population in terms of overall exposure effects. Recommendations are provided to enhance the use as well as the interpretation and reporting of results of count regression models when applied to epidemiological studies of dental caries. PMID:22710271

  6. Tracheostomy: epidemiology, indications, timing, technique, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nora H; Napolitano, Lena M

    2014-06-01

    Tracheostomy is a common procedure performed in critically ill patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure and for airway issues. The ideal timing (early vs late) and techniques (percutaneous dilatational, other new percutaneous techniques, open surgical) for tracheostomy have been topics of considerable debate. In this review, we address general issues regarding tracheostomy (epidemiology, indications, and outcomes) and specifically review the literature regarding appropriate timing of tracheostomy tube placement. Based on evidence from 2 recent large randomized trials, it is reasonable to wait at least 10 d to be certain that a patient has an ongoing need for mechanical ventilation before consideration of tracheostomy. Percutaneous tracheostomy with flexible bronchoscopy guidance is recommended, and optimal percutaneous techniques, indications, and contraindications and results in high-risk patients (coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, obesity) are reviewed. Additional issues related to tracheostomy diagnosis-related groups, charges, and procedural costs are reviewed. New advances regarding tracheostomy include the use of real-time ultrasound guidance for percutaneous tracheostomy in high-risk patients. New tracheostomy tubes (tapered with low-profile cuffs that fit better on the tapered dilators, longer percutaneous tracheostomy tubes) are discussed for optimal use with percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Two new percutaneous techniques, a balloon inflation technique (Dolphin) and the PercuTwist procedure, are reviewed. The efficacy of tracheostomy teams and tracheostomy hospital services with standardized protocols for tracheostomy insertion and care has been associated with improved outcomes. Finally, the UK National Tracheostomy Safety Project developed standardized resources for education of both health care providers and patients, including emergency algorithms for tracheostomy incidents, and serves as an excellent

  7. Epidemiological evidence indicates asbestos causes laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.H.; Handley, M.A.; Wood, R. )

    1990-06-01

    A variety of opinions have been expressed in the literature concerning asbestos and laryngeal cancer. This paper presents an analysis of epidemiological studies based on criteria that prioritized the most heavily exposed cohorts. Emphasis was given to the six cohorts or subcohorts with lung cancer relative risk estimates of 2 or more. The two groups of workers with the highest lung cancer relative risk estimates (4.06 and 3.28) both gave strong support for a causal association of asbestos and laryngeal cancer, with relative risk estimates of 1.91 (90% confidence limits 1.00 to 3.34) and 3.75 (90% confidence limits 1.01 to 9.68), respectively. Confounding with cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption does not explain the findings. Case-control studies gave mixed results, but generally supported the hypothesis. It was concluded that asbestos is a probable cause of laryngeal cancer in view of the reasonable consistency of the studies, the strength of the association in key studies, the evidence for dose-response relationships, and the biological plausibility for asbestos being a cause of laryngeal cancer. 48 references.

  8. Gelatinous Transformation of Bone Marrow: A Prospective Tertiary Center Study, Indicating Varying Trends in Epidemiology and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sneh; Gupta, Monica; Singh, Gajender; Batra, Ashima; Dhiman, Pratibha; Abhinav; Chhabra, Sonia; Sen, Rajeev

    2016-06-01

    Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GTBM) also known as serous atrophy is a degenerative change in the hematopoietic bone marrow and is a rare well recognized pathological entity. It was earlier described mainly in association with anorexia nervosa and psychiatric eating disorders, but recently it has been reported in ulcerative colitis, tuberculosis, chronic renal diseases, immuno suppressed states (mainly HIV infection), malignancies and Kala azar. Treatment is based on treating the underlying disease. Our objective was to study the epidemiology and pathogenesis of diseases causing gelatinous transformation of bone marrow, at a tertiary center level. A prospective study was conducted on 732 samples of bone marrow aspirate with the aim of identifying gelatinous transformation in bone marrow aspirates which was confirmed by Alcian blue stain at pH 2.5. The presence of this material was correlated with the hematological profile of the patient, the presenting signs and symptoms and provisional clinical diagnosis at initial visit. Incidence of gelatinous transformation was calculated to be nearly 4.8 % and the condition was more common in males (23) as compared to females (12) (Male:Female = 2:1). Forty percent of the cases were seen in children followed by 37 % in adolescents and young adults. The older individuals comprised only 23 % of the cases. The bone marrow was hypocellular in 21 (60 %), normocellular in 10 (28.5 %) and hypercellular in four cases (11.5 %). Five cases with GTBM progressed to aplastic anaemia of which three were in children.

  9. Videokeratoscopic indices in relation to epidemiological exposure to keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Mato, Jose Luis; Lema, Isabel; Díez-Feijoo, Elío

    2010-07-01

    To establish the relationship between videokeratoscopic indices and the degree of epidemiological exposure to keratoconus in three groups of clinically normal subjects. Cross-sectional study in which 75 subjects lacking clinical signs of keratoconus were divided into three groups according to epidemiological exposure to the condition: 25 fellow eyes of subjects with clinical signs on the contralateral eye only (the "fellow eye" group), to be compared to 25 first-degree relatives of patients with keratoconus (the "relatives" group) and 25 controls without a family history of the disease (the "control" group). Qualitative patterns and quantitative parameters describing curvature (central curvature), irregularity (root mean square of the higher-order corneal wavefront aberration), and asymmetry (inferior-superior dioptric asymmetry, Zernike vertical coma) obtained from videokeratoscopy were used for comparison between groups. Members of the fellow eye group featured a greater number of asymmetric curvature patterns and increased values in indices describing asymmetry and irregularity than subjects included in both control and relatives groups. Control and relatives groups were not significantly different. Despite significant differences in the distribution of values between the groups, no single index was able to effectively discriminate between groups using ROC curve analysis. A prior threefold classification of clinically normal subjects according to epidemiological exposure to keratoconus was not sustained by significant differences in videokeratoscopic indices when comparing between groups.

  10. Anthropometric indices as predictors of hypertension among men and women aged 40-69 years in the Korean population: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung-Won; Lim, Nam-Kyoo; Baek, Tae-Hwa; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-02-13

    Obesity is one of the most significant risk factors for hypertension. However, there is controversy regarding which measure is the best predictor of hypertension risk. We compared body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in subjects as predictive indicators for development of hypertension. The data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES), a large population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 4,454 subjects (2,128 men and 2,326 women) aged 40-69 years who did not have hypertension at baseline were included in this study. Incident hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or anti-hypertensive medication use during the 4-year follow up. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare discrimination abilities for anthropometric indices for hypertension. Hazard ratios were calculated by Cox proportional hazard model with adjustment for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, diabetes and family history of hypertension by sexes. In men, the area under the ROC curve (AROC) was 0.62 for WC, WHR, and WHtR and 0.58 for BMI. In women, the AROCs for BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR were 0.57, 0.66, 0.68, and 0.68, respectively. After adjustment for risk factors, a 1 standard deviation increase in BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR were significantly related to incident hypertension, respectively (hazard ratio: 1.39, 1.50, 1.40 and 1.49 in men, 1.31, 1.44, 1.35 and 1.48 in women). The central obesity indices WC, WHR, and WHtR were better than BMI for the prediction of hypertension in middle-aged Korean people. WHtR facilitates prediction of incident hypertension because of the single standard regardless of sex, ethnicity, and age group. Therefore, WHtR is recommended as a screening tool for the prediction of hypertension.

  11. Epidemiologic studies of microwave effects

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, C.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a selective review of human epidemiological studies and related information concerning biological and health effects of microwave (MW) radiation. Two unpublished studies of MW effects are discussed: a study of U.S. Navy personnel occupationally exposed to radar, and a study of U.S. Embassy personnel in Moscow. MW effects in the following categories are discussed: ocular effects, nervous and behavioral effects, congenital anomalies, and cancer. Areas for future research are outlined.

  12. [Social inequality and epidemiological studies: a reflection].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Social indicators are now indispensable in the list of variables of epidemiological studies, based on the fact that the determination of health complaints is complex and multidimensional. From this perspective, social inequality has gained prominence as an explanatory factor for the health conditions of populations. The scope of this article is to discuss the different concepts that underpin the selection of the indicators used in epidemiological studies and examine the psychosocial effects on human beings caused by social inequality. A literature review of epidemiological studies that used social inequality and social capital indicators was conducted for a better understanding of health problems, as well as an investigation in the fields of sociology and social psychology. The research revealed that there is some controversy surrounding the effect of social inequality on health, possibly because these indicators are predominantly based on income and individual consumption capacity. Likewise, social capital indicators at cognitive and structural levels are too limited to understand the dynamism of social relations. Accordingly, further studies are needed for the construction of social indicators capable of examining the complexity of modern societies.

  13. Bias in occupational epidemiology studies

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Neil; Checkoway, Harvey; Kriebel, David

    2007-01-01

    The design of occupational epidemiology studies should be based on the need to minimise random and systematic error. The latter is the focus of this paper, and includes selection bias, information bias and confounding. Selection bias can be minimised by obtaining a high response rate (and by appropriate selection of the control group in a case‐control study). In general, it is important to ensure that information bias is minimised and is also non‐differential (for example, that the misclassification of exposure is not related to disease status) by collecting data in a standardised manner. A major concern in occupational epidemiology studies usually relates to confounding, because exposure has not been randomly allocated, and the groups under study may therefore have different baseline disease risks. For each of these types of bias, the goal should be to avoid the bias by appropriate study design and/or appropriate control in the analysis. However, it is also important to attempt to assess the likely direction and strength of biases that cannot be avoided or controlled. PMID:17053019

  14. DESIGN OF EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the following items: (1) London daily air pollution and deaths that demonstrate how time series epidemiology can indicate that air pollution caused death; (2) Sophisticated statistical models required to establish this relationship for lower pollut...

  15. Influence of the degree of exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and the biological indices of lead exposure: epidemiological study in a lead acid battery factory.

    PubMed Central

    Cezard, C; Demarquilly, C; Boniface, M; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol has been shown to interact with lead to influence haem biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to define the dependence of this interaction on the degree of exposure to lead. Exposure to alcohol was estimated by measurement of alcohol concentrations in a sample of urine collected during the morning (AlcUM) (0.82 (SD 4.36) mmol/l) and in a sample collected during the afternoon (AlcUA) (1.15 (SD 3.49) mmol/l). The biological monitoring of exposure to lead included measurements of blood lead (Pb-B) (1.82 (SD 0.72) mumol/l), urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALAU) (35.33 (SD 28.00) mumol/l; d = 1.015), and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) (112.90 (SD 83.71) nmol/mmol Hb) concentrations. The study of the influence of the degree of occupational exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and effects of the exposure to lead led to the consideration of two different groups--namely, mildly and strongly exposed subjects. In the first group, individual biological susceptibility seemed to play a preponderant part. In the second, the pool of lead present in the body seemed to be sufficiently important to mask the effects of individual susceptibility. PMID:1390270

  16. Snowboard traumatology: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Pigozzi, F; Santori, N; Di Salvo, V; Parisi, A; Di-Luigi, L

    1997-06-01

    In the past 10 years, snowboarding has become a popular winter sport among young people, and the number of accidents has increased proportionately. The incidence of traumas from snowboarding is shown to be 4 to 6 for every 1000 medical examinations, which is similar to that of downhill skiing. However, other important statistical differences exist between the two sports. This study of 106 snowboarding-related injury cases analyzes the epidemiology of these injuries in Italy. Results found that 45.1% of injuries are located in the upper limbs and that significant advantages are obtained with the introduction of guards to protect the upper limbs during descent. Serious ligament injuries to the knee are more rare in snowboarding than in downhill skiing. In both sports, injuries are more common with rigid boots, which lead to a higher incidence of injury to the upper limbs. Finally, a high percentage of injury to beginners was found in this study. Training courses for those who are considering taking up the sport of snowboarding could significantly lower their risk of trauma.

  17. Yersinia enterocolitica: Epidemiological Studies and Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Bonny, Tania S.; Stonsaovapak, Siriporn; Ananchaipattana, Chiraporn

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common bacteriological cause of gastrointestinal disease in many developed and developing countries. Although contaminated food is the main source of human infection due to Y. enterocolitica, animal reservoir and contaminated environment are also considered as other possible infection sources for human in epidemiological studies. Molecular based epidemiological studies are found to be more efficient in investigating the occurrence of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in natural samples, in addition to conventional culture based studies. PMID:22567324

  18. Epidemiological study of equine piroplasmosis in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Xuan, Xuenan; Battsetseg, Badgar; Igarashi, Ikuo; Battur, Banzragch; Batsukh, Zayat; Bayambaa, Badarch; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2005-01-04

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis in Mongolia, a country in which the disease occurs epidemically in different climatic conditions. Antibodies to Babesia equi and B. caballi were determined in serum samples of 254 pastured horses in different locations of Mongolia using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant antigens. One hundred and eighty-five (72.8%) and 102 (40.1%) of all serum samples were positive for B. equi and B. caballi infections, respectively. In addition, 78 (30.7%) samples were positive for both B. equi and B. caballi infections. These results indicate that equine piroplasmosis is widespread in Mongolia. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing an epidemiological study on equine piroplasmosis in different geographic regions in Mongolia.

  19. [A basic set of indicators for mapping migrant status. Recommendations for epidemiological practice].

    PubMed

    Schenk, L; Bau, A-M; Borde, T; Butler, J; Lampert, T; Neuhauser, H; Razum, O; Weilandt, C

    2006-09-01

    Data on the health status of migrants are still scarce. One of the reasons for this is that migration status has not been well recorded in official statistics and epidemiological studies. In order to obtain an adequate and standardised operationalisation of migrant status, we first need an exact definition of the terms "migrant" and "migration background". We discuss approaches to the definition of terms and the surveying of ethnic minorities and migrants, and then develop a basic set of migration status indicators for use in epidemiological research. This set of indicators includes country of birth of the father and mother, year of immigration, mother tongue, German language skills and status of residence. The key indicator for the identification of migrants is the country of birth of the parents and not the nationality as was previously often the case. Thus, the classification based on the judicial category of nationality is replaced by a classification based on the biographical event "migration". Migration brings with it specific life conditions and challenges that can impact health across several generations. An instrument for surveying migrant status must be further developed both to reflect the special conditions of the life situation resulting from the migration experience and to take as full account as possible of all aspects of a migrant's history.

  20. [Use of area-level socioeconomic indicators in epidemiological research: experience in Spain and advancement opportunities].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Esnaola, Santiago; Prieto-Salceda, María Dolores; Duque, Ignacio; Rodrigo, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the use of area-level socioeconomic indicators in epidemiological studies in Spain. We included studies analyzing the association of area-level socioeconomic indicators and health indicators in Spain published in peer-reviewed journals. An electronic search was conducted in PubMed-Medline, SCI-Expanded, SSCI, Embase, and the Spanish Medical Index (until December 31, 2012). A manual search was also conducted of the references of the selected studies. Each of the articles initially selected on the basis of the title and abstract was reviewed by two investigators. Information was obtained on the publication and methodology (design and study areas, information sources, health and socioeconomic indicators, and statistical analysis). We included 142 studies published since 1988 (58.4% since 2005). More than half (59.9%) were in English. The level of analysis was ecological in 73.2% and multilevel in 19.0%. The areas most frequently analyzed were census tracts (35 studies), especially within cities or autonomous regions, followed by the provinces (30 studies), mostly concerning Spain overall. The dependent variable most frequently analyzed was mortality and the socioeconomic dimension most commonly used was employment (71.1%). In the last decade in Spain, there has been an increase in the number of studies examining the association of area-level socioeconomic and health indicators, as well as in the complexity of design and analysis. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. An epidemiological study of histrionic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Nestadt, G; Romanoski, A J; Chahal, R; Merchant, A; Folstein, M F; Gruenberg, E M; McHugh, P R

    1990-05-01

    In conjunction with the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) survey conducted in Baltimore, MD, a two-stage probability sample of community subjects was developed with a full psychiatric examination employing DSM-III criteria. This report details the observations on those subjects diagnosed with the DSM-III diagnosis Histrionic Personality Disorder. The results indicate that this condition can be diagnosed reliably and that it is a valid construct. It has a prevalence of 2.1% in a general population. Males and females are equally affected, suggesting that prior reports of an increased prevalence in females was an expression of ascertainment bias found in hospital-based studies. The diagnosis is associated with clear evidence of disturbance in the emotional, behavioural, and social realms. Individuals with this disorder tend to use health care facilities more frequently than others.

  2. Epidemiological and Clinical Studies of Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Todd M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Tangrea, Joseph A.; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize some of the key developments in nutritional epidemiology and cancer over the past two decades with a focus on the strengths and limitations of study designs and dietary assessment methods. We present the evidence on dietary fat, meat, fiber, antioxidant nutrients, and calcium in relation to carcinogenesis from large cohort studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and refer to the conclusions of the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research summary report. One prominent theme that emerged is the lack of concordance of results from RCTs and observational studies. There are multiple potential reasons for these discrepancies, including differences in study population, dose and timing of the exposure, adherence to an intervention, length of follow-up, and the primary endpoint. Therefore, null findings of RCTs do not necessarily indicate a lack of effect for the tested dietary factors on cancer risk, as some of these nutrients may have chemopreventive effects if given at the right time and in the right dose. It is likely that potential benefits from the diet are due to a combination of food constituents rather than single components acting in isolation. Future efforts need to recognize the integrative nature of dietary exposures and attempt to study nutrients in the larger context of the foods and diets in which they are consumed. PMID:20709210

  3. Molecular epidemiology: issues in study design and statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chia, K S; Shi, C Y; Lee, J; Seow, A; Lee, H P

    1996-01-01

    Traditional analytical epidemiology is directed at identifying the association between risk factors and occurrence of disease by using crude exposure data derived from questionnaires or clinical measures, and taking clinical disease as the end point. With the rapid development in molecular biology and laboratory methods, it is now possible to use biomarkers which are capable of identifying molecular events for epidemiologic research. This improved sensitivity enables us to develop a mechanistic understanding of disease causation: a step closer to the unravelling of the "black box" of traditional epidemiology. Biomarkers may be classified as internal indicators of exposure (biomarkers of exposure), indicators of preclinical adverse effect (biomarkers of effect) or indicators of an intrinsic or acquired susceptibility to disease (biomarkers of susceptibility). Biomarkers provide a better definition of exposure and disease status and consequently they could help to reduce misclassification bias in both exposure and disease, reduce the follow-up time in prospective studies, as well as identify possible interactions between risk factors on disease occurrence. However, a biomarker needs to be validated and its distribution in large populations described before it can be used profitably for aetiologic research. Also, the use of biomarkers in epidemiologic research raises other interesting epidemiological and statistical issues like confounding, effect modification and the analysis of repeated measurements. Molecular epidemiology is a multidisciplinary endeavour which comprises molecular biology, epidemiology and biostatistics. Clearly then, to carry out research in this field profitably, the molecular biologist, epidemiologist and biostatistician must acquire not only expertise in their respective fields, but also an integrated understanding of all three fields. The molecular biologist is not merely a laboratory bench worker; the epidemiologist, a field data-collector and

  4. Review, discussion, and summary of epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shy, C.M.

    1989-02-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes the epidemiological studies presented at the Symposium on the Health Effects of Acid Aerosols. Two studies of acute episodes examined different indicators of respiratory morbidity before, during, and after the January 1985 air pollution event in western Europe. In the U.K. no increase in respiratory morbidity, as reported by a group of general practitioners, was observed, but measured concentrations of air pollutants failed to substantiate the existence of an identifiable episode. In the Federal Republic of Germany, the air pollution episode was documented and was associated with a 10 to 25% increase in several indicators of respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, but could not be attributed to acidic aerosols as such. In two further studies, investigators related day-to-day variations in air pollution with admissions to acute care hospitals in southern Ontario for respiratory disease over a 9-year period, and with daily mortality in London from 1963 to 1972. In the study of hospital admissions, significant correlations were observed with sulfate, ozone, and SO/sub 2/ pollution, but the data were insufficient to isolate the separate or combined effects of these pollutants. In the London mortality analysis, the strongest correlations were observed for sulfuric acid levels of the prior day, but prefiltering of the mortality data may have dampened the true relationship, and age- and cause-specific analyses would have been desirable. Finally two reports on chronic effects of residence in high air pollution areas have thus far made little contribution to the evidence for an adverse effect of specific pollutants.

  5. Epidemiologic indicators associated with within-farm spread of Johne's disease in dairy farms in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Sota; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Nishiguchi, Akiko

    2007-12-01

    Epidemiologic indicators associated with within-farm infection of Johne's disease in dairy farms in Japan were determined through a nationwide investigation of infected farms. We assumed that subsequent detection of the disease within one year after the first detection could represent the occurrence of within-farm spread occurring before the first detection. Of 594 infected farms, 158 farms (27%) had at least one additional detection. Logistic regression analysis using epidemiologic information obtained from infected farms at the time of the first detection revealed three epidemiologic indicators associated with subsequent detection. Farms at which the first cases included cattle with clinical signs were 3.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.2, 6.8) times more likely to have additional detections than those with cattle without clinical signs. Similarly, farms where two or more cattle were detected at the time of first detection and where cattle were held in a loose housing system were 2.8 (95% CI: 1.8, 4.5) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.6) times more likely to have additional detections than those where only one animal was detected and a tied-up housing system was used, respectively. These epidemiologic indicators are likely important determinants in the selection of farms requiring more intensive on-farm control measures.

  6. Twin Studies: A Unique Epidemiological Tool

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Monalisha; Prasuna, Josyula G

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies are a special type of epidemiological studies designed to measure the contribution of genetics as opposed to the environment, to a given trait. Despite the facts that the classical twin studies are still being guided by assumptions made back in the 1920s and that the inherent limitation lies in the study design itself, the results suggested by earlier twin studies have often been confirmed by molecular genetic studies later. Use of twin registries and various innovative yet complex software packages such as the (SAS) and their extensions (e.g., SAS PROC GENMOD and SAS PROC PHREG) has increased the potential of this epidemiological tool toward contributing significantly to the field of genetics and other life sciences. PMID:27385869

  7. Atlantoaxial Fusion: Sixteen Years of Epidemiology, Indications, and Complications in New York State.

    PubMed

    Derman, Peter B; Lampe, Lukas P; Lyman, Stephen; Kueper, Janina; Pan, Ting Jung; Girardi, Federico P; Albert, Todd J; Hughes, Alexander P

    2016-10-15

    A retrospective state database analysis. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and complications of as well as indications for primary isolated atlantoaxial fusion. Atlantoaxial fusion involves unique indications, techniques, and complications. There is limited epidemiologic literature focused specifically on this procedure. New York's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database, an all-payer hospitalization reporting system, was queried to identify all patients undergoing primary isolated atlantoaxial fusion in the state from 1997 to 2012. Demographic and clinical data were extracted and analyzed. United States Census Bureau figures were used to calculate population-adjusted surgical rates. One thousand five hundred fifty-nine patients underwent isolated primary atlantoaxial fusion during the study period. The overall population-adjusted annual surgical rate did not change significantly over time. By 2012, individuals aged ≥70 years had the highest incidence of surgery [2.37 per 100,000 population; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.68-3.07]. Medicare was the most common payer (44.0% of claims). Approximately 85% of patients had a Charlson/Deyo Comorbidity Index of zero or one. Over time, a significantly lower proportion of atlantoaxial fusions were attributable to rheumatic disease, and a significantly higher proportion were due to fracture. By 2012, management of fractures was the most common indication for C1-C2 fusion (44.1% of cases). Dysphagia or dysphonia occurred after 0.8% of cases, dural tear after 0.3%, infection after 0.5%, and seroma, hematoma, or hemorrhage after 0.5%. In-hospital mortality was 2.7%, of which 76% had fracture as the surgical indication. Isolated atlantoaxial fusions have been performed at a stable, low level over the past 16 years in New York. Although most of these patients are relatively healthy pre-operatively, approximately one in 10 experience an in-hospital complication and nearly 3% die in

  8. oA novel nonparametric approach for estimating cut-offs in continuous risk indicators with application to diabetes epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and clinical studies, often including anthropometric measures, have established obesity as a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Appropriate cut-off values for anthropometric parameters are necessary for prediction or decision purposes. The cut-off corresponding to the Youden-Index is often applied in epidemiology and biomedical literature for dichotomizing a continuous risk indicator. Methods Using data from a representative large multistage longitudinal epidemiological study in a primary care setting in Germany, this paper explores a novel approach for estimating optimal cut-offs of anthropomorphic parameters for predicting type 2 diabetes based on a discontinuity of a regression function in a nonparametric regression framework. Results The resulting cut-off corresponded to values obtained by the Youden Index (maximum of the sum of sensitivity and specificity, minus one), often considered the optimal cut-off in epidemiological and biomedical research. The nonparametric regression based estimator was compared to results obtained by the established methods of the Receiver Operating Characteristic plot in various simulation scenarios and based on bias and root mean square error, yielded excellent finite sample properties. Conclusion It is thus recommended that this nonparametric regression approach be considered as valuable alternative when a continuous indicator has to be dichotomized at the Youden Index for prediction or decision purposes. PMID:19744332

  9. Epidemiological study of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, T; Kulkarni, V S; Nerurker, R A; Damle, S G; Patnekar, P N

    1998-01-01

    A total of 2000 children (1-14 year age group) attending pediatric OPD, school clinic & well body clinic of Dr. R.N. Cooper Municipal Hospital & K.E.M Hospital, Mumbai were examined for caries prevalence and 35.6% had dental caries. Parental income was not shown to have any bearing on caries prevalence. Parental literacy, particularly maternal literacy was shown to influence caries prevalence in children. The prevalence was low in well-nourished children and in those taking vegetarian type of diet. Frequency of sweet consumption was shown to be associated with prevalence of dental caries. In 1-4 year age group it was noted that bottle fed children were more affected by dental caries. Tooth brush with paste was the commonest method used for cleaning their teeth in all age groups in our study. Caries prevalence was low in those children using tooth brush than in those using tooth powder. Those children who were using neem datun were found to be less affected with dental caries. Dental caries was also found to be low in those who rinsed their mouth with water after food.

  10. Examination of Different Exposure Metrics in an Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon measurements of ambient concentration from central-site monitoring stations as surrogates of population exposures. However, depending on the epidemiological study design, this approach may introduce exposure...

  11. Examination of Different Exposure Metrics in an Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon measurements of ambient concentration from central-site monitoring stations as surrogates of population exposures. However, depending on the epidemiological study design, this approach may introduce exposure...

  12. Epidemiologic evaluation of multiple alternate microbial water quality monitoring indicators at three California beaches.

    PubMed

    Griffith, John F; Weisberg, Stephen B; Arnold, Benjamin F; Cao, Yiping; Schiff, Kenneth C; Colford, John M

    2016-05-01

    Advances in molecular methods provide new opportunities for directly measuring pathogens or host-associated markers of fecal pollution instead of relying on fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) alone for beach water quality monitoring. Adoption of new indicators depends on identifying relationships between either the presence or concentration of the indicators and illness among swimmers. Here we present results from three epidemiologic studies in which a broad range of bacterial and viral indicators of fecal contamination were measured simultaneously by either culture or molecular methods along with Enterococcus to assess whether they provide better health risk prediction than current microbial indicators of recreational water quality. We conducted prospective cohort studies at three California beaches -- Avalon Bay (Avalon), Doheny State Beach (Doheny), Surfrider State Beach (Malibu) -- during the summers of 2007, 2008 and 2009. The studies enrolled 10,785 swimmers across the beaches and recorded each swimmer's water exposure. Water and sand samples were collected several times per day at multiple locations at each beach and analyzed for up to 41 target indicators using 67 different methodologies. Interviewers contacted participants by phone 10-14 days later and recorded symptoms of gastrointestinal illness occurring after their beach visit. Regression models were used to evaluate the association between water quality indicators and gastrointestinal illness among swimmers at each beach. F+ coliphage (measured using EPA Method 1602) exhibited a stronger association with GI illness than did EPA Method 1600 at the two beaches where it was measured, while a molecular method, F+ RNA Coliphage Genotype II, was the only indicator significantly associated with GI illness at Malibu. MRSA, a known pathogen, had the strongest association with GI illness of any microbe measured at Avalon. There were two methods targeting human-associated fecal anaerobic bacteria that were more

  13. Epidemiologic study of tumors in dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, B M; Tanke, D H; Helbling, M; Martin, L D

    2003-11-01

    Occasional reports in isolated fragments of dinosaur bones have suggested that tumors might represent a population phenomenon. Previous study of humans has demonstrated that vertebral radiology is a powerful diagnostic tool for population screening. The epidemiology of tumors in dinosaurs was here investigated by fluoroscopically screening dinosaur vertebrae for evidence of tumors. Computerized tomography (CT) and cross-sections were obtained where appropriate. Among more than 10,000 specimens x-rayed, tumors were only found in Cretaceous hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs). These included hemangiomas and metastatic cancer (previously identified in dinosaurs), desmoplastic fibroma, and osteoblastoma. The epidemiology of tumors in dinosaurs seems to reflect a familial pattern. A genetic propensity or environmental mutagens are suspected.

  14. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  15. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  16. Risk of tuberculosis infection in Edirne primary schools and a review of its epidemiological indices.

    PubMed

    Saltik, A; Sungur, I; Agun, K

    1991-01-01

    The study population was defined as all first and fifth grade pupils from 17 primary schools located within Edirne Municipality. Of these 3188 pupils, aged 6-14 years, 569 had not received the BCG vaccine, and were tested for Tb with strengths of 1.3 or 5 TU PPD, and the reactions were evaluated. The annual risk of infection (AIR), a relatively new indice in Tb epidemiology, was determined in the different subgroups in which age, school grade and sex were taken into consideration. The results of each subgroup were compared with each other and with those reported in foreign countries. Global AIR was found to be 1.54 percent, a relatively very high value when compared with those reported in Syria and Egypt. The relative risk ratio was recorded as 22.4 percent in the Netherlands. Another rate parameter which is almost as important as AIR is the annual variation in AIR. In Turkey this rate has been varying annually by an average of 5% for over the past 21 years. These figures may be the result only of normal socioeconomic development rather than the effect of campaigns waged in the fight against Tb. We are convinced that under the conditions prevailing in Turkey, widespread, early vaccination with BCG is the best way to control Tb.

  17. Retinoblastoma in Jordan: an epidemiological study (2006-2010).

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Imad; Yousef, Yacoub A; Mehyar, Mustafa; Sultan, Iyad; Khurma, Samer; Al-Rawashded, Khalil; Wilson, Matt; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Salem, Ahmed; Alnawaiseh, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of retinoblastoma have been extensively studied in developed countries, however epidemiological data is scarce in the Middle East. We present a de- tailed epidemiological analysis of retinoblastoma in Jordan in an attempt to aid national and regional strategies for improved cancer surveillance and control. Retrospective review of retinoblastoma cases presenting to the sole and exclusive ocular oncology referral center in Jordan. Forty children (59 eyes) presenting with clinically and/or histologically confirmed retinoblastomas were treated at King Hussein Cancer Center (Amman, Jordan) between January 2006 and December 2010. This case series included 28 boys and 12 girls. Data relating to age at diagnosis, laterality, gender, treatment modality and survival were recorded. The mean age-adjusted incidence of retinoblastoma in Jordan was 9.32 cases per million children per year for children aged 0-5 years. The male: female ratio was 2.3:1. Bilateral cases were encountered in 19 pa- tients (47.5%) while 21 patients (52.5%) harbored unilateral retinoblastoma. At the time of follow-up, 38 patients (95%) were alive. Overall, 40 eyes (67.8%) were successfully preserved without the need for enucleation. The national epidemiological data gathered in this study indicates that the incidence of retinoblastoma in Jordan is similar to that reported in various countries of the world. Jordanian boys, however, are at significantly higher risk for developing retinoblastoma than age-matched girls. Furthermore, Jordanian patients are more likely to harbor bilateral retinoblastoma.

  18. [Environmental indicators in ten Italian cities (2001-2005): the air quality data for epidemiological surveillance].

    PubMed

    Berti, Giovanna; Chiusolo, Monica; Grechi, Daniele; Grosa, Mauro; Rognoni, Magda; Tessari, Roberta; Pacelli, Barbara; Scarnato, Corrado; Mallone, Sandra; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Stafoggia, Massimo; Primerano, Roberto; Accetta, Gabriele; Dessì, Maria Patrizia; Cernigliaro, Achille; De'Donato, Francesca; Zanini, Gabriele; Forastiere, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    to produce environmental indicators suitable for an epidemiological surveillance in 10 Italian cities part of the EpiAir Project (2001-2005). the environmental parameters that correlate to relevant health effects are the particles with diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM10), the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the ozone (O3). The necessary meteorological data are: temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and apparent temperature.We have identified some criteria to select monitoring stations and have taken standard methods of calculation to produce environmental indicators starting from the daily data available after closely evaluating the completeness of the existing data. Furthermore, we have checked the homogeneity of the selected data to ensure that it represents the population's exposure. close examination of descriptive statistics shows a critical situation of the considered pollutants. The analysis of the yearly state underlines for PM10 values higher than 40 microg/m3 in the area of Mestre-Venice and in Milan, Turin, Bologna e Taranto. For NO2, values are consistently above 40 microg/m3 in Milan, Turin, Bologna, Florence, Rome and Palermo. For ozone, the concentrations were stable, with the exception of Summer 2003 when we recorded, on average, an increase of 13% compared to the mean value estimated for the ten cities during the study period, especially in Mestre-Venice, Turin and Palermo. it is important to ensure the consistency of the methods and instruments in environmental monitoring. To evaluate health effects and perform interventions over the longterm, it is therefore fundamental that the data be homogenous, especially during the periodic reorganizations and rationalizations of air quality management. It is also necessary to include daily meteorological data that influence pollutant dispersion and population health status.

  19. Satellite remote sensing in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter air pollution is a ubiquitous exposure linked with multiple adverse health outcomes for children and across the life course. The recent development of satellite-based remote-sensing models for air pollution enables the quantification of these risks and addresses many limitations of previous air pollution research strategies. We review the recent literature on the applications of satellite remote sensing in air quality research, with a focus on their use in epidemiological studies. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a focus of this review and a significant number of studies show that ground-level particulate matter can be estimated from columnar AOD. Satellite measurements have been found to be an important source of data for particulate matter model-based exposure estimates, and recently have been used in health studies to increase the spatial breadth and temporal resolution of these estimates. It is suggested that satellite-based models improve our understanding of the spatial characteristics of air quality. Although the adoption of satellite-based measures of air quality in health studies is in its infancy, it is rapidly growing. Nevertheless, further investigation is still needed in order to have a better understanding of the AOD contribution to these prediction models in order to use them with higher accuracy in epidemiological studies.

  20. Urolithiasis in Italy: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Prezioso, Domenico; Illiano, Ester; Piccinocchi, Gaetano; Cricelli, Claudio; Piccinocchi, Roberto; Saita, Alberto; Micheli, Carla; Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-06-30

    Worldwide the urolithiasis is the third most frequent urological disease affecting both males and females. In literature there are not recent Italian epidemiological data about stone disease. The objective of this study is the evaluation of current epidemiology of urolithiasis in Italy using the Health Search/CSD Longitudinal Patient Database (HS) database. An observational, descriptive, retrospective trial was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: family physician- assisted Italian living population member of HS database within 31 December 2012, both genders, age over 17 years, at least two years of clinical history recorded from the beginning the trial. Data were collected by HS database and elaborated by its software Millewin®. In Italy prevalence of urolithiasis in 2012 was 4.14%, it was higher in males than in females (4.53% versus 3.78%) with a positive relation with increasing age. The highest prevalence rate of urolithiasis was reported in the region Campania (6.08%). The general incidence was 2.23 * 1000, with the highest incidence in the region Sicilia (3.15 * 1000). Incidence was higher in group age 65-74 years (3.18 * 1000). In Italy the incidence and prevalence of urolithiasis is increasing with particular distribution in relation to gender, age and regional position.

  1. Epidemiological and financial indicators of hypertension in older adults in Mexico: challenges for health planning and management in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Armando; Duarte, Maria Beatriz; Cuadra, Silvia Magali

    2016-05-30

    This study estimated the epidemiological and financial indicators of hypertension in order to identify challenges in strategic planning and management for health systems in Latin America. This is a longitudinal study with a population base of 187 326 reported cases of older adults with hypertension, diagnosed at public health institutions in Mexico. The cost-evaluation method that was used was based on the instrumentation and consensus techniques. To estimate the epidemiological changes and financial consequences for 2015-2017, time series analyses and probabilistic models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique. Regarding epidemiological changes for 2015 versus 2017, an increase of 8-12% is expected (p < 0.001). Comparing the economic impact in 2015 versus 2017 (p < 0.001), there is a 22% increase in financial requirements. The total amount estimated for hypertension in 2015 (in US dollars) was $1 575 671 330. It included $747 527 259 as direct costs and $829 144 071 as indirect costs. If the risk factors and the different healthcare services for older adults remain as they are currently, the financial consequences of epidemiological changes in older adults will have a major impact on the users' pockets, following in order of importance, on social security providers and on public assistance providers. The challenges and implications of our findings in the context of universal coverage reforms in Latin America reinforce the urgent need to develop more and better strategic planning for the prevention of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  3. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  4. Multicenter Epidemiological Studies of Atherosclerosis Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Songtao; Bluemke, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading course of death and disability. Conventional cardiac risk factors do not fully explain the level of cardiovascular risk, incidence of coronary artery disease, and coronary events. Risk stratification and therapy based solely on these conventional risk factors may overlook a population who would benefit from lifestyle and risk factor modification. Thus, research has recently focused on improving risk assessment with new tools in an effort to better identify subjects at highest risk and in need of aggressive management. Cardiovascular imaging, both in coronary and extracoronary arterial beds, has proven to be very helpful in this regard. In this article, we review the current literature from multicenter epidemiology studies on the utility of noninvasive imaging modalities for risk stratification in the context of conventional risk factor evaluation. PMID:20805734

  5. Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: application in epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Kato-Maeda, Midori; Metcalfe, John Z.; Flores, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping is used to track specific isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a community. It has been successfully used in epidemiologic research (termed ‘molecular epidemiology’) to study the transmission dynamics of TB. In this article, we review the genetic markers used in molecular epidemiologic studies including the use of whole-genome sequencing technology. We also review the public health application of molecular epidemiologic tools. PMID:21366420

  6. The fate of epidemiologic manuscripts: a study of papers submitted to epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hall, Susan A; Wilcox, Allen J

    2007-03-01

    Little is known about the success rate of epidemiologic manuscripts, or the number of rejections they may go through before being published. In late 2004 we conducted a retrospective follow-up study of the cohort of manuscripts submitted to Epidemiology in 2002. Using an e-mailed invitation, we conducted an online survey of authors identified from journal records. Authors were asked about submission attempts before and after their submission to Epidemiology. Epidemiology received 371 original articles in 2002, of which it published 101 (27%). Survey response rates were 68% among the authors of accepted manuscripts, and 58% among authors of manuscripts rejected by Epidemiology. These responses provided a total sample of 223 manuscripts for analysis. Of the cohort, 83% (n = 184) were eventually accepted for publication (by Epidemiology or others). The acceptance rate by Epidemiology was the same whether or not the manuscripts had been previously rejected by another journal. Of the 155 manuscripts rejected by Epidemiology, 116 (75%) were eventually published or accepted for publication, 11 (7%) were being prepared for resubmission at the time of follow-up (19-34 months after rejection), 5 (3%) were under review by a journal, and 23 (15%) were inactive. Among the papers we could follow from first submission, 62% of those eventually published had been rejected at least once. In general, papers rejected by one journal were subsequently sent to a journal with lower impact factor. These data suggest most epidemiology manuscripts are eventually published, although some persistence on the part of the authors may be necessary.

  7. Epidemiologic studies of glyphosate and cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Mink, Pamela J; Mandel, Jack S; Sceurman, Bonnielin K; Lundin, Jessica I

    2012-08-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency and other regulatory agencies around the world have registered glyphosate as a broad-spectrum herbicide for use on multiple food and non-food use crops. Glyphosate is widely considered by regulatory authorities and scientific bodies to have no carcinogenic potential, based primarily on results of carcinogenicity studies of rats and mice. To examine potential cancer risks in humans, we reviewed the epidemiologic literature to evaluate whether exposure to glyphosate is associated causally with cancer risk in humans. We also reviewed relevant methodological and biomonitoring studies of glyphosate. Seven cohort studies and fourteen case-control studies examined the association between glyphosate and one or more cancer outcomes. Our review found no consistent pattern of positive associations indicating a causal relationship between total cancer (in adults or children) or any site-specific cancer and exposure to glyphosate. Data from biomonitoring studies underscore the importance of exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies, and indicate that studies should incorporate not only duration and frequency of pesticide use, but also type of pesticide formulation. Because generic exposure assessments likely lead to exposure misclassification, it is recommended that exposure algorithms be validated with biomonitoring data.

  8. VDTs: Field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kavet, R.; Tell, R.A. )

    1991-07-01

    As the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has expanded, questions have been raised as to whether working at a VDT affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. A particular focus for these questions has been the very low frequency (VLF) magnetic field produced by a VDT's horizontal deflection coil. VDTs also produce VLF electric fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, and static electric fields, Ten studies of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators have been conducted in six countries, and with one exception, none has concluded that magnetic fields from VDTs may predispose pregnant operators to spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation. The epidemiologic studies conducted thus far do not provide a basis for concluding that VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome are associated. Studies of fetal resorptions and malformations in rodents exposed to VLF magnetic fields have produced inconsistent findings. Two laboratories in Sweden that studied mice have reported positive results, one laboratory showing field-related malformations (but not resorptions) and the other showing field-related resorptions (but not malformations). Two Canadian laboratories have reported negative results in rats and mice. Studies of avian embryos have also yielded inconsistent results, but lacking a maternal-fetal placental interface, avian embryos are a questionable model for evaluating human reproductive risks. Finally, VLF electric and magnetic fields measured at the operator position are in compliance with field strength standards and guidelines that have been established around the world. 55 refs.

  9. Negative and non-positive epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Axelson, Olav

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and discuss validity aspects on so called negative and non-positive studies. Arguments and examples are drawn from experiences in occupational health epidemiology regarding the interpretation of more or less equivocal study results. A negative study may be defined as showing a result that goes against the investigated hypothesis of an increased (or prevented) risk. Traditionally, studies with a risk estimate (relative risk or odds ratio) above, but close to unity are also referred to as negative, given a narrow confidence interval (CI) that includes unity. A risk estimate above unity with the CI including unity is non-positive, however, but an estimate below unity with upper CI bond exceeding unity might be seen as possibly negative or non-negative. A weaker "significance" than usually required should perhaps be accepted when evaluating serious hazards. In contrast to positive studies, the negative and non-positive studies tend to escape criticism in spite of questionable validity that may have obscured existing risks (or preventive effects). Even stronger arguments can be made in criticising negative and non-positive studies than positive studies, for example, regarding selection phenomena, and observational problems regarding exposure and outcome. Negative confounding should be considered although usually weak. In case-control studies, so called over-matching may obscure an existing risk as could the "healthy worker effect" in cohort studies. Small scale non-positive studies should be made available for meta-analyses and when considering studies that do not convincingly show a risk; those who are exposed should be given the "benefit of the doubt".

  10. Tea and cancer prevention: epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans.

  11. Mandibular Fractures in Iraq: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Bede, Salwan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of the mandibular fractures relating to gender, age, the etiology of injury, and the rendered treatment modalities and complications. The data of the patients who sustained mandibular fractures were retrieved and were analyzed retrospectively, and based on these data a descriptive analysis was conducted. A total of 112 patients were included in this study; the most common cause was road traffic accidents (RTAs) followed by assaults and missile injuries. The most frequently involved age group was 11 to 20 years, treatment modalities included conservative, closed reduction and indirect fixation, and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in 11.6, 79.5, and 8.9% of the cases, respectively. Most of the major complications were injury related. This study showed RTAs to be the most frequent cause followed by assaults, it also showed that a high percentage of assault victims were females mainly of low socioeconomic status. Another distinguishing feature in this study was the high incidence of missile injuries in the form of bullets and blasts. Closed reduction still has an important role in the treatment of fractures of mandible especially when the necessary equipments for ORIF are not readily available. A higher complication rate was observed in patients diagnosed with multiple and comminuted fractures as well as those caused by violence in the form of missile and assault injuries. PMID:25709754

  12. Systemic Amyloidosis in England: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Pinney, Jennifer H; Smith, Colette J; Taube, Jessi B; Lachmann, Helen J; Venner, Christopher P; Gibbs, Simon D J; Dungu, Jason; Banypersad, Sanjay M; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Whelan, Carol J; Hawkins, Philip N; Gillmore, Julian D

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of systemic amyloidosis are scarce and the burden of disease in England has not previously been estimated. In 1999, the National Health Service commissioned the National Amyloidosis Centre (NAC) to provide a national clinical service for all patients with amyloidosis. Data for all individuals referred to the NAC is held on a comprehensive central database, and these were compared with English death certificate data for amyloidosis from 2000 to 2008, obtained from the Office of National Statistics. Amyloidosis was stated on death certificates of 2543 individuals, representing 0·58/1000 recorded deaths. During the same period, 1143 amyloidosis patients followed at the NAC died, 903 (79%) of whom had amyloidosis recorded on their death certificates. The estimated minimum incidence of systemic amyloidosis in the English population in 2008, based on new referrals to the NAC, was 0·4/100 000 population. The incidence peaked at age 60–79 years. Systemic AL amyloidosis was the most common type with an estimated minimum incidence of 0·3/100 000 population. Although there are various limitations to this study, the available data suggest the incidence of systemic amyloidosis in England exceeds 0·8/100 000 of the population. PMID:23480608

  13. [Mental disorders and migraine: epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Guillem, E; Pelissolo, A; Lepine, J P

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in the general population, taking into account certain bias inherent to the clinical observation have confirmed the clinical impression reporting a higher psychiatric comorbidity with persons suffering from migraine than in persons without migraine. Persons with migraine are at increased risk for affective and anxiety disorders, personality traits disorders (neuroticism), suicide attempts, but not for alcohol or illicit drug abuse. The comorbidity is more important in migraine with aura than in migraine without aura. Concerning affective disorders, the lifetime prevalence of major depression is 34.4% in persons with migraine and 10.4% in persons without migraine. For bipolar I disorder, prevalence is 6.8% in migraine with aura versus 0.9% when no migraine. Compared to no migraine, the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in migraine is significantly increased in: panic disorder (10.9% vs 1.8%); generalized anxiety disorder (10.2% vs 1.9%); obsessive-compulsive disorder (8.6% vs 1.8%); phobic disorder (39.8% vs 20.6%). In addition, no psychopathological, biological or genetic explanation seems to be meaningful for the comprehension of this comorbidity pattern. These results remain primarily descriptive but they justify a clinical investigation of affective and anxiety disorders, and suicide attempts, in all person with migraine, and it also justifies the treatment of pain associated with the treatment of eventual affective or anxiety disorders.

  14. Time series regression studies in environmental epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hajat, Shakoor; Smeeth, Liam; Armstrong, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Time series regression studies have been widely used in environmental epidemiology, notably in investigating the short-term associations between exposures such as air pollution, weather variables or pollen, and health outcomes such as mortality, myocardial infarction or disease-specific hospital admissions. Typically, for both exposure and outcome, data are available at regular time intervals (e.g. daily pollution levels and daily mortality counts) and the aim is to explore short-term associations between them. In this article, we describe the general features of time series data, and we outline the analysis process, beginning with descriptive analysis, then focusing on issues in time series regression that differ from other regression methods: modelling short-term fluctuations in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, dealing with time varying confounding factors and modelling delayed (‘lagged’) associations between exposure and outcome. We finish with advice on model checking and sensitivity analysis, and some common extensions to the basic model. PMID:23760528

  15. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - nutritional epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An extension of the STROBE statement.

    PubMed

    Lachat, C; Hawwash, D; Ocké, M C; Berg, C; Forsum, E; Hörnell, A; Larsson, C L; Sonestedt, E; Wirfält, E; Åkesson, A; Kolsteren, P; Byrnes, G; De Keyzer, W; Van Camp, J; Cade, J E; Slimani, N; Cevallos, M; Egger, M; Huybrechts, I

    2016-09-01

    Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, co-ordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  16. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement.

    PubMed

    Lachat, Carl; Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Hörnell, Agneta; Larsson, Christel; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Cade, Janet E; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-06-01

    Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  17. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  18. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  19. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in humans...

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a review of the epidemiologic evidence for human health effects that may be associated with the disinfection of drinking water. An epidemiologic study attempts to link human health effects with exposure to a specific agent (e.g., DBCM), agents (e.g., THMs or...

  1. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  2. Molecular epidemiological approaches to study the epidemiology of tuberculosis in low-incidence settings receiving immigrants.

    PubMed

    Garzelli, Carlo; Rindi, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although in most wealthy western countries the total incidence of tuberculosis (TB) steadily decreased in the last decades, the proportion of cases in immigrants from high-burden TB countries generally increased and to date a large proportion of all new active cases, often exceeding 50%, occurs among foreign-born individuals. In this context, molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates has significantly contributed to understand the epidemiology of TB, allowing an objective evaluation of the dynamics and the risk of TB importation and transmission within low-incidence host countries. Many molecular studies have shown that a large part of active TB cases in immigrants yield unique, unclustered DNA fingerprints; this finding reflects reactivation of remote latent infections, rather than recent TB infections, and, at the same time, indicates a low rate of disease transmission within the host country. Some studies however express more concern on the basis of higher rates of transmission within the host country with foreign-born index cases. Molecular analysis of isolates also showed that TB infections in migrants may be acquired after arrival in the host country and that TB transmission between foreign-born and autochthonous individuals may occur in both directions. Molecular typing of isolates has been also profitably used to evaluate the diffusion of M. tuberculosis strain families across different geographic areas and human populations and to monitor the diffusion of threatening strains, such as Beijing and/or (multi)drug-resistant strains. To date, based on the contribution of molecular epidemiology, it is possible to adapt or design appropriate strategies for a rational control of TB in low-incidence countries.

  3. Study of Resource Recovery and Epidemiology in an Anaerobic Digester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Cao, Song; Hunt, M. D.; Fu, Xuping

    1995-01-01

    Three 4-liter packed bed anaerobic digesters were fabricated and operated at 35 degrees C, pH around 7, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20, 10 and 5 days to study the resource recovery and epidemiology in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). A simulated wastewater, consisted of shower water, clothwash water, dishwasher water, handwash water, and urine flush water was used as the feeding solution. Under steady-state operation, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium wer monitored in the digester input and output solutions. The volume and the CH4/CO2 ratios in the biogas produced from the anaerobic digesters were measured. The results indicate about 90 percent of TOC is converted while only 5-8 percent of N-P-K are consumed in the digester. A multi-drug resistant strain of Salmonella choleraesuis was used as the indicator bacterium in the epidemiology study. The levels of Salmonella choleraesuis in the influent and the effluent wer determined and decimal decay rate constants, k(d), were estimated. The k(d) values were greater at higher initial doses than lower doses for the same HR, and greater for batch digestion (7.89/d) than for continuous digestion (4.28, 3.82, and 3.82/d for 20, 10, and 5 d HRT, respectively).

  4. [Clinico-epidemiologic study of microtia].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, O; Méndez, J R; Gómez, E; Guerra, D

    1997-12-01

    Microtia is a congenital malformation characterized by total or partial absence of the whole auricle or any of its components, varying from a small auricle to the total absence (anotia). There may be associated atresia of the external auditory meatus. The frequency varies in different parts of the world between 0.4 and 5.5/10,000 newborns. In this paper we report the clinical and epidemiological characterization of this congenital malformation in a sample of 97.759 neonates born at the Ruíz y Páez Hospital in Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela, between April 1978 and December 1994. A total of 38 patients with microtia were identified. The global frequency was 3.8 per 10,000/newborns. In 47.4% of the patients microtia was an isolated malformation and in 52.6% was associated to other malformations. Sixty three percent of the affected were males. The unilateral form was present in 81.5% of the cases, more frequently on the right side. The annual frequency of the defect was stable over the studied years. The clinical classification of the cases with associated malformations allowed us to establish that 18.4% of the cases correspond to developmental fields defects, associated to preauricular dimples and/or tags, 7.8% were cases of the facio-auriculo-vertebral spectrum and in 15.7% the microtia was part of a monogenic or chromosomal syndrome. In 10.5% it was not possible to define any etiological or pathogenic mechanism. The frequency obtained in this study for microtia shows intermediate values when compared with others reports from Latin America.

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke: Exposure-response relationships in epidemiologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu-Williams, A.H. ); Samet, J.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Demonstration of a dose-response relationship for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an important indication of causality. Central to the analysis and interpretation of dose-response relations as described in epidemiological studies is the relationship between dose and exposure. It must be recognized that in studies of ETS the authors have only surrogate measures of dose, and these surrogate measures (based on exposure) are imperfect. The question-based measures of ETS exposure generally have not been standardized, may have limited validity and reliability, and cannot comprehensively describe total ETS exposure, exposure to individual ETS components, nor doses of biologically relevant agents at target sites. Nevertheless, useful data have been yielded in epidemiologic studies linking ETS exposure to increased respiratory infection and symptoms, reduced lung growth in children, and increased lung cancer in nonsmoking adults. The more consistent exposure-response data for studies on acute health in children may reflect the greater difficulty in measuring exposure in studies of chronic health in adults.

  6. Do Laboratory Results Concerning High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomers versus Amalgam for Tooth Restorations Indicate Similar Effect Direction and Magnitude than that of Controlled Clinical Trials? - A Meta-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2015-01-01

    Background A large percentage of evidence concerning dental interventions is based on laboratory research. The apparent wealth of laboratory evidence is sometimes used as basis for clinical inference and recommendations for daily dental practice. In this study two null-hypotheses are tested: whether trial results from laboratory and controlled clinical trials concerning the comparison of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (HVGIC) to amalgam for restorations placed in permanent posterior teeth have: (i) similar effect direction and (ii) similar effect magnitude. Methods 7 electronic databases were searched, as well as reference lists. Odds ratios (OR) and Standardised Mean Differences (SMD) with 95% Confidence intervals were computed for extracted dichotomous and continuous data, respectively. Pooled effect estimates for laboratory and clinical data were computed to test for effect direction. Odds ratios were converted into SMDs. SMDs from laboratory and clinical data were statistically compared to test for differences in effect magnitude. The analysed results were further investigated within the context of potential influencing or confounding factors using a Directed acyclic graph. Results Of the accepted eight laboratory and nine clinical trials, 13 and 21 datasets could be extracted, respectively. The pooled results of the laboratory datasets were highly statistically significant in favor of amalgam. No statistically significant differences, between HVGICs and amalgam, were identified for clinical data. For effect magnitude, statistically significant differences between clinical and laboratory trial results were found. Both null-hypotheses were rejected. Conclusion Laboratory results concerning high-viscosity glass-ionomers versus amalgam for tooth restorations do not indicate similar effect direction and magnitude than that of controlled clinical trials. PMID:26168274

  7. A simplified method of performance indicators development for epidemiological surveillance networks--application to the RESAPATH surveillance network.

    PubMed

    Sorbe, A; Chazel, M; Gay, E; Haenni, M; Madec, J-Y; Hendrikx, P

    2011-06-01

    Develop and calculate performance indicators allows to continuously follow the operation of an epidemiological surveillance network. This is an internal evaluation method, implemented by the coordinators in collaboration with all the actors of the network. Its purpose is to detect weak points in order to optimize management. A method for the development of performance indicators of epidemiological surveillance networks was developed in 2004 and was applied to several networks. Its implementation requires a thorough description of the network environment and all its activities to define priority indicators. Since this method is considered to be complex, our objective consisted in developing a simplified approach and applying it to an epidemiological surveillance network. We applied the initial method to a theoretical network model to obtain a list of generic indicators that can be adapted to any surveillance network. We obtained a list of 25 generic performance indicators, intended to be reformulated and described according to the specificities of each network. It was used to develop performance indicators for RESAPATH, an epidemiological surveillance network of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria of animal origin in France. This application allowed us to validate the simplified method, its value in terms of practical implementation, and its level of user acceptance. Its ease of use and speed of application compared to the initial method argue in favor of its use on broader scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  9. Lessons learned from epidemiologic studies of environmental exposure and genetic disease.

    PubMed

    Olshan, A F

    1995-01-01

    The induction of germ cell mutations with ionizing radiation and chemicals has been clearly demonstrated in experimental animal test systems. Less is known about the effects of environmental and other exposures on human germ cells. Epidemiologic studies of atomic bomb and childhood cancer survivors and their offspring have generally not indicated an excess risk for a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood diseases, including those due to germ cell mutations. Other epidemiologic studies, including the investigation of cancer among the offspring of fathers employed at the Sellafield nuclear facility in Great Britain and studies of paternal occupation and birth defects, have found associations. This paper reviews these studies and the methodologic problems inherent in the epidemiologic approach to evaluating environmentally induced germ cell mutagenesis in humans. Epidemiologic studies incorporating newly developed techniques for the detection of mutations and abnormalities in sperm may provide the sensitivity needed to determine precisely the magnitude of risk.

  10. Epidemiological support for an hypothesis for melanoma induction indicating a role for UVA radiation.

    PubMed

    Moan, J; Dahlback, A; Setlow, R B

    1999-08-01

    An hypothesis for melanoma induction is presented: UV radiation absorbed by melanin in melanocytes generates products that may activate the carcinogenic process. Products formed by UV absorption in the upper layers of the epidermis cannot diffuse down as far as to the melanocytes. Thus, melanin in the upper layer of the skin may be protective, while that in melanocytes may be photocarcinogenic. Observations that support this hypothesis include: (1) Africans with dark skin have a reduced risk of getting all types of skin cancer as compared with Caucasians, but the ratio of their incidence rates of cutaneous malignant melanoma to that of squamous cell carcinoma is larger than the corresponding ratio for Caucasians. (2) Albino Africans, as compared with normally pigmented Africans, seem to have a relatively small risk of getting cutaneous malignant melanomas compared to nonmelanomas. This is probably also true for albino and normally pigmented Caucasians. (3) Among sun-sensitive, poorly tanning persons, frequent UV exposures are associated with increased risk of melanoma, whereas among sun-resistant, well-tanning persons, increased frequency of exposure is associated with decreased melanoma risk. (4) It is likely that UVA, being absorbed by melanin, might have a melanoma-inducing effect. This is in agreement with some epidemiological investigations which indicate that sun-screen lotions may not protect sufficiently against melanoma induction. The relative latitude gradient for UVA is much smaller than that for UVB. The same is true for the relative latitude gradient of cutaneous malignant melanoma as compared with squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Under the assumption that the average slopes of the curves relating incidence rates with fluences of carcinogenic UV radiation are similar for melanomas and nonmelanomas, these facts are in agreement with the assumption that UVA plays a significant role in the induction of melanomas in humans. This is in

  11. Epidemiological pattern of tattoo skin disease: a potential general health indicator for cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Van Waerebeek, Koen; Aznar, Francisco Javier; Raga, Juan Antonio; Jepson, Paul D; Duignan, Pádraig; Deaville, Rob; Flach, Leonardo; Viddi, Francisco; Baker, John R; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula; Echegaray, Mónica; Genovo, Tilen; Reyes, Julio; Felix, Fernando; Gaspar, Raquel; Ramos, Renata; Peddemors, Vic; Sanino, Gian Paolo; Siebert, Ursula

    2009-07-23

    The presence of tattoo skin disease (TSD) was examined in 1392 free-ranging and dead odontocetes comprising 17 species from the Americas, Europe, South Africa, New Zealand and Greenland. We investigated whether TSD prevalence varied with sex, age and health status. TSD was encountered in cetaceans from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans as well as in those from the North, Mediterranean and Tasman Seas. No clear patterns related to geography and host phylogeny were detected, except that prevalence of TSD in juveniles and, in 2 species (dusky dolphin Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Burmeister's porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis), in adults was remarkably high in samples from Peru. Environmental factors and virus properties may be responsible for this finding. Sex did not significantly influence TSD prevalence except in the case of Peruvian P. spinipinnis. Generally, there was a pattern of TSD increase in juveniles compared to calves, attributed to the loss of maternal immunity. Also, in most samples, juveniles seemed to have a higher probability of suffering TSD than adults, presumably because more adults had acquired active immunity following infection. This holo-endemic pattern was inverted in poor health short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis and harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from the British Isles, and in Chilean dolphins Cephalorhynchus eutropia from Patagonia, where adults showed a higher TSD prevalence than juveniles. Very large tattoos were seen in some adult odontocetes from the SE Pacific, NE Atlantic and Portugal's Sado Estuary, which suggest impaired immune response. The epidemiological pattern of TSD may be an indicator of cetacean population health.

  12. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, S. M.; Cartwright, R. A.; Darwin, C. M.; Richards, I. D.; Roberts, B.; O'Brien, C.; Bird, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed. PMID:3814482

  13. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S M; Cartwright, R A; Darwin, C M; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; O'Brien, C; Bird, C C

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed.

  14. [Surveillance of hepatitis A by molecular epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Stene-Johansen, K; Skaug, K; Blystad, H

    1999-10-20

    Hepatitis A virus was studied by molecular epidemiology in connection with an outbreak of hepatitis A associated with intravenous drug users (IVDU) in Norway. Hepatitis A virus was characterised by sequencing 114 of 1,242 notified cases of hepatitis A from January 1995 to July 1998. One hepatitis A variant (IVDU variant I) was detected among IVDU during an outbreak of hepatitis A, as well as among 19 out of 49 cases with no apparent association to this outbreak. During the autumn of 1997, a new variant (IVDU variant II) was detected in the IVDU communities. Genotyping of virus from imported cases associated with travel to endemic regions, revealed that they were distinct from the two other IVDU variants. Hepatitis A has disseminated among IVDU over years; this indicates that hepatitis A is endemic in these communities. At the turn of the year 1997/98, there was a smaller outbreak of hepatitis A among homosexual men in Oslo, distinguished by genotyping from the outbreaks in the IVDU communities. By molecular epidemiology we have been able to identify individual outbreaks of hepatitis A and distinguish them from the IVDU outbreak.

  15. Epidemiological study of epilepsy by monitoring prescriptions of antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Banfi, R; Borselli, G; Marinai, C; Borgheresi, A; Cavalieri, A

    1995-07-28

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a simple and effective method of acquiring epidemiological information about epilepsy. Data on antiepileptic drug prescriptions was collected, the utilization pattern being based on defined daily doses (DDDs). Antiepileptic drugs are epidemiological tracers of epilepsy due to their chronic and highly specific usage. Consequently, a prevalence rate for the whole population may be obtained by using DDDs. Data on antiepileptic drug prescriptions for a period of 6 months in 1992 and 6 months in 1993 indicate a utilization of approximately 7 DDDs of antiepileptic drugs per 1,000 inhabitants. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated by correcting the exposure calculated in DDDs by a factor of 0.68. In our sample, the prevalence of the disease was 5.2 per 1,000 inhabitants in 1992 and 4.9 per 1,000 in 1993. Physician prescriptions were concentrated on four compounds, namely phenobarbital, carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenytoin, which together represented 90% of total antiepileptic drug prescriptions.

  16. How to design a (good) epidemiological observational study: epidemiological research protocol at a glance.

    PubMed

    Fronteira, Ines

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a general structure for designing a research protocol of an observational epidemiological study. We start by highlighting the importance of the research protocol, namely in accounting for some bias and guaranteeing methodologic rigor and study reproductability. Next, we reflect on some of the essential elements of a research protocol no matter its objective. We further present some specific issues to be included according to the type of study: cross-sectional, case-control and cohort.

  17. Epidemiological studies on ethylene oxide and cancer: an updating.

    PubMed

    Hogstedt, L C

    1988-01-01

    In 1959, Dr Lars Ehrenberg and a coworker warned the Swedish authorities that ethylene oxide, a common chemical, constituted a potential cancer hazard. Twenty years later, the first epidemiological study and case reports were published indicating an increased cancer risk after occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. An updating of three small Swedish cohorts comprising 709 employees revealed 33 deaths from cancer whereas 20 were expected from national average rates. The excess was due mainly to an increased risk of stomach cancer in one production plant and an excess of blood and lymphatic malignancies in all three cohorts. The results are in accordance with the results of clastogenic, animal and short-term tests and support Professor Ehrenberg's hypothesis, formulated 28 years ago.

  18. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiologic studies of isoflavones & mammographic density.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Verheus, Martijn; Tice, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.

  20. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from biochemical, animal, and epidemiologic studies suggests an association between exposure to UV-B radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and cataract. Such an association had not been proven because it had not been possible to quantify ocular UV-B exposure of individuals or to reliably grade the type and severity of cataract in field studies. We undertook an epidemiologic survey of cataract among 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. Their individual ocular UV-B exposure was quantified for each year of life over the age of 16, on the basis of a detailed occupational history combined with laboratory and field measurements of ocular UV-B exposure. Cataracts were graded by both type and severity through clinical and photographic means. SMD changes were ascertained by fundal photography. A general medical history was taken to discover potentially confounding factors. This study showed that people with cortical lens opacities had a 21% higher UV-B exposure at each year of life than people without these opacities. A doubling in lifetime UV-B exposure led to a 60% increase in the risk of cortical cataract, and those with a high annual UV-B exposure increased their risk of cortical cataract over threefold. Corneal changes, namely pterygium and CDK, were also strongly associated with high UV-B exposure. No association was found between nuclear lens opacities or macular degeneration and UV-B exposure. This study also indicated several simple, practical measures, such as wearing spectacles or a hat, that effectively protect the eye from UV-B exposure. Thus it is easily within the power of individuals to protect their eyes from excessive UV-B exposure and reduce their risk of cortical cataract. A program of public education in this area could be a cost-effective means of reducing this important disease. PMID:2562534

  1. Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design

    PubMed Central

    Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C; Twisk, Jos WR; Witteveen, Anke B; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Bramsen, Inge; Smidt, Nynke; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bouter, Lex M; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

    2005-01-01

    Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s), and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers. PMID:15921536

  2. Field epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Heath, C W

    1983-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies are required for assessing health risks related to toxic waste exposure. Since the settings in which such studies must be performed are extremely diverse, epidemiologic approaches must be versatile. For any particular study, three fundamental requirements are to assess what toxic materials are present, understand how human exposure may occur, and objectively measure possible biologic effects. In assessing links between exposure and disease, epidemiologists must be particularly aware of: expected disease frequencies in relation to the size of populations studied, implications of long or varied disease latencies for study design and competing causes of disease and associated confounding variables. These concepts are illustrated by discussion of epidemiologic studies related to the Love Canal toxic waste dump site in Niagara Falls, NY.

  3. alpha-1-Microglobulin: epidemiological indicator for tubular dysfunction induced by cadmium?

    PubMed Central

    Pless-Mulloli, T.; Boettcher, M.; Steiner, M.; Berger, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the suitability of alpha-1-microglobulin as a marker for cadmium induced renal dysfunction. METHODS: alpha-1- Microglobulin was studied in a cross sectional survey in relation to the body burden of cadmium. Concentrations of alpha-1-microglobulin in 24 h urine of 831 people aged 2-87 years were analysed in association with urinary cadmium excretion, cadmium blood concentration, age, sex, occupational and smoking history, and estimated creatinine clearance. Participants came from a population residentially exposed to cadmium and from two control populations matched for socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The excretion of alpha-1-microglobulin/24 h ranged from 0.1 mg to 176.3 mg and 44.4% of samples showed concentrations near the detection limit. Ordinal logistic regression analysis of people of all ages identified a high risk only for males compared with females (odds ratio (OR) 2.14; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.56 to 2.94), age group, and duration of living on contaminated soil (OR 1.03/year; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.04), but not urinary cadmium excretion (OR 1.30; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.77) as significant predictors. For people < or = 50 years of age a weaker effect of sex (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.73) and age group and an effect of similar magnitude for the duration of soil exposure (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04) were found. Also, the urinary cadmium excretion (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.38 to 3.70) and occupational exposure (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.83) were found to be significant in this younger age group. The estimated creatinine clearance had no significant impact on the alpha-1-microglobulin excretion. CONCLUSION: alpha-1- Microglobulin is a suitable marker for early tubular changes only for people < or = 50 years. It may not be sufficiently specific for cadmium, and therefore not a suitable surrogate for cadmium exposure in epidemiological studies.   PMID:9816376

  4. Smile line and occlusion: An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Harati, Mahsa; Mostofi, Shahbaz Naser; Jalalian, Ezzatollah; Rezvani, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to discuss some new concepts of the desirable characteristics of smile tooth display. Due to the increasing application of cosmetic dental treatments, there is an increasing need for better understanding of the esthetic principles. Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive study, with 212 participants, included were patients with no history of orthodontic treatment, loss or prosthetic replacement of anterior teeth, extracted teeth, lips with asymmetry or a history of trauma. Chi-square test was used to determine possible significances in the relation of smile line to Angle occlusion class, overbite and overjet and arch form. A P level of <0.05 was set as to be significant. Results: Chi-square test indicated that there was a significant difference between the smile design and overbite, overjet and gender but no statistically significant association was found between the smile design and crossbite, molar Angle classification and arch form. Conclusion: Within the limitations of such studies, it might be concluded that there is a significant and important relation between some occlusal parameters and smile design, which must be considered. PMID:24379858

  5. Review of epidemiological studies of drinking-water turbidity in relation to acute gastrointestinal illness

    Treesearch

    Anneclaire J. De Roos; Patrick L. Gurian; Lucy F. Robinson; Arjita Rai; Issa Zakeri; Michelle C. Kondo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Turbidity has been used as an indicator of microbiological contamination of drinking water in time-series studies attempting to discern the presence of waterborne gastrointestinal illness; however, the utility of turbidity as a proxy exposure measure has been questioned. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of epidemiological studies of the association between...

  6. Statistical Indicators for Religious Studies: Indicators of Level and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herteliu, Claudiu; Isaic-Maniu, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    Using statistic indicators as vectors of information relative to the operational status of a phenomenon, including a religious one, is unanimously accepted. By introducing a system of statistic indicators we can also analyze the interfacing areas of a phenomenon. In this context, we have elaborated a system of statistic indicators specific to the…

  7. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... studies. 159.170 Section 159.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns any study that a person described in § 159.158(a) has concluded, or might reasonably conclude,...

  8. Biochemical and molecular epidemiology of human cancer: indicators of carcinogen exposure, DNA damage, and genetic predisposition.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, C C; Weston, A; Willey, J C; Trivers, G E; Mann, D L

    1987-01-01

    The primary goal of biochemical and molecular epidemiology is to identify individuals at high cancer risk by obtaining evidence of high exposure to carcinogens, leading to pathobiological lesions in target cells, and/or increased oncogenic susceptibility due to either inherited or acquired host factors. This emerging and multidisciplinary area of cancer research combines epidemiological and laboratory approaches. Because DNA is considered to be an important target for modification by mutagens and carcinogens, damage to DNA can be used as an internal, molecular dosimeter of carcinogen exposure. The reactive species of these carcinogens may directly bind to DNA to form adducts and may indirectly cause secondary DNA lesions, e.g., via induction of free radicals and aldehydes. Highly sensitive and specific methods have been developed to measure the minute amounts of DNA lesions and DNA repair products found in biological specimens from humans exposed to carcinogens. For example, DNA adducts have been measured in cells and tissues from people occupationally exposed to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Antibodies recognizing carcinogen-DNA adducts have also been detected in human sera. Inherited predisposition to cancer has been revealed by recent advances in molecular genetics, including restriction-fragment-length polymorphism. For example, the hypothesis that rare alleles of the Ha-ras proto-oncogene are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer is currently being tested. These approaches afford the potential of biochemical and molecular epidemiology to predict disease risk for individual persons, instead of for populations, and before the onset of clinically evident disease. PMID:3319559

  9. Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nahmias, A J; Naib, Z M; Josey, W E

    1974-05-01

    Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma are reviewed. The high frequency of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies in young women (21 years or younger) with cervical carcinoma in situ and in women with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, matched for various sexual attributes to control women, provide support for a causal relation. However, various laboratory, histopathological, and statistical problems associated with all epidemiological studies do not yet permit a firm conclusion as to the etiological role to the genital virus in cervical carcinogenesis. With the use of herpes-related cancer antigens or purified HSV-2 type-specific antigens, and with the possible development of protective HSV-2 vaccines, the application of epidemiological approaches may be necessary to provide the most finite evidence of causality.

  10. Epidemiological studies are like cherries, one draws another.

    PubMed

    Lunet, Nuno

    2009-01-01

    The proverb "Words are like cherries", meaning that when you start talking subjects pop up and you end up with long conversations, just like cherries coming out of the plate in chains when you pick one, may also be applied to epidemiological research. A sequence of epidemiological studies, each being drawn from the previous, is presented as an example of how each investigation may raise new questions to be addressed in following studies. This description stresses the need for appropriate planning and the usefulness of pilot testing to depict inadequacies that can hardly be anticipated without field work. I intend to illustrate how epidemiological research can provide a deep approach to research questions, as long as findings are properly interpreted and suboptimal methodological options are taken into account in future investigations.

  11. Epidemiology of participation: an Australian community study

    PubMed Central

    Baum, F.; Bush, R.; Modra, C.; Murray, C.; Cox, E.; Alexander, K.; Potter, R.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the levels of participation in social and civic community life in a metropolitan region, and to assess differential levels of participation according to demographic, socioeonomic and health status. To contribute to policy debates on community participation, social capital and health using these empirical data.
DESIGN—Cross sectional, postal, self completed survey on health and participation.
SETTING—Random sample of the population from the western suburbs of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, a population of approximately 210 000.
PARTICIPANTS—2542 respondents from a sample of 4000 people aged 18 years and over who were registered on the electoral roll.
MAIN RESULTS—The response rate to the survey was 63.6% (n=2542). Six indices of participation, on range of social and civic activities, with a number of items in each, were created. Levels of participation were highest in the informal social activities index (46.7-83.7% for individual items), and lowest in the index of civic activities of a collective nature (2.4-5.9% for individual items). Low levels of involvement in social and civic activities were reported more frequently by people of low income and low education levels.
CONCLUSIONS—Levels of participation in social and civic community life in an urban setting are significantly influenced by individual socioeconomic status, health and other demographic characteristics. An understanding of the pattern of participation is important to inform social and health policy making. Increasing levels of participation will reduce social exclusion and is likely to improve the overall quality of community life.


Keywords: community participation; social capital; health promotion PMID:10818116

  12. [The value of glucose-positive coliform bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria as indicators of epidemiological safety of tap water].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnia, V V; Panasovets, O P; Morozova, A A; Artemova, T Z; Talaeva, Iu G; Zagaĭnova, A V; Gipp, E K

    2012-01-01

    Due to intensive anthropogenic pollution of water environment generally accepted indicators of epidemic security of water bodies - common bacteria and thermotolerant coliform bacteria do not always permit to obtain an objective characterization of bacterial contamination of tap water. From the point of view of authors the integral index - glucose positive coliform bacteria most adequately reflect the sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological situation of water bodies. In monitoring for bacterial quality of tap water it is advisable to determine glucose positive coliform bacteria, that will provide the relevance of estimation of the epidemiological safety of water use. According to the method developed by the authors the calculation of the index of population risk of acute intestinal infections occurrence in dependence on the quality of tap water in Azov and Tsimlyansk towns.

  13. [The significance of glucose positive coliform bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria as an indicator of epidemiological safety of tap water].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P; Morozova, A A; Artemova, T Z; Talaeva, Yu G; Zagaynova, A V

    2013-01-01

    Due to intensive anthropogenic pollution of water environment generally accepted indicators of epidemic security of water bodies--common bacteria (CB) and thermotolerant coliform bacteria (TCB) do not always permit to obtain an objective characterization of bacterial contamination of tap water. From the point of view of authors the integral index--glucose positive coliform bacteria most adequately reflect the sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological situation of water bodies. In monitoring for bacterial quality of tap water it is advisable to determine glucose positive coliform bacteria, that will provide the relevance of estimation of the epidemiological safety of water use. According to the method developed by the authors the calculation of the index of population risk of acute intestinal infections (AHI) occurrence in dependence on the quality of tap water in Azov and Tsimlyansk towns.

  14. Overview of risk assessment in new EPA epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 2003, the Office of Research and Development of the US Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of epidemiology studies of water quality and health effects among beach goers at beaches across the United States. These studies are designed to establish associati...

  15. Overview of risk assessment in new EPA epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 2003, the Office of Research and Development of the US Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of epidemiology studies of water quality and health effects among beach goers at beaches across the United States. These studies are designed to establish associati...

  16. ADenoVirus Initiative Study in Epidemiology (ADVISE): Results of a multicentric epidemiology study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Hernández, A M; Duquesroix, B; Benítez-Del-Castillo, J M

    2017-09-07

    Non-interventional, observational, epidemiology study to assess clinical characteristics and frequency of adenovirus conjunctivitis diagnosed by AdenoPlus(®) in patients who presented with signs and symptoms of acute conjunctivitis. Safety aspects during use of the test were analyzed as well. This analysis presents the data obtained from the 386 patients enrolled in Spain. Patients had to present with acute signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis ≤7days. The minimum age was 1year old. Patients who had already used local antiviral therapies, topical steroids or immuno-modulators were not allowed to enter the study. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect patient's ocular history and test results. A total of 386 patients were recruited in 22 sites, being analyzed 329 patients. Among them, the percentage of "AdenoPlus(®) positive" was 36,2% (119/329). Before the test was performed, in 84,1% of the cases, investigators believed that the conjunctivitis was of viral origin but only 50,3% of the investigators had their clinical assessment confirmed by the test. Patients who tested positive for adenoviral conjunctivitis presented higher percentages of signs and symptoms than the rest of the patients. None of the signs or symptoms could be qualified as pathognomonic of the disease, being difficult for the clinicians to perform an accurate diagnosis. AdenoPlus(®) test is an antigen based immunoassay test that detects the presence of adenovirus directly from tears, and it can be an useful tool to help early differential diagnosis in patients with conjunctivitis signs and symptoms lasting for less than or equal to 7days. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on the epidemiology and etiology of moldy sugarcane poisoning in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Luo, X; Hu, W

    1992-06-01

    Moldy sugarcane poisoning, an acute fatal food poisoning of unknown etiology, has occurred in 13 provinces in China. The epidemiological characteristics and clinical features were described. Evidence from laboratory studies indicates that 3-nitropropionic acid produced by the fungus Arthrinium Spp. is the etiological factor of this food poisoning.

  18. Strategies to Optimize the Impact of Nutritional Surveys and Epidemiological Studies12

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Densie; Leahy, Margaret M.; Milner, John A.; Allison, David B.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Gaine, P. Courtney; Matthews, Robert A.J.; Schneeman, Barbara O.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Young, S. Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The development of nutrition and health guidelines and policies requires reliable scientific information. Unfortunately, theoretical considerations and empirical evidence indicate that a large percentage of science-based claims rely on studies that fail to replicate. The session “Strategies to Optimize the Impact of Nutrition Surveys and Epidemiological Studies” focused on the elements of design, interpretation, and communication of nutritional surveys and epidemiological studies to enhance and encourage the production of reliable, objective evidence for use in developing dietary guidance for the public. The speakers called for more transparency of research, raw data, consistent data-staging techniques, and improved data analysis. New approaches to collecting data are urgently needed to increase the credibility and utility of findings from nutrition epidemiological studies. Such studies are critical for furthering our knowledge and understanding of the effects of diet on health. PMID:24038252

  19. Psychiatric epidemiologic study of occupational lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, D.K.; Ryan, C.; Bromet, E.J.; Connell, M.M.

    1986-02-01

    The association of occupational lead exposure with neuropsychiatric functioning was evaluated using data collected in 1982 in eastern Pennsylvania from 288 lead-exposed workers and 181 nonexposed subjects. Both current and cumulative exposure indices were used. After controlling for age, education, and income, few meaningful differences between exposed and control workers were found on either neuropsychologic or psychosocial variables. Dose-response analyses indicated that among lead-exposed workers, cumulative and current exposure were unrelated to neuropsychologic performance. The only meaningful associations occurred between exposure and level of conflict in interpersonal relationships. The results thus give evidence against hypotheses suggesting adverse neuropsychologic effects.

  20. Endometriosis and breast cancer: A survey of the epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Pontikaki, A; Sifakis, S; Spandidos, D A

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that affects approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Recent reviews have demonstrated the connection between endometriosis and breast cancer, which represents the most frequently diagnosed female cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related mortality among women worldwide. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of available published epidemiological studies indicating the association between endometriosis and breast cancer, and simultaneously to categorize the results based on the strength of the association, with the intention of the critical evaluation of the existing data. We performed a rigorous search of the PubMed/Medline database, using the key words 'endometriosis' and 'breast cancer' for all studies published in the English language until September 2015. We found 4 retrospective cohort studies, 4 case-control studies and 3 case-cohort studies that demonstrated a notable risk for developing breast cancer among women with endometriosis. By contrast, we also found 5 case-control studies, 1 prospective cohort study, 1 case-cohort study and 1 cross-sectional study that demonstrated a negative association between endometriosis and breast cancer. In conclusion, as regards the clarification of a 'robust' or 'weak' association between endometriosis and breast cancer, no definite conclusions could be drawn, due to the limited number of studies and the limitations of each of these studies. New well-designed, prospective cohort or randomized control trials with long-term follow-up are warranted in order to provide evidence-based clinical recommendations for proper counseling, screening and treatment strategies for patients with endometriosis, and hence to improve public health.

  1. An epidemiological study of workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Wong, O; Trent, L S

    1993-04-01

    This epidemiological study was of 18,728 employees at 14 United States facilities producing sterilised medical supplies and spices, who were potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) for at least 90 days. The mortality of the cohort was studied to the end of 1988. A total of 1353 deaths was identified. The cohort had a significantly lower mortality than the general population from all causes, all cancers, and non-malignant diseases. In the entire cohort, mortality was not significantly increased from any of the cancer sites examined. In particular, no significant increase in mortality was found in the cancer sites of interest based on previous studies--namely, stomach, leukaemia (including major specific cell types), pancreas, and brain. The lack of an increased mortality for these cancer sites was further strengthened by the lack of a dose-response relation with duration of employment and latency. Among the men, a statistically significant increase in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found. There was no indication for a dose-response relation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and no specific job categories seemed to be responsible for the increase. Among the women, a deficit of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found, which was not consistent with the finding in the men. Therefore, the increase among the men did not seem to be related to exposure to EO.

  2. An epidemiological study of workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O; Trent, L S

    1993-01-01

    This epidemiological study was of 18,728 employees at 14 United States facilities producing sterilised medical supplies and spices, who were potentially exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) for at least 90 days. The mortality of the cohort was studied to the end of 1988. A total of 1353 deaths was identified. The cohort had a significantly lower mortality than the general population from all causes, all cancers, and non-malignant diseases. In the entire cohort, mortality was not significantly increased from any of the cancer sites examined. In particular, no significant increase in mortality was found in the cancer sites of interest based on previous studies--namely, stomach, leukaemia (including major specific cell types), pancreas, and brain. The lack of an increased mortality for these cancer sites was further strengthened by the lack of a dose-response relation with duration of employment and latency. Among the men, a statistically significant increase in mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found. There was no indication for a dose-response relation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and no specific job categories seemed to be responsible for the increase. Among the women, a deficit of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found, which was not consistent with the finding in the men. Therefore, the increase among the men did not seem to be related to exposure to EO. PMID:8494770

  3. Mental Subnormality in the Community: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Herbert G.; And Others

    The book reports a clinical and epidemiologic study of the prevalence, distribution, and antecedents of mental subnormality in 8 to 10 year old children living in Aberdeen, Scotland (population 187,000). Utilizing three types of data (differential clinical diagnoses, biological background information, and social characteristics), the study…

  4. An epidemiological and genetic study of facial clefting in France. I. Epidemiology and frequency in relatives.

    PubMed Central

    Bonaiti, C; Briard, M L; Feingold, J; Pavy, B; Psaume, J; Migne-Tufferaud, G; Kaplan, J

    1982-01-01

    The frequencies of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) and isolated cleft palate (CP) have been estimated in France to be 0.082% and 0.035%, respectively, after exclusion of malformation syndromes. A genetic and epidemiological study has been carried out on 468 patients with CL(P) and 163 with CP. The results are given in detail and some specific points are discussed: the apparently low incidence in France, the relationship between sex ratio and abortion rates, the maternal effects, and the possibility of an association between CL(P) and CP. PMID:7200146

  5. [Medical-epidemiological and methodological approaches to forecasting indicators of adolescent health in the modern period].

    PubMed

    Kulesh, D V; Kolesnikov, S I; Dolgikh, V V; Shoĭko, S V; Abashin, N N; Lebedeva, L N

    2013-01-01

    Data on features of formation of health of different groups of the population in the development process of the country and its regions are an important information base for the development and implementation of measures for the maintenance and strengthening ofpublic health. The aim of the study was to determine and predict trends in indicators of primary disease incidence and prevalence among adolescent population over the next 10 years. Materials provided to analyze the data of the consolidated annual report forms .o 12 "The number of registered diseases in patients living in the service area of the medical establishment"for showing trends over the 10-year period (2001-2010). Calculation and analysis of dynamics were integral coefficients, determined the level of adolescent health violations from "low" to "high". Incidence rate of incidence and prevalence of disease were evaluated by calculating the dynamic coefficient of determination R approximation. The article presents results of forecasting over the next 10 years in the adolescent population (15-17years) changes the primary indicators incidence and prevalence of diseases. This technique was used by the authors. In view of the projected increase in detected trends data set of indicators at 40, 7-50,2%. Sex predicted dynamics of increase in juniors at 42,1-58.9%, the girls - the 31,2-49,6%. These data characterize negatively predicted for the near future a regional trend in incidence rates in the analyzed populations. They must be taken into account when deciding on the preservation and strengthening of health of the rising generation, including - in shaping regional social programs and health care programs.

  6. An Epidemiological Study of Neuropathic Pain Symptoms in Canadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G.; Mann, Elizabeth G.; Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H.; Johnson, Ana; Gilron, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The reported prevalence of neuropathic pain ranges from 6.9% to 10%; however the only Canadian study reported 17.9%. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of neuropathic pain in Canada. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a random sample of Canadian adults. The response rate was 21.1% (1504/7134). Likely or possible neuropathic pain was defined using a neuropathic pain-related diagnosis and a positive outcome on the Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale (S-LANSS) or the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) Questions. The prevalence of likely neuropathic pain was 1.9% (S-LANSS) and 3.4% (DN4) and that of possible neuropathic pain was 5.8% (S-LANSS) and 8.1% (DN4). Neuropathic pain was highest in economically disadvantaged males. There is a significant burden of neuropathic pain in Canada. The low response rate and a slightly older and less educated sample than the Canadian population may have led to an overestimate of neuropathic pain. Population prevalence varies by screening tool used, indicating more work is needed to develop reliable measures. Population level screening targeted towards high risk groups should improve the sensitivity and specificity of screening, while clinical examination of those with positive screening results will further refine the estimate of prevalence. PMID:27445636

  7. IDGenerator: unique identifier generator for epidemiologic or clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Olden, Matthias; Holle, Rolf; Heid, Iris M; Stark, Klaus

    2016-09-15

    Creating study identifiers and assigning them to study participants is an important feature in epidemiologic studies, ensuring the consistency and privacy of the study data. The numbering system for identifiers needs to be random within certain number constraints, to carry extensions coding for organizational information, or to contain multiple layers of numbers per participant to diversify data access. Available software can generate globally-unique identifiers, but identifier-creating tools meeting the special needs of epidemiological studies are lacking. We have thus set out to develop a software program to generate IDs for epidemiological or clinical studies. Our software IDGenerator creates unique identifiers that not only carry a random identifier for a study participant, but also support the creation of structured IDs, where organizational information is coded into the ID directly. This may include study center (for multicenter-studies), study track (for studies with diversified study programs), or study visit (baseline, follow-up, regularly repeated visits). Our software can be used to add a check digit to the ID to minimize data entry errors. It facilitates the generation of IDs in batches and the creation of layered IDs (personal data ID, study data ID, temporary ID, external data ID) to ensure a high standard of data privacy. The software is supported by a user-friendly graphic interface that enables the generation of IDs in both standard text and barcode 128B format. Our software IDGenerator can create identifiers meeting the specific needs for epidemiologic or clinical studies to facilitate study organization and data privacy. IDGenerator is freeware under the GNU General Public License version 3; a Windows port and the source code can be downloaded at the Open Science Framework website: https://osf.io/urs2g/ .

  8. Importance of allele frequency estimates in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Taioli, Emanuela; Pedotti, Paola; Garte, Seymour

    2004-09-01

    This study addresses the issue of appropriate allelic frequency estimates in epidemiological studies. Reasons for imprecise estimate of allele frequency may be population stratification, and lack of power of many published studies to define true allele frequencies in the general population. As an example of the lack of power of epidemiological studies, we plot the frequency of GSTM1 deletion versus sample size for the 79 studies from the GSEC pooled analysis. The estimate of allele frequency derived from small groups of controls deviates more from the true frequency than the estimate derived from larger studies. We discuss the possible consequences of not properly defining allele frequencies in the population. This may reflect on the conduct of association studies, on assessment of the effects of multigenic mechanisms, and on the determination of genetic diversity.

  9. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health.

  10. Clinical and Epidemiological Studies on Rickettsial Infections.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    EPIDEMOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RICKETTSIAL INFECTI011-"- APPLICATION FOR RENEWAL FOR TEAR-7 (1979-1980) Pase 2 Repor Page 11 effective control of the infection were...34CLINICAL AND EPIDEMOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RICKETTSIAL INFECTIONS" ANINUAL REPORT. YFAR-7(1979-1980) Page 62 Report Page 31 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH

  11. P Wave Indices: Current Status and Future Directions in Epidemiology, Clinical and Research Applications

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Jared W.; Williamson, MaryAnn; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Monahan, Kevin M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2009-01-01

    Indices of P wave duration and dispersion are accessible from the surface electrocardiogram. Their prolongation reflects inhomogeneous atrial depolarization secondary to insults such as chronically elevated atrial pressure, ischemia, or metabolic stress. In turn, these insults promote atrial structural remodeling and provide a substrate for atrial fibrillation (AF). P wave indices have been examined in cardiac and non-cardiac disease states. Prolonged P wave indices have been associated with hypertension, obesity and diabetes, all of which are risk factors for AF. Similarly, prolonged P wave duration and dispersion have been associated with AF recurrence in patients with paroxysmal AF and following cardioversion, and with incident AF following cardiothoracic surgeries. Our review describes the current field of P wave indices. We report the methodology for determining P wave indices. We also describe the strengths and limitations of the current literature on the clinical correlates and prognosis of P wave indices. We suggest future clinical and research directions for P wave indices. PMID:19808445

  12. An epidemiologic study of the human bite.

    PubMed Central

    Marr, J S; Beck, A M; Lugo, J A

    1979-01-01

    The 892 human bites reported to the New York City Department of Health in 1977 were analyzed by time, place, and the victim's characteristics. The bites appeared to have a seasonality, increasing in March and exceeding the mean monthly average through August. The bite rate for the entire city, 10.7 per 100,000 population, was exceeded in 5 of the 10 Brooklyn health districts; one of these districts reported a rate of 60.9 human bites per 100,000 population. Most of the bites with identifiable locations occurred indoors (63.2 percent). In 72.8 percent of the bite episodes in which the activities surrounding them were known, these activities were aggressive in nature. Males exceeded females as bite victims in all age groups except those 10-20 and 55-60 years. Bites of the upper extremity accounted for 61.2 percent of the total bites. Left-sided bites exceeded right-sided, except for the hand. In frequency of reported occurrence, the human bite ranks third, after the dog bite and the cat bite. Human bites may be a useful indicator of antisocial behavior. PMID:515337

  13. Epidemiology of participation: an Australian community study.

    PubMed

    Baum, F E; Bush, R A; Modra, C C; Murray, C J; Cox, E M; Alexander, K M; Potter, R C

    2000-06-01

    To determine the levels of participation in social and civic community life in a metropolitan region, and to assess differential levels of participation according to demographic, socioeconomic and health status. To contribute to policy debates on community participation, social capital and health using these empirical data. Cross sectional, postal, self completed survey on health and participation. Random sample of the population from the western suburbs of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, a population of approximately 210 000. 2542 respondents from a sample of 4000 people aged 18 years and over who were registered on the electoral roll. The response rate to the survey was 63.6% (n=2542). Six indices of participation, on range of social and civic activities, with a number of items in each, were created. Levels of participation were highest in the informal social activities index (46.7-83.7% for individual items), and lowest in the index of civic activities of a collective nature (2.4-5.9% for individual items). Low levels of involvement in social and civic activities were reported more frequently by people of low income and low education levels. Levels of participation in social and civic community life in an urban setting are significantly influenced by individual socioeconomic status, health and other demographic characteristics. An understanding of the pattern of participation is important to inform social and health policy making. Increasing levels of participation will reduce social exclusion and is likely to improve the overall quality of community life.

  14. Giardiasis in Colorado: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Spencer, H C; Brodsky, R E; Vernon, T M

    1977-04-01

    A one-year retrospective laboratory survey in Colorado revealed that 691 (3%) of 22,743 stool examinations for ova and parasites were positive for Giardia lamblia, a higher percentage than that reported from surveys outside of Colorado. The majority of infected residents who were surveyed had experienced an episode of chronic watery diarrhea (median duration 3.8 weeks) with bloating, flatulence, and weight loss (averaging 5.1 kg), and had responded to a course of metronidazole or quinacrine. A statewide telephone survey of 256 cases and matched controls identified: 1) and increased incidence of giardiasis in persons between the ages of 16 and 45, p less than .001, with males and females equally affected; and 2) a higher proportion of cases than controls who visited Colorado mountains (69% vs. 47%), camped out overnight (38% vs. 18%), and drank untreated mountain water (50% vs. 17%), p less than .001. Also identified was a correlation between the seasonal distribution of cases and degree of fecal contamination of mountain streams. These results indicated that G. lamblia is endemic in Colorado and that drinking untreated mountain water is an important cause of endemic ifection.

  15. Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Elizabeth A.; Hokanson, John E.; Murphy, James R.; Make, Barry; Lynch, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Background COPDGeneis a multicenter observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD. It will also characterize chest CT phenotypes in COPD subjects, including assessment of emphysema, gas trapping, and airway wall thickening. Finally, subtypes of COPD based on these phenotypes will be used in a comprehensive genome-wide study to identify COPD susceptibility genes. Methods/Results COPDGene will enroll 10,000 smokers with and without COPD across the GOLD stages. Both Non-Hispanic white and African-American subjects are included in the cohort. Inspiratory and expiratory chest CT scans will be obtained on all participants. In addition to the cross-sectional enrollment process, these subjects will be followed regularly for longitudinal studies. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) will be done on an initial group of 4000 subjects to identify genetic variants associated with case-control status and several quantitative phenotypes related to COPD. The initial findings will be verified in an additional 2000 COPD cases and 2000 smoking control subjects, and further validation association studies will be carried out. Conclusions COPDGene will provide important new information about genetic factors in COPD, and will characterize the disease process using high resolution CT scans. Understanding genetic factors and CT phenotypes that define COPD will potentially permit earlier diagnosis of this disease and may lead to the development of treatments to modify progression. PMID:20214461

  16. Communication to workers of epidemiology study results: an industry approach.

    PubMed

    Collins, J J; Conner, P R

    1994-02-01

    Communication to workers of epidemiology study results is gaining increasing emphasis because of the need to notify study subjects and the responsibility to warn workers of potential workplace hazards. Industry has a unique responsibility in this regard both for ethical reasons and for gains in improving workers' knowledge of workplace hazards. We describe our recent efforts to notify 9648 workers potentially interested in the results of an epidemiology study that found increased rates for cancer. We found that both study and nonstudy subjects were equally interested the findings. We conclude that most workers view the notification as evidence of the company's commitment to maintain a safe workplace, and are pleased that the company undertook the study and reported the results to them. Unfavorable comments comprised less than 1% of the responses.

  17. Pediatric burns in Mosul: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Al-Zacko, S M; Zubeer, H G; Mohammad, A S

    2014-06-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the characteristics and case fatality rate of pediatric burns in Mosul, Iraq. The study group was burn patients aged 14 years and under who were admitted to the Burns Unit in Al-Jamhoori Teaching Hospital from the 1(st) of March 2011 to the 1(st) of March 2012. Of the 459 emergency burn admissions, 209 (45.53%) were pediatric patients up to 14 years of age, with a mean age of 4.73±3.61 years. Scald was the most common type of burn and occurred mainly in domestic settings. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 19.73±17.15%. Thirty-five patients died during the study period, giving a case fatality rate of 16.75%. The maximum number of deaths occurred in the 2-4 years age group. The case fatality rate was high in patients having more than 40% TBSA involvement. Flame burns were significantly more fatal than scalds, with a fatality rate of 35.35% and 12.05% respectively; (p=0.0001). In conclusion, given that most pediatric burn accidents occur at home, burn prevention should be focused on improving living conditions and on providing an educational program for parents.

  18. Descriptive epidemiological study of equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Slater, M R; Hood, D M; Carter, G K

    1995-09-01

    A descriptive and matched case-control study of laminitis was conducted in 7 private practices and at the Texas Veterinary Medical Centre (TVMC) between May 1992 and July 1993. Out of 108 horses with laminitis, 19 acute (49%) and 20 chronic (51%) cases were seen in private practice and 16 acute (23%) and 53 (77%) cases at the TVMC. Gastrointestinal disease was the most common problem in 19/35 horses (54%), occurring just prior to the onset of acute laminitis in all hospitals. Among all horses in the study, most commonly used drugs were phenylbutazone (68%), acepromazine (34%), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (27%), antibiotics of various types (19%) and flunixin meglumine (19%). Acepromazine, DMSO and flunixin meglumine were used more commonly in acute cases of laminitis compared to chronic cases. In acutely affected horses, DMSO and flunixin meglumine were used significantly more often at the TVMC. In chronic cases, phenylbutazone and antibiotics were used more often in private practice. Shoeing and trimming were more commonly part of the treatment protocol for chronic cases. There were no significant associations between age, breed, sex or weight and the occurrence of acute laminitis. Horses with chronic laminitis were significantly older (P=0.04) and more females tended to be affected (P=0.08).

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CHILDREN DIAPHYSEAL FEMORAL FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Cassiano Ricardo; Traldi, Eduardo Franceschini; Posser, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the personal, fracture, treatment and complication characteristics among patients with pediatric femoral shaft fractures attended at the pediatric orthopedic service of the Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on a population consisting of patients with femoral shaft fractures, aged between birth and 14 years and 11 months, who were divided into four age groups. Information was obtained from medical records and was transferred to a survey questionnaire to present personal, fracture, treatment and complication variables. Results: The study population consisted of 96 patients. Their mean age was 6.8 years. The cases were predominantly among males, comprising closed fractures on the right side, in the middle third with a single line. Regarding fracture etiology, traffic accidents predominated overall in the sample. Most of the patients (74 to 77.1%) presented femoral fractures as their only injury. Conservative treatment predominated in the group younger than six years of age, and surgical treatment in the group aged 6 to 14 years and 11 months. The complications observed until bone union were: discrepancy, infection and movement limitation. The mean time taken for consolidation was 9.6 ± 2.4 weeks, varying with age. Conclusion: The features of these fractures were similar to those described in the literature and the treatment used showed good results. The Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital has used the treatment proposed in the literature for pediatric femoral shaft fractures. PMID:27042619

  20. Perspectives on population-based epidemiological studies of olfactory and taste impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Howard J.; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Davis, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the senses of olfaction (smell) and gustation (taste) are needed since impairments in these senses have important implications for health. Only a few attempts have been made to measure the prevalence of olfactory and gustatory or taste dysfunction and many methodological challenges remain to be addressed. These challenges differ from those faced in studies based in the clinic or research laboratory. Epidemiological studies of smell and taste represent translational research, since they can be used to understand how findings from laboratory or clinical studies apply to the general population. This paper briefly reviews existing methods for “how” to measure smell and taste dysfunction and then illustrates findings based on prior epidemiological studies to indicate “why” we wish to measure smell and taste functioning in population-based samples. Self report information collected on smell and taste loss in a national sample, the 1994–1995 Disability Sample (Phase I screening) of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS-D), is contrasted with results provided by an exam-based measure of olfactory impairment in an epidemiological study conducted in Beaver Dam, WI. The comparison of self report and exam-based measures of smell or taste loss leads to the question of how to best define smell or taste impairment in population samples, since unlike other sensory domains (namely, vision and hearing), there are no internationally accepted standards of impairment for the chemosenses. In addition to highlighting existing epidemiological studies, the current development of an NIH Toolbox of brief exam measures is described. Through this symposium, we hope to advance the nascent field of olfactory and taste epidemiology. PMID:19686188

  1. Doses for post-Chernobyl epidemiological studies: are they reliable?

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chumak, Vadim; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, André

    2016-09-01

    On 26 April 2016, thirty years will have elapsed since the occurrence of the Chernobyl accident, which has so far been the most severe in the history of the nuclear reactor industry. Numerous epidemiological studies were conducted to evaluate the possible health consequences of the accident. Since the credibility of the association between the radiation exposure and health outcome is highly dependent on the adequacy of the dosimetric quantities used in these studies, this paper makes an effort to overview the methods used to estimate individual doses and the associated uncertainties in the main analytical epidemiological studies (i.e. cohort or case-control) related to the Chernobyl accident. Based on the thorough analysis and comparison with other radiation studies, the authors conclude that individual doses for the Chernobyl analytical epidemiological studies have been calculated with a relatively high degree of reliability and well-characterized uncertainties, and that they compare favorably with many other non-Chernobyl studies. The major strengths of the Chernobyl studies are: (1) they are grounded on a large number of measurements, either performed on humans or made in the environment; and (2) extensive effort has been invested to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the dose estimates. Nevertheless, gaps in the methodology are identified and suggestions for the possible improvement of the current dose estimates are made.

  2. CFS: A Review of Epidemiology and Natural History Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Porter, Nicole; Brown, Molly; Anderson, Valerie; Brown, Abigail; Hunnell, Jessica; Lerch, Athena

    2010-01-01

    Almost all studies with samples of patients who have chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have relied on referrals from physicians or health facilities. Under-served minorities, who not only tend to manifest higher levels of chronic illness, but are also less likely to seek and receive adequate medical care, have not been represented in these studies (1). This may have contributed to an under-estimation of CFS among minority groups (2). Few studies have derived their samples from socioeconomically and ethnically diverse community-based populations. A technical report issued by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (3) concluded that estimating rates of recovery/improvement or relapse from CFS are not possible because there are so few natural history studies and those that are available have involved selected referral populations. This paper provides a review of epidemiologic studies of CFS followed by a discussion of diagnostic issues and risk factors for the illness. Findings from Jason et al.’s (4) epidemiologic study in a multi-ethnic, economically diverse urban area are highlighted as this research group is now examining the natural course of CFS over the past 10 years with this community-based sample. The current study will add to current epidemiologic and risk factors research by assessing the course, progression, and risk factors of CFS among a demographically diverse sample of participants who are unbiased by illness, help-seeking behaviors, or differential access to the health care system. PMID:21243091

  3. A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    AD__ _ _ _ Award Number: DAMD17-98-1-8471 TITLE: A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sara S. Strom...Molecular Epidmeiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate DAMD17-98-1-8471 Cancer Susceptibility 6. AUTHOR(S) Sara S. Strom, Ph.D. Sue-Hwa Lin 7. PERFORMING...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Although prostate cancer is the most common cancer in

  4. MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; PERUGIA, C.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. Aim. Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. Results and discussion. From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. Conclusions. MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and

  5. Problem gambling and homelessness: results from an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Nower, Lia; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Pollio, David E; North, Carol S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gambling disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders in a homeless population and identify features related to potential subtypes. At baseline, participants were administered a structured interview including socio-demographic sections of the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) interview; seven diagnostic sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS); the alcohol and drug abuse sections of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module (CIDI-SAM); and the Homeless Supplement to the DIS. At nine months post-baseline assessment, participants were administered additional NCS family history questions and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Participants were an epidemiologic sample of 275 predominately African-American homeless individuals, grouped as lifetime non-gamblers (n = 60), recreational gamblers (n = 152), and problem gamblers (n = 63), recruited on the street and through homeless shelters. Results indicate that lifetime rates of sub-clinical problem (46.2%) and disordered (12.0%) gambling were significantly higher than in the general population. Problem gamblers were more likely than non-problem gamblers to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, and any psychiatric disorder, and more likely than non-gamblers to use illicit drugs or meet criteria for abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, or any substance. This study provides evidence that problem gambling is a significant public health issue among the African-American homeless population. Homeless services should include assessment for problem gambling along with psychiatric disorders and referrals to resources and treatment programs. Future studies should explore the relationship of the onset and course of problem gambling and other psychiatric disorders with homelessness as well as racial differences in gambling patterns and problem severity

  6. An epidemiologic study of gypsy moth rash.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, R W; Canada, A T; Wilcock, K; Etkind, P H; O'Dell, T M; Shama, S K

    1984-08-01

    In 1981, outbreaks of itchy skin rashes were reported accompanying the heavy infestation of gypsy moths (GM) in the Northeastern United States. The rash problem was widespread and a considerable public annoyance. In the spring of 1982, during the period of greatest contact with the caterpillars, a telephone survey was carried out in a highly infested community (HI) and a minimally infested community (LO). Information was collected from 1,000 persons, representing more than 90 per cent of those selected for study. The one-week risk of rash was 10.4 per cent in the HI area and 1.6 per cent in the LO area, for a risk ratio (RR) of 6.5. The occurrence of rash was strongly related to a history of having had a rash in the previous year or having had a caterpillar crawl on the affected area. The combination of both factors additively increased the risk of rash. Hay fever and hanging the wash outside were other related variables. History of allergies other than hay fever since childhood and the use of insecticides were unrelated to rash occurrence.

  7. Operational definitions of asthma in recent epidemiological studies are inconsistent.

    PubMed

    Sá-Sousa, Ana; Jacinto, Tiago; Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Morais-Almeida, Mário; Robalo-Cordeiro, Carlos; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Bousquet, Jean; Fonseca, João Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The best combination of questions to define asthma in epidemiological asthma studies is not known. We summarized the operational definitions of asthma used in prevalence studies and empirically assess how asthma prevalence estimates vary depending on the definition used. We searched the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of knowledge and included (1) cross-sectional studies (2) on asthma prevalence (3) conducted in the general population and (4) containing an explicit definition of asthma. The search was limited to the 100 most-cited papers or published since January 2010. For each paper, we recorded the asthma definition used and other variables. Then we applied the definitions to the data of the Portuguese National Asthma survey (INAsma) and of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) computing asthma prevalence estimates for the different definitions. Of 1738 papers retrieved, 117 were included for analysis. Lifetime asthma, diagnosed asthma and current asthma were defined in 8, 12 and 29 different ways, respectively. By applying definitions of current asthma on INAsma and NHANES data, the prevalence ranged between 5.3%-24.4% and 1.1%-17.2%, respectively. There is considerable heterogeneity in the definitions of asthma used in epidemiological studies leading to highly variable estimates of asthma prevalence. Studies to inform a standardized operational definition are needed. Meanwhile, we propose a set of questions to be reported when defining asthma in epidemiological studies.

  8. Epidemiological studies of radio frequency exposures and human cancer.

    PubMed

    Elwood, J Mark

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of radio frequency (RF) exposures and human cancers include studies of military and civilian occupational groups, people who live near television and radio transmitters, and users of mobile phones. Many types of cancer have been assessed, with particular attention given to leukemia and brain tumors. The epidemiological results fall short of the strength and consistency of evidence that is required to come to a conclusion that RF emissions are a cause of human cancer. Although the epidemiological evidence in total suggests no increased risk of cancer, the results cannot be unequivocally interpreted in terms of cause and effect. The results are inconsistent, and most studies are limited by lack of detail on actual exposures, short follow-up periods, and the limited ability to deal with other relevant factors. In some studies, there may be substantial biases in the data used. For these same reasons, the studies are unable to confidently exclude any possibility of an increased risk of cancer. Further research to clarify the situation is justified. Priorities include further studies of leukemia in both adults and children, and of cranial tumors in relationship to mobile phone use. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Operational definitions of asthma in recent epidemiological studies are inconsistent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The best combination of questions to define asthma in epidemiological asthma studies is not known. We summarized the operational definitions of asthma used in prevalence studies and empirically assess how asthma prevalence estimates vary depending on the definition used. Methods We searched the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of knowledge and included (1) cross-sectional studies (2) on asthma prevalence (3) conducted in the general population and (4) containing an explicit definition of asthma. The search was limited to the 100 most-cited papers or published since January 2010. For each paper, we recorded the asthma definition used and other variables. Then we applied the definitions to the data of the Portuguese National Asthma survey (INAsma) and of the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) computing asthma prevalence estimates for the different definitions. Results Of 1738 papers retrieved, 117 were included for analysis. Lifetime asthma, diagnosed asthma and current asthma were defined in 8, 12 and 29 different ways, respectively. By applying definitions of current asthma on INAsma and NHANES data, the prevalence ranged between 5.3%-24.4% and 1.1%-17.2%, respectively. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity in the definitions of asthma used in epidemiological studies leading to highly variable estimates of asthma prevalence. Studies to inform a standardized operational definition are needed. Meanwhile, we propose a set of questions to be reported when defining asthma in epidemiological studies. PMID:25136441

  10. Discriminatory Indices of Typing Methods for Epidemiologic Analysis of Contemporary Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Marcela; Hogan, Patrick G.; Satola, Sarah W.; Crispell, Emily; Wylie, Todd; Gao, Hongyu; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Fritz, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Historically, a number of typing methods have been evaluated for Staphylococcus aureus strain characterization. The emergence of contemporary strains of community-associated S. aureus, and the ensuing epidemic with a predominant strain type (USA300), necessitates re-evaluation of the discriminatory power of these typing methods for discerning molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics, essential to investigations of hospital and community outbreaks. We compared the discriminatory index of 5 typing methods for contemporary S. aureus strain characterization. Children presenting to St. Louis Children's Hospital and community pediatric practices in St. Louis, Missouri (MO), with community-associated S. aureus infections were enrolled. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (repPCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A (spa), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing were performed on 200 S. aureus isolates. The discriminatory index of each method was calculated using the standard formula for this metric, where a value of 1 is highly discriminatory and a value of 0 is not discriminatory. Overall, we identified 26 distinct strain types by repPCR, 17 strain types by PFGE, 30 strain types by MLST, 68 strain types by spa typing, and 5 strain types by SCCmec typing. RepPCR had the highest discriminatory index (D) of all methods (D = 0.88), followed by spa typing (D = 0.87), MLST (D = 0.84), PFGE (D = 0.76), and SCCmec typing (D = 0.60). The method with the highest D among MRSA isolates was repPCR (D = 0.64) followed by spa typing (D = 0.45) and MLST (D = 0.44). The method with the highest D among MSSA isolates was spa typing (D = 0.98), followed by MLST (D = 0.93), repPCR (D = 0.92), and PFGE (D = 0.89). Among isolates designated USA300 by PFGE, repPCR was most discriminatory, with 10 distinct strain types identified (D = 0.63). We

  11. Discriminatory Indices of Typing Methods for Epidemiologic Analysis of Contemporary Staphylococcus aureus Strains.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Marcela; Hogan, Patrick G; Satola, Sarah W; Crispell, Emily; Wylie, Todd; Gao, Hongyu; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Fritz, Stephanie A

    2015-09-01

    Historically, a number of typing methods have been evaluated for Staphylococcus aureus strain characterization. The emergence of contemporary strains of community-associated S. aureus, and the ensuing epidemic with a predominant strain type (USA300), necessitates re-evaluation of the discriminatory power of these typing methods for discerning molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics, essential to investigations of hospital and community outbreaks. We compared the discriminatory index of 5 typing methods for contemporary S. aureus strain characterization. Children presenting to St. Louis Children's Hospital and community pediatric practices in St. Louis, Missouri (MO), with community-associated S. aureus infections were enrolled. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (repPCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A (spa), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing were performed on 200 S. aureus isolates. The discriminatory index of each method was calculated using the standard formula for this metric, where a value of 1 is highly discriminatory and a value of 0 is not discriminatory. Overall, we identified 26 distinct strain types by repPCR, 17 strain types by PFGE, 30 strain types by MLST, 68 strain types by spa typing, and 5 strain types by SCCmec typing. RepPCR had the highest discriminatory index (D) of all methods (D = 0.88), followed by spa typing (D = 0.87), MLST (D = 0.84), PFGE (D = 0.76), and SCCmec typing (D = 0.60). The method with the highest D among MRSA isolates was repPCR (D = 0.64) followed by spa typing (D = 0.45) and MLST (D = 0.44). The method with the highest D among MSSA isolates was spa typing (D = 0.98), followed by MLST (D = 0.93), repPCR (D = 0.92), and PFGE (D = 0.89). Among isolates designated USA300 by PFGE, repPCR was most discriminatory, with 10 distinct strain types identified (D = 0.63). We identified 45

  12. Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings Timothy J. Wade, Elizabeth A. Sams, Rich Haugland, Alfred P. Dufour The National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study was conducted to address aspects...

  13. Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings Timothy J. Wade, Elizabeth A. Sams, Rich Haugland, Alfred P. Dufour The National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study was conducted to address aspects...

  14. A molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Velez, Jafet; Malaga, Carlos; Wandeler, Alexander I

    2008-01-01

    The mongoose is the principal reservoir for rabies on the island of Puerto Rico. This report describes a molecular epidemiological study of representative rabies viruses recovered from the island in 1997. Two closely related but distinct variants circulating in regionally localised parts of the island were identified. The lack of a monophyletic relationship of these viruses suggests that two independent incursions of rabies onto the island have occurred. Both of these Puerto Rican variants were closely related to a variant, known as the north central skunk strain, currently circulating in North American skunk populations and all are members of the cosmopolitan rabies lineage spread during the colonial period. However, the Puerto Rican viruses are clearly distinct from those presently circulating in mongooses in Cuba and which are epidemiologically closely linked to the Mexican dog rabies virus. This study clearly establishes the distinct origins of the rabies viruses now circulating on these two Caribbean islands.

  15. Epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kubota-Aizawa, Sanae; Ohno, Koichi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Nakashima, Ko; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takayasu; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-03-26

    Epidemiological and pathological studies on Helicobacter spp. in feline stomachs in Japan were conducted using genus- and species-specific (H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, H. heilmannii sensu stricto[s.s.] and H. pylori) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), ureAB gene sequencing and histopathology. PCR results showed that 28 of 56 cats were infected with Helicobacter spp., and H. heilmannii s.s. was the most prevalent species by both PCR (28/28) and ureAB gene sequencing (26/28). Some of the sequences showed high similarities with those from human patients with gastric diseases (99%). There were no significant differences between Helicobacter spp.-positive and -negative cats in the severity of chronic gastritis (P=0.69). This is the first extensive epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan.

  16. GESDB: a platform of simulation resources for genetic epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Yao, Po-Ju; Chung, Ren-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulations are routinely conducted to evaluate new statistical methods, to compare the properties among different methods, and to mimic the observed data in genetic epidemiology studies. Conducting simulation studies can become a complicated task as several challenges can occur, such as the selection of an appropriate simulation tool and the specification of parameters in the simulation model. Although abundant simulated data have been generated for human genetic research, currently there is no public database designed specifically as a repository for these simulated data. With the lack of such a database, for similar studies, similar simulations may have been repeated, which resulted in redundant work. Thus, we created an online platform, the Genetic Epidemiology Simulation Database (GESDB), for simulation data sharing and discussion of simulation techniques for genetic epidemiology studies. GESDB consists of a database for storing simulation scripts, simulated data and documentation from published articles as well as a discussion forum, which provides a platform for discussion of the simulated data and exchanging simulation ideas. Moreover, summary statistics such as the simulation tools that are most commonly used and datasets that are most frequently downloaded are provided. The statistics will be informative for researchers to choose an appropriate simulation tool or select a common dataset for method comparisons. GESDB can be accessed at http://gesdb.nhri.org.twDatabase URL: http://gesdb.nhri.org.tw. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Epidemiology of paediatric minor head injury: Comparison of injury characteristics with Indices of Multiple Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Carol; Wilson, James; Hickson, Craig; Mills, Sara; Ekeocha, Samila; Sakr, Magdy

    2013-12-01

    Head injury (HI) is a common presentation to Child Emergency Departments (CEDs), but the actual number of children attending with minor HI is unclear. Most research has focussed on admitted patients, often relying on hospital-coded admission data. We studied the incidence of minor HI presenting to the CED of a major teaching hospital in Coventry and Warwickshire. HI attendances were compared with population data to identify injury patterns relating to deprivation. All CED admissions were screened by the research team, and data on minor head injuries (GCS 13-15) collected prospectively from 1st January until 31st August 2011. Information was collected on demographics, ethnicity, cause and severity of injury, injury location (in or outside the home), other injuries and mode of arrival. Deprivation data were obtained by cross-referencing postcodes with English Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD 2010). For comparison, the hospital audit department provided figures for coded head injuries during the same period. During the 8 month period, hand-searching identified 1747 children with minor HI, aged between 0 and 16 years. Of these 99% had minimal HI (GCS 15 or 'alert'). In the same period, hospital-coded minor HIs numbered only 1081. HIs formed 9% of all CED attendances. Thirteen children returned to the CED with worrying symptoms after discharge home. Approximately 3.4% of the local paediatric population attend the CED with HI per year (3419/100,000 population). Falls accounted for 62% of HIs overall, rising to 77% in children aged 0-5. Most in-home head injuries (81%) were the result of falls (p<0.0001). Significantly more injuries took place inside the home for 0-5 year olds (58%) than for older children (20%) (p<0.0001). Children living in the most deprived areas were more likely to attend the CED with HI (RR: 1.19; CI: 1.06-1.35, p=0.004), and arrive using emergency services (OR: 1.77; CI: 1.30-2.40, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the

  18. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-10-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers' exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  19. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures. PMID:26635494

  20. Epidemiological aspects of studying work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Tim

    2011-02-01

    There are many challenges to conducting valid epidemiological research of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and interpreting reports describing the results. In particular, these concern the basic study design, selection of subjects, measurement of exposure and outcome, control of confounding and the limitations of workers' compensation data systems. Researchers and people interested in the research results need to be aware of the major potential problems and pay careful attention to them when designing, conducting and using the results of such research.

  1. Biologically based epidemiological studies of electric power and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.

    1993-12-01

    Use of electricity is a hallmark of the industrialization process, but there has been no suspicion that electricity could increase the risk of cancer. Recently, however, a number of epidemiologic studies have suggested that electromagnetic fields (EMF) may do just that. Although few cancer experiments have been done yet, there are a number of biological effects of EMF reported in the literature that might provide bases for designing cancer experiments and epidemiologic studies. These include effects of EMF on: (a) DNA transcription and translation, (b) calcium balance in cells, and (c) pineal production of melatonin. Alterations in DNA transcription and translation could have pleiotropic effects. Disruption of calcium homeostasis has many implications including oncogene activation, promotional activity via protein kinases and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and increasing oxidative stress. Reduction of melatonin suggests a possible increased risk of cancers of hormone-dependent tissues such as breast and prostate. The idea that a cancer-causing agent must either be an initiator or a promoter should be discarded; indeed, the phenomenologic meaning of these two terms has become confused with imputed mechanistic necessity in recent years. Agents that affect division of normal cells or of fully transformed cells can play an important role in clinical cancer development quite apart from initiation or promotion. Epidemiologic studies of EMF and cancer should attempt to take account of other products of electric power (e.g., light at night) or factors associated with occupational EMF exposure (e.g., toxic chemicals) that may increase cancer risk and therefore act as cofactors or confounders. Epidemiology and laboratory studies should act synergistically in determining if there is a problem and identifying mitigation strategies if needed. 84 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology in the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Keum, NaNa; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-09-01

    To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC. Moreover, modifiable factors, such as physical activity, vitamin D, folate, insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and diet quality, were identified to be associated with survival among CRC patients. In recent years, molecular pathological epidemiological studies have been actively conducted and have shown refined results by molecular subtypes of CRC. The NHS has provided new insights into colorectal adenomas, CRC etiology, and pathogenic mechanisms. With its unique strengths, the NHS should continue to contribute to the field of CRC epidemiology and play a major role in public health.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Results. Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC. Moreover, modifiable factors, such as physical activity, vitamin D, folate, insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and diet quality, were identified to be associated with survival among CRC patients. In recent years, molecular pathological epidemiological studies have been actively conducted and have shown refined results by molecular subtypes of CRC. Conclusions. The NHS has provided new insights into colorectal adenomas, CRC etiology, and pathogenic mechanisms. With its unique strengths, the NHS should continue to contribute to the field of CRC epidemiology and play a major role in public health. PMID:27459444

  4. Communicable disease epidemiology following migration: studies from the African famine.

    PubMed

    Shears, P; Lusty, T

    1987-01-01

    Few epidemiological studies have been undertaken of morbidity and mortality due to communicable disease in mass migration. This article reviews data from refugee displacement areas in north-east Africa. Risk factors to increase morbidity and mortality include 1) breakdown of health services, 2) movement to new ecological zones, 3) malnutrition, and 4) crowding and poor sanitation in relief camps. Highest mortalities are recorded in children under 5 years old, principal causes being measles, gastro-enteritis, chest infections, and malaria. The greatest morbidity and mortality occurs after arrival in relief camps, and could be reduced by epidemiologically based, selective health programs. This article stresses the importance of regional level coordination between relief agencies and the need for an effective disease surveillance system.

  5. Consistency of external dosimetry in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1991-10-01

    To make the best use of available epidemiologic data in assessing risks from exposure to low-level radiation, it is important that biases and uncertainties in estimated doses be understood and documented. With this understanding, analyses of mortality data can be strengthened by including the use of correction factors where judged appropriate, excluding portions of the data where uncertainty in dose estimates is judged to be very large, and conducting sensitivity analyses to examine the effect of alternative assumptions about dosimetry errors and biases on results. It is hoped that the pooling of data from several epidemiologic studies and improved understanding of dosimetry will lead to better estimates of radiation risks. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Genotyping of Giardia isolates in Scotland: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Alexander, C; Jones, B; Inverarity, D; Pollock, K G J

    2014-08-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. duodenalis), is one of the most frequent parasites to infect the Scottish population. Transmission of the infective cysts in faecal matter is commonly via food and/or water. Giardia is subdivided into assemblages, where clinical and epidemiological differences have been described between assemblages A and B. This snapshot descriptive epidemiological study examines 30 positive cases of Giardia of which 72% (n = 21) were shown to be assemblage A, 14% (n = 4) assemblage B and 10% (n = 3) mixed assemblages (A and B). There was a 2:3 female:male ratio of affected individuals with foreign travel recorded in 22 of these cases. The commonest symptom was diarrhoea which was reported in 80% of cases followed by tiredness. Five cases required hospitalization emphasizing the importance of gaining a greater understanding of how Giardia assemblages influence clinical outcomes to assist in formulating guidelines to manage potential Giardia outbreaks.

  7. The Epidemiology of Delirium: Challenges and Opportunities for Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Daniel H.J.; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J.; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J.; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068

  8. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies...

  9. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies...

  10. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies...

  11. [Molecular epidemiology studies on the immigrant population in Spain].

    PubMed

    González-Candelas, Fernando; Alma Bracho, María; Comas, Iñaki; d'Auria, Giuseppe; D Unková, Mária; García, Rodrigo; Gosalbes, María José; Isaac, Sandrine; Latorre, Amparo; López-Labrador, Francisco Xavier; Patiño Galindo, Juan Ángel; Palero, Ferran; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Sánchez-Busó, Leonor; Silva, Francisco J; Vázquez-Castellanos, Jorge F; Moya, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new scientific discipline which allows to integrate information on the genetic variation of infectious pathogens with their diffusion in a population and its subgroups including, for instance, resistance mutations to antibiotics and antiretrovirals. We present the results of an analysis of scientific publications that analyze the health status of the immigrant population in Spain from a molecular epidemiology perspective. We reviewed original articles published in 1998-2014 with the keywords "molecular epidemiology", "molecular typing", "sequencing", "immigrant", and "Spain". From a total of 267 articles identified initially, only 50 passed through the established filters. Most of them (36) analyzed infections by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3) and HIV (3), followed at a large distance by Staphylococcus aureus and hepatitis B virus. The main goal of these works was the typing of the pathogen and to determine the frequency of resistance mutations. Is difficult to generalize the conclusions from the analyzed articles because most of them have a purely descriptive and quite restricted scope, considering the type and size of the samples studied. Several studies are focused on the most likely origin for the strains or variants of the pathogen but others also reveal transmissions from the local to the immigrant populations.

  12. Diagnostic Studies of Temporomandibular Disorders: Challenges From an Epidemiologic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Samuel F.; LeResche, Linda; Von Korff, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Adequate data on the incidence, prevalence, natural history, and clinical course of temperomandibular disorders (TMD) and other chronic pain conditions are largely lacking, though the need to derive such basic data is recognized by clinicians, researchers, and public health agencies. This paper discusses challenges to the epidemiologic study of TMD diagnosis. These challenges include: • Case definition: There is currently poor agreement regarding which combinations of clinical and psychosocial findings differentially define cases of TMD • Differentiation of normal variation v pathophysiologic signs: To what extent do commonly gathered clinical measurements constitute pathophysiologic signs of TMD v reflect normal biologic variation • Reliability of clinical measurement: Factors influencing reliability of clinical signs and reliability of examiners have not been adequately assessed • Progressive v self-limiting disease activity: Do TMD subtypes represent a continuum of pathologic disease activity, or nonmutually exclusive categories describing largely symptomatic pain conditions that are selflimiting or stable. It is recommended that epidemiologic studies not be constrained by a priori definitions of TMD subtypes, but continue to gather data on clinical signs and symptoms that have theoretical and clinical relevance to mandibular dysfunction and psychosocial status. An approach is proposed for development of reliable and valid criteria of TMD subtypes suitable for epidemiologic research. PMID:2085194

  13. Idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: an epidemiological study in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Chiò, A; Cocito, D; Bottacchi, E; Buffa, C; Leone, M; Plano, F; Mutani, R; Calvo, A

    2007-01-01

    Aim The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in an Italian population were assessed. Subjects and methods All subjects with a diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy after 1990 in Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta (4 334 225 inhabitants) were considered. The diagnosis of CIDP was based on the research criteria of the American Academy of Neurology. 165 of 294 patients met the diagnostic criteria. Results The crude prevalence rate was 3.58/100 000 population (95% CI 3.02 to 4.20). At the prevalence day, 76 (49.0%) cases had definite, 67 (43.2%) probable and 12 (7.7%) possible CIDP; disability was mild in 105 (67.7%) cases, moderate in 32 (20.6%) and severe in 18 (11.6%). The course was remitting–relapsing in 40 cases (25.8%), chronic progressive in 96 (61.9%) and monophasic in 19 (12.3%). Considering the 95 patients whose disorder presented in the period 1995–2001, the mean annual crude incidence rate was 0.36/100 000 population (95% CI 0.29 to 0.44), with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. 14 cases were affected by diabetes mellitus. In multivariate analysis, factors related to severe disability at the prevalence day were: age>60 years; failure of immunomodulating therapies at the time of diagnosis; worse disability at nadir; and chronic course. Conclusion Incidence and prevalence rates of CIDP in Italy were higher than those observed in most previous studies. At the prevalence day, more than 80% of cases had a mild or moderate disability, indicating either a good response to immunomodulating therapy or a tendency of CIDP to have a mild course in most cases. PMID:17494979

  14. TIME-INTEGRATED EXPOSURE MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiologic...

  15. TIME-INTEGRATED EXPOSURE MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiologic...

  16. Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-10

    Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally.

  17. An epidemiological study of epilepsy in Hong Kong SAR, China.

    PubMed

    Fong, Gardian C Y; Kwan, Patrick; Hui, Andrew C F; Lui, Colin H T; Fong, Jason K Y; Wong, Virginia

    2008-07-01

    Several specialist clinic-based epidemiology studies suggested low prevalence in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of China. Population-based epidemiological data for epilepsy is not available. We performed the first population-based epidemiological survey of epilepsy in this locality. We conducted a territory-wide survey. We randomly selected 9547 households from fixed-line telephone directory. We successfully surveyed 17,783 persons of 5178 households by telephone interview. All positive respondents 685 (3.85%) were invited for clinical validation. 127 subjects were validated by board-certified neurologists. Seizure disorders were confirmed in 28 subjects. The crude prevalence of active epilepsy and seizure disorder were estimated to be 3.94/1000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.10-6.74/1000) and 8.49/1000 (95% CI: 5.64-12.27/1000), respectively. The prevalence of epilepsy in HKSAR is more common than previously thought. The data retrieved is useful for planning and allocation of health resources for patients with seizure disorders.

  18. Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) Study has been designed to incorporate state-of-the-art technologies to examine the physiological and environmental factors that interact to increase the risk of asthmatic responses. MICA is primarily a clinically-bases obser...

  19. Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) Study has been designed to incorporate state-of-the-art technologies to examine the physiological and environmental factors that interact to increase the risk of asthmatic responses. MICA is primarily a clinically-bases obser...

  20. Issues of consent and feedback in a genetic epidemiological study of women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M; Ponder, M; Pharoah, P; Everest, S; Mackay, J

    2003-01-01

    Women (N=21) who had had breast cancer and had been enrolled in a large genetic breast cancer epidemiological study were interviewed about their experience of participation in the study, their attitudes to the confidentiality of data, and the feedback of personal and general research results. Collection of family history information seemed more salient in indicating the genetic nature of the study than the enrolment information sheet. There were no concerns about confidentiality. While participants would have welcomed general feedback about the results of the study and were critical that this had not been provided, the feedback of personal information proved complicated and, sometimes, difficult. It is suggested that individual feedback of genetic test information in epidemiological studies should be undertaken only when there are specific reasons. PMID:12672889

  1. Some applications of categorical data analysis to epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Grizzle, J E; Koch, G G

    1979-10-01

    Several examples of categorized data from epidemiological studies are analyzed to illustrate that more informative analysis than tests of independence can be performed by fitting models. All of the analyses fit into a unified conceptual framework that can be performed by weighted least squares. The methods presented show how to calculate point estimate of parameters, asymptotic variances, and asymptotically valid chi 2 tests. The examples presented are analysis of relative risks estimated from several 2 x 2 tables, analysis of selected features of life tables, construction of synthetic life tables from cross-sectional studies, and analysis of dose-response curves.

  2. Cohort profile: Epidemiological Clinicopathological studies in Europe (EClipSE).

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological Clinicopathological Studies in Europe (EClipSE) is the harmonization of neuropathological and longitudinal clinical data from three population-based prospective longitudinal studies of aging. The EClipSE database (Version 1.0) comprises data from the first 970 people who donated their brain at death and this number will increase. EClipSE enables sociodemographic, health, cognitive, and genetic measures collected during life to be related to neuropathology at death, testing hypotheses which require more power than has been previously possible. EClipSE aims to help throw light on relationships between biological, health and psychological factors underlying ageing and the manifestation of clinical dementia.

  3. A review of some epidemiological studies on cancer risk from low-dose radiation or other carcinogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2011-07-01

    It is extremely difficult to assess cancer risks accurately due to health effects of low-dose radiation exposure or other carcinogens based on epidemiological studies. For the detection of minute increases of the risk at low-level exposure, most of epidemiological studies lack statistical power, and they involve various complicated confounding factors. This paper reports on a literature survey of epidemiological studies published since 2000 on cancer risks associated with low-dose radiation and other carcinogens to gather major epidemiological data. Integrated risk indices were derived from those data by using, where possible, statistical models. Regarding risk assessment of low-dose radiation exposure, it is important to lower the degree of uncertainty arising from risk estimation. Risk assessment of low-dose radiation exposure could be scientific evidence when uncertainty is considered in comparing carcinogenic risks of radiation with those of other carcinogens.

  4. [Neonatal meningitis. Epidemiological study of the Grupo de Hospitales Castrillo].

    PubMed

    2002-06-01

    significantly higher in VLBW infants and 18.5 % of survivors showed sequelae. The incidence, mortality and sequelae of neonatal meningitis in Spain were similar to those reported in recent studies. The most commonly isolated pathogens were group B Streptococcus in vertically transmitted meningitis and E. coli and S. epidermidis in nosocomial meningitis. We believe the distinction between vertical and nosocomial meningitis to be appropriate because the epidemiology of these diseases is different, which implies a different therapeutic approach. The high percentage of positive blood cultures indicates the need to include lumbar puncture whenever systemic infection is suspected in the neonatal period.

  5. TCDD and cancer: A critical review of epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Boffetta, Paolo; Mundt, Kenneth A; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S

    2011-01-01

    The authors reviewed the epidemiologic studies on exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and cancer risk, published since the last full-scale review made by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs program in 1997. The update of a cohort of US herbicide producers generated negative results overall; the internal analysis provided evidence of an increased “all-cancer” risk in the highest exposure category, with a statistically significant exposure-response association in some of the many analyses performed.The update of a similar Dutch cohort did not confirm the previously observed association with TCDD exposure. The updated surveillance of the Seveso population provided evidence of increased all-cancer mortality 15-20 years after exposure among those living in the most contaminated area but might also reflect random variation, as overall excesses in the most recent follow-up were not observed. Corresponding data on cancer incidence offer little support to the mortality results. Updated results from cohort studies of Vietnam veterans potentially exposed to TCDD did not consistently suggest an increased risk of cancer. Results of additional, smaller studies of other occupational groups potentially exposed to TCDD, and of community-based case-control studies, did not provide consistent evidence of an increased cancer risk. In conclusion, recent epidemiological evidence falls far short of conclusively demonstrating a causal link between TCDD exposure and cancer risk in humans. The emphasis on results for overall cancer risk—rather than risk for specific neoplasms—is notjustified on epidemiologic grounds and is nota reason for ignoring the weaknesses of the available evidence. PMID:21718216

  6. Epidemiological studies of esophageal cancer in the era of genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Hui; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Bo; He, Yi-Xuan; Fang, Ye-Xian; Yan, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) caused about 395000 deaths in 2010. China has the most cases of EC and EC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type (90%-95%), while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) remains extremely low in China. Traditional epidemiological studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for EC. Molecular epidemiological studies revealed that susceptibility to EC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. Of all the risk factors for EC, some are associated with the risk of ESCC and others with the risk of EAC. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in the process for EC are unclear. The advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies bring a great opportunity for researchers to explore and identify the details of those risk factors or susceptibility genes involved in the process of EC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era to the era of genome wide association studies (GWAS). Here we review the epidemiological studies of EC (especially ESCC) in the era of GWAS, and provide an overview of the general risk factors and those genomic variants (genes, SNPs, miRNAs, proteins) involved in the process of ESCC. PMID:25133033

  7. The Use of Satellite Remote Sensing in Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Just, Allan C.; Kloog, Itai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a ubiquitous exposure linked with multiple adverse health outcomes for children and across the life course. The recent development of satellite based remote sensing models for air pollution enables the quantification of these risks and addresses many limitations of previous air pollution research strategies. We review the recent literature on the applications of satellite remote sensing in air quality research, with a focus on their use in epidemiological studies. Recent findings Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a focus of this review and a significant number of studies show that ground-level PM can be estimated from columnar AOD. Satellite measurements have been found to be an important source of data for PM model-based exposure estimates, and recently have been used in health studies to increase the spatial breadth and temporal resolution of these estimates. Summary It is suggested that satellite-based models improve our understanding of the spatial characteristics of air quality. Although the adoption of satellite-based measures of air quality in health studies is in its infancy, it is rapidly growing. Nevertheless, further investigation is still needed in order to have a better understanding of the AOD contribution to these prediction models in order to use them with higher accuracy in epidemiological studies. PMID:26859287

  8. Critical review of epidemiologic studies related to ingested asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.M.

    1983-11-01

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the US and Canada were evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. Associations between asbestos in water supplies and cancer mortality or incidence in humans were found in one or more studies dealing with neoplasms in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, gallbaldder, pancreas, peritoneum, lungs, pleura, prostate, kidneys, brain and thyroid as well as leukemia. However, no single study nor aggregate of studies existed that would establish risk levels from ingested asbestos. It is recommended that the integrated ecologic data to date be used to generate a rough priority of specific etiologic hypotheses that should be tested in the original settings or in independent study populations using studies designed at the more definitive individual level, such as case-control studies. 25 references, 7 tables.

  9. Measuring socio-economic position for epidemiological studies in low- and middle-income countries: a methods of measurement in epidemiology paper

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Laura D; Galobardes, Bruna; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gordon, David; Johnston, Deborah; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Patel, Rita; Webb, Elizabeth A; Lawlor, Debbie A; Hargreaves, James R

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the measurement of socio-economic position (SEP) in high-income countries (HIC). Less has been written for an epidemiology, health systems and public health audience about the measurement of SEP in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The social stratification processes in many LMIC—and therefore the appropriate measurement tools—differ considerably from those in HIC. Many measures of SEP have been utilized in epidemiological studies; the aspects of SEP captured by these measures and the pathways through which they may affect health are likely to be slightly different but overlapping. No single measure of SEP will be ideal for all studies and contexts; the strengths and limitations of a given indicator are likely to vary according to the specific research question. Understanding the general properties of different indicators, however, is essential for all those involved in the design or interpretation of epidemiological studies. In this article, we describe the measures of SEP used in LMIC. We concentrate on measures of individual or household-level SEP rather than area-based or ecological measures such as gross domestic product. We describe each indicator in terms of its theoretical basis, interpretation, measurement, strengths and limitations. We also provide brief comparisons between LMIC and HIC for each measure. PMID:22438428

  10. Epidemiological study of primary systemic vasculitides among adults in southern Spain and review of the main epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Romero-Gómez, C; Aguilar-García, J A; García-de-Lucas, M D; Cotos-Canca, R; Olalla-Sierra, J; García-Alegría, J J; Hernández-Rodríguez, J

    2015-01-01

    To study the incidence and prevalence of primary systemic vasculitides (PSV) in the Costa del Sol region (southern Spain) and to compare the major epidemiological studies in PSV with the results obtained in our area. Retrospective study including permanent residents ≥14 years (or older) diagnosed with PSV at the Hospital Costa del Sol (Marbella, Spain) between 1994 and 2010. Epidemiological data were collected and the annual incidence rate during the study period and the prevalence in 2010 were calculated per million population, except for GCA, which was estimated per 100,000 population >50 years. Seventy-four adult patients were diagnosed with PSV, representing an annual incidence of 15.8 (95%CI 12.2-19.4) patients/million population. These diagnoses included 29 (39.1%) giant cell arteritis (GCA), 5 (6.7%) Takayasu's arteritis (TKA), 3 (4%) poly-arteritis nodosa (PAN), 29 (39.1%) antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) [10 (13.5%) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (Wegener), 16 (21.6%) microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and 3 (4%) eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) (Churg-Strauss)], 7 (9.4%) IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein) (IgAV) and one (1.3%) cryobulinaemic vasculitis (CV). The annual incidence and 2010 prevalence for each of the PSV, respectively, were: GCA: 2.2/12.2; TKA: 1.1/10.5; PAN: 0.6/2.6; AAV: 6.2/44.8 (GPA: 2.1/15.8; MPA: 3.4/23.8; EGPA: 0.6/5.3); IgAV: 1.5/7.9; and CV: 0.2/0. The first epidemiological study of PSV in southern Spain corroborates their infrequency, with GCA and AAV as the PSV most often diagnosed. In southern Spain, the incidence and prevalence of PSV are lower than in northern Spain and in countries in the Northern Hemisphere.

  11. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies.

  12. MODELING AN IRRITANT GAS PLUME FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Dev D.; Reed, David; Feigley, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Plume dispersion modeling systems are often used in assessing human exposures to chemical hazards for epidemiologic study. We modeled the 2005 Graniteville, South Carolina, 54,915 kg railcar chlorine release using both the Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) and Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) plume modeling systems. We estimated the release rate by an engineering analysis combining semi-quantitative observations and fundamental physical principles. The use of regional meteorological conditions was validated by comparing concentration estimates generated by two source-location weather data sets. The HPAC model estimated a chlorine plume with 20 ppm outdoor concentrations up to 7 km downwind and 0.25 km upwind/downgrade. A comparative analysis of our two models showed that HPAC was the best candidate for use as a model system on which epidemiologic studies could be based after further model validation. Further validation studies are needed before individual exposure estimates can be reliable and the chlorine plume more definitively modeled. PMID:25772143

  13. Serum Biomarkers of (Anti)Oxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Eugène; Ruskovska, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (anti)oxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites) was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential). All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic) diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented. PMID:26580612

  14. Serum Biomarkers of (Anti)Oxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Eugène; Ruskovska, Tatjana

    2015-11-16

    In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (anti)oxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites) was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential). All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic) diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented.

  15. First molecular epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Amro, Ahmad; Gashout, Aisha; Al-Dwibe, Hamida; Zahangir Alam, Mohammad; Annajar, Badereddin; Hamarsheh, Omar; Shubar, Hend; Schönian, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Libya. The objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, epidemiological features of CL outbreaks in Libya including molecular identification of parasites, the geographical distribution of cases and possible scenarios of parasite transmission. We studied 450 patients that came from 49 areas distributed in 12 districts in north-west Libya. The patients' ages ranged from 9 months to 87 years (median age 25 years); 54% of the cases were males. Skin scrapings spotted on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was amplified and subsequently characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In total, 195 samples were successfully identified of which 148 (75.9%) were Leishmania major, and 47 (24.1%) Leishmania tropica. CL cases infected with L. major were found in all CL areas whereas L. tropica cases came mainly from Al Jabal Al Gharbi (46.4%), Misrata (17.8%) and Tarhuna districts (10.7%). A trend of seasonality was noticed for the infections with L. major which showed a clear peak between November and January, but was less pronounced for infections by L. tropica. The first molecular study on CL in Libya revealed that the disease is caused by L. major and L. tropica and the epidemiological patterns in the different foci were the same as in other Mediterranean foci of CL.

  16. First Molecular Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Amro, Ahmad; Gashout, Aisha; Al-Dwibe, Hamida; Zahangir Alam, Mohammad; Annajar, Badereddin; Hamarsheh, Omar; Shubar, Hend; Schönian, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Libya. The objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, epidemiological features of CL outbreaks in Libya including molecular identification of parasites, the geographical distribution of cases and possible scenarios of parasite transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 450 patients that came from 49 areas distributed in 12 districts in north-west Libya. The patients' ages ranged from 9 months to 87 years (median age 25 years); 54% of the cases were males. Skin scrapings spotted on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was amplified and subsequently characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In total, 195 samples were successfully identified of which 148 (75.9%) were Leishmania major, and 47 (24.1%) Leishmania tropica. CL cases infected with L. major were found in all CL areas whereas L. tropica cases came mainly from Al Jabal Al Gharbi (46.4%), Misrata (17.8%) and Tarhuna districts (10.7%). A trend of seasonality was noticed for the infections with L. major which showed a clear peak between November and January, but was less pronounced for infections by L. tropica. Conclusion The first molecular study on CL in Libya revealed that the disease is caused by L. major and L. tropica and the epidemiological patterns in the different foci were the same as in other Mediterranean foci of CL. PMID:22724036

  17. Dosimetric calculations for uranium miners for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J W; Blanchardon, E; Gregoratto, D; Hofmann, W; Karcher, K; Nosske, D; Tomásek, L

    2012-05-01

    Epidemiological studies on uranium miners are being carried out to quantify the risk of cancer based on organ dose calculations. Mathematical models have been applied to calculate the annual absorbed doses to regions of the lung, red bone marrow, liver, kidney and stomach for each individual miner arising from exposure to radon gas, radon progeny and long-lived radionuclides (LLR) present in the uranium ore dust and to external gamma radiation. The methodology and dosimetric models used to calculate these organ doses are described and the resulting doses for unit exposure to each source (radon gas, radon progeny and LLR) are presented. The results of dosimetric calculations for a typical German miner are also given. For this miner, the absorbed dose to the central regions of the lung is dominated by the dose arising from exposure to radon progeny, whereas the absorbed dose to the red bone marrow is dominated by the external gamma dose. The uncertainties in the absorbed dose to regions of the lung arising from unit exposure to radon progeny are also discussed. These dose estimates are being used in epidemiological studies of cancer in uranium miners.

  18. Interpreting epidemiologic studies of developmental neurotoxicity: conceptual and analytic issues.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, David C

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses issues pertaining to the validity, precision, and interpretation of epidemiologic studies of neurotoxicity. With regard to validity, the critical issues pertain to the appropriate strategy for confounder adjustment, particularly when confounders are complex, multi-faceted constructs, and to the need for greater clarity and transparency in articulating the causal relationships implicit in the analytic approach applied. With regard to precision, the critical issue is a need to identify the contributors to the substantial variability observed in the effect estimates that describe dose-response and dose-effect relationships. In addition to methodological sources, such as imprecision in estimating dose at the critical organ site(s), true inter-individual differences in susceptibility to a neurotoxicant could also contribute to the variability. Variability might be reduced by taking full account of factors such as co-exposures or health co-morbidities, genetic polymorphisms, and the social ecology of exposure. With regard to interpretation, we need to do a better job as a field conveying to risk assessors and others the ecological significance of the types of performance deficits observed following neurotoxicant exposure, emphasizing the distinction between individual and population risk. A final issue discussed is the need to define standards for the conduct, analysis, and reporting of epidemiologic studies of neurotoxicity, similar to those developed for other fields.

  19. Epidemiologic study of ankle fractures in a tertiary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Matsumura, Bruno Akio Rodrigues; Dotta, Thiago De Angelis Guerra; Pontin, Pedro Augusto; dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiology of ankle fractures surgically treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Medical records of patients admitted with foot and ankle fractures between 2006 and 2011 were revised. Seventy three ankle fractures that underwent surgical treatment were identified. The parameters analyzed included age, gender, injured side, AO and Gustilo & Anderson classification, associated injuries, exposure, need to urgent treatment, time to definitive treatment and early post-operative complications. Study design: retrospective epidemiological study. RESULTS: Male gender was predominant among subjects and the mean age was 27.5 years old. Thirty nine fractures resulted from traffic accidents and type B fracture according to AO classification was the most common. Twenty one were open fractures and 22 patients had associated injuries. The average time to definitive treatment was 6.5 days. Early post-operative complications were found in 21.3% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle fractures treated in a tertiary hospital of a large city in Brazil affect young people victims of high-energy accidents and present significant rates of associated injuries and post-operative complications. Level of Evidence IV, Cases Series. PMID:24868187

  20. [Possibilities of epidemiological studies via automated veterinary practice administration].

    PubMed

    Brouwer, H; Schouten, E G; Noordhuizen, J P; van Voorthuysen, P F

    1995-05-15

    This study of the occurrence of tumours in dogs was carried out in order to see whether veterinary medical records can be used for epidemiological research. The relationship between tumour occurrence and breed, sex, and age was investigated by using the electronic tumourcards for 16049 dogs from three veterinary practices. Striking results include the difference in tumour occurrence between sprayed bitches (11.31%) and intact bitches (6.58%), and the high percentage of mongrels with a tumour (78.15%). Such unexpected results may be the result of selection processes underlying the composition of the population. Because these registers do not use a standard diagnostic classification system, it is difficult to identify all dogs with a specific diagnosis. This means that registers cannot be used for aetiological epidemiological research. However, they do contain valuable information for veterinary health care research and can be used as a source of cases for case-control studies, provided that a suitable mans of standardization is used.

  1. The epidemiology of sports-related injuries in older adults: a central European epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Kammerlander, Christian; Braito, Matthias; Kates, Stephen; Jeske, Christian; Roth, Tobias; Blauth, Michael; Dallapozza, Christian

    2012-10-01

    The population is rapidly aging and remaining more active over the age of 65. An increasing number of sports related injuries in individuals 65 and older are thus anticipated. The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiology of sports injuries in the age group aged 65 and older. Data from the medical records of adults aged 65 years and older who were treated for sports-related injuries at a level one trauma center between December 1994 and February 2008 was collected and statistically analyzed. A total of 2635 patients met our inclusion criteria. There were 1647 men (62.5%) and 988 women (37.5%) with a mean age of 70.9 years. The yearly number of injuries doubled during the study period (1996-2007). The most common mechanism of injury was a simple fall from standing height (69%). Nearly 75% of all injuries occurred during alpine skiing, cycling or mountain climbing. The median Injury Severity Score was 4. Minor injuries and wounds (40%) were recorded most commonly followed by fractures (27%), sprains, ligament injuries (19%) and injuries of muscles and tendons (6%). The most frequent diagnoses were minor injuries to the head and ligament injuries around the knee joint. Injuries to the upper extremities occurred in 33.7%, injuries to the lower extremities in 29.4% and injuries to the head occurred in 20% of the patients. Women sustained substantially more fractures than men. Adults aged 65 and older are remaining active in sports, which results in higher numbers of sports related injuries in this age group. Identification of type, mechanism and distribution of the injuries can help with the recognition of risk factors for injury. This may enable us to develop appropriate preventative measures to reduce the incidence, and morbidity of such injuries.

  2. Progress of epidemiological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Guilan; Yin, Songnian

    2006-09-01

    Benzene is an organic solvent that has been used in industry for about 100 years throughout the world. Since 1973, a series of toxicological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene were conducted by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (CAPM) (1973-1986) and subsequently by a collaboration between the CAPM and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the United States that began in 1986, which was joined by investigators from the University of California at Berkeley, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and New York University. The findings demonstrated that the risk of leukemia and lymphoma among benzene-exposed workers was significantly increased, with elevated risks for leukemia present not only at higher exposure but also among workers exposed to under 10 ppm. Therefore, the benzene permissible level was decreased to 1.8 ppm (6 mg/m(3)) and benzene-induced leukemia is treated as an occupational cancer in China. The benzene permissible level is 1.0 in the United States and in several other developed countries and it has been suggested to be decreased to 0.5 ppm (ACGIH). A number of potential biomarkers are related to benzene exposure and poisoning. Some of these are benzene oxide-protein adducts, chromosome aberration of lymphocytes, and GPA mutations in erythrocytes, a decrease in B cell and CD4(-)T cell counts in peripheral blood, and altered expression of CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN, and PF4 in lymphocytes. Variation in multiple benzene metabolizing genes may be associated with risk of benzene hematotoxicity, including CYP2E1, MPO, NQO1, and GSTT1.

  3. Flavan-3-ols consumption and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Yang, Ying; He, Hongjuan; Chen, Erfei; Du, Le; Dong, Jing; Yang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous in vitro studies and animal model data have suggested that flavan-3-ols, the most common subclass of flavonoids in the diet, may exert protective effects against cancer, epidemiologic studies have reported inconclusive results for the association between flavan-3-ols intake and cancer risk. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies to investigate the preventive effects of flavan-3-ols on various types of cancers. A total of 43 epidemiologic studies, consisting of 25 case-control and 18 prospective cohort studies, were included. A significant inverse association was shown between flavan-3-ols intake and the risk of overall cancer (relative risk (RR) 0.935, 95%CI: 0.891-0.981). When cancer types were separately analyzed, a statistically significant protective effect of flavan-3-ols consumption was observed in rectal cancer (RR 0.838, 95%CI: 0.733-0.958), oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer (RR 0.759, 95%CI: 0.581-0.993), breast (RR 0.885, 95%CI: 0.790-0.991) in case-control studies and stomach cancer in women (RR 0.633, 95%CI: 0.468-0.858). Our analysis indicates the potential benefits of flavan-3-ols in cancer prevention. PMID:27634884

  4. Epidemiologic study of ankle fractures in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Matsumura, Bruno Akio Rodrigues; Dotta, Thiago De Angelis Guerra; Pontin, Pedro Augusto; Dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of ankle fractures surgically treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. Medical records of patients admitted with foot and ankle fractures between 2006 and 2011 were revised. Seventy three ankle fractures that underwent surgical treatment were identified. The parameters analyzed included age, gender, injured side, AO and Gustilo & Anderson classification, associated injuries, exposure, need to urgent treatment, time to definitive treatment and early post-operative complications. retrospective epidemiological study. Male gender was predominant among subjects and the mean age was 27.5 years old. Thirty nine fractures resulted from traffic accidents and type B fracture according to AO classification was the most common. Twenty one were open fractures and 22 patients had associated injuries. The average time to definitive treatment was 6.5 days. Early post-operative complications were found in 21.3% of patients. Ankle fractures treated in a tertiary hospital of a large city in Brazil affect young people victims of high-energy accidents and present significant rates of associated injuries and post-operative complications. Level of Evidence IV, Cases Series.

  5. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Annette . E-mail: peters@gsf.de

    2005-09-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

  6. The contribution of epidemiology to the study of traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Alexander

    2004-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been a controversial construct because of the complex set of factors that have been hypothesized to influence its onset and prevalence, such as compensation and withdrawal from combat duty. Epidemiology has done much to objectively clarify these controversies in the study of stratified population samples. The symptoms characterizing PTSD have been repeatedly described in large population samples where compensation is not a confounding issue and this has done much to support the validity of the construct. Epidemiology has also highlighted that the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events is far greater than was previously estimated. Emphasizing the importance of these events is accounting for the major burden of disease. Kessler (2000) has suggested the socio-economic effects of PTSD represent a burden of disease not dissimilar to that associated with depression. Traumatic events provide a unique opportunity to implement a preventative and public health approach to the management of psychiatric morbidity. Of particular importance is the apparent longevity of the influence that these events have on psychological adjustment.

  7. Asymptomatic infection with American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological and immunological studies

    PubMed Central

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika I; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R

    2016-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1) epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2) immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage. PMID:27759762

  8. [Vascular risk factors and Alzheimer disease risk: epidemiological studies review].

    PubMed

    Cowppli-Bony, Pascale; Dartigues, Jean-François; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc

    2006-03-01

    Etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still undefined in its most frequent sporadic type, but a role of vascular risk factor is more and more evocated in its pathophysiology. This role enables to hope that preventive or curative care of vascular risk factors could decrease AD incidence. Among these factors, high blood pressure, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and tobacco consumption were the most studied. We review the risk for AD, which had been associated with each of these factors in epidemiological studies. High blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of AD in most studies while the results are more controversial for the others factors. All these four vascular risk factors have variable interaction with the presence of cerebrovascular diseases and of the epsilon 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene which is a predisposition factor for sporadic AD.

  9. Methodological issues of confounding in analytical epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Hajian Tilaki, Karimollah

    2012-01-01

    Confounding can be thought of as mixing the effect of exposure on the risk of disease with a third factor which distorts the measure of association such as risk ratio or odds ratio. This bias arises because of complex functional relationship of confounder with both exposure and disease (outcome). In this article, we provided a conceptual framework review of confounding issues in epidemiologic studies, in particular in observational studies and nonrandomized experimental studies. We have shown in 2 by 2 tables with analytical examples how the index of association will be distorted when confounding is present. The criteria, source of confounding and several points in confounding issues have been addressed. The advantages and disadvantages of several strategies for control of confounding have been discussed.

  10. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30. Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women.

  11. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. Aims To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Method Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ⩾30. Results Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Conclusions Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women. PMID:23661765

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of depressive episodes among student population in Wroclaw - epidemiological study results.

    PubMed

    Zagdańska, Marta; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and estimate prevalence of depressive episodes among Wroclaw's universities students. Polish adaptation of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was implemented to gather epidemiological data from 370 students of public universities in Wroclaw. Proportional stratified sampling was performed to obtain distinct, independent strata representing sex, year of study and educational profiles. Randomisation was ensured by recruitment procedures. Prevalence of depressive episodes among students in Wroclaw is high - 14.7% throughout life, 9.8% within 12 months prior to the interview. High prevalence of severe and moderate depressive episodes seems to be worrisome (respectively 5.1% and 6.6% throughout life, 3.8% and 3.9% within 12 months prior to the study). Year of study, profile and lack of partner relationship remain risk factor for depression. High prevalence of depressive episodes indicates the need for prevention and therapy based on epidemiological data and tailored to the students' needs. Depression among students requires further epidemiological studies.

  13. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality), 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction), and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality). Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. PMID:19995424

  14. Epidemiologic studies of the human microbiome and cancer.

    PubMed

    Vogtmann, Emily; Goedert, James J

    2016-02-02

    The human microbiome, which includes the collective genome of all bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and viruses found in and on the human body, is altered in many diseases and may substantially affect cancer risk. Previously detected associations of individual bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori), periodontal disease, and inflammation with specific cancers have motivated studies considering the association between the human microbiome and cancer risk. This short review summarises microbiome research, focusing on published epidemiological associations with gastric, oesophageal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and other cancers. Large, prospective studies of the microbiome that employ multidisciplinary laboratory and analysis methods, as well as rigorous validation of case status, are likely to yield translational opportunities to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality by improving prevention, screening, and treatment.

  15. Exposure Assessment Issues in Epidemiology Studies of Phthalates

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Lauren E.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Galizia, Audrey; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review exposure assessment issues that need to be addressed in designing and interpreting epidemiology studies of phthalates, a class of chemicals commonly used in consumer and personal care products. Specific issues include population trends in exposure, temporal reliability of a urinary metabolite measurement, and how well a single urine sample may represent longer-term exposure. The focus of this review is on seven specific phthalates: diethyl phthalate (DEP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diisononyl phthalate (DiNP); and diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP). Methods Comprehensive literature search using multiple search strategies Results Since 2001, declines in population exposure to DEP, BBzP, DBP, and DEHP have been reported in the United States and Germany, but DEHP exposure has increased in China. Although the half-lives of various phthalate metabolites are relatively short (3 to 18 hours), the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for phthalate metabolites, based on spot and first morning urine samples collected over a week to several months, range from weak to moderate, with a tendency toward higher ICCs (greater temporal stability) for metabolites of the shorter-chained (DEP, DBP, DiBP and BBzP, ICCs generally 0.3 to 0.6) compared with those of the longer-chained (DEHP, DiNP, DiDP, ICCs generally 0.1 to 0.3) phthalates. Additional research on optimal approaches to addressing the issue of urine dilution in studies of associations between biomarkers and different type of health effects is needed. Conclusions In conclusion, the measurement of urinary metabolite concentrations in urine could serve as a valuable approach to estimating exposure to phthalates in environmental epidemiology studies. Careful consideration of the strengths and limitations of this approach when interpreting study results is required. PMID:26313703

  16. Epidemiological study of autism spectrum disorder in China.

    PubMed

    Wong, Virginia C N; Hui, Stella L H

    2008-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic pattern of autism spectrum disorder in Chinese children. An autism spectrum disorder registry has been established in Hong Kong since 1986 by collecting data in a single center (the only university-affiliated child assessment center in Hong Kong). Since 1997, inpatient data from all public hospitals under the Hospital Authority have been stored in a central computerized program and retrieved from the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System. Clinical data have also been retrieved through the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System to ensure the completion of the registry, and these suspected cases have undergone the same diagnostic evaluation for autism spectrum disorder, as some of the new autism cases might be hospitalized in the public hospital. The incidence and prevalence of autism spectrum disorder have been calculated for the period of 1986 to 2005 using the population statistics available in the government for children less than 15 years old in Hong Kong. This study has included 4 247 206 person-years from 1986 to 2005 for children less than 15 years old and 1 174 322 person-years for those less than 5 years old in Hong Kong. Altogether, 645 children 0 to 4 years old with diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder were identified from 1986 to 2005. The estimated incidence of autism spectrum disorder was 5.49 per 10 000. The prevalence was 16.1 per 10 000 for children less than 15 years old for the same period. The male to female ratio was 6.58:1. This is the first reported epidemiologic study of autism spectrum disorder in Chinese children. The incidence rate is similar to those reported in Australia and North America and is lower than Europeans.

  17. Cardiac arrest and resuscitation epidemiology in Singapore (CARE I study).

    PubMed

    Eng Hock Ong, Marcus; Chan, Yiong Huak; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Lau, Siew Tiang; Lim, Swee Han; Seldrup, Jorgen

    2003-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Singapore, the emergency medical services (EMS) response, and to identify possible areas for improvement. This prospective observational study constitutes phase I of the Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation Epidemiology (CARE) project. Included were all patients with nontraumatic OHCA conveyed by the national emergency ambulance service. Patient characteristics, cardiac arrest circumstances, EMS response, and outcomes were recorded according to the Utstein style. From October 1, 2001, to April 30, 2002, 548 patients were enrolled into the study. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 62.2 (17.9) years, with a male predominance (65.6%). A total of 59.8% of collapses occurred at home, 35.3% of arrests were not witnessed, and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation was present for 20.6%. Mean (SD) time from collapse to call received by EMS was 10.6 (13.1) minutes. Mean (SD) EMS response time was 10.2 (4.3) minutes. Mean (SD) time from call to defibrillation was 16.7 (7.2) minutes. Mean (SD) on-scene time was 9.9 (4.5) minutes. First presenting rhythm at the scene was asystole in 54.5%, pulseless electrical activity 22.9%, ventricular fibrillation 19.6%, and ventricular tachycardia 0.4%. Of all cardiac arrests, 351 had resuscitation attempted and were of cardiac origin. Among these patients, 17.9% had return of spontaneous circulation, 8.5% survived to hospital admission, and 2.0% survived to discharge. CARE I establishes the baseline for the evaluation of incremental introduction of prehospital Advanced Cardiac Life Support interventions planned for future phases. Continuing efforts should be made to strengthen all chains of survival. This represents the most comprehensive OHCA study yet conducted in Singapore.

  18. A Descriptive Epidemiology Study of Oral Cleft in Sergipe, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Luiza, Andrea; Noronha de Góis, Diego; Santos, Jadson Alípio Santana de Sousa; Brito de Oliveira, Rosany Larissa; Ferreira da Silva, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nonsyndromic orofacial cleft is the fourth most common birth defect, but in Brazil, data about the cleft epidemiology are not accurate. Objective This study aimed to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of oral cleft cases at Specialized Society Attending Cleft Patient in Sergipe State. Methods Data were obtained from patients' medical records in relation to the following characteristics: age; gender; race; origin; cleft type; additional malformations and/or complications; prenatal accomplishment; treatment applied. For diagnosis analysis, it was noted if mothers had received prenatal care and if they had ultrasonography performed and if the cleft was viewed in it. Results We observed a prevalence of male gender (54%). Age between 0 and 4 years old was most prevalent (53%), and pheoderma race was observed in 47%. Transincisive foramen cleft was found in 52.3% of the individuals. The prevalence of pre- and transincisive foramen cleft was higher in men (66.3 and 55.7%), women accounted for 65.0% of postincisive foramen, and atypical facial cleft (0.3%) occurred in one case. Associated malformations and complications were present in 12% of patients. Prenatal care was reported by 48% of the mothers. Conclusion In this study male gender was the most affected, and 0 to 4 years was the most frequent age group. Transincisive foramen cleft type was most frequently encountered. Prenatal care was reported by most mothers. So, this study found that early treatment is a reality in SEAFESE (Service Specializing in Cleft Care of Sergipe), and consequently the chances of successful integration of the child to society will be better. PMID:25992043

  19. Epidemiological study of multiple sclerosis in La Rioja.

    PubMed

    Bártulos Iglesias, M; Marzo Sola, M E; Estrella Ruiz, L A; Bravo Anguiano, Y

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease that causes severe disability in younger patients. Many epidemiology studies have confirmed a variable prevalence. The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence of this disease in La Rioja (Spain), using such variables as age and sex; type of progression, initial form of the disease, EDSS and number of relapses; disease-modifying treatment and reasons for treatment withdrawal; personal and family history of cancer; and incidence and mortality. Analysis of patients in La Rioja diagnosed with MS (according to Poser criteria or the 2005 McDonald criteria) during a 10-year period (2001-2011). Data were collected from hospital records, multiple sclerosis associations, and personal records kept by neurologists. The MS prevalence rate in La Rioja is 65 patients/100 000 inhabitants with an incidence rate of 3.5 cases/100 000 residents per year. Relapsing-remitting MS is present in 67.6% of the patient total. Mean age of onset is 20-29 years (range, 12 to 70). Most EDSS scores were mostly ≤ 2. Untreated MS cases account for 47.6% of the total and the most commonly used therapy is interferon. We detected 4 haematological tumours and 7 families with multiple members affected by MS. Prevalence and incidence are similar to those found in other regions Spain. The average age at onset age for primary progressive MS is slightly higher than in other papers (40-49 years). In families with multiple patients, MS may be more aggressive. Disability in these patients remains very severe. We require more epidemiology studies with a variety of data gathering methods to support findings for prevalence obtained in different provinces. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiology and Registry Studies of Stroke in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in Japan. This review introduces two epidemiologic studies and four registry studies of stroke in Japan. The Hisayama Study was begun as a population-based prospective cohort study of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in 1961 in the town of Hisayama. Most of the deceased subjects of the study underwent autopsy examinations from the beginning of the study. Changes in stroke trends in the last 50 years were clarified by comparison of data from different study cohorts registered every 13 to 14 years. The Suita Study was based on a random sampling of Japanese urban residents. Several reports from this study showed the significance of pre-hypertension, as well as hypertension, as a risk factor for stroke by itself and in combination with other underlying characteristics. In addition, the Japan Multicenter Stroke Investigators' Collaboration (J-MUSIC), the Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study, the Fukuoka Stroke Registry, and the Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk-factor Assessment and Improvement (SAMURAI) rt-PA Registry are explained as registry studies involving Japanese stroke patients. PMID:24324936

  1. Epidemiology and registry studies of stroke in Japan.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in Japan. This review introduces two epidemiologic studies and four registry studies of stroke in Japan. The Hisayama Study was begun as a population-based prospective cohort study of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in 1961 in the town of Hisayama. Most of the deceased subjects of the study underwent autopsy examinations from the beginning of the study. Changes in stroke trends in the last 50 years were clarified by comparison of data from different study cohorts registered every 13 to 14 years. The Suita Study was based on a random sampling of Japanese urban residents. Several reports from this study showed the significance of pre-hypertension, as well as hypertension, as a risk factor for stroke by itself and in combination with other underlying characteristics. In addition, the Japan Multicenter Stroke Investigators' Collaboration (J-MUSIC), the Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study, the Fukuoka Stroke Registry, and the Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk-factor Assessment and Improvement (SAMURAI) rt-PA Registry are explained as registry studies involving Japanese stroke patients.

  2. An epidemiological study of lens opacities among steel workers

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, J.; Sweetnam, P. M.; Warner, C. G.; Graham, P. A.; Cochrane, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Wallace, J., Sweetnam, P. M., Warner, C. G., Graham, P. A., and Cochrane, A. L. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 265-271. An epidemiological study of lens opacities among steel workers. To investigate the relationship between the prevalence of cataract and heat exposure, two groups of steel workers, differing widely in their heat exposure, were examined. Estimates of heat exposure were based on detailed industrial histories and (a) subjective estimates of heat exposure associated with various occupations and (b) actual measurements. Only two cases of cataract were found that would be generally accepted as `occupational' in origin, but a higher prevalence of the common form of cataract was found in the heat-exposed group than in the non-exposed group. PMID:5557847

  3. Probabilistic Approaches to Better Quantifying the Results of Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Paul; McCandless, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Typical statistical analysis of epidemiologic data captures uncertainty due to random sampling variation, but ignores more systematic sources of variation such as selection bias, measurement error, and unobserved confounding. Such sources are often only mentioned via qualitative caveats, perhaps under the heading of ‘study limitations.’ Recently, however, there has been considerable interest and advancement in probabilistic methodologies for more integrated statistical analysis. Such techniques hold the promise of replacing a confidence interval reflecting only random sampling variation with an interval reflecting all, or at least more, sources of uncertainty. We survey and appraise the recent literature in this area, giving some prominence to the use of Bayesian statistical methodology. PMID:20617044

  4. [Epidemiologic Study of Mortality during summer 2003 in Italy].

    PubMed

    Conti, Susanna; Meli, Paola; Minelli, Giada; Solimini, Renata; Toccaceli, Virgilia; Vichi, Monica; Beltrano, M Carmen; Perini, Luigi

    2004-01-01

    Following the unusually hot summer this year and the dramatic news from neighboring countries such as France, the Italian Minister of Health requested an epidemiologic mortality study during summer 2003, to investigate whether there had been an excess of deaths in Italy, particularly for the elderly population. Communal offices, which provide vital statistics, were asked for the number of deaths among resident people, occurred from June 1 to August 31, for 2003 and 2002, for the 21 Italian regions capitals. A mortality increase of 3,134 deaths was observed for 2003; most of them (92%) were people aged 75 years and older. The highest increases were observed in the North Western cities (Turin, Milan, Genoa). The relationship between mortality and climatic indexes (T. max, Humidex) was investigated and a clear correlation was observed.

  5. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  6. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Tossa, Paul; Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Hartemann, Philippe; Mathieu, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days). 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]). A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method) was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04). Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of Legionella. PMID:16646972

  7. [Tinea capitis: Main mycosis child. Epidemiological study on 10years].

    PubMed

    Kallel, A; Hdider, A; Fakhfakh, N; Belhadj, S; Belhadj-Salah, N; Bada, N; Chouchen, A; Ennigrou, S; Kallel, K

    2017-09-01

    Despite the changes in their epidemiology, and the improving level of hygiene of the population, tinea capitis is still considered a public health problem in our country, and is the most common type of dermatophytosis in our country. The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and mycological features of tinea capitis in children encountered in the Tunis region. A retrospective study concerned 1600 children aged 6 months to 15 years suspected to have tinea capitis was conducted in Parasitology-Mycology laboratory, Rabta hospital, over a 10-years period (2005-2014). Dermatophyte infections were confirmed using scalp scrapings examinated with direct microscopy using potash at 30% and/or culture on Sabouraud medium agar. Tinea capitis diagnosis was confirmed in 947 cases (59.18%). The sex ratio was 2.61 and the average age of 6.28 years with predominance in the age group of 4 to 8 years (52.27%). The most common clinical presentation was ringworm (87.65%). Ringworm large plaque was predominant (65.9%). Direct examination was positive in 884 cases (93.35%). Microsporic tinea was the most frequent (63.25%) followed by trichophytic tinea (29.78%). Positive cultures of dermatophytes were obtained in 912 cases (96.30%). The following dermatophyte species were isolated: Microsporum canis (67%), Trichophyton violaceum (31.68%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0.66%), Microsporum audouinii (0.22%), Trichophyton schoenleinii (0.22%) and Microsporum gypseum (0.22%). M. canis is currently the most frequently incriminated species in tinea capitis in Tunisia. This change is related to a change in behavior of our population, in fact the cat; main reservoir of M. canis cohabiting increasingly with Tunisian families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  9. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Tossa, Paul; Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Hartemann, Philippe; Mathieu, Laurence

    2006-04-28

    Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days). 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122-0.127]). A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 10(4).L(-1) (FISH method) was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04). Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of Legionella.

  10. Cycloplegic refraction is the gold standard for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ian G; Iribarren, Rafael; Fotouhi, Akbar; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Many studies on children have shown that lack of cycloplegia is associated with slight overestimation of myopia and marked errors in estimates of the prevalence of emmetropia and hyperopia. Non-cycloplegic refraction is particularly problematic for studies of associations with risk factors. The consensus around the importance of cycloplegia in children left undefined at what age, if any, cycloplegia became unnecessary. It was often implicitly assumed that cycloplegia is not necessary beyond childhood or early adulthood, and thus, the protocol for the classical studies of refraction in older adults did not include cycloplegia. Now that population studies of refractive error are beginning to fill the gap between schoolchildren and older adults, whether cycloplegia is required for measuring refractive error in this age range, needs to be defined. Data from the Tehran Eye Study show that, without cycloplegia, there are errors in the estimation of myopia, emmetropia and hyperopia in the age range 20-50, just as in children. Similar results have been reported in an analysis of data from the Beaver Dam Offspring Eye Study. If the only important outcome measure of a particular study is the prevalence of myopia, then cycloplegia may not be crucial in some cases. But, without cycloplegia, measurements of other refractive categories as well as spherical equivalent are unreliable. In summary, the current evidence suggests that cycloplegic refraction should be considered as the gold standard for epidemiological studies of refraction, not only in children, but in adults up to the age of 50.

  11. Bisphenol A and indicators of obesity, glucose metabolism/type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of epidemiologic research.

    PubMed

    Lakind, Judy S; Goodman, Michael; Mattison, Donald R

    2014-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a high-volume chemical with weak estrogenic properties, has been linked to obesity, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). This review evaluates both the consistency and the quality of epidemiological evidence from studies testing the hypothesis that BPA exposure is a risk factor for these health outcomes. We followed the current methodological guidelines for systematic reviews by using two independent researchers to identify, review and summarize the relevant epidemiological literature on the relation of BPA to obesity, CVD, DM, or related biomarkers. Each paper was summarized with respect to its methods and results with particular attention to study design and exposure assessment, which have been cited as the main areas of weakness in BPA epidemiologic research. As quantitative meta-analysis was not feasible, the study results were categorized qualitatively as positive, inverse, null, or mixed. Nearly all studies on BPA and obesity-, DM- or CVD-related health outcomes used a cross-sectional design and relied on a single measure of BPA exposure, which may result in serious exposure misclassification. For all outcomes, results across studies were inconsistent. Although several studies used the same data and the same or similar statistical methods, when the methods varied slightly, even studies that used the same data produced different results. Epidemiological study design issues severely limit our understanding of health effects associated with BPA exposure. Considering the methodological limitations of the existing body of epidemiology literature, assertions about a causal link between BPA and obesity, DM, or CVD are unsubstantiated.

  12. [Multicentric lymphoma in 411 dogs - an epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Ernst, Theresa; Kessler, Martin; Lautscham, Esther; Willimzig, Lisanne; Neiger, Reto

    2016-08-17

    To provide an overview of the epidemiology of canine multicentric lymphoma in Germany. A total of 411 dogs with multicentric malignant lymphoma were retrospectively analysed regarding breed, age, sex, weight and the number of animals dogs with hypercalcaemic lymphoma and B-/T-immunophenotype, and compared to two reference populations (total own clinic population, n   =   52  142; dogs with health insurance in Germany, n   =   123  423). In total, 298 (72.5%) of the 411 dogs belonged to 86 different breeds, while 113 (27.5%) dogs were mixed breed. In comparison to both reference populations, a breed predisposition for the American Pitbull Terrier (odds ratio [OR] 5.2 and 18.5), American Staffordshire Terrier (OR 3.3 and 4.6), Briard (OR 5.6 and 9.5), Bullmastiff (OR 7.8 and 5.0), Irish Setter (OR 3.3 and 4.1) and Rottweiler (OR 2.8 and 3.6) was found. Golden Retrievers (n = 22, OR 1.3 and 0.9) and Bernese Mountain Dogs (n = 22, OR 2.4 and 2.0) were frequently affected in absolute numbers, but when compared to the reference populations an OR < 3 was detected. Mean body weight was 30.2 ± 13.7 kg; only 75 (18%) dogs weighed < 15 kg. Amongst the small dogs (< 15 kg), there was a large number of West Highland White Terriers (n = 12). Mean age of the dogs with lymphoma was 7.9 ± 2.7 years. Dogs weighing ≥ 15 kg were significantly (p < 0.001) younger (7.6 ± 2.4 years) compared to dogs weighing < 15 kg (9.3 ± 3.2 years). Dogs with a B-cell immunophenotype (8.5 ± 2.6 years) were significantly older compared to dogs with a T-cell immunophenotype (6.4 ± 1.8 years) (p < 0.001). There was no gender predisposition (54% male, 46% female). Hypercalcaemia as an indicator of T-cell lymphoma was present in 44 (11.4%) of the dogs. A T-cell and B-cell immunophenotype was found in 20.6% and 79.4% of the dogs, respectively. This study confirms previous data about breed predispositions for canine malignant multicentric

  13. Biological Indicators in Studies of Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, A. Ya.; Deshcherevskii, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    Time series of data on variations in the electric activity (EA) of four species of weakly electric fish Gnathonemus leopoldianus and moving activity (MA) of two cat-fishes Hoplosternum thoracatum and two groups of Columbian cockroaches Blaberus craniifer were analyzed. The observations were carried out in the Garm region of Tajikistan within the frameworks of the experiments aimed at searching for earthquake precursors. An automatic recording system continuously recorded EA and DA over a period of several years. Hourly means EA and MA values were processed. Approximately 100 different parameters were calculated on the basis of six initial EA and MA time series, which characterize different variations in the EA and DA structure: amplitude of the signal and fluctuations of activity, parameters of diurnal rhythms, correlated changes in the activity of various biological indicators, and others. A detailed analysis of the statistical structure of the total array of parametric time series obtained in the experiment showed that the behavior of all animals shows a strong temporal variability. All calculated parameters are unstable and subject to frequent changes. A comparison of the data obtained with seismicity allow us to make the following conclusions: (1) The structure of variations in the studied parameters is represented by flicker noise or even a more complex process with permanent changes in its characteristics. Significant statistics are required to prove the cause-and-effect relationship of the specific features of such time series with seismicity. (2) The calculation of the reconstruction statistics in the EA and MA series structure demonstrated an increase in their frequency in the last hours or a few days before the earthquake if the hypocenter distance is comparable to the source size. Sufficiently dramatic anomalies in the behavior of catfishes and cockroaches (changes in the amplitude of activity variation, distortions of diurnal rhythms, increase in the

  14. Atopy and Specific Cancer Sites: a Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubao; Hill, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence appears to link asthma and atopy to cancer susceptibility. This review presents and discusses published epidemiological studies on the association between site-specific cancers and atopy. PubMed was searched electronically for publications between 1995 and 2015, and cited references were researched manually. Quantitative studies relating to atopy, allergy, or asthma and cancer were identified and tabulated. Despite many exposure-related limitations, patterns in the studies were observed. Asthma, specifically, has been observed to be a risk factor for lung cancer. A protective effect of atopic diseases against pancreatic cancer has been shown consistently in case-control studies but not in cohort studies. Allergy of any type appears to be protective against glioma and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Most studies on atopic diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma or colorectal cancer reported an inverse association. The other sites identified had varying and non-significant outcomes. Further research should be dedicated to carefully defined exposure assessments of "atopy" as well as the biological plausibility in the association between atopic diseases and cancer.

  15. [Polish Multicenter Study on Diabetes Epidemiology (PMSDE)--1998-2000].

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Z

    2001-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a growing health problem at all ages in all countries. The Saint Vincent Declaration signed by the representatives of all European countries--among them by Poland--indicated the main goals to reduce this burden. This may be achieved by elaboration and initiation of the nation-wide programme for early detection and control of diabetes on the population level. The Polish Task Force for Diabetes Management worked out and put into operation in 1998 the project commissioned by the Ministry of Health funded by the Polish State Committee for Research (PBZ-018-11). The urgent need for the implementation of this programme was a result of the increasing number of diabetic patients on the primary health care level, diabetic complications and hospitalisations. The programme was based on the assumption that primary and secondary prevention of NIDDM may eliminate or reduce its risk factors and therefore decrease its prevalence and morbidity and should integrate epidemiology, identification of risk factors, education, intervention models and economics of diabetes. This issue of the Polish Archives of Internal Medicine contains the main results of the programme and reflects an actual situation of diabetes in Poland creating a rational basis for intervention on the population level. Evaluation of the incidence rate of the diabetes type 1 in 10 selected areas (population basis 30% of age group 0-29) revealed values from 8.4 to 14.7/100,000 in the age group 1-14 and from 4.4 to 11.2/100,000 in the age group 15-29. It accounts for the 2-3 fold increase in comparison with the results achieved in 1986 (Z. Szybinski). However an ascertainment of the register in the age group 15-29 dropped down during the last 10 years and additional sources of data must be involved in the survey. Prevalence of diabetes type 2 in 3 selected areas Krakow 10.77% (M. Szurkowska), Lublin 15.6% (J. Łopatynski) and Łódź 15.7% (J. Drzewoski) based on the population random sample over 35

  16. Obesity effects on depression: systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Atlantis, E; Baker, M

    2008-06-01

    Obesity is a well-known cause of cardiovascular disease burden and premature death, but effects on psychological morbidity remain uncertain. This article reports findings following a systematic review of epidemiological studies to determine whether obesity causes depression. Multiple databases were searched for English-language studies of etiology of obesity (exposure variable, analyzed as an ordered category) on depression outcomes (dependent variables, continuous or categorical). Studies in children and in women during pregnancy or postpartum were excluded, as were nonrepresentative cross-sectional studies. Searches and identification of studies for inclusion were performed by EA, whereas a descriptive synthesis of important study characteristics was undertaken independently by us. We reviewed 24 out of approximately 4500 potentially relevant studies; 4 were prospective cohort studies and 20 were cross-sectional studies (10 from the United States). Effect measures reported in all prospective cohort studies were consistent and suggested that obesity may increase the odds of future depression outcomes (symptoms or nonclinical diagnosis of depression). Effect measures reported in most cross-sectional studies from the United States supported the hypothesized association between obesity and prevalence of depression outcomes for women but not men, in contrast most cross-sectional studies from populations other than the United States consistently failed to find such associations. Overall, there is a weak level of evidence supporting the hypothesis that obesity increases the incidence of depression outcomes. Few high-quality prospective cohort studies exist, and cross-sectional studies account for the vast body of published evidence, and therefore firm conclusions for causality cannot yet be drawn. Our finding warrants additional high-quality etiological research on this topic.

  17. Parental occupation and childhood cancer: review of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, D A; Chen, J H

    1990-01-01

    Parental occupational exposures might affect childhood cancer in the offspring through genetic changes in the ovum or sperm or through transplacental carcinogenesis. The 24 published epidemiologic studies of this association have all used case-control designs, with controls generally selected from birth certificates or from general population sampling. Occupational exposures were inferred from job titles on birth certificates or through interviews. A large number of occupation-cancer associations have been reported, many of which were not addressed or not confirmed in other studies. Several associations have been found with consistency: paternal exposures in hydrocarbon-associated occupations, the petroleum and chemical industries, and especially paint exposures have been associated with brain cancer; paint exposures have also been linked to leukemias. Maternal exposures have received much less attention, but studies have yielded strongly suggestive results linking a variety of occupational exposures to leukemia and brain cancer. The primary limitations in this literature are the inaccuracy inherent in assigning exposure based on job title alone and imprecision due to limited study size. Although no etiologic associations have been firmly established by these studies, the public health concerns and suggestive data warrant continued research. PMID:2272330

  18. 10 CFR 602.5 - Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance... AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. (a) DOE may issue under this part awards for research,...

  19. 77 FR 62518 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) Request for Generic Clearance SUMMARY: In compliance...: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III). Type of Information Collection Request... Evaluation ] Study-III (REDS-III) program is to ensure safe and effective blood banking and transfusion...

  20. Epidemiology of Postherpetic Neuralgia in Korea: An Electronic Population Health Insurance System Based Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Myong-Joo; Kim, Yeon-Dong; Cheong, Yong-Kwan; Park, Seon-Jeong; Choi, Seung-Won; Hong, Hyon-Joo

    2016-04-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a disease entity defined as persistent pain after the acute pain of herpes zoster gradually resolves. It is associated with impaired daily activities, resulting in reduced quality of life. General epidemiological data on PHN is necessary for the effective management. However, data on the epidemiology of PHN in Korea is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of PHN in the general population.We used population-based medical data for 51,448,491 subscribers to the Health Insurance Service in the year of 2013 to analyze of PHN epidemiology in Korea, such as the incidence, regional distribution, seasonal variation, and healthcare resource utilization. Total number of patients and medical cost on PHN were analyzed from 2009 to 2013.Findings indicate that the incidence of PHN in Korea was 2.5 per 1000 person-years, which was strongly correlated with age and sex. There were no differences in seasonal variation or regional distribution. The medical cost increased steadily over the study period. When admitted to general hospitals, patients with PHN were mainly managed in the dermatology and anesthesiology departments.The incidence and prevalence rates of PHN in Koreans appear to be considerably higher compared to those in western populations, while the sex and age predisposition was similar. Considering that the pain associated with PHN can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life resulting in a medicosocial economic burden, anesthesiology physicians have an important role in primary care in Korea. Future research on the cost-effectiveness of the management of PHN is needed.

  1. [Association of atopic eczema and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Apfelbacher, Christian; Heinrich, Joachim; Weidinger, Stephan; Romanos, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequent paediatric conditions with high medical relevance. A possible relationship between atopic diseases (i.e., AD, asthma, and allergic rhinitis) has long been discussed, but convincing evidence is still missing. We investigated the relationship between AD and ADHD in two cross-sectional studies and in two birth cohort studies considering lifestyle factors, environmental factors, and atopic comorbidities as potential confounders. To quantify the strength of association between AD and ADHD, data from the four epidemiologic studies were summarized by means of a meta-analysis. Odds ratios (OR) were pooled for the association between prevalent or previous AD and prevalent ADHD from the four studies adjusted for age, sex, and atopic comorbidity (allergic rhinitis, asthma). The epidemiologic studies conducted consistently indicate an association between AD and ADHD which is independent of environmental exposures and other comorbidities. Particularly infant AD appears to be associated with later development of ADHD symptoms. Sleeping problems due to AD are suggested as playing an important role for the observed association between AD and ADHD. The pooled OR (95 % confidence interval (95 %CI)) for the association between AD and ADHD was 1.43 (1.25-1.64). Four new epidemiologic studies consistently indicate a positive association between AD and ADHD. Compared to children without AD, children with previous or prevalent AD have an approximately 43 % increased risk to be diagnosed with ADHD or to display clinical ADHD symptoms. Following our findings, the biological mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidity between AD and ADHD require further investigation in order to subsequently develop targeted therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  2. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  3. Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E; Williams, David R; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies.

  4. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies1234

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made. PMID:24172305

  5. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  6. Invited commentary: recruiting for epidemiologic studies using social media.

    PubMed

    Allsworth, Jenifer E

    2015-05-15

    Social media-based recruitment for epidemiologic studies has the potential to expand the demographic and geographic reach of investigators and identify potential participants more cost-effectively than traditional approaches. In fact, social media are particularly appealing for their ability to engage traditionally "hard-to-reach" populations, including young adults and low-income populations. Despite their great promise as a tool for epidemiologists, social media-based recruitment approaches do not currently compare favorably with gold-standard probability-based sampling approaches. Sparse data on the demographic characteristics of social media users, patterns of social media use, and appropriate sampling frames limit our ability to implement probability-based sampling strategies. In a well-conducted study, Harris et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(10):737-746) examined the cost-effectiveness of social media-based recruitment (advertisements and promotion) in the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study, a cohort study of 3,799 young adult Australian women, and the approximate representativeness of the CUPID cohort. Implications for social media-based recruitment strategies for cohort assembly, data accuracy, implementation, and human subjects concerns are discussed.

  7. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.

  8. Epidemiological study of fixed drug eruption in Pointe-Noire.

    PubMed

    Ognongo-Ibiaho, A N; Atanda, H L

    2012-11-01

    A prospective study was conducted over a 27 month period in order to determine the epidemiological profile of fixed drug eruption (FDE) observed during a dermatological consultation at Pointe-Noire. During the study period 54 out of 9,070 persons consulting (0.6%) suffered from clinically diagnosed FDE. The variables studied were: age, sex, medicine and point of sale. The average age of onset was 30 years. The frequency of onset was higher in males (38 patients) than in females (16 patients). The incriminated medicines were: the sulfamides (48 patients) including Cotrimoxazole (45 patients ) and Sulfadoxine and Pyremethamine (3 patients) Coartem(®) + Doliprane(®) (1 patient), Chloramphenicol(®) (1 patient), Amidol(®) (1 patient), Duocotexin(®) + Paracetamol(®) (1 patient), Surquina(®) (1 patient), Amodiaquine(®) (1 patient). The point of sale was illicit (peddlers, markets) for 44 patients; for 10 patients it was a lawful outlet (pharmacies). This study shows that cotrimoxazole bought at illicit points of sale is the main etiology of FDE in the department, confirming that these medicines are counterfeit. The involvement of dermatologists in the fight against the illicit sale of medicines should be made a priority. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. [Oral contraceptive pill and thrombotic risk: epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Fruzzetti, F; Perini, D; Spirito, N; Manca, R

    2012-12-01

    The venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare event during childbearing age and during the assumption of combined oral contraceptive. The absolute risk of VTE in users of combined oral contraceptives is 20-30 per 100000 women years. A number of case-control studies published in recent years have shown an apparent increase in the risk of VTE among users of oral contraceptives (OCs) containing desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone and cyproterone, relative to the use of levonorgestrel. The data derived from these recent studies is of borderline statistical significance because any important factors are not considered to evaluate the real correlation between the assumption of OCs and risk of venous thromboembolism. Among the factors that should be considered, there are: EE dose, duration of use, coexistance of other risk factors of venous thromboembolism (age, BMI, familiarity, surgical interventions) and other prescription bias. The lack of these factors is likely to contribute to the increased risk of venous thromboembolism observed in users of third-generation OCs when compared to that in users of second-generation OCs. To date, because of the inadequacy of epidemiological studies, the data about the correlation between OCs and TVE, are not conclusive and it will be necessary to carry out other studies to clarify this debating point, definitively.

  10. Delirium epidemiology in critical care (DECCA): an international study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Delirium is a frequent source of morbidity in intensive care units (ICUs). Most data on its epidemiology is from single-center studies. Our aim was to conduct a multicenter study to evaluate the epidemiology of delirium in the ICU. Methods A 1-day point-prevalence study was undertaken in 104 ICUs from 11 countries in South and North America and Spain. Results In total, 975 patients were screened, and 497 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were enrolled (median age, 62 years; 52.5% men; 16.7% and 19.9% for ICU and hospital mortality); 64% were admitted to the ICU because of medical causes, and sepsis was the main diagnosis (n = 76; 15.3%). In total, 265 patients were sedated with the Richmond agitation and sedation scale (RASS) deeper than -3, and only 232 (46.6%) patients could be evaluated with the confusion-assessment method for the ICU. The prevalence of delirium was 32.3%. Compared with patients without delirium, those with the diagnosis of delirium had a greater severity of illness at admission, demonstrated by higher sequential organ-failure assessment (SOFA (P = 0.004)) and simplified acute physiology score 3 (SAPS3) scores (P < 0.0001). Delirium was associated with increased ICU (20% versus 5.7%; P = 0.002) and hospital mortality (24 versus 8.3%; P = 0.0017), and longer ICU (P < 0.0001) and hospital length of stay (LOS) (22 (11 to 40) versus 7 (4 to 18) days; P < 0.0001). Previous use of midazolam (P = 0.009) was more frequent in patients with delirium. On multivariate analysis, delirium was independently associated with increased ICU mortality (OR = 3.14 (1.26 to 7.86); CI, 95%) and hospital mortality (OR = 2.5 (1.1 to 5.7); CI, 95%). Conclusions In this 1-day international study, delirium was frequent and associated with increased mortality and ICU LOS. The main modifiable risk factors associated with the diagnosis of delirium were the use of invasive devices and sedatives (midazolam). PMID:21092264

  11. Low-dose radiation epidemiology studies: status and issues.

    PubMed

    Shore, Roy E

    2009-11-01

    Although the Japanese atomic bomb study and radiotherapy studies have clearly documented cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposures, radiation risk assessment groups have long recognized that protracted or low exposures to low-linear energy transfer radiations are key radiation protection concerns because these are far more common than high-exposure scenarios. Epidemiologic studies of human populations with low-dose or low dose-rate exposures are one approach to addressing those concerns. A number of large studies of radiation workers (Chernobyl clean-up workers, U.S. and Chinese radiological technologists, and the 15-country worker study) or of persons exposed to environmental radiation at moderate to low levels (residents near Techa River, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl, or nuclear facilities) have been conducted. A variety of studies of medical radiation exposures (multiple-fluoroscopy, diagnostic (131)I, scatter radiation doses from radiotherapy, etc.) also are of interest. Key results from these studies are summarized and compared with risk estimates from the Japanese atomic bomb study. Ideally, one would like the low-dose and low dose-rate studies to guide radiation risk estimation regarding the shape of the dose-response curve, DDREF (dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), and risk at low doses. However, the degree to which low-dose studies can do so is subject to various limitations, especially those pertaining to dosimetric uncertainties and limited statistical power. The identification of individuals who are particularly susceptible to radiation cancer induction also is of high interest in terms of occupational and medical radiation protection. Several examples of studies of radiation-related cancer susceptibility are discussed, but none thus far have clearly identified radiation-susceptible genotypes.

  12. [Epidemiological studies of rubella and cytomegalovirus infection in the North of the USSR].

    PubMed

    Kantorovich, R A; Kozlov, V G; Ral'f, N M; Zhuravel', G F; Agafonov, V M; Tenditnaia, L V

    1980-01-01

    Seroepidemiological characteristics of rubella and cytomegalovirus infection in the north of the USSR were studied. Examinations of 21,000 patients with rubella and serological survey of 1500 subjects revealed the identity of the main epidemiological indices and age changes in antibody to rubella virus in the northern and central parts of the USSR. The general percentage of seropositives to cytomegalovirus is significantly higher in the north than in other parts of the country. The importance of the observed findings for the determination of the incidence of congenital pathology due to rubella and cytomegalovirus infection in the north is discussed.

  13. Predicting cardiorespiratory fitness without exercise testing in epidemiologic studies: a concurrent validity study.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, B J

    1996-03-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) is the criterion measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. However, because it has traditionally been regarded as a costly, labor-intense measure to obtain, VO2 max assessment has seen only limited use in epidemiological studies. Recently, methods for predicting VO2 max have been developed that rely on a combination of self-report variables. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of two multivariable equations for estimating VO2 max in a sample of 123 females (M age = 38.8 + 8.4 yrs.). In one equation a seven-item physical activity index was used and in the other equation a single physical activity question was used. The between-formula relationship for predicted VO2 max values was significant (r = 0.80, p < 0.0001). Predicted VO2 max values were also positively related with other indices of physical activity (rs = 0.26 to 0.74). Preliminary results suggest there is a high degree of correlation between the two equations studied, as well as other indices of physical activity. These formulas may be of interest to epidemiologists in situations where direct methods of VO2 max assessment are not feasible.

  14. Characteristics of primary nocturnal enuresis in adults: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C K; Sihoe, J D Y; Sit, F K Y; Bower, W; Sreedhar, B; Lau, J

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) in adults in Hong Kong, as there are currently limited epidemiological data in adults. After a telephone survey, 8534 respondents (3996 males and 4538 females) aged 16-40 years were selected for the study and stratified in age groups. The questionnaire used comprised two parts; the first started with questions mainly about the general demographic background to decrease the sensitivity of the study and to establish rapport. The second part was conducted through an automated telephone interview service, with the questions being asked by recorded messages and the respondents then keying in their responses with no need to converse with an interviewer. This part included questions about enuretic symptoms and a subjective assessment of social and psychological effects of bedwetting, and measurements of the individual's self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale) and depression (The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale). Of the 8534 subjects interviewed, 196 had PNE, giving an overall prevalence of 2.3% (2.7% males and 2.0% females); of these 196, 36 (18.4%) also had daytime urinary incontinence. Hence, 1.9% of adults (2.2% males and 1.7% females) had monosymptomatic PNE. Of these, 53% wet >3 nights/week and 26% wet every night. Prevalence rates remained relatively stable among different age groups, with no apparent trend of a reduction with age. Compared with nonenuretic normal controls, significantly fewer enuretics reached tertiary education (33.4% vs 17.8%, P < 0.01). Bedwetters had a significantly higher incidence of depression and lower self-esteem, and a higher incidence of sleep disturbances than the control group. Among bedwetters, 32-40% felt that there was some effect on their choice of job, work performance and social activities, whilst 23% felt the condition affected their family life and in making friends of either sex. However, there was no significant difference

  15. Epidemiological Assessments of Skin Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Weinstock, Martin A.; Mashfiq, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to identifying epidemiological factors associated with multiple skin diseases, including skin cancer, psoriasis, and other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. Methods. We carried out a narrative review of NHS articles published between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHSs have identified environmental and lifestyle factors related to psoriasis, supporting obesity and smoking as psoriasis risk factors; associations between psoriasis and diabetes, myocardial infarction, and Crohn’s disease, supporting psoriasis as a systemic disorder; and associations of pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle factors such as citrus consumption with risk of skin cancer. Genetic studies have identified novel genetic loci for skin pigmentation (e.g., IRF4, SLC24A4, NID1, and EDNRB) and skin cancer (e.g., TET2 and HERC2-OCA2). Work continues on highly prevalent but less studied skin conditions such as rosacea, acne, and atopic dermatitis. The NHS results have influenced public health policies on indoor tanning devices. Conclusions. The NHSs have provided invaluable resources on skin disease population science and contributed to the etiological understanding of multiple skin disorders. PMID:27459457

  16. Epidemiological Assessments of Skin Outcomes in the Nurses' Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Weinstock, Martin A; Mashfiq, Hasan; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2016-09-01

    To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHSs) to identifying epidemiological factors associated with multiple skin diseases, including skin cancer, psoriasis, and other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. We carried out a narrative review of NHS articles published between 1976 and 2016. The NHSs have identified environmental and lifestyle factors related to psoriasis, supporting obesity and smoking as psoriasis risk factors; associations between psoriasis and diabetes, myocardial infarction, and Crohn's disease, supporting psoriasis as a systemic disorder; and associations of pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle factors such as citrus consumption with risk of skin cancer. Genetic studies have identified novel genetic loci for skin pigmentation (e.g., IRF4, SLC24A4, NID1, and EDNRB) and skin cancer (e.g., TET2 and HERC2-OCA2). Work continues on highly prevalent but less studied skin conditions such as rosacea, acne, and atopic dermatitis. The NHS results have influenced public health policies on indoor tanning devices. The NHSs have provided invaluable resources on skin disease population science and contributed to the etiological understanding of multiple skin disorders.

  17. Epidemiology of melasma in Brazilian patients: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Hexsel, Doris; Lacerda, Davi A; Cavalcante, Andrea S; Machado Filho, Carlos A S; Kalil, Célia Luiza P V; Ayres, Eloísa L; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Weber, Magda B; Serra, Marcio S; Lopes, Nádya F P; Cestari, Tania F

    2014-04-01

    Melasma is an acquired, irregularly patterned, light to dark-brown hypermelanosis, with symmetric distribution mostly over the face. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and factors related to melasma in Brazilian patients. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study performed in Brazil. Investigators examined and questioned 953 patients over 18 years of age on clinical characteristics and other factors related to their melasma. Melasma was more prevalent in women (97.5%) and in Fitzpatrick skin phototypes II (12.8%), III (36.3%), and IV (39.7%). Skin phototypes II and III and family history of melasma had early onset of the disorder when compared with skin phototypes IV, V, and VI (P<0.0001). Similar results were also observed when these same groups were compared with the absence of family history (P<0.0001). Extra-facial melasma was more frequent in postmenopausal women compared with those who were not experiencing menopause (14.2% vs. 3.5%, P<0.0001). Data suggested that the age of melasma onset are related to skin phototypes and family history. Additionally, extra-facial melasma was more common in menopausal women. This is the first study on the epidemiology of melasma in Brazil involving a large sample of the population. These data can be a source of new relevant research on the cause and development of melasma. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    Richard Kwok1, Pauline Mendola1 Zhixiong Ning2, Zhiyi Liu2 and Judy Mumford1

    1) Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA, R...

  19. ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ESTIMATING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    Richard Kwok1, Pauline Mendola1 Zhixiong Ning2, Zhiyi Liu2 and Judy Mumford1

    1) Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA, R...

  20. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  1. [Hereditary deafness in Kirov oblast: a genetic epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, R A; Osetrova, A A; Sharonova, E I; El'chinova, G I

    2012-03-01

    The results of a genetic epidemiological study of hereditary deafness (HD) in ten raions (districts) of Kirov oblast (administrative region), Russia, are presented. A total of 122 075 people have been examined. Segregation analysis of all families with diagnosed HD has demonstrated a good fit to either the autosomal dominant (AD) or autosomal recessive (AR) mode of inheritance. The total prevalence rates of AD and AR HDs, as well as the specific prevalence rates of nonsyndromic and syndromic forms of HD, have been calculated for the population often raions. The HD prevalence rate in Kirov oblast has been found to be 1 : 1043 people (1 : 1453 and 1 : 3699 for the nonsyndromic and syndromic forms, respectively). This value has been found to vary in different raions, which is explained by differences in the genetic subdivision levels of the populations studied; the correlation coefficient between the HD load and random inbreeding (F(ST)) in district populations is r = 0.81 +/- 0.22. The diversity of syndromic hearing disorders is described.

  2. Maximizing DNA Yield for Epidemiologic Studies: No More Buffy Coats?

    PubMed Central

    Gail, Mitchell H.; Sheehy, Tim; Cosentino, Mark; Pee, David; Diaz-Mayoral, Norma A.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Caporaso, Neil E.; Pitt, Karen; Ziegler, Regina G.

    2013-01-01

    Some molecular analyses require microgram quantities of DNA, yet many epidemiologic studies preserve only the buffy coat. In Frederick, Maryland, in 2010, we estimated DNA yields from 5 mL of whole blood and from equivalent amounts of all-cell-pellet (ACP) fraction, buffy coat, and residual blood cells from fresh blood (n = 10 volunteers) and from both fresh and frozen blood (n = 10). We extracted DNA with the QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, Maryland) for silica spin column capture and measured double-stranded DNA. Yields from frozen blood fractions were not statistically significantly different from those obtained from fresh fractions. ACP fractions yielded 80.6% (95% confidence interval: 66, 97) of the yield of frozen whole blood and 99.3% (95% confidence interval: 86, 100) of the yield of fresh blood. Frozen buffy coat and residual blood cells each yielded only half as much DNA as frozen ACP, and the yields were more variable. Assuming that DNA yield and quality from frozen ACP are stable, we recommend freezing plasma and ACP. Not only does ACP yield twice as much DNA as buffy coat but it is easier to process, and its yield is less variable from person to person. Long-term stability studies are needed. If one wishes to separate buffy coat before freezing, one should also save the residual blood cell fraction, which contains just as much DNA. PMID:23857774

  3. Is standard multivariate analysis sufficient in clinical and epidemiological studies?

    PubMed

    Cova, Tânia F G G; Pereira, Jorge L G F S C; Pais, Alberto A C C

    2013-02-01

    Clinical tests and epidemiological studies often produce large amounts of data, being multivariate in nature. The respective analysis is, in most cases, of importance comparable to the clinical and sampling tasks. Simple, easily interpretable techniques from chemometrics provide most of the ingredients to carry out this analysis. We have selected available data from different sources pertaining to cancer diagnosis and incidence: (1) cytological diagnosis of breast cancer, (2) classification of breast tissues through parameters obtained from impedance spectra and (3) distribution of new cancer cases in the United States. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) is needed especially in cases where there is no a priori identification of classes, suggesting a structure of the data based on clusters. These clusters or the classes, are then further detailed and rationalized by principal component analysis (PCA). Partial least squares (PLS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) provide further insight into the systems. An additional step for understanding the data set is the removal of less characteristic data (NR) using a density-based approach, so as to make it more clearly defined. Results clearly reveal that breast cytology diagnosis relies on variables conveying mostly the same type of information, being thus interchangeable in nature. In the study on tissue characterization by electrical measurements, the distribution of the different types of tissues can be easily constructed. Finally, the distribution of new cancer cases possesses clear, easily unravelled, geographical patterns. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Caler, Kyle R; Vargas Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Nower, Lia

    2017-01-01

    A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341) to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394), Black (n = 261), or Asian/other (n = 177). Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  5. Cognition and Vascular Risk Factors: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Vicario, Augusto; Del Sueldo, Mildren; Fernández, Ruth A.; Enders, Julio; Zilberman, Judith; Cerezo, Gustavo H.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological approach to identify the negative impact of the vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia) over cognition. The interesting aspect of this study was that the survey was conducted in all age groups through a voluntary call (n = 1365; ≥18 years old, both sexes; age 49 ± 15 y, female 75.7%). Thus, we demonstrated that the use of a Minimum Cognitive Examination (MCE), a brief, simple, and easy managed neuropsychological evaluation, detected a greater number of people with cognitive decline surpassing to the Minimal Mental Statement Examination alone (14.5% of the participants showed MMSE ≤24, 34,6% showed dys-executive function, and 45,8% memory impairment. Out of the 4 studied RF, the only one that was not related to cognitive impairment was dyslipemia. Finally, we noted the importance of cognitive state early detection in all age groups, even in the youngest group. Acting in the middle of the life stages, we can prevent or delay the onset of a disease in adults, nowadays incurable: dementia. PMID:22988488

  6. Lower limb-length discrepancy. An epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Guichet, J M; Spivak, J M; Trouilloud, P; Grammont, P M

    1991-11-01

    Two retrospective epidemiologic studies have examined the incidence and prevalence of significant lower limb-length discrepancy and the number of surgical corrections by lengthening in 1987 in France. The incidence of apparatus prescriptions for asymmetry correction filled was 2.16 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of people using a corrective apparatus was one per 1000 population. The male-to-female ratio was 1.95:1. Because of biases in the study population, the actual incidence and prevalence of significant limb-length discrepancies is likely to be considerably higher. A questionnaire administered to surgeons of the French Orthopedic Society revealed that the majority of surgical lengthenings were performed by large orthopedic teams. In the 418 procedures reported, the tibia was lengthened more often than the femur (ratio 1.1:1). Gradual distraction techniques were used in 89.4% of cases, with the Ilizarov apparatus used in 57.4%, the Wagner apparatus in 20.6%, and the Orthofix fixator in 11.2%. Immediate distraction techniques were used in 7.9% of cases, 85% of which were done on the femur. Average total lengthening was 51 mm for tibia and femur. Average lengthening was greater for methods of gradual distraction (53.5 mm) than for immediate distraction (31.4 mm).

  7. Epidemiological study of mortality in epilepsy in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Muñoz, María Isabel; García-Martín, Guillermina; Pérez-Errazquin, Francisco; Romero-Acebal, Manuel; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Studies concerning mortality in epilepsy have been performed primarily in Northern-Central Europe and US. The aim of this study was to provide information about mortality in people with epilepsy in Southern European countries. We studied a Spanish prevalence and incidence cohort of 2309 patients aged ≥14 years with epilepsy who were treated in an outpatient epilepsy clinic between 2000 and 2013. The deceased were identified through Civil Registries. Causes of death were determined using death certificates, forensic autopsies, hospital reports, family practitioners, and care-givers' records. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. In a total of 15,865 person-years of follow-up, 152 patients died, resulting in an SMR of 2.11 (95% CI 1.79-2.47), which was higher for those aged 14-24. There was also a high rate of death for symptomatic epilepsies, progressive causes (SMR=6.12, CI 3.50-9.94), and remote causes (SMR=2.62, CI 2.12-3.21). High SMRs were found for all kinds of epilepsy and for respiratory and tumoural causes. Patients who died of epilepsy itself were 12.5%. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence was 0.44:1000. Death from status epilepticus incidence was 20:100,000. SMRs for external causes were of no statistical significance. This is the first epidemiological study to examine rate of mortality in epilepsy in a Southern European country. The identified mortality pattern is similar to the one provided by researchers from developed countries. The similarities between our results concerning epilepsy-related deaths and those provided by population-based studies are the result of the scarcely selected character of our study cohort. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of acetaminophen in relation to the occurrence of cancer: a review of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Noel S

    2016-12-01

    Acetaminophen has several pharmacologic properties that suggest it could be carcinogenic in human beings. A number of epidemiologic studies have been conducted to examine whether use of acetaminophen actually predisposes to the occurrence of one or more forms of cancer. There are inherent limitations to many of these studies, including the inaccurate identification of users and nonusers of acetaminophen, relatively short follow-up for cancer incidence, and the potential for confounding by indication. The present manuscript reviews the results of epidemiologic studies of acetaminophen use in relation to cancer incidence published through the end of 2015. The limitations of the underlying studies notwithstanding, some interim conclusions can be reached. For all but several forms of cancer, there is no suggestion that persons who have taken acetaminophen are at altered risk, even persons who have consumed a large quantity of the drug or those who have taken it for an extended duration. While in some studies the incidence of renal cell carcinoma has been observed to be increased among acetaminophen users, several other studies have failed to observe any such association; the reason for the discrepant findings is unclear. Some of the small number of studies that have presented data on the incidence of lymphoma, leukemia, and plasma cell disorders have found the risk to be modestly higher in users than nonusers of acetaminophen, but the results of other studies of these malignancies will be needed to gauge the possible role of publication bias as the basis for the positive results.

  9. [Linburg-Comstock syndrome. Epidemiologic and anatomic study, clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Hamitouche, K; Roux, J L; Baeten, Y; Allieu, Y

    2000-05-01

    The Linburg-Comstock (LC) syndrome is distinguished by the inability to actively flex the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb without simultaneously flexing the distal IP joint of the index finger. Any resistance to this 'parasitic' reaction causes pain on the palmar side of the wrist or in the distal part of the forearm; this is due to an anomalous tendinous connection between the flexor pollicus longus (FPL) and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). An epidemiological study was carried out on 264 individuals (a total of 528 hands were examined), and the LC syndrome was found in 98 subjects (37%); women were more frequently affected than men, and bilaterally rather than unilaterally. In addition, we dissected 26 fresh cadaver upper limbs, and in seven cases found an anomalous connection between FPL and FDP. We also examined the case of a young violinist with bilateral LC syndrome, who complained of pain in the distal part of the left forearm after prolonged musical exercises. Surgical investigation determined a complete fusion between FPL and FDP of the index with a common tendon. Treatment consisted of splitting this common tendon to form two separate tendons, thereby permitting a certain degree of independence between the thumb and index finger, and which considerably improved the violinist's musical performance. A review of the literature showed that there was a large quantity of anatomical descriptions available on these types of connection. Certain publications also provide an extremely precise report on the anthropological significance of these anomalies.

  10. Comparison of Mycotic Keratitis with Nonmycotic Keratitis: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Khater, Mohammad M.; Shehab, Nehal S.; El-Badry, Anwar S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This work aims to study the problems encountered with and the different epidemiological features of patients with fungal keratitis. Patients and Methods. All cases with keratitis attending the Outpatient Clinic of Ophthalmology Department at Tanta University Hospital during three years from the first of January 2011 to the end of December 2013 were selected and carefully examined and cases with mycotic keratitis were further examined and investigated. Results. From 66303 attendants during this period with different complaints, there were 361 cases (0.54%) with mycotic keratitis and 473 cases (0.71%) of nonmycotic origin. Mycotic keratitis is common between 40 and 60 years, more in farmers (64%), families with large number and large crowding index, rural than urban residence, and patients with outdoor water sources and insanitary sewage disposal. Positive fungal cultures were obtained in 84.5% and were negative in 15.5% of cases in spite of their typical clinical findings for diagnosis and their improvement with antifungal therapy. Conclusion. Mycotic keratitis is more frequent in farmers, rural areas, outdoor water supply, insanitary sewage disposal, and patients preceded with organic trauma. Atypical clinical findings were found in some cases and not all cases improved with specific antifungal therapy. PMID:25548657

  11. Histopathologic reproducibility of thyroid disease in an epidemiologic study

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Griffel, B.; Liban, E.; Modan, B.

    1986-03-01

    An investigation of the long-term effects of childhood scalp irradiation demonstrated a significantly increased risk of thyroid tumors in the irradiated population. Because of the complexity of thyroid cancer diagnosis, a histopathologic slide review of 59 of the 68 patients (irradiated and nonirradiated) with thyroid disease was undertaken. The review revealed 90% agreement (kappa = +0.85, P less than 0.01) between the original and review diagnosis. Four of 27 cases previously diagnosed as malignant were reclassified as benign, yielding a cancer misdiagnosis rate of 14.8%. All four of the misdiagnosed cancers were of follicular or mixed papillary-follicular type. As a result of the histologic review, the ratio of malignant to benign tumors decreased from 2.55 to 1.75. Since disagreement in diagnosis was similar in the irradiated and nonirradiated groups, the relative risk of radiation-associated neoplasms did not change substantially. The histopathologic review shows that although there were some problems in diagnostic reproducibility, they were not statistically significant and did not alter our previous conclusions regarding radiation exposure. However, a 15% reduction in the number of malignancies might affect epidemiologic studies with an external comparison as well as geographic or temporal comparisons.

  12. Assessment of health effects in epidemiologic studies of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M; Speizer, F E

    1993-01-01

    As we increasingly recognize the complexity of the pollutants in indoor and outdoor microenvironments, a broad array of inhaled mixtures has assumed scientific, public health, and regulatory importance. Few adverse effects of environmental pollutants are specific, that is, uniquely associated with a single agent; the adverse effects that might be considered in an investigation of the consequences of exposure to an inhaled complex mixture are generally nonspecific. In the context of this paper, we will refer to binary mixtures as complex, though we realize that a more precise definition of complexity would restrict the term to mixtures of three or more constituents. Their causes potentially include not only pollutant exposures through the medium of inhaled air but other environmental agents, such as infectious organisms and radiation, and inherent characteristics of the exposed persons, such as atopy. We review the outcome measures that have been used in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of single pollutants and complex mixtures. Some of these outcome measures have been carefully standardized, whereas others need similar standardization and modification to improve sensitivity and specificity for investigating the health effects of air pollution. PMID:8206024

  13. [Acute and overuse injuries in elite paracycling - an epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Kromer, P; Röcker, K; Sommer, A; Baur, H; Konstantinidis, L; Gollhofer, A; Südkamp, N P; Hirschmüller, A

    2011-09-01

    Although paracycling is a growing discipline in high level competitive sports as well as in posttraumatic rehabilitation, epidemiological data of resulting injuries is still missing. Therefore, 19 athletes of the German national paracycling team were asked about their injuries during the 2008 season using a standardized questionnaire. Overall, 18 (94.7 %) of 19 athletes reported overuse injuries; most commonly localized at the back (83.3 %), neck/shoulder (77.8 %), knee (50 %), groin/buttock (50 %) and hands/wrists (38.9 %). Altogether, 18 accidents were registered, corresponding to an injury rate of 0,95 acute injuries per athlete per year (0,07 / 1000 km). The most common acute injuries were abrasions (69.2 %) and contusions (61.5 %), whereas fractures were stated only twice (11.8 %). The anatomical distribution of overuse injuries in disabled cyclists confirms the results of studies in able-bodied cycling, although the incidences in low-back pain and neck/shoulder pain is clearly higher in disabled cycling, as well as the rate of traumatic injuries.

  14. Young Drivers and Their Passengers: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies on Crash Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Berbiche, Djamal; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to appraise the evidence from epidemiological studies of crash risk in young drivers accompanied by passengers, compared with solo driving. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, Transportation Research Information Services, and Web of Science for studies published between January 1, 1989 and August 1, 2013. Epidemiological studies were selected for review if they focused on crashes of young drivers (≤24 years old) and included both a no-passenger comparison group and some measure of exposure to enable calculation of risk estimates. Fifteen articles (17 studies) were selected; seven studies reported on fatal crashes and 10 on nonfatal or combined fatal/nonfatal crashes. Studies on fatal crashes showed increased risk, compared with solo driving, for young drivers with at least one passenger (significant risk estimates ranging from 1.24 to 1.89) and two or more passengers versus solo driving (1.70–2.92). Increased risk was also found for fatal crashes and for combined or nonfatal crashes with male versus female passengers (1.53–2.66) and for younger versus older drivers (1.42–3.14). Results more clearly indicate increased risk for passenger presence in fatal crashes than that in nonfatal or combined fatal/nonfatal crashes. Findings of this review, based on correlational studies, support licensing policies that limit the presence and number of young passengers for young drivers. PMID:26112735

  15. Analysis of the transcriptome in molecular epidemiology studies

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Thomas, Reuben; smith, Martyn T.

    2016-01-01

    The human transcriptome is complex, comprising multiple transcript types, mostly in the form of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). The majority of ncRNA is of the long form (lncRNA, ≥200bp), which plays an important role in gene regulation through multiple mechanisms including epigenetics, chromatin modification, control of transcription factor binding, and regulation of alternative splicing. Both mRNA and ncRNA exhibit additional variability in the form of alternative splicing and RNA editing. All aspects of the human transcriptome can potentially be dysregulated by environmental exposures. Next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is the best available methodology to measure this although it has limitations, including experimental bias. The third phase of the MicroArray Quality Control Consortium project (MAQC-III), also called Sequencing Quality Control (SeQC), aims to address these limitations through standardization of experimental and bioinformatic methodologies. A limited number of toxicogenomic studies have been conducted to date using RNA-Seq. This review describes the complexity of the human transcriptome, the application of transcriptomics by RNA-Seq or microarray in molecular epidemiology studies, and limitations of these approaches including the type of cell or tissue analyzed, experimental variation, and confounding. By using good study designs with precise, individual exposure measurements, sufficient power and incorporation of phenotypic anchors, studies in human populations can identify biomarkers of exposure and/or early effect and elucidate mechanisms of action underlying associated diseases, even at low doses. Analysis of datasets at the pathway level can compensate for some of the limitations of RNA-Seq and, as more datasets become available, will increasingly elucidate the exposure-disease continuum. PMID:23907930

  16. Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59), case-control (8.5%, n = 24), and cohort (6.0%, n = 17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods

  17. STROBE-AMS: recommendations to optimise reporting of epidemiological studies on antimicrobial resistance and informing improvement in antimicrobial stewardship

    PubMed Central

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Cataldo, Maria A; Paul, M; Leibovici, L; Kluytmans, Jan; Schröder, Wiebke; Foschi, Federico; De Angelis, Giulia; De Waure, Chiara; Cadeddu, Chiara; Mutters, Nico T; Gastmeier, Petra; Cookson, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the accuracy of application of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) tool in epidemiological studies focused on the evaluation of the role of antibiotics in selecting resistance, and to derive and test an extension of STROBE to improve the suitability of the tool in evaluating the quality of reporting in these area. Methods A three-step study was performed. First, a systematic review of the literature analysing the association between antimicrobial exposure and acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and/or multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was performed. Second, articles were reviewed according to the STROBE checklist for epidemiological studies. Third, a set of potential new items focused on antimicrobial-resistance quality indicators was derived through an expert two-round RAND-modified Delphi procedure and tested on the articles selected through the literature review. Results The literature search identified 78 studies. Overall, the quality of reporting appeared to be poor in most areas. Five STROBE items, comprising statistical analysis and study objectives, were satisfactory in <25% of the studies. Informative abstract, reporting of bias, control of confounding, generalisability and description of study size were missing in more than half the articles. A set of 21 new items was developed and tested. The new items focused particularly on the study setting, antimicrobial usage indicators, and patients epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The performance of the new items in included studies was very low (<25%). Conclusions Our paper reveals that reporting in epidemiological papers analysing the association between antimicrobial usage and development of resistance is poor. The implementation of the newly developed STROBE for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) tool should enhance appropriate study design and reporting, and therefore contribute to the improvement of

  18. Case studies in the use of toxicological measures in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Sim, Malcolm

    2002-12-27

    One of the major limitations in environmental epidemiological studies investigating associations between chemical exposures and the risk of disease is the use of crude exposure metrics. This increases the risk of exposure misclassification, reducing the chance of finding a real association, where one exists. In environmental epidemiological studies, surrogate exposure measures, such as time living in a contaminated area, do not adequately reflect the true nature and/or degree of real exposure to the chemical substance(s) of interest. Also, as they are not quantitative measures of absorbed dose, the data provided by such measures cannot give numerical measures of a dose response relationship, limiting their use in quantitative risk assessment. In epidemiological studies, biological measures of exposure should be used, if available, as they are close to the target organ dose and provide greater precision in risk estimates and dose response relationships. Examples are the measurement of speciated arsenic in the urine of subjects when investigating health effects from arsenic exposure, and the use of breast milk lipid concentration to measure body burden when conducting epidemiological studies of health effects from persistent lipophilic compounds, such as the endocrine disruptors. This paper discusses the main uses of such exposure measures, using several case studies, their limitations and some challenges in the future for toxicologists to develop more suitable measures for epidemiologists to use in population studies.

  19. Carpal joint injuries in cats - an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Nakladal, B; vom Hagen, F; Brunnberg, M; Gross, M; Nietz, H; Brunnberg, L

    2013-01-01

    Injuries of the carpal joint are rare in cats. The most common cause is a fall from a height, known as 'high-rise syndrome'. So far, only limited data about carpal joint injuries (CJI) in cats are available. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, aetiology, location, and type of CJI in cats. Case records of cats diagnosed with CJI between 1998 and 2010 were retrospectively analysed. Data concerning signalment, history and type of CJI, accompanying systemic injuries and further orthopaedic injuries were collected. During the study period, 73 cats were diagnosed with CJI (87 injured carpal joints) and the prevalence in our hospital population was 0.26% (73 out of  28,482). Cats with CJI were more likely to be presented in the period from April-October (85%, p = 0.003) compared with the rest of the year. Carpal joint injuries were caused by a fall from a height in 72.6% of the cases. Of all carpal joints, the antebrachiocarpal joint was predominantly injured (50.6%, p = 0.001) and this was commonly caused by a fall from the fourth floor or higher (p = 0.002). The carpometacarpal joint was predominantly affected by a fall from heights up to the third floor (p = 0.004). The data of this study confirm previous data with respect to time of occurrence and cause of injury. Of note, the height of the fall appears to influence the location of the injury within the carpus of cats.

  20. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M. Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M. M.; Marziale, Maria H.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E. Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J. Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20–59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait. PMID:27128094

  1. An epidemiological study of RSV infection in the Gambia.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Martin W.; Milligan, Paul; Sanneh, Mariama; Awemoyi, Agnes; Dakour, Raduwan; Schneider, Gisela; Palmer, Ayo; Jallow, Mariatou; Oparaogu, Anslem; Whittle, Hilton; Mulholland, E. Kim; Greenwood, Brian M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in a developing country. METHODS: The work was carried out in three hospitals for primary cases and in the community for secondary cases in the western region of the Gambia, West Africa. RSV infection was diagnosed by immunofluorescence of nasopharyngeal aspirate samples in children younger than two years admitted to hospital with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Routine records of all children with ALRI were analysed, and the incidence rates of ALRI, severe RSV-associated respiratory illness and hypoxaemic RSV infections were compared. A community-based study was undertaken to identify secondary cases and to obtain information about spread of the virus. FINDINGS: 4799 children with ALRI who were younger than two years and lived in the study area were admitted to the study hospitals: 421 had severe RSV-associated respiratory illness; 55 of these were hypoxaemic. Between 1994 and 1996, the observed incidence rate for ALRI in 100 children younger than one year living close to hospital was 9.6 cases per year; for severe RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.83; and for hypoxaemic RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.089. The proportion of all ALRI admissions due to RSV was 19%. Overall, 41% of children younger than five years in compounds in which cases lived and 42% in control compounds had evidence of RSV infection during the surveillance period. CONCLUSION: RSV is an important cause of ALRI leading to hospital admission in the Gambia. Morbidity is considerable and efforts at prevention are worthwhile. PMID:12163920

  2. MELASMA: A CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF 312 CASES

    PubMed Central

    Achar, Arun; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin, characterized by gray-brown symmetrical patches, mostly in the sun-exposed areas of the skin. The pathogenesis is unknown, but genetic or hormonal influences with UV radiation are important. Aims: Our present research aims to study the clinico-epidemiological pattern and the precipitating or provocation factors in melasma. Materials and Methods: A total of 312 patients were enrolled for the study over a period of one year. Results: The mean age of patients with melasma was 33.45 years, ranging from 14 to 54 years. There was female preponderance with a female to male ratio of approximately 4 : 1. The mean age of onset was 29.99 years, with the youngest and oldest being 11 and 49 years, respectively. The patients sought medical treatment on an average of 3.59 years after appearance of melasma. About 55.12% of our patients reported that their disease exacerbated during sun exposure. Among 250 female patients, 56 reported pregnancy and 46 reported oral contraceptive as the precipitating factors. Only 34 patients had given history of exacerbation of melasma during pregnancy. A positive family history of melasma was observed in 104 (33.33%) patients. Centrofacial was the most common pattern (55.44%) observed in the present study. Wood light examination showed the dermal type being the most common in 54.48% and epidermal and mixed were seen in 21.47% and 24.03% of the cases, respectively. We tried to find an association with endocrinal diseases and observed that 20 of them had hypothyroidism. Conclusion: The exact cause of melasma is unknown. However, many factors have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Here we try to identify the causative factors and provocation to develop melasma. PMID:21965843

  3. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M M; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  4. [Loxoscelism in Chile. Epidemiologic, clinical and experimental studies].

    PubMed

    Schenone, H; Saavedra, T; Rojas, A; Villarroel, F

    1989-01-01

    A panoramic sight of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies, referring to Loxosceles laeta and loxoscelism, carried out in 1955-1988, in Santiago, Chile is presented. Two-hundred and sixteen cases of loxoscelism were studied. The most relevant features were: 84.3% corresponded to cutaneous loxoscelism (CL) and 15.7% to viscerocutaneous loxoscelism (VCL); 73.6% occurred in hot season; in 86.6% of cases the accident happened in the house, particularly in bedrooms, while the people were sleeping or dressing. The spider was seen in 60.2% of cases and identified in the laboratory as L. laeta in 10.6% of all cases. The sites more frequently bitten were the limbs with 67.6%; a burning-stinging was the most frequent initial symptom. Pain, edema and livedoid plaque, which developed later into a necrotic eschar, were the predominant local manifestations. In VCL, hematuria and hemoglobinuria were constant, while jaundice, fever and sensorial involvement were present in most of the cases. CL patients were parenterally treated with antihistaminic drugs or corticoids, while VCL ones were treated with corticoids by injection. The condition of patients in the last follow up was: complete cure in 75.5%, cure with a scarfed sequela in 8.3%, death in 3.7% (all VCL) and abandonment in 12.5%. Additionally, a series of experimental studies, both in vivo and in vitro, has been performed in order to clarify basic aspects on L. laeta venom and the treatment of loxoscelism.

  5. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  6. New insights into handling missing values in environmental epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Roda, Célina; Nicolis, Ioannis; Momas, Isabelle; Guihenneuc, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Missing data are unavoidable in environmental epidemiologic surveys. The aim of this study was to compare methods for handling large amounts of missing values: omission of missing values, single and multiple imputations (through linear regression or partial least squares regression), and a fully Bayesian approach. These methods were applied to the PARIS birth cohort, where indoor domestic pollutant measurements were performed in a random sample of babies' dwellings. A simulation study was conducted to assess performances of different approaches with a high proportion of missing values (from 50% to 95%). Different simulation scenarios were carried out, controlling the true value of the association (odds ratio of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4), and varying the health outcome prevalence. When a large amount of data is missing, omitting these missing data reduced statistical power and inflated standard errors, which affected the significance of the association. Single imputation underestimated the variability, and considerably increased risk of type I error. All approaches were conservative, except the Bayesian joint model. In the case of a common health outcome, the fully Bayesian approach is the most efficient approach (low root mean square error, reasonable type I error, and high statistical power). Nevertheless for a less prevalent event, the type I error is increased and the statistical power is reduced. The estimated posterior distribution of the OR is useful to refine the conclusion. Among the methods handling missing values, no approach is absolutely the best but when usual approaches (e.g. single imputation) are not sufficient, joint modelling approach of missing process and health association is more efficient when large amounts of data are missing.

  7. New Insights into Handling Missing Values in Environmental Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Roda, Célina; Nicolis, Ioannis; Momas, Isabelle; Guihenneuc, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Missing data are unavoidable in environmental epidemiologic surveys. The aim of this study was to compare methods for handling large amounts of missing values: omission of missing values, single and multiple imputations (through linear regression or partial least squares regression), and a fully Bayesian approach. These methods were applied to the PARIS birth cohort, where indoor domestic pollutant measurements were performed in a random sample of babies' dwellings. A simulation study was conducted to assess performances of different approaches with a high proportion of missing values (from 50% to 95%). Different simulation scenarios were carried out, controlling the true value of the association (odds ratio of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4), and varying the health outcome prevalence. When a large amount of data is missing, omitting these missing data reduced statistical power and inflated standard errors, which affected the significance of the association. Single imputation underestimated the variability, and considerably increased risk of type I error. All approaches were conservative, except the Bayesian joint model. In the case of a common health outcome, the fully Bayesian approach is the most efficient approach (low root mean square error, reasonable type I error, and high statistical power). Nevertheless for a less prevalent event, the type I error is increased and the statistical power is reduced. The estimated posterior distribution of the OR is useful to refine the conclusion. Among the methods handling missing values, no approach is absolutely the best but when usual approaches (e.g. single imputation) are not sufficient, joint modelling approach of missing process and health association is more efficient when large amounts of data are missing. PMID:25226278

  8. Poliomyelitis, measles and neonatal tetanus: a hospital based epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    El Shazly, M K; Atta, H Y; Kishk, N A

    1997-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases constitute a major health problem contributing to the morbidity and mortality in many developing countries including Egypt. WHO adopted resolutions to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000, eliminate neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, and reduce measles mortality by 95% and morbidity by 90%, compared to the pre-immunization levels by 1995. Evaluation of preventive programs for these diseases necessitates availability of up to date information on their occurrence. The present study was undertaken to determine the current epidemiological features of poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus and measles, to identify the trends of these diseases as well as to determine their outcomes and hospital loads. Data about the admitted cases of poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus and measles were collected from the hospital register of Alexandria fever hospital for five successive years (1992-96). Available information on age, sex, residence, diagnosis, outcome of treatment, dates of admission and discharge were collected. The total number of cases of the three diseases admitted to the hospital during the period 1992-96 were 1406, measles represented 85.4%, neonatal tetanus 13.9% and poliomyelitis 0.7%. The results revealed that in the year 1994 only one case of poliomyelitis was admitted and since then no other cases were reported. The number of measles cases increased gradually in the latter years and about 78% of them were older than five years of age. A significant increase in the age of measles occurrence was observed. A gradual decline in the number of neonatal tetanus cases was observed. These cases were more apt to occur among early neonates but still clustered in certain geographical areas. The results of the study pinpoint the long term impact of the well run program aiming at eradicating poliomyelitis in Alexandria. However, for elimination of neonatal tetanus and controlling measles morbidity, further activities are required including strengthening

  9. Epidemiological study on food intake and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Toyonaga, A; Okamatsu, H; Sasaki, K; Kimura, H; Saito, T; Shimizu, S; Fukuizumi, K; Tsuruta, O; Tanikawa, K; Sata, M

    2000-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological study to investigate the relation of food intake to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in an area endemic for H. pylori. In this study, 365 subjects, 104 men and 261 women, were randomly selected from 7,389 adult (over age 20) inhabitants of town A, Japan. The prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibody to H. pylori (anti-H. pylori) was 83.7% and the prevalence of anti-H. pylori increased with age significantly (P < 0.05). Subjects with anamnesis of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric cancer tended to have a higher anti-H. pylori positive ratio (93.5%) than those without (81.0%). But there was no relationship between anti-H. pylori prevalence and sex, blood type, smoking or drinking habits. Daily intake of foods by food groups, nutrients and the concentrations of serum ingredients were compared between 37 anti-H. pylori-positive and 40 negative subjects selected from 365 inhabitants by matching up according to sex and age. The daily intake of cereals, potatoes and starches, and milks tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects, while the daily intake of algae and tea appeared to be a little higher in negative than in positive subjects. The daily zinc intake of antibody-positive subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in antibody negative subjects. On the other hand, the daily iron intake in negative subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in positive subjects. The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and vitamin E tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects. But there were no significant differences in serum ingredients concentrations between antibody negative and positive subjects. Our findings suggest that iron and zinc intakes may effect on H. pylori infection.

  10. True Vertigo Patients in Emergency Department; an Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahrami, Ali; Norouzi, Mehdi; Kariman, Hamid; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Arhami Dolatabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vertigo prevalence is estimated to be 1.8% among young adults and more than 30% in the elderly. 13-38% of the referrals of patients over 65 years old in America are due to vertigo. Vertigo does not increase the risk of mortality but it can affect the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of vertigo patients referred to the emergency department (ED). Methods: In this 6-month retrospective cross-sectional study, the profiles of all vertigo patients referred to the ED of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from October 2013 to March 2014 were evaluated. Demographic data and baseline characteristics of the patients were recorded and then patients were divided into central and peripheral vertigo. The correlation of history and clinical examination with vertigo type was evaluated and screening performance characteristics of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were determined. Results: 379 patients with the mean age of 50.69 ± 11.94 years (minimum 18 and maximum 86) were enrolled (58.13% female). There was no sex difference in vertigo incidence (p = 0.756). A significant correlation existed between older age and increase in frequency of central cases (p < 0.001). No significant difference was detected between the treatment protocols regarding ED length of stay (p = 0.72). There was a significant overlap between the initial diagnosis and the final decision based on imaging and neurologist’s final opinion (p < 0.001). In the end, 361 (95.3%) patients were discharged from ED, while 18 were disposed to the neurology ward. No case of mortality was reported. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were 99 (95% CI: 57-99) and 99 (95% CI: 97-99), respectively PMID:26862546

  11. FEASIBILITY OF MATCHING STUDY PARTICIPANT RESIDENCE WITH SPECIFIC WATER UTILITY TRIHALOMETHANE (THM) DATA IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies concerning by-products of water disinfection use utility monitoring data to estimate exposure. Use of such data requires linkage of residence location to a specific water utility and associated monitoring data during a given exposure period. The inabil...

  12. FEASIBILITY OF MATCHING STUDY PARTICIPANT RESIDENCE WITH SPECIFIC WATER UTILITY TRIHALOMETHANE (THM) DATA IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies concerning by-products of water disinfection use utility monitoring data to estimate exposure. Use of such data requires linkage of residence location to a specific water utility and associated monitoring data during a given exposure period. The inabil...

  13. The Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument for Assessing Study Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...

  14. The Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument for Assessing Study Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...

  15. Epidemiology of aplastic anemia: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Montané, Eva; Ibáñez, Luisa; Vidal, Xavier; Ballarín, Elena; Puig, Ramon; García, Nuria; Laporte, Joan-Ramon

    2008-04-01

    Aplastic anemia is a rare and severe disease. Its incidence varies considerably worldwide. We aimed at describing the epidemiology of this disease, including the incidence, mortality and survival trends, in a well-defined population. Since 1980, a case-control surveillance study of aplastic anemia has been carried out by a cooperative group, in the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Inclusion is dependent on the patient having at least two of the following features: white blood cell count < or = 3.5 x 10(9)/L, platelet count < or = 50 x 10(9)/L, hemoglobin <10 g/L or hematocrit of <30%; when only one of these last two criteria is fulfilled, a reticulocyte count of < or = 30 x 10(9)/L is also required. The bone marrow biopsy has to be compatible with the diagnosis of aplastic anemia. Between 1980 and 2003, a total of 235 cases of aplastic anemia were identified. The overall incidence was 2.34 per million inhabitants per year and the incidence increased with age. Most of the cases were classified as severe or very severe aplastic anemia. Survival rates at 3 months, and at 2 and 15 years after the diagnosis were 73%, 57%, and 51%, respectively. Advanced age and more severe disease at the time of diagnosis were associated with a lower survival rate. There was a trend to a better 2-year survival rate among patients treated with bone marrow transplantation. Forty-nine cases (20.8%) were exposed to drugs reported to be associated with aplastic anemia, and 21 (8.9%) to toxic agents. The incidence of aplastic anemia in Barcelona is low but the case fatality rate is high. Advanced age and severe disease at the time of diagnosis were associated with decreased survival.

  16. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  17. Epidemiological study of the cystic echinococcosis in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Azlaf, Rkia; Dakkak, Allal

    2006-04-15

    The objectives of this epidemiological study on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Morocco (2001-2004) were to update the prevalence of CE in different animal species living in the most important areas of the country and to collect protoscoleces and germinal layers for genetic research purposes. The post mortem inspection concerned 2948 sheep, 2337 goats, 618 cattle, 482 camels and 455 equines (325 horses, 60 mules and 70 donkeys) in five different regions: the Rif (Mediterranean coast and high mountains of the Rif), the Loukkos (Atlantic northwest plain), the center (Rabat and Casablanca regions), the Middle Atlas mountains and the south (arid and semi desert areas). The global CE infection prevalence rates obtained were 22.98% in cattle, 10.58% in sheep, 12.03% in camels, 17.80% in equines and 1.88% in goats. The infection rates were especially high in the Middle Atlas in cattle (48.72%) and in the Loukkos in cattle and sheep (37.61 and 31.65%, respectively). The majority of infected cattle (49.6%) and sheep (52.1%) had hydatid cysts in both liver and lungs. Except for cattle, the liver was more infected than lungs in all the other animal species. Animals more than 5 years old were the most infected in all species. The mean CE infection rates of these animals were about 56% in cattle, 40% in sheep, 20% in camels, 17.80% in equines and 7% in goats. These rates were much higher in the Loukkos (85% of cattle and 59% of sheep) and in the Middle Atlas (68% of cattle and 45% of sheep) than in the other regions. Results showed that Echinococcus granulosus is in an endemic steady state with no evidence of protective immunity in the intermediate hosts. The mean numbers of infections per year are 0.099 for cattle, 0.063 for sheep, 0.03 for camels and 0.010 for goats.

  18. [Systemic lupus erythematosus in Martinique: an epidemiologic study].

    PubMed

    Deligny, C; Thomas, L; Dubreuil, F; Théodose, C; Garsaud, A M; Numéric, P; Ranlin, A; Jean-Baptiste, G; Arfi, S

    2002-01-01

    To review epidemiological and clinical aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Martinique, French West Indies. Cases of SLE were identified by attending physicians. Patients who presented with at least four of the criteria defined by the American College of Rheumatology were included. Determination of incidence and prevalence included the new cases arising during the 1990-1999 period and 1999 population census results. Probability of survival was based on the use of the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Two hundred and eighty-six patients were studied, including 265 females (92.7%). The average annual incidence was 4.7 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5-6.9). The prevalence for 1999 was 64.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (CI: 56.2-72.2). The mean age at onset was 30 years. Eleven percent of all patients had at least one parent with SLE. Renal disease was present in 139 patients (48.6%), and neurological disorders were diagnosed in 70 patients (24.5%). Patients tested positive for the following antibodies: anti-Sm (37.1%), anti-RNP (58.7%), anti-SSA (47.2%). Mean survival time was: 96.4% (CI: 94.1-98.7) at 5 years, 91.8% (CI: 87.9-95.7) at 10 years. Survival was significantly reduced in patients with end-stage renal disease (n = 40, chi 2 = 6.96, P < 0.01). The high incidence of SLE in Martinique and the immunological characteristics of patients were found to be similar to those described in other populations of African descent. The frequency of renal disease and survival rates were identical to those reported in Caucasians.

  19. Adiposity and hand osteoarthritis: the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, usually characterized by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for hand osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether adipose tissue and abdominal fat distribution are associated with hand OA. Methods The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45 to 65 years, including 5315 participants (53% women, median BMI 29.9 kg/m2). Fat percentage and fat mass (FM) (kg) were estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was calculated. In 1721 participants, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (cm2) were assessed using abdominal MR imaging. Hand OA was defined according to the ACR criteria. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the association of fat percentage, FM, WHR, VAT and SAT with hand OA using logistic regression analyses per standard deviation, stratified by sex and adjusted for age. Results Hand OA was present in 8% of men and 20% of women. Fat percentage was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.61)) and women (OR 1.26 (1.05 to 1.51)), as was FM. WHR was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.45 (1.13 to 1.85)), and to a lesser extent in women (OR 1.17 (1.00 to 1.36)). Subgroup analysis revealed that VAT was associated with hand OA in men (OR1.33 (1.01 to 1.75)). This association increased after additional adjustment for FM (OR 1.51 (1.13 to 2.03)). Conclusions Fat percentage, FM and WHR were associated with hand OA. VAT was associated with hand OA in men, suggesting involvement of visceral fat in hand OA. PMID:24447395

  20. Leprosy in Kuwait: an epidemiological study of new cases.

    PubMed

    al-Kandari, S; al-Anezi, A; Pugh, R N; al-Qasaf, F; al-Abyad, S

    1990-10-01

    The latency of infection in leprosy is long so that new cases may present several years after emigration from endemic areas. This is of concern to the health authorities in Kuwait, since there is a sizeable immigrant population. An epidemiological study of new cases was, therefore, conducted to assess the extent of the leprosy problem. A total of 121 (99 male, 22 female) consecutive new leprosy patients were diagnosed nationwide over a six-year period (1983-1988). Over 95% of the patients were foreign born, emphasizing that the problem in Kuwait is mainly a reflection of immigration patterns. There were 74 cases of Asio-Indian origin, 13 Oriental and 34 Arab (including two Kuwaiti). This represents a respective mean incidence of the disease in Kuwaitis and other nationalities of 0.49 and 18.92 per 100,000 per year. Polar lepromatous (LL) leprosy was the most frequent type in the Arab group (44.1%) and polar tuberculoid (TT) the most frequent in the Asio-Indian group (37.8%). LL and borderline lepromatous (BL) types of leprosy were significantly more frequent in patients over 45-years-old and in females (P less than 0.05), contributing to the higher rate of LL in the Arab cases. The mean lag time from symptoms onset to presentation to doctor was 9.4 (range 0-192) months, with lepromatous cases tending to present later than other types. The longest lag times occurred in Arab women with LL, suggesting that cultural influences may delay presentation of leprosy. The mean interval from presentation to diagnosis was 4.1 weeks. The mean latency from entry into Kuwait to diagnosis was 44.7 (range 0-180) months; which stresses the need for physicians to remain vigilant in considering leprosy, especially in any patient with dermatological, neurological or ophthalmic manifestations of disease.

  1. Fraser syndrome: epidemiological study in a European population.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Bianca, Sebastiano; Boyd, Patricia A; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Pierini, Anna; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Stone, David; Tenconi, Romano

    2013-05-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network of birth defect registries. Between January 1990 and December 2008, we identified 26 cases of Fraser syndrome in the monitored population of 12,886,464 births (minimal estimated prevalence of 0.20 per 100,000 or 1:495,633 births). Most cases (18/26; 69%) were registered in the western part of Europe, where the mean prevalence is 1 in 230,695 births, compared to the prevalence 1 in 1,091,175 for the rest of Europe (P = 0.0003). Consanguinity was present in 7/26 (27%) families. Ten (38%) cases were liveborn, 14 (54%) pregnancies were terminated following prenatal detection of a serious anomaly, and 2 (8%) were stillborn. Eye anomalies were found in 20/24 (83%), syndactyly in 14/24 (58%), and laryngeal anomalies in 5/24 (21%) patients. Ambiguous genitalia were observed in 3/24 (13%) cases. Bilateral renal agenesis was present in 12/24 (50%) and unilateral in 4/24 (17%) cases. The frequency of anorectal anomalies was particularly high (42%). Most cases of Fraser syndrome (85%) are suspected prenatally, often due to the presence of the association of renal agenesis and cryptophthalmos. In the European population, a high proportion (82%) of pregnancies is terminated, thus reducing the live birth prevalence to a third of the total prevalence rate.

  2. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Swayne, David E; Suarez, David L; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  3. [Traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children--epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Vuković, Ana; Marković, Dejan; Petrović, Bojan; Apostolović, Mirjana; Golijanin, Ranko; Kanjevac, Tatjana; Stojković, Branislava; Perić, Tamara; Blagojević, Duska

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive epidemiological data regarding factors associated with traumatic dental injuries are scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency and analyze the factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children. Research included children and adolescents with traumatic dental injury aged 0-19 year during the period from 2003 to 2010, in four University Dental Centres in Serbia: Belgrade, Nis, Novi Sad and Kragujevac. Patient history, demographic, clinical and radiographic data were obtained from dental trauma forms. Total of 2,194 patients (748 girls, 1,446 boys) (chi2 = 222.1; p < 0.01) with 3,077 injured teeth in permanent and 953 in primary dentition were observed. Most of patients were aged 7 to 12 years (n = 1,191). The most frequent injuries in primary and permanent dentition were dislocations (87.4%) and teeth fractures (50.8%), respectively (chi2 = 706.1; p < 0.01). The most frequent mechanism of injury was fall in children aged 0 to 12 years, while the collisions were most frequent in adolescents (53.9%). The most frequent injuries in adolescents were inflicted outdoor (66.8%), while the injuries in children aged 0 to 3 years occurred at home (68.2%), (chi2 = 360.8; p < 0.01). The most frequent injuries in girls were accidental (48.3%), and in boys these were sport injuries (20.4%) and violence (10.4%) (chi2 = 79.9; p < 0.01). The most frequent cause of injury in children aged 0 to 3 years was accidental (75.6%), while in adolescents it was sport (34.1%) (chi2 = 1102.7; p < 0.01). Dental injuries in preschool children most frequently resulted from fall at home. Schoolchildren most frequently injured teeth outdoor during play. Violence and sport injuries were most frequent cause of injury in adolescents.

  4. Epidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ovine breeding.

    PubMed

    Zedda, M T; Rolesu, S; Pau, S; Rosati, I; Ledda, S; Satta, G; Patta, C; Masala, G

    2010-12-01

    An outbreak of toxoplasmosis occurring in a typical farm of 524 ovines was monitored for 1 year after the occurrence of 31 abortions. Abortion events involved 7.2% of 430 pregnant sheep. Presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sheep sera was investigated by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). A total of 422 ewes were bled four times during the year, and an epidemiological analysis was performed on all serology data collected in this subgroup. The prevalence of IgG positives ranged from 31.52% (133/422) at the first sampling to 62.56% (264/422) at the fourth sampling. Incidence of IgG antibodies was 38.75% at the second sampling, 14.92% at the third and 29.28% at the fourth sampling. At the beginning of the study, prevalence was 70.7% in primiparous sheep and 20.9% in sheep older than 5 years; at the third sampling, prevalence was stable at 70% in pluriparous sheep. The mean prevalence of IgM antibodies was 14.87%. A total of 147 out of all 524 ovines of the flock tested positive for IgM in more than one sampling. After an initial positivity, 60 sheep tested negative for IgG at the following serological controls (4 between the first and the second sampling, 30 between the second and the third and 28 between the third and the fourth sampling). One stray cat was positive for IgG, with a titre of 1 : 320. Moreover, one of the farmers was also positive, with a titre of 1 : 160 for IgG. A positive PCR result for T. gondii DNA was also observed in aliquots of grain and pellets taken from feed stocks amassed inside the sheds without protection, suggesting that an adequate management of the farm might be useful, if not essential, for controlling T. gondii outbreaks in ovine flocks.

  5. Use of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to Improve Interpretation of a Recreational Water Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a supplemental water quality monitoring study and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to complement the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water study at Boq...

  6. Use of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to Improve Interpretation of a Recreational Water Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a supplemental water quality monitoring study and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to complement the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water study at Boq...

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONCEPTS FOR INTERPRETING FINDINGS IN STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To the inexperienced, environmental epidemiology may appear to be an uncomplicated, straightforward approach to studying exposure-disease associations in human populations. The studies can provide useful information about the risks of environmental exposures that human populatio...

  8. The cyclops and the mermaid: an epidemiological study of two types of rare malformation.

    PubMed

    Källén, B; Castilla, E E; Lancaster, P A; Mutchinick, O; Knudsen, L B; Martínez-Frías, M L; Mastroiacovo, P; Robert, E

    1992-01-01

    Infants with cyclopia or sirenomelia are born at an approximate rate of 1 in 100,000 births. Eight malformation monitoring systems around the world jointly studied the epidemiology of these rare malformations: 102 infants with cyclopia, 96 with sirenomelia, and one with both conditions were identified among nearly 10.1 million births. Maternal age is somewhat increased for cyclopia, indicating the likely inclusion of some chromosomally abnormal infants which were not identified. About half of the infants are stillborn. There is a female excess among infants with cyclopia. Excess twinning occurred for cyclopia and possibly also for sirenomelia. An analysis of associated malformations indicates the similarity between the two conditions, which is in agreement with recent embryological analysis.

  9. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  10. Clinical, epidemiological characteristics and indications for liver biopsy and treatment in immigrants with chronic hepatitis B at a referral hospital in Madrid.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Molina, J A; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Norman, F; Pérez-Ayala, A; Monge-Mahillo, B; Navarro-Beltrá, M; López-Vélez, R

    2011-04-01

    The increase in immigration from less developed countries to Europe has led to an increase in the incidence of hepatitis B infection. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical, epidemiological characteristics and indications for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in a cohort of immigrants, given the relative lack of current evidence. We performed a noninterventional retrospective chart review; different characteristics depending on geographical origin were compared. A case-control study was also performed to describe factors potentially associated with chronic or past hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We selected a random sample of 436 patients out of the 2989 immigrants attending during the study period (1989-2008). Hepatitis B serology was performed in 74% (322/436): 10.6% had chronic HBV infection (95% CI: 7.4-13.7%), and 46.9% had evidence of past infection (95% CI: 41.7-52.0%). The average age was 31 years, 60% were men, and 70% were sub-Saharan Africans. Chronic infection was related to being men (OR 2.03; 95%CI: 1.29-3.18), younger (OR 0.98; 0.96-0.99) and sub-Saharan African (OR 5.41; 2.71-10.83). Past or current infection was related to male sex (OR 2.80; 1.81-4.30), longer time elapsed until first seen at the unit (OR 0.998; 0.997-1.000), HIV infection (OR 4.99; 1.15-21.60) and being sub-Saharan African (OR 15.46; 8.97-27.18). These associations were not confirmed after adjustment for geographical origin. In 27% and 29.5% of patients, liver biopsy and treatment, respectively, would have been indicated. Prevalence of chronic HBV infection amongst immigrants is high, especially in sub-Saharan Africans. Almost a third could be considered for liver biopsy or antiviral therapy.

  11. Epidemiological Study of Sepsis in China: Protocol of a Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Xie, Jian-Feng; Yu, Kai-Jiang; Yao, Chen; Li, Jian-Guo; Guan, Xiang-Dong; Yan, Jing; Ma, Xiao-Chun; Kang, Yan; Yang, Cong-Shan; Yao, Xiao-Qing; Shang, Hong-Cai; Qiu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of death among critically ill patients. Herein, we conducted a national survey to provide data on epidemiology and treatment of sepsis in the clinical practice in China, which has no detailed epidemiological data available on sepsis. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional survey from December 1, 2015 to January 31, 2016 in all provinces/municipalities of the mainland of China. The primary outcome of this study was the incidence of sepsis, and the secondary outcome was its etiology in China. Patients with sepsis admitted to the Intensive Care Units were included in this study. The demographic, physiological, bacteriological, and therapeutic data of these patients were recorded. The incidence of sepsis was estimated using the data from the sixth census in China, reported by the Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission and the National Bureau of Statistics as the standard population. The independent risk factors for increased mortality from sepsis were calculated. Conclusions: This study indicated the incidence and outcome of sepsis in China. It also showed the most common etiology of different sites and types of infection, which could guide empiric antibiotic therapy. Moreover, it provided information on the independent risk factors for increased mortality due to sepsis. The findings provide evidence to guide clinical management and may help improve the outcome in septic patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02448472; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02448472. PMID:27958229

  12. The impact of allergy on atopic eczema from data from epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Torsten

    2008-10-01

    We aimed to review the association between atopic eczema and allergic sensitization and food allergy and its determinants on the basis of current epidemiological literature. About 50% of children with atopic eczema and about 35% of adults are sensitized to common allergens. Gender, geography (e.g. East and West Germany), and socioeconomic factors determine the proportion of atopic eczema with allergic sensitization. Allergic sensitization in addition to atopic eczema obviously increases the risk for respiratory allergies. Sensitization to house dust mites seems to be important and clinically relevant for atopic eczema. Population-based studies on the association between food allergy and atopic eczema are limited. Although, up to 40% of children in hospital settings react to certain food allergens by a flare-up of their atopic eczema, there is an indication that on a population basis, adults with atopic eczema do only react occasionally with a worsening of their skin disease due to food allergens. Atopic eczema is not necessarily associated with allergic sensitization. Sensitization to house dust mites, however, seems to be clinically relevant. The impact of food allergy on atopic eczema is difficult to assess on the basis of epidemiological studies and more detailed studies are needed.

  13. Retrospective study maxillofacial fractures epidemiology and treatment plans in Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Samieirad, Sahand; Tohidi, Elahe; Shahidi-Payam, Akbar; Abedini, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of facial injuries varies in different countries and geographic zones. Population concentration, lifestyle, cultural background, and socioeconomic status can affect the prevalence of maxillofacial injuries. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the maxillofacial fractures epidemiology and treatment plans in hospitalized patients (2012-2014) which would be useful for better policy making strategies. Material and Methods In this retrospective study, the medical records of 386 hospitalized patients were evaluated from the department of maxillofacial surgery at Bahonar Hospital of Kerman, Iran. The type and cause of fractures and treatment plans were recorded in a checklist. For data analysis, ANOVA, t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher’s exact test were performed, using SPSS version 21. Results The majority of patients were male (76.5%). Most subjects were within the age range of 20-30 years. Fractures were mostly caused by accidents, particularly motorcycle accidents (MCAs), and the most common site of involvement was the mandible (parasymphysis). There was a significant association between the type of treatment and age. In fact, the age group of 16-59 years under went open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) more than other age groups (P=0.02). Also, a significant association was observed between gender and the occurrence of fractures (P=0.01). Conclusions Considering the geographic and cultural indices of the evaluated population, it can be concluded that patients age and gender and trauma causes significantly affect the prevalence of maxillofacial traumas and fracture kinds and treatment plans. Key words:Epidemiology, treatment, facial injuries, face fractures, maxillofacial trauma, trauma. PMID:26116845

  14. Fine particles and coarse particles: concentration relationships relevant to epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W E; Suh, H H

    1997-12-01

    Fine particles and coarse particles are defined in terms of the modal structure of particle size distributions typically observed in the atmosphere. Differences between the various modes are discussed. The fractions of fine and coarse particles collected in specific size ranges, such as total suspended particulate matter (TSP), PM10, PM2.5, and PM(10-2.5), are shown. Correlations of 24-h concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and PM(10-2.5) at the same site show that, in Philadelphia and St. Louis, PM2.5 is highly correlated with PM10 but poorly correlated with PM (10-2.5). Among sites distributed across these urban areas, the site-to-site correlations of 24-h PM concentrations are high for PM2.5 but not for PM(10-2.5). This indicates that a PM measurement at a central monitor can serve as a better indicator of the community-wide concentration of fine particles than of coarse particles. The fraction of ambient outdoor particles found suspended indoors is greater for fine particles than for coarse particles because of the difference in indoor lifetimes. Consideration of these relationships leads to the hypothesis that the statistical associations found between daily PM indicators and health outcomes may be the result of variations in the fine particle component of the atmospheric aerosol, not of variations in the coarse component. As a result, epidemiologic studies using PM10 or TSP may provide more useful information on the acute health effects of fine particles than coarse particles. Fine and coarse particles are separate classes of pollutants and should be measured separately in research and epidemiologic studies. PM2.5 and PM(10-2.5) are indicators or surrogates, but not measurements, of fine and coarse particles.

  15. Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accident Cases from Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Badrinarayan; Sinha (Mishra), Nidhi D; Sukhla, SK; Sinha, AK

    2010-01-01

    Background: Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top five causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries.(1) Its socioeconomic repercussions are a matter of great concern. Efficient addressing of the issue requires quality information on different causative factors. Research Question: What are different epidemiological determinants of RTA in western Nepal? Objective: To examine the factors associated with RTA. Study Design: Prospective observational. Setting: Study was performed in a tertiary healthcare delivery institute in western Nepal. Participants: 360 victims of RTA who reported to Manipal Teaching hospital in one year. Study Variables: Demographic, human, vehicular, environmental and time factors. Statistical analysis: Percentages, linear and logarithmic trend and Chi-square. Results: Most of the victims i.e. 147 (40.83%) were young (15 to 30 years); from low i.e. 114 (31.66%) and mid i.e. 198 (55%) income families and were passengers i.e. 153 (42.50%) and pedestrians i.e. 105 (29.16%). Sever accidents leading to fatal outcome were associated with personal problems (P<0.01, χ2 - 8.03), recent or on-day conflicts (P<0.001, χ2 - 18.88) and some evidence of alcohol consumptions (P<0.001, χ2 - 30.25). Increased prevalence of RTA was also noticed at beginning i.e. 198 (55%) and end i.e. 69 (19.16%) of journey; in rainy and cloudy conditions (269 i.e. 74.72%) and in evening hours (3 to 7 p.m. 159 i.e. 44.16%). Out of 246 vehicles involved; 162 (65.85%) were old and ill maintained. The contributions of old vehicle to fatal injuries were 33 (50%). Head injury was found in 156 (43.33 %) cases and its associated case fatality rate was 90.90%. In spite of a good percentage receiving first aid i.e. 213 (59.16%) after RTA; there was a notable delay (174 i.e. 48.33% admitted after 6 h) in shifting the cases to the hospitals. The estimated total days lost due to hospital stay was 4620 with an average of 12.83 days per each case. Conclusion: Most

  16. Epidemiological studies on forestomach disorders in cattle and buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A. K.; Dhaliwal, P. S.; Randhawa, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study epidemiology of forestomach (reticuloruminal, omasal, and abomasal) disorders in cattle and buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The 106 buffaloes and 32 cattle referred for treatment to the university large animals teaching hospital with the complaint of gastrointestinal diseases constituted the study material. The cases were diagnosed based on history, clinical examination, hematology, biochemistry, radiography, peritoneal fluid analysis and ultrasonography, rumenotomy, and postmortem. A questionnaire was prepared containing important information on housing, husbandry practices, including feeding practices and individual animal information viz. age, species, month of the year, parity, gestation (month), and recent parturition. The animals were divided into eight groups and analysis of variance was performed to study risk factors associated with each condition. Results: The forestomach disorders are widely prevalent in cattle and buffaloes between April and October, during summer and rainy season (90%) and constituted a significant proportion of diseased cows and buffaloes (138/1840) at the hospital. Different forestomach disorders and their prevalence was: Diaphragmatic hernia (DH) 17%, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) 14%, idiopathic motility disorder or vagus indigestion (VI) 22%, adhesive peritonitis (AP) 13%, frank exudative peritonitis (FEP) 12%, reticular abscess (RA) 8%, ruminal and omasal impaction (RI) 5%, and abomaso duodenal ulceration (ADU) 9%. DH and RA were significantly more common in buffaloes as compared to cattle. Similarly, impactions were more in buffaloes but its incidence was very low (5%). ADU was present in buffalo as commonly as in cows. Exclusive feeding of wheat straw was present in an abysmally low number of animals and hence could not be considered the cause of these disorders. DH was significantly higher in buffaloes (>5 years) of 5-8 years of age and TRP, VI and AP were observed in cattle and buffalo of 2-8 years of

  17. Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Elisa Petri de; Quintana, Ana María; González, Victor; Pasetto, Roque Antonio; Utgés, María Eugenia; Bruzzone, Octavio Augusto; Arnaiz, María Rosa

    2017-06-01

    Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking. We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020. Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model selection were performed. Forecasts were made using the median of 100,000 projections using the parameters calculated via Monte Carlo methods. We found a decreasing number of new leprosy cases (-2.04 cases/year); this decrease is expected to continue by an estimated 20.28 +/- 10.00 cases by 2020, evidenced by a sustained decline in detection rate (from 11 to 2.9/100,000 inhabitants). Age groups that were most affected were 15-44 (40.13%) and 45-64 (38.83%) year olds. Multibacillary forms (MB) predominated (70.35%) and while gradually declining, between 10 and 30% developed disability grade 2 (DG2) (0.175 (0.110 - 0.337) DG2/MB cases), with a time delay between 0 to 15 years (median = 0). The proportion of MB clinic forms and DG2 increased and will continuously increase in the short term (0.036 +/- 0.018 logit (MB/total of cases). Corrientes is on the way to eliminating leprosy by 2020, however the increased proportion of MB clinical forms and DG2 signals a warning for disease control efforts.

  18. Defining the Long-Toss: A Professional Baseball Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Austin V.; Mannava, Sandeep; Patel, Anita; Marquez-Lara, Alejandro; Freehill, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite widespread use of long-toss throwing in baseball as a component of arm conditioning, interval throwing programs, and rehabilitation, long-toss distance and throwing mechanics remain controversial. Purpose: To ascertain the perceived definition of long-toss throwing through a survey of professional pitchers, pitching coaches (PCs), and certified athletic trainers (ATCs) associated with Major League Baseball. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Pitchers, PCs, and ATCs associated with 5 Major League Baseball organizations completed an anonymous survey that collected demographic data, personal use of long-toss throwing, and their perception of the distance and throwing mechanics that comprised long-toss. Results: A total of 321 surveys were completed by 271 pitchers, 19 PCs, and 31 ATCs. For all respondents, the mean distance considered as long-toss was 175 ft (95% CI, 170-181 ft). Respondents categorized the throwing mechanics of long-toss, with 36% reporting throwing “on a line” and 70% reporting long-toss as “not on a line.” Of those throwing “on a line,” 28% reported using crow-hop footwork while 60% used crow-hop footwork when throwing “not on a line.” Interpretation of long-toss distance significantly varied by position: pitchers, 177 ft (95% CI, 171-183 ft); PCs, 177 ft (95% CI, 155-200 ft); and ATCs, 157 ft (95% CI, 144-169 ft) (P = .048). When asked when long-toss throwing is used, pitchers reported using it more frequently in preseason (P = .007), during the season (P = .015), and in the off-season (P = .002) compared with that by ATCs. Functional goals for long-toss throwing demonstrated that pitchers and PCs use long-toss for shoulder stretching more frequently than ATCs (P < .001 and P = .026, respectively). ATCs used long-toss more than pitchers for interval throwing programs (P < .001). Conclusion: The definition varies for long-toss throwing distance and throwing mechanics. Pitchers and PCs believe

  19. [Epidemiologic warnings from studies on alcohol use disorders].

    PubMed

    Limosin, F

    2014-04-01

    The highest consumption levels of alcohol are found in the developed world, mostly the Northern Hemisphere. After a slight decrease at the beginning of the 1990s, alcohol use in the European Region increased with an average adult per capita consumption amounting to 12.5 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009. In France, adult consumption was 12.7 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009, and it is estimated that 1.5 to 2 million of adults are alcohol-dependent (4-5% of the adult population) and 5 million are excessive drinkers. The harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. Alcohol is the direct cause of more than 30 diseases and a causal factor in more than 60 major types of diseases and injuries, resulting in approximately 2.5 million deaths each year. Approximately 4% of all deaths worldwide and 4.5% (7.4% for men and 1.4% for women) of the global burden of disease and injury are attributable to alcohol. In 2004 in the EU, 15.2% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in men and 3.9% of all DALYs in women were lost due to alcohol. While the impact of alcohol consumption and dependence on mortality and disease is substantial, there are also many psychosocial consequences, including violence, family problems, child neglect and abuse, absenteeism and lost productivity in the workplace. This means that alcohol consumption and dependence have sizable impacts on many people other than the drinker. These effects add up to a staggering number of alcohol-attributable social costs, which can be estimated at € 155.8 billion a year in Europe. Despite all these consequences, many individuals with alcohol use disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. From 37 community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for alcohol abuse or dependence, the median rate of untreated cases of these

  20. Population studies: an integrated course in epidemiology and sociology for medical students.

    PubMed

    Elford, J; Chapman, G E; Boothroyd Brooks, E M; Shaper, A G

    1985-05-01

    At the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London, an integrated course in epidemiology and sociology for preclinical students was introduced in 1979. The course--Population Studies--is taken by the 100 second-year medical students in the summer term before they enter their clinical years. It occupies one full day and one half day each week for 8 weeks--approximately 80 hours of tuition. Population Studies is unusual in two respects. Firstly, it introduces a substantial amount of epidemiology into the preclinical curriculum. And, secondly, this is the only London medical school to integrate the teaching of sociology and epidemiology into the one course.

  1. The Exposure Dimension of Environmental Epidemiology: A Critical but Under-ExploredStudy Quality Issue in Environmental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research plays a critical role in assessing the effects of various chemical, physical, oiological, and social exposures on human health both in the general population and the workplace. However, even epidemiological studies that are specifically designed to test c...

  2. The Exposure Dimension of Environmental Epidemiology: A Critical but Under-ExploredStudy Quality Issue in Environmental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research plays a critical role in assessing the effects of various chemical, physical, oiological, and social exposures on human health both in the general population and the workplace. However, even epidemiological studies that are specifically designed to test c...

  3. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation.

    PubMed

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2-90.8% and 83.3-86.9% and a specificity of 97.7-98.8% and 95.1-97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values.

  4. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation

    PubMed Central

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2–90.8% and 83.3–86.9% and a specificity of 97.7–98.8% and 95.1–97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values. PMID:26904678

  5. Epidemiology of the Emergent Disease Paridae pox in an Intensively Studied Wild Bird Population

    PubMed Central

    Lachish, Shelly; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2012-01-01

    Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major) reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%), but was far less prevalent (<1%) in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations. PMID:23185230

  6. Epidemiology of the emergent disease Paridae pox in an intensively studied wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Lachish, Shelly; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A; Sheldon, Ben C

    2012-01-01

    Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major) reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%), but was far less prevalent (<1%) in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations.

  7. What is desirable and feasible in dose reconstruction for application in epidemiological studies?

    SciTech Connect

    Bouville, A.; Beebe, G.W.; Anspaugh, L.

    1996-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of populations are of two general forms, monitoring or formal, and serve several possible purposes. Monitoring studies inform members of potentially affected population groups of the nature and magnitude of the risks that might have been imposed on them. Formal epidemiological studies can increase scientific knowledge about the quantitative risk that attends exposure. Risks of human health due to radiation exposure are most appropriately estimated by means of formal epidemiological studies. Dosimetric data are essential for any epidemiological study, but the detail and accuracy needed depend on the purposes to be served. If the need is for a monitoring study, then general information about doses will suffice. However, a formal study that is expected to contribute to scientific information about quantitative radiation risk requires careful individual dose estimation. This paper is devoted to the discussion of dosimetric data needed for formal epidemiological studies of populations exposed as a result of nuclear power operations. The recommendations made by the National Research Council have largely been followed. The examples used in this paper are relevant to the Chernobyl accident, which caused a large number of people to be exposed at relatively high doses and provided an opportunity for formal epidemiological studies to be initiated. The studies that are singled out are those of thyroid cancer among children who resided in Belarus and in Ukraine at the time of the accident, and those of leukemia among workers involved in the mitigation of the accident and in clean-up operations.

  8. A nationwide study of the epidemiology of relapsing polychondritis

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Anna; Páll, Nóra; Molnár, Katalin; Kováts, Tamás; Surján, György; Vicsek, Tamás; Pollner, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks mainly cartilaginous structures or causes serious damage in proteoglycan-rich structures (the eyes, heart, blood vessels, inner ear). This study shows results regarding the epidemiology, progression, and associations of this highly variable disease by collecting all cases from a 124-million-person-year Central European nationwide cohort. Methods We used the Hungarian Health Care Database to identify all persons with possible RP infection. We followed patients who had International Classification of Diseases 10th edition code M94.1 at least once in their inpatient or outpatient records between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013 in Hungary. We classified these patients into disease severity groups by their drug consumption patterns between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We analyzed the regional distribution of RP incidences as well. Overall maps of comorbidity are presented with network layouts. Results We identified 256 patients with RP among cumulatively 11.5 million registered inhabitants. We classified these patients into four severity classes as “extremely mild” (n=144), “mild” (n=22), “moderate” (n=41), and “severe” (n=4). Two additional groups were defined for patients without available drug data as “suspected only” (n=23) and “confirmed but unknown treatment” (n=22). The age and sex distributions of patients were similar to worldwide statistics. Indeed, the overall survival was good (95% confidence interval for 5 years was 83.6%–92.9% and for 10 years was 75.0%–88.3% which corresponds to the overall survival of the general population in Hungary), and the associations with other autoimmune disorders were high (56%) in Hungary. Almost any disease can occur with RP; however, the symptoms of chromosomal abnormalities are only incidental. Spondylosis can be a sign of the activation of RP, while Sjögren syndrome is the most frequent

  9. Development and Evaluation of Alternative Metrics of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure for Use in Epidemiologic Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiologic studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available outdoor concentrations from central monitoring sites. This practice may in...

  10. Development and Evaluation of Alternative Metrics of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure for Use in Epidemiologic Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiologic studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available outdoor concentrations from central monitoring sites. This practice may in...

  11. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  12. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  13. Equivalency of risk for a modified health endpoint: a case from recreational water epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and its predecessors have conducted three distinct series of epidemiological studies beginning in 1948 on the relationship between bathing water quality and swimmers' illnesses. Keeping pace with advances in microbial tec...

  14. Spot Sampling and Exposure Surrogate Selection as Sources of Bias in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spot measurements of chemical biomarkers are often used as quantitative exposure surrogates in environmental epidemiology studies. These measures can be expressed a number of different ways – for example, urinary biomarkers can be expressed in units of concentration (&micr...

  15. Spot Sampling and Exposure Surrogate Selection as Sources of Bias in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spot measurements of chemical biomarkers are often used as quantitative exposure surrogates in environmental epidemiology studies. These measures can be expressed a number of different ways – for example, urinary biomarkers can be expressed in units of concentration (&micr...

  16. Equivalency of risk for a modified health endpoint: a case from recreational water epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and its predecessors have conducted three distinct series of epidemiological studies beginning in 1948 on the relationship between bathing water quality and swimmers' illnesses. Keeping pace with advances in microbial tec...

  17. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  18. Developmental origins of adult diseases and neurotoxicity: epidemiological and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Fox, Donald A; Grandjean, Philippe; de Groot, Didima; Paule, Merle G

    2012-08-01

    To date, only a small number of commercial chemicals have been tested and documented as developmental neurotoxicants. Moreover, an increasing number of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies suggest an association between toxicant or drug exposure during the perinatal period and the development of metabolic-related diseases and neurotoxicity later in life. The four speakers at this symposium presented their research results on different neurotoxic chemicals relating to the developmental origins of health and adult disease (DOHaD). Philippe Grandjean presented epidemiological data on children exposed to inorganic mercury and methylmercury, and discussed the behavioral outcome measures as they relate to age and stage of brain development. Donald A. Fox presented data that low-dose human equivalent gestational lead exposure produces late-onset obesity only in male mice that is associated with neurodegeneration. Didima de Groot presented results on prenatal exposure of rats to methylazoxymethanol and discussed the results in light of the etiology of western Pacific amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson-dementia complex. Merle G. Paule addressed the long-term changes in learning, motivation and short-term memory in aged Rhesus monkeys following acute 24 h exposure to ketamine during early development. Overall, these presentations addressed fundamental issues in the emerging areas of lifetime neurotoxicity testing, differential vulnerable periods of exposure, nonmonotonic dose-response effects and neurotoxic risk assessment. The results indicate that developmental neurotoxicity results in permanent changes, thus emphasizing the need to prevent such toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An epidemiologic study of deciduous molar relations in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Infante, P F

    1975-01-01

    This study indicated that distoclusion decreased significantly with age and was more prevalent in siblings of children with Class II molar relation as compared with the prevalence for the total population. Children of middle socioeconomic status (SES) and girls with Class I molar relation had prevalences of posterior crossbite significantly greater than lower SES children and boys, respectively. Finger habits were highly associated with posterior crossbite (P less than 0.001).

  20. Clinical epidemiological studies of women undergoing surgery for urogynaecological disorders.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Rikke Guldberg

    2015-10-01

    This PhD thesis was performed during my employment at the Center for Clinical Epidemiology, Odense University Hospital and University of Southern Denmark, 2010-2013. It comprises an overview and four papers, two published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals, one under review, and one in draft. Urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are prevalent disorders among women worldwide, affecting their psychological and social wellbeing, with reductions in quality of life. Treatment options are conservative (e.g. pelvic floor exercises, weight loss, and bladder training), pharmacological, and surgical. Surgery has especially for UI undergone an improvement during the last decades with development of minimally-invasive sub-urethral sling procedures, and the number of surgeries has increased in Denmark and other countries. In a population of Danish women undergoing surgery for UI or POP, we aimed: to describe the establishment of the Danish Urogynaecological Database (DugaBase), and to evaluate the completeness and the validity of surgery registration in the DugaBase; to study patient reported outcome measures in Danish women undergoing urogynaecological surgery; to study the use of symptom-relieving drugs before and after surgery for UI; to study the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for UI METHODS: Study I The completeness of DugaBase was assessed by comparing procedure codes in the DugaBase to iodes registered in the National Patient Registry, 2006-2010. The study also included review of medical journals from 200 women (computed randomly from DugaBase), representing 22 departments in Denmark. Information on selected variables was compared to registered data in the DugaBase. the National Patient Registry, the DugaBase, and medical records. Study II was based on a national cohort of women undergoing surgery for UI and POP registered in the DugaBase, 2006-2011. Clinical data and data from patient

  1. Design and analysis of metabolomics studies in epidemiologic research: a primer on -omic technologies.

    PubMed

    Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Valdes, Ana; Elliott, Paul; Ioannidis, John P A

    2014-07-15

    Metabolomics is the field of "-omics" research concerned with the comprehensive characterization of the small low-molecular-weight metabolites in biological samples. In epidemiology, it represents an emerging technology and an unprecedented opportunity to measure environmental and other exposures with improved precision and far less measurement error than with standard epidemiologic methods. Advances in the application of metabolomics in large-scale epidemiologic research are now being realized through a combination of improved sample preparation and handling, automated laboratory and processing methods, and reduction in costs. The number of epidemiologic studies that use metabolic profiling is still limited, but it is fast gaining popularity in this area. In the present article, we present a roadmap for metabolomic analyses in epidemiologic studies and discuss the various challenges these data pose to large-scale studies. We discuss the steps of data preprocessing, univariate and multivariate data analysis, correction for multiplicity of comparisons with correlated data, and finally the steps of cross-validation and external validation. As data from metabolomic studies accumulate in epidemiology, there is a need for large-scale replication and synthesis of findings, increased availability of raw data, and a focus on good study design, all of which will highlight the potential clinical impact of metabolomics in this field. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Beresniak, Ariel; Duru, Gerard; Berger, Genevieve; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate potential statistical relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world. The research question is: Does tea consumption is correlated with one or more epidemiological indicators? Design Ecological study using a systematic data-mining approach in which the unit of the analysis is a population of one country. Setting Six variables, black tea consumption data and prevalence data of respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, have been studied at a global level. Participants Data from 50 participating countries in the World Health Survey were investigated. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Level of statistical relationships between variables. Results Principal component analysis established a very high contribution of the black tea consumption parameter on the third axis (81%). The correlation circle confirmed that the ‘black tea’ vector was negatively correlated with the diabetes vector and was not correlated with any of the other four health indicators. A linear correlation model then confirmed a significant statistical correlation between high black tea consumption and low diabetes prevalence. Conclusions This innovative study establishes a linear statistical correlation between high black tea consumption and low diabetes prevalence in the world. These results are consistent with biological and physiological studies conducted on the effect of black tea on diabetes and confirm the results of a previous ecological study in Europe. Further epidemiological research and randomised studies are necessary to investigate the causality. PMID:23138107

  3. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute retrovirus epidemiology donor studies (Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study and Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II): twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A

    2012-10-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989 to 2001, and the REDS-II, conducted from 2004 to 2012, were National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. The REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The 3 major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of human immunodeficiency virus, human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, West Nile virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 8, parvovirus B19, malaria, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, influenza, and Trypanosoma cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors' perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, 2 large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these 2 REDS programs. In 2011, a new 7-year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III, was launched. The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting and adds a third country, South Africa

  4. Developing an environmental indicator system for sustainable development in China: Two case studies of selected indicators.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chuan; Ye, Wen-Hu; Hou, Baohong

    2006-10-01

    Environmental indicator systems are a fundamental tool in quantifying the environmental component of sustainable development. They are useful because they quantify the status and trends of key environmental parameters and provide information on the environment that allows authorities and communities to make informed decisions. This article analyzes the basic framework for Chinese environmental indicator systems and presents a "core" set of environmental indicators. In our research, we used a theme approach to develop the environmental indicator systems. We performed two case studies of selected indicators. In the first, we used an urban ambient air pollution composite index and an urban ambient air pollution indicator for three main pollutants to examine trends in urban air pollution in China from 1990 to 2000 at regional and national levels. The results indicate that China has made some progress towards controlling urban air pollution, but must do more in order to reach acceptable pollution levels. We think that an aggregated index and disaggregated indicators have important complementary roles in the policy-making processes. In the second case study, we developed and constructed a grassland degradation index that aggregates information on the extent and severity of grassland degradation. Taking the Xilinhaote region of Inner Mongolia as the study area, we calculated this index by combining remote-sensing data, a geographical information system (GIS), and field investigation. Based on these results, we provide recommendations regarding further development and measurement of environmental indicators in China.

  5. Longitudinal Poisson regression to evaluate the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and fecal indicator bacteria in coastal California wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Conrad, Patricia A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Byrne, Barbara A; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2012-05-01

    Fecal pathogen contamination of watersheds worldwide is increasingly recognized, and natural wetlands may have an important role in mitigating fecal pathogen pollution flowing downstream. Given that waterborne protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are transported within surface waters, this study evaluated associations between fecal protozoa and various wetland-specific and environmental risk factors. This study focused on three distinct coastal California wetlands: (i) a tidally influenced slough bordered by urban and agricultural areas, (ii) a seasonal wetland adjacent to a dairy, and (iii) a constructed wetland that receives agricultural runoff. Wetland type, seasonality, rainfall, and various water quality parameters were evaluated using longitudinal Poisson regression to model effects on concentrations of protozoa and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and total coliform). Among wetland types, the dairy wetland exhibited the highest protozoal and bacterial concentrations, and despite significant reductions in microbe concentrations, the wetland could still be seen to influence water quality in the downstream tidal wetland. Additionally, recent rainfall events were associated with higher protozoal and bacterial counts in wetland water samples across all wetland types. Notably, detection of E. coli concentrations greater than a 400 most probable number (MPN) per 100 ml was associated with higher Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. These findings show that natural wetlands draining agricultural and livestock operation runoff into human-utilized waterways should be considered potential sources of pathogens and that wetlands can be instrumental in reducing pathogen loads to downstream waters.

  6. Longitudinal Poisson Regression To Evaluate the Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Coastal California Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A.; Hardin, Dane; Byrne, Barbara A.; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Fecal pathogen contamination of watersheds worldwide is increasingly recognized, and natural wetlands may have an important role in mitigating fecal pathogen pollution flowing downstream. Given that waterborne protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are transported within surface waters, this study evaluated associations between fecal protozoa and various wetland-specific and environmental risk factors. This study focused on three distinct coastal California wetlands: (i) a tidally influenced slough bordered by urban and agricultural areas, (ii) a seasonal wetland adjacent to a dairy, and (iii) a constructed wetland that receives agricultural runoff. Wetland type, seasonality, rainfall, and various water quality parameters were evaluated using longitudinal Poisson regression to model effects on concentrations of protozoa and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and total coliform). Among wetland types, the dairy wetland exhibited the highest protozoal and bacterial concentrations, and despite significant reductions in microbe concentrations, the wetland could still be seen to influence water quality in the downstream tidal wetland. Additionally, recent rainfall events were associated with higher protozoal and bacterial counts in wetland water samples across all wetland types. Notably, detection of E. coli concentrations greater than a 400 most probable number (MPN) per 100 ml was associated with higher Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. These findings show that natural wetlands draining agricultural and livestock operation runoff into human-utilized waterways should be considered potential sources of pathogens and that wetlands can be instrumental in reducing pathogen loads to downstream waters. PMID:22427504

  7. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  8. Epidemiologic studies of vitamins and cancer of the lung, esophagus, and cervix.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, R G

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the relationships between vitamins and 3 types of cancer are reviewed. First, the widely reported association between vitamin A and beta-carotene and risk of lung cancer is considered. In a large population-based case-control study of lung cancer among white males in New Jersey, increased intake of vegetables, dark green vegetables, dark yellow-orange vegetables, and carotenoids were each associated with reduced risk, but intake of retinol or total vitamin A was not related. The protective effect of vegetables was limited to current and recent cigarette smokers, which suggests that vegetable intake prevents a late-stage event in carcinogenesis. Consumption of dark yellow-orange vegetables was consistently more predictive of reduced risk than either the total carotenoid index or consumption of any other food group, possible because of the high content of beta-carotene in this food group. The results and limitations of other epidemiologic studies of diet and lung cancer are reviewed. Second, the evolving relationship between multiple micronutrient deficiencies and esophageal cancer is discussed. In a death certificate-based case-control study of esophageal cancer in black males in Washington, D.C., several indicators of general nutritional status, including consumption of fresh or frozen meat and fish, dairy products and eggs, and fruit and vegetables, and the number of meals eaten per day, were inversely and independently correlated with the risk of esophageal cancer. Estimates of intake of micronutrients, such as carotenoids, vitamin C, thiamin, and riboflavin, were less strongly associated with reduced risk than were the broad food groups that provide most of each micronutrient. Thus no single micronutrient deficiency was identified. Other studies suggest that generally poor nutrition may partially explain the susceptibility of urban black men to esophageal cancer. Finally, the postulated association between low folacin levels and risk of

  9. [Amoebae in the water supply: an epidemiological study (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dive, D; Picard, J P; Leclerc, H

    1979-01-01

    Drinking water samples (836) of various origins have been examined for amoebae. For collector water, half of the samples are contamined without influence of the origin. So, occurrence of amoeba in underground waters is discussed. Filtration and disinfection are generally inefficient. Bottles of drinking water are very often polluted during bottling. International mineral waters of french origin are not so damaged during conditioning operation. Bacteria and amoebae populations are quite independant and can't be indicators one for another. Thermophilic amoebae strains are very rare and any pathogenic amoeba has been found during the study.

  10. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement

    PubMed Central

    Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C.; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Methods and Findings Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. Conclusion When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health. PMID:27270749

  11. Molecular and epidemiological studies of Porcine rubulavirus infection - an overview.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus-La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico virus (PorPV-LPMV) was identified as the causative agent of a viral disease that emerged spontaneously in Mexican swine in the 1980s. Since the report of the initial outbreak of the disease, only one full-length genome from a strain isolated in 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been sequenced; sequence data are scarce from other isolates. The genetic variation of this virus that has spread throughout the main endemic region of Mexico is almost a complete mystery. The development of molecular techniques for improved diagnostics and to investigate the persistence, molecular epidemiology, and the possible reservoirs of PorPV are needed. Together, this will provide greater knowledge regarding the molecular genetic changes and useful data to establish new strategies in the control of this virus in Mexico.

  12. [Epidemiological study of children's mental health in Fuzhou].

    PubMed

    Luo, W

    1992-06-01

    This epidemiological survey of mental health's conditions among 1,428 children below the age of 14 in an urban and rural area with a population of 398,674 was carried out with the standardized methods and diagnostic criteria, the result shows that the total incidence of abnormal mental health's conditions is 70.03/1000. Through a statistical deal, the result shows that the weights of these infants are slight, that they can only recognize their parents slowly, that their parents are in low educated levels. That the emotion between their parents is always not so harmonious, and that their parents always treat their children with different attitudes. In short, all these factors are in close connection with the incidence of abnormal mental health of these children.

  13. THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY: PART 2-PERSONAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT ASSOCIATED WITH AN ELDERLY STUDY POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 which focused upon establishing relationships between potential human exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants with detectable health effects. The study design incor...

  14. THE 1998 BALTIMORE PARTICULATE MATTER EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE STUDY: PART 2-PERSONAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT ASSOCIATED WITH AN ELDERLY STUDY POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during the summer of 1998 which focused upon establishing relationships between potential human exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants with detectable health effects. The study design incor...

  15. Association between Body Powder Use and Ovarian Cancer: the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES)

    PubMed Central

    Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Abbott, Sarah E.; Alberg, Anthony J.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Bondy, Melissa L.; Cote, Michele L.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peres, Lauren C.; Peters, Edward S.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Terry, Paul; Crankshaw, Sydnee; Camacho, Fabian; Wang, Frances; Moorman, Patricia G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies indicate increased ovarian cancer risk among women who use genital powder, but this has not been thoroughly investigated in African American (AA) women, a group with a high prevalence of use. We evaluate the relationship between use of genital powder and non-genital powder in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods Subjects are 584 cases and 745 controls enrolled in the African American Epidemiology Cancer Study, an ongoing, population-based case-control study of EOC in AA women in 11 geographic locations in the U.S. AA controls were frequency matched to cases on residence and age. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between genital and non-genital powder exposure and EOC risk, controlling for potential confounders. Results Powder use was common (62.8 % of cases and 52.9% of controls). Genital powder was associated with an increased risk of EOC (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.86) and a dose-response relationship was found for duration of use and number of lifetime applications (p <0.05). Non-genital use was also associated with EOC risk, particularly among non-serous EOC cases (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.39, 3.74). An association between powder use and upper respiratory conditions suggests an enhanced inflammatory response may explain the association between body powder and EOC. Conclusion In a study of AA women, body powder use was significantly associated with EOC risk. Impact The results support that body powder is a modifiable risk factor for EOC among AA women. PMID:27197282

  16. Diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies: practical and scientific considerations.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana Christina; Mestrinho, Heliana Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies involving large numbers of preschool children, schoolchildren and young adults. In this context, assessment of lesions characteristics indicating whether or not there is ongoing mineral loss is also considered relevant. The reasoning sustained by these studies is that diagnosis of the caries process limited to the cavitated level is no longer in accordance with current state-of-the-art knowledge in cariology. This paper highlights one topic of the lecture entitled "Caries Process: Evolving Evidence and Understanding," presented at the 18th Congress of the Brazilian Association for Oral Health Promotion (Associação Brasileira de Odontologia de Promoção de Saúde - ABOPREV) in April 2013. In the framework of epidemiological studies, the interest in diagnosing active and inactive non-cavitated lesions was elucidated. However, relevant questions associated with the diagnosis of non-cavitated lesions that might raise concerns among researchers and health administrators were not addressed. The present paper aims to bring these questions into discussion. The contribution of this discussion in terms of developing the understanding of caries decline is analyzed by using data from a caries trends study of Brazilian preschool children residing in the Federal District of Brazil as an example. The inclusion of active and inactive non-cavitated lesions in the diagnosis of the caries process allowed us to demonstrate that, in Brazilian 1- to 5-year-old children, caries prevalence decreased significantly from 1996 to 2006, simultaneously with a reduction in the rate of caries progression.

  17. Association between Body Powder Use and Ovarian Cancer: The African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES).

    PubMed

    Schildkraut, Joellen M; Abbott, Sarah E; Alberg, Anthony J; Bandera, Elisa V; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa L; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peres, Lauren C; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Crankshaw, Sydnee; Camacho, Fabian; Wang, Frances; Moorman, Patricia G

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate increased ovarian cancer risk among women who use genital powder, but this has not been thoroughly investigated in African American (AA) women, a group with a high prevalence of use. We evaluate the relationship between use of genital powder and nongenital powder in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Subjects are 584 cases and 745 controls enrolled in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES), an ongoing, population-based case-control study of EOC in AA women in 11 geographic locations in the United States. AA controls were frequency matched to cases on residence and age. Logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between genital and nongenital powder exposure and EOC risk, controlling for potential confounders. Powder use was common (62.8% of cases and 52.9% of controls). Genital powder was associated with an increased risk of EOC (OR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.11-1.86) and a dose-response relationship was found for duration of use and number of lifetime applications (P < 0.05). Nongenital use was also associated with EOC risk, particularly among nonserous EOC cases (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.39-3.74). An association between powder use and upper respiratory conditions suggests an enhanced inflammatory response may explain the association between body powder and EOC. In a study of AA women, body powder use was significantly associated with EOC risk. The results support that body powder is a modifiable risk factor for EOC among AA women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(10); 1411-7. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Trabert, p. 1369. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world. PMID:22012041

  19. Measuring Taste Impairment in Epidemiologic Studies – The Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, KJ; Schubert, CR; Snyder, DJ; Bartoshuk, LM; Huang, GH; Klein, BEK; Klein, R; Nieto, FJ; Pankow, JS; Tweed, TS; Krantz, EM; Moy, GS

    2008-01-01

    Taste or gustatory function may play an important role in determining diet and nutritional status and therefore indirectly impact health. Yet there have been few attempts to study the spectrum of taste function and dysfunction in human populations. Epidemiological studies are needed to understand the impact of taste function and dysfunction on public health, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to develop and test strategies to prevent clinically significant dysfunction. However, measuring taste function in epidemiological studies is challenging and requires repeatable, efficient methods which can measure change over time. Insights gained from translating laboratory-based methods to a population-based study, the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS) will be shared. In this study, a generalized labeled magnitude scale (gLMS) method was used to measure taste intensity of filter paper disks saturated with salt, sucrose, citric acid, quinine, or 6-n-propylthiouracil and a gLMS measure of taste preferences was administered. In addition, a portable, inexpensive camera system to capture digital images of fungiform papillae and a masked grading system to measure the density of fungiform papillae were developed. Adult children of participants in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin are eligible for this on-going study. The parents were residents of Beaver Dam and 43–84 years of age in 1987–88; offspring range in age from 21–84 years in 2005–2008. Methods will be described in detail and preliminary results about the distributions of taste function in the BOSS cohort will be presented. PMID:19686191

  20. Using Geographic Information Systems for Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, John R.; Ward, Mary H.; Jarup, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating environmental levels of a contaminant at the individual level and to design exposure metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. In this article we discuss fundamentals of three scientific disciplines instrumental to using GIS in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies: geospatial science, environmental science, and epidemiology. We also explore how a GIS can be used to accomplish several steps in the exposure assessment process. These steps include defining the study population, identifying source and potential routes of exposure, estimating environmental levels of target contaminants, and estimating personal exposures. We present and discuss examples for the first three steps. We discuss potential use of GIS and global positioning systems (GPS) in the last step. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the use of GIS in exposure assessment for environmental epidemiology studies is not only feasible but can enhance the understanding of the association between contaminants in our environment and disease. PMID:15198921

  1. Association of Central Adiposity With Adverse Cardiac Mechanics: Findings From the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network Study.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Senthil; Martinez, Eva E; Aguilar, Frank G; Kim, Kwang-Youn A; Peng, Jie; Sha, Jin; Irvin, Marguerite R; Lewis, Cora E; Hunt, Steven C; Arnett, Donna K; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2016-06-01

    Central obesity, defined by increased waist circumference or waist:hip ratio (WHR), is associated with increased cardiovascular events, including heart failure. However, the pathophysiological link between central obesity and adverse cardiovascular outcomes remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that central obesity and larger WHR are independently associated with worse cardiac mechanics (reduced left ventricular strain and systolic [s'] and early diastolic [e'] tissue velocities). We performed speckle-tracking analysis of echocardiograms from participants in the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) study, a population- and family-based epidemiological study (n=2181). Multiple indices of systolic and diastolic cardiac mechanics were measured. We evaluated the association between central obesity and cardiac mechanics using multivariable-adjusted linear mixed-effects models to account for relatedness among participants. The mean age of the cohort was 51±14 years, 58% were women, and 47% were black. Mean body mass index was 30.8±7.1 kg/m(2), waist circumference was 102±17 cm, WHR was 0.91±0.08, and 80% had central obesity based on waist circumference and WHR criteria. After adjusting for multiple potential confounders (including age, sex, race, physical activity, body mass index, heart rate, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, antihypertensive medication use, glomerular filtration rate, left ventricular mass index, wall motion abnormalities, and ejection fraction), central obesity and WHR remained associated with worse global longitudinal strain, early diastolic strain rate, s' velocity, and e' velocity (P<0.05 for all comparisons). There were no significant statistical interactions between WHR and obesity status. In this cross-sectional study of participants with multiple comorbidities, central obesity was found to be associated with adverse cardiac mechanics. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. A sero-epidemiological study of arboviral fevers in Djibouti, Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Andayi, Fred; Charrel, Remi N; Kieffer, Alexia; Richet, Herve; Pastorino, Boris; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Carrat, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Arboviral infections have repeatedly been reported in the republic of Djibouti, consistent with the fact that essential vectors for arboviral diseases are endemic in the region. However, there is a limited recent information regarding arbovirus circulation, and the associated risk predictors to human exposure are largely unknown. We performed, from November 2010 to February 2011 in the Djibouti city general population, a cross-sectional ELISA and sero-neutralisation-based sero-epidemiological analysis nested in a household cohort, which investigated the arboviral infection prevalence and risk factors, stratified by their vectors of transmission. Antibodies to dengue virus (21.8%) were the most frequent. Determinants of infection identified by multivariate analysis pointed to sociological and environmental exposure to the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. The population was broadly naïve against Chikungunya (2.6%) with risk factors mostly shared with dengue. The detection of limited virus circulation was followed by a significant Chikungunya outbreak a few months after our study. Antibodies to West Nile virus were infrequent (0.6%), but the distribution of cases faithfully followed previous mapping of infected Culex mosquitoes. The seroprevalence of Rift valley fever virus was 2.2%, and non-arboviral transmission was suggested. Finally, the study indicated the circulation of Toscana-related viruses (3.7%), and a limited number of cases suggested infection by tick-borne encephalitis or Alkhumra related viruses, which deserve further investigations to identify the viruses and vectors implicated. Overall, most of the arboviral cases' predictors were statistically best described by the individuals' housing space and neighborhood environmental characteristics, which correlated with the ecological actors of their respective transmission vectors' survival in the local niche. This study has demonstrated autochthonous arboviral circulations in the republic of Djibouti, and provides

  3. An epidemiological study of emotional and behavioral disorders among children in an urban slum.

    PubMed

    Bele, Samir D; Bodhare, Trupti N; Valsangkar, Sameer; Saraf, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Although mental health research in India has gained momentum in recent years and several epidemiological studies have begun to quantify psychiatric morbidities, there are few community-based epidemiological studies focusing specifically on prevalence and associated risk factors of emotional and behavioral disorders among children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh among 370 children selected by simple random sampling. Strength and difficulty questionnaire (SDQ) was used to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorder. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the social predictors of the condition, health-seeking behavior, and its impact on educational status of the children. Maternal depression was evaluated using patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9). Eighty-three (22.43%) children had an abnormal score on at least one domain of SDQ. Logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender (odds ration (OR) = 5.51), under-nutrition (OR = 2.74), low socioeconomic status (OR = 3.73), nuclear family (OR = 1.89), working status of the mother (OR = 2.71), younger age of the mother at the birth of the child (OR = 3.09), disciplinary method (OR = 2.31), financial problem at home (OR = 13.32), alcoholic father (OR = 11.65), conflicts in family (OR = 7.29), and depression among mother (OR = 3.95) were significant predictors. There was a significant impact on educational performance (p = 0.008) and parents had little awareness regarding the condition. The high frequency of emotional and behavioral problems, its impact on educational performance of the children, associated adverse social factors, poor knowledge, and treatment-seeking behavior of the parents in an urban slum warrants immediate attention. The interrelation of all these factors can be utilized to plan a continuum of comprehensive services that focus on prevention, early identification, and effective intervention strategies with

  4. A Sero-epidemiological Study of Arboviral Fevers in Djibouti, Horn of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Andayi, Fred; Charrel, Remi N.; Kieffer, Alexia; Richet, Herve; Pastorino, Boris; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Carrat, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Arboviral infections have repeatedly been reported in the republic of Djibouti, consistent with the fact that essential vectors for arboviral diseases are endemic in the region. However, there is a limited recent information regarding arbovirus circulation, and the associated risk predictors to human exposure are largely unknown. We performed, from November 2010 to February 2011 in the Djibouti city general population, a cross-sectional ELISA and sero-neutralisation-based sero-epidemiological analysis nested in a household cohort, which investigated the arboviral infection prevalence and risk factors, stratified by their vectors of transmission. Antibodies to dengue virus (21.8%) were the most frequent. Determinants of infection identified by multivariate analysis pointed to sociological and environmental exposure to the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. The population was broadly naïve against Chikungunya (2.6%) with risk factors mostly shared with dengue. The detection of limited virus circulation was followed by a significant Chikungunya outbreak a few months after our study. Antibodies to West Nile virus were infrequent (0.6%), but the distribution of cases faithfully followed previous mapping of infected Culex mosquitoes. The seroprevalence of Rift valley fever virus was 2.2%, and non-arboviral transmission was suggested. Finally, the study indicated the circulation of Toscana-related viruses (3.7%), and a limited number of cases suggested infection by tick-borne encephalitis or Alkhumra related viruses, which deserve further investigations to identify the viruses and vectors implicated. Overall, most of the arboviral cases' predictors were statistically best described by the individuals' housing space and neighborhood environmental characteristics, which correlated with the ecological actors of their respective transmission vectors' survival in the local niche. This study has demonstrated autochthonous arboviral circulations in the republic of Djibouti, and provides

  5. Epidemiologic studies of environmental agents and systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, M D

    1999-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic scleroderma are autoimmune diseases thought to have an exogenous trigger. This review summarizes relevant case-control and cohort studies that investigated exogenous sex hormones, silica, silicone, solvents, pesticides, mercuric chloride, and hair dyes as putative risk factors for the development of these diseases. These studies indicate that estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women increases the risk of developing lupus, scleroderma, and Raynaud disease, although the increase in risk is relatively modest. Oral contraceptives may also play a role in disease susceptibility in lupus but not apparently in scleroderma. Environmental endocrine modulators, in the form of pesticides, may represent another opportunity for estrogenlike effects to occur, but there is scant evidence that these agents play a role in human systemic autoimmune disease. Although exposure to silica dust increases the risk of scleroderma in men occupied in the industry, this does not explain most male scleroderma cases. When this exposure was investigated among women, no significant risk was found. Additionally, silicone in implanted devices as well as occupational exposure to silicone-containing compounds did not pose an increased risk among women for scleroderma. The role of solvent exposure has been investigated as a risk factor for scleroderma with mixed findings. One study suggested a potential role in male patients or in those individuals with Scl-70 antibody positivity either male or female. Two other studies were unable to corroborate this finding. Mercuric chloride causes antifibrillarin antibodies and immune complex glomerulonephritis in susceptible mouse strains. Antifibrillarin antibodies, but not glomerulonephritis, occur in a subset of scleroderma patients and preliminary evidence suggests that mercury levels may be higher in this group of individuals. Hair products have been studied as possibly raising the risk of developing lupus

  6. Bone lead as a biological marker in epidemiologic studies of chronic toxicity: conceptual paradigms.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, H; Rabinowitz, M; Smith, D

    1998-01-01

    The skeleton contains the majority of the body's lead burden in both children and adults. The half-life of lead in bone is in the range of years to decades, depending on bone type, metabolic state, and subject age, among other things. Measurement of skeletal lead has benefited greatly from the recent development of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments that can make rapid, safe, accurate, and relatively precise measurements of lead in bone. Two types of XRF technologies exist, LXRF and KXRF; this paper focuses on KXRF, which has been the most widely validated and used. KXRF is proving to be a powerful analytical methodology for evaluating bone lead levels as a measure of time-integrated (i.e., cumulative) lead dose in epidemiologic studies of the effects of chronic lead exposure. However, insufficient attention has been given to conceptualizing the paradigms by which bone lead levels reflect lead exposure and by which the skeleton serves as an endogenous source of lead. Consideration of these paradigms, which rely on bone lead kinetics, is necessary for the proper development of a priori hypotheses involving bone lead accumulation and release, the selection of bone sites for measurement by KXRF, and the design of epidemiologic studies involving bone lead dynamics. We discuss and present supporting evidence for a conceptual model that distinguishes two major paradigms of skeletal lead, including 1) bone lead as an indicator of cumulative lead exposure (bone lead as repository), and 2) bone lead as a source of body lead burden that is mobilizable into the circulation (bone lead as source). These two roles are not mutually exclusive. Instead, they are components of the processes controlling lead accumulation into and release from bone over time. Developing successful strategies for distinguishing these two processes in epidemiologic studies will require separate measurements of lead in cortical and trabecular bone and additional measurement of specific markers of bone

  7. [Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles on epidemiological study of burns in China].

    PubMed

    Cheng, W F; Shen, Z A; Zhao, D X; Li, D W; Shang, Y R

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To analyze the current status of epidemiological study of burns in China, and to explore the related strategies. Methods: Retrospective or cross-sectional scientific articles in Chinese or English on epidemiological study of burns in China published from January 2005 to December 2015 were systemically retrieved from 4 databases. The databases include PubMed, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, and Chinese Journals Full-text Database. From the results retrieved, data with regard to publication year, journal distribution, number of institutions participated in the study, affiliation of the first author and its location, and admission time span and age of patients in all the scientific articles were collected. Furthermore, the definition of age range and the grouping method of age of pediatric patients in English articles on epidemiological study of pediatric burns of China were recorded. Data were processed with descriptive statistical analysis. Results: A total of 256 scientific articles conforming to the study criteria were retrieved, among which 214 (83.59%) articles were in Chinese, and 42 (16.41%) articles were in English; 242 (94.53%) articles were retrospective studies, and 14 (5.47%) articles were cross-sectional studies. During the 11 years, the number of the relevant articles was fluctuant on the whole. The scientific articles were published in 130 journals, with 42 English articles in source journals for SCIENCE CITATION INDEX EXPANDED-JOURNAL LIST, accounting for 16.41%, and 116 Chinese articles in Source Journal for Chinese Scientific and Technical Papers, accounting for 45.31%. Totally 215 (83.98%) articles were single-center studies, and 29 (11.33%) articles were multicenter studies which were conducted by three or more centers. The number of affiliations of the first author of articles was 161 in total. The top 10 institutions regarding the article publishing number published 58 articles, accounting for 22.66%. Scientific articles on

  8. Brief Report: Negative Controls to Detect Selection Bias and Measurement Bias in Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ercumen, Ayse; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Colford, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical laboratory experiments routinely use negative controls to identify possible sources of bias, but epidemiologic studies have infrequently used this type of control in their design or measurement approach. Recently, epidemiologists proposed the routine use of negative controls in observational studies and defined the structure of negative controls to detect bias due to unmeasured confounding. We extend this previous study and define the structure of negative controls to detect selection bias and measurement bias in both observational studies and randomized trials. We illustrate the strengths and limitations of negative controls in this context using examples from the epidemiologic literature. Given their demonstrated utility and broad generalizability, the routine use of prespecified negative controls will strengthen the evidence from epidemiologic studies. PMID:27182642

  9. Meta-epidemiological study: a step by step approach by using R.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-02-09

    The results of meta-analysis are usually influenced by characteristics of component trials. These characteristics include but are not limited to sample size, publication language, quality of study design and the number of participating centers. Because systematic review and meta-analysis is considered to be evidence of the highest quality in the era of evidence-based medicine, characteristics that may bias the results of meta-analysis should be fully investigated. Meta-epidemiological study aims to investigate the impact of study design characteristics on treatment effect. The article introduces how to perform meta-epidemiological study by using R software. There are several methodological approaches to perform meta-epidemiological study, depending on whether there is heterogeneity between meta-analyses and between trials. When there is no significant heterogeneity, these results would be similar. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Leveraging epidemiologic and clinical collections for genomic studies of complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Dana C.; Goodloe, Robert; Farber-Eger, Eric; Boston, Jonathan; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Bush, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Present day limited resources demand DNA and phenotyping alternatives to the traditional prospective population-based epidemiologic collections. Methods To accelerate genomic discovery with an emphasis on diverse populations, we as part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study accessed all non-European American samples (n=15,863) available in BioVU, the Vanderbilt University biorepository linked to de-identified electronic medical records, for genomic studies as part of the larger Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I Study. Given previous studies have cautioned against the secondary use of clinically collected data compared with epidemiologically-collected data, we present here a characterization of EAGLE BioVU, including the billing and diagnostic (ICD-9) code distributions for adult and pediatric patients as well as comparisons made for select health metrics (body mass index, glucose, HbA1c, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides) with the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples (NHANES III; n=7,159 and NHANES 1999–2002; n=7,839). Results Overall, the distributions of billing and diagnostic codes suggest this clinical sample is mixture of healthy and sick patients like that expected for a contemporary American population. Conclusion Little bias is observed among health metrics suggesting this clinical collection is suitable for genomic studies along with traditional epidemiologic cohorts. PMID:26201699

  11. [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies].

    PubMed

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2008-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  12. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

    PubMed

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2014-12-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  13. Epidemiology of psoriasis in malaysia: a hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Saraswathy Devi, S; Prashant, B S

    2010-06-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic inflammatory skin disease with a worldwide distribution. To determine the prevalence of psoriasis according to age, gender and ethnicity among outpatients attending the dermatology clinic in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang Malaysia. All outpatients attending the specialist clinic of the dermatology department in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang, Malaysia from January 2003 to December 2005. This is a retrospective descriptive study of all outpatients who attended the specialist clinic from January 2003 to December 2005 and diagnosed for psoriasis. The study population consisted of patients of all ages, both gender and different ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese, Indians and foreign workers) living in the Klang Valley and the surrounding areas. A total of 5607 patients were examined during a period of three years and 9.5% were found to be suffering with psoriasis. It was more common in males (11.6%) than in females (7.2%). Patients within the 40-60 year age group had the highest (17.2%) rate and were lower in the younger age group including those aged over 60 years (8.1%). With regards to ethnicity, it was more common in Indians followed by Malays, Chinese and migrant foreign workers respectively. The study indicates that psoriasis is common in Malaysia and its distribution varies with age, ethnicity and gender.

  14. An assessment of the possible extent of confounding in epidemiological studies of lung cancer risk among roofers

    SciTech Connect

    Mundt, D.J.; van Wijngaarden, E.; Mundt, K.A.

    2007-07-01

    We evaluated the likelihood and extent to which the observed increased risk of lung cancer may be due to confounding (a mixing of effects of multiple exposures) by co-exposure to other potential carcinogens present in roofing or to lifestyle variables. We conducted a review of the epidemiological and industrial hygiene literature of asphalt-exposed workers. Peer-reviewed epidemiological studies of asphalt fumes, related occupational exposures, and confounding factors were identified from MEDLINE (1966 early 2004). Industrial hygiene studies of asphalt workers were identified through MEDLINE, publicly available government documents, and asphalt industry documents. Using well established statistical methods, we quantified the extent to which lung cancer relative risk estimates among roofers reflect confounding from other exposures, using different prevalence and risk scenarios. The relative risk of lung cancer varied from 1.2 to 5.0 in 13 epidemiological studies of roofers; most studies reported a relative risk between 1.2 and 1.4. Smoking, asbestos and coal tar were the most likely confounders, but the prevalence of these factors varied over time. The results of the study indicate that much of the observed risk reported in epidemiological studies of cancer among roofers is well within the range of what may have resulted from confounding by reasonable and expected levels of smoking, asbestos or coal tar. This may be particularly true for those studies that did not adjust for these confounders and where the exposure was defined as employment in the roofing industry. In addition to poorly defined asphalt exposure, uncontrolled confounding cannot reliably be ruled out in studies of lung cancer among asphalt-exposed roofers. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude whether roofers are at increased risk of lung cancer due to asphalt exposure.

  15. Rheumatic chorea in northern Australia: a clinical and epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Carapetis, J.; Currie, B.

    1999-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of Sydenham's chorea in the Aboriginal population of northern Australia a review was conducted of 158 episodes in 108 people: 106 were Aborigines, 79 were female, and the mean age was 10.9 years at first episode. Chorea occurred in 28% of cases of acute rheumatic fever, carditis occurred in 25% of episodes of chorea, and arthritis in 8%. Patients with carditis or arthritis tended to have raised acute phase reactants and streptococcal serology. Two episodes lasted at least 30 months. Mean time to first recurrence of chorea was 2.1 years compared with 1.2 years to second recurrence. Established rheumatic heart disease developed in 58% of cases and was more likely in those presenting with acute carditis, although most people who developed rheumatic heart disease did not have evidence of acute carditis with chorea. Differences in the patterns of chorea and other manifestations of acute rheumatic fever in different populations may hold clues to its pathogenesis. Long term adherence to secondary prophylaxis is crucial following all episodes of acute rheumatic fever, including chorea, to prevent recurrence.

 PMID:10086943

  16. Characteristics of foodborne outbreaks in which use of analytical epidemiological studies contributed to identification of suspected vehicles, European Union, 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Schlinkmann, K M; Razum, O; Werber, D

    2017-04-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) occur frequently in Europe. Employing analytical epidemiological study designs increases the likelihood of identifying the suspected vehicle(s), but these studies are rarely applied in FBDO investigations. We used multivariable binary logistic regression analysis to identify characteristics of investigated FBDOs reported to the European Food Safety Authority (2007-2011) that were associated with analytical epidemiological evidence (compared to evidence from microbiological investigations/descriptive epidemiology only). The analysis was restricted to FBDO investigations, where the evidence for the suspected vehicle was considered 'strong', i.e. convincing. The presence of analytical epidemiological evidence was reported in 2012 (50%) of these 4038 outbreaks. In multivariable analysis, increasing outbreak size, number of hospitalizations, causative (i.e. aetiological) agent (whether identified and, if so, which one), and the setting in which these outbreaks occurred (e.g. geographically dispersed outbreaks) were independently associated with presence of analytical evidence. The number of investigations with reported analytical epidemiological evidence was unexpectedly high, likely indicating the need for quality assurance within the European Union foodborne outbreak reporting system, and warranting cautious interpretation of our findings. This first analysis of evidence implicating a food vehicle in FBDOs may help to inform public health authorities on when to use analytical epidemiological study designs.

  17. Assessing the reporting of categorised quantitative variables in observational epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Mabikwa, Onkabetse V; Greenwood, Darren C; Baxter, Paul D; Fleming, Sarah J

    2017-03-14

    One aspect to consider when reporting results of observational studies in epidemiology is how quantitative risk factors are analysed. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines recommend that researchers describe how they handle quantitative variables when analysing data. For categorised quantitative variables, the authors are required to provide reasons and justifications informing their practice. We investigated and assessed the practices and reporting of categorised quantitative variables in epidemiology. The assessment was based on five medical journals that publish epidemiological research. Observational studies published between April and June 2015 and investigating the relationships between quantitative exposures (or risk factors) and the outcomes were considered for assessment. A standard form was used to collect the data, and the reporting patterns amongst eligible studies were quantified and described. Out of 61 articles assessed for eligibility, 23 observational studies were included in the assessment. Categorisation of quantitative exposures occurred in 61% of these studies and reasons informing the practice were rarely provided. Only one article explained the choice of categorisation in the analysis. Transformation of quantitative exposures into four or five groups was common and dominant amongst studies using equally spaced categories. Dichotomisation was not popular; the practice featured in one article. Overall, the majority (86%) of the studies preferred ordered or arbitrary group categories. Other criterions used to decide categorical boundaries were based on established guidelines such as consensus statements and WHO standards. Categorisation of continuous variables remains a dominant practice in epidemiological studies. The reasons informing the practice of categorisation within published work are limited and remain unknown in most articles. The existing STROBE guidelines could provide stronger

  18. Customising turnaround time indicators to requesting clinician: a 10-year study through balanced scorecard indicators.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Santo-Quiles, Ana; Gutierrez, Mercedes; Lugo, Javier; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is, first to present a 10-year monitoring of postanalytical turnaround time (TAT) adapted to different clinicians and patient situations, second to evaluate and analyse the indicators results during that period of time, and finally to show a synthetic appropriate indicator to be included in the balanced scorecard management system. TAT indicator for routine samples was devised as the percentage of certain key tests that were verified before a specific time on the phlebotomy day. A weighted mean synthetic indicator was also designed. They were calculated for inpatients at 15:00 and 12:00 and for primary care patients only at 15:00. The troponin TAT of emergency department patients, calculated as the difference between the troponin verification and registration time, was selected as the stat laboratory TAT indicator. The routine and stat TAT improved along the 10-year study period. The synthetic indicator showed the same trend. The implementation of systematic and continuous monitoring over years, promoted a continuous improvement in TAT which will probably benefit patient outcome and safety.

  19. Epidemiological study of Rift Valley fever virus in Kigoma, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kifaro, Emmanuel G; Nkangaga, Japhet; Joshua, Gradson; Sallu, Raphael; Yongolo, Mmeta; Dautu, George; Kasanga, Christopher J

    2014-04-23

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an acute, zoonotic viral disease caused by a Phlebovirus, which belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. Among livestock, outbreaks of the disease are economically devastating. They are often characterised by large, sweeping abortion storms and have significant mortality in adult livestock. The aim of the current study was to investigate RVFV infection in the Kigoma region, which is nestled under the hills of the western arm of the Great Rift Valley on the edge of Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania. A region-wide serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated small ruminants (sheep and goats, n = 411). Sera samples were tested for the presence of anti-RVFV antibodies and viral antigen, using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The overall past infections were detected in 22 of the 411 animals, 5.4% (Confidence Interval (CI) 95% = 3.5% - 8.1%). The Kigoma rural area recorded the higher seroprevalence of 12.0% (CI 95% = 7.3% - 18.3%; p < 0.0001), followed by Kibondo at 2.3% (CI 95% = 0.5% - 6.5%; p > 0.05) and the Kasulu district at 0.8% (CI 95% = 0.0% - 4.2%; p > 0.05). The prevalence was 12.5% and 4.7% for sheep and goats, respectively. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicated that only eight samples were found to be positive (n = 63). This study has confirmed, for the first time, the presence of the RVFV in the Kigoma region four years after the 2007 epizootic in Tanzania. The study further suggests that the virus activity exists during the inter-epizootic period, even in regions with no history of RVFV.

  20. Chromium and disease: review of epidemiologic studies with particular reference to etiologic information provided by measures of exposure.

    PubMed

    Lees, P S

    1991-05-01

    Dozens of epidemiologic studies have been conducted since the late 1940s in an attempt to elucidate the relationship between exposure to chromium compounds and increased rates of certain cancers observed in several industries. The relationship between employment in industries producing chromium compounds from chromite ore and lung cancer has been well established in numerous studies. The relationship between exposure to certain chromium-based pigments and chromic acid and lung cancer, although not as strong, is fairly well accepted. The data concerning emissions from stainless-steel manufacturing and disease are contradictory. Although individual studies have indicated excesses of gastrointestinal and occasionally other cancers in these industries, results are not consistent and not universally accepted. There is general agreement that chromite ore does not have an associated risk of cancer. Although the chromium compound (or compounds) responsible for disease have yet to be identified, there is general agreement that hexavalent species are responsible for these diseases and that the trivalent species are not. Hypotheses about the carcinogenicity of specific chromium compounds generally relate to their solubility in body fluids. These hypotheses, however, have generally been produced as a result of toxicologic, not epidemiologic, investigation. Well-designed epidemiologic studies incorporating detailed assessments of worker exposures have the potential to help elucidate causality, identify specific carcinogenic compounds, and quantify risk in humans, eliminating the need to extrapolate from animal data. Although the need for exposure data crucial to this effort was identified in the earliest epidemiologic studies of chromium, such studies have not been conducted. As a result, little more is known today about the relationship between this chemical and disease in humans than was known 40 years ago.

  1. Chromium and disease: review of epidemiologic studies with particular reference to etiologic information provided by measures of exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, P S

    1991-01-01

    Dozens of epidemiologic studies have been conducted since the late 1940s in an attempt to elucidate the relationship between exposure to chromium compounds and increased rates of certain cancers observed in several industries. The relationship between employment in industries producing chromium compounds from chromite ore and lung cancer has been well established in numerous studies. The relationship between exposure to certain chromium-based pigments and chromic acid and lung cancer, although not as strong, is fairly well accepted. The data concerning emissions from stainless-steel manufacturing and disease are contradictory. Although individual studies have indicated excesses of gastrointestinal and occasionally other cancers in these industries, results are not consistent and not universally accepted. There is general agreement that chromite ore does not have an associated risk of cancer. Although the chromium compound (or compounds) responsible for disease have yet to be identified, there is general agreement that hexavalent species are responsible for these diseases and that the trivalent species are not. Hypotheses about the carcinogenicity of specific chromium compounds generally relate to their solubility in body fluids. These hypotheses, however, have generally been produced as a result of toxicologic, not epidemiologic, investigation. Well-designed epidemiologic studies incorporating detailed assessments of worker exposures have the potential to help elucidate causality, identify specific carcinogenic compounds, and quantify risk in humans, eliminating the need to extrapolate from animal data. Although the need for exposure data crucial to this effort was identified in the earliest epidemiologic studies of chromium, such studies have not been conducted. As a result, little more is known today about the relationship between this chemical and disease in humans than was known 40 years ago. PMID:1935857

  2. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  3. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  4. [Prospective studies based on biological specimen banks: a new epidemiological generation].

    PubMed

    Panico, S

    1992-01-01

    A new generation of studies is emerging from the recent technical development in the epidemiology of chronic diseases. Prospective investigations on large number of individuals using a biological specimen bank as a support have been designed recently in the major European and North-American research center in epidemiology. The efficiency of this design may guarantee sound information on a number of etiological questions regarding modifiable environmental factors (such as nutrition) and tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Studies on women appear the most efficient use of this design in cardiovascular epidemiology, especially for coronary heart disease. The design, the objectives and the rationale of a study on the etiology of cardiovascular disease in Italian women are described in the present paper. The Progetto ATENA and the women-dedicated section of the Progetto Controllo Comunitario Integrato nel Distretto Sanitario di Sezze are the two components of the investigation.

  5. [Epidemiologic studies on carcinogenic risk and occupational activities in tanning, leather and shoe industries].

    PubMed

    Seniori Costantini, A; Merler, E; Saracci, R

    1990-01-01

    A review is made of the epidemiological studies of occupational cancer risks among tannery, leather and shoe industry workers. The risk of nasal cancer associated with exposure to leather dust, which had already been stressed at the beginning of the 1970's, was confirmed in recent studies. However, a decreasing trend of RR was observed among shoe industry workers. The excess of leukemia among shoe workers, which was mainly based on the description of numerous cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia, has also been confirmed by two cohort studies carried out in Italy and the U.K. In addition to the evident increase in these two diseases, there are indications of an excess of cancer of other sites among leather and shoe workers, particularly bladder cancer, both among workers assigned to leather finishing operations and in leather goods and shoe production workers. Another interesting result is the excess of lung cancer among tannery workers. This evidence is unanimous in the studies carried out in Italy but is not supported by the majority of studies performed in other countries. For this reason, we consider it extremely important to carry out a multicentric study in Italy, with particular attention to the definition of occupational exposures to carcinogens. There are also other isolated reports of excesses of other cancers in the shoe and leather industries but in our opinion they are of dubious interpretation.

  6. Epidemiological study on contamination of water and diarrheal diseases in a rural community in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Q M; Yoshimura, H; Midorikawa, Y; Nakamura, S; Sugiyama, A; Iwade, Y; Thongkrajai, P; Kuyyakanond, T; Mairiang, P; Pienthaweechai, K; Yamauchi, T

    1996-04-01

    An epidemiological and bacteriological study of diarrheal diseases as well as the relation between domestic-use water and passage of enteric pathogens with stools of the villagers was performed in the northeastern rural area of Thailand on 4 different occasions during the 3 years from 1992-1994. The questionnaire study indicated that 93% of the residents used rain water stored in containers for drinking and other domestic uses, and that 28% of them filtrated and/or boiled the water before drinking it. About 90% of drinking water samples collected from the same residents showed positive responses for the preliminary test ofEscherichia coli contamination. Furthermore, a precise bacteriological survey indicated that more than half of the drinking water samples collected from containers storing rain water were contaminated with various enteropathogenic bacteria, includingE. coli, Vibrio spp. andShigella spp. The new serotype ofV. cholerae O139, synonym 'Bengal cholerae,' which could be isolated from different specimens, is replacing the traditional species ofVibrio. Forty-one per cent of the villagers carried enteropathogenic bacteria in their stools. Most of them were asymptomatic carriers and only a few of them showed clinical features of diarrhea. A few concrete propositions were discussed to supply safe water in these areas where drinkable underground water is not available.

  7. NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence from various sources around the world indicate that there is a relationship between gastroenteritis in swimmers and the quality of the bathing water as measured with bacterial indicators of fecal contamination. Current EPA guidelines recommend the use of cultural method...

  8. NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence from various sources around the world indicate that there is a relationship between gastroenteritis in swimmers and the quality of the bathing water as measured with bacterial indicators of fecal contamination. Current EPA guidelines recommend the use of cultural method...

  9. Epidemiologic studies of ionizing radiation and cancer: past successes and future challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M

    1997-01-01

    The health effects of radiation have been a focus for research since early in the 20th century. As the century ends, extensive experimental and epidemiologic evidence has been accumulated that addresses the adverse consequences of radiation exposure; epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed groups from the general population and specific occupational groups provide quantitative estimates of the cancer risks associated with exposure. This report provides a perspective on the extensive epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of ionizing radiation and on likely needs for further epidemiologic research on radiation and health. Epidemiologic studies have proved informative on the quantitative risks of radiation-caused cancer but we now face the challenges of more precisely characterizing risks at lower levels of exposure and also of assessing modifiers of the risks, including dose rate, genetic susceptibility, and other environmental exposures. This report considers investigative approaches, such as pooled analysis of multiple data sets, that can be used to address these complex questions and the limitations of these approaches for addressing societal concerns about the risks of radiation exposure. PMID:9255575

  10. Test-retest reliability and factor stability of the behavioral evaluation for epidemiology studies test battery.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Diana; Heyer, Nicholas J; Bittner, Alvan C; Rohlman, Diane; Woods, James S

    2002-12-01

    The Behavioral Evaluation for Epidemiology Studies test battery uses touch-screen technology and novel methodologies to enhance neurobehavioral assessment. Scores generally show differential stability from the first trial with individual test reliabilities at or above .80 when normalized to a 3-min. administration. Six highly reliable (r > or = .87) factors were identified that cover functions known to be sensitive to neurotoxicants and physical exposures. These results strongly support recommendation of the new test battery for use in repeated-measures epidemiologic studies where first trial stability is desired.

  11. Tropical epidemiology: a system for continuous demographic monitoring of a study population.

    PubMed

    Stephens, J; Alonso, P L; Byass, P; Snow, R W

    1989-07-01

    Epidemiologists in many developing countries, where official demographic services are unavailable, have to include some demographic functions in their work. The usual method of documenting a study population for epidemiological research in a developing country consists of three stages: mapping, enumeration and vital registration. This paper considers the last element of this process, detailing the development of a suitable data system and explaining how its implementation using microcomputers and a database management system can help in the creation of an on-line continuous vital registration system for a study population as an epidemiological tool. The issues covered are data collection, entry and analysis, and the advantages of such a system for use in epidemiological research in developing countries are also discussed.

  12. Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Disease: A Series of Epidemiologic Studies in Japanese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    Although the causal relationships of high serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with coronary artery disease (CAD) are well established, there have been few community-based epidemiologic studies of these relations in Japan. Furthermore, even when analysis is restricted to ischemic stroke, the relationship between dyslipidemia and stroke is very weak. Accordingly, it is difficult to perform cohort studies of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. A series of studies, such as the NIPPON DATA (National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease and Its Trends in the Aged) cohort study of a representative sample of Japanese, have greatly increased existing evidence. NIPPON DATA80 revealed a clear positive relationship between TC and CAD, and indicated that reverse causality between hypocholesterolemia and liver disease may increase all-cause mortality in hypocholesterolemic Japanese. NIPPON DATA90 showed that serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, even when HDL-C was very high. NIPPON DATA80 revealed that low-normal levels of serum albumin and TC are associated with a decline in activity during old age, especially in women. The Suita study—a unique cohort study of urban residents—showed that LDL-C and non–HDL-C were equally accurate in predicting the incidence of myocardial infarction. Further research of this quality is needed to ascertain the public health burden of dyslipidemia in Japan. PMID:20571251

  13. Review of Epidemiological Studies of Drinking-Water Turbidity in Relation to Acute Gastrointestinal Illness.

    PubMed

    De Roos, Anneclaire J; Gurian, Patrick L; Robinson, Lucy F; Rai, Arjita; Zakeri, Issa; Kondo, Michelle C

    2017-08-17

    Turbidity has been used as an indicator of microbiological contamination of drinking water in time-series studies attempting to discern the presence of waterborne gastrointestinal illness; however, the utility of turbidity as a proxy exposure measure has been questioned. We conducted a review of epidemiological studies of the association between turbidity of drinking-water supplies and incidence of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI), including a synthesis of the overall weight of evidence. Our goal was to evaluate the potential for causal inference from the studies. We identified 14 studies on the topic (distinct by region, time period and/or population). We evaluated each study with regard to modeling approaches, potential biases, and the strength of evidence. We also considered consistencies and differences in the collective results. Positive associations between drinking-water turbidity and AGI incidence were found in different cities and time periods, and with both unfiltered and filtered supplies. There was some evidence for a stronger association at higher turbidity levels. The studies appeared to adequately adjust for confounding. There was fair consistency in the notable lags between turbidity measurement and AGI identification, which fell between 6 and 10 d in many studies. The observed associations suggest a detectable incidence of waterborne AGI from drinking water in the systems and time periods studied. However, some discrepant results indicate that the association may be context specific. Combining turbidity with seasonal and climatic factors, additional water quality measures, and treatment data may enhance predictive modeling in future studies. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1090.

  14. Epidemiological Trends in Colorectal Cancer in China: An Ecological Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinzhou; Tan, Zhengqi; Hollis-Hansen, Kelseanna; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2017-01-01

    Due to the changes in lifestyle and dietary behaviors, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been rapidly increasing in China. This study is to present the trends of CRC in China over the past decade. It used a series of nationally representative data, including the National Central Cancer Registry of China, the GLOBOCAN project and the Global Burden of Disease. The age-standardized rate of CRC incidence increased from 12.8 in 2003 to 16.8 per 100,000 in 2011, while the mortality rose from 5.9 to 7.8 per 100,000. The age group most affected by incident CRC cases were those aged 60-74 years old, whereas CRC death was most associated with those >74 years. Furthermore, the east coast of China presented a higher mortality rate (>15 and 10-14.9 per 100,000 in men and women) than central and west China (5-14.9 and 5-9.9 per 100,000). Compared with other countries worldwide, China indicated lower rates of incidence (14.2 per 100,000), mortality (7.4 per 100,000), and 5-year prevalence (52.7 per 100,000) than most developed countries. However, China had a higher case-fatality ratio (14.0 %) and mortality/incidence ratio (52.1 %). Lastly, disability-adjusted life years attributed to CRC in China was 224.2 per 100,000. It presents a steady increase in CRC in China over the past decade. It also reveals the domestic diversity of age, gender, and geography and finds the differences between China and developed countries, which may yield insights for national programs and policies.

  15. Ribotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: discriminatory power and usefulness as a tool for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, D S; Siegrist, H H; Sahli, R; Francioli, P

    1993-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism of ribosomal DNA regions (ribotyping) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated as a tool for epidemiological purposes. Fifty-five epidemiologically unrelated isolates from three geographic areas of Switzerland and 11 isolates obtained during an outbreak of P. aeruginosa infections in a burn unit were typed by this method. Typeability and reproducibility of the method reached 100%. With four selected restriction enzymes (BamHI, ClaI, EcoRI, and PstI), the 55 unrelated isolates could be classified into 33 ribotypes. To assess the value of this method for the interpretation of epidemiological data, we calculated an index of discrimination (ID) which takes into consideration both the number of types defined by the typing method and their relative frequencies. Our ribotyping system obtained a high ID of 0.958 with only four restriction enzymes, comparing well with other different typing schemes for which ID values could be calculated from published data. All clinical isolates of the outbreak belonged to the same ribotype, whereas environmental isolates, initially thought to be the source of the epidemic, belonged to a different ribotype. Thus, the typeability, reproducibility, and discriminatory power of our method as well as its value established in an epidemiological investigation were found to be appropriate for further epidemiological studies of P. aeruginosa. Images PMID:8093252

  16. Diagnosis of Dementia by Machine learning methods in Epidemiological studies: a pilot exploratory study from south India.

    PubMed

    Bhagyashree, Sheshadri Iyengar Raghavan; Nagaraj, Kiran; Prince, Martin; Fall, Caroline H D; Krishna, Murali

    2017-07-11

    There are limited data on the use of artificial intelligence methods for the diagnosis of dementia in epidemiological studies in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. A culture and education fair battery of cognitive tests was developed and validated for population based studies in low- and middle-income countries including India by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. We explored the machine learning methods based on the 10/66 battery of cognitive tests for the diagnosis of dementia based in a birth cohort study in South India. The data sets for 466 men and women for this study were obtained from the on-going Mysore Studies of Natal effect of Health and Ageing (MYNAH), in south India. The data sets included: demographics, performance on the 10/66 cognitive function tests, the 10/66 diagnosis of mental disorders and population based normative data for the 10/66 battery of cognitive function tests. Diagnosis of dementia from the rule based approach was compared against the 10/66 diagnosis of dementia. We have applied machine learning techniques to identify minimal number of the 10/66 cognitive function tests required for diagnosing dementia and derived an algorithm to improve the accuracy of dementia diagnosis. Of 466 subjects, 27 had 10/66 diagnosis of dementia, 19 of whom were correctly identified as having dementia by Jrip classification with 100% accuracy. This pilot exploratory study indicates that machine learning methods can help identify community dwelling older adults with 10/66 criterion diagnosis of dementia with good accuracy in a LMIC setting such as India. This should reduce the duration of the diagnostic assessment and make the process easier and quicker for clinicians, patients and will be useful for 'case' ascertainment in population based epidemiological studies.

  17. Late Language Emergence at 24 Months: An Epidemiological Study of Prevalence, Predictors, and Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Rice, Mabel L.; Slegers, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of late language emergence (LLE) and to investigate the predictive status of maternal, family, and child variables. Method: This is a prospective cohort study of 1,766 epidemiologically ascertained 24-month-old singleton children. The framework was an ecological model…

  18. An Epidemiological and Diagnostic Study of Asperger Syndrome according to Four Sets of Diagnostic Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Kielinen, Marko; Jussila, Katja; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Bloigu, Risto; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the diagnostic process and prevalence rates of Asperger syndrome (AS) according to the DSM-IV, ICD-10, and criteria developed by Gillberg and Gillberg and by Szatmari and colleagues and clarified confusion about AS. Method: An epidemiological study of 5,484 eight-year-old children in Finland, 4,422 (80.6%) of whom…

  19. QMRA as a compliment to epidemiologic studies estimating bather risk at recreational beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA and WHO have set recreational water quality standards based on epidemiologic studies to protect human health at beaches. These studies have largely been limited to sewage-impacted sites and resources are unlikely to be available to assess the myriad of other impacted ...

  20. Epidemiology study at a South Carolina Beach impacted by stormwater runoff

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted an epidemiological study in the summer of 2009. Among the selection criteria for the study location was that beach water quality was affected primarily by stormwater runoff. Preliminary findings from the summer's research will be presented. This abstract does not ne...

  1. Late Language Emergence at 24 Months: An Epidemiological Study of Prevalence, Predictors, and Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Rice, Mabel L.; Slegers, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of late language emergence (LLE) and to investigate the predictive status of maternal, family, and child variables. Method: This is a prospective cohort study of 1,766 epidemiologically ascertained 24-month-old singleton children. The framework was an ecological model…

  2. The Mystery of the Blue Death: A Case Study in Epidemiology and the History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, Susan Bandoni

    2009-01-01

    This case study introduces students to John Snow, considered to be one of the founders of both epidemiology and anesthesiology, and a remarkable figure in the history of science. Although historical case studies are often less popular with students than contemporary issues (Herreid 1998), a number of aspects of this case make it attractive to…

  3. The Mystery of the Blue Death: A Case Study in Epidemiology and the History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, Susan Bandoni

    2009-01-01

    This case study introduces students to John Snow, considered to be one of the founders of both epidemiology and anesthesiology, and a remarkable figure in the history of science. Although historical case studies are often less popular with students than contemporary issues (Herreid 1998), a number of aspects of this case make it attractive to…

  4. QMRA as a compliment to epidemiologic studies estimating bather risk at recreational beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA and WHO have set recreational water quality standards based on epidemiologic studies to protect human health at beaches. These studies have largely been limited to sewage-impacted sites and resources are unlikely to be available to assess the myriad of other impacted ...

  5. Epidemiology study at a South Carolina Beach impacted by stormwater runoff

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted an epidemiological study in the summer of 2009. Among the selection criteria for the study location was that beach water quality was affected primarily by stormwater runoff. Preliminary findings from the summer's research will be presented. This abstract does not ne...

  6. Cartilage repair surgery for full-thickness defects of the knee in Germany: indications and epidemiological data from the German Cartilage Registry (KnorpelRegister DGOU).

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Philipp; Feucht, Matthias J; Fritz, Jürgen; Albrecht, Dirk; Spahn, Gunter; Angele, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of cartilage defects of the knee remains an important issue with high relevance. In October 2013 the German Cartilage Registry (KnorpelRegister DGOU) was initiated in order to study indications, epidemiology and (clinical) outcome of different cartilage repair techniques. The present evaluation of the registry baseline data was initiated to report common practices of cartilage repair surgery in Germany. 1065 consecutive patients who underwent surgical cartilage treatment of the knee have been included (complete data sets available in 1027 cases; FU rate 96.4 %) between October 1, 2013 and June 30, 2015. Data collection was performed using a web-based RDE System. All data were provided by the attending physician at the time of arthroscopic or open surgery of the affected knee. In 1027 cartilage repair procedures, single defects were treated in 80 % of the cases with the majority of the defects located on the medial femoral condyle, followed by the patella. Degenerative defects grade III or IV according to ICRS were treated in 60 % of the cases and therefore were found more frequently compared to traumatic or post-traumatic lesions. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) was the most common technique followed by bone marrow stimulation (BMS) and osteochondral transplantation (OCT). While ACI was performed in defects with a mean size of 4.11 cm(2) SD SD 2.16), BMS and OCT (1.51 cm(2), SD 1.19; p < 0.01) were applied in significantly smaller defects (both p < 0.01). Independent of defect size, the ratio of ACI versus BMS applications differed between different defect locations. ACI was used preferably in defects located on the patella. The present analysis of data from the German Cartilage Registry shows that the vast majority of cartilage repair procedures were applied in degenerative, non-traumatic cartilage defects. Experts in Germany seem to follow the national and international guidelines in terms that bone marrow stimulation is applied in

  7. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    PubMed

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  8. A pilot study: research poster presentations as an educational tool for undergraduate epidemiology students

    PubMed Central

    Deonandan, Raywat; Gomes, James; Lavigne, Eric; Dinh, Thy; Blanchard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29%) responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats. PMID:24101888

  9. Mechanistic and Technical Challenges in Studying the Human Microbiome and Cancer Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2017-04-01

    This article reviews the significance of the microbiome in cancer epidemiology, mechanistic and technical challenges in the field, and characterization of the microbiome in different tumor types to identify biomarkers of risk, progression, and prognosis. Publications on the microbiome and cancer epidemiology were reviewed to analyze sample collection and processing, microbiome taxa characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and microbiome metabolite characterization (metabotyping) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The analysis identified methodology types, research design, sample types, and issues in integrating data from different platforms. Aerodigestive cancer epidemiology studies conducted by different groups demonstrated the significance of microbiome information in developing approaches to improve health. Challenges exist in sample preparation and processing (eg, standardization of methods for collection and analysis). These challenges relate to technology, data integration from "omics" studies, inherent bias in primer selection during 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, the need for large consortia with well-characterized biospecimens, cause and effect issues, resilience of microbiota to exposure events (requires longitudinal studies), and expanding studies for fungal and viral diversity (most studies used bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for microbiota characterization). Despite these challenges, microbiome and cancer epidemiology studies are significant and may facilitate cancer risk assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis. In the future, clinical trials likely will use microbiota modifications to improve the efficacy of existing treatments.

  10. Mechanistic and Technical Challenges in Studying the Human Microbiome and Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the significance of the microbiome in cancer epidemiology, mechanistic and technical challenges in the field, and characterization of the microbiome in different tumor types to identify biomarkers of risk, progression, and prognosis. Publications on the microbiome and cancer epidemiology were reviewed to analyze sample collection and processing, microbiome taxa characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and microbiome metabolite characterization (metabotyping) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The analysis identified methodology types, research design, sample types, and issues in integrating data from different platforms. Aerodigestive cancer epidemiology studies conducted by different groups demonstrated the significance of microbiome information in developing approaches to improve health. Challenges exist in sample preparation and processing (eg, standardization of methods for collection and analysis). These challenges relate to technology, data integration from “omics” studies, inherent bias in primer selection during 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, the need for large consortia with well-characterized biospecimens, cause and effect issues, resilience of microbiota to exposure events (requires longitudinal studies), and expanding studies for fungal and viral diversity (most studies used bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for microbiota characterization). Despite these challenges, microbiome and cancer epidemiology studies are significant and may facilitate cancer risk assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis. In the future, clinical trials likely will use microbiota modifications to improve the efficacy of existing treatments. PMID:27121074

  11. An epidemiological and ecological study of human alveolar echinococcosis transmission in south Gansu, China.

    PubMed

    Craig, P S; Giraudoux, P; Shi, D; Bartholomot, B; Barnish, G; Delattre, P; Quere, J P; Harraga, S; Bao, G; Wang, Y; Lu, F; Ito, A; Vuitton, D A

    2000-11-02

    Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is usually a rare, highly pathogenic zoonotic disease, transmitted across the northern hemisphere between fox and rodent hosts. In China the first cases were described in 1965; however very few epidemiological studies have been undertaken since. Following identification in 1991 of a serious focus of human AE in south Gansu province, detailed village-based community and ecological studies were carried out between 1994 and 1997. Hepatic ultrasound mass screening with serological testing (five tests) identified 84/2482 new AE cases (3%). An overall prevalence of 4.1% (135/3331) was recorded for the area when previous cases were also included. Based on a seropositive result only, without an ultrasound scan indication, no additional AE cases were identified. Of the evolutive AE cases, 96% were seropositive in at least one test, while up 15-20% of individuals who exhibited hepatic calcified lesions and 12-15% exhibiting hepatic nodular lesions were seropositive for specific Em2 or Em18 antibodies. Village (n=31) human AE prevalence rates varied from 0 to 15.8%. Questionnaire analysis indicated that total number of dogs owned over a period was a risk factor (P<0.006), but not a history of red fox hunting (P>0.6). Rodent ecology studies revealed an association between density indices of voles (Microtus limnophilus) and village AE prevalence rates, on the one hand, and village landscape characterised by a ratio of scrub/grassland to total area above 50% (P<0.005). Long-term transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis and risk of zoonotic infection of south Gansu farmers may be related ultimately to a process of deforestation driven by agriculture. This in turn probably results in creation of optimal peri-domestic habitats for rodents that serve as intermediate host species (such as M. limnophilus) and subsequent development of a peri-domestic cycle involving dogs.

  12. Pericentric Inversion of Human Chromosome 9 Epidemiology Study in Czech Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Šípek, A; Panczak, A; Mihalová, R; Hrčková, L; Suttrová, E; Sobotka, V; Lonský, P; Kaspříková, N; Gregor, V

    2015-01-01

    Pericentric inversion of human chromosome 9 [inv(9)] is a relatively common cytogenetic finding. It is largely considered a clinically insignificant variant of the normal human karyotype. However, numerous studies have suggested its possible association with certain pathologies, e.g., infertility, habitual abortions or schizophrenia. We analysed the incidence of inv(9) and the spectrum of clinical indications for karyotyping among inv(9) carriers in three medical genetics departments in Prague. In their cytogenetic databases, among 26,597 total records we identified 421 (1.6 %) cases of inv(9) without any concurrent cytogenetic pathology. This study represents the world's largest epidemiological study on inv(9) to date. The incidence of inv(9) calculated in this way from diagnostic laboratory data does not differ from the incidence of inv(9) in three specific populationbased samples of healthy individuals (N = 4,166) karyotyped for preventive (amniocentesis for advanced maternal age, gamete donation) or legal reasons (children awaiting adoption). The most frequent clinical indication in inv(9) carriers was "idiopathic reproductive failure" - 37.1 %. The spectra and percentages of indications in individuals with inv(9) were further statistically evaluated for one of the departments (N = 170) by comparing individuals with inv(9) to a control group of 661 individuals with normal karyotypes without this inversion. The proportion of clinical referrals for "idiopathic reproductive failure" among inv(9) cases remains higher than in controls, but the difference is not statistically significant for both genders combined. Analysis in separated genders showed that the incidence of "idiopathic reproductive failure" could differ among inv(9) female and male carriers.

  13. Chemical process based reconstruction of exposures for an epidemiological study. III. Analysis of industrial hygiene samples.

    PubMed

    Hall, Thomas A; Esmen, Nurtan A; Jones, Elizabeth P; Basara, Heather; Phillips, Margaret L; Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Leonard, Robin C

    2007-03-20

    As part of an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers exposed to chloroprene (beta-CD) and other substances, all available industrial hygiene exposure monitoring data were collected and summarized. From discussions with on-site industrial hygiene personnel, it was apparent that these data were not collected for epidemiological purposes and, therefore, their use in characterization of exposures was problematic as the data mostly pertained to samples collected to investigate the performance of specific tasks. These data were, however, informative for validating the exposure modeling process used to estimate historical exposures. The data summarized below clearly indicate that exposures to beta-CD were lowered across the time period of this study. Typically, the exposures recorded were less than the occupational exposure limits of the periods in which the exposures were recorded. Additionally, exposure measurements recorded in the recent past do not represent the exposure actually experienced by the worker as a strict personal protective equipment use program has been in place for the facilities studied since the mid-1980s.

  14. Evaluation of fifteen epidemiologic studies examining the lung cancer mortality of underground miners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-09

    A group of 15 epidemiologic studies was identified in which researchers reported excess lung cancer deaths among underground miners who worked in mines where radon (10043922) progeny were present. Several other studies demonstrated a dose response relationship existing between radon progeny exposure and mortality from lung cancer. Two recent studies indicated excess numbers of cases of lung cancer deaths resulting from mean cumulative radon progeny exposures below 100 Working Level Months (WLM). In the mining environment exposure can also occur to other substances such as arsenic (1332214), diesel exhaust, smoking, chromium (7440473), nickel (7440020), and radiation, which can affect the lung cancer risk resulting from exposure to radon progeny. Not much was available in the literature which deals with the results of these combined exposures except the finding that a combined exposure to radon progeny and cigarette smoke resulted in a higher risk than exposure to either substance alone. X-ray surveillance and sputum cytology appeared to be ineffective in preventing radon progeny induced lung cancers in individual miners. There does not appear to be any particular association between one specific lung cancer cell type and radon progeny exposure.

  15. Epidemiology of early primary hypertension and implications for prevention: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Berenson, G S; Wattigney, W A; Bao, W; Nicklas, T A; Jiang, X; Rush, J A

    1994-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of BPs in children and young adults over the past 20 years have contributed considerably to understanding the early onset of primary hypertension. Observations from autopsies and echocardiographic studies, together with long-term BP studies, of children clearly indicate that primary hypertension begins in early childhood. Although abnormal BP levels in children are much lower than the adult criteria used for clinical diagnosis of hypertension, essential hypertension is identifiable in early life. Complex haemodynamic and metabolic mechanisms related to essential hypertension are also being identified in childhood. The development of intervention programs in an attempt to prevent hypertension in its early phases suggests hypertensive cardiovascular disease is preventable. Environmental factors (improved dietary factors, altering electrolyte intake, prevention of obesity and increased activity levels) are critical elements to prevention. Children and young adults identified as high risk for hypertension need to be targeted for prevention of early cardiovascular renal disease. Also, as hypertension is so prevalent, attempts should be made to control environmental factors in the general public. Preventive programmes established by primary healthcare physicians, paediatricians and para-professionals can have a major impact on the reduction of hypertension and its complications of cardiovascular renal disease in the future.

  16. Exposure profiles of pesticides among greenhouse workers: implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Tielemans, Erik; Bretveld, Reini; Schinkel, Jody; Van Wendel De Joode, Berna; Kromhout, Hans; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Roeleveld, Nel; Preller, Liesbeth

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess exposure to pesticides for a longitudinal epidemiological study on adverse reproduction effects among greenhouse workers. Detailed information on pesticide use among greenhouse workers was obtained on a monthly basis through self-administered questionnaires and subsequent workplace surveys. Questionnaires were filled in for a whole year. Dermal exposure rankings were developed for each task using the observational method Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM). Exposure scores were calculated for each worker for each month during the year, taking into account frequency, duration and exposure intensity for each task. A total number of 116 different active ingredients were used in the population, whereas a mean number of 15 active ingredients were applied per greenhouse. DREAM observations provided insight into the exposure intensity of 12 application techniques and three mixing and loading activities. Relatively high DREAM scores were obtained for scattering, fogging, dusting, and mixing and loading of powders. Observations with DREAM indicated that application with a horizontal ground-boom, motor driven boom, and bulb shower resulted in low dermal exposure. Exposure scores showed substantial variation between workers and over the year. It can be concluded that exposure variation between- and within greenhouses is very large, both in terms of chemical composition and exposure intensity. This may be a significant contributor to the inconsistent results of studies evaluating health effects of pesticide exposure.

  17. Clinico-epidemiological study of complicated and uncomplicated chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Vikram, B K; Khaja, N; Udayashankar, S G; Venkatesha, B K; Manjunath, D

    2008-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical and epidemiological profiles of cases of complicated and uncomplicated chronic suppurative otitis media, based on their prognostic factors. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care medical college hospital over a period of two and a half years. The study group comprised 187 ears, out of which 62 had complications while 125 did not. The two groups were compared with respect to nine prognostic variables: age distribution, sex, patient's domicile, literacy status, duration of ear discharge at presentation, ear pathology, predisposing disease focus in the nose or throat, ear swab microbiology, and hearing loss. Patients in the complicated chronic suppurative otitis media group had a higher male predominance and were younger. Rural and illiterate patients had a higher risk of developing complications. Cholesteatoma and granulation tissue were potential risk factors in the complicated chronic suppurative otitis media group. Ears with complications were more prone to develop sensorineural hearing loss. Age, sex, duration of ear discharge, predisposing disease focus in nose or throat, and ear swab microbiology were all less useful prognostic indicators of complications. Early detection and timely treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media in rural and illiterate patients may prevent life-threatening complications and reduce their incidence. Ears that harbour relatively large quantities of both cholesteatoma and granulation tissue together require more urgent surgical intervention and more extensive disease clearance in order to prevent complications.

  18. Health Risks Associated with Meat Consumption: A Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Battaglia Richi, Evelyne; Baumer, Beatrice; Conrad, Beatrice; Darioli, Roger; Schmid, Alexandra; Keller, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from large prospective US and European cohort studies and from meta-analyses of epidemiological studies indicates that the long-term consumption of increasing amounts of red meat and particularly of processed meat is associated with an increased risk of total mortality, cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes, in both men and women. The association persists after inclusion of known confounding factors, such as age, race, BMI, history, smoking, blood pressure, lipids, physical activity and multiple nutritional parameters in multivariate analysis. The association has not always been noted with red meat, and it has been absent with white meat. There is evidence of several mechanisms for the observed adverse effects that might be involved, however, their individual role is not defined at present. It is concluded that recommendations for the consumption of unprocessed red meat and particularly of processed red meat should be more restrictive than existing recommendations. Restrictive recommendations should not be applied to subjects above about 70 years of age, as the studies quoted herein did not examine this age group, and the inclusion of sufficient protein supply (e. g. in the form of meat) is particularly important in the elderly.

  19. Epidemiological Profile and Quality Indicators in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Northern Minas Gerais - Minas Telecardio 2 Project

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Bárbara Campos Abreu; Marcolino, Milena Soriano; Reis Júnior, Rasível dos Santos; França, Ana Luiza Nunes; Passos, Priscilla Fortes de Oliveira; Lemos, Thais Ribeiro; Antunes, Izabella de Oliveira; Ferreira, Camila Gonçalves; Antunes, André Pires; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death in Brazil. In the Brazilian public health system, the in-hospital mortality associated with acute myocardial infarction is high. The Minas Telecardio 2 Project (Projeto Minas Telecardio 2) aims at implementing a myocardial infarction system of care in the Northern Region of Minas Gerais (MG) to decrease hospital morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of the patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cared for in the period that preceded the implementation of the system of care. Methods: Observational, prospective study of patients with ACS admitted between June 2013 and March 2014 to six emergency departments in Montes Claros, MG, and followed up until hospital discharge. Results: During the study period, 593 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of ACS (mean age 63 ± 12 years, 67.6% men), including 306 (51.6%) cases of unstable angina, 214 (36.0%) of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and 73 (12.3%) of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The total STEMI mortality was 21%, and the in-hospital mortality was 17.2%. In the STEMI patients, 46,0% underwent reperfusion therapy, including primary angioplasty in 88 and thrombolysis in six. Overall, aspirin was administered to 95.1% of the patients within 24 hours and to 93.5% at discharge, a P2Y12 inhibitor was administered to 88.7% participants within 24 hours and to 75.1% at discharge. A total of 73.1% patients received heparin within 24 hours. Conclusion: We observed a low reperfusion rate in patients with STEMI and limited adherence to the recommended ACS treatment in the Northern Region of MG. These observations enable opportunities to improve health care. PMID:27355471

  20. [Is religiosity a protective factor? Social epidemiologic study of adolescent psychological health].

    PubMed

    Pikó, Bettina; Kovács, Eszter

    2009-10-11

    One of the important tasks of epidemiological analyses is mapping protective factors for health promotion. Religiosity is a protective factor which has an impact on all of the three dimensions of health status, among others, it goes together with a longer lifetime, better indicators of health status indicators and quality of life, less anxiety, depression and suicide, more effective coping strategies. In relation to adolescent health, less investigation has been available thus far. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between religiosity and psychological health among adolescents. Regarding religiosity, religious affiliation, religiousness (subjective level of religiosity) and religious participation were assessed. Among health status indicators, occurrence of depressive symptomatology, level of satisfaction with life and self-perceived health were determined. Data collection of the questionnaire survey was going on among 881 high school students in Szeged (age range between 14-20 years, mean = 16.6 years, S.D. = 1.3 years of age, 44.6% of the sample was female). Associations between health status indicators (as dependent variables) and religiosity factors (as independent variables) were assessed using Odds Ratios calculated by logistic regression analyses. Our findings suggest that youth's religiosity had the least effect on depressive symptomatology, whereas youth defined themselves as religious and those who actually participated at religious events perceived their own health better and they were more satisfied with their life. Girls tended to belong more to a religious community and their religiosity was more associated with life satisfaction and self-perceived health. Religiosity is a determinant factor in adolescent psychological health except for depression. Further research is needed to analyze protective factors related to adolescents' health status.

  1. Comparing epidemiology and baseline characteristic of multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Moghadasi, Abdorreza Naser; Azimi, Amir Reza; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2017-02-01

    Autoimmune syndromes such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) are chronic, demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system which usually affect young adults. Both environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility have been proposed to explain the etiology of these diseases. The aim of this study was to compare epidemiology and possible risk factors in MS and NMO in Tehran, Iran. A population-based incident case-control study was performed in Tehran based on a study conducted on1513 MS patients from Iranian MS Society registry center of Tehran, from 2014 to 2015, and 83 NMO patients diagnosed with NMO in 2015 at Sina hospital, a tertiary care referral center in Tehran. The random digit dialing (RDD) methods were established to select 400 population-based controls. A checklist was designed to cover the epidemiological variables to estimate the possible risk factors for MS and NMO based on a questionnaire designed for multinational case-control studies of environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis. Structured face to face interviews with cases, and telephone interviews with controls were conducted by trained interviewers to collect data. The multiple logistic regression analysis was done via SPSS package. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimate of MS for females compared to males was (OR =1.47; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.95), and it was (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.02) for people aged 18-27 years compared to younger ones aged 28-37 years. The adjusted OR estimate of NMO for people aged over 48 years compared to those aged 28-37 years was (OR=3.49; 95% CI: 1.59, 7.64). The point estimates were greater than eight-fold increased risk associated with MS among patients with a positive familial history 8.80 (95% CI: 4.10, 18.90). The results of this study reveal that the risk of MS is significantly higher in female and younger people in comparison to NMO. Having positive family history of MS can increase the risk of MS substantially. The findings of the

  2. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances.

  3. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances. PMID:27138987

  4. Epidemiological studies of oats consumption and risk of cancer and overall mortality.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Thies, Frank; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    A review of epidemiological studies on the intake of oats and oat-based products and its effect on the risk of chronic disease and deaths was performed. Seven studies were identified of cancer risk (two each on prostate and colorectal cancer, and one each on pancreatic, breast and endometrial cancer), and one study on overall mortality. With the exception of a case-control study of pancreatic cancer, all studies were of cohort design: five studies were based on a single cohort from Denmark. The results of most cohort studies suggest a weak protective effect of a high intake of oats on cancer risk (relative risks in the order of 0·9). Potential limitations of the studies are dietary exposure misclassification, low statistical power because of limited exposure contrast and residual confounding. Despite the evidence from experimental and mechanistic studies of a protective effect of oats intake on CVD and diabetes, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on these conditions.

  5. Environmental epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kopfler, F.C.; Craun, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is a compendium of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Symposium on Exposure Measurement and Evaluation Methods for Epidemiology, cosponsored in 1985 by the Health Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, and the Division of Environmental Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The book is divided into four sections: Use of Biological Monitoring to Assess Exposure, Epidemiologic Considerations for Assessing Exposure, Health and Exposure Data Bases, and Assessment of Exposure to Environmental Contaminants for Epidemiologic Studies. Both background papers and detailed reports of human studies are presented. The Biological Monitoring section contains reports of efforts to quantify adducts in blood and urine samples. In the section on Epidemiologic Considerations the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies of persons residing near hazardous waste sites and those exposed to arsenic in drinking water is described. The review of Data Bases includes government and industry water quality monitoring systems, the FDA Market Basket Study, major EPA air monitoring data, the National Database on Body Burden of Toxic chemicals, and the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Methods of assessing current exposure and estimating past exposure are detailed in the final section. Exposure to trichloroethylene in shower water, the relationship between water quality and cardiovascular disease, the contribution of environmental lead exposures to pediatric blood lead levels, and data from the TEAM study in which researchers compare indoor, outdoor, and breath analysis of air pollutant exposures are also discussed.

  6. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  7. BREATH MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL BODY BURDEN OF JP-8 JET FUEL FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A complex epidemiological investigation of the effects of acute exposure to JP-8 jet fuel in the U.S. Air Force was performed through the study of about 350 human subjects across six Air Force bases. The focus was on fuels system maintenance personnel as the "exposed"...

  8. "Development of Model-Based Air Pollution Exposure Metrics for use in Epidemiologic Studies"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration w...

  9. [Prevalence of dentition defects among pre-school children of Tver region according to epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, V V; Bobrov, D V; Chumakov, A N; Al'-Zrir, O; El'-Aĭdi, M A

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological dental study of 724 pre-school children in Tver region revealed high prevalence of dentition defects due to premature removal of temporary molars. Dependence of pediatric population need for prosthetic dentistry from regional dental care system staff competence is shown. The date proved the need for standard correction of orthodontists number and broad application of pediatric prosthetics in daily practice.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL-BASED AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURE METRICS FOR USE IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration w...

  11. "Development of Model-Based Air Pollution Exposure Metrics for use in Epidemiologic Studies"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration w...

  12. An Epidemiological Study of School Achievement: Implications for Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Betty H.

    This epidemiological study investigates the question of whether there are sex-race group differences in factors responsible for school achievement in the early grades. Approximately 350 children enrolled in 18 schools were measured at the beginning of kindergarten and end of the 3rd grade for cognitive ability, social-emotional characteristics and…

  13. BREATH MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL BODY BURDEN OF JP-8 JET FUEL FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A complex epidemiological investigation of the effects of acute exposure to JP-8 jet fuel in the U.S. Air Force was performed through the study of about 350 human subjects across six Air Force bases. The focus was on fuels system maintenance personnel as the "exposed"...

  14. Exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies: Keyfindings and future recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies of the health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution use measurements from central-site monitors as their exposure estimate. However, measurements from central-site monitors may lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to capture exposure...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL-BASED AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURE METRICS FOR USE IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available concentrations from central monitoring sites. U.S. EPA in collaboration w...

  16. Exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies: Keyfindings and future recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies of the health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution use measurements from central-site monitors as their exposure estimate. However, measurements from central-site monitors may lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to capture exposure...

  17. Putting Life into Computer-Based Training: The Creation of an Epidemiologic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathany, Nancy C.; Stehr-Green, Jeanette K.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the design of "Pharyngitis in Louisiana," a computer-based epidemiologic case study that was created to teach students how to conduct disease outbreak investigations. Topics discussed include realistic content portrayals; graphics; interactive teaching methods; interaction between the instructional designer and the medical…

  18. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  19. An Epidemiological Study of Number Processing and Mental Calculation in Greek Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumoula, Anastasia; Tsironi, Vanda; Stamouli, Victoria; Bardani, Irini; Stavroula, Siapati; Graham, Annik; Kafantaris, Ignatios; Charalambidou, Irini; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate and standardize an instrument for the diagnosis of developmental dyscalculia (mathematics disorder) in a Greek population and to obtain relevant epidemiological data. We used the "Neuropsychological Test Battery for Number Processing and Calculation in Children" (NUCALC) in a community sample of 240 students…

  20. Epidemiological and phylogenic study of human metapneumovirus infections during three consecutive outbreaks in Normandy, France.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Loïc; Vabret, Astrid; Dina, Julia; Petitjean-Lecherbonnier, Joëlle; Stéphanie, Gouarin; Cuvillon, Delphine; Tripey, Valérie; Brouard, Jacques; Freymuth, François

    2011-03-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is responsible for respiratory tract disease, particularly in the young and elderly population. An epidemiological and phylogenic study was performed on children admitted to hospital with an acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRI). Data were obtained and analyzed over three consecutive winters, from 2002-2003 to 2004-2005. Each year during the winter period, from November to March, 2,415 nasal swabs were tested by a direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) for influenza viruses A and B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, and adenoviruses. Rhinoviruses, enteroviruses, and coronaviruses OC43 and 229E were detected by RT-PCR. A RT-PCR designed for the M gene was performed on negative samples for hMPV detection and phylogenic analyses. For the three consecutive winters, hMPV represented 10%, 22.6%, and 8.8% of virus-negative samples, respectively. In most cases, clinical symptoms indicated a LRI with a final diagnosis of bronchiolitis. During the winter of 2003-2004, all viral clusters (A1, A2, B1, and B2) that circulated in France shifted progressively from the A group to the B group. This study determined the prevalence of hMPV in Normandy, its clinical impact and permitted the analysis of the molecular evolution during the successive outbreaks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Possible association between gastric cancer and bracken fern in Venezuela: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Amelot, M E; Avendaño, M

    2001-01-15

    To explore a possible connection between specific environmental factors that might explain the high rates of stomach cancer in people living in the highlands of western Venezuela, an epidemiologic study was conducted in 2 regions of contrasting topography. The regions embrace 3 Andean states, Mérida, Táchira and Trujillo, and the vicinal lowland surrounding the Maracaibo lake basin of Zulia State. Statistical sanitary records from 1986 to 1996 comprising 5.5 million people in the study area indicated that age-sex-adjusted gastric cancer death rate per 100,000 people (DR) was up to 3.64 times higher in highland than lowland areas, although total cancer-related DRs were comparable in both regions. DRs of other less frequent cancers from the upper alimentary tract [esophagous (1.18/0.99) and mouth-throat (1.39/2.64)] showed comparable values in both regions as well as colorectal, breast, and uterus-cervix cancers, suggesting that the stomach cancer DRs were related to geographically determined factors. Comparison of some nutrition issues, incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in selected areas, the discovery of the bracken carcinogen ptaquiloside in milk from bracken-fed cows, the prevalence of this plant in mountain cattle households and pasturelands and the rates of bracken-evoked bovine enzootic hematuria led us to conclude that consumption of ptaquiloside-contaminated milk may contribute to human gastric cancer in the Andean states of Venezuela.

  2. Epidemiological study of hepatitis A, B and C in the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community.

    PubMed

    Matos, Márcia A D; Reis, Nádia Rúbia S; Kozlowski, Aline G; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Mello, Francisco C A; Gomes, Selma A; Martins, Regina M B

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis A, B and C in the Kalunga population, which represents the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community. Among 878 individuals studied, the overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies was 80.9%, with a significant rise from 44.8% to near 100% between the first and fourth decade of life. Rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) of 1.8% and 35.4%, respectively, were found. Increasing age, male gender, illiteracy and history of multiple sexual partners were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An occult HBV infection rate of 1.7% (5/295) was found among anti-HBc-positive individuals. HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) was dominant in this community. Only 5/878 individuals (0.6%) were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV RNA was detected in three of them, who were infected with genotype 1 (subtype 1a). These findings point out high, intermediate and low endemicity for hepatitis A, B and C, respectively, in the Kalunga community in Brazil. Circulation of HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) in this Afro-Brazilian isolated community indicates the introduction of this virus during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  3. Late Language Emergence at 24 Months: An Epidemiological Study of Prevalence, Predictors, and Covariates

    PubMed Central

    Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Rice, Mabel L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of late language emergence (LLE) and to investigate the predictive status of maternal, family, and child variables. Method This is a prospective cohort study of 1766 epidemiologically ascertained twenty-four-month singleton children. The framework was an ecological model of child development, encompassing a wide range of maternal, family, and child variables. Data were obtained using postal questionnaire. Item analyses of the 6-item Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) Communication Scale yielded a composite score encompassing comprehension as well as production items. One standard deviation below the mean yielded good separation of affected from unaffected children. Analyses of bivariate relationships with maternal, family, and child variables were carried out, followed by multivariate logistic regression to predict LLE group membership. Results 13.4% of the sample showed late language emergence via the ASQ criterion; 19.1% using a single item “combining words.” Risk for LLE at 24 months was not associated with particular strata of parental educational levels, socioeconomic resources, parental mental health, parenting practices or family functioning. Significant predictors included familial history of late language emergence, male gender and early neurobiological growth. Covariates included psychosocial indicators. Conclusion Results are congruent with models of language emergence and impairment that posit a strong role for neurobiological and genetic mechanisms of onset that operate across a wide variation in maternal and family characteristics. PMID:18055773

  4. Automated prostate segmentation in whole-body MRI scans for epidemiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habes, Mohamad; Schiller, Thilo; Rosenberg, Christian; Burchardt, Martin; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    The whole prostatic volume (PV) is an important indicator for benign prostate hyperplasia. Correlating the PV with other clinical parameters in a population-based prospective cohort study (SHIP-2) requires valid prostate segmentation in a large number of whole-body MRI scans. The axial proton density fast spin echo fat saturated sequence is used for prostate screening in SHIP-2. Our automated segmentation method is based on support vector machines (SVM). We used three-dimensional neighborhood information to build classification vectors from automatically generated features and randomly selected 16 MR examinations for validation. The Hausdorff distance reached a mean value of 5.048 ± 2.413, and a mean value of 5.613 ± 2.897 compared to manual segmentation by observers A and B. The comparison between volume measurement of SVM-based segmentation and manual segmentation of observers A and B depicts a strong correlation resulting in Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (ρ) of 0.936 and 0.859, respectively. Our automated methodology based on SVM for prostate segmentation can segment the prostate in WBI scans with good segmentation quality and has considerable potential for integration in epidemiological studies.

  5. Residential mobility impacts exposure assessment and community socioeconomic characteristics in longitudinal epidemiology studies

    PubMed Central

    Brokamp, Cole; LeMasters, Grace K; Ryan, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies commonly use residential locations to estimate environmental exposures or community-level characteristics. The impact of residential mobility on these characteristics, however, is rarely considered. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effect of residential mobility on estimates of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), greenspace, and community-level characteristics. All residential addresses were reported from birth through age seven for children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study. Exposure to TRAP at each address was estimated using a land use model. Greenspace was estimated using satellite imagery. Indices of neighborhood deprivation and race were created based on socioeconomic-census tract measures. Exposure estimates using the birth record address, the last known address, and the annual address history were used to determine exposure estimation error and bias in the association with asthma at age seven. Overall, 54% of the cohort moved at least once prior to age seven. Each move was separated by a median of 4 miles and associated with a median decrease of 4.4% in TRAP exposure, a 5.3% increase in greenspace, an improved deprivation index, and no change in the race index. Using the birth record address or the last known address instead of the annual address history resulted in exposure misclassification leading to a bias toward the null when associating the exposures with asthma. Using a single address to estimate environmental exposures and community-level characteristics over a time period may result in differential assessment error. PMID:26956935

  6. Epidemiology of animal bites and rabies cases in India. A multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Ichhpujani, R L; Mala, Chhabra; Veena, Mittal; Singh, J; Bhardwaj, M; Bhattacharya, D; Pattanaik, S K; Balakrishnan, N; Reddy, A K; Samnpath, G; Gandhi, N; Nagar, S S; Shiv, Lal

    2008-03-01

    . Of the six centres, Rabies Immunoglobulin (RIG) was available and was being used at only two centres. The study was conducted in public sector ARCs where Nervous Tissue Vaccine (NTV) was available free of cost. All the centres were using NTV except Coonoor, which is using indigenously produced Tissue Culture Vaccine along with NTV. Analysis of 192 case records of rabies cases, from two centres, revealed that dog bites caused maximum mortality (96.9%). Nearly 40% were children below 15 years of age and 78.6% were males indicating that it is an exposure related disease. In all cases, failure to seek timely and appropriate treatment led to development of disease. This paper provides an overview of epidemiology of animal bites and retrospective information about rabies patients. There is a need to strengthen Information, Education and Communication (IEC) programme regarding merits of local wound management including "do's and don'ts". ARCs should be strengthened in terms of facilities and availability of safe and effective anti rabies immunobiologicals. There is a need to create awareness regarding epidemiology and at-home and hospital management of animal bites among the service providers and general community.

  7. [Epidemiological study of levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from 2003 through 2006 in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sohma, Maemi; Yokozawa, Ikuyo; Kaneko, Shingaku; Satake, Sachiko

    2009-03-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of WHONET, free software from the World Health Organization (WHO), in a laboratory-based survey analyzing infectious disease, i.e., Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its antimicrobial susceptibility, i.e., to levofloxacin (LVFX), between 2003 and 2006 at 5 hospitals. The percentage of resistant strains (MIC > or = 8 microg/mL) isolated by the Maebashi Red Cross Hospital Laboratory between 2003 and 2005 was 3.8% (26/684 = number of resistant isolates/number of all isolates), significantly higher (p<0.001, Fisher's exact test) than the 0.5% (8/1717) recorded at 4 other hospital laboratories. In 2006 the Maebashi Red Cross Hospital Laboratory percentage of resistant strains was 0.9% (2/221) in the absence of intervention to reduce the percentage of resistant isolates, while that at 4 other hospital laboratories was 1.3% (9/ 717)--a difference not statistically significant (p = 0.574). Of resistant strains, 86% (24/28) came from patients older than 67 years and 71% (20/28) from outpatients or those newly hospitalized 1 or 2 days. Where and when pathogens are isolated are the two priority factors in epidemiological analysis. Superimposing plot of patient residences and isolated times of LVFX-resistant S. pneumoniae strains for each incidences showed no unusual trends in pathogen distribution. Analysis of possible multiple drug resistance for all LVFX-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates, i.e., resistance profile determination, indicated that no strain isolated in any one-month period shared an identical resistance profile, suggesting that the probability of a community outbreak of one specific S. pneumoniae strain is minimal. We did not find possible causes for the high resistance percentage of isolates recorded by the Maebashi Red Cross Hospital Laboratory during 2003-2005, or for the low resistance percentage for strains isolated during 2006. Analysis of our survey indicated that LVFX-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates are still rare in the

  8. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-12-22

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs.

  9. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs. PMID:26703701

  10. Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a quantitative review of prospective epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dominik D; Miller, Arthur J; Cushing, Colleen A; Lowe, Kimberly A

    2010-09-01

    A tremendous amount of scientific interest has been generated regarding processed meat consumption and cancer risk. Therefore, to estimate the association between processed meat intake and colorectal cancer (CRC), a meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted. Twenty-eight prospective studies of processed meat and CRC were identified, of which 20 represented independent nonoverlapping study populations. Summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) for high versus low intake and dose-response relationships were calculated. The SRRE for high (vs. low) processed meat intake and CRC was 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.23] for all studies. Summary associations were modified considerably by sex; the SRRE for men was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07-1.42) and the SRRE for women was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.94-1.16), based on nine and 13 studies, respectively. Sensitivity analyses did not indicate appreciable statistical variation by tumor site, processed meat groups, or study location. The SRRE for each 30-gram increment of processed meat and CRC was 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05-1.15) based on nine studies, and the SRRE for each incremental serving of processed meat per week was 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01-1.05) based on six studies. Overall, summary associations were weak in magnitude (i.e. most less than 1.20), processed meat definitions and analytical comparisons were highly variable across studies, and isolating the independent effects of processed meat intake is difficult, given the likely influence of confounding by other dietary and lifestyle factors. Therefore, the currently available epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to support a clear and unequivocal independent positive association between processed meat consumption and CRC.

  11. The potential of exposure biomarkers in epidemiologic studies of reproductive health.

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, C J; Brewster, M A

    1991-01-01

    To further the development and application of exposure markers in field investigations in reproductive epidemiology, we have synthesized recent examinations of the issues surrounding exposure measurements in reproductive epidemiology. The specific goals of this paper are to define exposure biomarkers and explore their potential uses, particularly as screening tools. The tests for glucaric acid, thioethers, mutagenicity, and porphyrin patterns meet the general criteria for useful exposure screens. For certain xenobiotic agents, these tests accurately differentiate exposure levels, as demonstrated in occupational and environmental epidemiologic studies. As urinary screens, they are noninvasive and applicable on a large scale with current laboratory techniques. For short-term exposure, glucaric acid, thioethers, and mutagenicity tests are useful. Porphyrin patterns may measure cumulative effects as well as current exposure levels. The usefulness of these tests in epidemiologic studies of environmental effects on reproductive health has yet to be studied. To do so, the battery must be standardized for pregnant women, and test results must be correlated with measured adverse reproductive outcomes, such as gestational length and birthweight. This correlation is particularly important because maternal exposure rather than fetal exposure is being measured. The extent to which xenobiotic chemicals cross the placental barrier may vary greatly depending on the type of exposures, timing in pregnancy, and maternal detoxification capability. Without better exposure measures, epidemiologic studies of reproductive health probably will not successfully identify xenobiotic fetotoxic agents in the environment. However, with an adequate battery of nonspecific exposure biomarkers, prospective studies of environmental effects on pregnancy outcomes might be possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2050070

  12. Design issues in epidemiologic studies of indoor exposure to Rn and risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lubin, J H; Samet, J M; Weinberg, C

    1990-12-01

    Recent data on indoor air quality have indicated that Rn (222Rn) and its decay products are frequently present in domestic environments. Since studies of Rn-exposed miners have established that Rn decay products are a lung carcinogen, their presence in indoor air raises concerns about an increase in lung cancer risk for the general population. To directly evaluate lung cancer risk from domestic exposure to Rn and its decay products, as well as to evaluate risk assessments derived from studies of Rn-exposed underground miners, several epidemiologic studies of indoor Rn exposure have been initiated or are planned. This paper calculates sample sizes required for a hypothetical case-control study to address several important hypotheses and shows the impact of several difficult problems associated with estimating a subject's Rn exposure. We consider the effects of subject mobility, choice of the exposure response trend which is used to characterize an alternative hypothesis, and errors in the estimation of exposure. Imprecise estimation of Rn exposure arises from errors in the measurement device, exposure to Rn decay products from sources outside the home, inability to measure exposures over time in current as well as previous residences, and the unknown relationship between measured concentration and lung dose of alpha energy from the decay of Rn and its progeny. These methodological problems can result in large discrepancies between computed and actual study power. Failure to anticipate these problems in the design of a study can result in inaccurate estimates of power. We conclude that case-control studies of indoor Rn and lung cancer may require substantial numbers of subjects in order to address the many questions of importance that burden current risk assessments with uncertainty. We suggest pooling data from studies with the largest numbers of cases and with the most precise estimates of Rn exposure as the best approach for meeting present research needs.

  13. Workplace exposure to passive smoking and risk of cardiovascular disease: summary of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I; Colditz, G A

    1999-12-01

    We reviewed the published epidemiologic studies addressing the relationship between workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cardiovascular disease risk in three case-control studies and three cohort studies. Although the point estimates of risk for cardiovascular disease exceeded 1.0 in five of six studies, none of the relative risks was statistically significant because of the small number of cardiovascular end points occurring in individual studies. In common with most epidemiologic investigations of the health risks of ETS, none of the workplace studies included independent biochemical validation of ETS exposure. In contrast to the evidence on increased cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to spousal ETS, studies of ETS exposure in the workplace are still sparse and inconclusive. Conversely, there is no biologically plausible reason to believe that the hazards of ETS exposure that have been demonstrated in the home should not also apply to the workplace.

  14. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Ian; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Knight, Daniel; Curiao, Tania; Coque, Teresa; Kalkanci, Ayse; Martinez, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635) and Salmonella spp. (N = 901) but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368), Candida albicans (N = 200), Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60), Enterobacter spp. (N = 54), Enterococcus faecium (N = 53), and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56). From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs) and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC), E. coli (MBC and MIC) and S. aureus (MBC and MIC). There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  15. Methodological issues in epidemiological studies of periodontitis - how can it be improved?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This position paper was commissioned by the European Association of Dental Public Health, which has established six working groups to investigate the current status of six topics related to oral public health. One of these areas is epidemiology of periodontal diseases. Methods Two theses "A systematic review of definitions of periodontitis and the methods that have been used to identify periodontitis" [1] and "Factors affecting community oral health care needs and provision" [2] formed the starting point for this position paper. Additional relevant and more recent publications were retrieved through a MEDLINE search. Results The literature reveals a distinct lack of consensus and uniformity in the definition of periodontitis within epidemiological studies. There are also numerous differences in the methods used. The consequence is that data from studies using differing case definitions and differing survey methods are not easily interpretable or comparable. The limitations of the widely used Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN) and its more recent derivatives are widely recognized. Against this background, this position paper reviews the current evidence base, outlines existing problems and suggests how epidemiology of periodontal diseases may be improved. Conclusions The remit of this working group was to review and discuss the existing evidence base of epidemiology of periodontal diseases and to identify future areas of work to further enhance it. PMID:20409298

  16. The Role of DNA Methylation in Cardiovascular Risk and Disease: Methodological Aspects, Study Design, and Data Analysis for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that genetic, environmental, behavioral, and clinical factors contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. How these risk factors interact at the cellular level to cause CVD is not well known. Epigenetic epidemiology enables researchers to explore critical links between genomic coding, modifiable exposures, and manifestation of disease phenotype. One epigenetic link, DNA methylation, is potentially an important mechanism underlying these associations. In the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of epidemiological studies investigating cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in relation to DNA methylation, but many gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying etiology and biological implications. In this review we provide a brief overview of the biology and mechanisms of DNA methylation and its role in CVD. In addition, we summarize the current evidence base in epigenetic epidemiology studies relevant to cardiovascular health and disease, and discuss the limitations, challenges, and future directions of the field. Finally, we provide guidelines for well-designed epigenetic epidemiology studies, with particular focus on methodological aspects, study design, and analytical challenges. PMID:26837743

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder and physical illness: results from clinical and epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A

    2004-12-01

    Research indicates that exposure to traumatic stressors and psychological trauma is widespread. The association of such exposures with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health conditions is well known. However, epidemiologic research increasingly suggests that exposure to these events is related to increased health care utilization, adverse health outcomes, the onset of specific diseases, and premature death. To date, studies have linked traumatic stress exposures and PTSD to such conditions as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, gastrointestinal disease, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, musculoskeletal disorders, and other diseases. Evidence linking cardiovascular disease and exposure to psychological trauma is particularly strong and has been found consistently across different populations and stressor events. In addition, clinical studies have suggested the biological pathways through which stressor-induced diseases may be pathologically expressed. In particular, recent studies have implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) stress axes as key in this pathogenic process, although genetic and behavioral/psychological risk factors cannot be ruled out. Recent findings, indicating that victims of PTSD have higher circulating T-cell lymphocytes and lower cortisol levels, are intriguing and suggest that chronic sufferers of PTSD may be at risk for autoimmune diseases. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the association between chronic PTSD in a national sample of 2,490 Vietnam veterans and the prevalence of common autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, insulin-dependent diabetes, and thyroid disease. Our analyses suggest that chronic PTSD, particularly comorbid PTSD or complex PTSD, is associated with all of these conditions. In addition, veterans with comorbid PTSD were more likely to have clinically higher T-cell counts, hyperreactive immune responses on

  18. Phoning while driving I: a review of epidemiological, psychological, behavioural and physiological studies.

    PubMed

    Collet, C; Guillot, A; Petit, C

    2010-05-01

    The impact of cell (mobile) phone use on driving performance has been widely questioned for 20 years. This paper reviews the literature to evaluate the extent to which phoning may impact behaviour with a risk to affect safety. After analysing epidemiological studies that give an overview of cell phone use, this paper examines the experimental results and focuses on variables showing that driving is impacted by holding a mobile-phone conversation. Information processing (e.g. reaction time and detection rate of cues related to driving information) and variables associated with vehicle control (e.g. lane-keeping, headway and vehicle speed) seem the most relevant. Although less studied than behavioural indices, physiological data give information about the supplementary potential strain that the driver may undergo under dual-task conditions. This first part of the review highlights common findings, questionable results and differences among studies, which originate from specific experimental designs with particular dependent variables, i.e. self-report, behavioural and physiological indicators. Finally, how drivers try to compensate for the additional load brought by phone use is described. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The two papers review the influence of mobile-phone use on driving performance. While there is ample evidence that this dual task is likely to increase the risk of car crash, the review analyses the variables eliciting detrimental conditions and, conversely, those that may preserve acceptable conditions for safety, close to usual driving. The decision of answering or initiating a cell phone call while driving depends upon the complex interaction among several variables, including driving conditions and driver's own characteristics. In addition, this decision remains under driver's awareness of being able or not to manage the two tasks simultaneously.

  19. SEVERITY OF ILLNESS RESULTS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NEEAR Water Study surveyed 21,105 beachgoers at four freshwater coastal beaches. It has been well documented that beachgoers experience more illness than persons that do not frequent beach areas. Reported symptoms among beachgoers for this study are gastrointestinal illness...

  20. SEVERITY OF ILLNESS RESULTS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NEEAR Water Study surveyed 21,105 beachgoers at four freshwater coastal beaches. It has been well documented that beachgoers experience more illness than persons that do not frequent beach areas. Reported symptoms among beachgoers for this study are gastrointestinal illness...

  1. Autism in the Faroe Islands. An Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, Asa; Kampmann, Hanna; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Faroe Islands are considered to be a genetic isolate. This population study of the prevalence of autism sought to identify a representative cohort for future genetic studies. In 2002 all schools were screened for autism spectrum disorders. The target population were all children born in 1985 through 1994 and living in the Faroe Islands on…

  2. Autism in the Faroe Islands. An Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, Asa; Kampmann, Hanna; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Faroe Islands are considered to be a genetic isolate. This population study of the prevalence of autism sought to identify a representative cohort for future genetic studies. In 2002 all schools were screened for autism spectrum disorders. The target population were all children born in 1985 through 1994 and living in the Faroe Islands on…

  3. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-09-01

    Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case-control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52-0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = -0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case-control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer.

  4. Knox Meets Cox: Adapting Epidemiological Space-Time Statistics to Demographic Studies

    PubMed Central

    SCHMERTMANN, CARL P.; ASSUNÇÃO, RENATO M.; POTTER, JOSEPH E.

    2010-01-01

    Many important questions and theories in demography focus on changes over time, and on how those changes differ over geographic and social space. Space-time analysis has always been important in studying fertility transitions, for example. However, demographers have seldom used formal statistical methods to describe and analyze time series of maps. One formal method, used widely in epidemiology, criminology, and public health, is Knox’s space-time interaction test. In this article, we discuss the potential of the Knox test in demographic research and note some possible pitfalls. We demonstrate how to use familiar proportional hazards models to adapt the Knox test for demographic applications. These adaptations allow for nonrepeatable events and for the incorporation of structural variables that change in space and time. We apply the modified test to data on the onset of fertility decline in Brazil over 1960–2000 and show how the modified method can produce maps indicating where and when diffusion effects seem strongest, net of covariate effects. PMID:20879681

  5. Epidemiological study and control trial of taeniid cestode infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhihong; Li, Wei; Peng, Mao; Duo, Hong; Shen, Xiuying; Fu, Yong; Irie, Takao; Gan, Tiantian; Kirino, Yumi; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2014-03-01

    An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5-10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region.

  6. Epidemiological studies on tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection of cattle) in Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Al-Saeed, Adel T; Omer, Lokman Taib; Abdo, Jassim; Habibi, Gholamreza; Salih, Diaeldin A; Seitzer, Ulrike; Ahmed, Jabbar

    2010-01-01

    In an ad hoc survey conducted during 2006, the epidemiology of tropical theileriosis in Kurdistan Region, Iraq, was addressed. For this purpose, a total of 299 blood samples were collected from female cattle older than 1 year reared under open system management in Duhok (n = 99), Sulaimanyia (n = 100) and Erbil (n = 100) governorates. The samples were subjected to TaSP indirect ELISA as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR assays. The results indicated that the seroprevalence was 77.9%, and PCR reported an infection rate of 68.9% in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The implication of the results in the epidemiology of tropical theileriosis in the region is discussed with emphasis on comparisons between the two tests used and recommendations for the future work are outlined.

  7. Assessment of 1,3-butadiene epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ott, M G

    1990-01-01

    Positive carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats have led to concerns that 1,3-butadiene may be carcinogenic in humans under exposure conditions that have existed in occupational settings and perhaps exist today. The principal settings of interest are the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) manufacturing industry, which uses large quantities of 1,3-butadiene, and the 1,3-butadiene monomer industry. The potential for 1,3-butadiene exposure is highest during monomer transfer operations and is lowest in finishing areas of polymerization plants where the polymer products are processed. Three large cohort mortality studies have been conducted in the SBR and monomer producing industries since 1980. These studies, which examined the mortality experience of over 17,000 men employed in one monomer and 10 SBR facilities, are the subject of this review. All but one of the facilities began operations during the early 1940s. The mortality experience observed within these employee cohorts is comparable to that seen in other long-term studies of men employed in the petroleum, chemical, and rubber industries for all causes of death, total malignant neoplasms, and for the specific cancers seen in excess in the toxicologic studies. This paper discusses discrepant findings observed in more detailed analyses within individual cohorts and among employment subgroups, as well as selected limitations of the particular studies. Additional efforts to refine 1,3-butadiene exposure categories are needed. Within the context of sample size limitations inherent in these studies, there is currently inadequate evidence to establish a relationship between cancer mortality outcomes and 1.3-butadiene exposure in humans. PMID:2205483

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory: A guide to records series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records that pertains to the epidemiologic studies conducted by the Epidemiology Section of the Occupational Medicine Group (ESH-2) at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The records described in this guide relate to occupational studies performed by the Epidemiology Section, including those pertaining to workers at LANL, Mound Plant, Oak Ridge Reservation, Pantex Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, and Savannah River Site. Also included are descriptions of other health-related records generated or collected by the Epidemiology Section and a small set of records collected by the Industrial Hygiene and Safety Group. This guide is not designed to describe the universe of records generated by LANL which may be used for epidemiologic studies of the LANL work force. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of LANL the history and functions of LANL`s Health Division and Epidemiology Section, and the various epidemiologic studies performed by the Epidemiology Section. It provides information on the methodology that HAI used to inventory and describe records housed in the offices of the LANL Epidemiology Section in Technical Area 59 and at the LANL Records Center. Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the detailed record series descriptions, and information concerning access to records repositories.

  9. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: an analysis of epidemiological studies and hints for pathologists.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Vera Cavalcanti; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; Turssi, Cecilia; Soares, Andresa Borges; de Araujo, Ney Soares

    2013-01-15

    This study is an analysis of the prevalence of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) in epidemiological surveys of salivary tumors published in the English language from 1992 to 2012. These surveys included studies from different researchers, countries and continents. The 57 surveys for which it was possible to calculate the percentage of PLGAs among all malignant minor salivary gland tumors (MMSGT) were included in this review. The statistical analyses show significant differences in the PLGA percentage by time period, country and continent in the studies included in this review. The percentage of PLGAs among MMSGTs varied among the studies, ranging from 0.0% to 46.8%. PLGA rates have varied over the period studied and have most recently increased. The frequency of reported PLGA cases also varied from 0.0% to 24.8% by the country in which the MMSGT studies were performed. The PLGA percentages also varied significantly by continent, with frequencies ranging from 3.9% in Asia to 20.0% in Oceania Based on these results, we concluded that although the accuracy of PLGA diagnoses has improved, they remain a challenge for pathologists. To facilitate PLGA diagnoses, we have therefore made some suggestions for pathologists regarding tumors composed of single-layer strands of cells that form all of the histological patterns present in the tumor, consistency of the cytological appearance and uniformly positive CK7, vimentin and S100 immunohistochemistry, which indicate a single PLGA phenotype. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1059098656858324.

  10. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: an analysis of epidemiological studies and hints for pathologists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study is an analysis of the prevalence of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) in epidemiological surveys of salivary tumors published in the English language from 1992 to 2012. Methods These surveys included studies from different researchers, countries and continents. The 57 surveys for which it was possible to calculate the percentage of PLGAs among all malignant minor salivary gland tumors (MMSGT) were included in this review. Results The statistical analyses show significant differences in the PLGA percentage by time period, country and continent in the studies included in this review. The percentage of PLGAs among MMSGTs varied among the studies, ranging from 0.0% to 46.8%. PLGA rates have varied over the period studied and have most recently increased. The frequency of reported PLGA cases also varied from 0.0% to 24.8% by the country in which the MMSGT studies were performed. The PLGA percentages also varied significantly by continent, with frequencies ranging from 3.9% in Asia to 20.0% in Oceania Conclusion Based on these results, we concluded that although the accuracy of PLGA diagnoses has improved, they remain a challenge for pathologists. To facilitate PLGA diagnoses, we have therefore made some suggestions for pathologists regarding tumors composed of single-layer strands of cells that form all of the histological patterns present in the tumor, consistency of the cytological appearance and uniformly positive CK7, vimentin and S100 immunohistochemistry, which indicate a single PLGA phenotype. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1059098656858324 PMID:23320410

  11. Carbon Nanotubes Exposure Risk Assessment: From Toxicology to Epidemiologic Studies (Overview of the Current Problem)

    PubMed Central

    Fatkhutdinova, L. M.; Khaliullin, T. O.; Shvedova, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale size and fiber like structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may determine high reactivity and penetration, as well as the pathogenicity of asbestos and other mineral fibers. Despite many in vitro and in vivo studies, the absence of full-scale data on CNT effects on human health clearly point out the necessity for epidemiological studies. Currently, several projects are initiated worldwide on studying health risks associated with the inhalation of industrial CNTs, including NIOSH-promoted research (United States), the European CANTES study, and the Russian CNT-ERA project. Studies comprising several successive steps, such as CNT exposure assessment in occupational settings, toxicological evaluation, and epidemiological observations, are critical for determining material safety and use criteria. PMID:26457172

  12. An epidemiological study of the incidence of salmonellas in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    The incidence of salmonellas in pigs was studied in five farms and a bacon factory. Persistence and spread of salmonella excretion in pigs in a breeding establishment is described. Salmonella excretor boars and sows were responsible for the spread and perpetuation of infection in the farm. The possibility of spreading salmonella infection between farms through the distribution of excretor pigs was studied. Infection persisted and was related to the initial state of excretion of the pigs while at the farm of origin. The importance of feeding stuffs as a source of salmonella infection in pigs is discussed. Specially prepared heat treated pellets fed to the pigs prevented the introduction of salmonellas. PMID:4501836

  13. An epidemiological study of the incidence of salmonellas in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A C

    1972-03-01

    The incidence of salmonellas in pigs was studied in five farms and a bacon factory.Persistence and spread of salmonella excretion in pigs in a breeding establishment is described. Salmonella excretor boars and sows were responsible for the spread and perpetuation of infection in the farm. The possibility of spreading salmonella infection between farms through the distribution of excretor pigs was studied. Infection persisted and was related to the initial state of excretion of the pigs while at the farm of origin.The importance of feeding stuffs as a source of salmonella infection in pigs is discussed. Specially prepared heat treated pellets fed to the pigs prevented the introduction of salmonellas.

  14. Epidemiological Findings of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in a Venezuelan Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Pena, Joaquin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) for children receiving services in Maracaibo County, Venezuela. Children aged 3-9 with diagnosis of any ASD were recruited. We ascertained area, referral process, and definitions of ASD for each patient. A total of 430 children were identified, and 76.5 percent were…

  15. Epidemiological Findings of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in a Venezuelan Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Pena, Joaquin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) for children receiving services in Maracaibo County, Venezuela. Children aged 3-9 with diagnosis of any ASD were recruited. We ascertained area, referral process, and definitions of ASD for each patient. A total of 430 children were identified, and 76.5 percent were…

  16. Clinical and Epidemiological Studies on Rickettsial Infections in Ethiopia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-01

    seem to play a role in the absence of Rattus or M . musculus even though they may be common in domiciles and infested with Xenopsylla cheopis, the...presumed vector, or with X. bantorum, a species which has also been found naturally infected with R. mooseri in our study. If Rattus or M . musculus co

  17. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    PubMed

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  18. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, R A; McKinney, P A; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; Lauder, I; Darwin, C M; Bernard, S M; Bird, C C

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a case control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the Yorkshire Health Region. In all, 437 cases and 724 controls were interviewed. Risk factors associated with past skin conditions, family history of cancer and infectious mononucleosis, aspects of social life and contact with wood dust and epoxy glues all emerge. A comparison of high and low grade morphological forms of disease reveal contrasting risks and suggest separate aetiologies for these conditions.

  19. An epidemiologic study of anhidrosis in horses in Florida.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric B; Mackay, Robert J; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2010-05-15

    OBJECTIVE-To estimate prevalence of and identify factors associated with anhidrosis in horses in Florida. Design-Cross-sectional study and case-control study. ANIMALS-4,620 horses on 500 farms. PROCEDURES-A questionnaire was structured and mailed to farm owners or managers to obtain information related to diagnosis of anhidrosis in horses and exposure factors associated with this condition. The frequency of investigated farm- and animal-level factors was compared between farms and horses affected and not affected with anhidrosis, respectively. RESULTS-The prevalence of anhidrosis was 11% at the farm level and 2% at the animal level. The odds of anhidrosis were 2.13 and 4.40 times as high in farms located in central and southern Florida, respectively, compared with odds for farms in northern Florida. The odds of anhidrosis were 5.26 and 15.40 times as high in show and riding instruction operations, respectively, compared with odds for ranch operations. At the animal level, breed (Thoroughbreds and warmblood horses), foaling place (western or midwestern region of the United States), and family history of anhidrosis were significantly associated with anhidrosis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-This study provides new information on the prevalence of and factors for anhidrosis in horses in Florida. Horses with a family history of anhidrosis should be examined by a veterinarian for diagnosis of this condition before they are exposed to exercise in a hot and humid climate.

  20. Immigrants and preterm births: a nationwide epidemiological study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-08-01

    To examine, nationwide, if there is an association between country of birth in mothers and preterm birth and to study whether any such association remains in second-generation immigrant women. In this follow-up study, a nationwide research database located at Lund University, Sweden, was used to identify all preterm born singletons in Sweden between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2006. Incidence ratios were standardized with regard to maternal age at birth, marital status, geographical region, body height, and smoking history as well as period of birth, family income, and gender of the infant. Singletons of mothers born in Sweden were used as the reference group. There were 2,192,843 records for singletons over the study period, of whom 4.9 % were preterm births and 0.8 % were very preterm births. Increased risk of preterm birth was observed for mothers from Austria, Yugoslavia, Romania, Central Europe, and Asia. Increased risk of very preterm birth was observed for mothers from Eastern Europe, Central Europe, Africa, and Asia; these increased risk disappeared, however, in the second-generation female immigrants. Country of birth in mothers affected the risk of preterm birth; maternity care should pay special attention to women from certain population groups.

  1. Collecting Fecal Samples for Microbiome Analyses in Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rashmi; Chen, Jun; Amir, Amnon; Vogtmann, Emily; Shi, Jianxin; Inman, Kristin S.; Flores, Roberto; Sampson, Joshua; Knight, Rob; Chia, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background The need to develop valid methods for sampling and analyzing fecal specimens for microbiome studies is increasingly important, especially for large population studies. Methods Some of the most important attributes of any sampling method are reproducibility, stability, and accuracy. We compared seven fecal sampling methods (no additive, RNAlater, 70% ethanol, EDTA, dry swab, and pre/post development fecal occult blood test (FOBT)) using 16S rRNA microbiome profiling in two laboratories. We evaluated nine commonly used microbiome metrics: abundance of 3 phyla, two alpha-diversities, and four beta-diversities. We determined the technical reproducibility, stability at ambient temperature, and accuracy. Results While microbiome profiles showed systematic biases according to sample method and time at ambient temperature, the highest source of variation was between individuals. All collection methods showed high reproducibility. FOBT and RNAlater resulted in the highest stability without freezing for four days. In comparison to no-additive samples, swab, FOBT, and 70% ethanol exhibited the greatest accuracy when immediately frozen. Conclusions Overall, optimal stability and reproducibility was achieved using FOBT, making this a reasonable sample collection method for 16s analysis. Impact Having standardized method of collecting and storing stable fecal samples will allow future investigations into the role of gut microbiota in chronic disease etiology in large population studies. PMID:26604270

  2. Infection by Leishmania infantum in cats: epidemiological study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, J; Acedo, C; Muñoz-Pérez, M; Pesson, B; Marchal, O; Morillas-Márquez, F

    2007-04-30

    More than 40 cases of feline leishmaniasis have been reported in the scientific literature. The influence of some immunodepressive conditions of viral origin, such as leukemia and feline immunodeficiency, are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Leishmania infection in cats and possible relations with these viral infections. Markers of Leishmania infection were searched in 183 cats from Southern Spain by IFAT, PCR, Giemsa stain and culture, with a follow-up of positive cats. Seropositivity was 60.0% (Ab titer > or =10) and 28.3% of animals presented Ab titers > or =40. Around 25.7% of the cats studied were parasitemic and some of them remained positive for months. Combining both data, 70.6% of the feline population was, or could be, infected. We observed a negative association between seropositivity to Leishmania and infection by FeLV. Hence, production of antibodies against the parasite appears to be compromised in cats with leukemia, which have a prevalence of 36% in our study. In contrast, we found no association with feline immunodeficiency. The results makes us doubt the value of conventional serological methods to detect active Leishmania infection in cats.

  3. Association of distorted eating behaviors with cardiometabolic risk indices in preadolescents. The Healthy Growth Study.

    PubMed

    Moschonis, George; Georgiou, Alexandra; Sarapi, Katerina; Manios, Yannis

    2015-08-01

    The association between distorted eating behavior (DEB) with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in children has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to examine the association between DEB with certain CMR indices in 9- to 13-year-old children in Greece. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted among 1803 schoolchildren from 77 primary schools in 4 counties of Greece with full data on DEBQ and ChEAT questionnaires and CMR indices. Children underwent anthropometric measurements and Tanner stage, serum lipid, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR levels assessments. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to test for the association between components of DEBQ and ChEAT with CMR indices. Several significant associations between components of DEBQ and ChEAT with CMR indices were observed when tested at univariate regression models in both boys and girls. However, after adjusting for several possible confounders, including Tanner stage, all significant associations were lost in girls while only a few remained in boys. Thus, DEB might have an unfavorable effect also in certain CMR indices, besides nourishment status. This is more pronounced in preadolescent boys for whom hormonal changes due to the transition to adolescence have not yet been established compared to girls. Still further research is needed to shed more light on these associations.

  4. A retrospective study on epidemiology of hypoglycemia in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Juvva Gowtham; Abhilash, K. P. P.; Saya, Rama Prakasha; Tadipaneni, Neeha; Bose, J. Maheedhar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypoglycemia is one among the leading causes for Emergency Department (ED) visits and is the most common and easily preventable endocrine emergency. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence and elucidating the underlying causes of hypoglycemia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational study which included patients registering in ED with a finger prick blood glucose ≤60 mg/dl at the time of arrival. All patients aged above 15 years with the above inclusion criteria during the period of August 2010 to July 2013 were selected. The study group was categorized based on diabetic status into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Results: A total of 1196 hypoglycemic episodes encountered at the ED during the study period were included, and of which 772 with complete data were analyzed. Underlying causes for hypoglycemia in the diabetic group (535) mainly included medication related 320 (59.81%), infections 108 (20.19%), and chronic kidney disease 61 (11.40%). Common underlying causes of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic group (237, 30.69%) included infections 107 (45.15%), acute/chronic liver disease 42 (17.72%), and malignancies 22 (9.28%). Among diabetic subjects on antidiabetic medications (n = 320), distribution over 24 h duration clearly reported two peaks at 8th and 21st h. The incidence of hypoglycemia and death per 1000 ED visits were 16.41 and 0.73 in 2011, 16.19 and 0.78 in 2012, 17.20 and 1.22 in 2013 with an average of 16.51 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion: Bimodal distribution with peaks in incidences of hypoglycemic attacks at 8th and 21st h based on hourly distribution in a day can be correlated with the times just before next meal. None of the patients should leave ED without proper evaluation of the etiology of hypoglycemia and the problem should be addressed at each individual level. Increasing incidence of death over the years is alarming, and further studies are needed to conclude the root cause. PMID:28217510

  5. Self-reported combat stress indicators among troops deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Sanders, John W; Jones, James J; Webb, Schuyler C

    2008-01-01

    Evident mental health needs among combat veterans after their return from combat have been described, whereas available data describing the mental health status of military personnel during deployment are few. Data were collected from personnel systematically selected from current combat regions participating in a rest and recuperation program in Doha, Qatar. Overall, 40620 troops completed a clinic screening form between October 2003 and January 2005. Rates of self-reported depression among troops in Afghanistan w